Science.gov

Sample records for hospital northwest ethiopia

  1. Depression in diabetic patients attending University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birhanu, Anteneh Messele; Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke; Balcha, Shitaye Alemu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus, frequently associated with comorbid depression, contributes to the double burden of individual patients and community. Depression remains undiagnosed in as many as 50%–75% of diabetes cases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2014 among 422 sampled diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a standardized and pretested questionnaire linked with patient record review. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with depression. Results A total of 415 diabetic patients participated in the study with a response rate of 98.3%. The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients was found to be 15.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.7–19.2). Only religion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.65 and 95% CI: 1.1–6.0) and duration of diabetes (AOR =0.27 and 95% CI: 0.07–0.92) were the factors associated with depression among diabetic patients. Conclusion The prevalence of depression was low as compared to other similar studies elsewhere. Disease (diabetes) duration of 10 years and above and being a Muslim religion follower (as compared to Christian) were the factors significantly associated with depression. Early screening of depression and treating depression as a routine component of diabetes care are recommended. Further research with a large sample size, wider geographical coverage, and segregation of type of diabetes mellitus is recommended. PMID:27274296

  2. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebriel, Zemichael; Ejigu, Yohannes; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2016-01-01

    Background Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation) used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05). Results Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores) were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers’ overall level of motivation with absolute

  3. Diabetes mellitus among HIV-infected individuals in follow-up care at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Getachew, Assefa; Fasika, Solomon; Bayisa, Mulugeta; Girma Demisse, Abayneh; Mesfin, Nebiyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated factors among HIV-infected adults in northwest Ethiopia. Design Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Setting HIV clinic of the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia. Participants All HIV-infected adults who visited the HIV clinic from December 2013 to the end of February 2014 were the source population. Measures A structured and pretested questionnaire incorporating the WHO STEPwise approach was used. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess factors associated with DM. Results The overall prevalence of type 2 DM was 8% (95% CI 5.5% to 10.5%). The prevalence of DM was higher (13.2%; 95% CI 8.0% to 18.3%) among subjects receiving pre-antiretroviral treatment (pre-ART) than among those taking ART (5.1%; 95% CI 2.6% to 7.6%). Thirteen (35.1%) of the DM cases were newly identified during the study. Obesity (adjusted OR (AOR) 6.55; 1.20 to 35.8), hypertension (AOR 3.45; 1.50 to 7.90), being in the pre-ART group (AOR 4.47; 1.80 to 11.08), hypertriglyceridaemia (AOR 2.24; 1.02 to 49.5) and tertiary-level education (AOR 11.8; 2.28 to 61.4) were associated with DM. Conclusions Overall DM prevalence was high, particularly among subjects in the pre-ART group. More educated, hypertensive and obese HIV-infected adults were more likely to have DM as a comorbidity. Health policy and the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals should take into account the rising DM. PMID:27540099

  4. Predictors of HIV/AIDS Related Ocular Manifestations among HIV/AIDS Patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sharew, Guadie; Azage, Muluken

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ocular manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS are varied and affect almost all the structures of eye leading to visual impairment or blindness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation among ART clinic clients. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed among ART clients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 30 January 2013. A total of 369 systematically and randomly selected clients were included in the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and ophthalmologic clinical examination. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify independent predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Results. Twenty-five percent (25.7%) of HIV patients had ocular manifestations. The three most frequent signs were Squamoid Conjuctival growth (26.9%), ophthalmic herpes zoster (22.1%), and Bacterial Conjuctivitis (17.2%). History of eye problem, CD4 count, and visual acuity of the eye were the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Conclusion. In this study, a higher proportion of ocular manifestations were detected in HIV/AIDS patients. Visual acuity and CD4 counts were the independent predictors of ocular manifestations. This finding gives an insight for policy makers and concerned body to integrate ophthalmic examination in ART clinics to improve the health condition of HIV/ADIS patients.

  5. Predictors of HIV/AIDS Related Ocular Manifestations among HIV/AIDS Patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sharew, Guadie

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ocular manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS are varied and affect almost all the structures of eye leading to visual impairment or blindness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation among ART clinic clients. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed among ART clients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 30 January 2013. A total of 369 systematically and randomly selected clients were included in the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and ophthalmologic clinical examination. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify independent predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Results. Twenty-five percent (25.7%) of HIV patients had ocular manifestations. The three most frequent signs were Squamoid Conjuctival growth (26.9%), ophthalmic herpes zoster (22.1%), and Bacterial Conjuctivitis (17.2%). History of eye problem, CD4 count, and visual acuity of the eye were the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Conclusion. In this study, a higher proportion of ocular manifestations were detected in HIV/AIDS patients. Visual acuity and CD4 counts were the independent predictors of ocular manifestations. This finding gives an insight for policy makers and concerned body to integrate ophthalmic examination in ART clinics to improve the health condition of HIV/ADIS patients. PMID:26000175

  6. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five - year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Belay; Muche, Abebe; Bekele, Assegedech; Reissig, Dieter; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Background In Gondar University Teaching Hospital standardized tuberculosis prevention and control programme, incorporating Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) started in 2000. According to the proposal of World Health Organization (WHO), treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs. This study investigated the outcome of tuberculosis treatment at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods We analyzed the records of 4000 tuberculosis patients registered at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2003 to May 2008. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. Results From the total of 4000 patients, tuberculosis type was categorized as extrapulmonary in 1133 (28.3%), smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in 2196 (54.9%) and smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 671 (16.8%) cases. Of all patients, treatment outcome was classified as successfully treated in 1181(29.5%), defaulted in 730 (18.3%), died in 403 (10.1%), treatment failed in six (0.2%) and transferred out in 1680 (42.0%) patients. Males had the trend to be more likely to experience death or default than females, and the elderly were more likely to die than younger. The proportion of default rate was increased across the years from 97(9.2%) to 228(42.9%). Being female, age group 15-24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and being urban resident were associated with higher treatment success rate. Conclusion The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was unsatisfactorily low (29.5%). A high proportion of patients died (10.1%) or defaulted (18.3%), which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently. PMID:19799801

  7. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among voluntary counseling and testing clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sinku, Yohannes; Gezahegn, Takele; Gashaw, Yalewayiker; Workineh, Meseret; Deressa, Tekalign

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Ethiopia varies with regions, study population, and time. Thus, timely information on HIV epidemiology is critical for the combat of the epidemic. In this study, we aim to update HIV prevalence and risk factors among voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 2,120 VCT clients’ records from September 2007 to August 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Statistical significance was set at P-value <0.05. Results Of 2,120 VCT clients, 363 (17.1%) were seropositive for HIV. A higher rate of HIV positivity was observed among female clients (20.4%) than that in male clients (14.0%) (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.26–1.98, P=0.00). Widowed (95% CI 10.42–34.92, P=0.00), married (95% CI 3.42–5.94, P=0.00), divorced (95% CI 2.79–5.32, P=0.00), and illiterate (95% CI 2.33–5.47, P=0.00) clients were associated with HIV infection with the odds ratios of 19.07, 4.51, 3.85, and 3.57, respectively. Clients within the age category of 35–49 years (OR 5.03, 95% CI 3.56–7.12, P=0.00) and above the age of 50 years (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.67–9.34, P=0.00) were more likely to be infected with HIV. Conclusion HIV is still the major concern of public health in the Gondar area as evidenced by our data. Being female, widowed, married, illiterate, and older age were the identified risk factors for HIV infection. Thus, consideration of these factors in future intervention and clinical practice is recommended. PMID:27574468

  8. Types and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates from eye discharge samples at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The type and pattern of organisms that cause ocular infection changes over time. Moreover, the causative organisms have developed increased drug resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalent bacterial agents of eye discharge and their drug susceptibility patterns to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Methods A retrospective study was conducted at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia from September, 2009 to August, 2012. Culture and drug susceptibility test results of patients who had eye infections were taken for analysis. Eye discharge samples were cultured on MacConkey agar, blood agar and chocolate agar plates. A standard biochemical procedure was used for full identification of bacterial isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done on Mueller-Hinton agar by using disk diffusion method. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 16 software. Result A total of 102 eye discharges were submitted for microbiological evaluation, of which (60.8%) had bacterial growth. The most frequently isolated bacterial isolates were gram-positive bacteria (74.2%). The predominant bacterial species isolated was Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.4%) followed by S. aureus (21%). Within the age group of 1 day-2 years old, (66.1%) of bacteria were isolated. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistance to ampicilin (71%), amoxicilin (62.9%), erythromycin (43.5%), gentamicin (45.2%), penicillin (71%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (58.1%), and tetracycline (64.6%) while Ceftriaxon and Ciprofloxacin showed (75.8%) and (80%) susceptibility respectively. From the total bacterial isolates, (87.1%) were showed multi drug resistance (MDR) to two or more drugs. Conclusion The prevalence of bacterial isolates in eye discharge was high in the study area and majority of isolates were gram-positive bacteria. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to frequently used antimicrobials. Therefore, drug susceptibility

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae over 6 years at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Anagaw, Belay; Gezachew, Mucheye; Biadgelgene, Fantahun; Anagaw, Berhanu; Geleshe, Tariku; Taddese, Birke; Getie, Birhanu; Endris, Mengistu; Mulu, Andargachew; Unakal, Chandrashekhar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the magnitude and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from various clinical specimens. Methods A record based on retrospective study was conducted at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2007 to January 2012. All patients who visited Gondar University Hospital and provided clinical specimens (body fluids, discharge, swab and blood) for routine bacteriological culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were taken for analysis. Clinical specimens were processed for bacterial culture according to the standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for isolated organisms was done using agar disk diffusion method. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS software version 16 package. Results One hundred and fifty three Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated from patients who visited Gondar University Teaching Hospital bacteriology laboratory for culture. Majority of the pneumococcal isolates were from inpatients [111(72.5%)], and 74(48.4%) were from body fluids. Out of the total isolates, 93(61%) were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic used for susceptibility testing. Forty eight (43.2%) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (resistant to two or more drugs). The resistance rate noted for both ciprofloxacin 17(11.1%) and ceftriaxone 15(9.8%) were alarming. Conclusions High proportions of the isolates tend to be increasingly resistant to the commonly prescribed drugs. The recommended drug of choice like ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were found to be less susceptible in the study area. Based on the findings, we therefore recommend that antimicrobial agents should be inspected for acceptable activity before they are prescribed and administered empirically. Further study with a better design and survey of antimicrobial susceptibility at large scale shoule be performed to draw advanced information. PMID:23836097

  10. Knowledge, Practice, and Associated Factors towards Prevention of Surgical Site Infection among Nurses Working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teshager, Freahiywot Aklew; Engeda, Eshetu Haileselassie; Worku, Workie Zemene

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge and practice of nurses about surgical site infections (SSIs) are not well studied in Ethiopia. This paper contains findings about Northwest Ethiopian nurses' knowledge and practice regarding the prevention of SSIs. The main objective of the study was to assess knowledge, practice, and associated factors of nurses towards the prevention of SSIs. The study was done using a questionnaire survey on randomly selected 423 nurses who were working in referral hospitals during the study period. The study showed that more than half of the nurses who participated in the survey had inadequate knowledge about the prevention of SSIs. Moreover, more than half of them were practicing inappropriately. The most important associated factors include lack of training on evidence based guidelines and sociodemographic variables (age, year of service, educational status, etc.). Training of nurses with the up-to-date SSIs guidelines is recommended. PMID:26788549

  11. Prevalence of Malaria from Blood Smears Examination: A Seven-Year Retrospective Study from Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ferede, Getachew; Worku, Abiyu; Getaneh, Alemtegna; Ahmed, Ali; Haile, Tarekegn; Abdu, Yenus; Tessema, Belay; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Alemu, Abebe

    2013-01-01

    Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where an estimated 68% of the population lives in malarious areas. Studying its prevalence is necessary to implement effective control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine seven-year slide positive rate of malaria. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted at Metema Hospital from September 2006 to August 2012. Seven-year malaria cases data had been collected from laboratory registration book. Results. A total of 55,833 patients were examined for malaria; of these, 9486 (17%) study subjects were positive for malaria. The predominant Plasmodium species detected was P. falciparum (8602) (90.7%) followed by P. vivax (852) (9%). A slide positive rate of malaria within the last seven years (2006–2012) was almost constant with slight fluctuation. The age groups of 5–14 years old were highly affected by malariainfection (1375) (20.1%), followed by 15–29 years old (3986) (18.5%). High slide positive rate of malaria occurred during spring (September–November), followed by summer (June–August). Conclusion. Slide positive rate of malaria was high in study area. Therefore, health planners and administrators should give intensive health education for the community. PMID:24455415

  12. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED). Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Results The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 %) and tetracycline (40.7 %) whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 %) and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (92.3 %). Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs) was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Conclusion Significant bacteriuria was

  13. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: declining trends over a period of five years

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety for the recipient. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, risk factors and trends of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors over a period of five years at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective analysis of consecutive blood donors' records covering the period between January 2003 and December 2007 was conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Results From the total of 6361 consecutive blood donors, 607 (9.5%) had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 50 (0.8%) had multiple infections. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis was 3.8%, 4.7%, 0.7%, and 1.3% respectively. Among those with multiple infections, the most common combinations were HIV - syphilis 19 (38%) and HIV - HBV 17 (34%). The seropositivity of HIV was significantly increased among female blood donors, first time donors, housewives, merchants, soldiers, drivers and construction workers. Significantly increased HBV seropositivity was observed among farmers, first time donors and age groups of 26 - 35 and 36 - 45 years. Similarly, the seroprevalence of syphilis was significantly increased among daily labourers and construction workers. Statistically significant association was observed between syphilis and HIV infections, and HCV and HIV infections. Moreover, significantly declining trends of HIV, HCV and syphilis seropositivity were observed over the study period. Conclusions A substantial percentage of the blood donors harbour HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Strict selection of blood donors and comprehensive screening of donors' blood using standard methods are highly recommended to ensure

  14. Changing Trends in Prevalence and Antibiotics Resistance of Uropathogens in Patients Attending the Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tiruneh, Moges; Yifru, Sisay; Gizachew, Mucheye; Molla, Kassie; Belyhun, Yeshambel

    2014-01-01

    Background. In most hospitals of developing countries, urinary tract infections are treated empirically because of lack of culture facilities. This leads to emergence of multiresistant uropathogens. Culturing and drug susceptibility testing are essential to guide therapy. Objectives. To assess changing prevalence and resistance pattern of uropathogens to commonly used antibiotics in a two-year study period. Methods. Urine specimens were collected and cultured. Uropathogens were identified by standard methods and tested for antibiotics resistance. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical sofware. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The commonest isolates in both the previous and present studies were E. coli, Klebsiella, CoNS, S. aureus, Proteus, and Citrobacter species. Previous isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas present isolates developed 31% to 60% resistance to it. Previous isolates were less resistant to gentamycin than the present ones. Multiresistance isolates were predominant in present study than previous ones. Conclusion. E. coli was predominant in the two study periods. Present isolates were more resistant than previous ones. Some previous isolates were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas present isolates were increasingly resistant. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin have been recommended for empiric treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:26904737

  15. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Antenatal Depression among Women Attending Antenatal Care Service at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayele, Tadesse Awoke; Azale, Telake; Alemu, Kassahun; Abdissa, Zewditu; Mulat, Haregewoin; Fekadu, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder during pregnancy and is associated with psychosocial and clinical obstetric factors. Depressive disorders are not only common and chronic among women throughout the world but also principal sources of disability. The scarce information and limited attention to the problem might aggravate the consequence of the problem and can limit the intervention to be taken. Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and identify associated factors for antenatal depression. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted by taking a sample of 388 pregnant women coming for ANC service at Gondar University Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was employed to recruit the study participants. Structured, pretested and interview administered questionnaire was used to collect related information while Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess individuals`depression condition. A cut off point with high sensitivity and specificity was determined and internal consistency of the tool was checked (Cronbach alpha = 0.82). Ep Info V. 2002 and STATA 12 were used for data entry and analyses, respectively. Adjusted Odds Ratio with its 95% CI was used to declare the statistical significance of the factors. Results Depression among pregnant women was found to be 23% (95%CI: 18.48%, 26.86%). Factors significantly associated with depression were: woman`s age (20 to 29, AOR = 0.18,95% CI:0.07,0.49), occupation (housewife, AOR = 2.57,95%CI:1.21,5.46, merchant and daily laborers, AOR = 3.44 (1.38,8.58), previous pregnancy (No, AOR = 4.74,95% CI:1.58,14.17) and previous ANC follow up pattern (irregular, AOR = 11.43,95% CI:3.68,35.49), no follow up, AOR = 11.98, 95% CI:4.73,30.33). Conclusion Depression symptoms are common in pregnant mothers in the study area and interventions that would address the aforementioned factors would benefit to tackle further complications. PMID

  16. Molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia: new phylogenetic lineages found in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world’s 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries, little is known about strain diversity and transmission. In this study, we present the first in-depth analysis of the population structure and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In the present study, 244 M. tuberculosis isolates where analysed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit - variable number tandem repeat 24-loci typing and spoligotyping methods to determine phylogenetic lineages and perform cluster analysis. Clusters of strains with identical genotyping patterns were considered as an indicator for the recent transmission. Results Of 244 isolates, 59.0% were classified into nine previously described lineages: Dehli/CAS (38.9%), Haarlem (8.6%), Ural (3.3%), LAM (3.3%), TUR (2.0%), X-type (1.2%), S-type (0.8%), Beijing (0.4%) and Uganda II (0.4%). Interestingly, 31.6% of the strains were grouped into four new lineages and were named as Ethiopia_3 (13.1%), Ethiopia_1 (7.8%), Ethiopia_H37Rv like (7.0%) and Ethiopia_2 (3.7%) lineages. The remaining 9.4% of the isolates could not be assigned to the known or new lineages. Overall, 45.1% of the isolates were grouped in clusters, indicating a high rate of recent transmission. Conclusions This study confirms a highly diverse M. tuberculosis population structure, the presence of new phylogenetic lineages and a predominance of the Dehli/CAS lineage in Northwest Ethiopia. The high rate of recent transmission indicates defects of the TB control program in Northwest Ethiopia. This emphasizes the importance of strengthening laboratory diagnosis of TB, intensified case finding and treatment of TB patients to interrupt the chain of transmission. PMID:23496968

  17. Etiologic Agents of Bacterial Sepsis and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns among Patients Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alebachew, Gelila; Teka, Brhanu; Endris, Mengistu; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Tessema, Belay

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bacterial sepsis is a major cause of illness in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. There is scarce evidence about sepsis among HIV patients in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the etiologic agents of bacterial sepsis and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns among HIV infected patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March 1 to May 2, 2013. One hundred patients infected with HIV and suspected of having sepsis were included. Sociodemographic data were collected by interview and blood sample was aseptically collected from study participants. All blood cultures were incubated aerobically at 35°C and inspected daily for 7 days. The positive blood cultures were identified following the standard procedures and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion technique. Data was entered by Epi-info version 3.5.1 and analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results. Of the study participants, 31 (31%) confirmed bacterial sepsis. The major isolates were 13 (13%) Staphylococcus aureus, 8 (8%) coagulates negative staphylococci, and 3 (3%) viridans streptococci. Majority of the isolates, 25 (80.6%), were multidrug resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Bacterial sepsis was a major cause of admission for HIV infected patients predominated by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci species and most of the isolates were multidrug resistant. PMID:27314025

  18. First-line antiretroviral treatment failure and associated factors in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Kumilachew, Dawit; Belay, Assefa; Getu, Samson; Teju, Derso; Endale, Desalegn; Tsegaye, Yemisirach; Wale, Zebiba

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. But treatment failure erodes this advantage and leads to an increased morbidity and compromised quality of life in HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with first-line ART failure in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. Patients and methods A retrospective study was conducted on 340 adults who had started ART during the period of September 2011 to May 2015. Data regarding patients’ sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and treatment-related information were collected through review of their medical charts. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, and binary and multiple logistic regressions were utilized. P<0.05 was used to declare association. Results Among the 340 patients enrolled, 205 were females (60.3%). The mean age at ART initiation was 34.4 years. A total of 14 (4.1%) patients were found to have treatment failure. The median duration of treatment failure from initiation of treatment was 17.5 months (8–36 months). Poor adherence to treatment and low baseline CD4 cell count were found to be significant predictors of treatment failure. Conclusion The prevalence of first-line ART failure was 4.1%. Treatment failure was most likely to occur for the patients who had poor drug adherence and those who were delayed to start ART till their CD4 cell count became very low (<100 cells/mm3).

