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Sample records for hospital knowledge attitudes

  1. Portuguese nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; da Silva, Alcione Leite; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hospital staff management.

    PubMed

    Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh

    2013-07-01

    The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between the level of education attainments and training in BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502

  3. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  4. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes on comfort nursing care for hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-Fang; Zhao, Ai-Ping; Feng, Ya-Xin; Cui, Xiao-Ning; Wang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Le-Xin

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of practicing nurses on comfort care for hospitalized patients, a survey was conducted in 311 registered nurses from a major teaching hospital. A total of 212 (68.1%) of the participants showed an adequate knowledge of comfort care. Participants who had 6 years or more working experience returned a higher mean scores on physiological and psychological aspects of comfort care (P < 0.05). The total scores were the highest among participants from intensive care unit and the lowest among participants from the oncology department. Although 282 (90.7%) participants were involved in comfort care, only 210 (67.5%) received formal hospital-based training in this practice. We conclude that there was a large difference in the knowledge between nurses from different departments on comfort care. Continuing education programmes are required to improve the knowledge and skills in comfort care.

  5. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Nurses toward Hand Hygiene in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Alireza; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Balouchi, Abbas; Ahmadidarrehsima, Sudabeh; Kashani, Hamed Haddad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The proper hand hygiene is one of the foremost techniques to reduce Nosocomial infections. The hand hygiene is deemed as the simplest method for control of Nosocomial infections if it is done properly it may prevent from a lot of costs and fatalities. Due to constant relationship with patients, nurses play paramount role in proper execution of hand hygiene among clinical personnel. The current study was carried out in order to analyze knowledge, attitude, and performance of nurses regarding hand hygiene. Materials and Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 (of 240) nurses from three hospitals in Kerman city at east of Iran in 2015. The standardized questionnaire was the tool for data collection. These data entered in SPSS (V.22). The frequency and percentage of frequency in descriptive statistics was employed for data analysis. The confidence interval was considered as 95%. Results: The results showed that the majority of participants were male173 (86.5%), had BA degree 161 (80.5%) and were married 155 (70.5%). Most of nurses 77 (38.5%) had working experience (5-10years). The majority of nurses had good knowledge 149 (74.5%), positive attitude 141 (70.5%) and good performance 175 (87.5%). Discussion and Conclusion: The nurses are good level in terms of knowledge, attitude, and performance but improvement of their knowledge and knowledge seems to be more necessary by holding educational classes and courses in cases where they have less knowledge. PMID:27045398

  6. Impact of waste management training intervention on knowledge, attitude and practices of teaching hospital workers in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramesh; Somrongthong, Ratana; Ahmed, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sustainability and effectiveness of training as an intervention to improve the knowledge, attitude and practices of hospital workers on health care waste management. Method: We conducted this quasi-experimental study in two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Rawalpindi in October 2013. Training, practical demonstrations and reminders on standard waste management were given to 138 hospital workers in one hospital and compared with 137 workers from the control hospital. We collected data 18 months after intervention through a structured questionnaire to assess the impact of the intervention. We used paired t-test to compare the scores on knowledge, attitude and practices at baseline and first follow up and final impact assessment. Chi square test was used to compare group variables between intervention and control groups. Results: After 18 months since intervention the mean scores on knowledge attitude and practices differed statistically significantly since baseline and intervention group had statistically significantly better knowledge positive attitudes and good health care waste management practices (p < 0.001). Health care and sanitary workers in intervention group scored statistically significantly higher (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Trainings of health and sanitary workers on health care waste management guidelines were sustainable among the intervention group after 18 months which shows the positive impact of our intervention. It is recommended that the trainings as intervention be included in the overall policies of the public and private sector hospitals in Pakistan and other similar settings. PMID:27375718

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Contraception among Postpartum Women Attending Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Failure to plan a pregnancy can adversely affect the health of the family as a whole. High parity is related to increased maternal, perinatal and infant deaths and is associated with nutritional problems of both mother and child. Hence, good knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among women are important. This study is aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the postpartum women attending Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital. Objective To determine the knowledge, attitude and the practice of various contraceptive methods among the postpartum women. Method A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology on 400 postpartum women (within 42 days of delivery) who delivered and came for follow-up in this institution. All the postnatal women were interviewed with pre-designed questionnaire and information on sociodemographic variable, awareness and knowledge of various contraceptive methods, previous and current use of family planning methods, source of information, utilization and reasons for use/non-use of family planning methods were obtained. Data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. The results were presented as percentages, means, tables and charts. Result Majority of the participants 363 (90.8%) were aware of contraceptive usage. Amongst 60.5% of women who had previously used contraception, OCPs were the commonest one. Maximum number of participants (60.35%) had used modern contraceptives in the past. The most common source of information on contraception was media (55.7%). The reason of using contraception was spacing between the subsequent pregnancies, while the most common reason of discontinuation or not willing to use family planning methods was husband being abroad, fear of side effects and not knowing which contraceptives to use. Conclusion The contraceptive awareness and knowledge among the postpartum women was high but

  8. Hospital pharmacists’ knowledge about and attitude toward HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS in Kedah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mirza Rafi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The current study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, and perception of hospital pharmacists towards HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the state of Kedah, Malaysia. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the hospital pharmacists in three government hospitals in Kedah, using a self-administered 43-item questionnaire. Data analysis was done using non-parametric and multinomial regression. Results A total of 75 respondents participated in this study, resulting in a response rate of 60.8%. The majority were found to be well aware of the causes of HIV/AIDS. However, about 34 (45.3%) believed erroneously that HIV/AIDS cannot be transmitted through tattooing or body piercing. Nearly 25 (33.3%) of the respondents believed that preventing the use of intravenous drugs may not be effective to prevent HIV/AIDS and endorsed social isolation as a measure to prevent HIV/AIDS. The majority (66.6%) had negative attitudes and about 20% held extremely negative attitudes. Findings from regression modelling revealed that hospital (–2 log likelihood = 215.182, χ2 = 18.060, Df = 8, p = 0.021) and gender (–2 log likelihood = 213.643, χ2 = 16.521, Df = 8, p = 0.035) were more likely to affect the attitudes of respondents. Conclusions Overall, more than one third of the respondents were found to have negative attitudes towards PLWHA. Gender, job experience, and hospitals with more HIV/AIDS patient visits were the main factors affecting attitudes. PMID:24482660

  9. Awareness Knowledge Attitude Skills of Telemedicine among Health Professional Faculty Working in Teaching Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Zayabalaradjane; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess…

  10. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Risk Perception among Pregnant Women in a Teaching Hospital, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojieabu, Winifred Aitalegbe; Femi-Oyewo, M. N.; Eze, Uchenna I.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The rising HIV infection rates among women especially of child bearing age particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa expose children to increased HIV risk even before they are born. Without effective measures or awareness campaigns to deal with mother-to-child transmission, 390 000 out of the global 430 000 children newly infected with HIV during 2008 were from sub-Saharan Africa This study was undertaken to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and risk perception among pregnant women in Tertiary hospital, Southwestern Nigeria Method: The study was carried out using a 43- item self administered questionnaire, pretestd and administered to 403 pregnant women during ante-natal clinic sessions Results: High HIV/AIDS awareness level (97%) was recorded, 77.7% had correct knowledge of the cause of the disease but knowledge on the modes of vertical transmission during pregnancy (57.5%) and prevention during breast-feeding (62.3%) was not encouraging A lot of misconceptions about the cause of the HIV/AIDS, modes of contact, transmission, prevention and anti-retroviral therapy were recorded Conclusion: The survey revealed that a lot needed to be done to improve the knowledge, attitude, perception and behavioral changes among the populace especially in this particular group. This calls for urgent and proper response in order to stem the tide of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24826022

  11. Blood and Body Fluid Exposure Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Hospital Based Health Care Providers in United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Robin; Beshyah, Salem A; Myers, Julie; Zaidi, Mukarram A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of healthcare providers related to occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens were assessed in a tertiary-care hospital in Middle East. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-administered questionnaire based on 3 paired (infectivity known vs. not known-suspected) case studies. Only 17 out of 230 respondents had an exposure in the 12 months prior to the survey and of these, only 2 had complied fully with the hospital's exposure reporting policy. Results In the paired case studies, the theoretical responses of participating health professionals showed a greater preference for initiating self-directed treatment with antivirals or immunisation rather than complying with the hospital protocol, when the patient was known to be infected. The differences in practice when exposed to a patient with suspected blood pathogens compared to patient known to be infected was statistically significant (p < 0.001) in all 3 paired cases. Failure to test an infected patient's blood meant that an adequate risk assessment and appropriate secondary prevention could not be performed, and reflected the unwillingness to report the occupational exposure. Conclusion Therefore, the study demonstrated that healthcare providers opted to treat themselves when exposed to patient with infectious disease, rather than comply with the hospital reporting and assessment protocol. PMID:23019533

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practice survey about antimicrobial resistance and prescribing among physicians in a hospital setting in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Misuse of antimicrobials (AMs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are global concerns. The present study evaluated knowledge, attitudes and practices about AMR and AM prescribing among medical doctors in two large public hospitals in Lima, Peru, a middle-income country. Methods Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire Results A total of 256 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate 82%). Theoretical knowledge was good (mean score of 6 ± 1.3 on 7 questions) in contrast to poor awareness (< 33%) of local AMR rates of key-pathogens. Participants strongly agreed that AMR is a problem worldwide (70%) and in Peru (65%), but less in their own practice (22%). AM overuse was perceived both for the community (96%) and the hospital settings (90%). Patients' pressure to prescribing AMs was considered as contributing to AM overuse in the community (72%) more than in the hospital setting (50%). Confidence among AM prescribing was higher among attending physicians (82%) compared to residents (30%, p < 0.001%). Sources of information considered as very useful/useful included pocket-based AM prescribing guidelines (69%) and internet sources (62%). Fifty seven percent of participants regarded AMs in their hospitals to be of poor quality. Participants requested more AM prescribing educational programs (96%) and local AM guidelines (92%). Conclusions This survey revealed topics to address during future AM prescribing interventions such as dissemination of information about local AMR rates, promoting confidence in the quality of locally available AMs, redaction and dissemination of local AM guidelines and addressing the general public, and exploring the possibilities of internet-based training. PMID:22085536

  13. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M

    2009-03-01

    Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines. PMID:19771756

  14. Attitudes, knowledge and perceptions towards whooping cough and pertussis vaccine in hospitalized adults.

    PubMed

    Ridda, Iman; Gao, Zhanhai; Macintyre, C Raina

    2014-02-19

    Whooping cough or pertussis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for adults and children around the world. There has been a rise in pertussis-related deaths in the elderly; pertussis vaccination is not currently routinely recommended in adults, excepting new parents and other adults household members including grandparents and care-givers of young children. Currently, there is lack of clear vaccine recommendations after the age of 50 years. Given the increase in adult pertussis, adult vaccine recommendations are a policy consideration. The study surveyed a convenience sample of patients previously recruited in a case control study designed to examine the burden of influenza with and without AMI in adults aged ≥ 40 years. Our findings showed that only 9.6% had received the pertussis vaccination within the past five years and 79.4% of participants had no knowledge of the pertussis adult booster vaccine, and 30.7% of participants who had regular contact with children under the age of two years in the past 12 months. The results showed that even though there is general acceptance of prevention by vaccines, there is low awareness about pertussis vaccination. This lack of knowledge presents a barrier against pertussis vaccination thus it is imperative that any future adult immunisation policy recommendations around pertussis vaccine include awareness programs in the target population.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening in women visiting a tertiary care hospital of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Ranjan, R; Das, B; Gupta, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer being a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women in developing countries, its awareness is essential. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women regarding the basic screening test for detection of cancer cervix. Settings and Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional prospective study was conducted. Information from consenting participants (450) was collected using structured questionnaire. Answers were described in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice and their respective adequacy with respect to Papanicolaou (Pap) test, the most common test used for early detection of cervical cancer. Adequacy was compared between the categories of socio demographic and clinical variables. Statistical Analysis: The data collected was analyzed using statistical package (SPSS version 18.0). Adequacy was compared between the categories of the control variables by χ2 test with a 5% significance level. Results: Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Pap test were adequate in 32.7%, 18.2% and 7.3% of women respectively. Major impediment to adequate practice was lack of request by physician. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were found to increase significantly with increasing age and education. Conclusion: Effective information, education and communication strategies are required to improve the level of awareness of public. Health-care professional should be proactive in imparting knowledge at every opportunity. PMID:25494130

  16. Knowledge and Attitude of Physicians Toward Prescribing Antibiotics and the Risk of Resistance in Two Reference Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Alothman, Adel; Algwizani, Abdullah; Alsulaiman, Mohammed; Alalwan, Abdullah; Binsalih, Salih; Bosaeed, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antibiotics are essential and abundantly prescribed in hospitals because of their effectiveness and lifesaving benefits. However, the unnecessary use of antibiotics has been observed in earlier studies, and it has persisted through recent years as a major issue since it is one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The increase in antibiotic resistance nowadays is one of the most critical concerns in global public health around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions related to antibiotic prescription among physicians at our medical centers. METHOD A cross-sectional survey of non-infectious diseases specialized physicians. The study was conducted during 2015 at two tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULT Of the 107 returned questionnaires, 93 were complete and valuable. Most respondents (82%) perceived antibiotic resistance to be a critical problem globally, and 78% also think that it is a very important national problem. These attitudes did not differ across specialty or level of training. Widespread antibiotic use and inappropriate empirical choices were believed by 81% of the participants to be important general causes of resistance. Only half of respondents thought that antibiotic restriction is a useful intervention to decrease the antibiotic resistance. The physicians believed educational interventions are the most useful and effective way to improve prescription patterns and decrease antibiotic resistance. Complications due to infection with resistant organisms were acknowledged by almost all of the participants, with some differences in their estimations of how often it will occur. CONCLUSION Antimicrobial resistance, globally and nationally, is considered as a serious threat, and physicians in this survey acknowledged that. Among the most significant factors is antimicrobial misuse, either by overprescribing or providing inappropriate drugs with some ambivalence, as well as

  17. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice and associated factors towards palliative care among nurses working in selected hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To provide quality care at the end of life or for chronically sick patients, nurses must have good knowledge, attitude and practice about palliative care (PC). In Ethiopia PC is new and very little is known about the type of services offered and the readiness of nurses to provide PC. Methods A cross sectional quantitative study design was carried out using 341 nurses working in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa from January 2012 to May 2012. Systematic random sampling was the method employed to select two governmental and two non-governmental hospitals. The researchers used triangulation in their study method making use of: Frommelt’s Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale, Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN) and practice questions. This led to enhanced validity of the data. EPI-INFO and SPSS software statistical packages were applied for data entry and analysis. Result Of the total 365 nurses selected, a response rate of 341 (94.2%) were registered. Out of the total study participants, 104 (30.5%) had good knowledge and 259 (76%) had favorable attitude towards PC. Medical and surgical wards as well as training on PC were positively associated with knowledge of nurses. Institution, individuals’ level of education, working in medical ward and the training they took part on PC were also significantly associated with the attitude the nurses had. Nurses working in Hayat Hospital (nongovernmental) had a 71.5% chance of having unfavorable attitude towards PC than those working in Black Lion Hospital (governmental). Regarding their knowledge aspect of practice, the majority of the respondents 260 (76.2%) had poor implementation, and nearly half of the respondents had reported that the diagnosis of patients was usually performed at the terminal stage. In line with this, spiritual and medical conditions were highly taken into consideration while dealing with terminally ill patients. Conclusion The nurses had poor knowledge and knowledge aspect

  18. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer among adult women: A hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Agam B.; Pakhare, Abhijit P.; Kapoor, Neelkamal; Mehrotra, Ragini; Kokane, Arun Mahadeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among Indian women of reproductive age. Unfortunately, despite the evidence of methods for prevention, most of the women remain unscreened. The reported barriers to screening include unawareness of risk factors, symptoms and prevention; stigma and misconceptions about gynecological diseases and lack of national cervical cancer screening guidelines and policies. This study attempts to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer and its screening among women of reproductive age (15-45 years). Materials and Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was done on 400 females of reproductive age who presented to out-patient-department of All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal. Structured questionnaire consisting 20 knowledge items and 7-items for attitude and history of pap smear for practices were administered by one of the investigators after informed consent. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi-Info version 7. Qualitative variables were summarized as counts and percentages while quantitative variables as mean and standard deviation. Predictors of better knowledge, attitude, and practices were identified by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 442 women were approached for interview of which 400 responded of which two-third (65.5%) had heard of cervical cancer. At least one symptom and one risk factor were known to 35.25% and 39.75% participants. Only 34.5% participants had heard, and 9.5% actually underwent screening test, however, 76.25% of the participants expressed a favorable attitude for screening. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that education age and income were independent predictors of better knowledge. Education level influences attitude toward screening and actual practice depends on age, income, and marital status. This study shows that despite the fact that women had suboptimal level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetic Patients - A Cross Sectional Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mysore.

    PubMed

    Babu, M Suresh; Gowdappa, H Basavana; Kalpana, T; Vidyalaxmi, K; Nikhil, B; Chakravarthy, T

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence rates of diabetes are rising rapidly both in urban and rural India with the present prevalence in urban India being 12-19% and in rural India 4 - 10% in different published Indian studies.1 All involved in diabetes care agree that patients play a major role in the successful management of diabetes. There is an increasing amount of evidence that patient education is the most effective way to lessen the diabetic complications and its management.2 Education is likely to be effective if we know the characteristics of the patients in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices about diabetes. This study was conducted in Mysore to know the knowledge, attitude and practices of diabetic patients attending JSS Hospital. A total of 900 patients were included in the study. Five hundred sixteen (57.3%) patients were males, while 384 (42.7%) patients were females. Four hundred twenty-three (47%) patients were from urban area, while 477 (53%) were from rural area. Five hundred sixty-five (62.5%) diabetic patients were unaware of the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus, 661 (73.4%) patients about cause of diabetes, 264 (29.3%) patients about common symptoms of diabetes, 256 (28.4%) patients about symptoms of hypoglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic disease which can affect many systems in the body like the heart, eyes, kidneys and nerves contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. 29%, 30.7%, 31.2% and 35.7% of diabetic patients were not aware of the diabetic complications to heart, eyes, kidneys and nerves respectively. Even patients with diabetes for more than 10 years, 18.8% were not aware of the heart complications while 21.5% were not aware of the diabetes complications to eyes, kidneys and nerves. 834 (92.6%) diabetic patients were not aware of HbA1C. 790 (87.7%) diabetic patients did not know that fruits can be eaten by diabetics. Eight hundred seventeen (90.8%) diabetic patients had not attended a formal diabetic education class. This possibly is a

  20. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Healthcare Personnel Regarding the Transmission of Pathogens via Fomites at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Hassaan Bin; Zia, Bushra; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Raheem, Ahmed; Beg, Mohammad Asim

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Fomites are objects that can become colonized and serve as vectors in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. Literature examining the knowledge of healthcare personnel about this method of spread of infection is lacking. We conducted a study to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of healthcare personnel across different areas of patient care regarding the spread of infections at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods.  A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare personnel using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire contained sections pertaining to demographic details and knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding fomites and their role in the transmission of pathogens. Results.  Three hundred and fifty-three participants completed the questionnaire: 168 were male and 185 were female. Laboratory coats, stethoscopes, and bedside curtains were most frequently identified as fomites by the participants. Medical students had significantly lower mean scores in the knowledge and attitude sections than consultant physicians, resident physicians, and nurses. Nurses scored higher than consultant physicians, resident physicians, and medical students regarding practices that minimize fomite-borne spread of infections. 95% of the participants scored above 50% on the knowledge component of the questionnaire, but only 32.3% scored above 50% in the practices section. Conclusions.  Our results show a large gap between the knowledge about fomites acting as vectors in the spread of pathogens and practices done to minimize this spread. Possessing adequate knowledge is ineffectual until and unless it is translated into the proper application of infection control practices. Incorporating awareness sessions and exercises into curricula are a reasonable way to raise awareness regarding this subject.

  1. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Healthcare Personnel Regarding the Transmission of Pathogens via Fomites at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Hassaan Bin; Zia, Bushra; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Raheem, Ahmed; Beg, Mohammad Asim

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Fomites are objects that can become colonized and serve as vectors in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. Literature examining the knowledge of healthcare personnel about this method of spread of infection is lacking. We conducted a study to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of healthcare personnel across different areas of patient care regarding the spread of infections at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods.  A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare personnel using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire contained sections pertaining to demographic details and knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding fomites and their role in the transmission of pathogens. Results.  Three hundred and fifty-three participants completed the questionnaire: 168 were male and 185 were female. Laboratory coats, stethoscopes, and bedside curtains were most frequently identified as fomites by the participants. Medical students had significantly lower mean scores in the knowledge and attitude sections than consultant physicians, resident physicians, and nurses. Nurses scored higher than consultant physicians, resident physicians, and medical students regarding practices that minimize fomite-borne spread of infections. 95% of the participants scored above 50% on the knowledge component of the questionnaire, but only 32.3% scored above 50% in the practices section. Conclusions.  Our results show a large gap between the knowledge about fomites acting as vectors in the spread of pathogens and practices done to minimize this spread. Possessing adequate knowledge is ineffectual until and unless it is translated into the proper application of infection control practices. Incorporating awareness sessions and exercises into curricula are a reasonable way to raise awareness regarding this subject. PMID:27169136

  2. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Healthcare Personnel Regarding the Transmission of Pathogens via Fomites at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Aftab, Hassaan Bin; Zia, Bushra; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Raheem, Ahmed; Beg, Mohammad Asim

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fomites are objects that can become colonized and serve as vectors in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. Literature examining the knowledge of healthcare personnel about this method of spread of infection is lacking. We conducted a study to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of healthcare personnel across different areas of patient care regarding the spread of infections at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare personnel using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire contained sections pertaining to demographic details and knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding fomites and their role in the transmission of pathogens. Results. Three hundred and fifty-three participants completed the questionnaire: 168 were male and 185 were female. Laboratory coats, stethoscopes, and bedside curtains were most frequently identified as fomites by the participants. Medical students had significantly lower mean scores in the knowledge and attitude sections than consultant physicians, resident physicians, and nurses. Nurses scored higher than consultant physicians, resident physicians, and medical students regarding practices that minimize fomite-borne spread of infections. 95% of the participants scored above 50% on the knowledge component of the questionnaire, but only 32.3% scored above 50% in the practices section. Conclusions. Our results show a large gap between the knowledge about fomites acting as vectors in the spread of pathogens and practices done to minimize this spread. Possessing adequate knowledge is ineffectual until and unless it is translated into the proper application of infection control practices. Incorporating awareness sessions and exercises into curricula are a reasonable way to raise awareness regarding this subject. PMID:27169136

  3. An audit on the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about the uses and side-effects of antibiotics among outpatients attending 2 teaching hospitals in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, K; Al-Azzam, S; Alhusban, A; Mukattash, T; Al-Zubaidy, S; Alomari, N; Khader, Y

    2013-05-01

    This study aimedto assess general knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of people towards the use of antibiotics. Individuals referring to the outpatient pharmacies of 2 major teaching hospitals in the north of Jordan completed a self-administered, validated questionnaire. A total of 1091 individuals (56.8% males) participated in the study. Of these, 20.1% of the participants stated that antibiotics were used for bacterial infections, while 18.3% thought they were used for viral infections and 43.6% for mixed bacterial/viral infections. The average knowledge score of the participants about antibiotic uses and side-effects was low. Middle-aged participants and those with an education beyond high school had significantly higher knowledge scores about antibiotics use. Almost 75% of the participants disagreed that antibiotics could be given without a prescription.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Related to Diabetes Mellitus Among Diabetics and Nondiabetics Visiting Homeopathic Hospitals in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Arya, Jogendra Singh; Choubey, Gurudev; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Chattopadhyay, Rajat; Das, Kaushik Deb; Ghosh, Aloke; Hait, Himangsu; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Banerjee, Tanapa

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of undiagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus and poor knowledge, awareness, and practice has increased premature death, costly complications, and financial burden. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2014 on 273 diabetics and 355 nondiabetics in 3 government homeopathic hospitals in West Bengal, India. A self-administered questionnaire assessing knowledge, awareness, and practice related to diabetes was used. A total of 17.5% to 29.3% of the participants were aware of the normal blood sugar level. Lack of insulin, frequent urination, hypertension, and poor wound healing were identified most frequently as the cause, symptom, association, and complications. A total of 35.5% to 46.5% said that diabetes was preventable; 14.1% to 31.9% knew that diabetes was controllable rather than curable. Consumption of planned diet, avoiding sugar, and testing blood sugar were the most frequently identified components of healthy lifestyle, diabetic diet, and diagnostic domain. Diabetics had higher knowledge and awareness than nondiabetics (P < .0001); still the latter need to be made aware and knowledgeable to curtail the ever-increasing burden of diabetes.

  5. [Blood exposure accidents: Knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing and midwifery students at the Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Zoungrana, J; Yaméogo, T M; Kyelem, C G; Aba, Y T; Sawadogo, A; Millogo, A

    2014-01-01

    Blood exposure accidents are the source of major risks of contamination of healthcare personnel. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge of standard precautions, and the attitudes and practices of nursing and midwifery students in relation to this accidental exposure. This cross-sectional survey, conducted in November 2011, was based on voluntary anonymous questionnaires completed by students working in the medical ward of the Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital. Of the 275 students asked to participate, 219 (92.8%) completed the questionnaire: 138 (63,0%) were student nurses and 81 (37.0%) student midwives. Their mean age was 27.9 ± 5 years. Among them, 64 (29.1%) acknowledged accidental exposure to blood during treatment performed as part of their hospital work. Only 30 of these 64 cases were reported at the time. The standard precautions for the prevention of these accidents were known to 131 students (59.8%); 58.4% always wore gloves for invasive procedures; 74.9% reported that the syringe container was "always" or "often" used. The needles used were "always" or "often" recapped before disposal in only 39.1% of cases. Only 11.0% were fully vaccinated against hepatitis B. Blood exposure accidents were not uncommon among these students and their knowledge of the standard precautions and actions to take in case of an accident is insufficient. These data show the need for further training and awareness campaigns to improve these hospital practices. PMID:24922618

  6. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: knowledge and attitudes of women attending a rural hospital in Swaziland, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Prudence; Kliner, Merav; Walley, John

    2014-01-01

    Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult male circumcision. Infant circumcision commenced in 2013 so it is important to understand the knowledge and views of women as potential mothers, around infant circumcision for medical purposes to inform the development of the service. This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical circumcision, although knowledge of the comparative risks and benefits of EIMC to adult circumcision was poor. All participants would have a son circumcised; the preferred age varied from early infancy to adolescence. Complications and pain were the main barriers whilst religious and cultural reasons were mentioned both for and against circumcision. A variety of family members are important in the decision to circumcise a young boy. Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically. It will be important to provide accurate, culturally sensitive information about infant circumcision to mothers, fathers and grandparents using existing hospital and community services provided at GSMH and throughout Swaziland. Where possible services for MMC should be available to males of all ages so that families and young men may choose the most favourable age for circumcision.

  7. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: knowledge and attitudes of women attending a rural hospital in Swaziland, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Prudence; Kliner, Merav; Walley, John

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult male circumcision. Infant circumcision commenced in 2013 so it is important to understand the knowledge and views of women as potential mothers, around infant circumcision for medical purposes to inform the development of the service. This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical circumcision, although knowledge of the comparative risks and benefits of EIMC to adult circumcision was poor. All participants would have a son circumcised; the preferred age varied from early infancy to adolescence. Complications and pain were the main barriers whilst religious and cultural reasons were mentioned both for and against circumcision. A variety of family members are important in the decision to circumcise a young boy. Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically. It will be important to provide accurate, culturally sensitive information about infant circumcision to mothers, fathers and grandparents using existing hospital and community services provided at GSMH and throughout Swaziland. Where possible services for MMC should be available to males of all ages so that families and young men may choose the most favourable age for circumcision. PMID:24957082

  8. A hospital-based study on knowledge and attitude related to vitiligo among adults visiting a tertiary health facility of central India

    PubMed Central

    Asati, Dinesh Prasad; Gupta, C. M.; Tiwari, Shreyansh; Kumar, Sanjeev; Jamra, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the common stigmatizing dermatosis in the Indian society and the vitiligo patients have to face significant psychological hurt and social neglect. The severity of the stigma is related to the society's attitude and knowledge about it. Aims and Objectives: To document the prevalent knowledge and attitude in general public towards vitiligo patients, and to identify the determinants of good/poor knowledge and attitude. Materials and Methods: A systematic random sampling technique was adopted to enroll 700 adult participants visiting an urban tertiary healthcare facility of central India. We developed a questionnaire to collect information on knowledge and attitude of the participants. A composite score was developed for good knowledge and attitude and performance of the participants was compared with the selected determinants. Data analysis was conducted by Stata software version 11. Results: The overall knowledge score was good for 66.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.8%, 69.8%) of the participants. However, the score for attitude was comparatively poor i.e., only 16.9% (95% CI: 13.9%, 19.5%). None of the studied parameters could be significantly correlated with the knowledge score. Being married and being engaged in a health care related occupation were significant predictors of good attitude levels with P = 0.042 and 0.034 respectively, whereas female gender was the significant predictor for poor attitude with an odds ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.9) and P = 0.018. Conclusions: There were widespread myths prevalent about vitiligo in the studied population. The knowledge scores were better than attitude scores. PMID:27003965

  9. [Knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals with respect to AIDS and the risk of occupational transmission of HIV in 2 Moroccan hospitals].

    PubMed

    Hossini, C H; Tripodi, D; Rahhali, A E; Bichara, M; Betito, D; Curtes, J P; Verger, C

    2000-01-01

    We carried out a survey of 266 health care workers at two hospitals, in Rabat and Casablanca, to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes and behavior of these individuals with respect to AIDS. We also analyzed working conditions presenting a risk of occupational transmission of HIV, with the aim of developing appropriate preventive measures. We carried out a cross-sectional study, using a standardized questionnaire. The study population consisted of 91 doctors (34.2%), 106 nurses (39.8%), 12 laboratory technicians (8. 8%) and 47 support staff (17.6%) working in various departments. The mean age was 32.7 years. This study population was young, with 83% less than 40 years old and more than half having worked in the hospital for less than ten years. We found that the personnel knew a great deal about the usual means of transmission of HIV, but much less about possible occupational contamination. One person in two was unaware of the ways in which HIV in the hospital environment can be inactivated (bleach - 70% alcohol) and only 18.4% knew that HIV is sensitive to heat. Half the study population thought that the systematic exclusion of patients with HIV was essential and two thirds suggested that every patient admitted to the hospital should undergo systematic HIV testing. Anxiety when caring for seropositive patients was expressed by 56% of doctors and 62% of paramedical workers and 85% thought that health workers were at high risk of contamination during their work. The frequency of occupational injuries was found to be high and such accidents were rarely declared (declaration rate 7%). Protection measures were not in place in more than 50% of cases and too little information and resources were available to increase the awareness of the health care workers. These data show that greater efforts should be made to educate and inform health workers by means of the occupational medicine units recently set up for the benefit of the staff.

  10. Attitude, Knowledge, and Practice on Evidence-Based Nursing among Registered Nurses in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals: A Multiple Center Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fen; Hao, Yufang; Guo, Hong; Liu, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study was to describe RNs' attitude, knowledge, and practice on evidence-based practice (EBP) in traditional Chinese nursing field and to estimate the related sociodemographic and professional factors. Methods. A multiple institutional cross-sectional survey design with self-reported EBP Questionnaire (EBPQ) and self-designed questionnaires were used. Results. The average scores of the total EBPQ were with a mean of 4.24 (SD = 0.79). The score of attitude was the highest one, followed by the knowledge score, and the lowest one is practice. RNs with longer experience reported stronger EBP knowledge (H = 6.64, P < 0.05). And RNs under higher working pressure reported less positive attitudes (ρ = 0.17, P < 0.001), whereas RNs holding negative professional attitude reported lower scores (Spearman's ρ: 0.12 to 0.15, P < 0.001). Significant statistics were found between RNs with research experience and without in attitude (t = -2.40, P < 0.05) and knowledge (t = -2.43, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Respondents generally viewed EBP positively and their attitudes towards EBP tended to be more positive than knowledge and practice of EBP. Data also showed that longer working experience, having administrative position, research experience, lighter working load, and better professional attitude might facilitate EBP.

  11. Attitude, Knowledge, and Practice on Evidence-Based Nursing among Registered Nurses in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals: A Multiple Center Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yufang; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study was to describe RNs' attitude, knowledge, and practice on evidence-based practice (EBP) in traditional Chinese nursing field and to estimate the related sociodemographic and professional factors. Methods. A multiple institutional cross-sectional survey design with self-reported EBP Questionnaire (EBPQ) and self-designed questionnaires were used. Results. The average scores of the total EBPQ were with a mean of 4.24 (SD = 0.79). The score of attitude was the highest one, followed by the knowledge score, and the lowest one is practice. RNs with longer experience reported stronger EBP knowledge (H = 6.64, P < 0.05). And RNs under higher working pressure reported less positive attitudes (ρ = 0.17, P < 0.001), whereas RNs holding negative professional attitude reported lower scores (Spearman's ρ: 0.12 to 0.15, P < 0.001). Significant statistics were found between RNs with research experience and without in attitude (t = −2.40, P < 0.05) and knowledge (t = −2.43, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Respondents generally viewed EBP positively and their attitudes towards EBP tended to be more positive than knowledge and practice of EBP. Data also showed that longer working experience, having administrative position, research experience, lighter working load, and better professional attitude might facilitate EBP. PMID:27528882

  12. Attitude, Knowledge, and Practice on Evidence-Based Nursing among Registered Nurses in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals: A Multiple Center Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fen; Hao, Yufang; Guo, Hong; Liu, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study was to describe RNs' attitude, knowledge, and practice on evidence-based practice (EBP) in traditional Chinese nursing field and to estimate the related sociodemographic and professional factors. Methods. A multiple institutional cross-sectional survey design with self-reported EBP Questionnaire (EBPQ) and self-designed questionnaires were used. Results. The average scores of the total EBPQ were with a mean of 4.24 (SD = 0.79). The score of attitude was the highest one, followed by the knowledge score, and the lowest one is practice. RNs with longer experience reported stronger EBP knowledge (H = 6.64, P < 0.05). And RNs under higher working pressure reported less positive attitudes (ρ = 0.17, P < 0.001), whereas RNs holding negative professional attitude reported lower scores (Spearman's ρ: 0.12 to 0.15, P < 0.001). Significant statistics were found between RNs with research experience and without in attitude (t = -2.40, P < 0.05) and knowledge (t = -2.43, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Respondents generally viewed EBP positively and their attitudes towards EBP tended to be more positive than knowledge and practice of EBP. Data also showed that longer working experience, having administrative position, research experience, lighter working load, and better professional attitude might facilitate EBP. PMID:27528882

  13. Midwives’ knowledge and attitudes when encountering Gender-Based Violence in their practice at a maternity-hospital in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Pitter, Cynthia Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) can have devastating consequences for pregnancy because both mother and child are at risk. Midwives are in a strategic position to identify and empower pregnant women experiencing GBV; however, currently midwives in Jamaica are not required to screen for GBV, neither are they prepared to do so. Aim This study forms the baseline of a larger study designed to improve the capacity of midwives to identify and treat pregnant women experiencing GBV in Jamaica. This specific component assessed midwives’ knowledge and attitudes when encountering GBV in their practice in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods A qualitative study design was used. Six practicing midwives were purposely selected to participate in a focus group discussion at the antenatal clinic of a hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. Results All six respondents said it was very important to screen for GBV among pregnant women in their care. The findings from their report revolved around six themes, namely midwives have suboptimal knowledge, are exposed to women experiencing GBV in pregnancy, lack professional preparedness, report gaps in the institutional framework to guide their practice, are concerned for their safety and security, and are willing to intervene. Conclusion This study confirmed that midwives are aware of the problem and are willing to intervene but are faced with lack of formal procedures to detect and treat pregnant women who are experiencing GBV. Findings could be used to inform a protocol which is being developed to guide midwives’ practice. Findings could also be incorporated in the national strategy to eliminate GBV. PMID:26894744

  14. Correlation between knowledge of HIV, attitudes and perceptions of HIV and a willingness to test for HIV at a regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Andrew J.; Ocholla, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With millions of South Africans infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and less than 10% of the population aware of their HIV status, HIV counselling and testing (HCT) is the first step in any attempt to reduce the number of new infections. For those who test negative, HCT personalises the risks and reinforces preventative messages whilst for those who are positive, it is the gateway to accessing counselling and care. The Health Belief Model postulates that knowledge and attitude influence behaviour. The aim of this study was to determine whether knowledge of HIV and the attitude of patients referred for HCT correlated with a willingness to test for HIV. Methods One hundred and seventy two patients referred for HCT were randomly selected over a three month period. Data were collected by a research assistant using the modified standardised World Health Organization (WHO)–Global AIDS Project (GAP) questionnaire. Results Ninety per cent of the participants demonstrated sound knowledge of HIV, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HCT. Despite the 90% of the participants with sound knowledge only 71.5% of the participants tested for HIV. There was no statistically significant difference in knowledge between those who tested and those who did not test for HIV. Twenty five per cent of those who refused to test stated that they had already made up their mind not to test for HIV before the counselling session. Conclusions Despite excellent knowledge of HIV, a significant number of patients referred for HCT do not test for HIV.

  15. Traditional complementary and alternative medicine: knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care workers in HIV and AIDS clinics in Durban hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mbutho, Nozuko P; Gqaleni, Nceba; Korporaal, Charmaine M

    2012-01-01

    Traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has been reported to be commonly used among individuals with HIV and AIDS disease. However a lack of communication between health care workers (HCWs) and patients as well as between HCWs and TCAM practitioners has been identified as one of the challenges that may adversely affect treatment of HIV and AIDS patients. With improved and sustained communication HCWs, patients and TCAM practitioners would be able to make informed decisions with regards to best treatment practices based on the knowledge of what is safe, effective and what is not. In order to establish a baseline understanding of the current status of interaction and communication between HCWs and TCAM profession in Durban, South Africa, the purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics towards TCAM professions. Data was collected by means of anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics. Out of 161 HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics 81 HCWs returned the questionnaires resulting in 50% response rate. The results showed that participants did not possess a basic knowledge of TCAM. Out of 81 participants 23 (28%) scored zero in a true or false knowledge assessment question. PMID:23983356

  16. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  17. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  18. Residents' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburg, Marie M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A survey of residents at five training hospitals concerning the variables affecting physicians' practice behavior in treating alcoholism supported the view that alcohol-related training and experience would influence practice behavior more than attitudes or knowledge. (MSE)

  19. Knowledge and Attitude of Patients, and Practice of the Arrest of Breast Cancer in Outpatient Consultations in Mastology at the General Hospital of Huambo, Angola.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Hamilton Dos Prazeres; Tavares, Suelma Beatriz Marques Prata; Natanel, Felizardo Abraão; Capingana, Daniel Pires

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to understand the knowledge and perceptions of women aged over 40 years with breast cancer seen in mastology outpatients at the Maternity Hospital of Huambo, central Angola, from February to August 2010. It also examines the clinical practice of prevention and detection of breast cancer. The research consisted of a collection of descriptive, cross-sectional data through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using Epi Info, version 6.04b. In our sample, half of the women were single, all had history of breast cancer in the family, and most had heard of breast self-examination, with the primary source of information being the mass media. Almost all women reported that it was important to perform self-examination and that they were aware of the seriousness of breast cancer, and although most of them had not been taught how to do breast self-examination, almost all knew the basics of how to do it. Some 17.6% had heard of mammography, but none had ever had a mammogram. PMID:26379452

  20. Neonatal nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward caring for cocaine-exposed infants and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M A; Marecki, M; Wooldridge, P J; Sherman, L M

    1996-03-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and backgrounds of 215 nurses employed in the nurseries of six hospitals were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. The nurses' attitudes toward the mothers of cocaine-addicted infants were found to be generally negative and/or judgmental and their knowledge to be low. More experience with nursing cocaine-addicted infants and greater acuity of the neonatal unit in which the nurse worked correlated with more positive attitudes toward the infants but not toward their mothers. Knowledge and attitude correlated positively with formal education, inservice education, and self-education, but the correlations were weak.