  19. First-line antiretroviral treatment failure and associated factors in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Kumilachew, Dawit; Belay, Assefa; Getu, Samson; Teju, Derso; Endale, Desalegn; Tsegaye, Yemisirach; Wale, Zebiba

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. But treatment failure erodes this advantage and leads to an increased morbidity and compromised quality of life in HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with first-line ART failure in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. Patients and methods A retrospective study was conducted on 340 adults who had started ART during the period of September 2011 to May 2015. Data regarding patients’ sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and treatment-related information were collected through review of their medical charts. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, and binary and multiple logistic regressions were utilized. P<0.05 was used to declare association. Results Among the 340 patients enrolled, 205 were females (60.3%). The mean age at ART initiation was 34.4 years. A total of 14 (4.1%) patients were found to have treatment failure. The median duration of treatment failure from initiation of treatment was 17.5 months (8–36 months). Poor adherence to treatment and low baseline CD4 cell count were found to be significant predictors of treatment failure. Conclusion The prevalence of first-line ART failure was 4.1%. Treatment failure was most likely to occur for the patients who had poor drug adherence and those who were delayed to start ART till their CD4 cell count became very low (<100 cells/mm3). PMID:27621669

  20. HIV associated hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypocalcaemia, defined by serum calcium level less than 8.5 mg/dl, could be caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diarrheal diseases. In Ethiopia, while morbidities from diarrheal diseases and HIV are serious health problems, studies assessing the interactions amongst of the three do not exist. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the level of calcium among diarrheic patients with and without HIV co-infection. Methods Consecutive diarrheic patients attending Gondar University Hospital in Ethiopia were enrolled and screened for HIV, intestinal parasites, Shigella and Salmonella. Concentration of calcium in serum was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results A total of 206 diarrheic patients were included in the study (109 = HIV positive, 97 = HIV negative). Intestinal parasites and Shigella species were detected in 32.2% and 8.5% of the patients, respectively. The serum calcium levels in the patients who were found positive for Shigella species or intestinal parasites was not significantly different by the presence or absence of HIV co-infection. HIV infected diarrheic patients had significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.82 ± 1.23 mg/dl) than those negative for HIV (8.38 ± 1.97) (P = 0.015). The age groups 25–35 and greater than 45 years showed significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.77 ± 1.55 mg/dl) in comparison to the other age groups (7.84 ± 1.41 mg/dl, P = 0.009). On the other hand, females presented with significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.79 ± 1.60 mg/dl, P = 0.044) than males (8.26 ± 1.65 mg/dl). Conclusion There is high prevalence of hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. And HIV stood out to be a major risk factor for development of hypocalcaemia among the diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. Further studies are required to substantiate and characterize the

  1. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the dominant species accounting for roughly 60 and 40% of malaria cases, respectively. Recently a major shift from P. falciparum to P. vivax has been observed in various parts of the country but the epidemiology of the other human malaria species, Plasmodium ovale spp. and Plasmodium malariae remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess P. ovale curtisi and wallikeri infection in north-west Ethiopia by using microscopy and nested PCR. Methods A health institution-based survey using non-probability sampling techniques was conducted at Maksegnet, Enfranze and Kola Diba health centres and Metema hospital in North Gondar. Three-hundred patients with signs and symptoms consistent with malaria were included in this study and capillary blood was collected for microscopic examination and molecular analysis of Plasmodium species. Samples were collected on Whatman 903 filter papers, stored in small plastic bags with desiccant and transported to Vienna (Austria) for molecular analysis. Data from study participants were entered and analysed by SPSS 20 software. Results Out of 300 study participants (167 males and 133 females), 184 samples were classified positive for malaria (133 P. falciparum and 51 P. vivax) by microscopy. By species-specific PCR 233 Plasmodium spp (95% CI: 72.6-82) were detected and the majority 155 (66.5%, 95% CI: 60.2-72.3) were P. falciparum followed by P. vivax 69 (29.6%, 95% CI; 24.1-35.8) and 9 (3.9%, 95% CI: 2-7.2) samples were positive for P. ovale. Seven of P. ovale parasites were confirmed as P. ovale wallikeri and two were confirmed as P. ovale curtisi. None of the samples tested positive for P. malariae. During microscopic examination there were high (16.3%) false negative reports and all mixed infections and P. ovale cases were missed or misclassified. Conclusion This study indicates that P. ovale malaria is under-reported in Ethiopia and provides the first

  2. 12. 1960 highrise hospital, front (south) facade, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. 1960 high-rise hospital, front (south) facade, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  3. A Unique Plasmodium falciparum K13 Gene Mutation in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bayih, Abebe Genetu; Getnet, Gebeyaw; Alemu, Abebe; Getie, Sisay; Mohon, Abu Naser; Pillai, Dylan R

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is the first line to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. Artemisinin treatment failures are on the rise in southeast Asia. Delayed parasite clearance after ACT is associated with mutations of the P. falciparum kelch 13 gene. Patients (N = 148) in five districts of northwest Ethiopia were enrolled in a 28-day ACT trial. We identified a unique kelch 13 mutation (R622I) in 3/125 (2.4%) samples. The three isolates with R622I were from Negade-Bahir and Aykel districts close to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. One of three patients with the mutant strain was parasitemic at day 3; however, all patients cleared parasites by day 28. Correlation between kelch 13 mutations and parasite clearance was not possible due to the low frequency of mutations in this study. PMID:26483118

  4. Determinants for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia: a multicentre case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Awoke, Worku; Wilder-Smith, Annalies

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify determinants for tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia. Design Case–control study. Setting Three hospitals and 10 health centres in Northwest Ethiopia. Participants A total of 446 individuals consented to participate in the study (150 cases and 296 controls). Cases were HIV-infected adults diagnosed with active TB, and controls were HIV-infected adults without active TB. Main outcome measure The link between TB and determinants was assessed using logistic regression. Determinants were categorised as sociodemographic, host-related, clinical and environmental. Results Smoking (adjusted OR (AOR) 5.47; 95% CI 2.26 to 13.22), presence of a TB patient in the family (AOR 2.66; 95% CI 1.25 to 5.66), alcohol consumption (AOR 2.49; 95% CI 1.29 to 4.80) and chewing khat (AOR 2.22; 95% CI 1.11 to 4.41) were independent determinants for increased occurrence of TB. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (AOR 0.25; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.51), isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41) and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (AOR 0.32; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.55) had a protective effect against TB. Conclusions HIV-infected adults with substance abuse (tobacco smoking, khat chewing and alcohol) should be prioritised for TB screening. This study reaffirmed that HAART and IPT are some of the best strategies for reducing TB occurrence in HIV-infected adults. These findings provide impetus to intensify tracing of TB household contacts. PMID:27084271

  5. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years). A total of 650 (71.6%) patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1). Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4%) were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was statistically significant. Conclusion It was observed that the prevalence of HAI was high in the teaching hospitals. Surgical site infections and pneumonia were the most common types of HAIs. Hospital management should give more attention to promoting infection prevention practice for better control of HAIs in teaching hospitals.

  6. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years). A total of 650 (71.6%) patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1). Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4%) were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was statistically significant. Conclusion It was observed that the prevalence of HAI was high in the teaching hospitals. Surgical site infections and pneumonia were the most common types of HAIs. Hospital management should give more attention to promoting infection prevention practice for better control of HAIs in teaching hospitals. PMID:27601932

  7. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING FACILITY NO. 525 AND HOSPITAL (FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING FACILITY NO. 525 AND HOSPITAL (FACILITY No. 515) BEYOND. See CA-2398-CP-8 for detail of the stairway in the distance - Hamilton Field, Amphitheater, North Oakland Drive near East Hospital Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  8. Childhood Diarrhea Exhibits Spatiotemporal Variation in Northwest Ethiopia: A SaTScan Spatial Statistical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azage, Muluken; Kumie, Abera; Worku, Alemayehu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrhea continues to be a public health problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Detecting clusters and trends of childhood diarrhea is important to designing effective interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate spatiotemporal clustering and seasonal variability of childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective record review of childhood diarrhea was conducted using quarterly reported data to the district health office for the seven years period beginning July 1, 2007. Thirty three districts were included and geo-coded in this study. Spatial, temporal and space-time scan spatial statistics were employed to identify clusters of childhood diarrhea. Smoothing using a moving average was applied to visualize the trends and seasonal pattern of childhood diarrhea. Statistical analyses were performed using Excel® and SaTScan programs. The maps were plotted using ArcGIS 10.0. Results Childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia exhibits statistical evidence of spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal clustering, with seasonal patterns and decreasing temporal trends observed in the study area. A most likely purely spatial cluster was found in the East Gojjam administrative zone of Gozamin district (LLR = 7123.89, p <0.001). The most likely spatiotemporal cluster was detected in all districts of East Gojjam zone and a few districts of the West Gojjam zone (LLR = 24929.90, p<0.001), appearing from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2011. One high risk period from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 (LLR = 9655.86, p = 0.001) was observed in all districts. Peak childhood diarrhea cases showed a seasonal trend, occurring more frequently from January to March and April to June. Conclusion Childhood diarrhea did not occur at random. It has spatiotemporal variation and seasonal patterns with a decreasing temporal trend. Accounting for the spatiotemporal variation identified in the study areas is advised for the prevention and control of

  9. Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…

  10. Comprehensive knowledge about cervical cancer is low among women in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the first most common cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa followed by breast cancer. In Ethiopia, the incidence of cervical cancer is high i.e. 35.9 per 100,000 women. Low level of awareness, lack of effective screening programs, overshadowed by other health priorities (such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, tuberculosis and malaria) and insufficient attention to women’s health are the possible factors for the observed higher incidence rate of cervical cancers in the country. Data on knowledge of Ethiopian women regarding cervical cancer is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of women about cervical cancer and associated factors. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 4-16, 2010 in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 633 women aged 15 years and above were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire by 8 trained data collectors and 2 supervisors. SPSS Windows version 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis. Result Of all the respondents, 495 (78.7%) of them had heard about cervical cancer and only 195 (31%) of them were knowledgeable about the disease. Conclusion The knowledge of women on cervical cancer was found to be poor. Education about the disease must include information on risk factors, sign and symptoms of cervical cancer. PMID:23282173

  11. Exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Gete, Yigzaw Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Despite the overall national success in reducing infant mortality rate in Ethiopia, infant mortality rate is still high in northwest Amhara region. This study is conducted in one of the high mortality areas with the aim of identifying risk factors that are associated with infant mortality in Northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A prospective open cohort study involving 1752 infants (1472.4518 person years of follow-up) was undertaken from November 2009 to August 2011. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis was used to estimate infant mortality rate. Risk factors associated with infant mortality were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression. The overall infant mortality rate was 88 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 74.3, 104.9). After controlling other important predictors in multivariate Poisson regression, infants not exclusively breastfed [IRR = 7.86, 95% CI: (5.11, 12.10), )], breast milk initiated after 24 hours of birth [IRR = 4.84,95% CI: (2.94,7.99)], mothers not washing hands with soap after visiting toilet and before feeding child [IRR = 4.61, 95% CI: (2.24, 9.48)], being rural residents [IRR = 2.33, 95% CI: (1.12, 4.88)], infants born within 24 months for the previous birth [IRR = 2.79, 95%CI: (1.88, 4.15)], have increased the risk of infant mortality. In conclusion, exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in this predominantly rural setting where hygienic standards are poor. Supporting mothers to exclusively breast feeding which is cost effective, safe and feasible strategy, can help reduce infant mortality in the study setting. PMID:26825334

  12. Interior view of pool facing northwest Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pool facing northwest - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Efficacy of Chloroquine for the Treatment of Vivax malaria in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo; Beyene, Melkamu Bedimo; Ebstie, Yehenew Asmamaw; Desalegn, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance to anti-malarials is a major challenge for effective malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. This triggered a need for routine monitoring of the efficacy of the antimalarial drugs every two years in all malaria endemic countries. Chloroquine remained the drug of choice for the treatment of vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Though, a strong scientific evidence of chloroquine resistance to P.vivax that could have brought change of treatment regimen is yet to be established in Ethiopia, continuous and regular monitoring of drug’s efficacy is critical for establishing rational anti-malarial drug policies. This study therefore, assessed the therapeutic efficacy of Chloroquine (CQ) for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections in Northwestern Ethiopia. Methods An observational, 28- day therapeutic clinical efficacy study was conducted from August to December, 2014, in Northwest Ethiopia. Patients confirmed to have monoinfection of vivax malaria, aged above 6 months were included. All subjects were treated with standard chloroquine dose of 25 mg/kg for three (3) days. Parasitological and clinical outcomes of treated patients were then evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 during the entire 28-day follow-up period. A portable spectrophotometer (HemoCue Hb 301 System, Sweden) was used to estimate hemoglobin concentration. Results A total of 69 subjects had completed follow up. Some 57/69 (82.6%) had fever at enrolment and the rest 12 patients 48 hours before enrollment. Out of total, 65/69 (94.2%) and 66/69 (95.6%) of the study subjects were free of fever by day 1 and day 2 respectively but fever was cleared in all subjects by day 3. At base line the mean asexual parasitemia was 3540 parasites/μL of blood. Parasite carriage on day 3 was 3%. The overall cure rate (an adequate and clinical parasitological response) was very high (97%) [(95% CI = 93.1–99.4)]. The time to parasite, fever and gametocyte clearance as expressed in mean (SD) was 35 (3

  14. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however.

  15. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however. PMID:12177998

  16. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at -20 °C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at -20 °C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  17. Rate of Recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Frozen Acid-Fast-Bacillus Smear-Positive Sputum Samples Subjected to Long-Term Storage in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at −20°C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at −20°C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  18. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P < 0.05) in sheep but not in goats (P > 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required. PMID:26464950

  19. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P < 0.05) in sheep but not in goats (P > 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required. PMID:26464950

  20. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis and genital chlamydial infection among women in north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A; Ishak, A; Stevens, R; Fergussen, E; Giles, M; Yohannes, G; Kidan, K G

    1998-03-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among women visiting antenatal (ANC) and gynaecological clinics in Gondar, north-west Ethiopia, was investigated. Between April and August 1995, 728 women consented to enter the study. Prevalence rates were 5.9% (41/693) for chlamydial antigen in cervix, 18.8% (113/600) for syphilis (Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay [TPHA]) and 25.3% (150/593) for HIV. Active syphilis (RPR)+, TPHA+ was detected in 74% (44/597). HIV infection rate was higher among women with higher age of first marriage and low gravidity. It was significantly associated with young age, urban residence, and presence of genital ulcer (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3), and lymphadenopathy (OR = 2.8) on examination. Women seropositive for syphilis had married at an earlier age, were significantly older and had changed husbands. Low gravidity and age < 30 were independently significant risk factors for cervical chlamydial antigen positivity which was predominantly asymptomatic. Significant association was observed between HIV infection and syphilis (OR = 2.6). Active syphilis was associated with chlamydial (OR = 3.4) and HIV infection (OR = 4.1). The rate of 23.4% and 15.1% of HIV seropositivity among ANC attenders and rural women respectively is an indicator of the rapid progression of the HIV epidemic in the area. PMID:9593487

  1. Asymptomatic Malaria and Associated Risk Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Ligabaw; Damtie, Demekech; Endris, Mengistu; Getie, Sisay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Asymptomatic malaria is prevalent in highly endemic areas of Africa and is new challenge for malaria prevention and control strategies. Objective. To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria and associated risk factors among school children in Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2013, on 385 school children selected using stratified proportionate systematic sampling technique. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films were examined for detection, identification, and quantification of malaria parasites. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression was done for assessing associated risk factors and proportions for categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was 6.8% (n = 26). The majority of parasitemic study participants had low parasite density 65.5% (17/26). Level of grade, age, bed net usage, and frequent exposure to malaria infection were associated with risk of asymptomatic malaria. Conclusion. Asymptomatic malaria was low in this study area and is associated with level of grade, age, bed net usage, and frequent exposure to malaria infection. PMID:27355032

  2. Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Associated Determinant Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Ligabaw; Damte, Demekech; Tesfa, Habtie

    2014-01-01

    Background. Intestinal schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in tropical and subtropical countries. Objective. To determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and associated determinant factors among school children in Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2013. 385 school children were selected using stratified proportionate systematic sampling technique. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated determinant factors. Stool samples were examinedusing formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression was done for assessing associated risk factors and proportions for categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 89.9% (n = 346). The overall helminthic infection in this study was 96.6% (n = 372). Swimming in the river, washing clothes and utensil using river water, crossing the river with bare foot, and fishing activities showed significant association with the occurrence of S. mansoni infection. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection was high in the study area. Therefore, mass deworming at least twice a year and health education for community are needed. PMID:24800058

  3. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Practice and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) plan in resource limited settings to decrease maternal mortality. Therefore, this study was done to assess the status of BPCR and associated factors among pregnant women in South Wollo, Northwest Ethiopia, by involving 819 pregnant women from March to April, 2014. Data were collected by using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.00. Results. Pregnant women who were prepared for at least three elements of BPCR were 24.1%. Pregnant women knowing at least three key danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period were 23.2%, 22.6%, and 9.6%, respectively. Women having secondary education and higher were 6.20 (95% CI = [1.36, 28.120]) times more likely to be prepared than illiterates. Women having a lifetime history of stillbirth [5.80 (1.13, 29.63)], attending ANC for last child pregnancy [5.44 (2.07, 14.27)], participating in community BPCR group discussion [4.36 (1.17, 16.26)], and having their male partner involved in BPCR counseling during ANC follow-up [4.45 (1.95, 10.16)] were more likely to be prepared. Conclusions. BPCR was very low and should be strengthened through health communication by involving partner in BPCR counseling. PMID:27722201

  4. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614

  5. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl), 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl), 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl), 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and

  6. Hospital Bed Occupancy and HIV/AIDS in three Major Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tamiru, Melesse; Haidar, Jemal

    2010-01-01

    Background: In countries like Ethiopia where the spread of HIV infection is extensive, health services are faced with an increased demand for care. The most obvious reflection of this increased demand is through patient load, longer bed occupancy perhaps to the exclusion of patients with other ailments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of HIV/AIDS inpatients of three major public hospitals. Methods: A Retrospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in three major hospitals of Addis Ababa namely Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Tikure Anbessa Hospital and Saint Paul’s Hospital from February to March 2004. Results: Of the total 453 sampled inpatients, 293 (65 %) were HIV positives. Over half (55.0%) were Males. The most affected age group was between 24 and 56 years. The majority (85.8%) were from Addis Ababa and over half (57.7%) was married. Housewives constituted about a quarter (26.3%) of all the admitted cases. The most common co-morbidities resulted in admission to the medical wards among the HIV-positive cases were Tuberculosis (73.0%) and jirovicii pneumonia (70.3%), and their occurrence was significantly higher among HIV+ than their counter parts (p=0.001). Although numbers of patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa hospital was more than Saint Paul’s and Zewditu Memorial hospitals (ZMH), the proportion of HIV positive cases admitted to ZMH however was higher (49.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (14.0%) and Saint Paul’s hospitals (18.0%). Likewise the number of inpatient days was also higher in ZMH (n=7765) than the other hospitals. The bed occupancy rate was however, higher in ZMH (53.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (12.0%) and Saint Paul’s (12.0%) hospitals. Conclusion: One of the most obvious consequences of HIV/AIDS patients are the increased occupancy of hospitals beds suggesting that only 81.1 % of the beds are for all other afflictions in the hospitals. It appears that there is a lot of concern that

  7. Magnitude and determinants of nonadherence and nonreadiness to highly active antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross - sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adequate antiretroviral drug potency is essential for obtaining therapeutic benefit, however, the behavioral aspects of proper adherence and readiness to medication, often determine therapeutic outcome. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the level and determinants of nonadherence and nonreadiness to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at Gondar University Teaching Hospital and Felege Hiwot Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and September 2008 using structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. All consecutive adult outpatients who were receiving antiretroviral treatment for at least three months, seen at both hospitals during the study period and able to give informed consent were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with nonadherence and nonreadiness. Results A total of 504 study subjects were included in this study. The prevalence rates of nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART were 87 (17.3%) and 70 (13.9%) respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that medication adverse effects, nonreadiness to HAART, contact with psychiatric care service and having no goal had statistically significant association with nonadherence. Moreover, unwillingness to disclose HIV status was significantly associated with nonreadiness to HAART. Conclusions In this study the level of nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART seems to be encouraging. Several factors associated with nonadherance and nonreadiness to HAART were identified. Efforts to minimize nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART should be integrated in to regular clinical follow up of patients. PMID:20180959

  8. Food Insecurity in Farta District, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross–sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to sufficient food is essential for household welfare as well as for accomplishing other development activities. Households with insufficient access to food often face other challenges related to food insecurity including poor health and a decline in productivity. These challenges can often create a vicious circle whereby households are unable to produce enough food even during a good crop season. Thus, this study aimed to determine the magnitude of food insecurity and its determinants in rural households of Farta District, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2012. Household heads were recruited using a multistage random sampling technique. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) tool after verbal informed consent. Data were entered to Epi info 2002 and exported to SPSS version 16 for analysis. Multiple logistic regressions were fitted and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to identify associated factors and control confounding effect. Results A total of 836 households were included in this study. Nearly three quarters of the households (70.7%) had food insecurity. Households headed by females (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI:1.08, 15.21), lack of education (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.46, 4.60), family size of 4-7 (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.21,4.70), family size of >7 (AOR = 13.23,95% CI:6.18, 28.32), few or absence of livestock (AOR = 5.60, 95% CI:1.28, 24.43), absence of income from off-farm activities (AOR = 3.12, 95% CI:1.53, 6.36), lack of irrigation (AOR = 3.54, 95% CI:2.14, 5.18) and lack of perennial income (AOR = 3.15, 95% CI:1.88, 5.27) were factors associated with food insecurity. Conclusions This study revealed that most households of the district were food insecure. Hence, the promotion of contraceptive use, off-farm employment activities and the development of small