  1. Attitudes of Danish pig farmers towards requirements for hospital pens.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T; Klottrup, Anne; Steinmetz, Henriette; Herskin, Mette S

    2016-06-01

    According to Danish legislation, sick or injured pigs must be housed in hospital pens with specific requirements. During recent years the majority of cases of non-compliance with legislation have been related to management of these animals. Hence, we hypothesized that 1) pig farmers generally find a requirement for hospital pens reasonable, but do not know the specific requirements; 2) pig farmers do not find the specific requirements for hospital pens meaningful compared with their perception of what sick pigs need; and 3) pig farmers often omit to move sick pigs to hospital pens due to lack of time or labour. An on-line questionnaire regarding farmers' attitudes towards and knowledge about legal requirements for hospital pens was constructed and e-mailed to 2348 pig farmers. In total, 508 farmers answered the questionnaire. Overall, 66% of the respondents found that the requirements for hospital pens made good sense, and more than 90% found that it made at least partial sense. Even though almost all respondents thought they knew the legal requirements for specific facilities in hospital pens, in fact 20% of them did not. The majority of respondents found all specific requirements in accordance with the needs of sick pigs, with the exception of cooling (only 17% agreed that cooling was needed). Unexpectedly, lack of time or labour wasn't reported to be a major obstacle to the use of hospital pens. Possibly, different thresholds for defining a pig as 'sick enough' to need housing in a hospital pen may exist between farmers and authorities. PMID:27234534

  2. Nutrition Knowledge and Attitudes of Early Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Mary E.; Kies, Constance

    1972-01-01

    Study to determine nutrition knowledge and attitudes of 910 early elementary classroom teachers in Nebraska. Reveals little relationship exists between knowledge of nutrition and favorable attitudes toward teaching nutrition. Suggests attitudes are more important in changing food consumption practices. Indicates traditional teacher preparation…

  3. Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health sector is faced with constant changes as new approaches to tackle illnesses are unveiled through research. Information, communication and technology have greatly transformed healthcare practice the world over. Nursing is continually exposed to a variety of changes. Variables including age, educational level, years worked in nursing, computer knowledge and experience have been found to influence the attitudes of nurses towards computerisation. The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of nurses towards the use of computers and the factors that influence these attitudes. Methods This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among staff nurses working at one public hospital (Kenyatta National Hospital, (KNH) and one private hospital (Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH). A convenience sample of 200 nurses filled the questionnaires. Data was collected using the modified Nurses’ Attitudes Towards Computerisation (NATC) questionnaire. Results Nurses had a favorable attitude towards computerisation. Non-users had a significantly higher attitude score compared to the users (p = 0.0274). Statistically significant associations were observed with age (p = 0.039), level of education (p = 0.025), duration of exposure to computers (p = 0.025) and attitudes towards computerisation. Conclusion Generally, nurses have positive attitudes towards computerisation. This information is important for the planning and implementation of computerisation in the hospital as suggested in other studies. PMID:24774008

  4. Nurses' and Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Mario I.; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A.; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C.; O'Brien, Jessica P.; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas. PMID:26543643

  5. Nurses' and Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mario I; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; O'Brien, Jessica P; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas.

  6. Nurses' and Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mario I; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; O'Brien, Jessica P; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas. PMID:26543643

  7. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  8. Knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comprised questions on demographic data, knowledge of medication errors, availability of reporting systems in hospitals, attitudes toward error reporting, causes of medication errors. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 17. Results: A total of 323 of healthcare professionals completed the questionnaire with 64.6% response rate of 138 (42.72%) physicians, 34 (10.53%) pharmacists, and 151 (46.75%) nurses. A majority of the participants had a good knowledge about medication errors concept and their dangers on patients. Only 68.7% of them were aware of reporting systems in hospitals. Healthcare professionals revealed that there was no clear mechanism available for reporting of errors in most hospitals. Prescribing (46.5%) and administration (29%) errors were the main causes of errors. The most frequently encountered medication errors were anti-hypertensives, antidiabetics, antibiotics, digoxin, and insulin. Conclusions: This study revealed differences in the awareness among healthcare professionals toward medication errors in hospitals. The poor knowledge about medication errors emphasized the urgent necessity to adopt appropriate measures to raise awareness about medication errors in Saudi hospitals. PMID:27330261

  9. Delivery, immediate newborn and cord care practices in Pemba Tanzania: a qualitative study of community, hospital staff and community level care providers for knowledge, attitudes, belief systems and practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Deaths during the neonatal period account for almost two-thirds of all deaths in the first year of life and 40 percent of deaths before the age of five. Most of these deaths could be prevented through proven cost-effective interventions. Although there are some recent data from sub-Saharan Africa, but there is paucity of qualitative data from Zanzibar and cord care practices data from most of East Africa. We undertook a qualitative study in Pemba Island as a pilot to explore the attitudes, beliefs and practices of the community and health workers related to delivery, newborn and cord care with the potential to inform the main chlorhexidine (CHX) trial. Methods 80 in-depth interviews (IDI) and 11 focus group discussions (FGD) involving mothers, grandmothers, fathers, traditional birth attendants and other health service providers from the community were undertaken. All IDIs and FGDs were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed using ATLAS ti 6.2. Results Poor transportation, cost of delivery at hospitals, overcrowding and ill treatment by hospital staff are some of the obstacles for achieving higher institutional delivery. TBAs and health professionals understand the need of using sterilized equipments to reduce risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during delivery. Despite this knowledge, use of gloves during delivery and hand washing before delivery were seldom reported. Early initiation of breastfeeding and feeding colostrum was almost universal. Hospital personnel and trained TBAs understood the importance of keeping babies warm after birth and delayed baby’s first bath. The importance of cord care was well recognized in the community. Nearly all TBAs counseled the mothers to protect the cord from dust, flies and mosquitoes or any other kind of infections by covering it with cloth. There was consensus among respondents that CHX liquid cord cleansing could be successfully implemented in the community with appropriate education and

  10. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  11. Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…

  12. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  13. Jordanian School Counselors' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Diabetes Mellitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…

  14. Slovakian Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea; Kubiatko, Milan; Diran, Carla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnology in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology…

  15. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.

  16. Pain Management Practices by Nurses: An Application of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) Model.

    PubMed

    Alzghoul, Bashar I; Abdullah, Nor Azimah Chew

    2015-10-26

    Pain is one of the most common reasons that drive people to go to hospitals. It has been found that several factors affect the practices of pain management. In this regard, this study aimed at investigating the underlying determinants in terms of pain management practices. Based on reviewing the previous studies and the suggestions of the KAP model, it was hypothesized that the main elements of the KAP model (attitudes and knowledge) significantly predict the variation in the practices of nurses regarding pain management. A questionnaire comprising the KAP model' s constructs, i.e. knowledge and attitude towards pain management, as well as pain management practices, was used to collect data from 266 registered nurses (n=266) who are deemed competent in the management of patients' pain in the Jordanian public hospitals. The two constructs, attitude and knowledge, which are the main determinants of the KAP model were found to independently predict nurses' practices of managing patients' pain. Knowledge of pain management was found to be the strongest predictor. Additionally, it was found that about 69% of the variance in pain management could be explained by the constructs of the KAP model. Therefore, it is recommended that the Jordanian hospitals and universities focus on nurses' knowledge and attitude towards pain management in order to enhance their practices in the field of pain management.

  17. Classroom Climate, Global Knowledge, Global Attitudes, Political Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen

    1990-01-01

    Examines how an open classroom climate relates to effective global education. Looks at gender and race differences, and identifies attributes of open classrooms. Administers questionnaires to 202 students enrolled in an international studies program. Finds a moderate positive correlation between classroom climate and student political attitudes.…

  18. Knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care among multinational nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abudari, Gassan; Zahreddine, Hassan; Hazeim, Hassan; Assi, Mohammad Al; Emara, Sania

    2014-09-01

    Background Palliative care is not yet integrated into the health-care system in Saudi Arabia. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre-Riyadh (KFSH&RC-Riyadh) is a tertiary care facility and regional cancer centre in Saudia Arabia with a highly multinational nursing workforce. Little is known about these nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Aim To determine the palliative care knowledge and attitudes of the nursing workforce of KFSH&RC-Riyadh and any influencing factors. Method A questionnaire including demographic data, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN), and Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale (FATCOD) was completed by 395 staff nurses from 19 countries. Results The nurses scored a mean of 111.66 out of 150 on the FATCOD scale and of 9.06 out of 20 on the PCQN. These scores indicate moderate attitudes towards but a knowledge deficit regarding palliative care. The nurses' palliative care training and years of nursing experience significantly affected the scores. The level of palliative care integration in the nurses' home countries was the most significant factor in multiple regression tests. Conclusion Palliative care integration into the health-care system of the country in which nurses train significantly influences their knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Incorporating palliative care into nursing education might promote positive attitudes towards palliative care in nurses while enhancing their knowledge and skills.

  19. Civil Defense: An Analysis of Attitudes and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marko, George Franklin

    The study aimed at constructing, validating, and testing two instruments, one of which measured attitude change toward Civil Defense adult education, and one which measured level of knowledge about Civil Defense practices; and evaluating the effectiveness of the Personal and Family Survival (PFS) Course in terms of attitude change and knowledge…

  20. Law Related Education: Assessing Adolescents' Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, James L.; And Others

    A study is described which examined the relationships between law-related knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of high school students. Participants were 457 students in grades nine through 12 from four high schools near Phoenix, Arizona. Three questionnaires were administered: (1) a 65-item social attitude questionnaire on…

  1. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  2. Maternal knowledge, attitudes and practice in diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, P; Rajput, V J

    1993-01-01

    In developing countries where diarrhea is a major health problem, mothers are often ignorant about the cause and management of the disease and tend to restrict fluid intake instead of taking steps to prevent dehydration. 300 mothers of children hospitalized in Rewa, India, were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire on their diarrhea knowledge. 74.3% were rural and 80.6% were aged 20-30 years. 70% were illiterate and belonged to the upper lower or lower middle class. Causes of diarrhea cited by the mothers included teething (64.3%), evil eye (46%), contact with another case (36.6%), malnutrition (28.3), worm infestation (22.6%), eating mud (18.6%), mother's food habits (17.6%), eating sweets (17.3%), dirty water (15.3%), hot/cold foods (10.6%), change of food (8.3), and dirty environment (6%). During diarrhea, 266 mothers allowed breast milk, 118 pulses and rice gruel, 104 diluted cow's milk, 57 undiluted cow's milk, 25 boiled pulses water, 23 boiled rice water, 16 banana, 13 oral rehydration solution, 10 a whole diet, 8 tea, and 7 curd. Half of the mothers considered passage of liquid stools 3-5 times a day as diarrhea. Only 3% of the mothers listed dehydration as an important complication of the disease. Of the mothers using oral rehydration therapy, the fluid was often not reconstituted properly, and inadequate amounts were administered. Improved health education for mothers, with information on general hygiene, adequate diet during illness, and the use of oral rehydration solution in diarrhea would reduce diarrhea deaths. PMID:8406719

  3. [Educational level of mothers and their knowledge, attitude and practices concerning respiratory infections of their children].

    PubMed

    Valdés Roque, A I; Martínez Canalejo, H

    1999-12-01

    An evaluation was performed on the influence of different variables on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices that mothers of children under the age of 5 have concerning acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Two groups of mothers were interviewed: 1) mothers of children seen in a polyclinic in the province of Havana (n = 221) and 2) mothers whose children were hospitalized in the respiratory unit of a pediatric hospital in the city of Havana (n = 200). The five variables analyzed were the educational level of the mother, her age, place of residence, number of children, and whether or not she was employed in the health service sector, as well as the interactions between the first variable and the other four variables. A questionnaire was used to measure the ARI knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the mothers. Two levels of KAP sufficiency were taken into account, "Adequate I" for obtaining 70% or more of the maximum possible score and "Adequate II" for achieving at least a 50% score. For both levels of adequacy, the KAP of the mothers working in the health sector was significantly higher than that of the mothers interviewed in the secondary health care center. This suggests that the poorer knowledge, attitudes, and practices of mothers with hospitalized children may have contributed to the children's hospitalization. The most important variable associated with sufficient knowledge was educational level, which highlights the fundamental and positive influence education exerts on the preventive and curative care that mothers provide their children with ARI. PMID:10659671

  4. Rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards medical male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Andrew; Ogbonnaya, Harbor

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical male circumcision (MMC) is a key strategy in the South African HIV infection prevention package. Women may have a potentially powerful role in supporting such a strategy. Circumcision is not a traditional part of Zulu society, and Zulu women may have limited knowledge and ambivalent or negative attitudes towards MMC. Aim This study employs quantitative data to expand insight into rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards MMC, and is important as women could potentially yield a powerful positive or negative influence over the decisions of their partners and sons. Setting A hospital-based antenatal clinic in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Methods Participants were 590 pregnant, mostly isiZulu-speaking women. Data on their knowledge of and attitude towards MMC were collected using a questionnaire and were analysed descriptively. Results The majority of the women supported MMC; however, knowledge of the potential benefits was generally poor. Most would encourage their partners and sons to undergo MMC. The preferred place for the procedure was a hospital. Conclusion Zulu participants supported MMC and would support their partners and children being circumcised. Knowledge around potential benefits was worryingly poor, and further research into disseminating information is essential. The findings highlight the need for an expanded campaign of health education for women, and innovative means are suggested to enhance information accessibility. Reasons for preferring that MMC be carried out in hospital need to be explored further. PMID:26245595

  5. College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors regarding Sex and Contraceptives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…

  6. Parent-Child Communication and Adolescents' Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.; Pollack, Robert H.

    Although the benefits of sex education are often questioned, numerous studies have shown that the more knowledgeable a person is about sexuality, the less likely he or she is to engage in early sexual activities. To compare the differences in sexual knowledge, attitudes, and contraceptive choice between those adolescents who talk to their parents…

  7. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered.

  8. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered. PMID:25558808

  9. Predictors of attitude and intention to use knowledge management system among Korean nurses.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge sharing using Knowledge Management (KM) systems helps nurses to understand and acquire appropriate knowledge that influences the quality of healthcare service. The purpose of this study was to identify organizational and individual factors influencing attitude and intention to use KM systems among Korean nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used to study a sample of 245 nurses employed at five hospitals in Seoul. A multiple hierarchical regression was used to examine predictors of nurses' attitude and intention to use. From an individual perspective, nurse's informatics competency was identified as a significant factor influencing attitudes toward knowledge management usage within adhocracy and clan cultures. However, from an organizational perspective, level of hospital information system was identified as a significant factor influencing KM system usage within adhocracy cultures. The findings of this study will be helpful in better understanding and assessing the impact of the factors affecting the implementation of nursing knowledge management systems and in further developing successful managerial strategies using knowledge resources in healthcare settings.

  10. Predictors of attitude and intention to use knowledge management system among Korean nurses.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge sharing using Knowledge Management (KM) systems helps nurses to understand and acquire appropriate knowledge that influences the quality of healthcare service. The purpose of this study was to identify organizational and individual factors influencing attitude and intention to use KM systems among Korean nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used to study a sample of 245 nurses employed at five hospitals in Seoul. A multiple hierarchical regression was used to examine predictors of nurses' attitude and intention to use. From an individual perspective, nurse's informatics competency was identified as a significant factor influencing attitudes toward knowledge management usage within adhocracy and clan cultures. However, from an organizational perspective, level of hospital information system was identified as a significant factor influencing KM system usage within adhocracy cultures. The findings of this study will be helpful in better understanding and assessing the impact of the factors affecting the implementation of nursing knowledge management systems and in further developing successful managerial strategies using knowledge resources in healthcare settings. PMID:23806194

  11. Knowledge, Attitude and practices regarding vector-borne diseases in Western Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Alobuia, Wilson M; Missikpode, Celestin; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline E

    2015-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, and malaria can overwhelm health systems in resource-poor countries. Environmental management strategies that reduce/eliminate vector breeding sites combined with improved personal prevention strategies can help to significantly reduce transmission of these infections. Objective This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of residents in Western Jamaica regarding control of mosquito vectors and protection from mosquito bites. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2010 among patients or family members of patients waiting to be seen at hospitals in Western Jamaica. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and KAPs regarding vector-borne diseases. KAP scores were calculated and categorized as high or low based on number of correct/positive responses. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of KAP and linear regression analysis conducted to determine if knowledge and attitude scores predicted practice scores. Results Three-hundred and sixty-one people (85 males and 276 females) participated in the study. Most participants (87%) scored low on knowledge and practice items (78%). Conversely, 78% scored high on attitudes items. By multivariate logistic regression, housewives were 82% less likely to have high attitude scores than laborers, and homeowners were 65% less likely to have high attitude scores than renters. Participants from households with 1–2 children were 3.4 times more likely to have high attitude scores compared to those from households with no children. Participants from households ≥5 people were 65% less likely to have high practice scores compared to those from households with <5. By multivariable linear regression knowledge and attitude scores were significant predictors of practice score. Conclusion The study revealed poor knowledge of vector

  12. Smoking behavior among hospital staff still influences attitudes and counseling on smoking.

    PubMed

    Willaing, Ingrid; Ladelund, Steen

    2004-04-01

    Smoking among health professionals has been shown to influence smoking-related knowledge and counseling in clinical practice. The evidence regarding smoking as a risk factor has increased in the past decade. The present study was carried out in 2000 and investigated the associations between individual smoking behavior among hospital staff and (a). smoking-related knowledge, (b). attitudes toward counseling on smoking, and (c). self-reported smoking-related counseling provided by the staff. The study was based on a survey using self-administered questionnaires given to all hospital staff in a large university hospital in Denmark. Altogether, 82% of staff (2561) returned a completed questionnaire. Analyses focused on a subsample consisting of health professionals in the clinical wards (1429). Multivariate analyses were performed in which smoking-related knowledge, attitudes toward smoking-related counseling, smoking-related counseling practices, and self-rated qualifications for counseling were main outcome measures. Health professionals who were current smokers systematically underestimated the health consequences of smoking and differed significantly from nonsmokers in their assessments of smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers might overestimate smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers gave patients advice on smoking cessation significantly more often than did current smokers (ex-smokers, OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.8-3.4; never-smokers, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.0). Ex-smokers and smokers felt significantly more qualified to counsel patients about smoking than did never-smokers (ex-smokers, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.3-2.5; smokers, OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.0-1.9). Individual smoking behavior among hospital staff was strongly associated with smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and counseling practices. Lack of self-rated qualifications was a major barrier to professional counseling on smoking in a hospital framework.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Results Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that ‘cold’ can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. Conclusion General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka. PMID:26816922

  14. Palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan: knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Miyamoto, Yuki

    This study examined factors contributing to the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff regarding palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of 275 nurses and other care workers from 74 long-term care facilities was conducted across three prefectures in August 2014. The Japanese versions of the Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) and Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B (FATCOD-B-J) were used. Greater knowledge was exhibited among nursing home staff in facilities that established a manual for end-of-life care. Higher levels of positive attitudes were observed among nursing home staff in facilities that had established a manual and those in facilities with a physician's written opinions on end-of-life care. An organisational effort should be explored to establish end-of-life care policies among nursing home staff for advanced dementia.

  15. Interrelationships among Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Body Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…

  16. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…

  17. Improving Nursing Home Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…

  18. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  19. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  20. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  1. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  2. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  3. Sunbathing: College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail-Smith, Karen; Felts, W. Michael

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed Caucasian college students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sunbathing. Surveys indicated concern with attractiveness was a major motivation for frequent sunbathing. Frequent sunbathers were more likely to be women and to report fewer self-perceived risk factors and less likely to use sunscreen. (SM)

  4. Drug Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Barry; Reid, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a survey of 149 students at 14 colleges about their knowledge, use of, and attitudes about illegal psychoactive drugs. Finds that low percentages of students use drugs, but with 5.5 million students attending community colleges, even small percentages of users translate into large numbers, with attendant implications for student success…

  5. Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…

  6. Drug Education Based on a Knowledge, Attitude, and Experience Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, John A.

    1971-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)

  7. News Reading, Knowledge about, and Attitudes toward Foreign Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David K.

    1990-01-01

    Finds that a sample of adults in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, found that consumption of news about five countries generally leads to greater knowledge and more favorable attitudes toward those countries. Suggests that the mass media may have an important role in reducing ethnocentrism. (MG)

  8. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  9. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Sea Turtles in Elementary Students on Zakynthos, Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimopoulos, Dimitrios I.; Pantis, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Utilizes a 32-item survey instrument to measure knowledge and attitudes of 5th and 6th grade students regarding sea turtle conservation on Zakynthos, Greece. Results indicate low knowledge scores and high scores for attitudes, but an overall positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge, understanding and/or concern, and locus of…

  10. Stem cells in Dentistry: knowledge and attitude of Nigerian Dentists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several controversies exist about the methods of harvesting and eventual utilization of stem cells in Medicine and Dentistry. The objective of the study was to investigate the awareness, attitude and knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among Nigerian Dentists. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists selected from both private and public health sectors, in some of the major cities in Nigeria. Results The majority of the participants were ≤35 years in age, male, Pentecostal Christians, possessed a postgraduate qualification, had practiced for ≤5 years and were specialists or specializing. In this study, 153(81.0%) of the participants reported awareness about the use of stem cells in dentistry which was significantly associated with qualification and type of practice. Most of the respondents 114 (60.3%) had a poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry. This was significantly associated with type of practice and awareness about stem cell use in dentistry but binary logistic regression showed awareness as the only determinant of knowledge. About three-quarters 142 (75.1%) of the participants exhibited positive attitude towards stem cell use. This had a positive non-significant association with knowledge and reported awareness. Conclusion Data from this study revealed a high level of awareness, positive attitude to and poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among a cross section of Nigerian Dentists. PMID:23767980

  11. A cross-sectional assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice among Hepatitis-B patients in Quetta, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis-B is a life threatening infection resulting in 0.6 million deaths annually. The prevalence of Hepatitis-B is rising in Pakistan and furthermore, there is paucity of information about Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Hepatitis-B patients. Better disease related knowledge is important to have positive attitude and that will bring the good practices which will prevent the further spread of infection. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B Patients in Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was undertaken with 390 Hepatitis-B patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Hepatitis-B were assessed using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 20, 7 and 8 questions for knowledge, attitude and practice, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients’ demographic characteristics and mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B patients. Inferential statistics (Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.05) were used to establish association between study variables. Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify the association between the knowledge, attitude and practice scores. Results Out of 390 patients, 223 (57.2%) were males, with the majority (136, 34.9%) in the age group of 38–47 years. Mean age of the study cohort was 32.6 ± 9.5 years. One hundred and four (26.7%) had primary level education, with 110 (28.2%) working in the private sector. The mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.48 ± 2.7, 3.87 ± 1.2 and 2.37 ± 1.0, respectively. Education, locality and occupation were significantly associated with knowledge, attitude and practice scores. Significant positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r = 0.466, p < 0.01) knowledge-practice (r = 0.221, p < 0.01) and attitude-practice (r

  12. Physicians' knowledge and attitudes in the management of wound infection.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kevin Y

    2016-10-01

    Despite consensus on the assessment and management of wound infection, there exist deficiencies in its recognition and management. A survey study involving 85 physicians and 3 other clinicians from across Canada was completed to determine current knowledge and attitude towards learning about topics relating to wound infection and its management. The results of the survey describe knowledge gaps and interests to develop expertise in the management of wound infection, suggesting a need for education on this subject. Low levels of current knowledge were reported for all biofilm-related topics.

  13. A Survey Study of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Practitioners Assessing the Knowledge of Attitudes and Practices of Hepatitis B Management at a Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anita; Jose, JoAnn; Larsen-Reindorf, Roderick; Small, Christina; Nde, Helen; Dugas, Lara; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Nelson, Kenrad; Ezeanolue, Eche; Layden, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem, with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including West Africa, bearing a large proportion of cases. Mother-to-child and early childhood horizontal transmission, the most common mechanisms of disease spread in West Africa, lead to a high rate of chronic infection. Although these transmission mechanisms are preventable through vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin, they are not routinely used due to limited resources. Antiviral therapy in pregnant women who are HBV positive is another option to reduce transmission. We conducted a survey study of pregnant women and clinicians at a teaching hospital in West Africa to determine the knowledge base about HBV and willingness to implement measures to reduce HBV transmission. Pregnant women had limited knowledge about HBV and the common transmission mechanisms. Clinicians identified cost and time as the major barriers to implementation of HBV prevention measures. Both pregnant women and clinicians were largely willing to implement and use measures, including antivirals, to help reduce HBV transmission.

  14. Knowledge, awareness, attitudes and sources of vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency in Saudi children

    PubMed Central

    Alshamsan, Fatimah M.; Bin-Abbas, Bassam S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D and its sources among Saudi Arabian children. Methods: One hundred patients (vitamin D-deficient children) and 100 healthy children participated in the study. Participants were interviewed separately on topics including their awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D using multiple-choice, and short-answer questions. This prospective, cross-sectional study was performed on children and adolescents between January 2011 and December 2011 at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Only 28% were aware of the sources of vitamin D, while 64% of healthy subjects were aware. Similarly, only 50% of patients and their parents knew of the health benefits of vitamin D, while 70% of healthy subjects had knowledge. Hence, our findings agree with previous findings that low levels of awareness and knowledge regarding vitamin D and its sources persist. Conclusion: Most vitamin D deficient cases were unaware of vitamin D sources. However, half of the patient/parents were aware of benefits of vitamin D. Hence, we recommend that an improved campaign for awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D and its sources are needed. PMID:27146624

  15. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  16. Nurses' knowledge, attitudes and willingness to participate officially in workplace Healthcare Ethics Committees (HEC).

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Dorit; Tabak, Nili

    2012-03-01

    This research was designed to assess nurses' perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and intentions in relation to nurse participation in Healthcare Ethics Committees (HECs). A convenience sample of 87 nurses from five Israeli hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire, whose data were then analyzed by quantitative statistics. The main findings were that large percentages of nurses were totally ignorant of the existence and functioning of the HEC in their workplaces. Nurses in managerial roles were (a) much more knowledgeable on these matters than staff nurses and (b) regarded more positively the idea that nurses had an obligation to sit on such committees. Workplace role and rank in the organizational hierarchy had a stronger impact on nurse attitudes to HEC work than level of education. Overall, nurse willingness to sit on an HEC and to take special training in preparation for such a role were high.

  17. Pediatric nurses' knowledge and attitudes survey regarding pain: a competency tool modification.

    PubMed

    Rieman, Mary T; Gordon, Mary; Marvin, Janet M

    2007-01-01

    Nurses' knowledge and attitudes about pain affect their ability to manage patients' pain. A mechanism was sought to evaluate nursing competency in pain management at eight pediatric hospitals. Several pain survey tools were reviewed, considering the patient population around which they were designed, the basis for survey content, and format. A survey with established validity and reliability, the Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey Regarding Pain (PNKAS) (Manworren 1999) was chosen as the most appropriate for this group. The tool was modified for applicability to the nurses caring for pediatric populations that do not include oncology. Revisions were made with the concurrence of Manworren to assure that neither the content being tested, nor the integrity of the tool, was affected. Stability of the modified tool (PNKAS-Shriners Version 2002) was verified by retesting 6-8 weeks after initial survey. PMID:17907730

  18. [Knowledge, attitudes and practices among religious students concerning family planning].

    PubMed

    Karout, N; Altuwaijri, S

    2012-07-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices concerning family planning of students attending religious schools in Lebanon, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 450 male and female students. A validated structured questionnaire was completed by the students. The majority of the students (65%) had a moderate level of knowledge, males more than females, but females had more positive beliefs and attitudes. More females agreed with family planning programmes and methods than males, but 35% had a negative attitude to family planning; a significant percentage had negative attitudes to contraceptive methods based on their view that they are not allowed (haram) in Islam. Among the married students, less than 40% used a family planning method; of those, the majority used a female method. Religion plays an important role in the health behaviour of religious students. Religious leaders can therefore inhibit or promote family planning, which will affect the success of family planning programmes. Thus, they should be included in the development and promotion of family planning programmes.

  19. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  20. Provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674

  1. Health professionals' factual knowledge and changing attitudes toward transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Franzini, L R; Casinelli, D L

    1986-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs), obstetrician-gynecologists, urologists, psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (total N = 202) were randomly surveyed to assess their knowledge of the syndrome of transsexuality and their attitudes toward transsexual patients and sex reassignment surgery. A low return rate, though, requires that the present data be interpreted prudently. Where possible, the current findings were compared with the attitudinal data published in 1966 by Green, Stoller and MacAndrew. Over this interval an increasingly liberal and favorable trend in attitudes was noted amongst all medical specialties. 'Liberal' refers to a willingness to recommend a surgical remedy and 'favorable' refers to a less psychopathological perspective of the syndrome and greater social acceptance of these individuals. In the present sample GPs tend to hold the most conservative views, while clinical psychologists consistently endorse the most liberal positions. No differences emerged among the five groups of health care professionals on the factual knowledge assessment.

  2. Disability and Sexuality: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Level of Comfort among Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…

  3. The Relationship between Attitudes, Knowledge, and Demographic Variables of High School Teachers Regarding Food Irradiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…

  4. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  5. The Knowledge About Drugs, Attitudes Towards Them And Drug Use Rates Of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejer, Dianne; Smart, Reginald G.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about them and the use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit and psychoactive drugs was conducted among 4,693 high school students. Knowledge level and permissive attitudes tended to increase with grade level. Knowledge scores also increased, but attitudes became less permissive with increasing academic…

  6. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Malaria Among the Rural Communities in Aliero, Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rupashree; Musa, Jamila; Singh, Sanjay; Ebere, Ukatu Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Families' perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes about malaria causation, symptom identification, treatment of malaria, and prevention are often overlooked in malaria control efforts. This study was conducted to understand these issues, which can be an important step towards developing strategies, aimed at controlling malaria. Materials and Methods: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study in four villages: Danwarai, Gehuru, Jiga, and Kashin Zama of Aliero local government area in Kebbi Sate, in northern Nigeria. Two hundred household were randomly selected and interviewed using standardized questionnaire. Results: Knowledge of the role of mosquitoes in malaria transmission (11.8%) and cause of malaria (9.6%) was observed to be low among the study population. Comprehensive knowledge about malaria prevention measures was high (90%), but not reflecting in their practice (16%). They have good knowledge of mosquito behavior (breeding areas (64.5%), resting places (70%) and biting time (81%)). Seeking hospital care for a febrile child was a good practice (68.5%) observed. Attitudes regarding the best antimalarial therapy was limited (56.7%) to chloroquine. Conclusions: Misconceptions about malaria transmission and its cause still exist. Knowledge about preventive measures does not necessarily translate into improvement in practices. There is a need for targeted educational programs to increase the communities' efforts to develop desirable attitude and practices regarding malaria and their participation for malaria control. PMID:24791235

  7. HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practice among health care workers in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Gledović, Zorana; Rakočević, Božidarka; Mugoša, Boban; Grgurević, Anita

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice of health care workers (HCWs) in Montenegro. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the University Clinical Centre of Montenegro in Podgorica. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used for data collecting. Out of 526 HCWs, 422 were included in the survey and response rate was 80%. An insufficient level of knowledge on HIV transmission and the risk after exposure was observed generally, although the knowledge was better in physicians compared to other HCWs categories. A rather high proportion of HCWs showed inappropriate attitude regarding the need of HIV testing of all hospitalized patients (64.7%) and obligation of HIV+ patient to report his/her HIV status (88.9%) in order to practice universal precaution. Additionally, 6.2% HCWs would refuse to treat an HIV+ patient. More than a half (55.7%) of study participants were educated in HIV/AIDS and 15.9% of them were HIV tested. Majority of HCWs (67.5%) always applied universal precautions during their daily work with patients. In spite of applying protective devices, number of accidents was great. A continuous education is necessary to increase the level of knowledge of HCWs about the risk of infection at the workplace. This would potentially influence the modification of their attitudes regarding HIV patients and improve prevention at the workplace. Continuous research regarding the professional risk would provide better health and safety among medical staff.

  8. Knowledge and attitudes regarding neonatal pain among nursing staff of pediatric department: an Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar, Archana S; Dongara, Ashish R; Phatak, Ajay G; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M

    2014-03-01

    Neonates receiving care in intensive care units are highly likely to experience pain due to investigations and/or treatments carried out by the health care providers. Neonates are a vulnerable population because they are unable to vocalize their pain. Unaddressed and mismanaged pain can not only affect the child's comfort, but also may alter the development and cognitive abilities of the child in a later part of his/her life. Therefore it is entirely the caregiver's responsibility to accurately assess and manage neonatal pain. We assessed and compared the knowledge and attitudes regarding neonatal pain among the nurses posted in the various units of a pediatric department [pediatric ward, pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)]. An appropriately modified Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain questionnaire was consensually validated, pretested, and then administered to the nursing staff of the pediatric department at a department at a hospital in Gujarat. Data were entered in Epi-Info and analyzed with the use of SPSS 14.0. The questionnaire was administered to 41 nurses working in the Department of Pediatrics, and the response rate was 97.5%. Mean age of the nurses in the study sample was 25.75 years (SD 5.513). The mean total score of the participants was 8.75 out of 17 (SD 2.549), which was unsatisfactory. The mean correct answer rate was 49.67% among the staff of NICU and 48.67% among the pediatric ward and PICU staff. The attitudes among the nurses were assessed. It was concluded that the nurses lack knowledge and that their attitudes also were hindering pain management. One of the barriers identified by the nurses was that physicians do not prescribe analgesics for managing neonatal pain. So not only the nursing staff, but all of the caregivers involved in neonatal care may be lacking in knowledge and hold perceptions and attitudes that hamper neonatal pain management.

  9. Sun protection among Spanish beachgoers: knowledge, attitude and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p = 0.032), educational level (p < 0.0001), sunscreen use (p = 0.048) and adequate timing of the first application of sunscreens (p = 0.015) were predictors of awareness, while factors associated with a more favourable attitude were educational level (p < 0.0001) and regular use of hats (p = 0.001). Wrong beliefs mainly concern sunscreens (false safety); the attractiveness of a tanned look is the main unfavourable attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population.

  10. Sun protection among Spanish beachgoers: knowledge, attitude and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p = 0.032), educational level (p < 0.0001), sunscreen use (p = 0.048) and adequate timing of the first application of sunscreens (p = 0.015) were predictors of awareness, while factors associated with a more favourable attitude were educational level (p < 0.0001) and regular use of hats (p = 0.001). Wrong beliefs mainly concern sunscreens (false safety); the attractiveness of a tanned look is the main unfavourable attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population. PMID:24890922

  11. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Healthcare Workers on the Knowledge and Attitudes towards Polio Vaccination in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Aqeel, Talieha; Akbar, Naila; Salman, Saad; Idress, Jawaria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 490 HCWs was conducted in two major referral public teaching hospitals of Quetta and Peshawar divisions. During February to April, 2015, a random sample of 490 HCWs was invited to participate in this study. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results. Results A total of 468 participants responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 95.5%. Overall, participants demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. The mean knowledge score of HCWs about polio was 13.42±2.39 (based on 18 knowledge questions) while the mean attitude score was 28.75±5.5 (based on 9 attitudes statements). Knowledge gaps were identified about the incubation period of poliovirus (19.5%), management issues (31.9%), use of polio vaccine in mild illnesses (34.7%) and the consequences of the polio virus (36.9%). The majority of participants agreed that all children should be vaccinated for polio (95.1%), while reservations were noted about the need of a booster (38.9%), and sterility issues associated with polio vaccines (43.6%). Internet (n = 167, 37%) and Posters (n = 158, 35%) were the main sources used by HCWs to educate themselves about polio. Conclusion Participants in this study had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. Although the data are indicative of gaps in the knowledge of HCWs, the findings may not be generalized to other hospitals in Pakistan. PMID

  12. Female genital mutilation: knowledge, attitude and practice among nurses.

    PubMed Central

    Onuh, Sunday O.; Igberase, Gabriel O.; Umeora, Joaness O. U.; Okogbenin, Sylvanus A.; Otoide, Valentine O.; Gharoro, Etedafe P.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) and cutting is a subject of global interest, with many countries of the world still practicing it despite efforts by the WHO and other agencies to discourage the practice. The highest known prevalence is in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among nurses in the ancient metropolis of Benin in a Nigerian state where FGM is illegal. RESULTS: One-hundred-ninety-three nurses in the study hospital were recruited in the study out of which 182 (94.3%) appropriately filled and returned the questionnaires. The average age of respondents was 37 years, and the average duration of postgraduation experience was 14.5 years. Most respondents are of Bini (36.8%) and Esan (34.1%) ethnic origin. All respondents identified at least one form of FGM, but only 12 respondents (6.6%) could correctly identify the four types of FGM. The harmful effects of FGM identified by the majority of respondents include hemorrhage, difficult labor/childbirth, genital tears, infections and scar/keloid formation. Forty-four (24.2%) of respondents were of the opinion that some forms of FGM are harmless. Eighty nurses admitted to having undergone FGM, for a prevalence of 44%. Five respondents (2.8%) view FGM as a good practice and will encourage the practice. Twelve respondents (6.6%) routinely perform FGM out of which seven (58.3%) viewed FGM as a bad practice. Nurses performing FGM routinely were those who had spent >20 years (59%) and 11-20 years (41%) in the profession. Another 26 (14.3%) had performed FGM before, though not on a routine basis. Of this latter group, 15 will perform FGM in the future when faced with certain circumstances. Reasons for FGM practice were mainly cultural. Eight of the respondents would have their daughters circumcised. CONCLUSION: Nurses perceive FGM in Benin as cultural. Almost half have had FGM themselves, and a small percentage recommend it to their daughters. Discouraging FGM practice

  13. Residents' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Use of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 129 medical residents in an urban teaching hospital revealed a general lack of knowledge about computers, although most had used a microcomputer. Students were most likely to be able to use word processing (73%) and bibliographic retrieval (71%) programs. Better access to and training for computer use are recommended. (Author/MSE)

  14. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community. PMID:17273338

  15. Knowledge and attitudes towards premarital counselling and examination.

    PubMed

    Eshra, D K; Dorgham, L S; el-Sherbini, A F

    1989-01-01

    Premarital counselling and examination have begun to play a very important role in the management of many genetic disorders. 600 villager's knowledge and attitudes toward premarital counselling and examination in Menofia Governorate was studied in order to predict the community acceptance and behaviour toward utilization of such service. The result showed a big lack in knowledge even among educated respondents about the term. The main source of information was mass media followed by medical personnel who should participate more in this service. Most respondents, except unmarried males, have a favourable attitude toward either premarital counselling and examination or consanguinous marriage. This may be related to certain social changes in village life such as declining illiteracy, increased economic pressures, increase number of nuclear families and accordingly delay in beginning a family. It was unlikely that non-contraceptive users would resort to induced abortion rather to use contraceptive methods. Educational programs should be directed toward: (a) unmarried males so that their attitude toward premarital counselling and examination can be changed to correct direction, (b) unmarried females to make consanginous marriage more undesirable, and (c) non-contraceptive users to make them more intended to use safe contraceptive methods than induced abortion.

  16. [Osteoporosis. Knowledge and attitudes of the Norwegian population].

    PubMed

    Joakimsen, R M; Søgaard, A J; Tollan, A; Magnus, J H

    1996-06-30

    In March 1994, a random sample of 1,514 Norwegians aged 16-79 years were interviewed about their knowledge of osteoporosis and their attitudes towards prevention of this disease. About 85% answered correctly that osteoporosis can be prevented, but only 57% knew that it cannot be cured. Women had better knowledge of osteoporosis than men had. Two thirds of the women were positive to the use of long-term hormone replacement therapy to prevent osteoporosis. The majority of women aged 60 years or more preferred walking to other physical activities to prevent the disease. Although the data demonstrated fairly good general knowledge of osteoporosis in the population, the oldest women, those at the highest risk of developing the disease, knew less about osteoporosis than the younger women did.

  17. Sexual knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of students in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gökengin, Deniz; Yamazhan, Tansu; Ozkaya, Deniz; Aytuğ, Sebnem; Ertem, Ekin; Arda, Bilgin; Serter, Demir

    2003-09-01

    This survey produced baseline information about student knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), their sexual attitudes, and their behavior to help establish control and education programs. The study was conducted at Ege University, Izmir, Turkey, during the 1999-2000 academic year. A total of 2,217 first- and fourth-year students determined by stratified sampling constituted the study group. All students who volunteered to participate completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic and knowledge factors, sexual attitudes, behavior, and history of STDs. The rate of students having had sexual experience was 36.6%. Males were more sexually active than females. Most students (71.4%) began sexual activity at ages 15-19 without any difference by gender. Males reported significantly more sexual partners than females. Similarly, the rate of male students never using condoms was significantly higher than females. Condom was the most frequent contraception method, followed by oral contraceptives and withdrawal. Mean score on the knowledge questions was 16.29 (highest score 30). The most widely known STD was HIV infection and AIDS. Students' knowledge of transmission routes, signs and symptoms, and risk groups of STDs was insufficient. Main sources of knowledge were visual and print media, and friends. Most students (84.7%) viewed prevention from STDs as a person's own responsibility. Young people in Turkey are sexually active and tend to engage in high-risk behavior. However, their knowledge on sexual health and sexually transmitted diseases is insufficient. Study results suggest a need for implementation of STD control programs and provision of school sexuality education for adolescents and young adults.

  18. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867

  19. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies.

  20. Internalizing Knowledge and Changing Attitudes to Female Genital Cutting/Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women) have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who have changed their attitude to FGC have got information from different educational institutions, from seminars and conferences, from work as interpreters in hospitals, and from discussions among families and friends. Information can be received, listened to and subsequently discarded. In order to design FGC-abandonment campaigns, the importance of the internalization process in order for the individual to make an attitudinal change must be understood. PMID:23843795

  1. Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines

    PubMed Central

    Eldalo, Ahmed S.; Yousif, Mirghani A.; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

    2013-01-01

    The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15–20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines’ uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine’s efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students’ reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ⩽18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15–20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students’ practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406

  2. HPV Vaccination: Attitude and Knowledge among German Gynecologists

    PubMed Central

    Kolben, T. M.; Dannecker, C.; Baltateanu, K.; Goess, C.; Starrach, T.; Semmlinger, A.; Ditsch, N.; Gallwas, J.; Mahner, S.; Friese, K.; Kolben, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In order to achieve a higher vaccination rate, education on HPV as well as options for prophylaxis performed by doctors is of great importance. One opportunity to increase the protection against HPV would be vaccinating boys. This study evaluated attitude and knowledge among German gynecologists regarding HPV vaccination, especially in boys. Material and Methods: A questionnaire with 42 questions about demographics, attitude and knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccination was sent to members of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). Results: 998 out of 6567 addressed gynecologists participated. Knowledge about HPV, associated diseases and possible HPV vaccines was high among participants. The attitude towards vaccination in boys as well as girls was positive. Only 8.2 % refused to vaccinate their sons whereas 2.2 % refused to do this for their daughters. However, only few gynecologists vaccinated their daughters and sons against HPV. Main reason for girls was an age outside of vaccination guidelines; for boys it was the lack of cost coverage. Conclusion: The willingness of gynecologists to perform HPV vaccination in boys is as high as for girls. However, sons of gynecologists are only rarely vaccinated against HPV. Main reason is the lack of cost coverage. Vaccinating boys could decrease the disease burden in males, as well as protect women by interrupting ways of transmission. Since the main argument against vaccination of boys is only of financial nature, the necessity of a vaccination recommendation for boys needs to be re-evaluated taking into account the cost-reduced 2-dose vaccination scheme. PMID:27761028

  3. Oral health knowledge, attitude, and self-care practices among pharmacists in Riyadh, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Baseer, Mohammad Abdual; Mehkari, Mohammed Aleemullah; Al-Marek, Fahad AbdulMohsen Fahad; Bajahzar, Omar Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Identifying and addressing gaps in the oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices of pharmacists is important before they can be considered as a member of the oral health promotion team. The aim of this study was to determine the prevailing oral health knowledge, attitude, and self-care practices among a sample of pharmacists from Riyadh, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 200 pharmacists working in community- and hospital-based pharmacies was conducted using a structured, self-administered, close-ended questionnaire. The responses were collected and descriptive statistics of the mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and self-care practices were calculated. Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests were performed to compare the different groups. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to assess the association among knowledge–attitude, knowledge–practice, and attitude–practice. Results: Overall, the mean scores of oral health knowledge, attitude, and self-care practices were found to be 5.27 ± 1.05, 3.89 ± 0.83, and 2.1 ± 0.61, respectively. Male non-Saudi pharmacists working in chain pharmacies, having 11–15 years of experience with a Master's degree qualification showed significantly higher mean knowledge and practices scores as compared to their counterparts. Spearman's correlation tests revealed a significant positive correlation of knowledge–practice (r = 0.262, P < 0.01), whereas knowledge–attitude (r = -0.149, P < 0.05) as well as attitudes–practices (r = -0.196, P < 0.01) were negatively correlated. Conclusion: Pharmacists exhibited an average knowledge, negative attitude, and inadequate self-care practices toward oral health. However, increasing oral health knowledge can have profound improvement in oral self-care practices. PMID:27114953

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were in the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22) was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20). The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score. Conclusion: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27413347

  6. Infection Control Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Healthcare Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward A.; Margoles, Lindsay; Kacha, Ermias; Blumberg, Henry M.; Kempker, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To better understand hospital infection control practices in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, attitudes and practices about hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures. Methods An anonymous, 76-item questionnaire was administered to HCWs at two university hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Knowledge items were scored as correct/incorrect. Attitude and practice items were assessed using a Likert scale. Results 261 surveys were completed by physicians (51%) and nurses (49%). Fifty-one percent of respondents were male; mean age was 30 years. While hand hygiene knowledge was fair, self-reported practice was suboptimal. Physicians reported performing hand hygiene 7% and 48% before and after patient contact, respectively. Barriers for performing hand hygiene included lack of hand hygiene agents (77%), sinks (30%), proper training (50%), and irritation and dryness (67%) caused by hand sanitizer made per WHO formulation. TB infection control knowledge was excellent (>90% correct). Most HCWs felt at high risk for occupational acquisition of TB (71%) and that proper TB infection control can prevent nosocomial transmission (92%). Only 12% of HCWs regularly wore a mask when caring for TB patients. Only 8% of HCWs reported masks were regularly available and 76% cited a lack of infrastructure to isolate suspected/known TB patients. Conclusions Training HCWs about the importance and proper practice of hand hygiene along with improving hand sanitizer options may improve patient safety. Additionally, enhanced infrastructure is needed to improve TB infection control practices and allay HCW concerns about acquiring TB in the hospital. PMID:24225614

  7. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and consumption of organic yogurt.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. PMID:23415537

  8. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and consumption of organic yogurt.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions.

  9. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive

  10. Awareness, attitudes and behavior of hospital healthcare workers towards a mandatory vaccination directive: two years on.

    PubMed

    Seale, Holly; Leask, Julie; Macintyre, C Raina

    2011-05-12

    In 2007, the state of New South Wales, Australia instituted a policy directive with compulsory provisions for health care workers to be vaccinated. This study sought to identify staff awareness and attitudes two years after it was implemented. It involved a self administered paper-based questionnaire of HCWs in two tertiary-referral teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia in 2009. In the early phase, general awareness of the policy was incomplete and detailed knowledge was poor. However, support levels were high. Two years later, while the respondents indicated that they were aware that there was a policy in place, very few of the respondents were able to accurately describe its requirements. Regardless of the level of knowledge, support for the policy was still high (83% vs. 91%, respectively). Despite the high levels of general support for the vaccine policy directive in NSW, this study indicates that including influenza vaccination into the policy could be challenging.

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior of students regarding 'mad cow disease'.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Steve; Soweid, Rema Adel Afifi; Nassar, Nabil T; Zananiri, Nathalie S; Tfaily, Rania; Rola, Ali Hassan; Allam, Shirine; Bassim, Mark; Aram, Bouraa Bou; Harkous, Bissan; Nashawi, Tarek

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the current study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of students enrolled at the American University of Beirut (AUB) in Lebanon, towards mad cow disease (MCD). Three hundred and fifty-six students (199 males and 157 females), ranging in age between 17 and 25 years were randomly selected from various majors and were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. It was found that 99.7% of students had heard about MCD and 85.8% knew that the cow is the host for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Seventy five percent reported that animals contract the disease through the consumption of meat and bone meal. Thirty-seven percent wrongly believed that MCD cases were reported in Lebanon and 89% were not satisfied with the measures undertaken by the Lebanese government to curb the disease. Eighty four percent were concerned about the disease and 72% stated having modified their eating habits accordingly. Moreover, students majoring in biology and other health-related majors knew significantly more about MCD compared with students majoring in non-health related majors. A surprising finding was that females were more likely to modify their eating habits than males. Hence, this study provides an insight into the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of AUB students towards MCD. A limitation of this study is that our sample is not representative of all university students in Lebanon. Future surveys should also target students enrolled in other universities in the country. PMID:12873414

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Noise Exposure of Baristas

    PubMed Central

    Pursley, Alyssa J.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the daily noise exposure of baristas working in cafés, and to measure their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding hearing conservation and perceptions of noise in their work environment. Design Fifteen baristas from six cafés in Portland completed the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire, a sound disturbance survey, and a structured interview to document perceptions of noise in the work environment. To measure daily noise exposure, a subset of eight participants wore a personal dosimeter for three different work shifts. Study Sample 11 females and 4 males aged between 19 and 36 years old (mean: 26.3, SD: 4.6) recruited from independently owned cafés in the Portland metro area. Results Dosimetry measurements revealed Leq measurements between 71 dBA and 83 dBA, with noise doses ranging from 4% to 74%, indicating that baristas are not exposed to sound levels above the regulatory criterion. Questionnaire results indicated that baristas have low awareness about the hazards of noise, are not opposed to hearing conservation, and rarely use hearing protection when engaged in noisy activities. Conclusions Baristas here lacked the pertinent education and motivation to commit to invaluable hearing conservation practices. PMID:26795371

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior of students regarding 'mad cow disease'.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Steve; Soweid, Rema Adel Afifi; Nassar, Nabil T; Zananiri, Nathalie S; Tfaily, Rania; Rola, Ali Hassan; Allam, Shirine; Bassim, Mark; Aram, Bouraa Bou; Harkous, Bissan; Nashawi, Tarek

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the current study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of students enrolled at the American University of Beirut (AUB) in Lebanon, towards mad cow disease (MCD). Three hundred and fifty-six students (199 males and 157 females), ranging in age between 17 and 25 years were randomly selected from various majors and were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. It was found that 99.7% of students had heard about MCD and 85.8% knew that the cow is the host for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Seventy five percent reported that animals contract the disease through the consumption of meat and bone meal. Thirty-seven percent wrongly believed that MCD cases were reported in Lebanon and 89% were not satisfied with the measures undertaken by the Lebanese government to curb the disease. Eighty four percent were concerned about the disease and 72% stated having modified their eating habits accordingly. Moreover, students majoring in biology and other health-related majors knew significantly more about MCD compared with students majoring in non-health related majors. A surprising finding was that females were more likely to modify their eating habits than males. Hence, this study provides an insight into the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of AUB students towards MCD. A limitation of this study is that our sample is not representative of all university students in Lebanon. Future surveys should also target students enrolled in other universities in the country.

  14. Religious beliefs, knowledge about science and attitudes towards medical genetics.

    PubMed

    Allum, Nick; Sibley, Elissa; Sturgis, Patrick; Stoneman, Paul

    2014-10-01

    The use of genetics in medical research is one of the most important avenues currently being explored to enhance human health. For some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be at minimum worrying and at most repugnant. In particular, religious doctrines are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. The key ingredient for acceptance of genetics, on the other hand, is prototypically assumed to be scientific literacy - familiarity and understanding of the critical facts and methods of science. However, this binary opposition between science and religion runs counter to what is often found in practice. In this paper, we examine the association between religiosity, science knowledge and attitudes to medical genetics amongst the British public. In particular, we test the hypothesis that religion acts as a 'perceptual filter' through which citizens acquire and use scientific knowledge in the formation of attitudes towards medical genetics in various ways.

  15. [Smoking in the African setting (Abidjan, Ivory coast): patient knowledge, attitude and behavior].

    PubMed

    Koffi, N; Kouassi, B; Horo, K; Kouakou, Y G M; N'Gom, A; Toloba, Y; Bouzid, S; Aka-Danguy, E

    2004-09-01

    Recent studies on smoking conducted in the ivory coast have been sparse despite increasingly aggressive tobacco company campaigns. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the influence of medical specialty on patient knowledge, attitude and smoking behavior among people consulting three university hospitals in Abidjan. The inquiry was performed with a questionnaire concerning a comparative series of 180 subjects (90 patients in each sample). Overall, the series included 16.10% active smokers, 15.60% former smokers, and 68.30% non-smokers, with no difference between the groups. The well-known feature of smoking with friends was main reason cited for beginning smoking. Three quarters of patients (75.9%) had attempted to stop smoking. Information about smoking was obtained from the media. The hospital was involved little in acquiring knowledge about smoking. Type of specialist consultation (hospital units providing care for smoking-related disease or not) had little influence. Hospital units should become more involved in the anti-smoking campaign. Consultations on cessation of smoking should be instituted in a country with highly aggressive smoking advertisements.

  16. Evaluating nurses' knowledge, attitude and competency after an education programme on suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sally Wai-chi; Chien, Wai-tong; Tso, Steve

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an education programme on suicide prevention for nurses working in general hospitals. A mixed method design that included a single group pretest-posttest analysis and focus group interviews was used. A convenient sample of 54 registered nurses was recruited from the medical and surgical units of two regional general hospitals. An 18-hour education programme on suicide prevention based on reflective learning principles was provided to the participants. The outcome measures used included participants' attitudes towards, knowledge of, competence in and stress levels arising from suicide prevention and management. Eighteen participants joined the focus group interviews. There were statistically significant positive changes in the pre- and post-test measures of participants' attitudes and competence levels. Qualitative data showed that participants had applied the new knowledge they acquired in clinical practice. They perceived themselves as being more aware of the problem of suicide and more competent in managing suicide risk. Participants highlighted certain barriers that exist to providing optimal care, including inadequate manpower, lack of support from senior staff and a lack of guidelines. Ongoing education may be necessary to expedite changes. The education programme provided can be delivered to other health care professional groups and the results further evaluated. PMID:19428159

  17. Cancer pain: knowledge and attitudes of physicians in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sapir, R; Catane, R; Strauss-Liviatan, N; Cherny, N I

    1999-04-01

    The effectiveness of cancer pain therapy is influenced by the attitudes and knowledge of the treating physicians. As part of a quality improvement project in the management of cancer pain, a survey of 236 medical practitioners was conducted. One hundred seventy-six respondents (74.5%) completed the survey. Fifty-two percent treated patients with cancer pain several times a week or more. Whereas 57.7% of physicians stated that 76-100% of patients could achieve a satisfactory outcome from analgesic therapy, only 17.2% of respondents reported that > 75% actually achieve a satisfactory outcome in their own experience. Unsatisfactory outcome was ascribed to inadequate pain relief (59.7%), or excessive central nervous system (CNS) side effects (43.3%). According to the responding physicians, the major barriers to effective relief include inadequate assessment of the pain and pain relief (65.3%), inadequate knowledge of pain therapy (57.9%), and physician reluctance to prescribe opioids (49.1%). Questions evaluating physician knowledge identified widely prevalent knowledge deficits in pain physiology, risk of addiction, use of adjuvant analgesics, opioid dosing, and treatment of side effects. Specialists in oncology tended to evaluate their knowledge more highly than others (P < 0.05). Despite this, there was no significant knowledge difference between oncologists and noncancer specialists. The data highlight some of the barriers to the successful management of cancer pain in Israel, the prevalence of knowledge deficits, and the common disparity between clinicians' self-assessment of clinical competence and their ability to respond correctly to questions on the management of cancer pain. PMID:10203879

  18. Pharmacy students’ knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Fejza, Albina; Kryeziu, Zeqir; Kadrija, Kushtrim; Musa, Malbora

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. Methods: 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated prescription behavior of antibiotics upon graduation. The data was statistically analyzed through using SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analysis was employed, and the results were expressed in frequency and percentages. Results: The results showcased a good knowledge of antibiotic among students. The most common answer of students’ knowledge about antibiotics was good or moderate (82 %), while 63.2% of the subjects used antibiotics by self-decision, most of them (45 %) for sore throat. Upon graduation, 56.9 % of the students will not sell antibiotics without prescription and 85.4% think that module for rational use of antibiotics is very necessary to be inside the pharmacy syllabus. Conclusion: The study showed good and moderate knowledge of pharmacy students regarding the antibiotics. Half of them use antibiotics by self-decision but the majority of them stated that they will not serve the antibiotics without medical prescription. Specific modules and training for proper antibiotic use should be implemented within the Pharmacy program in The Faculty of Medicine. PMID:27011780

  19. Knowledge and attitudes to reporting adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Pulford, Andrew; Malcolm, William

    The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by health professionals forms an important component of ongoing surveillance of post-marketing drug safety. The extension of responsibility for all health professionals to report ADRs has coincided with national immunization programmes, such as the national childhood immunization, human papillomavirus (HPV), and seasonal and H1N1 influenza programmes. The study objective was to evaluate knowledge of, and attitudes to, reporting ADRs among the professional groups most likely to see suspected reactions to vaccines. This included nursing professionals, whose views have not been included in previous studies. A survey of 91 practice nurses, health visitors, school nurses and GPs working in Ayrshire and Arran during June, July and August 2007 was undertaken. The respondents' knowledge of ADR reporting varied considerably. Although the majority of respondents recognized that it is the responsibility of health professionals to report suspected ADRs, there were lower levels of knowledge about the purpose of the Yellow Card system specifically; less than 50% of the respondents reported good knowledge about the system. The study suggests implications for practice with regard to the implementation of large-scale immunization programmes and potential solutions to under-reporting among these professional groups.

  20. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES REGARDING CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Nina; Muratbegovic, Amra Arslanagic; Kobaslija, Sedin; Bajric, Elmedin; Selimovic-Dragas, Mediha; Huseinbegovic, Amina; Cuković-Bagic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) regarding signs and symptoms of child abuse and neglect (CAN), reporting procedure and level of education. Methods: Data were collected through a self-administrated structured questionnaire adopted and modified from previous studies. It was administrated to 300 dentists out of which a total number of 210 subjects were in final sample for statistical analyses. Response rate was seventy percent. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to analyze statistical differences in responses. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Dentists in BH are very rarely provided (80%) with training related to recognition and reporting of CAN. Sixty six percent of dentists had never suspected CAN in their practice. Only nine percent of dentists would report suspicious of CAN. Prevailing reasons for not reporting suspected case of CAN was lack of knowledge of the reporting procedure (43%), and combination of indicated answers that never had a case and lack of knowledge about the procedure (31%). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that dentists need an effective education to increase their knowledge and awareness of all aspects of CAN. PMID:26889093

  1. Hormone replacement therapy: a study of women's knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, H K; Bond, C M; Taylor, R J

    1993-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy can successfully treat menopausal symptoms. A postal questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge of and attitudes to hormone replacement therapy of an age-stratified, computer-generated, representative sample of 1500 women living in the Grampian region of Scotland. A response rate of 78% was achieved. Comparisons were made between women of differing age, educational background and their current or past experience of hormone replacement therapy. The questionnaire also assessed their knowledge of osteoporosis, including the possible beneficial role of hormone replacement therapy. The results showed that women had a poor knowledge of the potential risks and benefits of oestrogen, lack of knowledge being greatest in the less educated and older women. The majority of women agreed with the view that because the menopause is brought on by diminished hormone levels, it should be viewed as a medical condition and treated as such, and also that a woman who experiences distressing menopausal symptoms should take hormone replacement therapy. Despite this, relatively few postmenopausal women were currently taking hormone replacement therapy (9%) or had taken the treatment in the past (7%), although many had experienced menopausal symptoms for over six months. The most common reason for postmenopausal women never having taken hormone replacement therapy was that they had never considered the treatment (70%) and had not discussed it with a doctor (79%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8251232

  2. Managing environmental knowledge through learning processes in Spanish hospitality companies.

    PubMed

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Martinez Martinez, Aurora

    2010-11-01

    The major focus of this research is to investigate whether environmental knowledge has any impact on organizational outcomes through an empirical investigation of 127 Spanish hospitality companies, using structural equation models. Our results show that environmental knowledge is an important determiner for developing organizational outcomes. However, this relationship is completed with just two related constructs: Firstly, the company's acquisition process plays a key role in managing the tension between the knowledge necessary to develop the appropriated environmental initiatives and current knowledge. Secondly, the company's distribution process also sheds light on tangible means for managers to enhance their company's outcomes through environmental knowledge. PMID:20977031

  3. Managing environmental knowledge through learning processes in Spanish hospitality companies.

    PubMed

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Martinez Martinez, Aurora

    2010-11-01

    The major focus of this research is to investigate whether environmental knowledge has any impact on organizational outcomes through an empirical investigation of 127 Spanish hospitality companies, using structural equation models. Our results show that environmental knowledge is an important determiner for developing organizational outcomes. However, this relationship is completed with just two related constructs: Firstly, the company's acquisition process plays a key role in managing the tension between the knowledge necessary to develop the appropriated environmental initiatives and current knowledge. Secondly, the company's distribution process also sheds light on tangible means for managers to enhance their company's outcomes through environmental knowledge.

  4. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  5. Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Alternative Conceptions of Primary School Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes…

  6. A Field Study of First Aid Knowledge and Attitudes of College Students in Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa

    2006-01-01

    A random sample of 562 students completed a questionnaire including demographic data; 20 questions testing knowledge (right answers scored 1 and wrong answers 0); and 20 exploring attitudes ("yes", "not sure" and "no"). Overall, students scored 0.49 for knowledge and 2.30 (of a maximum 3) for attitude. Knowledge scores were classified into high,…

  7. Casemix in the Islamic Republic of Iran: current knowledge and attitudes of health care staff.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, S; Doran, C M; Wilson, A

    2008-01-01

    Casemix is a tool that classifies patients according to their clinical similarity and the homogeneity of resources required. A descriptive study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitude toward the casemix-based funding system among staff working in the Iranian Social Security Organization in Tehran. The survey showed that knowledge of casemix and diagnosis-related groups (DRG) was poor among the study group and any attempt to implement the casemix system--which about three-quarters of high-level staff had never heard of--would be likely to fail. This highlights the necessity for creating awareness of the casemix and DRG systems among the hospital staff before any action takes place. PMID:19166177

  8. Suicidal ideation among single, pregnant adolescents: The role of sexual and religious knowledge, attitudes and practices.

    PubMed

    Chan, L F; Mohamad Adam, B; Norazlin, K N; Siti Haida, M I; Lee, V Y; Norazura, A W; Ek Zakuan, K; Tan, Susan M K

    2016-10-01

    Pregnant adolescents are a high-risk population for suicide. However, a knowledge gap still exists on how sexual and religious knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) influence suicidal ideation (SI) in teenage pregnancy. We aim to explore the interplay between psychiatric diagnoses, sociodemographic factors and KAP of sexual and religious issues as risk factors of SI among 114 pregnant Malaysian adolescents from 6 rehabilitation centers and a tertiary hospital. Single sexual partner was an independent predictor of SI, suggesting the role of less sexual experience as a risk factor for SI after controlling for major depression. Participants who were unsure versus those who agreed with the statement that most religions' viewed sex outside marriage as wrong had a lower risk of SI after controlling for major depression. Pregnant adolescents with a single sexual partner were significantly associated with current SI. Ambivalence towards religious prohibitions on premarital sex may protect against suicidal ideation. PMID:27572955

  9. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  10. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Aqeel Munahi; Ansari, Tahir; Sami, Waqas; Baz, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4%) of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6%) respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5%) stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor. PMID:27695227

  11. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Aqeel Munahi; Ansari, Tahir; Sami, Waqas; Baz, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4%) of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6%) respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5%) stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes towards food safety among Canadian dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Rajić, A; McClure, J T; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S A

    2010-04-01

    The Canadian dairy industry has recently begun implementing an on-farm food-safety (OFFS) program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). For CQM to be effective, producers should be familiar with food-safety hazards in their industry and have an adequate understanding of on-farm good production practices that are necessary to ensure safe food. To assess their knowledge and attitudes towards food safety, a postal questionnaire was administered to all (n=10,474) Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008. The response rate was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Most producers (88.7%) reported that they or their families consume unpasteurized milk from their bulk milk tanks and 36.3% indicated that consumers should be able to purchase unpasteurized milk in Canada. Producers who reported completion of a dairy-health management course (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.92) and participation in CQM (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97) were less likely to support the availability of unpasteurized milk for consumers, while organic producers (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.47), younger producers (aged <30) and producers with smaller herds were more likely to favour this practice. Two-thirds of producers (66.7%) were concerned that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) might preclude successful treatment of sick cattle. Producers who completed a dairy-health management course (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.69), organic producers (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.69) and producers from Quebec compared to each other province were more likely to indicate concern about AMR. Most producers reported that Salmonella (74.2%) and Escherichia coli (73.0%) could be transmitted through contaminated beef or milk to humans, while most were not sure or did not think that Brucella (70.3%) and Cryptosporidium (88.5%) could be transmitted via these routes. Most producers did not perceive that any type of farm visitor has a high risk of introducing infectious agents into their herds. Producers rated veterinarians

  13. Nonhygienic behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among interactive splash park visitors.

    PubMed

    Nett, Randall J; Toblin, Robin; Sheehan, Annora; Huang, Wan-Ting; Baughman, Andrew; Carter, Kris

    2010-11-01

    Nonhygienic behavior likely contributed to three recreational waterborne illness (RWI) outbreaks at Idaho splash parks. The study described in this article examined the influence of signage and hygiene attendant presence on rates of nonhygienic behavior among children at splash parks and knowledge and attitudes of their adult supervisors. Investigators observed children for nonhygienic behaviors at four Idaho splash parks, two with signage and attendants. Supervisors were surveyed (N = 551) using an eight-item survey. Individually observed children (N = 145) were often seen exposing their buttocks to splash feature water and placing an open mouth to water. The rate of nonhygienic behaviors was not lower at parks with signage or staff. Supervisors reported bathing children before splash park entry infrequently. Signage and hygiene attendants do not adequately limit nonhygienic behaviors at splash parks, and supervisors have insufficient understanding of RWI. These findings have implica.tions for developing splash park regulations and RWI prevention efforts.

  14. Mothers and vaccination: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Angelillo, I. F.; Ricciardi, G.; Rossi, P.; Pantisano, P.; Langiano, E.; Pavia, M.

    1999-01-01

    The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population. PMID:10212512

  15. Report Card: Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge in America. The Fifth Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…

  16. Antibiotic prescription behaviours in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a knowledge, attitude and practice survey

    PubMed Central

    Quet, Fabrice; Leyer, Caroline; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N; Naphayvong, Philaysak; Keoluangkhot, Valy; Chomarat, Monique; Longuet, Christophe; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Jacobs, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the antibiotic prescribing practices of doctors working in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and their knowledge of local antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods Doctors attending morning meetings in 25 public hospitals in four provinces were asked to complete a knowledge, attitude and practice survey. The questionnaire contained 43 multiple choice questions that the doctor answered at the time of the meeting. Findings The response rate was 83.4% (386/463). Two hundred and seventy doctors (59.8%) declared that they had insufficient information about antibiotics. Only 14.0% (54/386) recognized the possibility of cephalosporin cross-resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most participants had no information about local antibiotic resistance for Salmonella Typhi (211/385, 54.8%) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (253/384, 65.9%). Unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions were considered as harmless by 115 participants and 148 considered locally-available generic antibiotics to be of poor quality. Nearly three-quarters (280/386) of participants agreed that it was difficult to select the correct antibiotics. Most participants (373/386) welcomed educational programmes on antibiotic prescribing and 65.0% (249/383) preferred local over international antibiotic guidelines. Conclusion Doctors in the Lao People's Democratic Republic seem to favour antibiotic prescribing interventions. Health authorities should consider a capacity building programme that incorporates antibiotic prescribing and hospital infection control. PMID:26229186

  17. Nutritional care of the patient: nurses' knowledge and attitudes in an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Kowanko, I; Simon, S; Wood, J

    1999-03-01

    Concern is growing about the occurrence of malnutrition in hospitals throughout the developed world. Reduced involvement of nurses in patients' nutritional care may be one of the contributing factors. This study explored nurses' attitudes and knowledge about nutrition and food service in hospital. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven nurses from the internal medical service of a large Australian acute care hospital. Analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that many nurses lacked the in-depth knowledge needed to give proper nutritional care to their patients. Although nurses considered nutritional care to be important many had difficulty in raising its priority above other nursing activities, as a result of time constraints and multitasking issues. Several problems relating to food service arrangements were also highlighted. The findings suggest a need to raise nurses' awareness of the importance of nutrition in patient outcome. This study provides information which will guide in-service nurse education programs about nutrition, and suggests strategies for practice and organizational change.

  18. Evaluating Resident Physicians' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding the Pain Control in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Masoud; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Razavi, Seyed Sajad; Saadat-Niaki, Asadollah; Hoseini Khameneh, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain has been one of the most debilitating symptoms of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate residents' knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding pain control in cancer patients. Methods In a descriptive study, 69 randomly selected third-year various residents practicing in teaching hospitals of Shahid Beheshti School of medicine participated in this study. They have provided their demographic characteristics and completed a questionnaire, based on their “knowledge”, “attitude” and “practice” regarding cancer pain and its management. Data analysis has performed using SPSS v.19. A p value of less than 0.05 has considered as significant. Results Obtained Data from 69 participants including 32 anesthesiology residents has included to our study. The average scores were 35.8±6.1 (ranging from 20 to 49) for the residents' attitude, 25.1±9.1 (ranging from 0 to 53) for their knowledge and 11.2±4.1 (ranging from 0 to 17) for their practice. The overall scores of the questions have related to attitude and knowledge were higher for residents of anesthesiology but the difference was not statistically significant (A: 37.1±4.9 vs. 34.7±6.8, p=0.106, K: 27.2±11.8 vs. 23.3±5.6, p=0.076). The average score for questions on physician' practice was significantly higher in residents of anesthesiology (P: 12.8±3.2 vs. 9.7±4.2, p=0.001). Conclusion In order to provide patients with adequate pain relief, it has seemed advisable for medical schools to focus on improving the educational curriculum and integrating it into clinical practice. PMID:25821565

  19. Oral cancer knowledge, behavior, and attitude among osteopathic medical students.

    PubMed

    McCready, Zachary R; Kanjirath, Preetha; Jham, Bruno C

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 21,000 osteopathic medical students were enrolled in the USA in 2012-2013. These future physicians are being educated with an emphasis on a holistic or patient-centered approach, with a focus on preventive care. Considering the importance of preventive care and early diagnosis in the outcomes of oral malignancies, our goal in this study was to assess the knowledge, behavior, and attitude of osteopathic medical students in relation to oral cancer. To this end, 204 second-year (Y2) and 194 fourth-year (Y4) medical students were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Forty-one Y2 and 44 Y4 students agreed to participate (20 and 22% response rate, respectively). The results showed that most Y2 and Y4 students were knowledgeable in certain areas (demographic features, important risk factors, and histologic feature), but deficient in others (clinical presentation, association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancers, and screening recommendations). Head, neck, and oral examination habits were reported as being performed occasionally. Overall, students reported feeling uninformed about oral cancer and showed an interest in receiving further education on the subject. Our findings confirm that an overall improvement in oral cancer education in the medical curriculum is needed. Interprofessional collaboration between dental and medical schools may prove to be a valid approach to achieve this goal, which may possibly lead to increased detection of early oral cancerous lesions and, ultimately, improved mortality rates. PMID:24882439

  20. An Empirical Study of Hospitality Management Student Attitudes toward Group Projects: Instructional Factors and Team Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung

    2012-01-01

    The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…

  1. Attitudes to and knowledge about elderly people: a comparative analysis of students of medicine, English and Computer Science and their teachers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Aldous, I R

    1996-05-01

    Attitudes to and knowledge about elderly people were assessed in 1091 students and lecturers from the London Hospital Medical College (LHMC), London, UK and the English and Computer Science departments of Queen Mary and Westfield College (QMW), London, UK. General knowledge about elderly people was measured by the Palmore 'Facts about Aging Quiz 1'. Attitudes towards elderly people were measured by the Rosencranz and McNevin Semantic Differential scale. A higher level of knowledge about elderly people was found both in medical students and in medical lecturers compared to their counterparts in the English and Computer Science departments (P < 0.001). The cross-sectional data indicated that medical students developed a significantly increasing knowledge about elderly people as they progressed through their training, in contrast to students of English and Computer Science. Scores on the Rosencranz & McNevin scale indicated that attitudes towards elderly people across all three groups of students and lecturers were similar. The scores obtained for all groups indicated that they held approximately neutral attitudes towards elderly people. A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between high levels of knowledge about elderly people, and positive attitudes towards them. The necessity of interventions to improve general attitudes towards and knowledge of elderly people among medical students is questioned. It is suggested that future research should look beyond surveys of general attitudes towards elderly people for the causes of the current lack of interest in geriatric medicine.

  2. Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Concerning Sustainable Development among Tenth Grade Students in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…

  3. Development of a Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test for the Moderately and Mildly Retarded. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Barbara; And Others

    The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…

  4. An Experimental Study of the Relationship between Attitude toward and Knowledge of Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between gain in attitude toward and increases in knowledge of educational research was investigated in preservice social studies teachers. Results indicated that increases in knowledge did not result in gains in attitude. There were no significant differences between individual-workbook and lecture-workbook instructional…

  5. A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

  6. Knowledge and Attitude regarding Recovery among Mental Health Practitioners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Nordenmark, Mikael; Dalin, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…

  7. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  8. Adolescent Boys' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Testicular Self-Examination: Evaluating an Outreach Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey K.; Sauter, Marcia; Day, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent boys who had participated in a brief outreach program to high school health education classes designed to increase boys' knowledge about and improve their attitudes toward testicular self-examination (TSE) and early cancer detection. Results indicated that the 1-hour outreach improved students' knowledge and attitudes regarding…

  9. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

  10. Environmental Literacy in Teacher Training: Attitudes, Knowledge, and Environmental Behavior of Beginning Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pe'er, Sara; Goldman, Daphne; Yavetz, Bela

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the environmental attitudes and knowledge of 765 1st-year students in 3 teacher-training colleges in Israel and examine the relationship between these variables and background factors and their relationship to environmental behavior. Although the students' environmental knowledge was limited, their overall attitudes toward the…

  11. Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

  12. Effect of an Incontinence Training Program on Nursing Home Staff's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Emily B; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nursing staff (n=166) in four nursing homes participated in quasi-experimental study to measure knowledge and attitudes about urinary incontinence and compliance with toileting protocols. Intervention group (n=96) showed slight increase in knowledge; their attitudes remained positive over four testing times. Compliance with protocol was only 72…

  13. Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Environmental Knowledge, Awareness, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumusak, Ahmet; Sargin, Seyid Ahmet; Baltaci, Furkan; Kelani, Raphael R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure science and mathematics teacher candidates' environmental knowledge level, awareness, behavior and environmental attitudes. Four instruments comprising Environmental Sensitivity Scale, environmental Behavior Scale, Environmental Attitudes Scale and Environmental Knowledge Test were administered to a total…

  14. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  15. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  16. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  17. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  18. Constructing Elementary Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practical Knowledge through an Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sanghee; Ramsey, John

    2009-01-01

    This study examines inservice elementary school teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge toward inquiry-based science instruction and the influence of an inquiry-based elementary science course on teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge regarding inquiry. Both surveys and a case study were administered to the 14…

  19. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  20. Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…

  1. Integrating knowledge based functionality in commercial hospital information systems.

    PubMed

    Müller, M L; Ganslandt, T; Eich, H P; Lang, K; Ohmann, C; Prokosch, H U

    2000-01-01

    Successful integration of knowledge-based functions in the electronic patient record depends on direct and context-sensitive accessibility and availability to clinicians and must suit their workflow. In this paper we describe an exemplary integration of an existing standalone scoring system for acute abdominal pain into two different commercial hospital information systems using Java/Corba technolgy.

  2. Use of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth in Latin America: providers knowledge, attitudes and practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal corticosteroids administered to women at risk of preterm birth is an intervention which has been proved to reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and neonatal mortality. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding the prevalence of the use of antenatal corticosteroids in Latin American countries and the attitudes and opinions of providers regarding this practice. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers regarding the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth in Latin America. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive study conducted in maternity hospitals in Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay. Physicians and midwives who provide prenatal care or intrapartum care for women delivering in the selected hospitals were approached using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used. Results The percentage of use of ACT in threatened preterm labour (TPL) reported by providers varies from 70% in Mexico to 97% in Ecuador. However, 60% to 20% of the providers mentioned that they would not use this medication in women at risk and would limit its use when there was a threatened preterm labour. In only one country recommended regimens of antenatal corticosteroids are followed by around 90% of providers whereas in the other three countries recommended regimens are followed by only 21%, 61%, 69% of providers. Around 40% of providers mentioned that they would administer a new dose of corticosteroids again, regardless the patient already receiving an entire regimen. Between 11% and 35% of providers, according to the countries, mentioned that they do not have adequate information on the correct use of this medication. Conclusions This study shows that the use of this intervention could be improved by increasing the knowledge of Latin American providers on its indications, benefits, and

  3. Female genital mutilation: Survey of paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practice.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Premala; Zurynski, Yvonne; Moloney, Susan; Raman, Shanti; Varol, Nesrin; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The study objective was to determine paediatricians' experience with female genital mutilation (FGM) in Australian children and adolescents. A cross-sectional, pilot-tested national survey of paediatricians practising in Australia and contributing to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit was conducted. Clinicians' knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience with FGM, awareness of clinical guidelines and education/training needs were recorded. Of 1311 paediatricians surveyed, 497 (38%) responded. Fifty-seven percent were aged 50 years or more, and 51.3% were males. Over half believed that FGM was performed in children in Australia and most were aware of its complications, but few asked about or examined for FGM. Fifty (10.3%) had seen at least one case of FGM in girls aged <18 years during their clinical career, including 16 (3.3%) in the past 5 years. Most were aware that FGM is illegal in Australia (93.9%), agreed all types of FGM were harmful (97.4%) and agreed that FGM violated human rights (98.2%). Most (87.6%) perceived FGM as a traditional cultural practice, although 11.6% thought it was required by religion. The majority (81.8%) knew notification of FGM to child protection authorities was mandatory. Over half (62.0%) were aware of the WHO Statement on FGM, but only 22.0% knew the WHO classification of FGM. These novel data indicate a minority of paediatricians in Australia have clinical experience with or education about FGM. Educational programs, best-practice clinical guidelines and policies are required to address knowledge gaps and help paediatricians identify, manage and prevent FGM in children.

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of stroke among high school students in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Lekhjung; Sharma, Nooma; Poudel, Ramesh Sharma; Bhandari, Tirtha Raj; Bhagat, Riwaz; Shrestha, Ashis; Shrestha, Shakti; Khatiwada, Dipendra; Caplan, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Baseline stroke knowledge in a targeted population is indispensable to promote the effective stroke education. We report the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of high school students with respect to stroke from Nepal. Materials and Methods: A self-structured questionnaire survey regarding KAP about stroke was conducted in high school students of 33 schools of Bharatpur, Nepal. Descriptive statistics including Chi-square test was used, and the significant variables were subjected to binary logistic regression. Results: Among 1360 participants, 71.1% had heard or read about stroke; 30.2% knew someone with stroke. 39.3% identified brain as the organ affected. Sudden onset limb/s weakness/numbness (72%) and hypertension (74%) were common warning symptom and risk factor identified. 88.9% would take stroke patients to a hospital. Almost half participants (55.5%) felt ayurvedic treatment be effective. 44.8% felt stroke as a hindrance to a happy life and 86.3% believed that family care was helpful for early recovery. Students who identified at least one risk factor were 3.924 times (P < 0.001, confidence interval [CI] = 1.867–8.247) or those who identified at least one warning symptom were 2.833 times (P ≤ 0.023, CI = 1.156–6.944) more likely to take stroke patients to a hospital. Conclusion: KAP of high school Nepalese students regarding stroke was satisfactory, and the students having knowledge about the risk factors and warning symptoms were more likely to take stroke patients to a hospital. However, a few misconceptions persisted.