  9. Contraceptive use in women with hypertension and diabetes: cross-sectional study in northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Tensae Tadesse; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yigzaw, Tegbar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age are advised to use valid contraceptive methods for reducing unwanted pregnancy and its complications. However, contraceptive use among these segments of the population had not been previously assessed in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess contraceptive use and associated factors among diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age on chronic follow-up care at University of Gondar and Felege Hiwot Hospitals. Methods Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2012 among diabetic and hypertensive women on follow-up at the chronic illness care center. The sample size calculated was 403. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were collected using interview supplemented by chart review. The data were entered using EPI info Version 2000 and analyzed using SPSS Version 16. Frequencies, proportion, and summary statistics were used to describe the study population in relation to relevant variables. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were run to see the association of each independent variable with contraceptive practice. Results A total of 392 married women on chronic follow-up care were interviewed making the response rate of 93.3%. The contraceptive prevalence rate was found to be 53.8%. Factors such as age 25–34 years (adjusted odds ratio, AOR [95% confidence interval, CI] =3.60 [1.05–12.36]), (AOR [95% CI] =2.29 [1.15–4.53]), having middle- and high-level incomes (AOR [95% CI] =2.12 [1.19–3.77]), (AOR [95% CI] =5.03 [2.19–11.54]), receiving provider counseling (AOR [95% CI] =9.02 [4.40–18.49]), and controlled disease condition (AOR [95% CI] =4.13 [2.35–7.28]) were significantly associated with contraceptive practice

  10. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bikilla, Asfaw Demissie; Jerene, Degu; Robberstad, Bjarne; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2009-01-01

    Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG) for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. PMID:19615069

  11. Magnitude of Birth Defects in Central and Northwest Ethiopia from 2010-2014: A Descriptive Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Taye, Molla; Afework, Mekbeb; Fantaye, Wondwossen; Diro, Ermias; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth defects are defined as structural and functional defects that develop during the organogenesis period and present at birth or detected later in life. They are one of the leading causes of infant and child mortality, morbidity, and long term disability. The magnitude of birth defects varies from country to country and from race/ethnicity to race/ethnicity, and about 40–60% of their causes are unknown. The known causes of birth defects are genetic and environmental factors which may be prevented. For various reasons, there is lack of data and research on birth defects in Ethiopia. Objective The major objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude of birth defects in Ethiopia. Subject and Methods A hospital based, retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted. The subjects were babies/children aged 0–17years who visited selected hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Fourteen hospitals (8 in Addis Ababa, 6 in Amhara Region) were selected purposively based on case load. A data retrieving form was developed to extract relevant information from record books. Results In the hospitals mentioned, 319,776 various medical records of children aged 0–17years were found. Of these, 6,076 (1.9% with 95% CI: 1.85%–1.95%) children were diagnosed as having birth defects. The majority (58.5%) of the children were male and 41.5% female. A slightly more than half (51.1%) of the children were urban dwellers, while 48.9% were from rural areas. Among the participants of the study the proportion of birth defects ranged as follows: orofacial (34.2%), neural tube (30.8%), upper and lower limb (12.8%), cardiovascular system (10.3%), digestive system and abdominal wall (4.8%), unspecified congenital malformations (2.5%), Down syndrome (2%), genitourinary system (2%), head, face, and neck defects (0.4%), and others (0.3%). The trend of birth defects increased linearly over time [Extended Mantel-Haenszel chi square for linear trend = 356.7 (P<0

  12. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, North-West Nigeria: Hospital-Based Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains a common problem worldwide and the role of douching as a predisposing factor is unclear. Aim: This study was undertaken to highlight the prevalence and predisposing factors of VVC in North-west Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective study done at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), North-west. AKTH is a 500-bed tertiary hospital located in Kano, the most populous state in Nigeria. Ethical clearance was obtained. Three hundred patients with VVC were recruited from the gynecologic and general outpatients’ clinics of AKTH. Research structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical information. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Frequency, mean and simple percentages were used to analyze data. Result: Candida albicans was the most frequent cause of the positive high vaginal swabs constituting 84.5% (316/374) while Proteus vulgaris was the least frequent cause constituting 0.53% (2/374). Fifty-three percent (143/270) of those with VVC were aged 26–35 years; the married were 80% (216/270) and those who were unmarried were 20% (54/270). Douching was the commonest predisposing factor occurring in 42.5% (115/270) of cases. Conclusion: VVC was the most prevalent cause of vaginosis in North-west Nigeria, and douching was the commonest predisposing factor. PMID:26229716

  13. A national system for monitoring the performance of hospitals in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika; Endeshaw, Abraham; Tatek, Dawit; Conteh, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many countries struggle to develop and implement strategies to monitor hospitals nationally. The challenge is particularly acute in low-income countries where resources for measurement and reporting are scarce. We examined the experience of developing and implementing a national system for monitoring the performance of 130 government hospitals in Ethiopia. Using participatory observation, we found that the monitoring system resulted in more consistent hospital reporting of performance data to regional health bureaus and the federal government, increased transparency about hospital performance and the development of multiple quality-improvement projects. The development and implementation of the system, which required technical and political investment and support, would not have been possible without strong hospital-level management capacity. Thorough assessment of the health sector’s readiness to change and desire to prioritize hospital quality can be helpful in the early stages of design and implementation. This assessment may include interviews with key informants, collection of data about health facilities and human resources and discussion with academic partners. Aligning partners and donors with the government’s vision for quality improvement can enhance acceptability and political support. Such alignment can enable resources to be focused strategically towards one national effort – rather than be diluted across dozens of potentially competing projects. Initial stages benefit from having modest goals and the flexibility for continuous modification and improvement, through active engagement with all stakeholders. PMID:26600614

  14. Comparison of Giemsa microscopy with nested PCR for the diagnosis of malaria in North Gondar, north-west Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria remains one of the leading communicable diseases in Ethiopia. Early diagnosis combined with prompt treatment is one of the main strategies for malaria prevention and control. Despite its limitation, Giemsa microscopy is still considered to be the gold standard for malaria diagnosis. This study aimed to compare the performance of Giemsa microscopy with nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for the diagnosis of malaria in north-west Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in public health facilities in North Gondar, from March 2013 to April 2013. A total number of 297 subjects with suspected malaria were enrolled in the study. Finger-prick blood samples were collected and examined for Plasmodium parasites using Giemsa microscopy and standard nPCR. Results Among the study participants, 61.6% (183/297) patients tested positive for malaria by Giemsa microscopy of which, 72.1% (132/183) and 27.9% (51/183) were diagnosed as Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. By nPCR, 73.1% (217/297) were malaria-positive. Among microscopy-negative samples, 13.1% (39/297) samples turned malaria-positive in nPCR. In nPCR, the rate of mixed Plasmodium infections was 4.7% (14/297) and 3.03% (9/297) were positive for Plasmodium ovale. Using nPCR as reference the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of Giemsa microscopy were 82.0%, 93.8%, 97.3% and 65.8%, respectively, with a good agreement (κ = 0.668) to nested PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of Giemsa microscopy in identifying P. falciparium infections were 74.0% and 87.4% and 63.2% and 96.5% for P. vivax infections, respectively. Conclusion Although Giemsa microscopy remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis in resource-limited environments, its sensitivity and specificity as compared to nPCR is limited suggesting exploration of novel rapid and simplified molecular techniques for malaria-endemic countries. A high rate of

  15. Southeast corner, looking northwest U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast corner, looking northwest - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  16. South (front) wall, looking northwest U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (front) wall, looking northwest - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Medical Officer in Charge Residence, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression among Pregnant Women in Debretabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bisetegn, Telake Azale; Mihretie, Getnet; Muche, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression during pregnancy is a major health problem because it is prevalent and chronic, and its impact on birth outcome and child health is serious. Several psychosocial and obstetric factors have been identified as predictors. Evidence on the prevalence and predictors of antenatal depression is very limited in Ethiopia. This study aims to determine prevalence and associated factors with antenatal depression. Methods Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 527 pregnant women recruited in a cluster sampling method. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews on socio-demographic, obstetric, and psychosocial characteristics. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The List of Threatening Experiences questionnaire (LTE-Q) and the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSS-3) were used to assess stressful events and social support, respectively. Data were entered into Epi-info and analyzed using SPSS-20. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results The prevalence of antenatal depression was found to be 11.8%. Having debt (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.85), unplanned pregnancy (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = (1.20, 4.76), history of stillbirth (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = (1.67,9.41), history of abortion (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.005, 6.61), being in the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.07,2.72), presence of a complication in the current pregnancy (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.66,6.53), and previous history of depression (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.71,7.06) were factors significantly associated with antenatal depression. Conclusion The prevalence of antenatal depression was high, especially in the third trimester. Poverty, unmet reproductive health needs, and obstetric complications are the main determinants of antenatal depression. For early detection and appropriate intervention, screening for depression during the routine antenatal care should be promoted. PMID:27618181

  18. Prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Andargie, Gashaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

    2008-12-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria species (41.7%) isolated from fingernail contents, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Klebsiella species (5.5%), Escherichia coli (3.1%), Serratia species (1.58%), Citrobacter species (0.8%), and Enterobacter species (0.8%). Shigella species were isolated from stool samples of four food-handlers (3.1%). None of the food-handlers was positive for Salmonella species and Shigella species in respect of their fingernail contents. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of the food-handlers included Ascaris lumbricoides (18.11%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%), hookworm species (0.8%), Gardia lamblia (0.8%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.8%); 1.6% of the study subjects were positive for each of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, hookworm, and G. lamblia. The findings emphasize the importance of food-handlers as potential sources of infections and suggest health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures. PMID:19069624

  19. SNAKE BITE: CASE SERIES OF PATIENTS PRESENTED TO GONDAR UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, NORTH WEST ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Desalew; Mitiku, Tadesse; Tamir, Yenesew; Azazh, Aklilu

    2016-04-01

    Snakebite is an important public health challenge. Venomous snake bites cause significant morbidity and mortality if treatment measures, especially antivenom therapy, are delayed. We did a case series of 27 adult patients admitted after snakebite to the medical wards of Gondar University Hospital (GUH) from September 2013 to August 2014. The age range was from 15 to 74 years. The male to female ratio was 8:1. The majority (25) of patients presented after 12 hours of being bitten. Most of the bites occurred on the legs. Hematologic complications, including prolonged bedside whole blood clotting test, bleeding complications and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, were the common complications detected. The case fatality rate was 4/27 (14.8%). Availability of affordable snake specific antivenom is recommended. A large population study is needed to address the burden in Ethiopia. PMID:27476228

  20. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tamene, Masresha Molla; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Beyera, Getahun Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections are among the most important public health problems in the world. People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from March 20 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar town. The quantitative data were collected through interviewing 488 female sex workers while in-depth interview was administered to collect qualitative data from 10 female sex workers. The collected data were entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between condom utilization and independent variables. Results This study revealed that less than half (47.7%) of the respondents utilized condom with any type of client. Secondary education or above, perceiving themselves at risk of HIV/AIDS infection, having awareness that sexually transmitted infections could increase HIV infection, being tested for HIV/AIDS in the last 12 months, and having lower number of clients in a month were positively associated with condom utilization. Conclusion This finding depicted that condom utilization was low among female sex workers. Thus, developing and implementing target oriented behavioral change and communication strategies are needed to prevent the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers. PMID:26405486

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Communities of Amhara State: A Longitudinal Study in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    López-Perea, Noemí; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Cruz, Israel; Hailu, Tsegaye; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefanía

    2014-01-01

    Background In the northwest of Ethiopia, at the South Gondar region, there was a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outbreak in 2005, making the disease a public health concern for the regional health authorities ever since. The knowledge on how the population perceives the disease is essential in order to propose successful control strategies. Methodology/Principal findings Two surveys on VL knowledge, attitudes and practices were conducted at the beginning (May 2009) and at the end (February 2011) of a VL longitudinal study carried out in rural communities of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, two districts of the Amhara Regional State. Results showed that VL global knowledge was very low in the area, and that it improved substantially in the period studied. Specifically, from 2009 to 2011, the frequency of proper knowledge regarding VL signs and symptoms increased from 47% to 71% (p<0.0001), knowledge of VL causes increased from 8% to 25% (p<0.0001), and knowledge on VL protection measures from 16% to 55% (p<0.0001). Moreover, the improvement observed in VL knowledge was more marked among the families with no previous history of VL case. Finally, in 2011 more than 90% of the households owned at least an impregnated bed net and had been sprayed, and attitudes towards these and other protective measures were very positive (over 94% acceptance for all of them). Conclusions/Significance In 2009 the level of knowledge regarding VL was very low among the rural population of this area, although it improved substantially in the study period, probably due to the contribution of many actors in the area. VL patients and relatives should be appropriately informed and trained as they may act as successful health community agents. VL risk behavioural patterns are subject to change as attitudes towards protective measures were very positive overall. PMID:24743328

  2. Level of Young People Sexual and Reproductive Health Service Utilization and Its Associated Factors among Young People in Awabel District, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayehu, Atitegeb; Kassaw, Teketo; Hailu, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently in Ethiopia, young people’s sexual and reproductive health services are limited and there is a growing issue of confidentiality and affordability of these health services. Moreover, the available services provided are not sensitive to the special needs of young people. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess young people’s sexual and reproductive health service utilization and its associated factors in Awabel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 randomly selected young people using a pre-tested structured questionnaires in Awabel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The mean age of respondents were 17.80 (+ 2.65) years. About 41% of young people had utilized sexual and reproductive health services. Young people from families of higher family expenditure, lived with mothers, participated in peer education and lived near to a Health Center were more likely to utilize sexual and reproductive health services. Furthermore, those who had a parental discussion on sexual and reproductive health (AOR (95% C.I): 2.23 (1.43, 3.46)) and ever had sexual intercourse (AOR (95% C.I): 1.88 (1.30, 2.71)) were more likely to utilize the service than their counterparts. On the other hand, those young people lived with their father and had a primary level of educational attainment was less likely to utilize the service. Conclusion Utilization of sexual and reproductive health services is low which needs a great attention where; if not intervened, young people might engage in risky sexual activities. Therefore, it needs a concerted effort from all the concerned bodies to improve their service utilization and thereby reduce the burden of young people’s disease and disabilities associated with sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26992006

  3. Clients and clinician satisfaction with laboratory services at selected government hospitals in eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In clinical laboratory service, patients and clinical service providers are the primary focus of survey of satisfaction in many countries. The objective of the study was to assess clients’ and clinicians’ satisfaction with laboratory services at selected government hospitals in eastern Ethiopia from May to June, 2010. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted at Dil Chora, Jugal, Hiwot Fana and Bisidimo hospitals. Data were collected from 429 patients and 54 clinical service providers. A statistical analysis was conducted using Likert Scale and SPSS Version 16 software. Most of the patients (87.6%) were satisfied with the laboratory services. The lowest [2.48 ± 1.39] and highest [4.27 ± 0.83] rate satisfaction were on cleanness of latrine to collect specimens and availability of laboratory staff on working hours respectively. The extent of the patients’ satisfaction was different among the study hospitals (P-value < 0.05). Most of the clinical services providers (80%) were also satisfied with the laboratory services. The lowest [3.02 ± 1.36] and highest [3.78 ± 1.03] rate of satisfaction were found on critical value notification and timely test results for HIV/AIDS patients care respectively. Conclusion The overall degree of customers’ satisfaction with laboratory services was high. But there were some services such as the cleanness of latrines, information given during specimen collection outside laboratory and critical value notification which need attention. Therefore, the hospital administrations and the laboratory departments should work harder and closely to solve the identified problems. Further study with a larger sample size and more factors is recommended. PMID:23324260

  4. A cross-sectional study of trypanosomosis and its vectors in donkeys and mules in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Rahmeto; Wolde, Amanuel

    2010-03-01

    A preliminary study was conducted in January 2009 in four peasant associations (PAs) selected from two districts in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia to investigate the prevalence and species of trypanosomes infecting donkeys and mules and identify the fly vectors playing a role in the transmission of trypanosomosis. Blood samples were collected from a total of 334 donkeys and 52 mules and examined by dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat technique and Giemsa-stained blood smears. Accordingly, trypanosome species were encountered in 6.3% of the examined donkeys (n = 21) while none of the mules examined was positive for trypanosome infection. Trypanosomes and tsetse flies were detected in two of the four PAs surveyed (Tsetsa adurno and Bamadone) with significant (P = 0.004) difference in prevalence. The inability to find trypanosomes in the other two PAs (Ura and Ashura) was most likely due to the absence of appropriate fly vectors. Three species of trypanosomes were detected in donkeys, which in order of predominance were Trypanosoma congolense (52.4%), Trypanosoma brucei (28.6%), and Trypanosoma vivax (19.05%). There was a significant (P = 0.008) difference in mean PCV between trypanosome infected and non-infected donkeys. The body condition score of the donkeys was significantly associated with both prevalence of infection (P = 0.009) and mean packed cell volume (PCV; P < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed between male and female donkeys regarding both prevalence of infection and mean PCV (P > 0.05 for each factor). The entomological surveys revealed the presence of Glossina morsitans submorsitans and other biting flies of the family Stomoxys, Tabanus, and Haematopota. In conclusion, the prevalence of trypanosomosis obtained in the current study is generally low compared to previous studies. As the present study design was a cross-sectional, one that only depicts a momentary picture of the infection status in the herd, a further

  5. Medication prescribing errors and associated factors at the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication error is common and preventable cause of medical errors and occurs as a result of either human error or a system flaw. The consequences of such errors are more harmful and frequent among pediatric patients. Objective To assess medication prescribing errors and associated factors in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital from February 17 to March 17, 2012. Data on the prescribed drugs were collected from patient charts and prescription papers among all patients who were admitted during the study period. Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequency, prevalence, means, and standard deviations. The relationship between dependent and independent variables were computed using logistic regression (with significance declared at p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence interval). Results Out of the 384 Medication order s identified during the study, a total of 223 prescribing errors were identified. This corresponds to an overall medication prescribing error rate of 58.07%. Incomplete prescriptions and dosing errors were the two most common types of prescribing errors. Antibiotics (54.26%) were the most common classes of drugs subjected to prescribing error. Day of the week and route of administration were factors significantly associated with increased prescribing error. Conclusions Medication prescribing errors are common in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital. Improving quick access to up to date reference materials, providing regular refresher trainings and possibly including a clinical pharmacist in the healthcare team are recommended. PMID:24826198

  6. In vivo experimental drug resistance study in Trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave; McCulloch, Richard; Goddeeris, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Ethiopia, particularly in the Northwest region, is affected by both tsetse fly and non-tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA) or isometamidium chloride (ISM), respectively. However, since these two trypanocides have been on the market for more than 40 years, this may have resulted in drug-resistance. Therefore, in vivo drug resistance tests on two Ethiopian isolates of Trypanosoma vivax were completed, one from an area where tsetse flies are present and one from an area where tsetse flies are not present. Twenty four cattle (Bos indicus) aged between 6 and 12 months, purchased from a trypanosome-free area (Debre Brehan: Northcentral Ethiopia) and confirmed to be trypanosome-negative, were randomly assigned into four groups of six animals, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area, and in each case treated with curative doses of DA or ISM. Each animal were inoculated intravenously 3×10(6) trypanosomes from donor animals. Parasitaemia became patent earlier in infections with non-tsetse T. vivax (∼7 days post-infection) than tsetse (∼14 days post-infection). Both groups were treated at the highest peak parasitaemia with DA or ISM and nine cattle, four with non-tsetse T. vivax (two ISM- and two DA-treated) and five with tsetse T. vivax (three ISM- and two DA-treated) showed relapses of parasitaemia. Moreover, treatment did not improve diagnostic host markers of trypanosome infections in these animals. In conclusion, in vivo drug tests indicated the presence of resistant parasites (>20% of treated animals in each group relapsed) against recommended doses of both available trypanocidal drugs.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrie, Fikir; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  8. Health Seeking Behaviour and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in Lay Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Kassa Woreta, Hiwot; Mekonnen Kelkay, Mengistu; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke

    2016-01-01

    Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Out of the total population surveyed (29, 735), 663 (2.2%) individuals were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis suspects. Majority of the suspects reported that they had visited a modern health care facility. Those aged 15 to 34 and aged 35–54 had secondary educational level and above; those who were civil servants, those who were farmers, those who had previous history of tuberculosis treatment, and those who perceived that they were sick were more likely to visit a modern health care facility. The proportion of respondents who had taken traditional measures was found to be higher than some other districts. Improving the socioeconomic status of the community is recommended. PMID:27022483

  9. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Melku, Mulugeta; Terefe, Betelihem; Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin; Shiferaw, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  10. Assessment of Current Malaria Status in Light of the Ongoing Control Interventions, Socio-Demographic and Environmental Variables in Jiga Area, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayalew, Seble; Mamo, Hassen; Animut, Abebe; Erko, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Following substantial decline in malaria burden in Ethiopia, the country is planning to eliminate malaria in certain low transmission settings by 2020. To evaluate the attainability of this goal in-depth examination of malaria parasite carriage at community level is necessary. This study was, therefore, aimed at assessing the current situation of malaria in relation to ongoing control interventions in Jiga area, Jabi Tehnan District in northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional household (HH) survey was conducted in November-December 2013. Out of 2,574 HHs (11,815 people) in the entire Jabi Tehnan District, 392 (accommodating 1911 people) were randomly selected from three purposely selected villages. One randomly selected member from each selected HH was tested for malaria using rapid diagnostic test (mRDT). All participants tested for malaria (n = 392) were afebrile (axillary temperature <37.5°C). Eleven individuals (2.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.2-4.4%) were found to be mRDT positive. Most HHs (95.9%, 95% CI: 93.5-97.5%) had at least 1 long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN). Insecticide residual spraying (IRS) coverage the last six months was 85.5% (95% CI: 82.0-88.9%). Malaria prevalence remains unexpectedly high despite high HH coverage of control interventions.