  5. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of stroke among high school students in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Lekhjung; Sharma, Nooma; Poudel, Ramesh Sharma; Bhandari, Tirtha Raj; Bhagat, Riwaz; Shrestha, Ashis; Shrestha, Shakti; Khatiwada, Dipendra; Caplan, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Baseline stroke knowledge in a targeted population is indispensable to promote the effective stroke education. We report the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of high school students with respect to stroke from Nepal. Materials and Methods: A self-structured questionnaire survey regarding KAP about stroke was conducted in high school students of 33 schools of Bharatpur, Nepal. Descriptive statistics including Chi-square test was used, and the significant variables were subjected to binary logistic regression. Results: Among 1360 participants, 71.1% had heard or read about stroke; 30.2% knew someone with stroke. 39.3% identified brain as the organ affected. Sudden onset limb/s weakness/numbness (72%) and hypertension (74%) were common warning symptom and risk factor identified. 88.9% would take stroke patients to a hospital. Almost half participants (55.5%) felt ayurvedic treatment be effective. 44.8% felt stroke as a hindrance to a happy life and 86.3% believed that family care was helpful for early recovery. Students who identified at least one risk factor were 3.924 times (P < 0.001, confidence interval [CI] = 1.867–8.247) or those who identified at least one warning symptom were 2.833 times (P ≤ 0.023, CI = 1.156–6.944) more likely to take stroke patients to a hospital. Conclusion: KAP of high school Nepalese students regarding stroke was satisfactory, and the students having knowledge about the risk factors and warning symptoms were more likely to take stroke patients to a hospital. However, a few misconceptions persisted. PMID:27695228

  6. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  7. Malaria knowledge, attitudes and practices in Malawi: survey population characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ettling, M; Steketee, R W; Macheso, A; Schultz, L J; Nyasulu, Y; Chitsulo, L

    1994-03-01

    A national knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey was conducted in March-April 1992 to examine malaria illness and the people's response to illness and malaria prevention. Fifty-one households in each of 30 randomly selected communities were sampled and information was recorded from 1,531 households and 7,025 individuals. The population is characterized by low income (average household and per capita income were US $490 and $122, respectively) and low education levels (among adult women, 45% had no formal education and only 3.9% completed more than 8 years of schooling). Characteristics of the population were similar to those found in the 1987 national census, suggesting that the survey population was representative of the larger population of Malawi. Children under 5 years of age made up 15.8% of the population and had the highest rates of fever illness; these children experienced an estimated 9.7 cases/year of fever illness consistent with malaria. Although adults reported fever less frequently, women of reproductive age experienced an estimated 6.9 episodes of fever annually. The burden of malaria morbidity in this population is extremely high and occurs in all age groups.

  8. Environmental education and its effect on the knowledge and attitudes of preparatory school students.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Salam, Magda M; El-Naggar, Hesham M; Hussein, Rim A

    2009-01-01

    Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum.

  9. Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes of Adolescent Swimmers in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of “1” and incorrect answers were given a score of “0.” For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; “5” was given to the most positive response, and “1” was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education. PMID:24669316

  10. A study of masturbatory knowledge and attitudes and related factors among Taiwan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rung-Jy; Huang, Yu; Lin, Yen-Chin

    2007-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between masturbatory knowledge and masturbatory attitudes among Taiwan adolescents. This study was based on a structured questionnaire survey that used the Adolescent Masturbatory Knowledge Inventory (AMKI) and the Adolescent Negative Attitude toward Masturbation Inventory (ANAMI). Subjects were recruited from the third grade of high school and vocational school students aged 17-18 living in Kaohsiung (southern Taiwan) using stratified and cluster sampling approaches. Seven hundred and eighty questionnaires were sent out, with a 96.8% response rate. A total of 95.3% of male subjects and 30.3% of female subjects reported having masturbation experience. Masturbatory knowledge was significantly related to the variables "school system", "frequency of viewing pornographic media", "status of being sexually active", and "conversation about sex with friends". Masturbatory attitudes were significantly associated with the same variables as well as with gender and masturbatory behavior. Masturbatory attitudes were positively correlated with masturbatory knowledge. The school system explained 15.4% of masturbatory knowledge variance. Masturbatory knowledge, masturbatory behavior, frequency of viewing pornographic media and status of being sexually active explained 39.5% of masturbatory attitude variance. In conclusion, adolescents in Taiwan hold positive attitudes toward masturbation and reported having insufficient knowledge regarding masturbation. Results can assist school staffs and parents to gain a deeper understanding of adolescents' knowledge about and attitudes toward masturbation.

  11. Knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R

    2008-01-01

    To assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in Mashhad, 960 people aged 13-58 years who were approached in the street and agreed to participate completed an anonymous questionnaire. The mean of knowledge and attitudes scores were 9.8 (SD 3.0) and 6.1 (SD 3.0) of a total 14 and 10 respectively. People with greater knowledge of HIV/AIDS had more positive attitudes to individuals with HIV/AIDS (P < 0.01). There were important misconceptions about HIV transmission such as through hugging, food, clothing, public places and insect bites. Regression analysis indicted that women had more tolerant attitudes than men (P < 0.01) and the more educated respondents had higher knowledge and attitudes scores (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001 respectively). PMID:19161107

  12. Knowledge and Food Handling Practices of Nurses in a Tertiary Health Care Hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oludare, Aluko Olufemi; Ogundipe, Abiodun; Odunjo, Abimbola; Komolafe, Janet; Olatunji, Ibukun

    2016-01-01

    Food safety in hospitals is important to protect patients whose immunity may be compromised by their illness. The safety of food served to patients is dependent on its handling acquisition of raw food items, to preparation, packaging, and distribution. The study described in this article assessed the knowledge and food handling practices of nurses in the food chain to patients in the hospital wards. The mean age of respondents was 33.7 ± 9.3 years and 180 (56.6%) had worked in the hospital for 1-5 years. While respondents had good knowledge scores overall, only 22 (6.5%) knew the correct temperature for maintaining hot, ready-to-eat food. Also, 332 (97.6%) respondents knew the importance of hand washing before handling food while 279 (84.1%) always wash hands before handling food. The study revealed a decline in performance over time, from knowledge and attitudes to practice in food handling. Therefore, regular training on safe food handling procedures should be mainstreamed into the training curriculum of staff nurses in health care institutions.

  13. Knowledge and Food Handling Practices of Nurses in a Tertiary Health Care Hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oludare, Aluko Olufemi; Ogundipe, Abiodun; Odunjo, Abimbola; Komolafe, Janet; Olatunji, Ibukun

    2016-01-01

    Food safety in hospitals is important to protect patients whose immunity may be compromised by their illness. The safety of food served to patients is dependent on its handling acquisition of raw food items, to preparation, packaging, and distribution. The study described in this article assessed the knowledge and food handling practices of nurses in the food chain to patients in the hospital wards. The mean age of respondents was 33.7 ± 9.3 years and 180 (56.6%) had worked in the hospital for 1-5 years. While respondents had good knowledge scores overall, only 22 (6.5%) knew the correct temperature for maintaining hot, ready-to-eat food. Also, 332 (97.6%) respondents knew the importance of hand washing before handling food while 279 (84.1%) always wash hands before handling food. The study revealed a decline in performance over time, from knowledge and attitudes to practice in food handling. Therefore, regular training on safe food handling procedures should be mainstreamed into the training curriculum of staff nurses in health care institutions. PMID:26867289

  14. Antibiotics Use and Misuse in Children: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Survey of Parents in India

    PubMed Central

    Yewale, Vijay N; Dharmapalan, Dhanya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antibiotic resistance is a topic of global concern these days. Irrational, excessive use of antibiotics by the general public is one of the key factors responsible for this. Aim Through this study, we aim to analyse the knowledge, attitude and practices of antibiotics use among parents of children presenting to a tertiary care hospital in India. Also, correlate it with the gender, education level and previous use of antibiotics by the parents. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India from September to November 2014 and a total of 1000 parents were interviewed using a questionnaire designed by the authors. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of data. Results A total of 872 parents were included in the study. Around one in every four (28%) parents correctly identified that antibiotics are used against bacterial infections while only 15.5% parents knew the meaning of the term antibiotic resistance. Majority of the respondents appreciated that unnecessary use of antibiotics could harm the child (73.6%). It was noteworthy that 85.2% parents stated that they don’t use leftover antibiotics from the previous prescription for the next time without doctor’s consult. Males, parents with higher level of formal education and use of antibiotics previously were found to have more knowledge regarding antibiotics and lesser misconceptions (p<0.05). Conclusion Overall, in this study it was found that misconceptions exist about the use and indications of antibiotics. Lack of knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance was prevalent. But participants were aware of the risks associated with use of excessive antibiotics. More interaction with paediatricians and involvement of mass media may help to improve the antibiotics knowledge and practices among parents and consequently, control the problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26674397

  15. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in Wukari metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U

    2014-09-01

    Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti

  16. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in Wukari metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U

    2014-06-12

    Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti

  17. Emotional Intelligence, Pain Knowledge, and Attitudes of Nursing Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed. PMID:27108083

  18. Emotional Intelligence, Pain Knowledge, and Attitudes of Nursing Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed.

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Gerontological Work Preferences among Students of Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Abraham; Kaye, Lenard W.

    Attitudes toward aging among 142 full-time students and 216 graduates at three urban campuses of a religious college were assessed. Respondent subgroups included rabbis, educators, cantors, and communal service workers. Social attitudes were measured by the Aging Semantic Differential (Rosencranz and McNevin, 1969). Respondents rated 32 dimensions…

  20. Breastfeeding Attitudes and Knowledge in Bachelor of Science in Nursing Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Vandewark, Aurora C.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an important health topic worldwide, although lack of breastfeeding knowledge is noted among health-care professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in undergraduate nursing students at the beginning and end of their clinical education. An electronic survey, based on the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and the Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire, was administered. Attitude scores did not differ significantly between groups. Total knowledge scores between groups differed modestly (p = .006). Correlations between total knowledge and total attitude scores were found (r[89] = .482, p < .000). Respondents reported that nursing education effectively teaches breastfeeding and that breastfeeding advocacy through patient education is a crucial nursing role. PMID:25364217

  1. Attitude and knowledge of hearing loss among medical doctors selected to initiate a residency in Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, M; Berruecos, P; Lopez, L E; Cacho, J

    2009-03-01

    Early diagnosis and intervention of hearing loss are directly influenced by the knowledge and attitude towards this condition among medical personnel, particularly in countries where screening is not performed routinely. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of hearing loss in a group of physicians. A questionnaire with five Likert-type items and five multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank items was completed by 2727 physicians selected to start a medical residency. Results suggested that physicians' knowledge level on the matter is deficient and their attitude is far from the ideal; however, physicians selected for a residency in audiology showed slightly better results. PMID:19283581

  2. Do you believe in magic? The impact of "Magic" Johnson on adolescents' AIDS knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, C K; Miller, A B; Derenowski, E B

    1993-01-01

    A group of young people ages 10 to 18, interviewed after basketball star Earvin "Magic" Johnson announced that he had tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), were asked for their reactions to the news. Their knowledge of and attitudes regarding AIDS were also compared to those of similar young people interviewed before the announcement. Reactions to the announcement were varied and were accompanied by only isolated changes in knowledge and attitudes, suggesting that news of this celebrity's HIV infection served primarily to reinforce or make temporarily more salient knowledge and attitudes that predated the announcement.

  3. Knowledge of, Perception of, and Attitude towards Uterine Fibroids among Women with Fibroids in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adegbesan-Omilabu, M. A.; Okunade, K. S.; Gbadegesin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The study was to assess the level of knowledge of, perception of, and attitude towards uterine fibroids among women diagnosed with the condition. Methods. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among women diagnosed as having uterine fibroids in two gynaecological clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. Eligible women were recruited and a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Statistical analysis of data was done using EPI Info 2008. Results. Knowledge of fibroids was reported in 98.6% of the respondents and the information on uterine fibroids was obtained from radio, parents/relatives, health workers, and television in 29%, 27.3%, 18.7%, and 18.3%, respectively, by the respondents. Most of the women believed that being black, being nulliparous, or having positive family history predisposes women to having uterine fibroids. Up to 69.0% of the respondents believed that fibroid is a spiritual problem and many thought it requires spiritual healing. Fear of complications of surgery keeps most sufferers away from the hospital until fibroids become advanced or associated with complications. Conclusion. Awareness of uterine fibroids is high, but correct knowledge on aetiology and proper treatment is low. Intensive enlightenment of the populace using the mass media by trained personnel is recommended. PMID:24757580

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingxing; Lin, Ruifang; Li, Huifang; Su, Meng; Zhang, Wenyi; Deng, Xia; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to pre-CRT in patients of stage II/III rectal cancer. Materials and Methods. Questionnaires regarding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-CRT were mailed to 145 rectal cancer patients in II/III stage between January 2012 and December 2014, and 111 agreed to participate and returned completed questionnaires to the researcher. Logistic regression model was used to compare sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude with practice, respectively. Results. A total of 145 patients were approached for interview, of which 111 responded and 48.6% (54) had undergone pre-CRT. Only 31.5% of the participants knew that CRT is a treatment of rectal cancer and 39.6% were aware of the importance of CRT. However, the vast majority of participants (68.5%) expressed a positive attitude toward rectal cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that knowledge level (p = 0.006) and attitudes (p = 0.001) influence the actual practice significantly. Furthermore, age, gender, and income were potential predictors of practice (all p < 0.05). Conclusion. This study shows that, despite the fact that participants had suboptimal level of knowledge on rectal cancer, their attitude is favorable to pre-CRT. Strengthening the professional health knowledge and realizing the importance of attitudes may deepen patients' understanding of preoperative therapy. PMID:27761141

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tajvar, Abdolhamid; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Madani, Abdolhossein; Omidi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traffic injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in many countries. The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations are key factors in decreasing traffic injuries and deaths. The objectives of this research were to study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran, and to determine the relationships between demographic features and knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in 2014 in Bandar-Abbas, Iran (Hormozgan Province). To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of 241 intra-city taxi drivers towards traffic regulations, researchers developed questionnaires and a checklist. The chi-squared test was performed to determine the relationships between knowledge, attitude, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations and demographic features. Results Among the 241 drivers, 50 of them (20.7%) thought that the seat belt could cause discomfort while driving, and 107 (44.4%) did not wear a seat belt while driving. The study determined that there was a significant difference between the knowledge and work experience of the drivers (p = 0.014). The 94 drivers (43.5%) in the 31–40 year age group had positive attitudes towards traffic regulations (among 216 drivers expressed positive attitudes) and 92 (44.4%) of the drivers in this age group had safe practices towards traffic regulations (among 207 drivers with safe practice). Conclusion Many of the taxi drivers in Bandar-Abbas had inadequate knowledge, less positive attitudes, and risky practices towards traffic regulations. Implementation of effective intervention programs may increase the taxi drivers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards traffic regulations. PMID:26813231

  6. Pharmacy Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Evaluation of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Borrego, Matthew E.; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Dodd, Melanie; Sather, Mike R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and evaluation of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Methods A cross sectional, self-administered, 106-item survey instrument was used to assess first, second, and third professional year pharmacy students' knowledge about DTCA regulations, attitudes toward DTCA, and evaluation of DTC advertisements with different brief summary formats (professional labeling and patient labeling) and in different media sources (print and television). Results One hundred twenty (51.3%) of the 234 students enrolled participated in the study. The mean percentage knowledge score was 48.7% ± 12.5%. Based on the mean scores per item, pharmacy students had an overall negative attitude toward DTC advertisements. Students had an overall negative attitude toward television and print advertisements using the professional labeling format but an overall positive attitude toward the print advertisement using the patient labeling format. Conclusions Lectures discussing DTC advertising should be included in the pharmacy curriculum. PMID:17998983

  7. Health Professionals’ knowledge and attitude towards the Umbilical Cord Blood donation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Hatzistilli, H; Zissimopoulou, O; Galanis, P; Siskou, O; Prezerakos, P; Zissimopoulos, A; Kaitelidou, D

    2014-01-01

    Background/aim: In the last years a major emphasis is laid on the Allogeneic Transplantation of Blood Stem Cells from the Umbilical Cord Blood with a simultaneous development of Umbilical Cord Blood bank. The attitude and knowledge of Health Professionals is vital to the success of this attempt as it affects significantly the promotion of Umbilical Cord Blood donation. The aim of present study is the examination of Health Professionals’ knowledge and attitudes towards Umbilical Cord Blood in Greece. Material and Methods: The study was conducted from April 25th 2012 to May 7th 2012. The sample consisted of 109 Health Professionals from 3 provincial hospitals and 2 hospitals in Thessaloniki. In order to collect the data, a questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was designed by the researcher and a group of experts to serve the mission of the present study. From the 130 questionnaires sent, 109 were completely answered (response rate 84%). Results: Of those who participated to the research, 23.9% were physicians, 34.9% were midwives, and 34.8% were nurses. As far as the Health Professionals’ knowledge on the Umbilical Cord Blood is concerned, only 15.6% of the participants declared to be quite or well informed on the collection methods and the usage of Umbilical Cord Blood. The vast majority of the participants (89%), declared that a well-organized program on a continual training is very essential. 93.5% of the participants declared that in the last 5 years received no or very little training regarding the collection, storing and transplantation of Umbilical Cord Blood. Conclusions: Although according to a relevant research health professionals are considered by the public as the most credible source of information about Umbilical Cord Blood, their level of knowledge on the usage and storing of Umbilical Cord Blood is inadequate. The present study indicates the necessity of creation or reinforcing of effective programs of continual training with the use of

  8. Telephone survey of hospital staff knowledge of medical device surveillance in a Paris hospital.

    PubMed

    Mazeau, Valérie; Grenier-Sennelier, Catherine; Paturel, Denys Xavier; Mokhtari, Mostafa; Vidal-Trecan, Gwenaëlle

    2004-12-01

    Reporting of incidents or near incidents because of medical devices in French hospitals relies on procedures following European and national guidelines. The authors intend to evaluate hospital staff knowledge on these surveillance procedures as a marker of appropriate application. A telephone survey is conducted on a sample of Paris University hospital staff (n = 327) using a structured questionnaire. Two-hundred sixteen persons completed the questionnaire. The response rate was lower among physicians, especially surgeons paid on an hourly basis. Rates of correct answers were different according to age, seniority, job, and department categories. Physicians and nurses correctly answered questions on theoretical knowledge more often than the other job categories. However, on questions dealing with actual practice conditions, correct answers depended more on age and seniority with a U-shaped distribution (minimum rates in intermediate categories of age and seniority). PMID:15492050

  9. Knowledge, Affection and Basic Attitudes Toward Animals in American Society. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.

    This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…

  10. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  11. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  12. Boosting Students' Attitudes & Knowledge about Evolution Sets Them up for College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…

  13. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  14. Development of Positive Racial Attitudes, Knowledges, and Activities in Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Lamb, Morris L.

    Information on aspects of social studies teachers' racial attitudes, knowledges, and skill in implementing relevant ethnic-racial activities in the classroom are presented. Major research studies that have examined teacher attitudes toward black and other minority group children are discussed along with information on programs that have attempted…

  15. A Study of Steroid Use among Athletes: Knowledge, Attitude and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)

  16. Reviewing the Relations between Teachers' Knowledge and Pupils' Attitude in the Field of Primary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher knowledge is…

  17. Working Knowledge, Cognitive Processing, and Attitudes: On the Determinants of Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biek, Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Demonstrates that attitude-relevant knowledge can enable biased or objective systematic processing of new information. Subjects (n=172) having a high or low knowledge on AIDS risk prevention evaluated a serial of scenarios estimating the likelihood of contracting AIDS from sexual behavior. Subjects with a considerable knowledge of AIDS engaged in…

  18. Attitudes, knowledge and practices of healthcare workers regarding occupational exposure of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhebhe, Lesley T.; Van Rooyen, Cornel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB) has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs). HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices is critical. Objective Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0%) took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used. Results Most respondents (89.2%) had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0%) were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4%) reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%). Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator. Conclusion Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is

  19. Enhancing knowledge and attitudes in pain management: a pain management education program for nursing home staff.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p < .05) after the 8-week PMP. A PMP can improve the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and enable them to provide adequate and appropriate care to older persons in pain. PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management.

  20. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    PubMed Central

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  1. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    PubMed

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) of the Relationship between Air Pollution and Children’s Respiratory Health in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Wu, Jinyi; Wang, Keran; Maddock, Jay E.; Lu, Yuanan

    2015-01-01

    To assess the status of, and factors associated with, residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to air pollution and respiratory health of children in Shanghai, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Demographic factors associated with residents’ knowledge were identified by multiple logistic regressions. The questionnaires were completed by 972 participants, half from the Shanghai Children Hospital and the other half from the Jiading communities. Half of the participants’ scores of knowledge and attitudes were equal or greater than 8.0 on a 9-point scale, over 75% of respondents’ practice scores were equal to or less than 4.0. Our studies demonstrated a significant difference of average knowledge scores between the two groups (t = 1.27, p < 0.05). The parents’ educational level (OR = 1.89, 2.48) and average annual household income (AAHI) (OR = 2.37, 2.40, 2.12) were the two strongest factors on knowledge awareness. In addition, statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the two groups in their attitudes towards air quality and their perception of the government’s efforts to alleviate it. The hospital and community groups also showed significant differences in practices geared towards protecting their children’s health. Nearly 90% of the respondents agreed that improving air quality is the responsibility of every citizen, and the joint action of governments and all citizens should be utilized for enhanced control. In addition, more resources should be allocated towards providing citizens with appropriate practices to help lessen the effects of poor air quality. PMID:25664694

  3. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the relationship between air pollution and children's respiratory health in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Wu, Jinyi; Wang, Keran; Maddock, Jay E; Lu, Yuanan

    2015-02-01

    To assess the status of, and factors associated with, residents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to air pollution and respiratory health of children in Shanghai, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Demographic factors associated with residents' knowledge were identified by multiple logistic regressions. The questionnaires were completed by 972 participants, half from the Shanghai Children Hospital and the other half from the Jiading communities. Half of the participants' scores of knowledge and attitudes were equal or greater than 8.0 on a 9-point scale, over 75% of respondents' practice scores were equal to or less than 4.0. Our studies demonstrated a significant difference of average knowledge scores between the two groups (t = 1.27, p < 0.05). The parents' educational level (OR = 1.89, 2.48) and average annual household income (AAHI) (OR = 2.37, 2.40, 2.12) were the two strongest factors on knowledge awareness. In addition, statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the two groups in their attitudes towards air quality and their perception of the government's efforts to alleviate it. The hospital and community groups also showed significant differences in practices geared towards protecting their children's health. Nearly 90% of the respondents agreed that improving air quality is the responsibility of every citizen, and the joint action of governments and all citizens should be utilized for enhanced control. In addition, more resources should be allocated towards providing citizens with appropriate practices to help lessen the effects of poor air quality. PMID:25664694

  4. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356) gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298). Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented through survey method is

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Study on Hand Hygiene Among Imam Hossein Hospital’s Residents in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Mahmoud; Alavi-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gachkar, Latif; Moeinian, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures for preventing health care-associated infections. Although the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide. Objectives: We sought to perform a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study on hand hygiene among medical residents at Imam Hossein hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional KAP study was conducted among medical residents in Imam Hossein hospital, Iran, 2013. All medical residents from different wards were invited to participate in this study (270 in total). The world health organization questionnaires and an observational checklist were used to collect data. The χ2 test and the Fisher exact test were utilized to analyze the qualitative variables. Since the quantitative variables had no normal distribution, the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis method were employed. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 17. Results: The mean overall score of the residents’ knowledge was 14.2 ± 2.6 (mean ± SD). The residents received weak scores in attitudes and practices. Forty-nine percent (n = 124) of the residents responded to the questions on attitudes toward hand hygiene, and only 20.16% (n = 25) managed to identify the correct answer. Moreover, 3.1% (n = 8) of the residents adhered to the 8 standard steps, 12.1% (n = 31) washed their hands for 20 - 30 seconds, and only 2 residents observed the sequences of hand hygiene. Additionally, none of the residents performed hand washing with available means (water and hand-washing liquid) in the morning visit hours. Conclusions: Concerning hand hygiene, the residents had moderate knowledge but overall poor attitudes and practices. The present study underscores the need for further improvement in the existing training programs to address the gaps in KAP regarding hand

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) about Rabies Prevention and Control: A Community Survey in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Maganga; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ferguson, Heather M.; Sikana, Lwitiko; Simon, Cleophas; Urassa, Honorati; Hampson, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite being entirely preventable, canine rabies still kills 55,000 people/year in developing countries. Information about local beliefs and practices can identify knowledge gaps that may affect prevention practices and lead to unnecessary deaths. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices related to rabies and its prevention and control amongst a cross-section of households (n = 5,141) in urban and rural areas of central, southern and northern Tanzania. Over 17% of respondents owned domestic dogs (average of 2.3 dogs/household),>95% had heard about rabies, and>80% knew that rabies is transmitted through dog bites. People who (1) had greater education, (2) originated from areas with a history of rabies interventions, (3) had experienced exposure by a suspect rabid animal, (4) were male and (5) owned dogs were more likely to have greater knowledge about the disease. Around 80% of respondents would seek hospital treatment after a suspect bite, but only 5% were aware of the need for prompt wound cleansing after a bite. Although>65% of respondents knew of dog vaccination as a means to control rabies, only 51% vaccinated their dogs. Determinants of dog vaccination included (1) being a male-headed household, (2) presence of children, (3) low economic status, (4) residing in urban areas, (5) owning livestock, (6) originating from areas with rabies interventions and (7) having purchased a dog. The majority of dog-owning respondents were willing to contribute no more than US$0.31 towards veterinary services. Conclusions/Significance We identified important knowledge gaps related to, and factors influencing the prevention and control of rabies in Tanzania. Increasing knowledge regarding wound washing, seeking post-exposure prophylaxis and the need to vaccinate dogs are likely to result in more effective prevention of rabies; however, greater engagement of the veterinary and medical sectors is also needed to ensure the

  7. Computer thought: propositional attitudes and meta-knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Though artificial intelligence scientists frequently use words such as belief and desire when describing the computational capacities of their programs and computers, they have completely ignored the philosophical and psychological theories of belief and desire. Hence, their explanations of computational capacities that use these terms are frequently little better than folk-psychological explanations. Conversely, though-philosophers and psychologists attempt to couch their theories of belief and desire in computational terms, they have consistently misunderstood the notions of computation and computational semantics. Hence, their theories of such attitudes are frequently inadequate. A computational theory of propositional attitudes (belief and desire) is presented here. It is argued that the theory of propositional attitudes put forth by philosophers and psychologists entails that propositional attitudes are a kind of abstract data type. This refined computational view of propositional attitudes bridges the gap between artificial intelligence, philosophy, and psychology. It is argued that this theory of propositional attitudes has consequences for meta-processing and consciousness in computers.

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  9. A Nutrition Curriculum for Health Education: Its Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Curriculum guides were used to determine the effect of nutrition instruction on nutrition knowledge, selected food/nutrition attitudes, and dietary behavior of secondary school students. Results are presented. (Author/DF)

  10. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

    1982-01-01

    Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

  11. Twelfth Grade Student Knowledge and Attitudes toward the Environment in the Dominican Republic: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Robert E.; Perez, Julio

    1989-01-01

    Reported is an assessment of secondary school pupils regarding their attitudes about and knowledge of environmental issues. It was found that gender was a significant variable and that poverty and deforestation were ranked as the most critical environmental problems. (CW)

  12. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and fat intake: application of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, R; Towler, G

    2007-06-01

    Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p<0.01) in a subsample of 30 males, aged 35-54 years. Thus, nutrition knowledge seems less clearly related to consumption of these foods than are more specific beliefs and attitudes.

  13. Joggers versus Nonexercisers: An Analysis of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Jogging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Health Belief Model was utilized to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of individuals regarding regular jogging. Results suggest that behavior of sedentary individuals may be changed by using strategies which address perceived obstacles to jogging. (Author/DF)

  14. Tanzanian men’s gender attitudes, HIV knowledge, and risk behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Jordan, Lucy P.; Nsimba, Stephen E.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the 2004-05 Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey to examine whether men’s traditional gender role attitudes contribute to their sexual risk behaviours for HIV. Logistic regression with random effects were used to analyze effects on risk behaviours at last sex (partners being drunk and condom use) with the three most recent sexual relationships. Men’s traditional gender attitudes increased risky sexual behaviours (e.g., not using a condom) even when they had accurate knowledge regarding HIV risks. The impact of men’s gender attitudes and HIV knowledge on risky sexual behaviours did not vary by relationship type. Unexpectedly, condom use was more likely when either partner was drunk compared to neither being drunk, though the protective impact of HIV knowledge remained. Overall, these findings suggest that traditional gender attitudes present barriers to preventing HIV/AIDS that even increased knowledge about HIV risks may not overcome. PMID:26633916

  15. Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Medical Professionalism among Students and Junior Doctors in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Ramsewak, SS; Youssef, FF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The past decade has seen an increasing focus on professionalism within the medical school curriculum. This reflects the growing demand for doctors who demonstrate empathy and uphold the altruistic values of the Hippocratic Oath. Such is often challenged by the resource-constrained environments of developing nations requiring uniquely tailored interventions within these regions. Purpose: As part of a wider effort to develop training of medical professionalism at our institution, an initiative was pursued to assess the current knowledge about and attitudes toward medical professionalism. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study of fourth and fifth year medical students and junior doctors. A questionnaire was adapted and revised from a previously published study. Questions were grouped into categories pertaining to knowledge about professionalism and attitudes toward professionalism. Overall, 191 questionnaires were analysed (168 students and 23 doctors). Results: Junior doctors'scores were higher than medical students for all knowledge subscales but scores on the attitude subscales were significantly lower than medical students. Overall, in both groups, attitude scores were higher than knowledge scores. There was an overall trend of decreasing attitude scores as persons progressed through their training years and into clinical practice. Conclusions: Results demonstrate limited knowledge about medical professionalism but good attitudes toward this trait. Taken together, this perhaps highlights a receptivity toward more formal training within this area that is also justified by the marked decline in attitude scores over time. PMID:26360688

  16. Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi intensive care unit nurses regarding oral care delivery to mechanically ventilated patients with the effect of healthcare quality accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, AK; Alotaibi, SK; Alshayiqi, M; Ramalingam, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a major morbid outcome among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Providing oral care for intubated patients is an important task by the ICU nursing staff in reducing the mortality and morbidity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of ICU nurses regarding oral care delivery to critically ill patients in Saudi Arabian ICUs. The findings were further correlated to the presence of healthcare quality accreditation of the institution. Materials and Methods: The nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, and healthcare quality accreditation status of the hospital were recorded. Two hundred fifteen nurses conveniently selected from 10 random hospitals were included in this study from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study in the form of a questionnaire. Results: When comparing the knowledge of the participants to their level of education, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups of nurses. The majority of the nurses agreed that the oral cavity is difficult to clean and that oral care delivery is a high priority for mechanically ventilated patients. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in the attitudes between nurses working in accredited and nonaccredited hospitals. Conclusion: The presence of healthcare quality accreditation did not reflect any significance in attitudes or knowledge of the ICU nurses in regard to mechanically ventilated patients. Factors affecting oral care delivery should be evaluated on the personal and institutional level to achieve better understanding of them. PMID:27051375

  17. Medical students' and doctors' attitudes towards older patients and their care in hospital settings: a conceptualisation

    PubMed Central

    Samra, Rajvinder; Griffiths, Amanda; Cox, Tom; Conroy, Simon; Gordon, Adam; Gladman, John R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: despite assertions in reports from governmental and charitable bodies that negative staff attitudes towards older patients may contribute to inequitable healthcare provision for older patients when compared with younger patients (those aged under 65 years), the research literature does not describe these attitudes in any detail. Objective: this study explored and conceptualised attitudes towards older patients using in-depth interviews. Methods: twenty-five semi-structured interviews with medical students and hospital-based doctors in a UK acute teaching hospital were conducted. Participants were asked about their beliefs, emotions and behavioural tendencies towards older patients, in line with the psychological literature on the definition of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural information). Data were analysed thematically. Results: attitudes towards older patients and their care could be conceptualised under the headings: (i) beliefs about older patients; (ii) older patients' unique needs and the skills required to care for them and (iii) emotions and satisfaction with caring for older patients. Conclusions: our findings outlined common beliefs and stereotypes specific to older patients, as opposed to older people in general. Older patients had unique needs concerning their healthcare. Participants typically described negative emotions about caring for older patients, but the sources of dissatisfaction largely related to the organisational setting and system in which the care is delivered to these patients. This study marks one of the first in-depth attempts to explore attitudes towards older patients in UK hospital settings. PMID:26185282

  18. Hospital nurses' use of knowledge-based information resources.

    PubMed

    Tannery, Nancy Hrinya; Wessel, Charles B; Epstein, Barbara A; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the information-seeking practices of nurses before and after access to a library's electronic collection of information resources. This is a pre/post intervention study of nurses at a rural community hospital. The hospital contracted with an academic health sciences library for access to a collection of online knowledge-based resources. Self-report surveys were used to obtain information about nurses' computer use and how they locate and access information to answer questions related to their patient care activities. In 2001, self-report surveys were sent to the hospital's 573 nurses during implementation of access to online resources with a post-implementation survey sent 1 year later. At the initiation of access to the library's electronic resources, nurses turned to colleagues and print textbooks or journals to satisfy their information needs. After 1 year of access, 20% of the nurses had begun to use the library's electronic resources. The study outcome suggests ready access to knowledge-based electronic information resources can lead to changes in behavior among some nurses.

  19. The Relationship between Attitude and Knowledge in an Introductory Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihari, James; White, Arthur

    1998-04-01

    Pre and posttests were given over a three year period to students in an introductory university physics course, a two-quarter, hands-on, laboratory-based, science literacy course with a focus on energy. Attitude items on the tests related to student anxiety and efficacy, discovery, relevance, enjoyment, and interest. Knowledge items on the tests related to course subject matter. Quantitative analysis was used to study relationships between attitude variables, age, gender, subject matter knowledge, and performance in the course.

  20. Knowledge and Attitude about Andropause Among General Physicians in Shiraz, Iran 2014

    PubMed Central

    Abootalebi, Maliheh; Kargar, Marzieh; Jahanbin, Iran; Sharifi, Alireza Amin; Sharafi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andropause in men refers to the clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advanced age and characterized by a deficiency in serum testosterone levels. With the increase in aging male population and life span in Iran and focus on quality of life, andropause will become a major health issue that needs to be addressed in order to prevent disability. The results of some research have shown that there is still low level of knowledge and attitude toward andropause among health professionals. This study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians regarding andropause in 2014. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 402 general physicians in Shiraz. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed for assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians about andropause. SPSS 18 was used to analyze the data, and descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were applied for data analysis. Results: The mean score of knowledge and attitude about andropause was 29.4 out of 76 and 35.1 out of 45, respectively. The findings showed a poor level of knowledge and positive attitude toward andropause among general physicians. There was a significant relationship between occupational status and knowledge about andropause (P<0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between attitude and demographic characteristics (P<0.05). The correlation between knowledge and attitude toward andropause was not statistically significant (P=0.548). Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate the need for designing educational interventions to improve the knowledge and attitude of andropause among general physicians. PMID:26793728

  1. Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J

    1994-01-01

    Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that

  2. Knowledge and attitude of the population toward cancer prostate Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Arafa, Mostafa A.; Farhat, Karim H.; Rabah, Danny M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the following study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of men, in our region, regarding cancer prostate and its screening practices. Subjects and Methods: The field work was conducted in Riyadh City, during the period February through July 2011. It was a population - based cross-sectional study comprising 400 men over 40 years. In addition to socio-demographic data, history of the present and past medical illness, history of prostatic diseases and examination, family history of cancer prostate; participants were inquired about their knowledge and attitude toward prostate cancer (PC) and screening behavior using through two different Likert scales. Results: Only 10% of the respondents had practiced a regular PC examination checkup. Their knowledge about PC was poor and their attitude toward examination and screening was fair, where the mean of total correct knowledge score was 10.25 ± 2.5 (51.25%), while the mean of total attitude score was 18.3 ± 4.08 (65.3%). The respondents identified the physicians as the main sources of this information (62.4%), though they were not the main motives for a regular checkup. Knowledge represented the only significant predictor for participants’ attitude. Conclusion: Beliefs and attitudes have a great impact, at every stage of the cancer continuum, this attitudes depends mainly on level of knowledge and quantity of information provided to patients and their families. Such attitudes should rely on a solid background of proper information and motivation from physicians to enhance and empower attitudes toward PC screening behavior. PMID:25837827

  3. Knowledge, attitude and awareness among healthcare professionals about influenza vaccination in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Khan, Aziz Ullah; Ali, Iftikhar; Wu, David Bin-Chia

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCPs in Northwest General Hospital & Research Centre, Hayatabad Peshawar, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, awareness and attitude of HCPs towards influenza vaccination. A total of N=170 questionnaires were distributed among the staff. There was a 97% response rate to this survey (n=165). The median age of the respondents was 30 years and most of them, 98 (59.0%), were from age group of 24-30 years. The majority of the HCPs that participated in this study were male 106 (64.2%), and by profession, the majority were physicians 77 (46.7%), followed by pharmacists and nurses. A majority 114 (69.1%) believed that it was not compulsory for HCPs to get vaccinated for influenza. Top three identified barriers to vaccination were: not everyone is familiar with the availability of the influenza vaccination at their institution (Relative importance weight factors (RIWF)=0.71), due to needle fear I do not like to get vaccinated (RIWF=0.70) and it is not compulsory for healthcare professionals to get vaccinated for influenza (RIWF=0.64). The logistic regression analysis has revealed association for job experience and profession with the most of the eleven knowledge item. However, when overall sum of eleven items were tested to identify the factors affecting the knowledge score, along with profession (-0.215 [-0.389 to 0.040]; p=0.016) and job experience (0.823 [0.521-1.125]; p<0.001) HCPs age (-0.409 [-0.755 to -0.064]; p=0.020) was found to be another significant factor affecting the total knowledge score of HCPs. Overall, scoring of the correct responses revealed that nurses have better knowledge and understanding about influenza and the influenza vaccination (6.5 ± 0.8, p<0.001*), followed by pharmacists (6.3 ± 1.14) and physicians. In spite of the published guidelines and recommendations, a very low percentage of the healthcare professionals in our hospital were vaccinated against influenza, and

  4. Knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among school teachers in West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Narges; Heidari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy comprised the highest proportion of neurological problem of childhood stage, which observed mostly in the first decade of life. The dramatic effect of having a seizure in the classroom can be very traumatic for any child. The knowledge and attitude of teachers toward epilepsy have a direct impact on the life of students with epilepsy. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in Kermanshah (West of Iran). 305 teachers from 25 public schools were randomly participated in this study. The questionnaire included 39 items and three sections (demographic information, knowledge, and attitude about epilepsy). Results: In this study, 97% participants had heard or read about epilepsy. Attitude and knowledge about epilepsy was positive in weighted sum of the item responses, but there were deficits in individual items and first-aid management of seizure attacks. There was no meaningful relationship between attitude scores and demographic items, but higher level of education, female gender, and marital status had a positive influence on teachers’ knowledge toward children with epilepsy. Conclusion: The main findings indicated a good knowledge and positive attitude about epilepsy among school’s teachers. Nevertheless, there is still a need to improve certain aspects of knowledge and attitude and first aid management of an epileptic attack among teachers. PMID:26622977

  5. Comorbidity, knowledge and attitude towards sex among patients with Dhat syndrome: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Gupta, Sunil; Mehra, Aseem; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge about sex, attitude towards sex, prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and relationship of the comorbidity with onset of symptoms of Dhat syndrome. Treatment records of 264 patients diagnosed with Dhat syndrome were reviewed for clinical profile including psychiatric comorbidity and sexual dysfunction and information on sexual knowledge and attitude using Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire (SKAQ-II). None of the patients gave all the correct responses on the SKAQ-II. Poor knowledge about sexual matters was not limited to the semen formation only, but also involved other aspects of sexuality, like masturbation, relationship of pregnancy with orgasm in women, breast feeding and pregnancy, relationship of sexual desire with addictive drugs and sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by having sex with a virgin girl. Higher level of education showed significant association with better sexual knowledge and liberal attitude. There was significant positive correlation between sexual knowledge and attitude. About half (51.9%) of patients had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder and/or sexual dysfunction. Among the psychiatric disorders, depressive disorders were the most common and premature ejaculation was the most common comorbid sexual dysfunction. Among those with comorbidity, symptoms of Dhat syndrome preceded the onset of other disorders. Patients with Dhat syndrome have high rates of comorbidity and poor sexual knowledge and less liberal attitude, which was not only limited to loss of semen but also involves other spheres of sexuality. Accordingly psychoeducation in patients of Dhat syndrome should not be limited to addressing the myths and lack of knowledge about semen formation, but also should address poor sexual knowledge on all the aspects related to sexuality and the negative attitude towards sex. PMID:26259894

  6. Comorbidity, knowledge and attitude towards sex among patients with Dhat syndrome: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Gupta, Sunil; Mehra, Aseem; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge about sex, attitude towards sex, prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and relationship of the comorbidity with onset of symptoms of Dhat syndrome. Treatment records of 264 patients diagnosed with Dhat syndrome were reviewed for clinical profile including psychiatric comorbidity and sexual dysfunction and information on sexual knowledge and attitude using Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire (SKAQ-II). None of the patients gave all the correct responses on the SKAQ-II. Poor knowledge about sexual matters was not limited to the semen formation only, but also involved other aspects of sexuality, like masturbation, relationship of pregnancy with orgasm in women, breast feeding and pregnancy, relationship of sexual desire with addictive drugs and sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by having sex with a virgin girl. Higher level of education showed significant association with better sexual knowledge and liberal attitude. There was significant positive correlation between sexual knowledge and attitude. About half (51.9%) of patients had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder and/or sexual dysfunction. Among the psychiatric disorders, depressive disorders were the most common and premature ejaculation was the most common comorbid sexual dysfunction. Among those with comorbidity, symptoms of Dhat syndrome preceded the onset of other disorders. Patients with Dhat syndrome have high rates of comorbidity and poor sexual knowledge and less liberal attitude, which was not only limited to loss of semen but also involves other spheres of sexuality. Accordingly psychoeducation in patients of Dhat syndrome should not be limited to addressing the myths and lack of knowledge about semen formation, but also should address poor sexual knowledge on all the aspects related to sexuality and the negative attitude towards sex.