  11. Prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practices and associated factors among mothers in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. World Health Organization (WHO) recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for six months which has a great contribution in reducing under five mortality, which otherwise leads to death of 88/1000 live birth yearly in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess prevalence of EBF and associated factors in mothers in the city of Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 to 25 June 2012 among mothers who delivered 12 months earlier in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. A cluster sampling technique was used to select a sample of 819 participants. Data were collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire by face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to check associations and control confounding. Results Of 819 mother-infant pairs sampled, the overall age appropriate rate of EBF practice was found to be 50.3%. Having a young infant aged 0-1 month (AOR = 3.77, 95% CI = 1.54, 9.24) and 2-3 months (AOR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.71, 4.58), being a housewife (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.48, 3.16), having prenatal EBF plan (AOR = 3.75, 95% CI = 2.21, 6.37), delivering at a health facility (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.55, 5.89), giving birth vaginally (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.87) and receiving infant feeding counseling/advice (AOR = 5.20, 95% CI = 2.13, 12.68) were found to be significantly associated with EBF practice. Conclusion Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was low in Bahir Dar. Strengthening infant feeding advice/counseling both at the community and institutional levels, promoting institutional delivery, providing adequate pain relief and early assistance for mothers who gave birth by caesarean section, and enabling every mother a prenatal EBF plan during antenatal care were recommended in order to increase the proportion of women practicing EBF. PMID

  12. Knowledge about Danger Signs of Obstetric Complications and Associated Factors among Postnatal Mothers of Mechekel District Health Centers, East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Gedefa; Mulaw, Zerfu; Seyoum, Tewodros; Bayu, Hinsermu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Developing countries like Ethiopia contributed highest level of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women awareness of obstetric danger sign to recognize complications to seek medical care early is the first intervention in an effort to decrease maternal death. Objective. To assess knowledge about danger signs of obstetric complications and associated factors among postnatal mothers at Mechekel district health centers, East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2014, in Mechekel district health centers. Systematic random sampling was used to select four hundred eleven study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the presence and strength of association. Results. According to this study, 55.1% participants were knowledgeable about danger signs of obstetric complications. Maternal and husband educational level ((AOR = 1.977, 95% CI: 1.052, 3.716) and (AOR = 3.163, 95% CI: 1.860, 5.3770), resp.), family monthly income ≥ 1500 (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI: 1.289, 6.770), being multipara (AOR = 7.463, 95% CI: 1.301, 12.800), ANC follow-up during last pregnancy (AOR = 2.184, 95% CI: 1.137, 4.196), and place of last delivery (AOR = 1.955, 95% CI: 1.214, 3.150) were variables found to be significantly associated with women's knowledge on danger signs of obstetric complications. Conclusion. Significant proportion of respondents were not knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs and factors like educational status, place of last delivery, and antenatal follow-up were found to be associated.

  13. Seroprevalence of syphilis amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural hospital in north west Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Azeze, B; Fantahun, M; Kidan, K G; Haile, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in a rural hospital in Ethiopia and describe their characteristics so that timely and effective care can be offered. SUBJECTS--Pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics at a rural hospital. METHODS--A cross sectional study was conducted at a rural hospital in north west Ethiopia in September 1994. Data were collected on socio demographic characteristics and past history of sexually transmitted diseases of antenatal care attenders from the records of the hospital. Sera from these pregnant women were examined for syphilis using the VDRL test. VDRL positivity was cross tabulated with socio demographic variables and past history of sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS--Two hundred and seventy pregnant women were included in the study. Median age of the respondents was 25.2 years. A substantial majority were orthodox Christians (97.4%) and married (92.6%). Town dwellers constituted 58.2% of the antenatal care attenders. Only 4.7% of the women started attending antenatal care clinics during the first trimester. Thirty seven women (13.7%) were found to be VDRL positive. Past history of sexually transmitted diseases was significantly associated with VDRL positivity (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--High VDRL positivity rate is observed in this study. Certain risk factors may be responsible for current and past episodes of sexually transmitted diseases. There is a need for improvement of antenatal care activities at different levels of health care. Appropriate strategies should be devised for prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases in women of reproductive age groups and the general population. PMID:8566970

  14. Patients’ preferences for attributes related to health care services at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Adugnaw; Enquselassie, Fikre

    2015-01-01

    Background Information from the patient’s point of view is essential in policy and clinical decisions. Prioritizing what patients value, need, and prefer in various aspects of a health program can be helpful in evaluating and designing hospital health care services. Objective To examine patients’ preference for attributes related to health care services and to ascertain the relative impact of attributes at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia. Methods A stated-preference discrete choice experiment survey was performed in multistage, stratified, and systematic sampling of patients who visited the hospitals. Attributes were selected based on a literature review of the most important characteristics of hospital health care service and reviewed and validated with inputs from patients and researchers in the field. Attributes included in the study were waiting time, physician communication, nursing communication, drug availability, continuity of care, and diagnostic facilities. A random-effects probit model was used to perform the analysis. Results One thousand and five respondents who received care in the outpatient and inpatient departments participated in the study. All attributes included in the study affected the choice of hospital. Patients were willing to wait up to 3.3 hours and 2.7 hours to get full drugs in the hospital and good nursing communication, respectively. The interaction terms indicate that preferences differ with the variables sex, occupation, and type of hospital. Patients expressed clear preferences in a decreasing order of all the significant attribute levels: a lot of diagnostic facilities, full drug availability, continuity of care, good nursing communication, partial drug availability, good physician communication, and shorter waiting time for the consultation. Conclusion Different hospital care attributes had a significant and different influence on patients’ choice of hospital. The study informs about patients’ preferences

  15. Intent to stay in the nursing profession and associated factors among nurses working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses are essential to the health care delivery system especially to meet the health related millennium development goals. However, despite the significant shortage of nurses in Ethiopia, research in the country regarding nurses’ intent to stay in their profession is lacking. This study assessed intent to stay in the nursing profession and associated factors among nurses working in referral hospitals, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 389 nurses from April 8 to May 5, 2013. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the study participants from five referral hospitals. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were conducted to summarize the sample characteristics. Backward stepwise logistic regression model was fitted and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated to identify associated factors. Results The proportion of nurses who reported intent to stay in the nursing profession was 39.8%. Age 40 to 49 (AOR [95% CI] 4.5 [1.6-12.8]), being married (AOR [95% CI] 2.0 [1.0-3.8]), having a bachelor degree in nursing (AOR [95% CI] 2.2 [1.2-4.1]), satisfaction with: autonomy and professional opportunities (AOR [95% CI] 2.6 [1.2-5.9]), scheduling (AOR [95% CI] 3.4 [1.6-7.5]), and pay and benefits (AOR [95% CI] 8.8 [4.5-17.1]); high continuance commitment (AOR [95% CI] 2.4 [1.3-4.8]) and high normative commitment (AOR [95% CI] 3.7 [1.9-7.2]) were the significant predictors of intent to stay in the nursing profession. Conclusions Intent to stay in the nursing profession was low among nurses working in Amhara Regional State referral hospitals. Interventions aimed at increasing the professional autonomy of nurses and revising the current salary and other duty payments are vital. PMID:25180028

  16. Quality of antenatal care services at public health facilities of Bahir-Dar special zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the evidence based interventions to decrease the probability of bad health outcomes for mothers and their newborns. Effectiveness of antenatal care, however, relies on the quality of care provided during each antenatal care visit. Hence this study attempted to assess the quality of antenatal care services at public health facilities of Bahir-Dar special zone, North Western Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted from March to April 2010 in Bahir-Dar special zone, North Western Ethiopia. Quality of care was measured as a proportion of patients receiving recommended components of care. To measure the indicators, data was collected from 369 pregnant women who attended ANC clinics in eight public health facilities, during the data collection period. Data were collected through exit interviews with ANC attendees, observation during consultation, and in-depth interviews with health care providers. Results Pregnant mothers attending ANC clinics were found to receive only part of recommended care components. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, blood group and Rhesus factor tests were done only for 73 (19.8%) and 133 (36.0%) of the women, respectively. Moreover 236 (64.0%) of the mothers missed the opportunity of receiving iron/folic acid supplement during their ANC visit. Three hundred fifty five (96.2%) of the women received tetanus toxoid vaccine. And only 226 (61.2%) of the women had their conjunctiva checked for anemia. Lack of reagents partly explained the problems observed in the provision of recommended care components. Conclusion Almost half, 175 (47.7%) of the study women were not satisfied and a large proportion of mothers are missing opportunities to receive screening (like blood pressure and weight measurements) and preventive components of antenatal care (iron/folic acid supplementation). Therefore, efforts should be

  17. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS FROM AN AREA PREVIOUSLY NOT KNOWN TO BE ENDEMIC; DANGUR, BENSHANGUL-GUMUZ, REGIONAL STATE, NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Abera, Adugna; Tasew, Geremew; Degu, Abay; Almneh, Mulusew; Mulugeta, Abate; Aseffa, Abraham; Gadisa, Endalamaw

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a ftial and growing public health problem in Ethiopia. VL is recently reported outside the major endemic foci, the lowlands in the northwest and the Omo and Abaroba-plain, Segen and Woito valleys in the southwest. Here, we report a visceral leishmaniasis case from Benishangul-Gumuz Regional state near the Guba area. The patient had no history of travel to known VL endemic areas. The patient is a temporary farm laborer from West Go'jam Zone, Wanbermna District in Amhara Regional State. While in Benishangul-Gumuz, the patient was diagnosed with prolonged and intermittentfever, epistaxis, splenomegaly, skin pallor, diarrhea, cough and oedema. Laboratory diagnosis results showed that he had marked leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The patient was suspected of having VL and checked with rK39 immunochromnatography and direct agglutination tests which were positive for anti leishmanial antibodies. After getting full dose of sodium stibogluconate as per the national visceral leishmaniasis treatment guideline, was clinically cured. As the area in Benshangul-Gumuz where this patient contracted visceral leishmaniasis is under social and ecological transformation with large scale projects attracting huge influx of temporary laborers and settlers, due attention is needed with respect to introduction or emergence of VL transmission. PMID:27191028

  18. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  19. Malaria, Typhoid Fever, and Their Coinfection among Febrile Patients at a Rural Health Center in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Birhanie, Meseret; Tessema, Belay; Ferede, Getachew; Endris, Mengistu; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria and typhoid fever are major public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries. People in endemic areas are at risk of contracting both infections concurrently. Objectives. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of malaria, typhoid, and their coinfection among febrile patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 febrile patients suspected for malaria and/or typhoid fever from April to May, 2013, at Ayinba Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected for blood culture, Widal test, and blood film preparation. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Results. The prevalence of malaria was 36.5% (n = 73). Among these 32 (43.8%), 30 (41.1%) and 11 (15.1%) were positive for P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. The seroprevalence of typhoid fever was 38 (19%), but 1 (0.5%) with blood culture. Malaria typhoid fever coinfection was 13 (6.5%). 2–5-year-old children and poor hand washing habit were significantly associated with malaria and typhoid infection, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever was found high. Further studies should be done on the other determinants of malaria and typhoid fever coinfection in different seasons and different study areas. PMID:26556415

  20. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mulugeta, Gebru; Fentaw, Surafael; Mihret, Amete; Hassen, Mulu; Abebe, Engida

    2016-01-01

    Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1%) were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1%)) was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%)). More than 58 (75%) of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs). Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8%) Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5%) E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%). Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials. PMID:27446213

  1. Cost estimates of HIV care and treatment with and without anti-retroviral therapy at Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bikilla, Asfaw Demissie; Jerene, Degu; Robberstad, Bjarne; Lindtjorn, Bernt

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the costs of HIV care in Ethiopia. Objective To estimate the average per person year (PPY) cost of care for HIV patients with and without anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in a district hospital. Methods Data on costs and utilization of HIV-related services were taken from Arba Minch Hospital (AMH) in southern Ethiopia. Mean annual outpatient and inpatient costs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. We adopted a district hospital perspective and focused on hospital costs. Findings PPY average (95% CI) costs under ART were US$235.44 (US$218.11–252.78) and US$29.44 (US$24.30–34.58) for outpatient and inpatient care, respectively. Estimates for the non-ART condition were US$38.12 (US$34.36–41.88) and US$80.88 (US$63.66–98.11) for outpatient and inpatient care, respectively. The major cost driver under the ART scheme was cost of ART drugs, whereas it was inpatient care and treatment in the non-ART scheme. Conclusion The cost profile of ART at a district hospital level may be useful in the planning and budgeting of implementing ART programs in Ethiopia. Further studies that focus on patient costs are warranted to capture all patterns of service use and relevant costs. Economic evaluations combining cost estimates with clinical outcomes would be useful for ranking of ART services. PMID:19364399

  2. Knowledge, Attitude, and Utilization of Traditional Medicine among the Communities of Merawi Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wassie, Samuel Masresha; Aragie, Leul Lisanework; Taye, Belaynew Wasie; Mekonnen, Laychiluh Bantie

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, up to 80% of the population use traditional medicine for primary health care. Studies on the current knowledge and practices of communities in the era of modern health care expansion are lacking. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice of traditional medicine among communities in Merawi town. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 403 residents of Merawi town. A systematic random sampling was used to select households. Data was collected through house to house interview. Results. 392 out of 403 questionnaires were analysed. Among the participants, 220 (56.1%) were female. The mean (±s.d.) age of the participants was 32.5 (±12.4) years. Nearly two-thirds, 241 (61.5%), of study participants have good knowledge about traditional medicines. Three-quarters of participants prefer modern medicine to traditional drugs. 70.9% of participants had the experience of personal use of traditional therapies. Conclusions. The population in Merawi has good knowledge with high acceptability and use of traditional medicine. The main reasons for high acceptability and practice were cultural acceptability, lesser cost, and good outcome of traditional medicine. PMID:26508974

  3. Factors Associated with Occupational Needle Stick and Sharps Injuries among Hospital Healthcare Workers in Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Tolesa; Gebremariam, Alem; Kaso, Muhammedawel; Ahmed, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Background Needle stick and sharps injuries are occupational hazards to healthcare workers. Every day healthcare workers are exposed to deadly blood borne pathogens through contaminated needles and other sharp objects. About twenty blood borne pathogens can be transmitted through accidental needle stick and sharp injury. The study was conducted to determine the lifetime and past one year prevalence of needle stick and sharps injuries and factors associated with the past one year injuries among hospital healthcare workers in Southeast Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross sectional study was conducted in December 2014 among healthcare workers in four hospitals of Bale zone, Southeast of Ethiopia. A total of 362 healthcare workers were selected randomly from each department in the hospitals. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. The collected data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5 and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent effect of each independent variable on the outcome variable. Written informed consent was secured from the participants. Results The prevalence of lifetime needle stick and sharp injury was 37.1% with 95% CI of 32.0% to 42.5%. The prevalence of injury within the past one year was 19.1% with 95% CI of 14.9% to 23.3%. Emergency ward was a department with highest needle stick and sharp injury (31.7%). The main cause of injury was syringe needles (69.8%). Participants who practiced needle recapping had higher odds of needle stick and sharp injury within the past 12 months (AOR = 3.23, 95% CI: 1.78, 5.84) compared to their counterparts. Conclusions Nearly one out of five respondents had experienced needle stick and/or sharp injury at least once within past one year. There were practices and behaviors that put healthcare workers at risk of needle stick and sharp injury at the study area. Needle recapping was key modifiable risk behavior. Health

  4. Antimicrobial Use-Related Problems and Predictors among Hospitalized Medical In-Patients in Southwest Ethiopia: Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadesa, Tadele Mekuriya; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Angamo, Mulugeta Tarekegn

    2015-01-01

    Background The spread of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries is associated with complex and interconnected factors, such as excessive and unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials, increased self-prescribing by the people and poor quality of available antimicrobials. Moreover, the failure to implement infection control practices and the dearth of routine susceptibility testing and surveillance magnify the problems. This may spread the inappropriateness of prescribing, ending up with the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Objective The aim of this study was to assess antimicrobial use related problems and associated factors among patients admitted at Jimma University specialized hospital. Methods A hospital based prospective observational study design was employed at medical wards of Jimma University specialized hospital, Ethiopia. Data collected from patient medication charts and from the patients was analyzed using SPSS, version 16.0. Logistic regression was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was considered at p-value <0.05. Results Out of 152 study participants, at least one antimicrobial use problem was identified among 115(75.7%). Accordingly, additional antimicrobials were needed by 45(29.6%) of the patients, whereas they were unnecessary among 44(28.9%). Similarly, 17% of the patients were noncompliant to at least one antimicrobial therapy, while 8.6% experienced at least one type of adverse drug reaction. On the other hand, the coverage of the infectious medical condition in the national guidelines (AOR = 4.888) and the duration of hospital stay (AOR = 3.086) were the determinants of the antimicrobial use problems. Conclusion Most of the antimicrobial use problems identified were related to delay of initiation of effective antimicrobials and excessive use; use without indication or using duplicates of broad spectrum antimicrobials or use for longer duration than recommended. The coverage of the

  5. Nutritional care and support among adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Zelalem; Birhan, Yifru; Abebe, Hiwot

    2013-11-01

    Background Improving nutritional care and support for people living with HIV (PLHIV) is an integral part of comprehensive HIV treatment according to the National Nutritional Strategy of Ethiopia. However, there is no adequate published study that assesses the nutritional care and support services for adult people living with HIV/ AIDS (PLHIV) in this setting. Objective The objective of the study was to identify the existing nutritional care and support services and determine the challenges facing adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study was carried out using focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and participant observation. Four FDGs were held and five in-depth interviews were conducted. A two-week participant observation was also conducted by trained nurses. All interviews and FDGs were tape-recorded and transcribed; those conducted in Amharic were translated back to English. Finally thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results Most of the FDG participants were unsatisfied with their nutritional care and support services and expressed difficulty with disclosing their HIV status for fear of stigma and discrimination. The in-depth interviews and participant observation showed results similar to those of the FDG. Some key informants expressed a fear that such poor nutritional care and support may threaten the quality of life of people living with HIV and suggested that all stakeholders work on improving the services. Conclusion Current nutritional care and support services for people living with HIV are not well coordinated. They focus mainly on monthly supplementation of antiretroviral drugs and occasional handouts of food. The need to provide health education on antiretroviral drugs and nutrition, and to emphasise strategies aimed at improving the nutritional status of peoples living with HIV is critical. Furthermore, the study recommended strengthening the initiatives of some

  6. Prospective Audit of Avoidable Factors in Institutional Stillbirths and Early Neonatal Deaths at Tikur Anbessa Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Demise, Asrat; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Worku, Bogale; Spector, Jonathan M

    2015-12-01

    Mortality audits are being used with increasing frequency to improve health outcomes by pinpointing precisely where deficiencies in clinical care exist. We conducted a prospective audit of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths at Tikur Anbessa Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as part of a broader initiative to reduce perinatal mortality in the labor room and neonatal intensive care unit. Out of 1,225 deliveries that took place during the six-month study period, there were 30 stillbirths and 31 early neonatal deaths (PMR 50/1,000). A multi-disciplinary Audit Team was established and convened monthly to review standardized data collection forms that were completed for each death. It was determined that avoidable factors were present in 70% of perinatal deaths. Health worker-related factors were the most common avoidable factors identified (accounting for 84% of avoidable factors identified), followed by patient-related factors (11%) and administrative-related factors (5%). Based on the study findings, quality improvement programs that target gaps in care are being implemented on the hospital's labor room and in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:27337856

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus in patients with diabetes mellitus: a comparative cross sectional study at Woldiya General Hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Daniel; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Fantaw, Surafel; Hunegnaw, Andualem; Mihret, Adane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The overall prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia varies from 4.7-16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 70-76.38% for at least one marker positive. Patients suffering from type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM) incur high risk of infection with hepatotropic viruses because of frequent hospitalization and blood tests. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Woldiya General Hospital using 108 consented study populations from Diabetes and 108 non diabetes control groups during the period November 2010 - January 2011. VISITECT HBsAg rapid test kit and Humastat 80 chemistry analyzer were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to see the association of HBV with clinical history of participants and Sociodemographic variables. All tests were two-sided with α-level of 0.05 and 80% power. Results Prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals, 3.7% indicating that there was no difference between the two groups. Only history of invasive procedures and chronic liver disease showed association with HBsAg seropositivity. Conclusion In this study a positive relation was not indicated between HBV and Diabetes and the prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals. PMID:24932351

  8. Latent Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Associated Risk Factors among HIV-Infected Individuals at Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). The parasite has cosmopolitan distribution, infecting almost all species of warm-blooded animals. Latent T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS patients is a risk for development of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT). The aim of this study is to determine seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection and assess its associated factors among individuals infected with HIV in Arba Minch Hospital, south Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study involving 170 HIV-infected individuals attending Arba Minch Hospital antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic was conducted from April to June 2013. Data on demographic profile of the study participants and factors associated with T. gondii infection were gathered using a questionnaire. Serum was tested for IgG anti-T. gondii antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study participants was 88.2%. Consumption of raw meat (AOR = 4.361; 95% CI: 1.409–13.496) and involvement in farming/gardening activities (AOR = 4.051; 95% CI: 1.112–14.758) were independent predictors of T. gondii seropositivity. This study revealed high prevalence of latent T. gondii infection, similar to other studies. Monitoring of the patients to prevent reactivation of the latent T. gondii infection is recommended. PMID:25431660

  9. Epidemiology of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance patterns and trends in tuberculosis referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug-resistant TB has emerged as a major challenge facing TB prevention and control efforts. In Ethiopia, the extent/trend of drug resistance TB is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and trend of resistance to first line anti-TB drugs among culture positive retreatment cases at St.Peter’s TB Specialized Hospital. Findings A hospital based retrospective study was used to assess the pattern of anti-TB drug resistance among previously treated TB patients referred to St.Peter’s TB Specialized Hospital from January 2004-December 2008 Gregorian calendar(GC) for better diagnosis and treatment. Among 376 culture positive for M. tuberculosis one hundred and two (27.1%) were susceptible to all of the four first line anti-TB drugs -Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF), Ethambutol (ETB) & Streptomycin (STM). While 274 (72.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. Any resistance to STM (67.3%) was found to be the most common and the prevalence of MDR-TB was 174 (46.3%). Trend in resistance rate among re-treatment cases from 2004 to 2008 showed a significant increase for any drug as well as for INH, RIF, and MDR resistance (P <0.05 for trend). Conclusions There has been an increasing trend in drug resistance in recent years, particularly in retreatment cases. Therefore, establishing advanced diagnostic facilities for early detection of MDR-TB and expanding second line treatment center to treat MDR-TB patients and to prevent its transmission is recommended. PMID:22929063

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lamboro, Tesfahun; Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8%) and 2 (1.1%), respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100%) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and nalidixic acid (26.3%) while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each). Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large.

  11. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lamboro, Tesfahun; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8%) and 2 (1.1%), respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100%) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and nalidixic acid (26.3%) while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each). Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large. PMID:27642307

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lamboro, Tesfahun; Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8%) and 2 (1.1%), respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100%) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and nalidixic acid (26.3%) while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each). Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large. PMID:27642307

  13. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lamboro, Tesfahun; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8%) and 2 (1.1%), respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100%) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and nalidixic acid (26.3%) while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each). Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large.

  14. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Takele, Abulie; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can’t control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM) curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure. Result The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79–11.30) per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61–7.73)].Similarly, lower CD4 count (<100 m3/dl) at initiation of ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46–5.84).Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98–12.73)] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08–4.07)] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72–5.44)]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99–9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also

  15. Prevalence of Mental Distress and Associated Factors among Undergraduate Students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institutional Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Azale Bisetegn, Telake; Berhe Gebremariam, Resom

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health problems affect society as a whole and no group is immune to mental disorders; however, students have significantly high level of mental distress than their community peers. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mental distress among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 836 students from April 9–11/2014. Stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with mental distress among students. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Results Prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be 40.9%. Female sex (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.17–2.30), lack of interest towards their field of study (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.49–3.50), not having close friends (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.03–2.14), never attend religious programs (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02–2.46), conflict with friends (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.41–2.65), having financial distress (AOR1.49 = 95% CI 1.05, 2.10), family history of mental illness (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.31–3.45), Ever use of Khat (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.12–2.59), lower grade than anticipated(AOR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.51–2.83), lack of vacation or break (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.06–2.02), and low social support(AOR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.58–4.22) were significantly associated with mental distress. Conclusion The overall prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be high. Therefore, it is recommended that mental distress needs due attention and remedial action from policy makers, college officials, non-governmental organizations, parents, students and other concerned bodies. PMID:25794278

  16. The outcome of tuberculosis treatment at a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lindtjørn, B; Madebo, T

    2001-07-01

    We evaluated the treatment results of 239 patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and describe potential factors associated with reduced programme performance in aTB treatment programme in Ethiopia.The TB registry was incomplete and 64 (26.8%) patients were not recorded in the control programme. Of the 239 patients, 34.3% received short-course chemotherapy (SCC) as a first treatment, 5.9% received SCC having previously been treated with standard long-course chemotherapy (LCC), and 54.4% were initially put on LCC. After excluding the 75 patients (31.4%) who were transferred to other health institutions outside the control area, 100 (61.0%; 95% CI 53.0-68.4) were cured (22.6%) or completed the treatment (38.4%) falling short of the target of 85%. Five months or later during treatment 1.8% remained smear-positive, 7.3% died and 29.9% interrupted their treatment. Sputum tests were done in 78% of the eligible patients at 2 months, in 20% at 5 months and in 60.2% at the expected time of treatment completion. By July 1998, 5.4% of the patients initially on LCC had relapsed and were retreated with SCC. None of those initially cured with SCC needed to be retreated. Compared with patients in theTB registry, non-registered patients had lower treatment completed and cure rates (42.3% versus 65.2%; P = 0.047), more patients were transferred out of the TB programme (59.4% versus 21.1%; P<0.001) and the defaulter rate was higher (57.7% versus 24.6%; P=0.002). Weaknesses in the programme performance include organizational issues such as the under use of theTB registry, deficient follow-up procedures, the common usage of LCC and unsatisfactory rates of defaulting.

  17. Comprehensive Evaluation of Electronic Medical Record System Use and User Satisfaction at Five Low-Resource Setting Hospitals in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Fleur

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional’s satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. Methods A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Results Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an

  18. Nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Ashebir; Gashe, Fanta; Mulisa, Eshetu; Rike, Wote Amelo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem covering approximately 347 million persons worldwide. Glycemic control has a main role in its management which mainly depends upon patient adherence to the treatment plan. Accurate assessment of medication adherence is necessary for effective management of diabetes. Objective: To assess nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital (AGH), Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients seeking anti-diabetic drug treatment and follow-up at AGH using structured questionnaire and reviewing the patient record card using check list from January 24, 2014 to February 7, 2014. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the percentages and number of distributions of the variables in the study; and association was identified for categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: Of all respondents, 149 (52.3%) and 136 (47.7%) were female and male, respectively. The majority of the study participants 189 (66.3%) were in the age group of 30–60 years. Two-hundred nineteen (76.8%) of respondents were married currently. The majority, 237 (83.2%) of respondents did not have blood glucose self-monitoring equipment (glucometer). A total of 196 (68.8%) respondents were adhered to anti-diabetic medication. There was a significant association between adherence to the medication and side effect, level of education, monthly income and presence of glucometer at home (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The participants in the area of study were moderately adherent to their anti-diabetic medications with nonadherence rate of 31.2%. Different factors of medication nonadherence were identified such as side effect and complexity of regimen, failure to remember, and sociodemographic factors such as educational level and monthly income. PMID:27134464

  19. Drug-related problems among medical ward patients in Jimma university specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tigabu, Bereket Molla; Daba, Daniel; Habte, Belete

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The increasing number of available drugs and drug users, as well as more complex drug regimens led to more side effects and drug interactions and complicates follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess drug-related problems (DRPs) and associated factors in hospitalized patients. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, located in the south west of Addis Ababa. All patients who were admitted to the medical ward from February 2011 to March 2011 were included in the study. Data on sociodemographic variables, past medical history, drug history, current diagnosis, current medications, vital signs, and relevant laboratory data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and data collection forms which were filling through patient interview and card review. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 for windows. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, Chi-square, and logistic regression were utilized. Findings: Out of 257 study participants, 189 (73.5%) had DRPs and a total of 316 DRPs were identified. From the six classes of DRPs studied, 103 (32.6%) cases related to untreated indication or need additional drug therapy, and 49 (15.5%) cases related to high medication dosage. Unnecessary drug therapy in 49 (15.5%) cases, low medication dosage in 44 (13.9%) cases, and ineffective drug therapy in 42 (13.3%) cases were the other classes of problems identified. Noncompliance in 31 (9.8%) cases was the least prevalent DRP. Independent factors which predicted the occurrence of DRPs in the study population were sex, age, polypharmacy, and clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions. The prevalence of DRPs was substantially high (73.5%). Conclusion: Drug-related problems are common among medical ward patients. Indication-related problems, untreated indication and unnecessary drug therapy were the most common types of DRPs among patients of our

  20. Substance abuse and the risk of readmission of people with schizophrenia at Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bimerew, M S; Sonn, F C T; Kortenbout, W P

    2007-06-01

    Frequent readmissions of people with schizophrenia pose considerable pressure on the psychiatric service provision of Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital. The purpose of the study was to ascertain factors mainly contributing to the rate of readmissions of people with schizophrenia. Descriptive survey methods and qualitative focus group interviews were employed to conduct the study. Random sampling techniques were used to select 43 respondents of people with schizophrenia from 231 people with schizophrenia who were readmitted for two or more times in the last two years and who gained access during the time of the study. Structured interviews were used for respondents of people with schizophrenia. Fourteen (N=14) family members/caregivers were selected using purposive sampling methods for focus group discussions. Quantitative data was analyzed using the SPSS Version 11.00 program and the qualitative data was analyzed by generating themes and categories. The results suggest that alcohol and khat abuse were contributing factors for the rate of readmissions of people with schizophrenia into the Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital. It was found that communities contribute to the problems of substance abuse by providing and/or selling it to those mentally ill people. The study also revealed that patients use alcohol and khat in order to tolerate the severe side effects of the anti-psychotic drugs, to suppress hunger due to shortage of food and to avoid drowsiness. Raising community awareness, psycho-education, strengthening the capacities of caretakers and laws to prevent substance abuse, as well as campaigning to prevent people from abusing mentally ill sufferers, should be established. PMID:17703825

  1. Assessment of the structural and process aspects of pharmaceutical care at a university hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Surur, Abdrrahman Shemsu; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Girmay, Genet; Moges, Elsabet; Tesfa, Meseret; Abraha, Messele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the structural and process components of the pharmaceutical care at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH). Materials and Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on all the four pharmacies at GURH from October 1 to December 31, 2013. By adopting data collection instruments from a previously done study, the structural aspects of the pharmacies were assessed using an observation checklist and the process of pharmaceutical care delivery using a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected was entered to and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: none of the pharmacies had a private counseling room, fire extinguisher and meeting area. None of the pharmacy stores were equipped with fan and air ventilation system and had no cross aisles. The mean values for documentation, patient assessment and implementation of therapeutic objective were 12.14, 14.03 and 5.64 respectively. Many pharmacists (64.29%) did not participate in ward rotation with physicians. The overall pharmacy professionals’ level of job satisfaction was found to be 2.77. Conclusion: There were gaps in the structure and the process of the provision of pharmaceutical care in GURH. PMID:25883512

  2. Gastrojejunocolic fistula after gastrojejunostomy in Ayder referral hospital Northern Ethiopia: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Araaya, Girmay Hagos; Desta, Kibrom Gebresilasie; Gebremeskel, Weldehawaria Weldu; Wasihun, Araya Gebreyesus

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastrojejunocolic fistula (GJCF) is a late and severe complication of a stomal ulcer after gastrojejunostomy, which develops as a result of inadequate resection of stomach or incomplete vagotomy. The occurrence of perforation in a GJCF is even more a rare complication because long evolution time or latent period is required for its appearance. Patients with this condition usually present with diarrhea, weight loss, feculent vomiting, under-nutrition and features of peritonitis that require immediate surgical intervention. Case presentation We described two cases of gastrojejunocolic fistula in men aged 60 and 40, first cases of gastrojejunocolic fistula seen in our referral hospital and in the whole region following more than a decade after gastrojejunostomy. Both patients initially presented with watery diarrhea, vomiting of fecal materials, poor appetite and weight loss. Upper GI series or barium enema studies allowed a conclusive diagnosis to be made. Both patients underwent one-stage en bloc resection, and their postoperative course and outcome was one cure and one death. Conclusion As it is rare phenomenon, high clinical suspicion is very important in the diagnosis of GJCF on patients who manifest with chronic diarrhea, vomiting of fecal matter, abdominal pain and features of malnutrition. Careful preoperative preparation is mandatory before any type of surgical procedure is carried out. Pre-operative nutritional status should be evaluated in patients undergoing corrective surgery. Adequate resection of the stomach after Gastrojejunostomy and complete vagotomy is important to prevention development of GJCF. PMID:26693276

  3. Assessment of client satisfaction in labor and delivery services at a maternity referral hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Tadele; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Bisetegne, Daniel; Habte, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients perception about service quality shapes their confidence with regard to use of the available health care facility. This study is aimed to assess the client`s satisfaction in a maternal health care setting. Methods This is an institution based cross sectional descriptive study. A total of 423 postpartum women were interviewed. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. Results The proportion of mothers who are completely satisfied with health care ranges between 2.4 to 21%. Pain control was the poorest source of satisfaction with 82% reporting dissatisfaction. Provider's communication with clients yielded complete satisfaction rates ranging between 0.7 to 26%. Inadequate information about the drug prescribed and explanation of procedures to be done to the client were found to be major causes of dissatisfaction. The complete satisfaction rate with environmental factor of the hospital was between 3.3 to 40.2%. Age of the client, educational status, income of the client and client's address away from Addis Ababa were found to be the predictors of client satisfaction. Provider's attitude and communication, as well as longer duration of stay in the ward were independent predictors of client satisfaction. Conclusion Pain management, client privacy and client provider communication need to be addressed to ensure the satisfaction of maternity clients. The clients need to be involved in the management of their own health problems. PMID:25018826

  4. Predictors of early mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected children receiving high active antiretroviral treatment in public hospitals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ebissa, Getachew; Deyessa, Negusse; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2015-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the breakthrough in care and treatment of people living with HIV, leading to a reduction in mortality and an improvement in the quality of life. Without antiretroviral treatment, most HIV-infected children die before their fifth birthday. So the objective of this study is to determine the mortality and associated factors in a cohort of HIV-infected children receiving ART in Ethiopia. A multicentre facility-based retrospective cohort study was done in selected pediatric ART units in hospitals found in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The probability of survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression models was conducted to determine the independent predictor of survival. A total of 556 children were included in this study. Of the total children, 10.4% were died in the overall cohort. More deaths (70%) occurred in the first 6 months of ART initiation, and the remaining others were still on follow-up at different hospitals. Underweight (moderate and severe; HR: 10.10; 95% CI: 2.08, 28.00; P = 0.004; and HR: 46.69; 95% CI: 9.26, 200.45; P < 0.01, respectively), advanced disease stage (WHO clinical stages III and IV; HR: 10.13: 95% CI: 2.25, 45.58; P = 0.003), poor ART adherence (HR: 11.72; 95% CI: 1.60, 48.44; P = 0.015), and hemoglobin level less than 7 g/dl (HR: 4.08: 95% CI: 1.33, 12.56; P = 0.014) were confirmed as significant independent predictors of death after controlling for other factors. Underweight, advanced disease stage, poor adherence to ART, and anemia appear to be independent predictor of survival in HIV-infected children receiving HAART at the pediatric units of public hospitals in Ethiopia. Nutritional supplementations, early initiation of HAART, close supervision, and monitoring of patients during the first 6 months, the follow up period is recommended.

  5. Assessment of the magnitude and associated factors of immunological failure among adult and adolescent HIV-infected patients in St. Luke and Tulubolo Hospital, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayou, Bekelech; Sisay, Abay; Kumie, Abera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a standard of care for the treatment of HIV infection. However, cost and resistance to ART are major obstacles for access to treatment especially in resource-limited settings. In this study, we aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of Immunological failure among adult and adolescent HIV infected Patients (with age ‘15yrs) on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in St. Luke and Tulu Bolo Hospitals, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among HIV-infected patients initiated 1st line ART at St. Luke and Tulu Bolo Hospitals, South West Shoa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Results A total of 828 patient charts were reviewed. 477(57.6%) were female and the median age was 32 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 148cells/mm3. The most common prescribed ART was TDF based (36.7%). Out of 828 patients chart reviewed 6.8% (56) were developed immunological failure. Out of them only 20 (2.4%) were detected and put on second line regimen. The incidence of immunological failure was 1.8 cases per 100 person years of follow-up. Patients who had not disclosed their HIV status to any one had high risk of immunological failure compared with patients those who had disclosed their HIV status (AHR, 0.429; 95% CI 0.206 - 0.893; P-value=0.024). Conclusion Non disclosures of HIV status and with ambulatory of baseline functional status were found to be predictors of immunological failure. Most of the immunological failure cases were not detected early and not switched to second line ARV regimen. So patients with the above risk factors should be considered for a timely switch to second line HAART. PMID:26587140

  6. High Gastrointestinal Colonization Rate with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalized Patients: Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Desta, Kassu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Azazh, Aklilu; Mohammod, Halima; Desalegn, Dawit; Shimelis, Damte; Gulilat, Dereje; Lamisso, Biruk; Makonnen, Eyasu; Worku, Alemayehu; Mannerqvist, Kerstin; Struwe, Johan; Aspevall, Olov; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the gastrointestinal colonization rate and antibiotic resistance patterns of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalized patients admitted at Ethiopia's largest tertiary hospital. Fecal samples/swabs from 267 patients were cultured on chrome agar. ESBL. Bacterial species identification, verification of ESBL production and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done using Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, France). Phenotype characterization of ESBL-E.coli and ESBL- K.pneumoniae was done using Neo-Sensitabs™. ESBL positivity rate was much higher in K. pneumoniae (76%) than E. coli (45%). The overall gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in hospitalized patients was 52% (95%CI; 46%-58%) of which, ESBL-E. coli and K.pneumoniae accounted for 68% and 32% respectively. Fecal ESBL-E carriage rate in neonates, children and adults was 74%, 59% and 46% respectively. Gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL-E.coli in neonates, children and adults was 11%, 42% and 42% respectively. Of all E. coli strains isolated from adults, children and neonates, 44%, 49% and 22% were ESBL positive (p = 0.28). The prevalence of ESBL-K.pneumoniae carriage in neonates, children and adults was 68%, 22% and 7% respectively. All K. pneumoniae isolated from neonates (100%) and 88% of K. pneumoniae isolated from children were ESBL positive, but only 50% of K.pneumoniae isolated from adults were ESBL positive (p = 0.001). Thirteen patients (5%) were carriers of both ESBL-E.coli and ESBL-KP. The overall carrier rate of ESBL producing isolates resistant to carbapenem was 2% (5/267), all detected in children; three with E.coli HL cephalosporinase (AmpC), resistant to ertapenem and two with K. pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) resistant to meropenem, ertapenem and impenem. We report a high gastrointestinal colonization rate with ESBL-E and the emergence of carbapenems-resistant K

  7. Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. Results a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use. Conclusion a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make

  8. Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Zanjan Area, Northwest Iran: A Retrospective Hospital Based Survey between 2007 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    KOHANSAL, Mohammad Hasan; NOURIAN, Abbasali; BAFANDEH, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hydatidosis is the most important zoonotic disease that causes significant economic losses and public health problems worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate retrospectively 136 patients diagnosed with hydatid cyst disease at two university medical centers between 2007 and 2013 in in Zanjan area, northwest Iran. Methods: We surveyed medical records of infected patients with hydatid cyst who had been operated in two hospitals in Zanjan City, northwest, Iran. Several parameters were studied including age, sex, place of habitation, and the location of cysts. Results: Of 136 cases, 54.4% were female with the mean age of 45 yr (4–86). The most affected age group was 21–40 yr old (36.02% of the cases). Cysts were localized in liver and lung in 64% and 23.5% of cases, respectively. Single organ involvement was seen in the majority of patients and 13 (9.5%) cases had multiple involvement. In 69.9% of cases, there was only one cyst, 8.1% had two cysts, 17.6% with three cysts, and 4.4% had four cysts or more. The distribution of residence of patients showed that 33 (24.3%) of them were urban residents. Conclusion: The prevalence of hydatidosis is high in this city and further studies are required to determine the prevalence, economic impact and risk factors of the disease in the area. PMID:26587503