  7. Women's knowledge and attitudes surrounding abortion in Zambia: a cross-sectional survey across three provinces

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Schroeder, Rosalyn; Dennis, Mardieh; Owolabi, Onikepe; Vwalika, Bellington; Musheke, Maurice; Campbell, Oona; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Zambia, despite a relatively liberal legal framework, there remains a substantial burden of unsafe abortion. Many women do not use skilled providers in a well-equipped setting, even where these are available. The aim of this study was to describe women's knowledge of the law relating to abortion and attitudes towards abortion in Zambia. Setting Community-based survey in Central, Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. Participants 1484 women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Correct knowledge of the legal grounds for abortion, attitudes towards abortion services and the previous abortions of friends, family or other confidants. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse how knowledge and attitudes varied according to sociodemographic characteristics. Results Overall, just 16% (95% CI 11% to 21%) of women of reproductive age correctly identified the grounds for which abortion is legal. Only 40% (95% CI 32% to 45% of women of reproductive age knew that abortion was legally permitted in the extreme situation where the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother. Even in urban areas of Lusaka province, only 55% (95% CI 41% to 67%) of women knew that an abortion could legally take place to save the mother's life. Attitudes remain conservative. Women with correct knowledge of abortion law in Zambia tended to have more liberal attitudes towards abortion and access to safe abortion services. Neither correct knowledge of the law nor attitudes towards abortion were associated with knowing someone who previously had an induced abortion. Conclusions Poor knowledge and conservative attitudes are important obstacles to accessing safe abortion services. Changing knowledge and attitudes can be challenging for policymakers and public health practitioners alike. Zambia could draw on its previous experience in dealing with its large HIV epidemic to learn cross-cutting lessons in effective mass

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122

  9. Students Enrolled in an Introductory Gerontology Course: Their Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Sexual Expression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…

  10. A Survey of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Regarding Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Organization.

    PubMed

    Ard, John L; Tobin, Katherine; Huncke, Tessa; Kline, Richard; Ryan, Susan M; Bell, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Our planet is in the midst of an environmental crisis. Government and international agencies such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change urge radical and transformative change at every level of how we conduct our personal and professional lives. The health care industry contributes to climate change. According to a study from the University of Chicago, the health care sector accounts for 8% of the United States' total greenhouse gas emissions. In an effort to understand the current state of environmental practice, attitudes, and knowledge among anesthesiologists in the United States, we conducted a survey of American anesthesiologists regarding environmental sustainability. The environmental survey was sent out by e-mail to a random sampling of 5200 members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. This process was repeated a second time. A total of 2189 anesthesiologists of 5200 responded to the survey, a 42% response rate. Of the survey respondents, 80.1% (confidence interval, 78.2%-81.9%) were interested in recycling. Respondents reported recycling in 27.7% of operating rooms where they work. The majority of respondents (67%; confidence interval, 64%-69%) reported there was insufficient information on how to recycle intraoperatively. Respondents supported sustainability practices such as reprocessing equipment, using prefilled syringes, and donating unused equipment and supplies. The affirmative response rate was 48.4% for reprocessing equipment, 56.6% for using prefilled syringes, and 65.1% for donating equipment and supplies to medical missions. Questions about hospital-wide organization of sustainability programs elicited many "I don't know" responses. Eighteen percent of responders indicated the presence of a sustainability or "green" task force. A total of 12.6% of responders indicated the presence of a mandate from hospital leadership to promote sustainability programs. Two important conclusions drawn from the survey data are a lack of

  11. Attitudes, knowledge and treatment of low back pain amongst nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maart, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the high-risk professions for the development of musculoskeletal problems is nursing. Studies have reported that there is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) amongst South African nurses, but very little is known regarding the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP in this group. Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP amongst nursing staff in Cecilia Makiwane Hospital, Eastern Cape. Methods The study population consisted of all qualified nurses employed at the hospital. A cross-sectional survey with a purposive convenience sampling method was used. A questionnaire was designed using literature from established sources. The questionnaire was distributed manually and data obtained were analysed using EPI-INFO4. Results The study found that the majority of the participants experienced LBP on a regular basis. The participants could identify the most important physical risk factors associated with the development of LBP, but neglected the psychological risk factors. Action taken after the development of LBP included professional consultations as well as medication and bed rest. The participants identified the different components of a preventative exercise programme but only focused on the physical and not psychological components associated with LBP. Conclusions LBP is a serious problem amongst the nurses at the hospital, but no proactive approach is taken in order to address this problem. Policy guidelines and a comprehensive prevention and treatment programme need to be designed and implemented to address this issue.

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions Among Non-Blood Donor Female Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Muhammad; Haseeb, Abdul; Zahid, Ibrahim; Lashkerwala, Sehan Siraj; Saeeduddin, Fawad; Saad, Muhammad; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Moorpani, Manpreet; Khan, Midhat Zafar; Tariq, Ahsan; Habib, Haya; Islam, Tehrema; Advani, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Blood donation is necessary in order to maintain an adequate supply of blood to patients who are suffering from any kind of disease or trauma, which requires them to have blood transfusion. Female non-blood donors are generally low in number. Therefore, this research was carried out to assess the main reasons behind the lack of blood donations made by females, and their knowledge, attitude and perceptions towards voluntary blood donation. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 664 female health professionals, who were selected by non-probability convenience sampling from two tertiary care hospitals. A pretested questionnaire was presented to the sample population, and the data was entered and analyzed on SPSS (V17). Results: 94.6 % were aware with the fact that blood is screened for AIDS, Hepatitis B and C before transfusion. Moreover, 83.7% said that they will only donate blood if a family, relative or friend would need it and similarly 83.4% suggested that they would donate blood if blood donation camps are arranged in hospital premises. 81.8 % thought that blood donors can contract Hepatitis B after donation whereas only 29.5% did not blood due already blood loss in menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The participants had adequate knowledge about the benefits of blood donation. The most important reason identified for not donating blood is the lack of facilities within the workplace or lack of approach by responsible authorities. The results of the study may help in minimizing the misconceptions of the participants about blood transfusion, which would increase their contribution towards blood donation. PMID:26573048

  13. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: knowledge, attitude and practice in Ang Thong Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittigul, Leera; Suankeow, Kedsuda; Sujirarat, Dusit; Yoksan, Sutee

    2003-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out between July 1998 and June 1999 to identify dengue virus-infected patients under age 15 admitted to seven government hospitals in Ang Thong Province, a central region of Thailand, and to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of their care takers. To differentiate dengue cases, clinical evaluation and laboratory diagnosis were used. Serum samples were collected from 90 admitted children and also from 80 healthy students. The dengue cases were classified as dengue fever (9 cases, 12.2%) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF: 65 cases, 87.8%). Nine patients had dengue shock syndrome, but no death occurred. With serological confirmation, primary antibody response was observed in 8 (11.3%) and definite secondary infection in 49 (69%). Out of 41 serum samples, 14 (34.1%) were positive for dengue virus isolation: dengue serotypes 1, 2 or 3. A total of 131 care takers of enrolled children were interviewed in the context of KAP in DHF. The majority of them were mothers with primary school education level. Half of the care takers were workers. DHF knowledge of the care takers of the dengue cases, non-cases, and healthy students was almost the same. However, the care takers of dengue cases recognized petechiae as a danger sign, p-value of 0.006. They had a higher response in prevention, control and treatment of DHF than the other two groups after their children were admitted to hospital, p-value of 0.000. The results indicated that DHF remains a public health problem in this area and the people need more understanding of the disease. Continuous campaigns are required for community participation so as to prevent and control DHF successfully.

  14. Investigating Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students Towards Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119

  15. Microwave Cooking: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of California Foods Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalder, Laura D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 500 California secondary foods teachers (172 responses) indicated their understanding of microwave cooking principles and techniques and positive attitudes toward microwave cooking and safety. A majority used microwave instruction in their classrooms, although many indicated a need for ovens and microwave educational materials. (SK)

  16. Assessment of energy knowledge and attitudes of selected eighth grade students in the Southwest Educational Region of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Sudderth, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of the study were as follows: 1) results revealed a low level of energy knowledge; 2) the reading level of students based on CAT scores was the best predictor for energy knowledge; 3) given the energy knowledge test, sex was a significant predictor for males; 4) although race was not a significant predictor for energy knowledge, white students had a higher mean score than black students; 5) given the attitudinal mean score, the attitude of students fell in the undecided category. The overall mean tended to indicate a less than favorable attitude toward energy conservation; 6) the best predictor for energy attitudes was the CAT score with higher reading levels indicating more positive attitudes; 7) population density also was a significant predictor for energy attitudes with heavier populated areas indicating more positive attitudes; 8) sex was not a significant predictor of energy attitudes. However, females' mean scores tended to be more positive than males'; 9) race was not a significant predictor of energy attitudes. However, the analysis showed that white students' attitudes tended to be more positive; 10) teacher knowledge and attitudes were not significant variables for predicting student energy knowledge and energy attitudes; and 11) there was no significant relationship between student energy knowledge and energy attitudes. The major recommendation for further study is that more attention be devoted to energy education at state and local levels.

  17. Hospital nurses' attitudes toward patients with a history of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Chu, Charlene; Galang, Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Negative attitudes toward patients with a history of illicit drug use can adversely affect the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship, resulting in suboptimal patient care. We examined registered nurses' attitudes toward patients with illicit drug use (e.g., non-prescription use of opioids and narcotics, use of illicit drugs) admitted to the general internal medicine unit of an urban hospital and attempted to identify nurse-specific and environmental factors influencing these attitudes. The results indicated that nurses had a neutral attitude toward working with patients with a history of illicit drug use, but respondents also had low motivation and role support (i.e., perception of receiving support to fulfil one's professional role) related to caring for this high-risk population. The authors suggest greater use of organizational tools, such as protocols, consult services and in-services, to address nurses' clinical concerns and support therapeutic nurse-patient relationships and thereby enhance care delivery.

  18. An Investigation of the Relations between Student Knowledge, Personal Contact, and Attitudes toward Individuals with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students' knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students' knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes…

  19. Learning Might Not Equal Liking: Research Methods Course Changes Knowledge But Not Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizemore, O. J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Students completed surveys at the beginning and end of a sophomore-level course on research and statistics. We hypothesized that the course would produce advances in knowledge of research and statistics and that those changes would be accompanied by more favorable attitudes toward the subject matter. Results showed that knowledge did increase…

  20. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Comparison between Medical Practitioners and Medical Students in Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Khawla M.; Landman, Jacqueline; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bahrain. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 1998. Highly statistically significant differences (p less than 0.0001) were observed between practitioners and students in relation to knowledge concerning recommended daily allowance. The results…

  1. Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Men with Intellectual Disability Who Sexually Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…

  2. 78 FR 76315 - Proposed Information Collection; Survey of Rancher Knowledge and Attitudes About Jaguar Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... About Jaguar Habitat Conservation in Southern Arizona AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward jaguar habitat, the level of knowledge regarding... intended to benefit jaguar habitat. This survey is necessary because there is currently no...

  3. Supporting Students with Psychiatric Disabilities in Postsecondary Education: Important Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupferman, Scott I.; Schultz, Jared C.

    2015-01-01

    We began the exploratory process of identifying knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are important for disability service professionals to possess in order to provide beneficial services to students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education. Using a three-round Delphi survey, two groups of experts identified 54 knowledge, skill,…

  4. Assessing and Addressing Safe Food Handling Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…

  5. Melanoma Knowledge and Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviors among College Students by Gender and Skin Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…

  6. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  7. Knowledge and Attitude of General Practitioners regarding Autism in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…

  8. Undergraduate Attitudes toward the Elderly: The Role of Knowledge, Contact and Aging Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…

  9. The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Rotha M.

    2012-01-01

    Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…

  10. High School and University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology: A Turkish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…

  11. Knowledge, Its Application, and Attitudes Associated with the Reading of Diverse Genres of Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigro, Rogerio Goncalves; Trivelato, Silvia Frateschi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the knowledge, application of knowledge, and attitudes associated with the reading of different genres of expository science texts. We assigned approximately half of a sample consisting of 220 students 14-15 years of age, chosen at random, to read an excerpt from a popular scientific text, and the other…

  12. The Effect of MSW Education on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Substance Abusing Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.

    2013-01-01

    Entering ("n"?=?475) and graduating ("n"?=?454) students at 3 master's of social work programs in the northeast were compared regarding their knowledge and attitudes concerning working with substance abusing clients. In comparison to entering students, graduating students demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge,…

  13. The Influence of a Psychology and Law Class on Legal Attitudes and Knowledge Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  15. Correlates of Social Work Students' Abortion Knowledge and Attitudes: Implications for Education and Research.

    PubMed

    Begun, Stephanie; Bird, Melissa; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Massey Combs, Katie; McKay, Kimberly

    2016-07-01

    Researchers have established that individuals' abortion knowledge is positively associated with their support of abortion rights. However, social workers' personal beliefs regarding abortion are under-researched, even though social workers are often employed in health promotion and education roles in which the topic of abortion is encountered. The current study examines the results of a nationwide survey of social work students (N = 504) and explores the relationship between social work students' abortion knowledge and abortion attitudes. Less abortion knowledge was significantly associated with antichoice attitude endorsement. Implications for social work research, training, and education are subsequently discussed.

  16. Correlates of Social Work Students' Abortion Knowledge and Attitudes: Implications for Education and Research.

    PubMed

    Begun, Stephanie; Bird, Melissa; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Massey Combs, Katie; McKay, Kimberly

    2016-07-01

    Researchers have established that individuals' abortion knowledge is positively associated with their support of abortion rights. However, social workers' personal beliefs regarding abortion are under-researched, even though social workers are often employed in health promotion and education roles in which the topic of abortion is encountered. The current study examines the results of a nationwide survey of social work students (N = 504) and explores the relationship between social work students' abortion knowledge and abortion attitudes. Less abortion knowledge was significantly associated with antichoice attitude endorsement. Implications for social work research, training, and education are subsequently discussed. PMID:27092856

  17. Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milosević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p < 0.001) with 38% of explained variance. The significant predictor variables that indicate lower attitudes about homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.

  18. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Genetics: Perceived Confidence, Attitudes, Knowledge Acquisition and Practice-Based Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication…

  19. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF PARENTS ON THE USE OF COUGH AND COLD MEDICATIONS IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Yong, Chew Chin; Islahudin, Farida; Shah, Noraida Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the knowledge, attitude and perception of parents on the use of cough and cold medications in children. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of children aged < or =6 years in selected kindergartens. The overall knowledge of the parents (n=248) was satisfactory with a mean score of 5.87 +/- 1.70 (from a total of 10) and the overall attitude was positive with a mean score of 41.15 +/- 6.72 (from a total of 50). Ten percent of parents admitted administering cough and cold medications in children aged <2 years. Age of the parents, education level and monthly income were found to significantly influence knowledge level (p<0.05). Spearman's rank-order correlation between knowledge and attitude scores showed a statistically significant positive linear relationship (r(s), = 0.290, p<0.05). The study provides some insights into the use of cough and cold medications in children from the parents' perspectives.

  20. Knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among school teachers and counselors in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alkhamra, Hatem; Tannous, Adel; Hadidi, Muna; Alkhateeb, Jamal

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school teachers and counselors toward epilepsy. A sample of 259 teachers and counselors completed the two-part questionnaire. Validity was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and test-retest reliability was established. The results showed average knowledge of epilepsy and generally favorable attitudes toward students with epilepsy. Although participants revealed apt knowledge about the causes and symptoms of epilepsy, they demonstrated poor knowledge about methods of dealing with seizures. However, participants scored high on items relating to the equality of rights and the need for further support. Findings indicated that although participants showed favorable attitudes, more information and awareness about epilepsy should be provided to teachers and counselors within the school systems of Jordan.

  1. Knowledge and Attitude towards Organ Donation among Males in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Altraif, I H; Al Sebayel, M I; Nondo, H

    1996-01-01

    Organ transplant programs are increasing in Saudi Arabia with the major barrier to transplantation being a shortage of organs. The majority of Saudi Nationals are reluctant and unwilling to donate or consent for donation. This study was undertaken to determine the knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among males in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to 223 men attending the out-patient department of the National Guard Hospital, Riyadh. A total of 205 (92%) individuals answered the questionnaire. Of them, 187 (91%) were Saudis and 18 (9%) were non-Saudis. A total of 187 (88%) had heard about organ donation of whom 80 (43%) each, had acquired this knowledge through television or radio, 16 (8%) through newspaper and magazines, seven (4%) through friends and relatives, and four (2%) through health-care workers. Of the 205 study subjects, 88 (43%) claimed they understood the concept of brain-death, 96 (47%) did not, and 19 (10%) did not respond to this question. One hundred and thirty-eight (67%) were willing to donate, and 156 (76%) were willing to receive an organ. One hundred and fifteen (56%) believed that Islam permits people to donate organs, five (2%) thought Islam does not permit organ donation, 64 (31%) gave a "don't know" answer and 21 (11%) did not attempt to answer the question. In addition, 41 (20%) thought organ donation disfigures the body. In conclusion although 67% of the respondents in this survey were willing to donate, there was a significant lack of knowledge and misconception with regard to Islamic support to, and the mutilating effects of, organ donation. Public educational programs and other measures addressing these issues may help in increasing the rate of organ donation among Saudis.

  2. Women’s Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior about Maternal Risk Factors in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Ambrosio, Rossella; Napolitano, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy and to identify the factors linked to the main outcomes of interest. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 513 pregnant women randomly selected from the gynecological ambulatory services of five hospitals located in Naples, Italy. Results Only 42% of women correctly knew all the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity). Only 21.7% of women were very worried about causing harm to the fetus or child with their risk behaviors, and 22.3% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Approximately one-third of women (28.9%) reported regularly drinking alcohol before pregnancy and 74.8% of these women reported stopping drinking alcohol during pregnancy. However, only 27.3% of women who were drinking alcohol during pregnancy had the intention of stopping. Only 43.7% of women indicated that during ambulatory gynecological examinations they received information from physicians about the possible damage resulting from all the main risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity). Conclusion The results indicate that pregnant women lack knowledge regarding the main maternal risk factors. Pregnant women claim to receive little information during gynecological examinations and, therefore, some continue to smoke and drink alcohol during pregnancy. Our results suggest an urgent need for the design of interventions to improve women’s levels of knowledge and to promote appropriate behavior in relation to the major risk factors in pregnancy. PMID:26714032

  3. Knowledge and Attitude about Leprosy among Indian Dental Students in Faridabad

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankur; Jain, Vishal; Virjee, Karim; Singh, Shilpi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Role of dentists in prevention and sustainable care of leprosy is known. Changing leprosy scenario has led to requirement of change in leprosy education. However, knowledge and attitude of dental students on leprosy remains unknown. Aim Hence a study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude of dental students about Leprosy. Materials and Methods A questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 350 undergraduate and the postgraduate dental students of two dental colleges in Faridabad, India. The score for knowledge ranged from 0 to 16 and scores for attitude ranged from 0 to 26. These scores were further coded as poor, fair and good. Results Mean knowledge score for the sample was 7.64±3.23. A total of 32.29% participants were under poor knowledge category; 57.42% had fair knowledge about Leprosy while 10.29% had good knowledge. Mean attitude score was 15.5 ± 5.98. A total of 30.57% had poor attitude scores, 42.57% had fair scores while 26.86% had good attitude scores. Univariate analysis showed year of training to be a significant predictor for knowledge level (t=7.12; p<0.001). Conclusion The results indicate need for three important changes towards Leprosy in Dentistry. These changes are need for incorporation of leprosy education in Dentistry, need for incorporation of problem based as well as evidence based learning in Dentistry integrated with general health and need for reestablishing public health programs for Leprosy utilizing dental workforce. PMID:27135001

  4. Public familiarity with, knowledge of, and predictors of negative attitudes toward epilepsy in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saengpattrachai, Montri; Srinualta, Dumnern; Lorlertratna, Nithi; Pradermduzzadeeporn, Ekachai; Poonpol, Fakjit

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this nationwide survey was to assess familiarity with and knowledge of epilepsy, as well as to identify predictors of negative attitudes toward people with epilepsy, in Thailand. Of the 1581 people interviewed, 80.8% were familiar with the word epilepsy, but few knew anyone with the condition. The main reason given for avoiding helping a seizure victim was a lack of proper first-aid knowledge, not a negative attitude toward the person. The factors predicting negative attitudes in the Thai population were low educational level, unfamiliarity with epilepsy, and the misconception that epilepsy is a form of insanity. Different from most previous studies worldwide, the attitudes of friends and parents toward people with epilepsy were strongly positive. Social awareness of the public organization Epilepsy Society of Thailand was low; only 4.6% of the respondents knew about it. These data should be considered in a nationwide strategy to alleviate social discrimination against people with epilepsy.

  5. Awareness, knowledge, and attitude of dentistry students in Kerman towards evidence-based dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Arezoo; Sarani, Melika; Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeli; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based care helps dentists provide quality dental services to patients, and such care is based on the use of reliable information about treatment and patient care from a large number of papers, books, and published textbooks. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students towards evidence-based dentistry. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all dentistry students who were studying in their sixth semester and higher in the Kerman School of Dentistry (n = 73) were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the independent-samples t-tests and the ANOVA test. Results The means of the students’ knowledge, awareness, and attitude scores were 29.2 ± 10.8, 29.9 ± 8.12 and 44.5 ± 5.3, respectively. Among demographic variables, only the number of semesters showed a significant difference with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students toward evidence-based dentistry (p = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results of this study, knowledge and awareness of dentistry students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences towards evidence-based dentistry were average and have a neutral attitude. Thus, providing necessary training in this regard will cause promoting the knowledge, awareness, and improved attitudes of dentistry students. PMID:27382446

  6. Knowledge and Attitude of Primary School Teachers in Tehran/Iran towards ADHD and SLD.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Mojgan; Rajeziesfahani, Sepideh; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Panaghi, Leili; Davari-Ashtiani, Rozita; Razjouyan, Katayoon; Salamatbakhsh, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of primary school teachers in Tehran (Iran) towards attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific learning disability (SLD). This study was conducted on 205 primary school teachers in Tehran. Using multi-stage sampling, 25 schools were selected randomly. The selected teachers completed a self-report questionnaire on knowledge and attitude towards ADHD and SLD. They were found to have average knowledge of as well as mostly neutral attitudes towards SLD and ADHD. There was a positive significant relationship between knowledge and attitude scores of the participants on the two disorders. Regarding students with ADHD or SLD, instead of referring to specialists, most teachers chose to inform the parents. Our findings mainly indicate average knowledge and attitude scores for both ADHD and SLD-compared to lower findings in previous studies. Those responsible for organizing and holding in-service training workshops on these issues need to have complete mastery and up-to-date information. It is necessary that the results of such studies be used in educational planning and policy making in the Ministry of Education. PMID:27357885

  7. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  8. AIDS in Canada: Knowledge, Behaviour, and Attitudes of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Michael D.

    A questionnaire dealing with knowledge about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and how it is communicated, with behavior involving risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and with public policy for dealing with AIDS was completed by 1,259 Canadian adults. Canadians had a generally high level of knowledge about the…

  9. Knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    AlBedah, Abdullah M.; El-Olemy, Ahmed T.; Khalil, Mohammed K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular treatment option for many populations. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward CAM. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a multistage random sample was taken from health professionals working in hospitals in Riyadh city and surrounding governorates. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, from 306 health professionals working in 19 hospitals, on socio-demographic data, knowledge about CAM and their sources, and attitudes toward CAM practices. Results: Of the participants, 88.9% had some knowledge about CAM. Respondents with a doctorate degree (94.74%) and 92.53% of those with a bachelor's degree had significantly higher knowledge of CAM than subjects with a diploma, a fellowship, or a master's degree (68.75%, 76.67%, and 85.41%, respectively, P = 0.004). Mass media represented 60.1% of sources of the knowledge of CAM followed by family, relatives, and friends (29.08%) and health educational organizations (14.71%). Participants estimated that prophetic medicine including prayer, honey and bee products, medical herbs, Hijama, nutrition and nutritional supplements, cauterization, and camel milk and urine were the most commonly used CAM practices (90.5%, 85%, 76.9%, 70.6%, 61.4%, 55.9%, and 52.5%, respectively) in addition to medical massage (61.8%) and acupuncture (55%). One hundred and fifteen (80%) physicians were ready to talk with their patients on CAM. Conclusion: The willingness to improve knowledge and create a positive attitude in health professionals toward CAM has increased. Religious practices, especially those related to prophetic medicine, are more common in the region. Health educational organizations have to play a greater role by being the source of evidence-based knowledge of CAM. Talking on CAM with patients should be improved by rooting them on

  10. Smoking Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Among Health Care Professionals from Sulaymaniyah City/Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Abdulateef, Darya Saeed; Ali, Azheen Jamil; Abdulateef, Darwn Saeed; Mohesh, M.I. Glad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a serious risk to health globally. Health care professionals play a key role in the prevention of smoking as they are considered a role model by patients. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study are to evaluate smoking rate among physicians and dentists from Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq, and to understand their knowledge and attitudes toward tobacco smoking. METHODS A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted involving physicians and dentists working in both University of Sulaimani and Sulaymaniyah Teaching Hospitals. A questionnaire created based on World Health Organization Global Health Professional Survey with slight modifications was emailed to the study participants and the responses received were analyzed. RESULTS Incidence of smoking among physicians and dentists was 26.5%, with a significantly higher rate among male compared to female health care professionals. The mean age of starting smoking was 22.3 (±4.8) years. Only 7.3% of health care professionals received formal training on smoking cessation. All responders agreed that smoking is harmful to health. However, ever smokers compared to never smokers were less likely to agree that health care professionals should set a positive impact by not smoking. CONCLUSION Smoking rate is high among physicians and dentists from Sulaymaniyah city/Iraq, and at the same time, there is a low rate of training on smoking cessation. PMID:26966391

  11. First febrile convulsions: inquiry about the knowledge, attitudes and concerns of the patients' mothers.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Ali-Asghar; Tahmooreszadeh, Shahrokh

    2009-02-01

    In comparison with other diseases, febrile convulsion, despite its excellent prognosis, is a cause of high anxiety among mothers. The objective of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, concerns, attitudes and practices of the mothers of children with first febrile convulsion. A prospective questionnaire-based study was carried out at the Mofid Children's Hospital. One hundred and twenty-six mothers of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. Only 58 (46%) mothers recognised the convulsion. Forty-nine (39%) of them interpreted the seizure as death. Others interpreted it as other causes. Eighty-five (68%) parents did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The most common cause of concern among parents was the state of their child's health in the future (n=120, 95%), followed by the fear of recurrence (n=83, 66%), mental retardation (n=60, 48%), paralysis (n=39, 31%), physical disability (n=37, 30%) and learning dysfunction (n=28, 22%). In 41 (33%) mothers, there were other causes of concerns, including fear of visual defect, hearing loss, memory loss, brain defect, delay in walking, drug adverse effects, coma and death. Sixty-eight percent of mothers had acceptable information about the measures that should be taken to prevent recurrence. Awareness of preventive measures was higher in mothers with high educational level (P<0.01). Seventy-six percent of mothers did not know anything about the necessary measures in case of recurrence. From this study, we conclude that parental fear of febrile convulsion is a major problem, with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life. PMID:18461360

  12. Juror knowledge and attitudes regarding mental illness verdicts.

    PubMed

    Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (p<.05). Eighty-four percent of respondents believed that juries should be informed of dispositional outcome before deciding a verdict. Also, 68.4 percent of jurors erroneously believed that a defendant found GBMI could not receive the death penalty. Among jurors who correctly identified the definition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05).

  13. Juror knowledge and attitudes regarding mental illness verdicts.

    PubMed

    Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (p<.05). Eighty-four percent of respondents believed that juries should be informed of dispositional outcome before deciding a verdict. Also, 68.4 percent of jurors erroneously believed that a defendant found GBMI could not receive the death penalty. Among jurors who correctly identified the definition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05). PMID:15985664

  14. Knowledge and attitudes regarding smoking: a health education experiment with Malay college students.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, M E; Johnson, S M; Ross-Lee, B; Narayanan, S

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated whether knowledge and attitudes of Malay college students regarding smoking can be positively influenced by educational intervention. The experiment included a pretest to assess the students knowledge and attitudes regarding smoking, a lecture on the health risks associated with smoking, and a posttest given six weeks later to assess whether any changes had occurred. A profile of the typical Malay student smoker was also elicited. Twenty-seven percent of the study population were smokers. Of the men in the sample, 44% were smokers, while less than 4% of the women were smokers. T-tests indicated that knowledge of the health risks associated with smoking was significantly improved for most groups, while attitudes towards smoking were essentially unchanged. PMID:2152053

  15. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p < 0.001) with lesser correlations between knowledge and behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p < 0.001) and knowledge and attitudes (Pearson's r = 0.413, p < 0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions. PMID:25519248

  16. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p < 0.001) with lesser correlations between knowledge and behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p < 0.001) and knowledge and attitudes (Pearson's r = 0.413, p < 0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  17. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Anita, S; Zahir, W M; Sa'iah, A; Rahimah, M A; Sha'ari, B N

    2007-08-01

    Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.

  18. The Effect of Tenebrio obscurus on Elementary Preservice Teachers' Content Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinburgh, Molly

    2007-12-01

    This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers’ content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using mealworms ( Tenebrio obscurus). Multiple data sources indicate that most of the students had limited prior content knowledge about mealworms, expressed neutral attitudes toward mealworms upon first exposure to them, and were uncomfortable with the idea of having to teach with and about them. At the end of 9 weeks, content knowledge on mealworms had greatly improved. The preservice teachers’ attitudes about mealworms and their self-efficacy about using mealworms with children had also improved.

  19. Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations.

    PubMed

    Alghanim, Saad Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural respondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counterparts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents' source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ donation and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this significant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs. PMID:20061688

  20. Knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality in adolescents and their association with the family and other factors.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Franco, R; Diaz de Leon, J; Malacara, J M

    1996-01-01

    Family structure and function and their association with knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were studied in 918 students and 312 adolescents working in factories. Unmarried workers reported higher rates of sexual activity than did students (30.9% vs. 21.8%, p = .04 for males; 12.9% vs. 6.0%, p = .005 for females). Among sexually active males, 33.3% of students and 30.7% of workers used contraception, compared with 27.5% of female students and 9.5% of female workers. Workers were from larger families than students, and the male and female workers had lower scores for knowledge on sexuality, contraception, and STD than did students. Multiple stepwise regression showed that age and schooling of the parents were associated with knowledge and attitudes in the students. In workers, the position of the child in the family was a negative regressor for attitudes and knowledge on sexuality in males, and for knowledge on contraception and STD in females. In regard to family function, the significant factors were compromise between the parents, positive affective response, communication within the family, problem solution, and control of behavior. It was concluded that female workers are at higher risk for unwanted pregnancies and STD. The factors associated with knowledge and attitudes were age, schooling of the parents, mother working out of home, position of the adolescent in the family, and the diverse aspects of family function.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of nurses toward providing artificial nutrition and hydration for terminal cancer patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ke, Li-Shan; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Lo, Su-Shun; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand present knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of clinical nurses providing artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) for terminal cancer patients. Study subjects were composed of 197 nurses from the gastroenterology, general surgery, and intensive care units of Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan. Subjects were surveyed between April and June 2005 via self-developed structural questionnaires. Collected data were descriptively analyzed with SPSS 11.0 software. Nurses' knowledge about palliative care was high (accurate-answer rate, 96.75%); knowledge about providing ANH for terminal cancer patients was lower (accurate-answer rate, 53.67%). Although nurses' attitudes about providing ANH for terminal cancer patients viewed ANH as having more burdens (mean [SD], 14.12 [3.62]) than benefits (6.35 [2.19]), nurses' behavioral intentions still favored providing ANH (3.21 [0.95]). In subjective norms, "attending physicians and/or superiors" (45.3%) and, secondarily, "patients" (38.4%) were important influencing persons on nurses' support for ANH. Other influencing factors were communication difficulties with patients and/or family members (3.40 [0.83]), staff disagreements (3.01 [0.78]), and fear of medical dispute (3.42 [0.95]). Study results suggest that reinforcing in-service education to enhance nurses' knowledge of providing ANH for terminal cancer patients and building up positive attitudes and behavioral intentions may strengthen nurses' efforts to actively communicate and cooperate with physicians in assisting patients and families to make the most appropriate medical decisions. PMID:18176134

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  3. Effect of Physicians' Attitudes and Knowledge on the Quality of Antibiotic Prescription: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cristian; López-Vázquez, Paula; Vázquez-Lago, Juan Manuel; Piñeiro-Lamas, María; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa; Arzamendi, Pilar Chávarri; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Resistance increases with the use and abuse of antibiotics. Since physicians are primarily responsible for the decision to use antibiotics, ascertaining the attitudes and knowledge that underlie their prescribing habits is thus a prerequisite for improving prescription. Three-year follow-up cohort study (2008-2010) targeting primary-care physicians (n = 2100) in Galicia, a region in NW Spain. We used data obtained from a postal survey to assess knowledge and attitudes. A physician was deemed to have demonstrated Appropriate Quality Prescription of Antibiotics (dependent variable) in any case where half or more of the indicators proposed by the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption had values that were better than the reference values for Spain. The mail-questionnaire response rate was 68·0% (1428/2100). The adjusted increase in the interquartile OR of displaying good prescribing of antibiotics for each attitude was: 205% for fear ("When in doubt, it is better to ensure that a patient is cured of an infection by using a broad-spectrum antibiotic"; 95%CI: 125% to 321%); 119% for better knowledge ("Amoxicillin is useful for resolving most respiratory infections in primary care"; 95%CI: 67% to 193%); and 21% for complacency with patients' demands ("Antibiotics are often prescribed due to patients' demands"; 95%CI: 0% to 45%). Due to the fact that physicians' knowledge and attitudes are potentially modifiable, the implementation of purpose-designed educational interventions based on the attitudes identified may well serve to improve antibiotic prescription.

  4. Impact of Mode of Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical Students towards Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Abdul; Ansari, M. Ahmed; Raheem, Ahmed; Khan, Aleena; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Motiani, Vanita; Akhtar, Muhammad Shahzeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Equipping students with skills in medical research should be an integral part of medical education systems. This study is designed to gauge the difference in knowledge and attitudes towards health research between two sets of undergraduate medical students; those enrolled in the new Problem Based Learning (PBL) education system versus those of the conventional Lecture Based Learning (LBL) curricula. Materials and Methods From the 4th and 5th years of medical university students, 90 participants were recruited from the Aga Khan University (PBL group) and Dow University of Health Sciences (LBL group) and were presented with structured and pre-validated questionnaire. Responses obtained for knowledge and attitudes of each group were recorded on a scale and graduated in percentages to be compared statistically for differences to identify the effectiveness of each curriculum. Results The score on the knowledge scale for the PBL group was found to be 44.77% against the 31.55% of the LBL students (p-value<0.001). Furthermore, the mean attitude score of AKU students was 72.22% as opposed to the 56.11% of the DUHS participants (p-value<0.001). Conclusion The PBL group achieved significantly higher scores in all aspects than the LBL group, showing healthier attitudes towards health science research along with better knowledge. Hence, the apparent positive influence of PBL curricula on attitudes towards research may be helpful in improving research output of medical students in Pakistan. PMID:27190837

  5. Improving Pain Management at the Nursing Education Level: Evaluating Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Latchman, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Unmanaged pain is a prevalent problem faced by many cancer patients. One part of this problem centers on a lack of emphasis on pain management in the undergraduate nursing curriculum. This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of 41 undergraduate nursing students regarding pain management. Students voluntarily completed a demographic data form, the Nurses’ Attitude Survey, and the Pain Management Principles Assessment Tool. A mean score of 19.4 out of a possible 31 was achieved on the knowledge test, whereas a mean score of 17.0 was achieved on the Nurses’ Attitude Survey. A weak-to-moderate relationship between knowledge and attitudes was found. Although students had positive attitudes regarding pain management, many still lacked the fundamental knowledge essential for adequately managing pain. The sample size was relatively small and not demographically diverse, but the response from the sample was sufficient to provide statistically meaningful data. In the quest to improve patient outcomes, these findings suggest the need to develop specific strategies to effectively teach undergraduate nursing students about pain management. PMID:25032029

  6. What knowledge and attitudes do paid carers of people with a learning disability have about cancer?

    PubMed

    Wyatt, D; Talbot, P

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of paid carers of people with a learning disability regarding cancer. A questionnaire was utilised to gather information from carers involved in the social care of adults with learning disabilities within the independent sector. A total of 324 questionnaires were returned. Subjects were asked to provide words that they associated with cancer to provide data on their attitude to cancer. Knowledge-based questions examined their knowledge on the possibility of recovery from cancer, the likelihood of cancer (particularly in relation to people with learning disabilities), types of cancer, risk reduction and early signs and detection. Subjects were also asked for their views regarding the adequacy of their knowledge and training needs. The findings indicated that the carers had some knowledge regarding cancer, but strategies for preventing and detecting cancer with adults with learning disabilities were not clearly elucidated.

  7. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shane D; Rashidi, Vania; Banushi, Vilson H; Barbhaiya, Namrata J; Gashi, Valbona H; Sarnquist, Clea; Maldonado, Yvonne; Harxhi, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK), 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  8. Impact of "+Contigo" training on the knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals about suicide

    PubMed Central

    Santos, José Carlos; Simões, Rosa Maria Pereira; Erse, Maria Pedro Queiroz de Azevedo; Façanha, Jorge Daniel Neto; Marques, Lúcia Amélia Fernandes Alves

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of "+Contigo" training, developed by nurses and directed at 66 health professionals of integrated school health teams in Primary Health Care. METHOD: quantitative with data collection through the Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire, administered before and after the training. RESULTS: significant increases were observed in suicide prevention knowledge and in changing attitudes of health professionals towards individuals with suicidal behavior. CONCLUSION: these results allow us to affirm that nurses hold scientific and pedagogical knowledge that grant them a privileged position in the health teams, to develop training aimed at health professionals involved in suicide prevention. PMID:25296153

  9. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: a community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Teferi, Jalle; Shewangizaw, Zewdu

    2015-01-01

    Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. PMID:26056455

  10. Knowledge and Attitude of Iranian Red Crescent Society Volunteers in Dealing with Bioterrorist attacks

    PubMed Central

    Bahreini Moghadam, Seyed Ali; Hamzeh pour, Siavash; Toorchi, Mahmoud; Sefidi Heris, Youssof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bioterrorism is a worldwide problem and has been the focus of attention during recent decades. There is no precise information on the knowledge, attitude, and preparedness of Iranian Red Crescent volunteers in dealing with bioterrorism. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the above-mentioned parameters in Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the knowledge of 120 volunteers was evaluated and rated as poor, moderate, and good. In addition, attitude of the volunteers and preparedness of Mahabad Red Crescent Society was rated as inappropriate and appropriate using a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of volunteers was 32.0 ± 8.2 years (62.5% male). 2 (1.7%) volunteers had good knowledge while 94 (78.3%) had no knowledge regarding bioterrorist attack management. Only 1 (0.8%) volunteer had appropriate attitude and 6 (5.0%) stated their preparedness for being sent out to the crisis zone. 116 volunteers (96.7%) indicated that Mahabad Red Crescent Society has an inappropriate level of preparedness to encounter bioterrorist attacks. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed poor knowledge and inappropriate attitude of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers in encountering probable bioterrorist attacks. Furthermore, the Red Crescent Society of this town had an inappropriate level of preparedness in the field of bioterrorism from the viewpoint of the studied volunteers. PMID:26862544

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of recurrent urinary stones prevention in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Binsaleh, Saleh; Habous, Mohamad; Madbouly, Khaled

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of urologists in Saudi Arabia regarding prevention of recurrent stone formation and how much they follow preventive stone disease management guidelines. A questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of urologists in Saudi Arabia regarding prevention of recurrent stone formation was used. The survey comprised three domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns. Data about gender, duration of experience and health care sector were also collected. Individual responses were recorded, tabulated and compared using descriptive statistics. The overall response rate was 38.8%. All respondents were male urologists. Most of them (62, 71.3%) had an experience of 5-20 years in management of stone disease patients and the majority (74, 85.1%) belonged to the governmental health care sector. A total of 51% of the respondents answered in concordance with the best practice guidelines in at least half of the questions and 40% in all of the questions. Overall, practice patterns of 58% of the respondents were in concordance with the best practice guidelines in all the questions except for the question of practices regarding stone analysis. As regards to attitude domain, a total of 58.7% respondents expressed their agreement or strong agreement with the questions. Urologists' knowledge of stone recurrence preventive programs is suboptimal. They do not apply effectively the best stone prevention practice guidelines in their daily practice as well. Efforts to increase knowledge and enforce its application in daily practice are strongly warranted.

  12. Knowledge about Epilepsy and Attitudes toward Students with Epilepsy among Middle and High School Teachers in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashemi, Eman; Ashkanani, Abdullatif; Al-Qattan, Haneen; Mahmoud, Asmaa; Al-Kabbani, Majd; Al-Juhaidli, Abdulaziz; Jaafar, Ahmad; Al-Hashemi, Zahraa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Attitudes toward students with epilepsy and epilepsy-related knowledge of teachers are crucial for child's safety in the school. The aim of this study was to evaluate teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 824 teachers from 24 randomly selected middle and high schools. Scale of Attitudes Toward Persons with Epilepsy (ATPE) was modified to assess teachers' knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes toward students with epilepsy. Results. Median knowledge score about epilepsy was 5 (out of 13), while median attitude score was 10 (out of 15). Both knowledge and attitude median scores were significantly higher in senior teachers with longer teaching experience and in respondents who dealt with a person with epilepsy. There was significant association between knowledge score and attitude score (p < 0.01). Logistic regression showed that significant variables, independently associated with poor knowledge after adjusting for possible confounders, were not having a family member with epilepsy (p = 0.009), unawareness of life circumstances of persons with epilepsy (p = 0.048), and a poor attitude score (p < 0.001). Conclusion. School teachers in Kuwait have relatively poor knowledge about epilepsy but have positive attitudes toward students with epilepsy. A number of historical and stigmatizing ideas about epilepsy still exist. It is recommended to provide teachers with information about handling seizures in the educational setting through development and implementation of epilepsy education programs. PMID:27403170

  13. Knowledge about Epilepsy and Attitudes toward Students with Epilepsy among Middle and High School Teachers in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashemi, Eman; Ashkanani, Abdullatif; Al-Kabbani, Majd; Al-Juhaidli, Abdulaziz; Jaafar, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Attitudes toward students with epilepsy and epilepsy-related knowledge of teachers are crucial for child's safety in the school. The aim of this study was to evaluate teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 824 teachers from 24 randomly selected middle and high schools. Scale of Attitudes Toward Persons with Epilepsy (ATPE) was modified to assess teachers' knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes toward students with epilepsy. Results. Median knowledge score about epilepsy was 5 (out of 13), while median attitude score was 10 (out of 15). Both knowledge and attitude median scores were significantly higher in senior teachers with longer teaching experience and in respondents who dealt with a person with epilepsy. There was significant association between knowledge score and attitude score (p < 0.01). Logistic regression showed that significant variables, independently associated with poor knowledge after adjusting for possible confounders, were not having a family member with epilepsy (p = 0.009), unawareness of life circumstances of persons with epilepsy (p = 0.048), and a poor attitude score (p < 0.001). Conclusion. School teachers in Kuwait have relatively poor knowledge about epilepsy but have positive attitudes toward students with epilepsy. A number of historical and stigmatizing ideas about epilepsy still exist. It is recommended to provide teachers with information about handling seizures in the educational setting through development and implementation of epilepsy education programs. PMID:27403170

  14. Knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Manocha, S

    1990-01-01

    Majority of the urban adolescent girl students (n = 76) from middle socioeconomic group correctly reported that breast milk is the best food for infants (95%), and it has protective antibodies (98%). However, most of them (92%) had incorrect knowledge about the role of diet in breast milk secretion and continuation of breastfeeding while mother is suffering from tuberculosis (92%), malaria (84%). PMID:2228094

  15. Can hospital episode statistics support appraisal and revalidation? Randomised study of physician attitudes.

    PubMed

    Croft, Giles P; Williams, John G; Mann, Robin Y; Cohen, David; Phillips, Ceri J

    2007-08-01

    Hospital episode statistics were originally designed to monitor activity and allocate resources in the NHS. Recently their uses have widened to include analysis of individuals' activity, to inform appraisal and revalidation, and monitor performance. This study investigated physician attitudes to the validity and usefulness of these data for such purposes, and the effect of supporting individuals in data interpretation. A randomised study was conducted with consultant physicians in England, Wales and Scotland. The intervention group was supported by a clinician and an information analyst in obtaining and analysing their own data. The control group was unsupported. Attitudes to the data and confidence in their ability to reflect clinical practice were examined before and after the intervention. It was concluded that hospital episode statistics are not presently fit for monitoring the performance of individual physicians. A more comprehensive description of activity is required for these purposes. Improvements in the quality of existing data through clinical engagement at a local level, however, are possible.

  16. The Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception towards Epilepsy amongst Medical Students in Uyo, Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekeh, Bertha C.; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Epilepsy remains a stigmatized disease especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of information and illiteracy has been blamed as the cause of the stigmatization. This stigmatization stems from the fact that the traditional African belief views epilepsy as a spiritual disease. We studied the knowledge, attitude, and perception towards epilepsy amongst medical students comparing the knowledge of the clinical students with that of the basic medical (preclinical) students. Methodology. The participants were medical students in University of Uyo. We administered questionnaires which explored the knowledge of etiology (perceived and medically proven). We studied the beliefs in infectivity of epilepsy, treatment together with their attitudes, and perception to persons with epilepsy. Results. Most of the participants do not have a good knowledge of epilepsy. The knowledge, however, was much better amongst the clinical students. There is some difference in the attitudes of the clinical students compared with the basic students. Conclusion. There is a knowledge gap in epilepsy even amongst medical students. Participants still harbor the traditional African beliefs that epilepsy is a spiritual disease. Mercifully, the knowledge is better amongst the clinical students. This is not surprising since the clinical students have had clinical exposure to epilepsy. PMID:26556558

  17. Doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes.

    PubMed

    Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W

    2015-02-01

    Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children.

  18. Attitudes toward psychopharmacology among hospitalized patients from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Thorens, Gabriel; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Zullino, Daniele F; Eytan, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Background Biological factors influencing individual response to drugs are being extensively studied in psychiatry. Strikingly, there are few studies addressing social and cultural differences in attitudes toward psychotropic medications. The objective of this study was to investigate ethno-culturally determined beliefs, expectations and attitudes toward medication among a sample of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Methods An ad hoc questionnaire was designed to assess patients' expectations, attitudes and prejudice toward medication. The study included 100 adult patients hospitalized in Geneva, Switzerland. Results Patients were in majority male (63%), originated from Switzerland (54%) and spoke the local language fluently (93%). They took on the average 3 different psychotropic drugs. Sixty-eight percent of patients expected side effects and 60% were ready to stop medication because of them. Thirty percent of patients expected negative personal changes with treatment and 34% thought that their mental disorder could have been treated without drugs. Thirty six percent of the sample used alternative or complementary medicines. 35% of immigrant patients believed that medication had different effects on them than on local patients. When compared with Swiss patients, they more often reported that significant others had an opinion about medication (p = 0.041) and more frequently valued information provided by other patients about treatment (p = 0.010). Conclusion Patients' attitudes toward medication should be investigated in clinical practice, as specific expectations and prejudice exist. Targeted interventions, especially for immigrant patients, might improve adherence. PMID:18613960

  19. Commercial oral rehydration solutions--pitfalls, knowledge, attitude and practices.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, N C; Choudhury, P; Sachdev, H P; Dubey, A P; Puri, R K

    1992-11-01

    Locally available commercial preparations of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) were analyzed for their composition, package instructions and availability. A survey from 50 chemist stores, revealed that ORS packets available belonged to 28 different pharmaceutical companies. None of the shops stored more than five different brands and alternate preparations were handed over the counter freely. Only 48% of the available ORS formulations had the WHO recommended composition. In about one-fourth preparations, the sodium concentration was 30 mEq or less per litre. Forty-one per cent solutions had glucose concentrations more than 2%. The glucose and sodium ration of 1:1 was maintained in only 48% of the formulae. Bicarbonate and citrate both were used with almost equal frequency in these preparations. Cost, flavor, additional ingredients and package instructions varied widely in different packets. ORS formulations most commonly found in the drug stores had low sodium and high glucose concentration. The attitude of doctors and nurses of Pediatric Department and Chemists towards commercial ORS was also studied. While 92% doctors were aware about WHO-ORS, none of the chemists and only 4% nurses had this awareness. All the respondents could remember only up to 3 or 4 brand names and except 30% doctors, none were aware about the composition of those brands of ORS. Regarding importance of composition, preparations and precautions, practically nobody was up to the mark, but doctors were definitely better as compared to nurses and chemists. PMID:1294494

  20. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time.

  1. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time. PMID:12280344

  2. Knowledge and Attitude of Parents of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Towards the Illness

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Shahrokh; Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Noorazar, Seyed Gholamreza; Rahmani Ivrigh, Sina; Abdi, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background The knowledge and attitude of parents about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a public health issue in which management and rehabilitation approaches may be influenced. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the parents of children with ADHD towards this disorder in Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods The current cross-sectional study evaluated 295 parents of children and adolescents with ADHD referred to psychiatric clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were diagnosed based on Kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-aged children (K-SADS) and recruited according to a convenience sampling method in the first five months of 2014. The parents’ knowledge and attitude towards ADHD was studied by a researcher-made questionnaire. Results The overall knowledge of parents was 66% in which 76.72% were aware of related signs and symptoms and 43.38% were able to identify the aberrations. Meanwhile, 44.62% of the parents knew the etiology and 54.75% had information about treatment strategies. In addition, 33.55%, 37.91%, 25.52% were aware of ADHD consequences, diagnosis and prevalence dimensions, respectively. Moreover, 82.72% of the parents had a positive attitude towards ADHD. A positive correlation was found between parents’ attitude towards ADHD and their overall knowledge (identification, etiology, treatment, consequences and prevalence dimensions), ranging from 0.12 to 0.36 (P < 0.50). Age, gender, and place of residence did not have a correlation with parents’ knowledge and attitude towards ADHD. Parent’s education level only had a positive correlation with the knowledge of symptoms, with a value of 0.19 (P < 0.01). Parents with a higher overall knowledge, knowledge of ADHD symptoms, and prevalence rates accepted combination therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions While the overall knowledge of parents regarding ADHD was favorable, they were mostly

  3. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Aim To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. Setting A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. Method The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Results Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to ‘always’ practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40–96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Conclusion Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers’ knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations. PMID:27711173

  4. Turkish pediatric surgical nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain assessment and nonpharmacological and environmental methods in newborns' pain relief.

    PubMed

    Efe, Emine; Dikmen, Sevkiye; Altaş, Nuray; Boneval, Cem

    2013-12-01

    Effective pain management requires accurate knowledge, attitudes, and assessment skills. The purpose of the present study was to describe Turkish pediatric surgical nurses' knowledge and use of pain assessment and nonpharmacologic and environmental methods in relieving newborn's pain in hospital. The sample consisted of 111 pediatric surgical nurses employed in pediatric surgical unit in 15 university hospitals located in Turkey. A questionnaire was used to measure the nurses' knowledge and use of pain assessment, nonpharmacologic, and environmental methods. Data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics. Of the nurses that participated in the study, 83.8% were between the ages of 20 and 35 years, 54.1% had a bachelor degree, and 75.7% had a nursing experience ≤10 years. 50.5% stated that physiologic and behavioral indicators used in the assessment of pain in infants. The most commonly used nonpharmacologic methods were giving nonnutritive sucking, skin-to-skin contact, and holding. The most commonly used environmental methods were avoiding talking loudly close to the baby, minimal holding, care when opening and closing of the incubator, avoiding making noise when using wardrobe, drawers, trash, or nearby devices, such as radio and television, avoiding sharp fragrances, such as alcohol, perfume, near the baby, and reducing light sources. Although Turkish pediatric surgical nurses used some of the nonpharmacological and environmental methods in infant's pain relief, there remains a need for more education about pain management and for more frequent use of these methods in clinical care.

  5. Healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes and counselling on injury prevention for preschool children in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnica, Vanja; Mujkić, Aida; Young, Tracy; Miškulin, Maja; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-11-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A stratified, random sample of licensed Croatian healthcare providers was mailed a survey, with a response of rate of 39.5 %. Participants included pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, each with a focus on primary care, and community nurses. Participants filled out a 15-minute paper-and-pencil survey that tested their knowledge of injury risks and prevention strategies, assessed their safety-prone attitudes, and measured the extent to which they counselled their patients on injury prevention. Pediatricians had the highest knowledge of injury risks and intervention approaches, with an average correct score of six out of ten (significantly higher than all other provider types). Knowledge was highest regarding infant fall risk and lowest for safe sleep positions. Pediatricians and community nurses had the highest safety-prone attitudes. Safety prone attitudes were strongest for transportation safety and weakest for safe sleeping position for all providers. Community nurses reported the highest level of patient counselling, followed by pediatricians. Both factual education and support in translating knowledge into everyday practice are necessary for health care providers. Implementing anticipatory guidance for child safety is a promising approach in Croatia.

  6. Medical students' knowledge and attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine - A survey in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Amalba, Anthony; Helegbe, Gideon Kofi; Mohammed, Baba Sulemana

    2016-07-01

    Interest, use of and research into Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) is on the increase in recent times even in developed countries. It may therefore be appropriate if medical students who would become future physicians possess adequate knowledge and better attitude towards CAMS. This study assessed medical students' knowledge of, attitude towards, and usage of CAM as well as their opinion about integrating CAMs into the medical curriculum. In a cross-sectional study, 203 medical students in 2nd, 3rd and 4th year classes completed a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18 and GraphPad 5.01. Association between different variables was tested. The overall mean knowledge score was 19.6%. Students in higher years of study were significantly more knowledgeable in CAMs (p = 0.0006). The best known CAM was herbal medicine (63.6%), with relatives and friends being their main source of information. Students' attitude towards CAM was good (75.1%) with majority (71.5%) favouring introduction of CAM into the medical curriculum; preferably at the preclinical level (67.5%). Year of study, gender and locality where student grew up did not significantly affect attitude towards CAM use. Up to 117 (59.0%) of the students had ever used CAM especially herbal medicine. Although students in this study were deficient in knowledge on CAMs, their attitude and usage was good. Herbal medicine was the best known and used CAM. Majority of the students believed knowledge on CAM would be beneficial to their practice hence, desirous of its introduction into their medical curriculum.

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Egyptian industrial and tourist workers towards HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M

    2008-01-01

    This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085

  8. The Effect of Flemish Eco-Schools on Student Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Eco-schools aim to improve the environment through direct and indirect effects. Direct effects are those that result from the implementation of an environmental management system. Indirect effects are educational gains. The current study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning three student outcomes: (1) environmental knowledge, (2) environmental attitudes, and (3) environmental affect. The study includes 1287, 10-12-year-olds from 59 schools (38 eco-schools and 21 control schools). Multivariate multilevel regression analyses show that eco-schools mainly influence their students' environmental knowledge; they do not influence environmental affect. Eco-school students, furthermore, have equal preservation attitudes and lower utilization attitudes, as compared to control-school students. The implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.

  9. Star Identification Without Attitude Knowledge: Testing with X-Ray Timing Experiment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor

    1997-01-01

    As the budget for the scientific exploration of space shrinks, the need for more autonomous spacecraft increases. For a spacecraft with a star tracker, the ability to determinate attitude from a lost in space state autonomously requires the capability to identify the stars in the field of view of the tracker. Although there have been efforts to produce autonomous star trackers which perform this function internally, many programs cannot afford these sensors. The author previously presented a method for identifying stars without a priori attitude knowledge specifically targeted for onboard computers as it minimizes the necessary computer storage. The method has previously been tested with simulated data. This paper provides results of star identification without a priori attitude knowledge using flight data from two 8 by 8 degree charge coupled device star trackers onboard the X-Ray Timing Experiment.

  10. Scientific knowledge and attitude change: The impact of a citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossard, Dominique; Lewenstein, Bruce; Bonney, Rick

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants’ attitudes toward science and the environment, on their knowledge of bird biology, and on their understanding of the scientific process. The project had an impact on participants’ knowledge of bird biology. No statistically significant change in participants’ attitudes toward science or the environment, or in participants’ understanding of the scientific process, could be detected. The results suggest that projects must make explicit to participants the issues that they are experiencing. In addition, the results suggest that more sensitive measures need to be designed to assess attitude change among environmentally aware citizens.

  11. Examining athletes' attitudes toward using anabolic steroids and their knowledge of the possible effects.

    PubMed

    Anshel, M H; Russell, K G

    1997-01-01

    One goal of contemporary sports leaders is to eradicate the use of banned drugs in competitive sport. A common approach to achieving this outcome is to provide athletes with adequate education about the effects of drug use. Ostensibly, educational programs about the deleterious effects of using anabolic steroids are thought to discourage their intake. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the athletes' knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Multiple regression analyses indicated relatively low R2's and correlations between the various components of subjects' knowledge and their attitude toward steroid ingestion. This suggests that educational programs for athletes about taking anabolic steroids may have limited value in terms of creating appropriate, responsible attitudes toward this illegal, unethical, and medically questionable practice.

  12. Evaluating the Effect of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Self-Management in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Shima; Amouzegar, Atieh; Amiri, Parisa; Karbalaeifar, Ronak; Tahmasebinejad, Zhale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common condition with several preventable microvascular complications such as kidney damage. Nephropathy is expensive to manage, especially as hospital dialysis treatment. Improving patients' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward their condition can achieve better control, delay complications, and improve their quality of life. This study evaluated the KAP and self-care behaviors of diabetic patients on dialysis and variables that affect it. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti academic hospitals of Tehran, Iran. Face-to-face interviews were held to fill five validated questionnaires: three evaluating KAP, one evaluating self-management, and one evaluating quality of life. Result. 117 diabetic patients on hemodialysis (42 females) with mean (SD) age of 68.70 ± 9.26 years were enrolled in the survey. The scores for patient's KAP, self-care, and quality of life were 59.90 ± 11.23, 44.27 ± 8.35, 45.06 ± 12.87, 46.21 ± 10.23, and 26.85 ± 13.23, respectively. There was significant negative correlation between patients' knowledge and attitude with their glycosylated hemoglobin level and their fasting blood sugar. There was significant correlation between patients' knowledge and practice with their self-care activities. Conclusion. The present study suggests that patients' KAP scores have a practical effect upon self-care behavior. This highlights the needs for effective diabetes education programs in developing countries like Iran. PMID:27478845

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, S K; Reddaiah, V P; Murthy, G V

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and six mothers in a rural area were interviewed to determine as to how they recognise pneumonia in children, what therapies they practice with mild acute respiratory illnesses and pneumonias and the feeding practices they adopt. Most mothers recognised pneumonia by noticing fast respiratory rate and difficulty in breathing. More severe cases were recognised by these signs among a higher percentage of mothers. As regards management of mild ARI episodes, more than half the mothers preferred not to give any treatment or use only home remedies. In pneumonias, a majority of them preferred to consult a qualified doctor. Nearly a third of them were of the opinion that they would take the child to hospital if the disease was severe. Regarding feeding practices, most of them stated that they would continue feeding, fluids and breast feeds. Only 10% desired to stop and another 15% would decrease the amounts.

  14. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Resistance: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study Among Palestinian Adults.

    PubMed

    Abu Taha, A; Abu-Zaydeh, A H; Ardah, R A; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Awang, R; Zyoud, S H

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are considered to be among the most commonly sold drug classes in Palestine. Resistance to antibiotics has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and awareness about resistance among adults visiting the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine. A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving participants aged 18 or over was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013. Adults who visited the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine were included. Demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use were included in the questionnaire. Poor and good knowledge were defined as a total knowledge score of 0-7 and 8-15 of 15 questions, respectively. Attitude scores of 0-3 and 4-7 of 7 questions were considered poor and good, respectively. A total of 375 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 83.3% was attained. About 55.0% of the participants had a good knowledge and 56.5% had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use. A significant positive correlation was shown between participants' knowledge scores and participants' attitude scores towards antibiotic use (R = 0.344, P = 0.001. Participants with a high family income were more likely to be aware of appropriate antibiotic use than participants with a low family income (P-value <0.001). Participants with a higher educational level (university) had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use than those with a lower education level (P-value <0.001). This study has documented important knowledge and attitude gaps in antibiotic use. These findings will help health policymakers in Palestine to implement intervention programmes to rationalize antibiotic use. Continuing medical education, professional development and training workshops for healthcare professionals regarding rational use of

  15. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Resistance: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study Among Palestinian Adults.

    PubMed

    Abu Taha, A; Abu-Zaydeh, A H; Ardah, R A; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Awang, R; Zyoud, S H

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are considered to be among the most commonly sold drug classes in Palestine. Resistance to antibiotics has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and awareness about resistance among adults visiting the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine. A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving participants aged 18 or over was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013. Adults who visited the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine were included. Demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use were included in the questionnaire. Poor and good knowledge were defined as a total knowledge score of 0-7 and 8-15 of 15 questions, respectively. Attitude scores of 0-3 and 4-7 of 7 questions were considered poor and good, respectively. A total of 375 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 83.3% was attained. About 55.0% of the participants had a good knowledge and 56.5% had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use. A significant positive correlation was shown between participants' knowledge scores and participants' attitude scores towards antibiotic use (R = 0.344, P = 0.001. Participants with a high family income were more likely to be aware of appropriate antibiotic use than participants with a low family income (P-value <0.001). Participants with a higher educational level (university) had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use than those with a lower education level (P-value <0.001). This study has documented important knowledge and attitude gaps in antibiotic use. These findings will help health policymakers in Palestine to implement intervention programmes to rationalize antibiotic use. Continuing medical education, professional development and training workshops for healthcare professionals regarding rational use of

  16. Assessing Academic Self-Efficacy, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Undergraduate Physiology Students

    PubMed Central

    Woolcock, Andrew D.; Creevy, Kate E.; Coleman, Amanda E.; Moore, James N.; Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Academic self-efficacy affects the success of students in the sciences. Our goals were to develop an instrument to assess the self-efficacy and attitudes toward science of students in an undergraduate physiology course. We hypothesized 1) that our instrument would demonstrate that students taking this course would exhibit greater self-efficacy and more positive attitudes toward science than students in a non-science undergraduate course, and 2) that the physiology students’ self-efficacy and attitudes would improve after completing the course. A 25-question survey instrument was developed with items investigating demographic information, self-efficacy, content knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding science. Students in either an undergraduate physiology course (Group P) or a history course (Group H) completed the survey. Forty-eight students in Group P completed both PRE- and POST-class surveys, while 50 students in Group H completed the pre-class survey. The academic self-efficacy of Group P as assessed by the PRE-survey was significantly higher than Group H (p=0.0003). Interestingly, there was no significant difference between groups in content knowledge in the PRE-survey. The self-efficacy of Group P was significantly higher as assessed by the POST-survey, when compared to the PRE-survey (p<0.0001) coincident with an improvement (p<0.001) in content knowledge for Group P in the POST-survey. This study established a survey instrument with utility in assessing self-efficacy, attitudes, and content knowledge. Our approach has applicability to studies designed to determine the impact of instructional variables on academic self-efficacy, attitudes, and confidence of students in the sciences. PMID:27713903

  17. Staff Knowledge and Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Tanya; Geraghty, Wendy; Street, Karen; Simonoff, Emily

    2003-01-01

    Investigated knowledge, attitudes, and training needs of professionals working with adolescents who deliberately self-harm (DSH). Over three-quarters of participants were unaware that homosexual males and those who had been sexually abused are at greater risk of DSH; one-third were unaware adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of…

  18. Impact of a Preventive Cardiology Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitia, Marie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)

  19. Knowledge and Perceived Social Norm Predict Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Ming; Sin, Kuen-Fung; Yang, Lan; Forlin, Chris; Ho, Fuk-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Parents are key stakeholders in education and their support is pivotal to policy implementation. Through a large-scale survey, the present study investigated the validity of a structural model describing the relationship between attitude, knowledge, and perceived social norm among parents of children with special needs. Results revealed that…

  20. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  1. Diversity as a Learning Goal: Challenges in Assessing Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Pam

    2009-01-01

    At Oklahoma State University (OSU), faculty have defined expectations for students' learning of knowledge, skills, and attitudes about diversity, and have implemented a process to assess students' achievement of the diversity learning goal. As was done for other general education learning goals such as written communication ability and critical…

  2. Assessment of Professional Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes about Patients of Diverse Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Mary Lou; Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2001-01-01

    The Ethnic Attitude Scale and Transcultural Questionnaire were administered to 152 bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) students, registered nurses in transition to BSN, and masters's students. All three groups had low knowledge about cultural groups. The only significant difference was BSN students' understanding of such concepts as…

  3. A Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey of Water and Sanitation in Swaziland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Edward C.

    The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…

  4. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  5. EFL Primary School Teachers' Attitudes, Knowledge and Skills in Alternative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Abdul-Kareem, Muneera M.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated female EFL primary school teachers' attitudes as well as teachers' knowledge and skills in alternative assessment. Data was collected via a questionnaire from 335 EFL primary school teachers randomly selected from six educational zones. An interview with principals and head teachers and a focus group interview with EFL…

  6. A Survey of AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes among Prostitutes in an International Border Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Felipe; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 60 prostitutes in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to AIDS. Found that the prostitutes are not utilizing risk reduction behaviors while having sexual relations with their clients. Provides implications for social workers and public health workers who must develop strategies to work effectively…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Global Youth Environmental Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on research on environmental knowledge, attitude and action. A lot of research has occurred on the primary and secondary school populations and the general population. However, much less emphasis has been placed on studies that concern post-compulsory education students in the range from 16 to 18 years…

  8. Do More Knowledgeable Adolescents Have More Rationally Based Civic Attitudes? Analysis of 38 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "rational civic attitudes" and its link to knowledge, using data on eighth-grade students from 38 countries in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement International Civic and Citizenship Education Study to examine these questions: (1) Are country-averages on self-reported…

  9. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  10. Oral health status, knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli-Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Khorsand, Afshin; Yaghobee, Siamak; Rokn, Amirreza; Jalali, Mohammad; Masudi, Sima; Rahimi, Hamed; Kabir, Ali

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients about their oral health status. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data of 150 CVD patients that collected by a self-administered questionnaire consists of demographic characteristics and KAP. Oral health indicators calculated based on the results of oral examination by an expert dentist. RESULTS CVD patients had an overall moderate level of knowledge and attitude, but their practice was lower than moderate. There were important associations between knowledge scores with gender, education, residential area and financial status, between attitude scores with education and residential area, and between practice scores with education and financial status. There were no associations between KAP and age, marital status or job. Significant positive correlations were found between KAP components. Significant negative correlations were found between oral hygiene index with knowledge and practice. CONCLUSION The practice of heart disease patients about their oral health was poor, and declares that increasing awareness and attitude may not promote practice. Efficient programs are needed to promote oral health practice of adult populations in special groups. PMID:27114731

  11. Knowledge, Education, and Attitudes of International Students to IELTS: A Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ata, Abe W.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, education and attitudes of Chinese, Indian and Arab speaking students in Australia towards the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) test. A questionnaire was administered to 200 students at six university language centers to investigate their overall response towards…

  12. An Investigation on the Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior of Maltese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Not much is known about the environmental knowledge, attitudes and actions of young people in the Maltese islands. The main actors that are responsible for the acquisition and development of environmental perspectives of young people in Malta are also not well known. There is as yet, little understanding of the extent to which these actors are…

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of School Personnel Regarding Influenza, Vaccinations, and School Outbreaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Chrysanthy; Rios, Lenoa M.; Pannaraj, Pia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School personnel are important for communicating with parents about school vaccination programs and recognizing influenza outbreaks. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school personnel regarding seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza, vaccinations, and school outbreak investigations. Methods: Data were analyzed from…

  14. Influenza Vaccination Coverage among School Employees: Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…

  15. Validation and Exploration of Instruments for Assessing Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…

  16. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  17. Multicultural and Diversity Issues: Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers' Attitudes and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Barbara N.; Snead, Donald

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain teachers' multicultural knowledge, cross-cultural perceptions, and attitudes about different cultures as a function of both pre-service professional preparation and graduate education curriculum. Accomplishing this goal required administration of the Multicultural/Diversity Scale?Revised (MCR) at…

  18. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  19. Rehabilitation Counselor Knowledge, Comfort, Approach, and Attitude toward Sex and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pebdani, Roxanna N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…

  20. Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Mandatory Premarital Screening Among University Students in North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alkhaldi, Sireen M; Khatatbeh, Moawia M; Berggren, Vanja E M; Taha, Hana A

    2016-01-01

    A mandatory National Premarital Thalassemia Screening Program was implemented in Jordan in 2004. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of university students in North Jordan toward this program. Data was collected from 542 students from four universities (two public and two private universities) located in North Jordan, using a structured questionnaire. Results of t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that while respondents had adequate knowledge of and positive attitudes toward the premarital screening program, there was still a lack of knowledge about the disease itself. Nearly half the respondents were under the impression that β-thalassemia (β-thal) is a disease that can be treated simply. One-third of the respondents believed that if both partners were carriers of β-thal they should proceed with marriage. Negative attitude was revealed when many respondents believed that diagnosing a family member as a carrier affects other family members' future marriage opportunities. Significant associations were detected between the knowledge scores and gender, urban/rural residence, and the university where the students were enrolled. Students in private universities showed significantly lower attitude scores. Consideration of prenatal diagnostic services as part of a β-thal prevention program is necessary. It would also be helpful to include information about β-thal as a preventable inherited illness with a severe debilitating impact on the family in the high school curriculum. There is also a need for social marketing of the program. PMID:26821551

  1. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  2. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse in peninsula Malaysia: a survey report.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zulkifil, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalai, S; Aye, K W

    1995-01-01

    Given the magnitude of drug addiction in Malaysia, the government has given top priority to this issue. It is timely that an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse and drug dependents among the general public be carried out. Thus, a nationwide survey was undertaken. A representative sample of 2,591 respondents aged 13 years and above from households were surveyed throughout the 11 states and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur in Peninsula Malaysia. The results revealed that the respondents are moderately knowledgeable on drug abuse, especially information pertaining to treatment, rehabilitation and aftercare services, including education to families against drug abuse. The public possess a negative attitude towards drug dependents. Majority felt that drug addicts do not have the will power to rid themselves of drugs and they also lack a supportive family network system. Many believe that the most vulnerable group are the adolescents. Respondents were aware of the type of drugs commonly abused, although they failed to realise their long-term effects. Respondents do not attribute low education, large family and marginal income to the background of drug dependents. The findings showed gaps and misconceptions in terms of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the public. Accurate knowledge on, and right attitudes and perceptions towards drug related issues would certainly benefit the public in timely prevention of drug abuse. PMID:9037810

  4. Handling Sexuality Concerns in Women with Gynecological Cancer: Egyptian Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Suzan E.; Mohamed, Hanan E.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality is an important part of normal human functioning. Gynecological cancer diagnosis and treatment has devastating effect on Sexual issues. Study aim was to investigate Oncology Nurses knowledge and attitudes in Relation to Provision of Sexual Health Care to Women Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer. The study setting was conducted at…

  5. A Snapshot: South African University Students' Attitudes, Perceptions and Knowledge of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raijmakers, L. R.; Pretorius, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey conducted in August 2004 of students' attitudes, perceptions and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and sexual practices at an Institution of Higher Education. The study was set against the backdrop of the 2004 South African national survey, conducted by the Reproductive Health…

  6. Community Health Nurses' Knowledge of, Attitudes toward, and Involvement with Adolescent Contraceptive Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed national sample of 844 community health nurses to assess their knowledge of, attitudes toward, involvement with reproductive health services. Slightly more than 50 percent of nurses provided or administered contraceptive services to adolescents. Ninety-five percent agreed that contraceptives should be available to adolescents; 90 percent…

  7. A Critical Quest: Confirming Physical Therapists' Attitudes and Knowledge toward Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Beverly Cumberland

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to investigate physical therapists attitudes and knowledge toward research and evidence-based practice (EBP). The research design was based on a realist theoretical framework. Twenty-five interviews were conducted asking standardized open-end questions which allowed the participants to relate their real world…

  8. Middle School Students and Bicycle Helmet Use: Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Morissette, Brenda; Noland, Virginia; McDermott, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding bicycle helmet use. Surveys indicated that most rode bicycles but did not use helmets, despite understanding their protective capabilities, because of poor peer support and helmet design. There was a positive relationship between helmet ownership and use. Most…

  9. Investigating Chinese University Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Plagiarism from an Integrated Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…

  10. Increasing Access to Evidence-Based Practices and Knowledge and Attitudes: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of increasing field instructors access to information about evidence-based practices (EBPs) on their level of knowledge and attitudes about EBPs. Method: Eighteen field instructors received training and access to a library with extensive online journals. Half were randomly selected to also receive a…

  11. Greek Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environmental Behavior toward Marine Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…

  12. Emergency Contraception Education for Health and Human Service Professionals: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…

  13. Improving Teaching Candidates' Attitudes toward Learning Theoretical Knowledge: Seeking Change in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Anthony G.

    1993-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that teacher candidates who were exposed to a theory-oriented normative model and given theory-oriented reinforcement within a practice-oriented context would manifest more positive attitudes toward learning theoretical knowledge than those who were not so exposed. Results proved the hypothesis was plausible. (SM)

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Knowledge of and Attitudes about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan

    2011-01-01

    This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…

  15. Effectiveness of Diversity Infusion Modules on Students' Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mahasin F.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Boateng, Alice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity infusion modules provided to university students in a predominantly white homogeneous community. A mixed-method approach using a pre-post retrospective design was used to measure attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about diversity issues, and included a comparison group…

  16. Using Film and Intergenerational Colearning to Enhance Knowledge and Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, Roseanna

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two evidence-based methods used collaboratively, intergenerational colearning and use of films/documentaries in an educational context, enhanced knowledge levels and attitudes toward older adults in nursing, social work, and other allied profession students. Students participated in a gerontology film festival where…

  17. Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging among Nursing and Non-Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…

  18. The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

  19. Pre-Service Biology Teachers' and Primary School Students' Attitudes toward and Knowledge about Snakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge…

  20. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

  1. Attitudes towards Knowledge Management of School Administrators and Teachers Working in Turkish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Soner; Yigit, Yakup

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate attitudes of school administrators and teachers working in Turkish schools towards knowledge management. In this research, an explanatory design incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods was used. The quantitative strand of the study was designed as a survey model, and the data was collected from…

  2. Effects of Education on Breastfeeding Knowledge and Attitudes among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Cynthia Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a school health module on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of middle school students. Method: A convenience sample of 39 middle school students received education related to breastfeeding and completed a pre-test and a post-test. The School Survey on Breastfeeding…

  3. Measuring Student Attitude and Knowledge in Technology-Rich Biology Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incantalupo, Lisa; Treagust, David F.; Koul, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    The use of technology in schools is now ubiquitous, but the effectiveness on the learning environment has mixed results. This paper describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure students' attitudes toward and knowledge of technology with the aim of investigating any differences based on gender after a course where the…

  4. The Mathematical Content Knowledge and Attitudes of New Zealand Pre-Service Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Bicknell, Brenda; Mills, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data on the mathematical content knowledge and attitudes of pre-service primary teacher education students. The assessment consisted of nine tasks, including 2-digit computations and proportional reasoning. Students rated their liking for mathematics at three time points: primary, secondary, .and when assessed. Fewer than half…

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of nurses and nursing students towards HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Irma Conejeros; Sánchez, Helga Emig; Lagunas, Lilian Ferrer; Valdés, Báltica Cabieses; Acosta, Rosina Cianelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe attitudes, knowledge and perceptions of nurses and nursing students towards the people who live with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methodology Bibliographic study in which six electronic databases were searched using the key words: “attitude”, “knowledge”, “nursing”, perceptions”, “HIV/AIDS”. Publications between 1998 and 2007 were considered. Results 560 articles limited by scientific researches or ministerial reports membership were retrieved. Finally a total of 38 publications were selected, the analysis showed that the level of knowledge of nurses and nursing students about PLWHA is good and the attitudes towards HIV/AIDS have improved over time. Nurses and nursing students have been able to identify both positive and negative aspects in the PLWHA care personally and professionally because there is a more favourable perception. Conclusion There are few studies in Latin America and Chile that study the attitudes and knowledge of the studied population towards PLWHA. According to publications found the knowledge and attitudes have improved because the perception is more favourable. PMID:27499563

  6. Are They Living What They Learn?: Assessing Knowledge and Attitude Change in Introductory Politics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Pamela; Tankersley, Holley; Ye, Min

    2012-01-01

    Many assessment studies are devoted to discovering whether student knowledge increases after successful completion of a specific course; fewer studies attempt to examine whether students undergo a change in their values and attitudes as a result of that coursework. Given the continuing emphasis on assessment and the fulfillment of core curriculum…

  7. The International Attitudes and Knowledge of Adolescents in Nine Countries: The IEA Civic Education Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney, Judith V.

    1977-01-01

    Data concerning political attitudes and knowledge were collected for 30,000 adolescents in nine countries. Findings indicate that students in countries with a high degree of international contact were more internationally minded. Sampling procedures are described. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, P.O. Box 211, Amsterdam, The…

  8. Counselors' Measures of Attitudes and Knowledge of Working with Biracial and Multiracial Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between generalized multicultural awareness and knowledge as measured by the "Attitudes toward Multicultural Children Scale" ("AMCS") and the "Multicultural Counseling Vignette" ("MCV"). How race, gender, education, and years of experience as a counselor affect measures of…

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing among Rural Migrants in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger

    2009-01-01

    A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…

  10. Effects of a Conservation Education Camp Program on Campers' Self-Reported Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Cara K.; Card, Jaclyn A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effects of a conservation education camp program offered through one zoo education department. The conservation education program included 4 levels of camps with increasing levels of animal husbandry. Campers rated their conservation knowledge, attitude, and behavior prior to, immediately after, and 1 month…

  11. Teachers' Attitude to and Knowledge of Metalinguistics in the Process of Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Purdie, Nola

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the current research was to examine pre-service, general and special education teachers' attitudes to and knowledge of metalinguistics (awareness of language structure) in the process of learning to read. Effective teachers of reading, writing, and spelling need to understand the relationship between speech and print because these basic…

  12. Teaching Electroconvulsive Therapy to Medical Students: Effects of Instructional Method on Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…

  13. In-Service Teachers' Attitudes, Knowledge and Classroom Teaching of Global Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shiyu; Roehrig, Gillian; Bhattacharya, Devarati; Varma, Keisha

    2015-01-01

    This study explores in-service teachers' attitudes and knowledge about a pressing environmental issue, "global climate change" (GCC), and how these may relate to their classroom teaching. In this work, nineteen teachers from Native American communities attended a professional development workshop that focused on enhancing their…

  14. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Cervical Cancer Screening among Women with Physical Disabilities Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…

  16. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  17. Sexuality and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, Experiences, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo

    2006-01-01

    The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…

  18. The Effects of Two Outdoor Education Programs on Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis M.; Payne, Philip G.