  9. Qualitative Assessment of Challenges in Tuberculosis Control in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: Health Workers' and Tuberculosis Control Program Coordinators' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gebreegziabher, Senedu B.; Yimer, Solomon A.; Bjune, Gunnar A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Weak health systems pose many barriers to effective tuberculosis (TB) control. This study aimed at exploring health worker's and TB control program coordinator's perspectives on health systems challenges facing TB control in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Eight in-depth interviews with TB control program coordinators and two focus group discussions among 16 health workers were conducted. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants. Thematic analysis was used to identify and analyse main themes. Results. We found that intermittent interruptions of laboratory reagents and anti-TB drugs supplies, absence of trained and motivated health workers, poor TB data documentation, lack of adherence to TB treatment guideline, and lack of access to TB diagnostic tools at peripheral health institutions were challenges facing the TB control program performance in the study zone. Conclusions. Ensuring uninterrupted supply of anti-TB drugs and laboratory reagents to all health institutions is essential. Continuous refresher training of health workers on standard TB care and data handling and developing and implementing a sound retention strategy to attract and motivate health professionals to work in rural areas are necessary interventions to improve the TB control program performance in the study zone. PMID:27066271

  10. Male Partner's Involvement in HIV Counselling and Testing and Associated Factors among Partners of Pregnant Women in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zenebe, Alemu; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Derseh, Lemma; Ahmed, Kedir Y

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the existence of several programmes promoting male involvement in HIV counselling and testing during their wife's pregnancy as a part of PMTCT, few men have heeded the call. The aim of this study was to assess male partner's involvement in HCT and its associated factors. Methods. This study was based on institution based cross-sectional study design that used systematic random sampling technique. A total of 416 partners were interviewed in the data collection. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify the independent predictors. Result. In this study, the prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be 40.1% (95% CI: 35.3%-44.7%). The independent predictors of male involvement were partners who were younger, were cohabitant, were with multigravida wives, were knowledgeable on route of mother-to-child transmission, and discussed HCT. Conclusion. The prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be suboptimal compared to similar studies in Ethiopia. There is a need of interventions on partners who are older, separated, and with lower gravidity wife. Awareness creation campaign should also be created on the route of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and on the importance of discussion with wife. PMID:27555968

  11. Male Partner's Involvement in HIV Counselling and Testing and Associated Factors among Partners of Pregnant Women in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Zenebe, Alemu; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Derseh, Lemma

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the existence of several programmes promoting male involvement in HIV counselling and testing during their wife's pregnancy as a part of PMTCT, few men have heeded the call. The aim of this study was to assess male partner's involvement in HCT and its associated factors. Methods. This study was based on institution based cross-sectional study design that used systematic random sampling technique. A total of 416 partners were interviewed in the data collection. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify the independent predictors. Result. In this study, the prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be 40.1% (95% CI: 35.3%–44.7%). The independent predictors of male involvement were partners who were younger, were cohabitant, were with multigravida wives, were knowledgeable on route of mother-to-child transmission, and discussed HCT. Conclusion. The prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be suboptimal compared to similar studies in Ethiopia. There is a need of interventions on partners who are older, separated, and with lower gravidity wife. Awareness creation campaign should also be created on the route of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and on the importance of discussion with wife. PMID:27555968

  12. Perceived Nurse—Physician Communication in Patient Care and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Fikadu Balcha; Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurse–physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims. Objective The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results The response rate of the study was 91.55%. The mean perceived nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88±19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52±19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care. Conclusion Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for

  13. Expectation and satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients toward the pharmaceutical care provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Haile, Kaleab Taye; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Measurements of patient satisfaction help to assess the performance of health service provision and predict treatment adherence and outcomes. This study aimed to assess human HIV/AIDS patients’ expectation of and satisfaction with the pharmaceutical service delivered at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Patients and methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was performed from May 11 to 25, 2015. A total of 291 patients living with HIV/AIDS were included using a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using structured questionnaires measuring expectation and satisfaction of respondents using a Likert scale of 1–5 through face-to-face interviews. The data collected were entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Comparison was made between those respondents who lived in and outside the town. Results The overall mean expectation and satisfaction of respondents toward pharmacy setting and services were 3.62 and 3.13, respectively. More than half (56.1%) of the participants were dissatisfied with the comfort and convenience of waiting area and private counseling room. Similarly, 69.3% of the respondents claimed that pharmacy professionals did not give information about side effects and drug–drug and drug–food interactions of antiretroviral medications. There was a statistically significant difference between respondents who live in and outside Gondar town in overall expectation (t=3.415, P=0.001) with the pharmacy setting and services. Conclusion In this study, the overall satisfaction level of respondents with pharmaceutical service (pharmacy setting and services) provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital was found to be low, while the overall respondents’ expectation from the pharmaceutical services were exceedingly high. The hospital should implement good dispensing practice systems in relation to the services and continuing professional development to professionals in order to

  14. Factors associated with success of vaginal birth after one caesarean section (VBAC) at three teaching hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaginal delivery after previous one cesarean section for a non recurring indication has been described by several authors as safe and having a success rate of 60–80%. Hence many centers are offering VBAC for candidates leaving the century old dictum of once cesarean always cesarean. But predicting success of VBAC after trial of labor (TOL) is still a difficult task due to the lack of a validated prediction tool. Studies on predictors of success are few and most of them conducted in developed countries and difficult to generalize. Therefore assessing factors associated with successful VBAC is very important to for counseling mothers while offering VBAC. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with successful VBAC in three teaching Hospitals in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted to compare the factors associated with successful VBAC in teaching hospitals in Addis Ababa in one year period. The cases were those successfully delivered vaginally and the controls were those with failed VBAC and delivered by caesarean section. The sample size of the cases was 101vaginal deliveries and the controls were 103 failed VBAC patients which made the case to control ratio of 1:1. Result In this study independent factors determining successful VBAC were, history of successful VBAC in the past, rupture of membrane at admission, and cervical dilatation of more than 3cm at admission. Presence of meconium, malposition and history of stillbirth were associated with failed VBAC. Factors like maternal age, past caesarean indications, inter delivery interval, and birth weight were not found to be significant determinants of success. The most common reason for repeat cesarean section for after trial of labor was labour dysfunction because of absence of a policy for augmentation on a scarred uterus in these hospitals. Conclusion It is possible to prepare a decision tool on the success of VBAC by taking important past and present

  15. Total Delay Is Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcome among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebreegziabher, Senedu Bekele; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Background delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) may worsen the disease, increase mortality and enhance transmission in the community. This study aimed at assessing the association between total delay and unfavorable treatment outcome among newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region of Ethiopia from October 2013 to May 2015. Newly diagnosed PTB patients who were ≥15 years of age were consecutively enrolled in the study from 30 randomly selected public health facilities. Total delay (the time period from onset of TB symptoms to first start of anti-TB treatment) was measured. Median total delay was calculated. Mixed effect logistics regression was used to analyze factors associated with unfavorable treatment outcome. Results Seven hundred six patients were enrolled in the study. The median total delay was 60 days. Patients with total delay of > 60 days were more likely to have unfavorable TB treatment outcome than patients with total delay of ≤ 60 days (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–5.26). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive TB patients were 8.46 times more likely to experience unfavorable treatment outcome than HIV negative TB patients (AOR, 8.46; 95% CI, 3.14–22.79). Conclusions Long total delay and TB/HIV coinfection were associated with unfavorable treatment outcome. Targeted interventions that can reduce delay in diagnosis and treatment of TB, and early comprehensive management of TB/HIV coinfection are needed to reduce increased risk of unfavorable treatment outcome. PMID:27442529

  16. Seroprevalence and Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Routine Antenatal Care in Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohanes, Tsegaye; Zerdo, Zerihun; Chufamo, Nega

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious cause of liver disease affecting millions of people throughout the world. When HBV is acquired during pregnancy, prenatal transmission can occur to the fetus. Therefore, this study is aimed at estimating seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC) of Arba Minch Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 232 pregnant women visiting ANC from February to April, 2015. Data regarding sociodemographic and associated factors were gathered using questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The overall seroprevalence of HBV infection was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.2-6.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that history of abortion (AOR = 7.775; 95% CI: 1.538-39.301) and having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 7.189; 95% CI: 1.039-49.755) were independent predictors of HBsAg seropositivity. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV infection is intermediate. Therefore, screening HBV infection should be routine part of ANC; health information on having single sexual partner for women of childbearing age and on following aseptic techniques during abortion should be provided to health facilities working on abortion. PMID:26904281

  17. Different profile of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections among patients with diarrhoea according to age attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jose M; Rodríguez-Valero, Natalia; Tisiano, Gabriel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Fruttero, Enza; Reyes, Francisco; Górgolas, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of intestinal parasitic diseases with age and gender in patients with diarrhea attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia in the period 2007-2012. A total of 32,191 stool examination was performed in patients who presented with diarrhea. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in the present study was 26.5%. Predominant parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (15.0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.0%). The median of age of diarrheal patients with Hymenolepis species, Schistosoma mansoni and G. lamblia was significantly lower (5 y., 10.5 y., and 18 y., respectively; p<0.001). The median age of diarrheal patients with Taenia species, S. stercoralis, and E. histolytica/dispar was significantly higher (24 y., 24 y., and 20 y., respectively; p<0.01). In conclusion, Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent intestinal parasite and the profile of intestinal parasitic infections is influenced by age.

  18. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  19. Evaluation of cotrimoxazole use as a preventive therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS in Gondar University Referral Hospital, northwestern Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Gebeyehu, Minaleshewa Biruk; Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Tadesse, Yokabd Dechassa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) is a feasible, inexpensive, and well-tolerated way of using cotrimoxazole intervention for patients living with HIV/AIDS to reduce HIV/AIDS-related morbidities and mortalities caused by various bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH), northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was used to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS at GURH, northwestern Ethiopia from September 2013 to October 2015. Medical records of 264 patients were selected by using systematic random sampling technique from the sampling frame list of all patients’ medical records. Data were collected from patients’ medical records using the structured checklist and evaluated against World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The quantitative data were analyzed using the statistical packages for social sciences Version 20. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used to describe and assess the association between different variables. Results Approximately 95 (36.0%) patients were at WHO clinical stage III at the start of CPT. The use of CPT was consistent with the guidelines in the rationale for indication 200 (75.75%) and dose 263 (99.62%), despite the presence of contraindications in 24 (9.90%) patients. The occurrence of cotrimoxazole-associated side effects was higher in the first month of therapy. Problems regarding drug–drug interactions were identified in 63 (23.86%) patients, and 92 (34.84%) patients discontinued CPT due to different reasons. Conclusion Although the practice of discontinuation of CPT and follow-up for adverse drug effects were not consistent with WHO guidelines on the rational use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, the use

  20. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among School Children in a Rural Area of the Amhara Region, North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    de Lucio, Aida; Amor-Aramendía, Aranzazu; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M.; Anegagrie, Melaku; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Zewdie, Derjew; Ayehubizu, Zimmam; Yizengaw, Endalew; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Mulu, Wondemagen; Hailu, Tadesse; Herrador, Zaida; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Backgroud Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries. Methods We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Principal Findings The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study. Conclusions Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G

  1. Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and Associated Factors among People with Glaucoma Attending Outpatient Clinic at Menelik II Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bedasso, Kufa; Feyera, Fetuma; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Yohannis, Zegeye

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of blindness from glaucoma is high. Therefore, people suffering from a serious eye disease such as glaucoma, which can lead to blindness, usually have an emotional disturbance on the patient. Untreated psychiatric illness is associated with increased morbidity and increased costs of care. Objective This study aimed to assess prevalence of common mental disorders and associated factors among people with Glaucoma attending Menelik II referral hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2014. Methods Institution based Cross-sectional study design was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology Menelik II Referral Hospital from April 10 to May 15, 2014. 423 participants who had undergone through investigation, examination and diagnosed as patients of glaucoma were selected randomly from the glaucoma clinic. Data were collected through face to face interview using Self Reporting Questionnaire consisted of 20 items. Study subjects who scored ≥11 from SRQ-20 were considered as having common mental disorders. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis with 95% CI were done and variables with P<0.05 in the final model were identified as independent factors associated with common mental disorders. Results Four hundred five patients with glaucoma were included in our study with response rate of 95.7% and 64.5% were males. The average age was 59±13.37 years. Common mental disorders were observed in 23.2% of Glaucoma patients. It is quite obvious that levels of CMDs were high among patients with glaucoma. There was a significant association between age, sex, chronic physical illness, income and duration of illness at P < 0.05. Conclusion and Recommendation Symptoms of common mental disorders were the commonest comorbidities among patients with glaucoma. It will be better to assess and treat Common mental disorders as a separate illness in patients with glaucoma. PMID:27584147

  2. Magnitude of adverse drug reaction and associated factors among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in Hiwot Fana specialized university hospital, eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Mitiku, Habtamu; Teklemariam, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human immunodefiecency virus infected patients did not adhere correctly to their Antiretroviral Therapy because of the drugs adverse effects. Thus, continuous evaluation of the adverse effect of Antiretroviral Therapy will help to make more effective treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Adverse Drug Reaction and associated factors on Antiretroviral Therapy among Human immunodefiecency virus infected Adults at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A Hospital based retrospective study was conducted among 358 of adult patients clinical records on antiretroviral Therapy from April1 to June30, 2014. Results The overall prevalence of Adverse Drug Reaction among Human immunodefiecency virus infected patients on antiretroviral Therapy was 17.0%. Of reported Adverse Drug Reaction, 80.3%, 18% and 1.7% occurred in patients on Stavudine, Zidovudine and Tenofovir based regimens respectively. The common Adverse Drug Reaction were lipodystrophy (fat change) (49.2%), numbness/tingling (27.9%), peripheral neuropathy (18%) and (8.2%) anaemia (8.2%). Patients on Stavudine containing regimens were more likely to develop Adverse Drug Reaction compared to Zidovudine (AOR = 0.212, 95% CI 0.167, 0.914, p<0.001) and Tenofovir (AOR=0.451, 95% CI 0.532, 0.948, p<0.001). Conclusion The overall prevalence of Adverse Drug Reaction among Human immunodefiecency virus infected patients in this study was 17% and more common on those patients taking Stavudine based regimen. Lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were significantly associated with stavudine-based regimens, while anaemia was significantly associated with zidovudine based regimens. Thus regular clinical and laboratory monitoring of patients on Antiretroviral Therapy should be strengthened. PMID:27800108

  3. Detection of multi drug resistant bacteria in major hospitals in Kano, North-West, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, I.; Arzai, A.H.; Haruna, M.; Sharif, A.A.; Getso, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Two major hospitals in Kano, North West Nigeria have recorded increasing resistance of clinical pathogens to broad spectrum β lactams, mediated by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL) and non ESBLs. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the occurrence and prevalence of plasmid and chromosomal mediated AmpC βL and carbapenemase in addition to already known ESBL due to increasing resistance of pathogens from the two hospitals to carbapenems, cephamycins and flouroquinolones. Antibiogram tests and ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase production tests were performed on all the isolates. AmpC and carbapenemase producers were further screened for AmpC inducibility and metallo beta lactamase production respectively. Majority of the isolates (> 80%) were resistant to both β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. Reduced susceptibility to levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin among the isolates were observed with the exception of P. aeruginosa which is totally resistant to imipenem and levofloxacin. An overall prevalence of 14.4%, 11.9% and 11.9.3% for ESβL, AmpC and carbapenemase was observed respectively. About 7.9% of the AmpC producers can over expressed the chromosomally mediated AmpC and 85.8% of the carbapenemase producers require metal for their action. Co-production of either of two and/or all of the enzymes was observed in E. coli, P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa. Antibiotic resistance among isolates from the two hospitals is increasing and the major cause of this resistance in the pathogens studied are production of AmpC, carbapenemase (especially Metallo β-lactamase) in addition to already known ESBL enzymes by the pathogens. Some of the isolates also possess the capacity to elaborate two or more of the enzymes concurrently, which would renders them resistant to a multitude of antibiotics. PMID:25477909

  4. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice and associated factors towards palliative care among nurses working in selected hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To provide quality care at the end of life or for chronically sick patients, nurses must have good knowledge, attitude and practice about palliative care (PC). In Ethiopia PC is new and very little is known about the type of services offered and the readiness of nurses to provide PC. Methods A cross sectional quantitative study design was carried out using 341 nurses working in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa from January 2012 to May 2012. Systematic random sampling was the method employed to select two governmental and two non-governmental hospitals. The researchers used triangulation in their study method making use of: Frommelt’s Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale, Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN) and practice questions. This led to enhanced validity of the data. EPI-INFO and SPSS software statistical packages were applied for data entry and analysis. Result Of the total 365 nurses selected, a response rate of 341 (94.2%) were registered. Out of the total study participants, 104 (30.5%) had good knowledge and 259 (76%) had favorable attitude towards PC. Medical and surgical wards as well as training on PC were positively associated with knowledge of nurses. Institution, individuals’ level of education, working in medical ward and the training they took part on PC were also significantly associated with the attitude the nurses had. Nurses working in Hayat Hospital (nongovernmental) had a 71.5% chance of having unfavorable attitude towards PC than those working in Black Lion Hospital (governmental). Regarding their knowledge aspect of practice, the majority of the respondents 260 (76.2%) had poor implementation, and nearly half of the respondents had reported that the diagnosis of patients was usually performed at the terminal stage. In line with this, spiritual and medical conditions were highly taken into consideration while dealing with terminally ill patients. Conclusion The nurses had poor knowledge and knowledge aspect

  5. Knowledge of pregnant women on mother-to-child transmission of HIV, its prevention, and associated factors in Assosa town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abtew, Solomon; Awoke, Worku; Asrat, Anemaw

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death of children in sub-Saharan African countries. Almost all HIV-positive children acquire infection through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Successful intervention toward prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and achieving the goal of eliminating the new HIV infection is highly dependent on everyone; especially, women of child-bearing age should have accurate and up-to-date knowledge about HIV transmission, risk of transmission to babies, and possible interventions. However, knowledge of MTCT of HIV, its prevention, and associated factors among women was not well studied in Benshangul Gumuz Region (Ethiopia). Methods A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving 398 pregnant women who attended antenatal care services at governmental health institutions from February to March 2014 in Assosa town. Based on the flow of antenatal care attendants, the calculated sample size was proportionally allocated to the health facilities before data collection. Following this, systematic sampling method was used, and data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS version 20 statistical packages. Result A total of 386 pregnant women participated with a response rate of 97%, and 222 (57.5%) of them had full knowledge about the three critical modes of HIV transmission from mother to child, but only 67 (17.4%) knew the possible prevention methods. Knowledge on MTCT of HIV was positively associated with women who had sufficient knowledge on HIV/AIDS (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] =2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.54–5.32), women who had a favorable attitude to provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing (AOR =2.19, 95% CI =1.22–3.92), and women who did not expect any partner’s reaction to positive HIV test result after testing (AOR =1.58, 95% CI =1.01–2.49). Correspondingly, knowledge

  6. High Gastrointestinal Colonization Rate with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalized Patients: Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desta, Kassu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Azazh, Aklilu; Mohammod, Halima; Desalegn, Dawit; Shimelis, Damte; Gulilat, Dereje; Lamisso, Biruk; Makonnen, Eyasu; Worku, Alemayehu; Mannerqvist, Kerstin; Struwe, Johan; Aspevall, Olov; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the gastrointestinal colonization rate and antibiotic resistance patterns of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalized patients admitted at Ethiopia’s largest tertiary hospital. Fecal samples/swabs from 267 patients were cultured on chrome agar. ESBL. Bacterial species identification, verification of ESBL production and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done using Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, France). Phenotype characterization of ESBL-E.coli and ESBL- K.pneumoniae was done using Neo-Sensitabs™. ESBL positivity rate was much higher in K. pneumoniae (76%) than E. coli (45%). The overall gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in hospitalized patients was 52% (95%CI; 46%–58%) of which, ESBL-E. coli and K.pneumoniae accounted for 68% and 32% respectively. Fecal ESBL-E carriage rate in neonates, children and adults was 74%, 59% and 46% respectively. Gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL-E.coli in neonates, children and adults was 11%, 42% and 42% respectively. Of all E. coli strains isolated from adults, children and neonates, 44%, 49% and 22% were ESBL positive (p = 0.28). The prevalence of ESBL-K.pneumoniae carriage in neonates, children and adults was 68%, 22% and 7% respectively. All K. pneumoniae isolated from neonates (100%) and 88% of K. pneumoniae isolated from children were ESBL positive, but only 50% of K.pneumoniae isolated from adults were ESBL positive (p = 0.001). Thirteen patients (5%) were carriers of both ESBL-E.coli and ESBL-KP. The overall carrier rate of ESBL producing isolates resistant to carbapenem was 2% (5/267), all detected in children; three with E.coli HL cephalosporinase (AmpC), resistant to ertapenem and two with K. pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) resistant to meropenem, ertapenem and impenem. We report a high gastrointestinal colonization rate with ESBL-E and the emergence of carbapenems-resistant K

  7. Adherence to Treatment and Factors Affecting Adherence of Epileptic Patients at Yirgalem General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasiso, Temesgen Yohannes; Desse, Tigestu Alemu