    1986-01-01

    Compares effect of two different outdoor education programs (Van Matre's Sunship Earth and a traditional nature study program focusing on plants, animals, water, and soil) on attitudes and knowledge of 266 selected Washington County (Oregon) sixth graders attending a five-day residential outdoor school program. (NEC)

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Clinicians in Promoting Physical Activity to Prostate Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…

  20. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

  1. Knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study examined the knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians and identified how the knowledge and attitudes vary with gender, age, religion, education and related factors. Methods Data were collected using qualitative method in 2 districts of the Federal Capital Territory. In the study, eight (8) Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and twenty seven (27) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. Participants for the research were recruited among healthy Nigerians, individuals with complex diseases, health care professionals, community leaders and health policy makers. Result Analysis of the result showed that most respondents in both FGDs and KIIs had limited knowledge about genomics test initially. Their understanding of the test however improved after explanation on its concept. Participants showed positive attitude towards genomics tests. Nevertheless they expressed fear over direct to consumer personal genomics testing, testing unborn babies and disclosure of results to third parties. Culture and religion were found to influence the perspectives of respondents on genomics test particularly those aspects that could either directly contradict their beliefs and practices or lead to actions which contradict them. Conclusion In conclusion, most Nigerians interviewed had limited knowledge of genomics test but with supportive attitude towards its use in predicting future risk of complex diseases after understanding the test concept. Genomics testing for complex diseases was not a common practice in Nigeria. PMID:24766930

  2. Adolescents Who Self-Harm: Professional Staff Knowledge, Attitudes and Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timson, Debbie; Priest, Helena; Clark-Carter, David

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate professional staff attitudes and knowledge about adolescents who engage in self-harming behaviour and to identify training needs. Previous research has suggested that medical and health care staff perceptions may reinforce the stigma associated with such behaviour and therefore jeopardise the effectiveness of…

  3. A Comparative Study of Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among University Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John

    2011-01-01

    Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…

  4. The Effect of "Tenebrio Obscurus" on Elementary Preservice Teachers' Content Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinburgh, Molly

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers' content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using…

  5. Exploring Science Teachers' Attitudes and Knowledge about Environmental Education in Three International Teaching Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Medina-Jerez, William; Erdogan, Ibrahim; Zhang, Danhui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the similarities and differences among 171 Grade 7-12 science teachers from three different countries (54 U.S, 63 Bolivian, and 54 Turkish) with respect to their attitudes toward environmental education (EE) and instructional practices. The instrument employed explored how teachers' knowledge, instructional practices,…

  6. Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that child-centred, 5E learning cycle-based climate change activities would have over more traditional teacher-centred activities on Malaysian Year 5 primary students (11 years). A quasi-experimental design involving a treatment (n = 55) and a group representing typical teaching method (n = 60) was used to measure the effectiveness of these activities on (a) increasing children's knowledge about global warming; (b) changing their attitudes to be more favourable towards the environment and (c) identify the relationship between knowledge and attitude that exist in this study. Statistically significant differences in favour of the treatment group were detected for both knowledge and environmental attitudes. Non-significant relationship was identified between knowledge and attitude in this study. Interviews with randomly selected students from treatment and comparison groups further underscore these findings. Implications are discussed.

  7. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students regarding the Health and Nutrition of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuberger, Roschelle, A.; Stanczak, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…

  9. Knowledge and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Regarding the Health and Nutrition of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuberger, Roschelle A.; Stanczak, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…

  10. Soy Protein and Coronary Heart Disease: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes of Produce and Seafood Processors and Food Safety Educators Regarding Nonthermal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole L.; Gable, Robert K.; Worobo, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was designed and administered to measure knowledge of and attitudes toward food safety impacts of nonthermal processing technologies of shellfish and produce industry personnel and extension educators. An online survey was sent via e-mail notification with the survey link through professional listserves. The survey…

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors on Child Passenger Safety among Expectant Mothers and Parents of Newborns: A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors about use of child safety seats among parents of newborns and explore expectant mothers’ views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Methods A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interview were conducted in the maternity departments of two hospitals in China. Parents of newborns were recruited after delivery and surveyed on their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding child safety seats use. Pregnant women were also interviewed to learn about their views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the data collected. Results Of a total of 242 parents of newborns recruited in the quantitative survey, 202 (83.5%) parents had heard of child safety seats and 149 (61.6%) parents reported they would use child safety seats for their babies. Parents’ knowledge, car ownership, occupation, and income were significantly associated with their decision regarding use of child safety seats. Three themes were identified from the qualitative interview of 30 pregnant women: (1) the pregnant women perceived child passenger safety as important; (2) the car ownership and price and quality of child safety seats were major influencing factors of their decisions on use of child safety seats; and (3) lack of awareness and lack of laws requiring use were perceived to contribute to low use of child safety seats in China. Conclusion Lack of knowledge and awareness on child passenger safety were found to be two most important factors associated with low use of child safety seats. Effective interventions are urgently needed to improve parents’ knowledge before laws are enacted and implemented. PMID:26735974

  13. In Difficult Times: Influences of Attitudes and Expectations on Training and Redeployment Opportunities in a Hospital Contraction Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Jeff; Watson, Sandra; Munro, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    Employees in a British hospital (n=119) involved in downsizing and staff redeployment were surveyed. Traditions of employment security in the National Health Service and increasing uncertainty in the work environment provoked negative attitudes and reluctance to participate in retraining and redeployment. These attitudes were not associated with…

  14. An Investigation of Nursing Staff Attitudes and Emotional Reactions towards Patients with Intellectual Disability in a General Hospital Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sharna; Stenfert-Kroese, Biza

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that inequalities in health care for people with intellectual disabilities may be partly explained by negative attitudes of health professionals. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes and emotional reactions reported by nursing staff working in general hospitals towards caring for patients with…

  15. Sexual knowledge, attitudes and activity of men conscripted into the military

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education PMID:20875121

  16. Knowledge and attitude assessment of Iranian multiple sclerosis patients receiving interferon beta

    PubMed Central

    Abolfazli, Roya; Elyasi, Azam; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Amir-Shahkarami, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Nasr, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients permanently confronted with serious challenges from treatment regimen. Developing a new questionnaire in MS management, through evaluation of patients’ perspectives and knowledge regarding treatment will help to identify the sources of tension, and to build a therapeutic alliance. We purposed to describe MS patients’ understanding of their treatments. Methods: About 425 completed and returned questionnaire were assessed of a total of 500 recruited MS patients. The knowledge of correct using interferon-beta (IFN-β) and attitude toward medical care were assessed using self-reported questionnaires consisted of 25 items with validity of multidisciplinary panel and pre-testing on 20 patients. Results: Knowledge about IFN-β therapy was very low; however, attitude was at a high level. Female patients, self-injection ability, higher educational level, normal functional status, delay from the start of diagnostic workup to definite diagnosis, and being younger were related to a higher level of knowledge. Attitude was associated with functional status, family history of disease and the summary of knowledge variable. Conclusion: Developing educational interventions are needed for MS patients regarding to their low levels of knowledge. PMID:25422736

  17. A Community Based Study on the Mode of Transmission, Prevention and Treatment of Buruli Ulcers in Southwest Cameroon: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis K. T.; Nsai, Frankline S.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical disease affecting the skin, tissues and in some cases the bones, caused by the environmental pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans). Its mode of transmission is still elusive. Delayed treatment may cause irreversible disabilities with consequent social and economic impacts on the victim. Socio-cultural beliefs, practices and attitudes in endemic communities have been shown to influence timely treatment causing disease management, prevention and control a great challenge. An assessment of these factors in endemic localities is important in designing successful intervention strategies. Considering this, we assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding BU in three endemic localities in the South West region, Cameroon to highlight existing misconceptions that need to be addressed to enhance prompt treatment and facilitate effective prevention and control. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was executed in three BU endemic health districts. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches we surveyed 320 randomly selected household heads, interviewed BU patients and conducted three focus group discussions (FGDs) to obtain information on awareness, beliefs, treatment, and attitudes towards victims. The influence of socio-demographic factors on these variables was investigated. Results Respondents (84.4%) had a good knowledge of BU though only 65% considered it a health problem while 49.4% believed it is contagious. Socio-demographic factors significantly (P<0.05) influenced awareness of BU, knowledge and practice on treatment and attitudes towards victims. Although the majority of respondents stated the hospital as the place for appropriate treatment, FGDs and some BU victims preferred witchdoctors/herbalists and prayers, and considered the hospital as the last option. We documented beliefs about the disease which could delay treatment. Conclusion Though we are reporting a high level of

  18. [Knowledge and attitude towards diabetes mellitus in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Martín; Puchulu, Félix

    2015-01-01

    A population survey was conducted in 9 provinces of Argentina in 2012 aimed at determining the level of knowledge of diabetes mellitus and the risk of developing the disease. This was a cross-sectional study based on the general population and including men and women aged 18-70 years from all socioeconomic backgrounds. Results showed that 30.5% of participants without diabetes mellitus were at risk of developing the disease. Fifty-nine percent of participants had a body mass index = 25 kg/m2. Forty-nine percent did less than 30 minutes of daily physical activity. Only 34% of the population ate fruits and vegetables every day. Ninety-eight percent of participants had once heard of diabetes, and 67% defined it as a severe or very severe disease. In view of the findings resulting from this survey, healthcare services are expected to improve prevention and effective control of cardiovascular risk factors as well as to enhance preventive actions in order to encourage the adoption of healthier lifestyles from an earlier age and to achieve greater knowledge not only among patients living with diabetes, but also within the general population. PMID:26707657

  19. [Knowledge and attitude towards diabetes mellitus in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Martín; Puchulu, Félix

    2015-01-01

    A population survey was conducted in 9 provinces of Argentina in 2012 aimed at determining the level of knowledge of diabetes mellitus and the risk of developing the disease. This was a cross-sectional study based on the general population and including men and women aged 18-70 years from all socioeconomic backgrounds. Results showed that 30.5% of participants without diabetes mellitus were at risk of developing the disease. Fifty-nine percent of participants had a body mass index = 25 kg/m2. Forty-nine percent did less than 30 minutes of daily physical activity. Only 34% of the population ate fruits and vegetables every day. Ninety-eight percent of participants had once heard of diabetes, and 67% defined it as a severe or very severe disease. In view of the findings resulting from this survey, healthcare services are expected to improve prevention and effective control of cardiovascular risk factors as well as to enhance preventive actions in order to encourage the adoption of healthier lifestyles from an earlier age and to achieve greater knowledge not only among patients living with diabetes, but also within the general population.

  20. An examination of the impact of non-formal and informal learning on adult environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett

    The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that can influence infant feeding practices in American Indian mothers.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2014-10-01

    The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support. PMID:24951434

  2. Development of Instruments for Evaluating Changes in Attitude and Knowledge of Science of REU Program Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnley, P. C.; Evans, W.; Jarrett, O. S.

    2001-12-01

    Many science outreach and education efforts are based on the idea that these programs will positively impact the attitudes and understanding of science of the target audience. Although in many cases it is intuitively obvious that this is the case, it is desirable to measure the impact in some way. We are studying changes in knowledge of science and attitudes regarding science among participants in a summer REU program run by the Atlanta Consortium for Research in the Earth Sciences (ACRES). Instruments for measuring attitudes towards science exist in the education literature and we have applied several of these to our population as pre- and post- tests. However, we have observed that these instruments, having been designed for the general public, are not able to capture changes in our student's attitudes because their attitudes were very positive and their understanding of the nature of science already fairly sophisticated. The existing instruments also failed to detect differences between our geoscience faculty and a group of college students with limited exposure to college-level science. Therefore, we are developing a new survey instrument and a set of open-ended questions for measuring attitudes towards and knowledge of science that will be appropriate for college science students. The survey instrument is based on clusters of statements representing a variety of philosophical positions, from which respondents must pick one statement. We compare the distribution of the choices made by a group of respondents with the distribution of choices made by a group of geoscience faculty. The first version of the instrument was able to differentiate between three different groups of students with different science backgrounds as well as detect small changes in our RUE program participants' attitudes over the course of the program. Statistical analysis of responses to open-ended questions also differentiates between college students with different science backgrounds and

  3. [The knowledge attitude and practice of cancer prevention among primary school teachers].

    PubMed

    Yang, N P; Chou, P

    1991-04-01

    This study was based on the data collected through personal interviews by the Yang-Ming Crusade, organized by students of National Yang-Ming Medical College, during the summer vacations in 1983-1985. Arranged by 21 city/country Education Bureaus, the crusaders gave lectures on cancer education for primary school teachers in every city and town throughout the Taiwan area. Totally 36,426 questionnaires were filled out before the lecture meetings. This is a KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice) study of cancer prevention among primary school teachers. The cognizance rates of cervical cancer as the leading cancer and as the most curable one for women in Taiwan were 75.5% and 43.0% respectively. Pap smear and Hemoccult Slide Test were known by 95.9% and 74.0% of the interviewees, mostly from TV (65.6% and 68.9%), followed by hospital and others. The necessity of "early diagnosis and early treatment" was accepted by 91.9% of the interviewees, a periodical check-up for cancer was thought essential by 93.4% of them, and cancer insurance was consent by 90.3% of them. It was agreed by 51.3% of the interviewees and disagreed by 46.7% of them that herbs are effective to cure cancer. Psychological fear (36.8%), physiological pain (30.2%) and worry of interfering family (15.3%) were considered the most dreadful situations by primary school teachers in case of having cancer. Totally 56.4% of the female interviewees had had a Pap Test, 63.8% of them were for prevention. The most frequently consulted person for a Pap Test was husband (30.1%) and, secondly herself (8.0%). The most influencial persons for having a Pap Test were husband (24.8%) and physician (11.1%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Pediatric Dentists Regarding Speech Evaluation of Patients: Implications for Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Van Eyndhoven, Lisa; Chussid, Steven; Yoon, Richard K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine pediatric dentists' attitudes about speech evaluation in the dental setting and assess their knowledge of speech development and pathology. In October 2013, members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry were invited to participate in an electronic questionnaire. Categories of questions were demographics, attitudes and confidence in speech pathology, and theoretical and practical knowledge of speech development and speech pathology. Theoretical knowledge was assessed using questions about phonetics and speech milestones. Practical knowledge was determined with three 30-second interview-style video clips. A total of 539 responses were received for a response rate of 10.4%. The majority of respondents reported feeling that speech evaluation should be part of the pediatric dental visit (72.8%) and felt confident in their ability to detect speech issues (73.2%). However, they did poorly on the theoretical knowledge questions (41.9%) as well as the practical knowledge questions (8.5%). There was a statistically significant difference in theoretical score between gender and type of occupation (p<0.05). This difference was not observed when examining practical knowledge. This study suggests that although pediatric dentists are in an ideal position to aid in the detection of speech issues, they currently have insufficient training and knowledge to do so.

  5. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Kim, Jennifer S; Barnathan, Julia A; Amsden, Laura B; Tummala, Lakshmi S; Holl, Jane L

    2008-01-01

    Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups), physicians (3 groups), and the general public (2 groups). A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected. PMID:18803842

  6. Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Related to Eating Out among University Students in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S.; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother’s education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students. PMID:27420075

  7. Knowledge, its Application, and Attitudes Associated with the Reading of Diverse Genres of Science Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves Nigro, Rogerio; Frateschi Trivelato, Silvia

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the knowledge, application of knowledge, and attitudes associated with the reading of different genres of expository science texts. We assigned approximately half of a sample consisting of 220 students 14-15 years of age, chosen at random, to read an excerpt from a popular scientific text, and the other half to read an excerpt from a textbook addressing the same topic. Readers took knowledge and application tests immediately after the reading and again 15 days later. Students also took knowledge and reading proficiency pre-tests, and attitude tests related to the selected texts. Overall, girls scored higher than boys and readers of the popular scientific text scored higher than their colleagues who read the textbook excerpt. We noted interaction between 'reader gender' and 'genre of the text read' in terms of long-term learning based on the reading. Attitude regarding the text read appears as an important factor in explaining behavior of boys who read the popular scientific text. Surprisingly, knowledge and application test scores were not statistically different among girls with different degrees of reading proficiency who read the textbook excerpt. In addition, on the application tests, among the boys who read the popular scientific text, good readers scored lower than their colleagues who read the textbook excerpt. In our opinion, this study can serve to show that 'reading in science education' is not a trivial matter and we feel that the subject merits more in-depth investigation.

  8. Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Related to Eating Out among University Students in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother's education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students. PMID:27420075

  9. Critical Reading of Science-Based News Reports: Establishing a knowledge, skills and attitudes framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    A recognised aim of science education is to promote critical engagement with science in the media. Evidence would suggest that this is challenging for both teachers and pupils and that science education does not yet adequately prepare young people for this task. Furthermore, in the absence of clear guidance as to what this means and how this may be achieved it is difficult for teachers to develop approaches and resources that address the matter and that systematically promote such critical engagement within their teaching programmes. Twenty-six individuals with recognised expertise or interest in science in the media, drawn from a range of disciplines and areas of practice, constituted a specialist panel in this study. The question this research sought to answer was "what are the elements of knowledge, skill, and attitude which underpin critical reading of science-based news reports?" During in-depth individual interviews the panel were asked to explore what they considered to be essential elements of knowledge, skills, and attitude which people need to enable them to respond critically to news reports with a science component. Analysis of the data revealed 14 fundamental elements which together contribute to an individual's capacity to engage critically with science-based news. These are classified in five categories "knowledge of science", "knowledge of writing and language", "knowledge about news, newspapers and journalism", "skills", and "attitudes". Illustrative profiles of each category along with indicators of critical engagement are presented. The implications for curriculum planning and pedagogy are considered.

  10. HPV Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes among Older African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Kellie L.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness, knowledge, and attitudes among older, church-going African-American women. Methods Participants (N = 759), aged 40-80, answered survey questions about HPV awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward vaccination of adolescent daughters. Associations between participant characteristics and HPV items were assessed using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Results Younger age, higher education, a family history of cancer, and less spirituality were each associated with HPV awareness individually, and when considered jointly in a single model (p values ≤.038). Higher education was related to HPV knowledge (p = .006). Conclusions African-American women of older age, less education, no family history of cancer, and/or higher spirituality might benefit from targeted church-based HPV educational campaigns. PMID:25564833

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and communication around human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination amongst urban Asian mothers and physicians.

    PubMed

    Chow, Song-Nan; Soon, Ruey; Park, Jong Sup; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Qiao, You Lin; Basu, Partha; Ngan, Hextan Yuen Sheung

    2010-05-14

    To determine why HPV vaccination uptake is low in Asia, we surveyed attitudes, knowledge and communication about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination amongst 480 physicians and 1617 randomly selected urban mothers who could afford HPV vaccines in Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. HPV vaccine rejection by mothers was linked with poor knowledge and low perceptions of self-relevance. Physicians' likelihood of raising the subject and/or recommending vaccination was linked to how proactively they advocate preventive health, their attitude to the subject's sensitivity and their knowledge levels. Because most Asian mothers seek doctors' advice and prefer them to take the initiative, physicians should be more proactive in discussing and recommending HPV vaccination.

  12. The role of service-learning in college students' environmental literacy: Content knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singletary, Joanna Lynn Bush

    This study evaluated the relationship of environmental service-learning on environmental literacy in undergraduates. The subjects were 36 undergraduates at a small liberal arts university enrolled in an environmental biology course. To determine the role of environmental service-learning on college students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and environmental literacy, this study utilized concurrent mixed methods approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis. A quasi-experimental repeated measures approach was the design of the quantitative component of the study. Data were collected on attitude, behavior, and content knowledge aspects of environmental literacy as measured by the Environmental Literacy Survey (Kibert, 2000). Hypotheses were tested by independent samples ttests and repeated measures ANOVA. Repeated measures ANOVA conducted on participants' three subscales scores for the Environmental Literacy Survey (attitude, behavior, and knowledge) indicated that students who participated in environmental service-learning scored statistically significantly higher than those that did not initially participate in service-learning. Qualitative data collected in the form of journal reflections and portfolios were evaluated for themes of environmental attitudes or affective statements, environmentally positive behaviors and skills, and ecological content. Quantitative and qualitative data support the positive role of environmental service-learning in the development of environmental literacy in undergraduate students.

  13. Knowledge and attitude towards cancer: the need for health education.

    PubMed

    Basu, Abhijit; Datta, Swarnendu; Roy, Chhaya

    2010-05-01

    This study attempts to record the status of knowledge, ideas and opinions of a group of enlightened urban people of Kolkata about different aspects of cancer. Information gathered from 727 persons (341 males and 386 females) showed that most of the subjects consider cancer as the most alarming disease and pain as its most distressing problem. More than half of them think that cancer is curable in only 25% cases and 72% think it is 'sometimes' preventable. The commonest site of cancer, according to 38% of them, is stomach whereas that in female, according to 52% is uterus. Most of them are well aware about the risk of repeated x-ray exposures, smoke and dust but not about oral contraceptives. Majority (92%) opined in favour of a cancer specialist for consultation and more than 98% think that cancer, once diagnosed, must be treated, preferably with radiotherapy (45%), against surgery (29%) and anti-cancer chemotherapy (24%). Early detection was emphasised by 78% for increasing cure rate. Shyness was thought by the majority to be the chief cause of delay in seeking treatment in case of breast cancer cases. As health education media television and cinema slides were considered to be most effective. Most of the subjects advocated for psychological (47%) or medical (34%) support in the terminal stages of cancer.

  14. Exploring AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female Mexican migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R

    1998-05-01

    AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.

  15. Impact of preseason concussion education on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of high school athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Brad G.; Pomerantz, Wendy J.; Schaiper, Courtney; Ho, Mona; Gittelman, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The benefit of preseason concussion education on athletes’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors is unclear. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of preseason concussion education on knowledge and self-reported attitudes and reporting behaviors. We hypothesized that preseason education would lead to better knowledge and self-reported attitudes and better reporting of concussion symptoms during the season. Methods Prospective cohort comparing the benefits of a preseason lectured-based concussion education session at one high school with a control school. Participants included males and females age 13–18 years from two community high schools who were participating in higher concussion risk, fall or winter sports (football, soccer, wrestling, and basketball). The education school and control school included 234 and 262 participants, respectively. Outcomes were a pre- and post-season survey assessing knowledge and self-reported attitudes about concussions and an end of season questionnaire assessing concussion reporting behaviors during the season. Results Total scores on the combined (p<.0001), knowledge-based (p=.016), and behavioral-based (p<.0001) questions demonstrated statistically significant improvement in the education group. Scores peakedimmediately post education, but dissipated at the end of the season. There was a lower proportion in the education school (72%) compared to the control school (88%) that reported continued play despite having concussion symptoms during the season (p=.025). A similar proportion of athletes diagnosed with concussion during the season in the education (27%) and control schools (23%) reported returning to play before symptoms resolved (p=.81). Conclusion These findings suggest that a didactic-based preseason concussion education likely has minimal benefits. Other factors besides knowledge are likely influencing student-athlete concussion reporting behavior. Future research focused on changing the

  16. [Changes in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes for PWA in Tokyo: 1992-1995].

    PubMed

    Inagaki, T

    1997-12-01

    In order to assess changes in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitude for People With HIV/AIDS (PWA), interview surveys (Dec. 1992, Jan. 1994, Jan. 1995) were carried out annually on random samples of the general public in Tokyo, age between 15-69 years. In total, 4,270 individuals were sampled, with an average response rate of 63.2%. Answers were scored and classified in 12 sex and age sub-groups. Additionally, correlations between scores of questions and social indices were analyzed. The results of the study are as follows: 1) The 15-19, 20-29 and 30-39 age groups showed higher scores on knowledge about HIV transmission modes. During the entire study period, the score increased in 7 groups, but decreased in 5 groups. 2) The 30-39 and 40-49 age groups showed higher scores on knowledge about HIV antibody test. During the period, the score increased in 11 groups, and among them 6 groups showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases. However, the score decreased in 9 groups at the third survey. 3) The 15-19, 20-29 and 30-39 age groups showed higher scores on acceptable attitudes for PWA. During the period, the score increased in all groups, and among them 3 groups showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases. 4) Rank correlations between two scores-knowledge quantity about the transmission modes and acceptable attitudes for PWA-were positive (0.2 < R) and statistically significant (p < 0.05) in 11 groups at the first survey, 9 groups at the second, and 6 groups at the third. 5) During the entire study period, 6 groups showed positive correlations (0.7 < R) between two changes: (1) score of knowledge about the transmission modes and (2) score of acceptable attitudes. 6) During the entire study period, 10 groups showed positive correlations (0.7 < R) between two changes: (1) score of acceptable attitudes and (2) number of newspaper articles regarding acceptance or discrimination of the PWA. 7) Knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the general public in Tokyo showed

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding intrauterine contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Makuch, Maria Y; Monteiro, Ilza; Marin, Victor; Lynen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs), including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs. Results Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0%) to 205 (97.6%). Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did not offer IUCs to adolescents, albeit almost 90% of the respondents reported that nulligravidas are candidates for an LNG-IUS. Conclusion Some deficiencies and contradictions in terms of knowledge and attitudes were identified from the answers of the Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey. The knowledge and

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Antibiotic Use among the Public in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Abdelmoneim Ismail; Aboud, Esraa Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    Background The emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem worldwide, which presents a significant threat to public health globally in the 21st century. A substantial evidence has shown that the general community plays a role in the increase and spread of antibiotic resistance. The present study was designed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice towards antibiotic use. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 770 randomly selected Kuwaiti individuals. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis. Results The response rate was 88.3%. Nearly three-quarters (72.8%) of respondents had been prescribed antibiotics within 12 months prior to the study period, and 36% of them had not finished the course of treatment. Over one-quarter (27.5%) were self-medicated with antibiotics to treat mainly common cold, sore throat and cough. Self-medication was more prevalent among those who were prescribed antibiotics and those who had attitudes towards using and accessing antibiotic inappropriately. Almost 47% of participants had low knowledge regarding action, use, safety and resistance of antibiotics. Forty one percent of respondents had attitudes towards using and accessing antibiotic inappropriately. Better knowledge was found to be a predictor for positive attitude. Respondents level of agreement that doctors often prescribe antibiotics to meet the patient’s expectation, and that doctors often take time to consider carefully the need for an antibiotic were 52.7% and 35.3%, respectively. Conclusions These findings will aid in the assessment of the adequacy of present public educational campaigns. Also, it will provide further insight in designing future multifaceted interventions to promote specific messages to rationalize antibiotic use, and compensate for knowledge and attitude gaps as an effort towards preventing

  19. The impact of a hospital-wide experiential learning educational program on staff's knowledge and misconceptions about aging.

    PubMed

    Karner, K J; Rheinheimer, D C; DeLisi, A M; Due, C

    1998-01-01

    The increased use of health care services by older adults has prompted an interest in preparing health care workers to better deal with the special needs of older adults. Aging education is one method of sensitizing health care personnel to these special needs, but the effectiveness of such educational programs needs to be established. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the knowledge and attitudes of hospital personnel of their participation in an experiential learning educational program concerning older adults. Each of nine groups of hospital employees attended a 2-hour workshop. Each group completed a pretest and posttest using Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz. A significant increase in scores was found in all groups after the workshop experience, and some groups had a greater increase in scores than others. PMID:9652262

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacists and health-care workers regarding oral contraceptives correct usage, side-effects and contraindications.

    PubMed

    Sattari, M; Mokhtari, Z; Jabari, H; Mashayekhi, S O

    2013-06-01

    Despite the success of the Iranian family planning programme, the number of unwanted pregnancies remains high. To investigate whether health workers in Tabriz are providing correct information and counselling about OCP use, the current study was planned to examine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of OCP providers. A sample of 150 health-care workers in health houses and 150 community/hospital pharmacists answered a questionnaire about knowledge of correct use of OCP, side-effects, contraindications, danger signs/symptoms and non-contraceptive benefits, and whether they counselled patients about these subjects. Knowledge of pharmacists and health workers was not as high as expected and in many topics they were counselling patients even when they had incorrect knowledge and in other areas they were not providing information to patients despite having the correct knowledge. Better continuing education for OCP providers and especially for pharmacists seems necessary. PMID:24975184

  1. The relationship between adolescents' civic knowledge, civic attitude, and civic behavior and their self-reported future likelihood of voting

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Chaffee, Benjamin W.

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing objective of American public education is fostering civically engaged youth. Identifying characteristics associated with likelihood of future voting, a measure of democratic participation that predicts future voting behavior, might yield targets for education programs to increase civic participation. Survey data from urban adolescents were analyzed to elucidate how civic knowledge, civic attitudes, and civic behaviors are associated with self-reported likelihood of future voting. In a multivariable ordered logistic regression model with latent constructs for civic knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, two civic knowledge constructs and two civic attitude constructs maintained a positive, statistically significant independent association with future voting likelihood after adjusting for race/ethnicity and advanced coursework: knowledge of American governance, current events knowledge, general self-efficacy, and skill-specific self-efficacy. Further research is necessary to determine whether education programs can intervene upon these civic knowledge and civic attitude factors to increase voting participation later in life. PMID:24847376

  2. The relationship between adolescents' civic knowledge, civic attitude, and civic behavior and their self-reported future likelihood of voting.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alison K; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2013-03-01

    A long-standing objective of American public education is fostering civically engaged youth. Identifying characteristics associated with likelihood of future voting, a measure of democratic participation that predicts future voting behavior, might yield targets for education programs to increase civic participation. Survey data from urban adolescents were analyzed to elucidate how civic knowledge, civic attitudes, and civic behaviors are associated with self-reported likelihood of future voting. In a multivariable ordered logistic regression model with latent constructs for civic knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, two civic knowledge constructs and two civic attitude constructs maintained a positive, statistically significant independent association with future voting likelihood after adjusting for race/ethnicity and advanced coursework: knowledge of American governance, current events knowledge, general self-efficacy, and skill-specific self-efficacy. Further research is necessary to determine whether education programs can intervene upon these civic knowledge and civic attitude factors to increase voting participation later in life.

  3. High school students' knowledge, attitude, and practice with respect to epilepsy in Kerala, southern India.

    PubMed

    Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Santosh, Deetha; Kumar, T Santosh; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2006-11-01

    Very little information is available on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) with respect to epilepsy among schoolchildren from developing countries. We quantified KAP with respect to epilepsy among 1213 tenth-grade students of Kerala, southern India. Ninety-eight percent of them had heard or read about epilepsy. However, nearly 60% of students thought that epilepsy was a form of insanity. Allopathic treatment was preferred by more than half of the respondents; however, many had faith in exorcism and visiting religious places as ways to cure epilepsy. Half of the students considered epilepsy a hindrance to education, employment, and marriage. Thirteen percent would be unwilling to sit adjacent to or play with a child with epilepsy. We conclude that although familiarity with epilepsy was high among high school students in Kerala, misconceptions and negative attitudes were alarmingly high. Persistent and effective information campaigns, therefore, are necessary to change their attitudes toward fellow students with epilepsy.

  4. New drug prescribing by hospital doctors: the nature and meaning of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Helen; Walley, Tom

    2006-04-01

    In the UK the high cost of new drugs is partly accountable for the growth in spending on prescription drugs. Most prescribing takes place in general practice and the influence of secondary care prescribing on primary care prescribing is well recognized; yet the factors that influence hospital prescribing have been little researched. Drawing on accounts of actual prescribing events from hospital doctors from a range of specialties, we investigated the processes by which new drugs come into practice, from hospital doctors' awareness of new drugs to the assimilation and interpretation of evidential sources. The determinants of new drug prescribing were interconnected within four forms of knowledge: scientific knowledge, social knowledge, patient knowledge and experiential knowledge. Furthermore, the nature of knowledge could only be understood within its situated context. The revelation of multiple and contingent forms of knowledge highlights the problematic nature of knowledge construction within the approaches of evidence-based medicine.

  5. Effects of a Lifestyle Modification Program on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Hypertensive Patients with Angioplasty: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Fahimeh; Shahriari, Mohsen; Sabouhi, Fakhri; Khosravi Farsani, Alireza; Eghbali Babadi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Lack of knowledge, attitude and practice are some of the barriers of having a healthy lifestyle and controlling high blood pressure. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program on knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted from November to April 2014 on 60 hypertensive patients with angioplasty in Shahid Chamran hospital of Isfahan, Iran. The samples were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Data collection was performed in three stages by a researcher-made questionnaire. The intervention plan was 6 education sessions and then follow up were done by phone call. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (V.20), using t-test, Chi-square, repeated measurement, and post hoc LSD test and ANOVA statistics. Results: The mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice in the experimental group immediately after the intervention was 77.8±7.2, 88.3±6.4 and 86.2±6.5, respectively and one month after the intervention was 80.8±7.4, 91.1±3.5 and 92.5±2.2, respectively. But in the control group, the mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice immediately after the intervention (34.90±11.23, 61.11±6.28, and 38.64±7.15) and one month after the intervention was (38.64±7.15, 59.56±6.31 and 37.27±7.26. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification program can be effective in promoting the knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Nurses can use this program in their care provision programs for these patients. Trial Registration Number:IRCT2015062420912N3 PMID:27713892

  6. Evaluation of knowledge and attitude of school teachers about emergency management of traumatic dental injury

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) are widespread in the population and are a serious dental public health problem among children. Dental trauma may cause both functional and esthetic problems, with possible impacts on the patient's quality of life. Aim: To investigate teacher's knowledge and attitudes of Mathura city about emergency management of TDIs in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 352 teachers from total 23 schools of Mathura city were included in the study. Data were collected through a survey, which included a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three major parts containing multiple-choice questions. Results: Among the teachers 51.1% were males and 48.9% were females. Majority of the respondents, that is, 33.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age. Most respondents (34%) had more than 10 years of teaching experience. Majority of the teachers (39.2%) had educational qualification other than B.Ed. and M.Ed. degrees. Physical education teachers comprised the largest group of school teachers. Regarding knowledge and attitude, the teachers with 10–20 years of teaching experience, physical education teachers, and the teachers other than B.Ed. and M.Ed. qualifications had given more correct answers to the questions when compared with other groups. Conclusion: For the teachers having a low level of knowledge, there is a need for greater awareness to improve teachers’ knowledge and attitudes related to the emergency management of TDIs in children by organizing educative and motivational programs. PMID:25992335

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward Infant Oral Healthcare among the Pediatricians of Mysore: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Indira, MD; Nandlal, B

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study was to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the pediatricians toward infant oral healthcare and the objective was to determine what can improve the knowledge, attitude and practice toward infant oral healthcare. Materials and methods: A systematic random survey of pediatricians in Mysore received a questionnaire pertaining to individual details, knowledge level and approach toward infant oral healthcare. Results: Most of pediatricians acknowledged the importance of pediatric dentistry. Pediatricians agree that it is important to do dental examination before 1 year. The importance of initiating oral hygiene practice before the eruption of first tooth was not seen to be prevalent among the pediatricians. Most of them were less aware of the first dental visit including early childhood caries (ECC). All pediatricians agree that both medical and dental professionals together are responsible for infant oral healthcare. They should work together to appropriately educate and train themselves to be able to provide risk assessment and to provide preventive oral health services. How to cite this article: Indira MD, Dhull KS, Nandlal B. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward Infant Oral Healthcare among the Pediatricians of Mysore: A Questionnaire Survey. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):211-214. PMID:26604540

  8. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking in medical students before and after a tobacco seminar.

    PubMed

    Chung, T W; Lam, T H; Cheng, Y H

    1996-07-01

    A 3-hour seminar on tobacco was introduced to second year (pre-clinical) medical students in Hong Kong in 1994. The differences in knowledge and attitudes were measured by a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire with 14 items before the seminar (n = 145), and again 2 weeks after the seminar (n = 151). The students also completed an evaluation form at the end of the seminar. Before the seminar, the students were most deficient in their knowledge on the exact magnitude of the risks from smoking and on the risks from smoking relative to the risks from air pollution and asbestos. After the seminar, their knowledge increased significantly (P < 0.005). As for attitudes, in the pre-test 35% strongly agreed that tobacco advertising should be completely banned, and 50% did so in the post-test (P = 0.02). The corresponding figures for banning of all forms of tobacco promotion were 26% and 43% (P < 0.005). In the pre-test, one in four students strongly disagreed that doctor's advice to their patients to stop smoking is totally ineffective, with this proportion increasing to 70% in the post-test (P < 0.005). The majority of the students stated that the seminar was useful. The preclinical medical curriculum should, at the very least, include a tobacco seminar. Our survey shows that it is effective in improving students' knowledge and attitudes on tobacco control. PMID:8949541

  9. The Impact of Pediatric Palliative Care Education on Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Przysło, Łukasz; Kędzierska, Bogna; Stolarska, Małgorzata; Młynarski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Most undergraduate palliative care curricula omit pediatric palliative care (PPC) issues. Aim of the study was to evaluate the pilot education programme. Methods. All 391 students of Faculty of Medicine (FM) and 59 students of Division of Nursing (DN) were included in anonymous questionnaire study. Respondents were tested on their knowledge and attitude towards PPC issues before and at the end of the programme and were expected to evaluate the programme at the end. Results. For final analysis, authors qualified 375 double forms filled in correctly (320 FM and 55 DN). Before the programme, students' knowledge assessed on 0–100-point scale was low (FM: median: 43.35 points; 25%–75%: (40p–53.3p); DN: 26.7p; 13.3p–46.7p), and, in addition, there were differences (P < 0.001) between both faculties. Upon completion of the programme, significant increase of the level of knowledge in both faculties was noted (FM: 80p; 73.3–100; DN: 80p; 66.7p–80p). Participation in the programme changed declared attitudes towards some aspects of withholding of special procedures, euthanasia, and abortion. Both groups of students positively evaluated the programme. Conclusions. This study identifies medical students' limited knowledge of PPC. Educational intervention changes students' attitudes to the specific end-of-life issues. There is a need for palliative care curricula evaluation. PMID:24501581

  10. Evolution of college students' AIDS-related behavioral responses, attitudes, knowledge, and fear.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J D; Misovich, S J

    1990-01-01

    Data were collected (a) to document extant levels of AIDS-risk behavior, AIDS-preventive behavior, AIDS-knowledge, and attitudes toward prevention among college students, (b) to assess the evolution from 1986 to 1988 of college students' behavioral and attitudinal responses to the AIDS epidemic, and (c) to document changes over time in college students' knowledge about AIDS. Although students' current levels of AIDS-knowledge were found to be relatively high, and their attitudes toward prevention were in the neutral range, actual preventive behavior was low, and unsafe sexual practices were high. Concerning changes in these dimensions across time, data using comparable samples of undergraduates in 1986, 1987, and 1988 indicated that there were substantial increases in knowledge about AIDS, in the favorability of attitudes toward certain "safer-sex" behaviors (e.g., discussing "safer sex"), and in the utilization of relevant informational resources. Students' perceptions of others' vulnerability to AIDS (but not their own vulnerability), had also increased. However, at the same time, students reported a decrease in the safety of their sexual behaviors. Numbers of sexual partners, likelihood of being in an intimate (sexual) relationship, and unsafe sexual practices have all increased since 1986. Finally, evidence suggested that alcohol may play a significant role in students' AIDS-risk behavior. PMID:2288814

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. PMID:26990176

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Pengsaa, Prasit; Pilasri, Chutigan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in prevention and control of liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand. METHODS: A descriptive KAP survey pertaining to liver fluke infection was carried out in June 2005 to October 2006 using structured questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaires consisting of general parameters, knowledge, attitude, practice, and a history of participation in the prevention and control of liver fluke infection. RESULTS: A total of 1077 persons who were inter-viewed and completed the questionnaires were enrolled in the study. The majority were females (69.5%) and many of them were 15-20 years of age (37.26%). The questionnaires revealed that information resources on liver fluke infection included local public health volunteers (31.37%), public health officers (18.72%), televisions (14.38%), local heads of sub-districts (12.31%), doctors and nurses (9.18%), newspaper (5.72), internets (5.37%), and others (12.95%). Fifty-five point eleven percent of the population had a good level of liver fluke knowledge concerning the mode of disease transmission and 79.72% of the population had a good level of prevention and control knowledge with regards to defecation and consumption. The attitude and practice in liver fluke prevention and control were also at a good level with a positive awareness, participation, and satisfaction of 72.1% and 60.83% of the persons studied. However, good health behavior was found in 39.26% and 41.42% of the persons studied who had unhygienic defecation and ate raw cyprinoid’s fish. The result also showed that 41.25% of the persons studied previously joined prevention and control campaigns. CONCLUSION: The persons studied have a high level of liver fluke knowledge and positive attitude. However, improvement is required regarding personal hygiene specifically with hygienic defecation and consumption of undercooked fish. PMID:17465477

  14. Effects of an AIDS education program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of low income black and Latina women.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Nyamathi, A M

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an AIDS education program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of low income black and Latina women. A pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used with a 2-3 month retest of the experimental group. The sample consisted of 506 experimental and 206 control group women who were clients of the Public Health Foundation's Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Los Angeles County. The program included a slide-tape presentation, and educational and resource brochures in English and Spanish. Knowledge, attitudes, and sexual and drug use practices were measured using a structured questionnaire that was developed in English and Spanish. Content validity and reliability of the questionnaire were established. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA examined differences in pretest-posttest knowledge, attitudes, and practices for experimental and control groups and for both racial/ethnic groups. The experimental group made significant gains over the control group on pretest-posttest measures of knowledge and attitudes. Both experimental and control groups made significant changes in practice. Changes in knowledge were retained on retest; changes in practices came close to significance on retest. Blacks and Latinas differed on pretest knowledge and attitudes but not practices. Blacks had more knowledge and positive attitudes on pretest. However, posttest improvements for both knowledge and attitudes were greater in Latinas than in blacks. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the best predictors of knowledge, attitudes and practices were racial/ethnic group, education, and religion. It is concluded that a didactic audio visual program can positively affect the knowledge and possibly the practices of participants and that these are retained over time but that changes in attitudes will take further efforts.

  15. Domestic violence: knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice of selected UK primary healthcare clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Jean; Rutterford, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Dunne, Danielle; Eldridge, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie; Feder, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Background Domestic violence affects one in four women and has significant health consequences. Women experiencing abuse identify doctors and other health professionals as potential sources of support. Primary care clinicians agree that domestic violence is a healthcare issue but have been reluctant to ask women if they are experiencing abuse. Aim To measure selected UK primary care clinicians’ current levels of knowledge, attitudes, and clinical skills in this area. Design and setting Prospective observational cohort in 48 general practices from Hackney in London and Bristol, UK. Method Administration of the Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS), comprising five sections: responder profile, background (perceived preparation and knowledge), actual knowledge, opinions, and practice issues. Results Two hundred and seventy-two (59%) clinicians responded. Minimal previous domestic violence training was reported by participants. Clinicians only had basic knowledge about domestic violence but expressed a positive attitude towards engaging with women experiencing abuse. Many clinicians felt poorly prepared to ask relevant questions about domestic violence or to make appropriate referrals if abuse was disclosed. Forty per cent of participants never or seldom asked about abuse when a woman presented with injuries. Eighty per cent said that they did not have an adequate knowledge of local domestic violence resources. GPs were better prepared and more knowledgeable than practice nurses; they also identified a higher number of domestic violence cases. Conclusion Primary care clinicians’ attitudes towards women experiencing domestic violence are generally positive but they only have basic knowledge of the area. Both GPs and practice nurses need more comprehensive training on assessment and intervention, including the availability of local domestic violence services. PMID:22947586

  16. Exploring Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Attitudes: Disparities by Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Amaranta D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rocca, Corinne H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. Methods This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Findings Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18–19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20–29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Conclusions Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. PMID:24725755

  17. Women's knowledge, attitudes and practice about breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Bouanene, Ines; Mhirsi, Amel; Sriha, Asma; Ben Salem, Kamel; Soltani, Mohamed Soussi

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health problem. In Tunisia, it is considered to be the primary women's cancer and causes high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate female knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional design exploring knowledge, attitudes and practices of women in the region of Monastir on breast cancer screening. The study was conducted in health centres of this region from 1 March 2009 to 30 June 2009. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 items on demographic status, knowledge of risk factors and screening methods and attitudes towards the relevance and effectiveness of breast cancer screening. A scoring scheme was used to score women's responses. A total of 900 women agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 41.6±12.4 years and 64% did not exceed the primary level of education. According to the constructed scores, 92% of participants had poor knowledge of the specific risk factors for breast cancer and 63.2% had poor knowledge of the screening methods. Proper practice of breast cancer screening was observed in 14.3% of cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that good knowledge of risk factors and screening methods, higher level of education and positive family history of breast cancer were independently correlated with breast cancer screening practice. This study revealed poor knowledge of breast cancer and the screening methods as well as low levels of practice of breast cancer screening among women in the region of Monastir. Results justify educational programs to raise women's adherence to breast cancer screening programs in Tunisia.

  18. Athlete support personnel and anti-doping: Knowledge, attitudes, and ethical stance.

    PubMed

    Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F

    2014-10-01

    Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n = 292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:23692367

  19. Athlete support personnel and anti-doping: Knowledge, attitudes, and ethical stance.

    PubMed

    Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F

    2014-10-01

    Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n = 292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice.

  20. An empirical analysis of the public's attitudes toward advertising hospital services: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Moser, H Ronald; Freeman, Gordon L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates current opinions about hospital advertising and compares them to the attitudes expressed 25 years ago. It replicates a survey done in 1985, using the same questionnaire and population to compare responses longitudinally. The study indicates some changes in the public's opinions of hospital advertising. Although the image of hospitals remains positive, most of the 2010 respondents' opinions were rather mixed regarding whether it is proper for hospitals to advertise. The study also confirmed that the quality of service and reputation of hospitals remain more important to the public than price. PMID:24617720

  1. Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of the Urban Poor Concerning Solid Waste Management: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid Murad, M. D.; Siwar, Chamhuri

    This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor communities concerning solid waste management are adequate and satisfactory. Hence, the low socio-economic profile of the urban poor has not been proven as causal to environmental degradation. The study suggests that it is inherent to improve the quality of lifestyles of the poor to enable them to come out of poverty threshold, even though an adequate and satisfactory solid waste management system exists amongst the communities.

  2. A Survey of Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Urmia, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahshid; Rabiepoor, Soheila; Forough, Aida Sefidani; Jabbari, Shiva; Shahabi, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Personal beliefs of medical students may interfere with their tendency for learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine concepts. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary and alternative medicine in Urmia, Iran. A structured questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. One hundred questionnaires were returned. Thirty-one percent of students reported use of alternative medicine for at least once. Iranian Traditional Medicine was the main type of alternative medicine used by medical students (93.5%). Neuromuscular disorders were the main indication of alternative medicine use among students (34.4%). Ninety percent of participants demonstrated competent knowledge about acupuncture while the lowest scores belonged to homeopathy (12%). Study results showed that 49% of medical students had positive attitudes and demonstrated a willingness to receive training on the subject. Thus, there appears a necessity to integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations and feedbacks of medical students into consideration.

  3. Substance-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior among College Students: Opportunities for Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Dykstra, Jennifer L.; Collins, Bradley N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine substance-related attitudes and behaviors among college students across an academic semester. Design Pre-post quasi-experimental survey design. Setting A large Midwestern University. Method Surveys were completed by 299 undergraduates enrolled in three courses: drugs and behavior, abnormal psychology, and normal personality theories. Results Although students enrolled in the drug course were not more knowledgeable about drugs than others at baseline, their knowledge increased by semester’s end, while the others’ did not. Perceived prevalence of alcohol use was more accurate and became increasingly accurate among drugs and behavior students. Class enrollment, gender, and baseline substance use were associated with baseline attitudes and behaviors as well as changes over time. Conclusion This study offers implications for substance use education opportunities on college campuses. PMID:22303033

  4. Oral health related knowledge, attitude, and practice among the pre-university students of Mysore city

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Veera; Bennadi, Darshana; Gaduputi, Satish; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Siluvai, Sibyl; Reddy, Chava Venkata Konda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-university students of Mysore city. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1000 pre-university students of Mysore city. Results: Statistical tests such as percentage distribution and Chi-square were used. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Most of the students (88%, n = 880) knew that dental health reflects on the general health. Eighty-nine percent (n = 890) of students were aware that sweets and sticky food cause dental decay. Majority of the students (90%, n = 900) agreed that they visited dentist only when they had pain and cleaned their teeth once daily using toothbrush and tooth paste in vertical and horizontal motion. Conclusion: The study showed that the students had good knowledge about the basic oral health measures necessary to maintain proper oral health, but their attitude and practices toward oral health was relatively poor. PMID:25374832

  5. BRCA testing of breast cancer patients: medical specialists' referral patterns, knowledge and attitudes to genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Van Riel, E; Wárlám-Rodenhuis, C C; Verhoef, S; Rutgers, E J T H; Ausems, M G E M

    2010-05-01

    This study explores knowledge about hereditary breast cancer, attitudes about BRCA testing and referral pattern to a family cancer clinic among medical specialists. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by surgeons (38), medical oncologists (29), radiation oncologists (13) and radiologists (12). The response rate was 51%. A substantial (11-56%) proportion of medical specialists do not refer patients who meet current criteria for BRCA testing. Although questions on inheritance were less well answered, overall knowledge was good. They had a positive attitude, but were concerned about the distress DNA testing might cause to family members. The majority (75%) stated that the best time for referral is after adjuvant therapy or during follow-up, but another important determinant was the patient's wish or need (12%). Further studies are needed to gain insight into the actual referral process, while ongoing training of medical specialists about genetic aspects of breast cancer is also necessary.

  6. Differences in Tunisian adolescents' knowledge, misconceptions and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS from 1997 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Tebourski, Fethi; Najem, Aida

    2005-05-01

    Surveys were conducted to estimate the extent to which knowledge, misconceptions and attitudes of adolescents in Tunisia towards HIV/AIDS had changed after a period of five years. A population of school-going adolescents of both sexes, age 16 to 20, was sampled in 1997 and again in 2002. We found that HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases became better known, there was more tolerance expressed for people living with AIDS, and the use of condoms was more positively judged. Fewer misconceptions surrounding the condition were also noted. However, many results recorded during the 1997 survey remained unchanged (e.g., scepticism about awareness campaigns; TV as a primary source of information). We discuss the socio-economic and medical/social context in Tunisia during the period 1997-2002 that seemed to allow adolescents to improve their knowledge of HIV/AIDS and to acquire positive attitudes towards persons living with the condition.

  7. The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

  8. Knowledge of Autism and Attitudes of Children towards Their Partially Integrated Peers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavropoulou, Sophia; Sideridis, Georgios D.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the effects of contact with integrated students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the knowledge, attitudes and empathy of children (n = 224) from grades 4-6. A comparison group of children (n = 251) who had no contact with classmates with ASD was also included. All participants completed self-report instruments.…

  9. Menstruation, menstrual protection and menstrual cycle problems. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; Fraser, I; Gebski, V; Knight, C; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Mira, M; McNeil, D

    1985-02-18

    The results of a survey of 1377 young Australian women aged 14 to 19 years, conducted to determine their attitudes, state of knowledge and practices with regard to menstruation, are presented. The young women, as a group, lacked sufficient information about menstruation, about the time of ovulation, about menstrual discharge, and about the use of tampons. A high proportion (80%) considered menstruation to be inconvenient or embarrassing. Certain measures aimed at remedial action are suggested.

  10. HIV knowledge and attitudes among providers in aging: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Anne K

    2011-09-01

    Within 5 years, half the U.S. HIV-infected population will be over age 50, and providers caring for older adults must deal with this reality. This study assessed attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among physicians with a geriatrics specialty, and nurses and social workers who specialize in gerontology. A survey mailed in 2008 to a random sample of U.S. providers yielded a 60% response rate. Main outcome measures included: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS, and knowledge of issues related to HIV in older adults. General knowledge of HIV/AIDS was good with scores of 89%, 84%, and 81% for physicians, nurses, and social workers, respectively; groups differed significantly (F(2, 483)=18.626, p<0.0005). Attitudes were positive, with a significant main effect of profession on the attitude subscales (F(4, 952)=6.84, p<0.0005). Eighty-three percent of the sample were unaware that dementia due to HIV may be reversible; no significant differences by profession (χ(2)=4.50, p=0.105). The sample had difficulty ranking the four most common risk factors for HIV infection in older adults, with no significant differences among the professions (F(2, 483)=1.22, p=0.296). Only 6% of the sample correctly ranked all four risk factors. Estimates of the percent of U.S. AIDS cases in people over age 50 varied widely; few answered correctly, with no significant differences by professional group (F(2,319)=2.82, p=0.06). These findings highlight the need for further education among providers who specialize in aging.

  11. Citizen knowledge of and attitudes toward black-tailed prairie dogs: completion report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, B.L.; Cline, Kurt; Brinson, Ayeisha; Sexton, N.R.; Ponds, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the late summer of 2000, we canvassed a random sample of residents in the 11-sate short grass prairie region of the United States. We asked about peoplea??s attitude toward and knowledge of black-tailed prairie dogs and their management. The survey received 1,933 useable responses with a response rate of 56.4% (margin of error 2.2%). We developed a questionnaire (OMB Control Number: 1028-0073; see Appendix B) to answer the following questions: * What is the level of citizen knowledge regarding black-tailed prairie dogs? * What are citizensa?? attitudes and preferences regarding black-tailed prairie dogs and the environment in general? * What are the factors that explain difference in attitudes and knowledge about prairie dogs? * What are the factors that explain citizen participation in these types of issues? * What are the important differences between rural and urban citizens regarding their political participation and their knowledge and attitude about prairie dogs? In general, we found that citizens do not have a high regard for black-tailed prairie dogs. Citizens generally have a positive orientation towards the environment and favor a balanced or somewhat environmental approach on questions--like prairie dog management--that involve environmental protection and economic considerations. People having direct experience with prairie dogs are less inclined to view them as beneficial to society than are those who infrequently see or come in contact with the animals. When asked about prairie dogs specifically, most citizens did not believe the question of what to do about these animals was a highly important environmental issue.

  12. Knowledge, attitude, and practice in relation to stroke: A community-based study from Kolkata, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sujata; Hazra, Avijit; Ray, Biman Kanti; Ghosal, Malay; Chaudhury, Arijit; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rising incidence of stroke in India indicates the importance of evaluating the existing knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) in the community, which is essential for stroke control. Objective: To explore and compare stroke-related KAP among participants from stroke-affected families (SAFs) and nonstroke-affected families (NSFs). Design: Using stratified random sampling, a three-phase house-to-house survey was conducted in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. First, field investigators screened subjects of stroke; second, the neurologist confirmed positive cases; and third, under supervision of the neuropsychologist, a validated questionnaire on KAP was administered to participants from SAFs and age-matched NSAFs from the same neighborhood. Results: The KAP questionnaire was administered to 282 participants each from both groups. Knowledge about stroke prevailed in 97% participants and was significantly higher in the SAF group. Both SAF and NSAF groups had better knowledge about prominent symptoms of stroke (loss of consciousness and paralysis) and admitted it as emergency situation requiring hospitalization and that it was potentially preventable. Those persons belonging to the SAF group, however, had lesser knowledge of the risk factors such as diabetes (P < 0.001), smoking (P < 0.014), alcoholism (P < .0.0001), family history (P < .0.0001) and mild stroke symptoms such as headache, (P < 0.001), vomiting (P < 0.001), and fits (P 0.003) as compared to the NSAF group. Conclusions: Persons from both SAF and non-SAF groups are aware about stroke but possess lesser knowledge about the many symptoms of stroke and risk factors, indicating the necessity of enhancement of existence knowledge on symptoms for better diagnosis and of risk factors for better prevention. PMID:27293334

  13. Relationship between the knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy on sexual health care for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Su-Ching; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Promoting patients' sexual health for better quality of life is an important task for nurses. Little is known about the factors impacting nursing students to better prepare for the future nursing practice on sexual health care. The purpose of the study is to address the need for nursing education on sexuality by exploring the relationship between nursing students' knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy for patients' sexual health care. A total of 190 senior nursing students were purposely enrolled to the study by answering a self-report questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results demonstrated positive correlation of the relationship between knowledge of sexual health care (KSH) and attitude to sexual health care (ASH; γ = .35, t = 3.31, P < .001), the relationship between KSH and self-efficacy for sexual health care (SESH; γ = .29, t = 2.98, P < .01), and relationship between ASH and SESH (γ = .34, t = 4.30, P < .001). Therefore, nursing educators need not only provide students the knowledge and skills on sexual health care but also educate them about positive attitudes on sexuality to enhance their efficacy to deal with the patients' sexuality matters in the future nursing practice.

  14. Safety in numbers? Investigating Australian driver behaviour, knowledge and attitudes towards cyclists.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marilyn; Oxley, Jennie; Newstead, Stuart; Charlton, Judith

    2014-09-01

    A key tenet of the safety in numbers theory is that as the number of people cycling increases, more drivers will also be cyclists and therefore will give greater consideration to cyclists when driving. We tested this theory in relation to self-reported behaviour, attitudes and knowledge in relation to cycling. An online survey was conducted of Australian drivers (n=1984) who were also cyclists (cyclist-drivers) and drivers who did not cycle (drivers). Cyclist-drivers were 1.5 times more likely than drivers to report safe driving behaviours related to sharing the roads with cyclists (95% CI: 1.1-1.9, p<0.01). Cyclist-drivers had better knowledge of the road rules related to cycling infrastructure than drivers; however knowledge of road rules related to bike lanes was low for both groups. Drivers were more likely than cyclist-drivers to have negative attitudes (e.g. cyclists are unpredictable and repeatedly overtaking cyclists is frustrating). Findings from this study highlight the need for increased education and awareness in relation to safe driving behaviour, road rules and attitudes towards cyclists. Specific recommendations are made for approaches to improve safety for cyclists. PMID:24769133

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population.

    PubMed

    Alfouzan, Najd

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31-50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.

  16. An educational campaign toward epilepsy among Italian primary school teachers: 1. Survey on knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Mecarelli, Oriano; Messina, Paolo; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Michelucci, Roberto; Romeo, Antonino; Beghi, Ettore

    2014-03-01

    A questionnaire survey was undertaken to assess the impact of a nationwide educational campaign about epilepsy on the knowledge and attitudes toward the disease among Italian primary school teachers. Five hundred and eighty-two teachers participated. All interviewees were aware of the existence of epilepsy, and most of them had direct experience with the disease. Answers about frequency, causes, outcome, and response to treatments were variable and not correlated with age, residency, and years of experience. Teachers had positive attitudes toward epilepsy, except for the idea that driving and sports can be safe for people with epilepsy. Epilepsy and its treatment were considered a source of learning disability and social disadvantages. Several teachers declared themselves being unable to help a child having seizures. Calling an ambulance was a frequent action. Knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy are improved compared with those reported in our previous studies. Although this may be a positive reflection of the increasing knowledge and the greater availability of information on epilepsy, there are still areas of uncertainty and incorrect behaviors. PMID:24521730

  17. Knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards affected people among teachers in training in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Dana; Kohout, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare knowledge about, confidence with, and attitudes towards epilepsy and affected people between groups of freshmen and senior teachers in training (preservice teachers) at the Faculty of Education in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Two hundred thirty-six freshmen and 138 seniors completed the 21-item Scale of Attitudes Towards People with Epilepsy (ATPE), an 18-item multiple-choice test measuring their knowledge about epilepsy, and a 5-item questionnaire focused on confidence with epilepsy in a school environment. We found that despite a higher level of knowledge about epilepsy among seniors (mean score of 9.6 points compared with 8.48 points for freshmen, p<0.001), attitudes towards epilepsy, and also confidence in how to manage children affected with this disease did not differ significantly. The presented findings suggest that epilepsy-related training of preservice teachers should be more effective especially with respect to their ability to resolve problems that may happen to children with epilepsy in a class.

  18. Factors Affecting Hospital Employees' Knowledge Sharing Intention and Behavior, and Innovation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Hong, Seong Ae

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the factors affecting employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior of the four top-ranked university hospitals in South Korea. Methods Data were collected from employees at three university hospitals in Seoul, Korea and one university hospital in Gyeonggi-Do, Korea through self-administered questionnaires. The survey was conducted from May 29, 2013 to July 17, 2013. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0. Results Factors affecting hospital employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior are reciprocity, behavioral control, and trust. Conclusion It is important to select employees who have a propensity for innovation and continuously educate them about knowledge management based on trust. PMID:25180147

  19. Are Informing Knowledge and Supportive Attitude Enough for Tobacco Control? A Latent Class Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Patterns among Medical Teachers in China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Silenzio, Vincent M.B.; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tian, Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is one part of a five-year tobacco-control project in China, which aimed to gain insight into the smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among medical teachers in China. Methods: In May 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical teachers of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, China. Results: A total number of 682 medical teachers completed the surveys. Latent class analysis indicated the sample of smoking patterns was best represented by three latent subgroups of smoking consumption severity levels. Most respondents were informed of smoking related knowledge, but lack of knowledge on smoking cessation. Most of them held a supportive attitude towards their responsibilities among tobacco control, as well as the social significance of smoking. However, both smoking related knowledge and attitude were not correlated with severity of smoking consumption among medical teachers. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence among medical teachers in China remains high. Programs on smoking cessation training are required. Future study should also develop targeted interventions for subgroups of smokers based on smoking consumption. Persistent and effective anti-tobacco efforts are needed to achieve the goals of creating smoke-free campuses and hospitals. PMID:26404331

  20. Factors that influence concussion knowledge and self-reported attitudes in high school athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Brad; Pomerantz, Wendy J.; Schaiper, Courtney; Gittelman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many organizations and health care providers support educating high school (HS) athletes about concussions to improve their attitudes and behaviors about reporting. The objectives of this study were to determine if previous education, sport played, and individual factors were associated with better knowledge about concussion and to determine if more knowledge was associated with improved self-reported attitudes toward reporting concussions among HS athletes. METHODS We conducted a survey of HS athletes aged 13 years to 18 years from two large, urban HSs. Players were recruited from selected seasonal (fall and winter) as well as men and women’s sports. During preseason, each participant was given a survey asking about his or her previous education, current knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the association of age, sex, sport, and previous concussion education with knowledge and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. RESULTS Surveys were completed by 496 athletes. The median age was 15 years, and 384 (77.4%) were male. A total of 212 (42.7%) participated in football, 123 (24.8%) in soccer, 89 (17.9%) in basketball, and 72 (14.5%) in wrestling. One hundred sixteen (23.4%) reported a history of concussion. Improved knowledge regarding concussions was not associated with improved self-reported behaviors (p = 0.63) in bivariate regression models. The multivariate model demonstrated that older age (p = 0.01) and female sex (p = 0.03) were associated with better knowledge. Younger age (p = 0.01), female sex (p = 0.0002), and soccer participation (p = 0.02) were associated with better self-reported behaviors around reporting concussions. CONCLUSION Previous education on concussions was less predictive of knowledge about concussions when controlling for other factors such as sport and sex. Younger age, female sex, and

  1. General public knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to epilepsy in the Batibo Health District, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njamnshi, Alfred K; Angwafor, Samuel A; Tabah, Earnest N; Jallon, Pierre; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to obtain baseline data for an epilepsy education program adapted to communities in Cameroon. We conducted 302 face-to-face interviews with patients without epilepsy, caregivers, and visitors in the Batibo District Hospital. Most respondents (99.3%) had heard or read about epilepsy, 89.7% knew someone with epilepsy, and 87.7% had witnessed a seizure. About 43% would object to associating with people with epilepsy (PWE) and 75.8% would object to their children marrying PWE, whereas 35.1% would offer PWE equal employment. Predictors of negative attitudes were: advanced age, lack of formal education, and the belief that epilepsy is hereditary, contagious, or a form of insanity. In conclusion, the high level of public awareness of epilepsy in the Batibo Health District may reflect the magnitude of the condition, contrasting with the prevalent negative attitudes. A successful epilepsy education program must take into account the beliefs and value systems of the community.

  2. Knowledge and attitude of dental trauma among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shamiri, Hashem Motahir; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and attitude of Saudi dental students in the management of dental trauma in children. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire comprising 17 close-ended questions was used in this survey. The questions were divided into three parts including: Personal and professional profile; knowledge assessment; attitude toward dental trauma. Data of 307 respondents were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Studies) version 22.0 (IBM Corporation, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The response rate was 76.8%. Around 40.3% of students reported attending additional courses about dental trauma with a significant difference between males (57.2%) and females (19.4%). The vast majority of students (95.7%) stressed the importance of dental trauma education. While 77% could correctly identify the media of transportation of an avulsed tooth, only 26.9% of the students knew the proper method of transportation. Regarding the knowledge of immediate replantation, only 67.5% of students responded correctly. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates an insufficient knowledge concerning dental trauma management among dental students in Saudi Arabia. This highlights the need to improve the knowledge of dental students regarding dental trauma and its management using a variety of educational methods such as problem-based learning and powering the curriculum concerning those topics of dental trauma. PMID:26929690

  3. An Examination of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Practices Among Pennsylvania Pediatricians Regarding Breastfeeding and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Cynthia A.; Moss, Deborah R.; Davies, Erin D.; Colborn, Kathleen; Barnhart, Wesley C.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objective The most recent American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement clearly supports breastfeeding for smoking mothers. The impact of this recommendation on pediatricians' counseling and prescribing practices is unclear. This study describes Pennsylvania pediatricians' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding breastfeeding, maternal smoking, and smoking cessation. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using a web-based, anonymous survey. The survey consisted of three clinical vignettes followed by knowledge and attitude questions. Results Among 296 respondents, more than half reported one or more conversations about breastfeeding and smoking in the past year. Most were comfortable counseling on breastfeeding, but few were comfortable counseling about smoking and breastfeeding. Respondents scored poorly on five knowledge items; 27% answered zero items correctly, and only 21% answered four or five items correctly. Less than half reported breastfeeding was safe for smoking mothers. Compared to pediatricians with high knowledge scores, those with a low score were less likely to tell a smoking mother that breastfeeding is safe (38% vs. 69%, p < 0.01) and more likely to recommend formula feeding (19% vs. 3%, p < 0.01). Most pediatricians were uncertain about the safety of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban®, GalxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC) with breastfeeding. Conclusions Pennsylvania pediatricians lack knowledge and comfort related to the topic of breastfeeding and maternal smoking. Additional efforts to inform and educate pediatricians on the subjects of breastfeeding, maternal tobacco use, and smoking cessation products are needed. PMID:19210131

  4. African-American women who always use condoms: attitudes, knowledge about AIDS, and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, Y A; Johnson, E H; Gilbert, D; Jackson, L; Lollis, C M

    1992-01-01

    Given the alarming increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS, among African-American women, it is apparent that many people are engaging in sexual intercourse without using condoms. The current study examined the interrelationships among attitudes about condom use, knowledge about AIDS, sexual behavior, and drug use among 121 adult African-American women who varied in their intentions to use condoms: 21 (17%) were classified as Steady Users, 75 (62%) did not use condoms but they had High Intentions to, while 25 (21%) did not use condoms and had Low Intentions to use them. Results indicate that the three groups did not differ in their overall knowledge about AIDS or their attitudes toward using condoms as contraceptives. Significant group differences were noted for other scales that assessed attitudes about condoms. Attitudes about the use of condoms were very similar for the Steady Users and the women in the High Intentions group. However, these two groups were significantly (p < .01) different in their belief that condoms are uncomfortable and interrupt sex. Women with Low Intentions to use condoms had significantly (p < .05) more intense angry reactions regarding the negotiation of condom use and significantly more negative attitudes about the use of condoms than women in the other groups. The three groups were not differentiated by drug use, previous treatment for STDs, or their perceived risk for being exposed to AIDS. The present study is cross-sectional in nature and future research using better methodology is needed to establish causal relationships. PMID:1430737

  5. Nurses with disabilities working in hospital settings: attitudes, concerns, and experiences of nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Wood, Danette; Marshall, Elaine S

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 50 million people in the United States live with a disability. People with disabilities are increasingly represented in professional nursing. It is important to understand attitudes and concerns of nurse leaders who hire and work with nurses with disabilities. Using an exploratory descriptive design, this study surveyed nurse managers from 600 hospitals, with responses from 219 participants. Using a modified version of two subscales of the Employer Attitude Questionnaire, nurse managers expressed attitudes toward work performance, reported concerns or perceived abilities of staff nurses with disabilities to work in administrative positions, rated job performance, and described accommodations extended to staff nurses with a broad range of disabilities. Results indicated that most nurse managers rated work performance as exceptional or above average. Concerns included abilities to perform necessary job tasks, patient safety, and acceptance by the public and by coworkers of the nurses with disabilities. There was a significant positive relationship between nurse managers' previous exposure to nurses with disabilities and their willingness to hire nurses with disabilities. Conclusions indicate a need for the discipline to move beyond advocacy and personal case sharing to research on promotion of effective means of recruitment and retention of professional nurses with disabilities. PMID:20488428

  6. Nurses with disabilities working in hospital settings: attitudes, concerns, and experiences of nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Wood, Danette; Marshall, Elaine S

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 50 million people in the United States live with a disability. People with disabilities are increasingly represented in professional nursing. It is important to understand attitudes and concerns of nurse leaders who hire and work with nurses with disabilities. Using an exploratory descriptive design, this study surveyed nurse managers from 600 hospitals, with responses from 219 participants. Using a modified version of two subscales of the Employer Attitude Questionnaire, nurse managers expressed attitudes toward work performance, reported concerns or perceived abilities of staff nurses with disabilities to work in administrative positions, rated job performance, and described accommodations extended to staff nurses with a broad range of disabilities. Results indicated that most nurse managers rated work performance as exceptional or above average. Concerns included abilities to perform necessary job tasks, patient safety, and acceptance by the public and by coworkers of the nurses with disabilities. There was a significant positive relationship between nurse managers' previous exposure to nurses with disabilities and their willingness to hire nurses with disabilities. Conclusions indicate a need for the discipline to move beyond advocacy and personal case sharing to research on promotion of effective means of recruitment and retention of professional nurses with disabilities.

  7. Application of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in Albanian hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gabrani, Adriatik; Hoxha, Adrian; Simaku, Artan; Gabrani, Jonila (Cyco)

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the reliability and validity of the translated version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) by evaluating its psychometric properties and to determine possible differences among nurses and physicians regarding safety attitudes. Design A cross-sectional study utilising the Albanian version of the SAQ and a demographic questionnaire. Setting Four regional hospitals in Albania. Participants 341 healthcare providers, including 132 nurses and 209 doctors. Main outcome measure(s) The translation, construct validity and internal validity of the SAQ. The SAQ includes six scales and 30 items. Results A total of 341 valid questionnaires were returned, for a response rate of 70%. The confirmatory factor analysis and its goodness-of-fit indices (standardised root mean square residual 0.075, root mean square error of approximation 0.044 and comparative fit index 0.97) showed good model fit. The Cronbach's α values for each of the scales of the SAQ ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. The percentage of hospital healthcare workers who had a positive attitude was 60.3% for the teamwork climate, 57.2% for the safety climate, 58.4% for job satisfaction, 37.4% for stress recognition, 59.3% for the perception of management and 49.5% for working conditions. Intercorrelations showed that the subscales had moderate-to-high correlations with one another. Nurses were more hesitant to admit and report errors; only 55% of physicians and 44% of nurses endorsed this statement (χ2=4.9, p=0.02). Moreover, nurses received lower scores on team work compared with doctors (N 45.7 vs D 52.3, p=0.01). Doctors denied the effects of stress and fatigue on their performance (N 46.7 vs D 39.5, p<0.01), neglecting the workload. Conclusions The SAQ is a useful tool for evaluating safety attitudes in Albanian hospitals. In light of the health workforce's poor recognition of stress, establishing patient safety programmes should be a priority among policymakers in Albania. PMID:25877270

  8. Determinants of the Knowledge of and Attitude towards Tuberculosis in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hall, J.; Ewald, B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Globally, Nigeria had the fourth highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) cases in 2009. Datasets of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) were used for examining factors associated with respondents’ knowledge of and attitude towards TB in Nigeria. With the same age-group of males and females, the sample included 47,193 respondents aged 15-49 years. Factors associated with the knowledge of and attitude towards TB were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level variables, using multiple binary logistic regression analyses. Respondents who reported having ever heard of TB was 74.7%. Of those who ever heard of TB, 76.9% believed that TB can be cured, and 19.6% would want a family member's TB to be kept secret. Of those who ever heard of TB, 63.1% believed that TB was spread from person to person through the air by coughing or sneezing. Multivariate analysis indicated that the probability of having poor knowledge of and negative attitude towards TB was consistently significant among the poorest household (lowest wealth quintile), geopolitical regions (North Central), respondents with no schooling, non-working respondents, youngest age-group (15-19 years), and rural areas [adjusted odds ratios (AOR)=0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.86 for respondents who had ever heard of TB; AOR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.99 for respondents who had ever heard of TB and believed that TB can be cured; AOR=0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.94 for those who had ever heard of TB and concealed the fact that a family member had TB; and AOR=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99 for those who had ever heard of TB and believed TB was spread from person to person through the air by coughing or sneezing]. Efforts to improve the knowledge of and attitude towards TB in Nigeria should focus on the youngest age-group (15-19 years), the poorest households, and respondents with no schooling. Improving the knowledge and attitude of these groups of individuals may result in an increase in the number of

  9. Knowledge and Attitude of Secondary School Teachers towards Continuous Assessment Practices in Esan Central Senatorial District of Edo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, P. J.; Akinlosotu, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated knowledge and attitude of secondary school teachers towards continuous assessment (CA) practices in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of gender, age, years of experience and area of educational specialization on teachers' attitude towards CA practices in secondary…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Testing Validity and Reliability of Traditional Knowledge Scale to Measure University Students' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugulu, Ilker

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the confirmatory factor analysis for testing validity and reliability of Traditional Knowledge Attitude Scale (TKAS) to measure university students' attitudes. The items in the TKAS were developed initially from the responses to two open-ended items by 30 university students and literature review on traditional…

  11. AIDS Knowledge, Condom Attitudes, and Risk-Taking Sexual Behavior of Substance-Abusing Juvenile Offenders on Probation or Parole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela; Levin, Martin L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual risk taking behavior among 193 juvenile offenders on probation or parole who were substance abusers. Surveys indicated that most youths were sexually active. Many reported unsafe sexual practices. General attitudes toward condoms and reported use of condoms at first sexual intercourse were the…

  12. The National Report Card on Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors: The Seventh Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. Public attitudes as they exist today and how they have changed over the past seven years are evaluated. A nationally representative sample of 2,000 Americans aged 18 and older were surveyed by Roper Starch Worldwide in May, 1998. Part 1 presents…

  13. The Association between Attitude towards the Implementation of Staff Development Training and the Practice of Knowledge Sharing among Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassim, Abd. Latif; Raman, Arumugam; Don, Yahya; Daud, Yaakob; Omar, Mohd Sofian

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify the association of teachers' attitude towards the implementation of Staff Development Training with Knowledge Sharing Practices among the lecturers of the Teacher Training Institution (TTI). In addition, this study was also to examine the differences in attitudes towards the implementation of Staff Development…

  14. Language Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs, Professional Knowledge, and Views on Professional Development: An Exploratory Study at a Preschool TEFL Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and professional knowledge about teaching EFL (TEFL) in a preschool setting in China. The investigation is structured on a two-dimensional grid based on Calderhead's (1996) categorisation of teachers' attitudes and beliefs and…

  15. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Construction Workers in China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Bo; Guo, Haiqiang; Sun, Gao; Zuo, Tianming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Brandon Y

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the study was to describe HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, risk behaviors, and sources of information among construction workers in China. A cross-sectional survey of 458 construction workers was conducted among 4 construction sites in Shenyang city in 2006. All 458 participants were individually interviewed in a private setting by a trained team of medical researchers using a structured questionnaire, which included questions on general personal information and the knowledge, attitudes, practice questions and the favorable mode of health education. A total of 428 valid questionnaires were collected. Data entry and statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 13.0. Our results indicated that the majority of construction workers in China are sexually active youths and adults with limited education and poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The proportions of correct answers to questions about HIV/AIDS ranged from 4.9% to 70.7%. The score was significantly different by education level (χ(2)=47.51, p<0.01), and marrital status (χ(2)=16.48, p<0.01). More than 60% of the construction workers had a negative attitude toward HIV/AIDS-infected individuals. The source of workers' knowledge toward HIV/AIDS mainly came from TV (35.8%), newspaper (14.3%), family and friend (13.1%) and others (28.2%). Chinese migrant workers in general lack knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Our study suggests prevention programs should be encouraged and these may have the potential role to limit the emergence of China's HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  16. The relationship of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding biotechnology in college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohan, Donna Elizabeth

    Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized such fields as agriculture and the health sciences. However, along with the benefits of biotechnology are concerns. For biotechnology's potential to be realized, it must be accepted on public and governmental levels. Although many studies focus on adult consumer attitudes, it will be the students of today who will be the consumers and leaders of tomorrow. Therefore, this study focused on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of college students regarding biotechnology. More than 3,000 undergraduate students were surveyed from a variety of undergraduate courses at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas during the 1997-1998 academic year. Information sought included students' knowledge regarding recent applications of biotechnology, demographic information, and their agreement or disagreement with statements regarding different aspects and applications of biotechnology. This study found that despite a low awareness or knowledge of biotechnology, students were accepting of specific applications or products of biotechnology. Those applications or products viewed as beneficial without involving animals had the highest acceptance levels. A majority of the students identified mass media as their major source of biotechnology while also indicating a high level of distrust of the media. Students also indicated that biotechnology information is needed and that such information is appropriate for high school students. Relationships between knowledge and attitudes were also investigated. A greater knowledge level correlated with a more favorable view of biotechnology. In addition, relationships between demographic variables such as gender and race were investigated. Individuals who identified themselves as scientists were found more accepting of biotechnology while females in general were found less accepting. Females majoring in education were found to be the least

  17. Pilot study of female high school basketball players' anterior cruciate ligament injury knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    PubMed

    Iversen, M D; Friden, C

    2009-08-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention program was evaluated. One hundred and thirteen female high school varsity and junior varsity basketball players and 12 coaches participated in an 8-week educational and skills program. Demographic and injury history data were collected. At pre-intervention and at the end of season, knowledge, attitudes, and practices about ACL risk and injury prevention were assessed via questionnaires, and frequency of two-footed landings were videotaped during games. Univariate statistics described the sample. Paired t-tests evaluated the program's impact. Cronbach's alpha, correlations, and kappa statistics assessed the validity and reliability of questionnaires and video analysis. Of the 113 players, 74 completed the study. The players' mean age was 16.25 years (SD=1.07; range=14.2-18.8). Baseline knowledge score was 57.2%, practice 58.4%, and attitude 73.5%. The mean baseline knowledge score of the 12 coaches (mean age=40.8 years; SD=10.3; range=26.9-56.3) was 68.7%. Players' knowledge about ACL injury prevention improved (t=2.57; P<0.01). No changes in attitudes toward injury prevention were found (t(diff)=1.88; P<0.06). Inter-rater reliability of two-footed landings observed was acceptable (kappa=0.72). Videotape analyses revealed a 5.5% increase in landing performance (t(diff)=9.6; P<0.0001). The program increased knowledge about ACL injury risk and improved player's landing skills.

  18. Cultures in hospitals and their influence on attitudes to, and satisfaction with, the use of clinical information systems.

    PubMed

    Callen, Joanne L; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2007-08-01

    Studies have identified the importance of hospitals' organisational culture in clinical information system diffusion, but few have quantified its role. This study measured organisational culture in two Australian hospitals to explore whether clinicians' perceptions of culture related to their attitudes to, and satisfaction with, a computerised provider order entry system (CPOE). Data were collected using the Organisational Culture Inventory and a user-satisfaction survey administered to a population of 249 clinicians from the two hospitals. One hospital used CPOE to order clinical laboratory and radiology tests and view results, and the other used the test viewing function only, the ordering facility being planned for later implementation. We found a relationship between culture and clinicians' attitudes, with those in the constructive culture hospital more likely to express positive attitudes towards CPOE, whereas those in the aggressive/defensive hospital were more likely to be negative. The relationship between culture and attitudes towards clinical information systems should be taken into account when planning for their adoption. PMID:17475380

  19. Are healthcare workers’ intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Summit of Independent European Vaccination Experts (SIEVE) recommended in 2007 that efforts be made to improve healthcare workers’ knowledge and beliefs about vaccines, and their attitudes towards them, to increase vaccination coverage. The aim of the study was to compile and analyze the areas of disagreement in the existing evidence about the relationship between healthcare workers’ knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines and their intentions to vaccinate the populations they serve. Methods We conducted a systematic search in four electronic databases for studies published in any of seven different languages between February 1998 and June 2009. We included studies conducted in developed countries that used statistical methods to relate or associate the variables included in our research question. Two independent reviewers verified that the studies met the inclusion criteria, assessed the quality of the studies and extracted their relevant characteristics. The data were descriptively analyzed. Results Of the 2354 references identified in the initial search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The diversity in the study designs and in the methods used to measure the variables made it impossible to integrate the results, and each study had to be assessed individually. All the studies found an association in the direction postulated by the SIEVE experts: among healthcare workers, higher awareness, beliefs that are more aligned with scientific evidence and more favorable attitudes toward vaccination were associated with greater intentions to vaccinate. All the studies included were cross-sectional; thus, no causal relationship between the variables was established. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions aimed at improving healthcare workers’ knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines should be encouraged, and their impact on vaccination coverage should be assessed. PMID:23421987

  20. High School Students' Attitudes and Knowledge of Food Consumption and Body Image: Implications for School Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, U.; Tepper, I.

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional habits, body image, knowledge of nutrition, and attitudes toward obesity, overweight people, and dieting were studied in high school students (N=141) using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are presented. The students knowledge and sources of knowledge about nutrition are discussed. Recommendations for an…