    2016-01-01

    Background Non adherence of epileptic patients to antiepileptic medication often leads to an increased risk of seizures and worsening of disease, death and increased health care costs. Objective to assess adherence to treatment and factors affecting adherence of epileptic patients at Yirgalem General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. Methods and Materials We conducted a cross-sectional study on epileptic patients from February 9 to 22, 2015. Data were collected from patients ≥18 years old. Adherence was measured using the eight-item Morisky’s medication adherence scale. All consecutive patients coming to epilepsy clinic during the study period were interviewed until the calculated sample size (210) was obtained. We collected patient demographics, perception about epilepsy and adherence to medication(s). We used chi-square tests and a binary logistic regression model for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results out of a total of 210 participants, 194 were willing to participate and were studied. Of the 194 participants, 109 (56.2%) were males. The mean age of the participants was 33.62±11.44 years; range 18 to 66 years. The majority, 123(63.41%), of the participants were taking two antiepileptic medications. Sixty two (32%) of the participants were adherent to their treatment. The most common reported reasons for non-adherence were forgetfulness 49(75.4%) and run out of pills 7(10.8%). Factors that affect medication adherence are epilepsy treatment for <1 year (P = 0.011), epilepsy treatment for 1–3 years (P = 0.002), epilepsy treatment for 3–5 years (P = 0.007), being married (P = 0.006), grade 9–12 education (P = 0.028), college or university education (P = 0.002) and absence of co-morbidity (P = 0.008). Conclusions The rate of adherence observed in this study was low. The most common reason for non- adherence was forgetfulness. Therefore, the hospital should devise strategies to improve adherence of epileptic patients

  8. Retention and Treatment Outcomes of an Undernutrition Program for HIV patients involving Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food at Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Dawson, Angela; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite global efforts to eradicate poverty and hunger, under-nutrition is still a major health problem, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV/AIDS prevalence is also a serious burden. Aim To assess the retention and outcomes of under-nutrition treatment program in Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV positive children and adults participating in the Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) treatment program at Gondar University Hospital ART clinic for one year from November 2012 to November 2013. Materials and Methods Six hundred and thirty six patient records were followed-up for one year. Outcome variables were Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) values measured as severe, moderate acute malnutrition, normal after treatment, non-respondent, relapsed and lost to follow-up using the hospital records of HIV positive children and adults eligible for the program. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to compute Crude Odds Ratio (COR) and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR). Statistical significance was set at p-value<0.05. Results Among 636 clients, 44.2% achieved MUAC measures ≥ 125 mm for children and ≥ 21 cm for adults at 4 and 6 months. 70.1% of those were children while 29.9% of the 281 were adults. Moreover, a more positive initial response to ready-to-use therapeutic food was found among children as there was significant increase (p<0.05) in MUAC value after the second month of initiating treatment while adults achieved a significant (p<0.05, p<0.01) in MUAC at the 4th and 6th month respectively. There was a significant association between age, nutrition status and treatment outcome, while sex, HIV status, education and residency were not associated with treatment outcome. Conclusion Recovery and weight gain rates were below 50%. Defaulter rates were higher than the Sphere standards and recovery was better in children than adults. Integrated RUTF and

  9. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus among pregnant women in southern Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Metaferia, Yeshi; Dessie, Walelign; Ali, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major blood-borne and sexually transmitted infectious agent that is a significant global public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HBV among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Hawassa University referral hospital in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2015. A total of 269 consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal consultations were enrolled. Sociodemographic information and data regarding possible risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the data were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of HBsAg among the 269 participants enrolled in the study was 7.8% (n=21). The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was 5.2% (n=14), of whom two participants (14.2%) were also positive for HBsAg. Study participants with no formal education (odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 10.68; p<0.05) were more likely to be infected with HBV than those who had completed at least secondary school. Although HBsAg was detected more often in pregnant women who had multiple exposure factors (8.8%, n=13) than in pregnant women who had not experienced possible risk factors (4%, n=1), this difference was not statistically significant (OR, 2.33; 95%CI, 0.29 to 18.63). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HBV infection was detected in the study population. Neither the type of risk factors nor exposure to multiple risk factors was significantly associated with HBV infection. Hence, screening pregnant women regardless of risk factors and improving awareness of the transmission routes of HBV within this group may reduce the risk of HBV infections. PMID:27336446

  10. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting. PMID:24967300

  11. Bacterial profile of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at Antenatal Clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Derese, Behailu; Kedir, Haji; Teklemariam, Zelalem; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial profile of urinary tract infection (UTI) and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at antenatal clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 18, 2015 to March 25, 2015. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 186 pregnant women using sterile containers. Then, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by standard disk diffusion method. Patient information was obtained using pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered and cleaned using EpiData Version 3 and then exported to Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 16) for further analysis. Results The prevalence of significant bacteriuria was 14%. Gram-negative bacteria were more prevalent (73%). Escherichia coli (34.6%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (19.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4%), and Klebsiella spp. (11.5%) were common bacterial isolates, where most of them were resistant against ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance (resistance in ≥2 drugs) was seen in 100% of the isolated bacteria. A majority of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Conclusion This study found a number of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs from pregnant women with and without symptoms of UTI. Therefore, the early routine detection of causative agents of UTI and determining their drug susceptibility pattern are important for pregnant women to avoid complications in mother and fetus. Ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and erythromycin can be used with great care for the empirical treatment of UTI. PMID:26937197

  12. Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Blood Culture Isolates among Septicemia Suspected Children in Selected Hospitals Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Negussie, Adugna; Mulugeta, Gebru; Bedru, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Shimeles, Damte; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood stream infections are major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. The emerging of causative agents and resistance to various antimicrobial agents are increased from time to time. The main aim of this study was to determine the bacterial agents and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among children suspected of having septicemia. Methods A cross sectional study involved about 201 pediatric patients (≤ 12 years) was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012 at pediatric units of TikurAnbessa Specialized Hospital and Yekatit 12 Hospital. Standard procedure was followed for blood sample collection, isolate identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results Among 201 study subjects 110 (54.7%) were males. Majority 147 (73.1%) of them were neonates (≤ 28 days). The mean length of hospital stay before sampling was 4.29 days. Out of the 201 tested blood samples, blood cultures were positive in 56 (27.9%).Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria constituted 29(51.8%) and 26(46.4%), respectively. The most frequent pathogen found was Staphylococcus aureus 13 (23.2%), followed by Serratia marcescens 12(21.4%), CoNS 11(19.6%), klebsiella spp 9(16%) and Salmonella spp 3(5.4%). Majority of bacterial isolates showed high resistance to Ampicillin, Penicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Gentamicin and Tetracycline which commonly used in the study area. Conclusion Majority of the isolates were multidrug resistant. These higher percentages of multi-drug resistant emerged isolates urge us to take infection prevention measures and to conduct other large studies for appropriate empiric antibiotic choice. PMID:26997847

  13. Hematological indices and their correlation with fasting blood glucose level and anthropometric measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Biadgo, Belete; Melku, Mulugeta; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Abebe, Molla

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is (DM) a global public health problem and a complex disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that leads to long-term macrovascular and microvascular complications. Recent studies have reported the role of hematological indices in contributing to the vascular injury in diabetic patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine hematological indices and their correlation with fasting blood glucose level and anthropometric measurement in type 2 DM patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the chronic illness clinic of Gondar University Hospital from February to April 2015. A total of 296 participants (148 cases and 148 healthy controls) were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose levels and hematological indices were determined by using Bio Systems A25 and Sysmex-KX 21N analyzers, respectively. Independent sample t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and correlation statistics were used. A P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result There was significant difference in red blood cell distribution width (47.3±2.6 fL vs 45.2±3 fL) between diabetic patients and controls. Total white blood cells in 103/µL (6.59±1.42 vs 5.56±1.38), absolute lymphocyte count in 103/µL (2.60±0.70 vs 2.04±0.63), and absolute neutrophil count in 103/µL (3.57±1.46 vs 3.11±1.04) increased significantly in diabetic patients compared with controls, respectively. Among platelet indices, mean platelet volume (10.4±1.1 fL vs 9.9±1.1 fL) and platelet distribution width (14.5±2.1 fL vs 13.4 ±2.1 fL) were found to be significantly increased in the diabetic patients (P<0.05). Anthropometric measurements significantly correlated with white blood cell and platelet indices. Conclusion The study showed statistically significant difference in some hematological parameters of

  14. Bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of blood culture isolates among febrile patients in Mekelle Hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wasihun, Araya Gebreyesus; Wlekidan, Letemichael Negash; Gebremariam, Senay Aregawi; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Welderufael, Abadi Luel; Haile, Tadesse Dejenie; Muthupandian, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial bloodstream infections are a major public health problem, which leads to high morbidity and mortality of patients. On time diagnosis and appropriate medication will be the best way to save the lives of affected ones. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial profile of bloodstream infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Mekelle Hospital. Cross sectional study method was carried out in 514 (269 females and 245 males) febrile patients in Mekelle hospital from March to October 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used for blood collection, bacterial isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Out of the total 514 febrile patients, 144 (28%) culture positive were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus 54 (37.5%), Coagulase-negative staphylococci 44 (30.6%), Escherichia coli 16 (3.1%), Citrobacter spp. 9 (1.7%) and Salmonella typhi 8 (1.6%) were the most dominant isolates, collectively accounting for >90% of the isolates. Antimicrobial resistance pattern for gram positive and gram negative bacteria was 0-83.3% and 0-100%, respectively. High resistance was seen to Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole 101 (70.1%), Oxacillin 65 (62.5%), Ceftriaxone 79 (58.9%) and Doxycycline 71 (49.3%). Fifty-nine percent of the isolated bacteria in this study were multi drug resistant. Most bacterial isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin clavulanic acid. All gram positive isolates in this current study were sensitive to vancomycin. Prevalence of bacterial isolates in blood was high. It also reveals isolated bacteria species developed multi drug resistance to most of the antibiotics tested, which highlights for periodic surveillance of etiologic agent, antibiotic susceptibility to prevent further emergence and spread of resistant bacterial pathogens.

  15. Transfusion-Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood Donors at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Fanuel Belayneh; Ageru, Temesgen Anjulo; Wada, Fiseha Wadilo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transfusion-transmissible infections, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety and pose a serious public health problem. Objective. To determine the magnitude of blood borne infections among blood donors at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital. Methods and Materials. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10/11/2015 up to 10/12/2015. 390 donors were consecutively included and data on donor's age, sex, blood type, and serum screening results were obtained by structured questionnaire and laboratory investigation. The collected data were entered into Epi Data version 1.4 and then exported to SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Result. The seroprevalence of blood borne pathogens is 29.5% of which HCV, HBV, HIV, and syphilis account for 8.5%, 9.5%, 6.4%, and 7.5%, respectively. Multiple infections were observed among 2.8% of the infected individuals. In addition, age ≥ 30 has a significant association with HCV. Conclusion. Significantly higher prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections was identified from blood donors and they remain to be the greatest threat to blood safety, so comprehensive screening of donors' blood for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis using standard methods is highly recommended to ensure the safety of blood recipient. PMID:27597875

  16. Prevalence of Dermatophytic Infection and the Spectrum of Dermatophytes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklebirhan, Gebreabiezgi; Bitew, Adane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4%) by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4%) samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7%) cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25-44 and 45-64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed. PMID:26448763

  17. Association of Hepatitis C Virus Infection with Type II Diabetes in Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Solomon; Abera, Solomon; Mihret, Adane; Abebe, Tamrat

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become the global “epidemic” with an estimated 123 million people currently infected worldwide. As the same time diabetes is also rapidly emerging as a global health care problem that threatens to reach pandemic levels by 2030. Objective. To investigate the magnitude of HCV infection in type II diabetes as compared to controls. Methodology. A case control study design was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from May to June 2010. A total of 604 study subjects were included in this study. Sociodemographic and risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. From serum sample, HCVAb screening was done by rapid antibody screening test. Liver functioning tests and total cholesterol tests were done by Dr. Lange LP 800 spectrophotometer. Results. The prevalence of HCV in type II diabetes and nondiabetic controls was 9.9% and 3.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, HCV seropositives have high risk of developing diabetes as compared with seronegatives (AOR = 2.997, 95% CI: (1.08, 8.315)). Conclusion. In this study, we found a positive association between past HCV infection and type II diabetes. As we did not perform HCV RNA test, we could not assess the association with HCV viremia. PMID:23049551

  18. Transfusion-Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood Donors at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bisetegen, Fithamlak Solomon; Bekele, Fanuel Belayneh; Ageru, Temesgen Anjulo; Wada, Fiseha Wadilo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transfusion-transmissible infections, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety and pose a serious public health problem. Objective. To determine the magnitude of blood borne infections among blood donors at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital. Methods and Materials. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10/11/2015 up to 10/12/2015. 390 donors were consecutively included and data on donor's age, sex, blood type, and serum screening results were obtained by structured questionnaire and laboratory investigation. The collected data were entered into Epi Data version 1.4 and then exported to SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Result. The seroprevalence of blood borne pathogens is 29.5% of which HCV, HBV, HIV, and syphilis account for 8.5%, 9.5%, 6.4%, and 7.5%, respectively. Multiple infections were observed among 2.8% of the infected individuals. In addition, age ≥ 30 has a significant association with HCV. Conclusion. Significantly higher prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections was identified from blood donors and they remain to be the greatest threat to blood safety, so comprehensive screening of donors' blood for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis using standard methods is highly recommended to ensure the safety of blood recipient. PMID:27597875

  19. The exposure rate to hepatitis B and C viruses among medical waste handlers in three government hospitals, southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and risk factors for exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among medical waste handlers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015. A total of 152 medical waste handlers (MWH) and 82 non-medical waste handlers (NMWH) were studied. Serum samples were collected from participants and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and anti-HCV using rapid immunochromatography assay. MWH were also screened for hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs). RESULTS: The respective prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV was 1.3%, 39.4%, and 0.7% in MWH, compared to 2.4%, 17.1%, and 1.2%, respectively, in NMWH. Among MWH, 58.6% were susceptible to HBV infection. There was a significant difference in the rate of lifetime exposure to HBV in MWH compared with NMWH (odds ratio [OR], 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 6.13). However, there was no significant difference between participant groups with respect to current HBV infection (OR, 0.53; 95%CI, 0.07 to 3.86) or anti-HCV (OR, 0.54; 95%CI, 0.03 to 8.69). Age older than 40 years and working in a hospital laundry were independent predictors of lifetime exposure to HBV infection. Eleven (7.2%) respondents were vaccinated against HBV. CONCLUSIONS: Lifetime exposure to HBV infection was significantly higher in MWH than in NMWH. The majority of MWH was not vaccinated against HBV and thus remains susceptible to contracting the infection. Screening upon hire followed by vaccination of MWH is recommended to reduce the transmission of HBV. PMID:26797221

  20. Intestinal Protozoal Parasites in Diarrheal Children and Associated Risk Factors at Yirgalem Hospital, Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Abunna, Fufa; Girma, Mekonnen

    2014-01-01

    Aim. A case-control study was conducted to determine the prevalence of G. lamblia, Cryptosporidium, spp and E. histolytica/dispar in diarrheal children at Yirgalem Hospital from February 2011 to August. Subjects and Methods. A total of 230 children participated in the study of which 115 (50%) were cases and 115 (50%) were controls. A single stool sample was collected and examined by direct saline wet mount, formol-ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen. Results. Eighty-four (36.52%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasites (57 (49.56%) from diarrheal children and 27 (23.47%) out of nondiarrheal children). The prevalence of G. lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp, and E. histolytica/dispar was 15.65%, 9.56%, and 4.35% in children with diarrhea and 1.74%, 5.21%, and 1.74% in those without it, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp and E. histolytica/dispar revealed higher infection in males (10.81% and 5.4%, resp.) than in females (7.32% and 2.43%, resp.). G. lamblia infection was higher in females (29.27%) than in males (8.11%). Cryptosporidium spp infection was higher in the age groups of ≤4 years old (53.84%). Significant difference was seen between 10 and 13 (7.69%) years old. Higher prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar was found in 5–9 years (85.71%) than ≤4 years old (14.28%). Conclusion. Cryptosporidium spp, E. histolytica/dispar, and G. lamblia were higher in children with diarrhea than in those without it. PMID:27355052

  1. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Diseases and Their Risk Factors in Hospitalized Patients in East Azerbaijan Province, Northwest Iran: A Review of 18323 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi, Alireza; Safaie, Naser; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Alizadehasl, Azin; Golzari, Samad EJ

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accountable for more than 30% of deaths worldwide and is, thus, deemed the most important factor in terms of disease burden around the globe. This study aimed to evaluate CAD and its risk factors in hospitalized patients in the East Azerbaijan Province, northwest Iran, from 2006 to 2007. Methods: Data on 18.323 patients hospitalized due to cardiovascular diseases were collected to evaluate the diseases and their risk factors in 15 hospitals in the East Azerbaijan Province, northwest Iran. We assessed the main diagnosis of cardiovascular disease on admission in each hospital. Also, types of interventional and surgical procedures were assessed and all these variables were compared between men and women. Results: The study population consisted of 56.6% male and 43.4% female patients. The median and range between quartile 1 and 3 (Q1–Q3) ages of the males and females were 59 (49–70) and 62 (51–71) years, respectively. Ischemic heart diseases were diagnosed in 68.4%, electrophysiological disorders in 6.5%, and valvular heart diseases in 4.5% of the patients. The frequencies of the studied risk factors were as follows: cigarette smoking (47.5%); hypertension (66.95%); diabetes mellitus (35.9%); and history of cerebrovascular accident (16.4%) and renal disease (13.4%). Medical therapy was performed in 79.23%, surgery in 6.28%, and cardiovascular interventional therapy in 13.99% of the patients. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.57% (1.42% in the males and 1.76% in the females; p value = 0.009). Conclusion: The most frequent known risk factors in the hospitalized patients were smoking, alcohol consumption, and diabetes. In the northwest of Iran, age at hospitalization due to cardiovascular diseases is slightly lower than that in the Western populations; however, sex distribution, diagnoses, and treatment modalities are not significantly different from those reported in Western countries. PMID:23967032

  2. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Wondu; Belayneh, Mehretu; Moges, Mathewos; Mekonnen, Emebet; Endrias, Misganu; Ayele, Sinafiksh; Misganaw, Tebeje; Shiferaw, Mekonnen; Tesema, Tigist

    2015-01-01

    Background Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Methods Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. Results The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively). The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93–263) cells/mm3. A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22–31) months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis, age, facility type, and educational status were independently associated with LTFU. Moreover, baseline tuberculous disease, poor functional status, and follow-up at a health center were associated with an elevated probability of death. Conclusion We observed a higher death rate and a lower LTFU rate in health centers than in hospitals. Most of the associated variables were also

  3. Youth services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Meredith, P

    1990-12-01

    Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom.

  4. Low Serum Vitamin C Status Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu; Iwasam, Elemi Agbor; Nwali, Matthew Igwe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin C levels are low in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine serum Vitamins C levels among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano, and this can help further research to determine the place of Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. Methods: This was a prospective study of 400 pregnant women who presented for antenatal care in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Kano, Nigeria. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents. Determination of serum Vitamin C was done using appropriate biochemical methods. Results: Vitamin C deficiency was found in 79.5% of the participants. The values for Vitamin C were 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/dl during the first trimester, 0.50 ± 0.99 mg/dl in the second trimester, and 0.35 ± 0.36 mg/dl in the third trimester and P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins C concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the second trimester. Therefore, Vitamin C supplementation is suggested during pregnancy, especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate. PMID:27014432

  5. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital in Kano, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors contributing to maternal undernutrition in pregnancy. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore some of the taboos and nutritional practices among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 220 pregnant women. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to interview the respondents, which showed various sociodemographic information, cultural nutritional processes, taboos of the community, and a 24 h food recall. The ages, parities, and gestational ages of the women were collated. Descriptive statistics was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software Version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritional practices and taboos was determined using Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: At the end of the study, 200 participants (91%) gave complete information. Most of the women, 70% (140/200) were in the 20–39 years age range with mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 23.7 (6.1) years, mostly uneducated, 70% (140/200), and unemployed, 51% (102/200). Most of the women did a child spacing of 12–24 months, 62% (124/200) with mean (SD) child spacing interval of 26.32 (10.19) months. Gestational age at booking was mostly 13–26 weeks, 48% (96/200) with an average of 26.60 (8.01). Most of the women had 1–4 children, 54.5% (109/200) with mean (SD) of 2.47 (2.50). Most of the women agreed that they had adequate intake of oil, 86% (172/200), meat/fish, 92% (194/200), fruit/vegetables 56% (112/200), and had 3 meals/day 80% (152/200), and did not practice pica 83% (166/200). All of the women, 100% (200/200) believe that women should eat more during pregnancy in order to have healthy babies. They were mostly supported by their husbands, 53% (106/200) and

  6. Current Level and Correlates of Traditional Cooking Energy Sources Utilization in Urban Settings in the Context of Climate Change and Health, Northwest Ethiopia: A Case of Debre Markos Town

    PubMed Central

    Geremew, Kumlachew; Gedefaw, Molla; Dagnew, Zewdu; Jara, Dube

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional biomass has been the major source of cooking energy for major segment of Ethiopian population for thousands of years. Cognizant of this energy poverty, the Government of Ethiopia has been spending huge sum of money to increase hydroelectric power generating stations. Objective. To assess current levels and correlates of traditional cooking energy sources utilization. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches on systematically selected 423 households for quantitative and purposively selected 20 people for qualitative parts. SPSS version 16 for windows was used to analyze the quantitative data. Logistic regression was fitted to assess possible associations and its strength was measured using odds ratio at 95% CI. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Result. The study indicated that 95% of households still use traditional biomass for cooking. Those who were less knowledgeable about negative health and environmental effects of traditional cooking energy sources were seven and six times more likely to utilize them compared with those who were knowledgeable (AOR (95% CI) = 7.56 (1.635, 34.926), AOR (95% CI) = 6.68 (1.80, 24.385), resp.). The most outstanding finding of this study was that people use traditional energy for cooking mainly due to lack of the knowledge and their beliefs about food prepared using traditional energy. That means “…people still believe that food cooked with charcoal is believed to taste delicious than cooked with other means.”  Conclusion. The majority of households use traditional biomass for cooking due to lack of knowledge and belief. Therefore, mechanisms should be designed to promote electric energy and to teach the public about health effects of traditional cooking energy source. PMID:24895591

  7. Outcomes and linkage to chronic care of HIV exposed infants among health centers and hospitals in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: implications to prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Zemene Tigabu; Taye, Belaynew Wasie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Numerous challenges exist in provision of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) such as linking HIV exposed infants (HEI) and their mothers to chronic cares services, and tackling loss to follow up. Limited evidence exists in Ethiopian setting that explains the persisting high HIV infection rate among HEIs and extent of linkage to chronic care. The study assessed the proportion of HIV infection; children linked to chronic care and determinants of HIV infection among HEI in Northern Ethiopia. Methods This institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in health centers and hospitals of Amhara Region. A total of 484 HEI-mother pairs selected by multistage random sampling were included in the study. Data were collected from PMTCT and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinics using pre-tested and structured questionnaires. Quantitative data were entered in Epi Info version 7.0 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for analysis. Results A total of 484 mother-infant pairs with a response rate of 92.4% were included in the analysis. About 94.2% of infants and women were linked to chronic care follow-up sometime after the diagnosis. The proportion of HIV infection was 12.4%. Antenatal care attendance had a significant association with HIV infection among HEI (p < 0.0001). Delivering in health institution (p < 0.005), mode of delivery (p < 0.032), and provision of both infant (p < 0.0001) and maternal (p < 0.0001) prophylaxis showed a highly significant association with HIV infection among HIV exposed infants. Conclusion Health facilities shall encourage antenatal care that increased institutional delivery, leads to timely initiation and high uptake of PMTCT to reduce the vertical transmission of HIV infection and meet national targets. PMID:27642402

  8. Level of sustained glycemic control and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Alemu, Shitaye; Mesfin, Nebiyu

    2015-01-01

    Background The level of sustained glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major determinant of the occurrence of both acute and chronic complications. However, information about the level of glycemic control among patients in the follow-up care at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital is scanty. The study assessed the degree of glycemic control and associated factors among diabetic patients in the study area. Method A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital. All diabetic patients aged ≥18 years who visited the Diabetes Clinic in January and February 2013 for follow-up medical evaluation and medication participated in the study. Patients with glycosylated hemoglobin test (HbA1c) of ≥7% were classified as having a poor level of glycemic control. Propensity score was used to estimate the treatment effect. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the associated factors. Result Two hundred and fifty three (64.7%) of the 391 diabetic patients included in the study had a poor level of glycemic control, as evidenced by HbA1c ≥7%. Poor glycemic control was much higher among Type 1 patients (82.9%) compared with Type 2 patients (57.5%). Being on insulin treatment (AOR =2.51; 95% CI =1.25, 5.04) and reporting poor medication adherence (AOR =3.19; 95% CI =1.76, 5.80) were found to be associated with poor glycemic control among Type 2 DM patients. High waist circumference was inversely associated with a poor level of glycemic control in Type 1 DM patients (AOR =0.05; 95% CI =0.01, 0.85). Conclusion The proportion of diabetic patients with a poor level of glycemic control is high. We recommend a comprehensive intervention to improve the overall treatment adherence with special attention to DM patients receiving insulin. PMID:25657591

  9. Extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence and associated factors of drug-drug interaction and potential adverse drug reactions in Gondar Teaching Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Admassie, Endalkachew; Melese, Tesfahun; Mequanent, Woldeselassie; Hailu, Wubshet; Srikanth, B Akshaya

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence, and associated factors for the occurrence of drug-drug interaction (DDI) and potential adverse drug reaction (ADR) in Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital. Institutional-based retrospective cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on prescriptions of both in and out-patients for a period of 3 months at Gondar University Hospital. Both bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and possible ADRs. All the statistical calculations were performed using SPSS(®) software. A total of 12,334 prescriptions were dispensed during the study period of which, 2,180 prescriptions were containing two or more drugs per prescription. A total of 21,210 drugs were prescribed and the average number of drugs per prescription was 1.72. Occurrences of DDI of all categories (Major, Moderate, and Minor) were analyzed and DDI were detected in 711 (32.6%) prescriptions. Sex was not found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of DDI and ADR, while age and number of medications per prescription were found to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and ADR. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 1.72 and hence with regard to the WHO limit of drugs per prescription, Gondar hospital was able to maintain the limit and prescriptions containing multiple drugs supposed to be taken systemically. Numbers of drugs per prescription as well as older age were found to be predisposing factors for the occurrence of DDI and potential ADRs while sex was not a risk factor. PMID:24350048

  10. Work-related stress and associated factors among nurses working in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salilih, Selamawit Zewdu; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu

    2014-08-01

    Work-related stress is a pattern of reactions to work demands unmatched to nurses' knowledge, skills, or abilities; these challenges exceed their ability to cope, resulting in burnout, turnover, and low quality patient care. An institution-based cross-sectional study of 343 nurses was conducted in public hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2012. Data were collected by pretested and self-administered questionnaires using a nursing stress scale. One hundred twenty-one (37.8%) (95% confidence interval: 34.3 to 39.1) nurses reported experiencing occupational stress. Significant associations were found between nurses' stress and gender, work shift, illness, marital status, and worksite or unit. Prevalence of work-related stress was higher than expected and opportunities exist for stake holders to design stress reduction and management programs for nurses.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to alternative topical agents at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wound infection is one of the health problems that are caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms. Information on local pathogens and sensitivity to antimicrobial agents, and topical agents like acetic acid is crucial for successful treatment of wounds. Objectives To determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to alternative topical agents at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among patients with wound infection visiting Jimma University Specialized Hospital, from May to September 2013. Wound swab was collected using sterile cotton swabs and processed for bacterial isolation and susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and dabkin solution following standard bacteriological techniques. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of the organisms. Sensitivity testing was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration was done using tube dilution method. Results In this study 145 bacterial isolates were recovered from 150 specimens showing an isolation rate of 87.3%. The predominant bacteria isolated from the infected wounds were Staphylococcus aureus 47 (32.4%) followed by Escherichia coli 29 (20%), Proteus species 23 (16%), Coagulase negative Staphylococci 21 (14.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 14 (10%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 11 (8%). All isolates showed high frequency of resistance to ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin and tetracycline. The overall multiple drug resistance patterns were found to be 85%. Acetic acid (0.5%), Dabkin solution (1%) and 3% hydrogen peroxide were bactericidal to all isolated bacteria and lethal effect observed when applied for 10 minutes. Conclusions On in vitro sensitivity testing, ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin and tetracycline were the least effective. Gentamicin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and HIV Co-Infection among Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Cases at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fanosie, Alemu; Gelaw, Baye; Tessema, Belay; Tesfay, Wogahta; Admasu, Aschalew; Yitayew, Gashaw

    2016-01-01

    Background Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are interrelated as a result of immune depression. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates and the burden of HIV co-infection among EPTB suspected patients. Method An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among EPTB suspected patients at the University of Gondar Hospital. Socio-demographic characteristics and other clinical data were collected using a pretested questionnaire. GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay was performed to diagnosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Rifampicin resistance. All samples were also investigated by cytology and culture. The HIV statuses of all patients were screened initially by KHB, and all positive cases were further re-tested by STAT-pack. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 computer software and a P-value of < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results A total of 141 extrapulmonary suspected patients were enrolled in this study. The overall prevalence of culture confirmed extrapulmonary tuberculosis infection was 29.8%, but the GeneXpert result showed a 26.2% prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection. The 78.4% prevalence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis infection was found to be higher among the adult population. The prevalence of HIV infection among EPTB suspected patients was 14.1%, while it was 32.4% among GeneXpert-confirmed extrapulmonary TB cases (12/37). Tuberculosis lymphadenitis was the predominant (78.4%) type of EPTB infection followed by tuberculosis cold abscess (10.7%). Adult hood, previous history of contact with known pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and HIV co-infection showed a statistically significant association with extrapulmonary tuberculosis infection (P<0.013). Conclusion The prevalence of culture confirmed-EPTB infection was high, and a higher EPTB-HIV co-infection was also observed. PMID:26950547

  13. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bariabagar, H

    1978-01-01

    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  14. Journey of Ethiopia Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.

  15. Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed.

  16. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  17. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  18. Northwest side view showing 3 windows and security light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest side view showing 3 windows and security light - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Hospital, Animal House, Near intersection of Hospital Way & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Oblique view of southwest and northwest sides, play equipment in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southwest and northwest sides, play equipment in background, view facing east-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hospital Laboratory, Hospital Way, near intersection with Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Hydrological research in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M.

    2012-12-01

    Almost all major development problems in Ethiopia are water-related: food insecurity, low economic development, recurrent droughts, disastrous floods, poor health conditions, and low energy condition. In order to develop and manage existing water resources in a sustainable manner, knowledge is required about water availability, water quality, water demand in various sectors, and the impacts of water resource projects on health and the environment. The lack of ground-based data has been a major challenge for generating this knowledge. Current advances in remote sensing and computer simulation technology could provide alternative source of datasets. In this talk, I will present the challenges and opportunities in using remote sensing datasets and hydrological models in regions such as Africa where ground-based datasets are scarce.

  1. Global ENT Outreach: Taking Ear, Nose, and Throat Treatment and Surgery Techniques to Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…

  2. Ethiopia between famines.

    PubMed

    Forbes, C

    1990-08-01

    The author reports observations made during a visit with colleagues in Ethiopia. On the heels of the country's famine, she was surprised to see fertile land on an excursion 3 hours north of Addis Ababa. The harvest was expected to suffice for a 3-month period. While foreign technical and financial aid no doubt helped save countless lives during the famine, other serious health problems still remain in the country. In particular, the writer notes the ongoing high rates of maternal and infant mortality (IMR). The national IMR of 168/1000 live births is heavily fueled by diarrheal illness, infectious disease, and malaria. Nationally, only 15% of 2 year olds have completed an immunization program. Women have a 1:30 chance of dying in pregnancy or during childbirth, with over 1/2 due to illegal abortions and other maternal health problems. While family planning may be available, cultural norms limit the number of subscribers. Leprosy remains a significant problem, and AIDS was gaining notice in 1989. Moreover, drug supply constraints and the paucity of national medical doctors help stymie any efforts toward positive change. The writer encourages continued foreign aid. PMID:2387725

  3. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  4. Ethiopia: Country Status Report (Revision).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to…

  5. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  6. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  7. 1. General view to east showing front (northwest) facade and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view to east showing front (northwest) facade and southwest elevation of shower room; swimming pool; pump house, and filtration/chlorination building (at left) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Shower Room & Swimming Pool, Green Street, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  8. Bench seating in northwest corner of the building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bench seating in northwest corner of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations of facade and tis flaking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 3. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE FROM NORTH. (BUILDING 112 IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE FROM NORTH. (BUILDING 112 IS VISIBLE ON LEFT.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, G. U. Treatment Unit Mess Hall, Thorne & Hood Avenues, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. 2. VIEW OF SITE A FROM THORNE AVENUE, FACING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SITE A FROM THORNE AVENUE, FACING NORTHWEST. (BUILDINGS 120, 117, 121, 122, AND 129 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  12. 11. NORTHWEST SIDE, BUILDING 1026, 1024, 1022, AND 1020, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTHWEST SIDE, BUILDING 1026, 1024, 1022, AND 1020, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. MOST OF BUILDINGS OBSCURED BY VEGETATION. - Letterman General Hospital, Nurses' Quarters, Girard Road & Lincoln Boulevard, Presidio of San Francisco, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  14. The seismicity of Ethiopia; active plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohr, P.

    1981-01-01

    Ethiopia, descended from the semimythical Kingdom of Punt, lies at the strategic intersection of Schmidt's jigsaw puzzle where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the African Rift System meet. Because of geologically recent uplift combined with rapid downcutting erosion by rivers, notably the Blue Nile (Abbay), Ethiopia is the most mountainous country in Africa. It is also the most volcanically active, while its historical seismicity matches that of the midocean ridges. And, in a sense, Ethiopia is host to an evoloving ocean ridge system. 

  15. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  16. Stigma in Ethiopia: association with depressive symptoms in people with HIV.

    PubMed

    Endeshaw, Meheret; Walson, Judd; Rawlins, Sarah; Dessie, Abere; Alemu, Shitaye; Andrews, Nancy; Rao, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Rates of depression among people living with HIV can be as high as 50%. In many settings, HIV-related stigma has been associated with depressive symptoms which may lead to poor engagement in care and ultimately, poorer health outcomes. Stigma is a major issue in Ethiopia but data examining the relationship between stigma and depression in Ethiopia are lacking. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between stigma of HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms in Gondar, Ethiopia. We interviewed patients who presented for routine HIV care at Gondar University Hospital during the study period, examining depressive symptoms and HIV/AIDS-related stigma using standardized measures. Multiple-regression was used to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, stigma, and gender. Of 55 patients included in this analysis, 63.6% were female and most participants had limited formal education (69%, less than 12th grade education). The majority reported experiencing both stigma (78%) and depressive symptoms (60%) ranging in severity from mild to moderately severe. Higher levels of HIV-related stigma were significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 0.464, p ≤ 0.001). Although gender was associated with stigma, it was not associated with depressive symptoms (β = -0.027, p > 0.05). Results suggest the importance of psychosocial issues in the lives of people with HIV in Ethiopia.

  17. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  18. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  19. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  20. Kaiser Permanente Northwest

    Cancer.gov

    Kaiser Permanente Northwest's Center for Health Research was created to study health maintenance organizations by scientists were recruited from a variety of fields to study a range of health and medical care issues.

  1. Northwest Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Portions of northwest Washington State (48.0N, 122.5) can be seen in this view as well as portions of British Columbia, Canada. The snow covered Cascade Mountains are on the eastern side of the scene. Vancouver Island is visible in the northeast corner of the photo. The strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Islannd from the northwest corner of Washington. Seattle is near the center and the snow covered Olympic Mountains are to the east.

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA AMONG CHILDREN AGED LESS THAN 5 YEARS IN RURAL SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Alegria, Iñaki; Tessema, Dalu; Mohamed, Nuri; Tissiano, Gabrel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus infection among children aged less than 5 years in rural southern Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital-based, prospective study among children aged less than 5 years with acute diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration attending the outpatient department of Gambo Rural Hospital, Ethiopia during September-November 2012. Three hundred fourteen children were included in the study, of whom 137 (43.6%) had rotavirus infection. The average age of children with rotavirus infection was lower than those without it [odds ratio (OR): 0.94]. Finding severe dehydration on skin pinch test (adjusted OR: 3.76) and having diarrhea for !3 days (adjusted OR: 2.50) were associated with rotavirus infection. The mortality rate was 4.4% among rotavirus infection children and 0% among non-rotavirus diarrhea cases (p=0.006). Rotavirus infection should be suspected in children with severe dehydration on a skin pinch test and among those presenting with diarrhea for 3 days in rural southern Ethiopia. PMID:26521516

  3. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  4. Anaesthesia in Ethiopia: providers' perspectives on the current state of the service.

    PubMed

    Bashford, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of surgical and anaesthetic safety in low-resource settings is hampered by a lack of reliable information on the current provision of these services. Ethiopia is one of the world's poorest countries and, despite large amounts of both foreign and domestic investment, still reports some of the worst health outcomes. However, information on anaesthesia and surgical provision is sparse. This work reproduces a questionnaire study, first used in Uganda in 2006, to survey practising anaesthetists regarding the current state of anaesthesia services across Ethiopia. The results indicate that a large proportion of centres remain unable to provide safe general, spinal, paediatric and obstetric anaesthesia, at all levels of hospital and across almost all of the country's regions. In addition to a lack of equipment and pharmaceuticals, anaesthetists report problems with professional recognition and a lack of access to continuing professional development as key barriers to service development. PMID:24240776

  5. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  6. 7. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHWEST END OF BRIDGE FROM UNDERNEATH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHWEST END OF BRIDGE FROM UNDERNEATH, SHOWING CONCRETE SUPPORTS FOR CANTILEVERED WALKWAY (ON RIGHT) - Lincoln Avenue Viaduct, Spanning Union Pacific Railroad between Baring Cross Bridge & Union Station, Little Rock, Pulaski County, AR

  7. 3. NORTHWEST INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTHWEST ROOM WITH EQUIPMENT FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHWEST INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTHWEST ROOM WITH EQUIPMENT FROM CENTER INTERIOR - Juniata Mill Complex, Assay Office, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  8. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  9. Early Childhood in Ethiopia: Initiatives in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit

    2007-01-01

    This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…

  10. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinalmalformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975

  11. Connecting Children with Modern Urban Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Jane

    1998-01-01

    An author relates memorable experiences of living in Ethiopia and describes how her brother's friendship with a poor boy in the city of Addis Ababa who cared for pigeons led to a children's book. Includes a descriptive list of books on pigeons, Africa, pets and wild animals, and cities, and a list of books by the author. (AEF)

  12. The changing face of obstetric fistula surgery in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jeremy; Ayenachew, Fekade; Ballard, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence and type of obstetric fistula presenting to Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia over a 4-year period. Study design This is a 4-year retrospective survey of obstetric fistula treated at three Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia, where approximately half of all women in the country are treated. The operation logbook was reviewed to identify all new cases of obstetric fistula presenting from 2011 to 2015. New cases of urinary fistula were classified by fistula type (high or low), age, and parity of the woman. Results In total, 2,593 new cases of urinary fistulae were identified in the study period. The number of new cases fell by 20% per year over the 4 years (P<0.001). A total of 1,845 cases (71.1%) were low (ischemic) fistulae, and 804 cases (43.6%) of these had an extreme form of low circumferential fistula. A total of 638 (24.6%) women had a high bladder fistula, which predominantly occurs following surgery, specifically cesarean section or emergency hysterectomy, and 110 (4.2%) women had a ureteric fistula. The incidence of high fistulae increased over the study period from 26.9% to 36.2% (P<0.001). A greater proportion of multiparous women had a high bladder fistula (70.3%) compared with primigravid women (29.7%) (P<0.001). Conversely, a greater proportion of primiparous women experienced a low circumferential fistulae (68.6%) compared with multiparous women (31.4%) (P<0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a decline in the number of Ethiopian women being treated for new obstetric urinary fistulae. However, the type of fistula being presented for treatment is changing, with a rise in high fistulae that very likely occurred following cesarean section and a decline in the classic low fistulae that arise following obstructed childbirth. PMID:27445505

  13. Reflections on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wondie, Yemataw

    2014-10-01

    The introduction and development of psychology in Ethiopia has been mainly limited to Addis Ababa University in the capital city, and also to educational and school psychology which was highly influenced by the field of education at this pioneering university. Similarly, mental health services have been principally developed at the Amanuel Mental Hospital in Addis Ababa that has existed since the 1950s. However, the expansion of higher learning institutions on one hand, and the apparent growing prevalence of mental illness on the other, seem to have contributed to the development of both mental health training and services in other regional cities and towns. Although the influence of the education-oriented psychological training of the Addis Ababa University is still present, clinical psychology education and services are now being started in other universities. One of these is the master's programme in clinical psychology opened for the first time in the University of Gondar. This article sheds light on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and addresses some of the issues raised about the factors that have influenced its development such as traditional beliefs, poverty and comparisons between mental health in lower middle-income countries and higher middle-income countries ( Uppal et al., 2014 ). The paper also proposes future directions for the education, research, infrastructure and services of clinical psychology and mental health in Ethiopia.

  14. Sediment storage dam: A structural gully erosion control and sediment trapping measure, northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen

    2014-05-01

    Gully erosion is a prime problem in Ethiopia. This study assessed the severity of gully erosion and the role of sediment storage dams (SSD) in restoring gullies and preventing further gully development, its sediment trapping efficacy (STE) and its capacity in converting degraded gully lands to productive land. On average 2.5 m deep, 6.6 m wide and 28.3 m long gullies were formed in Minizr watershed, northwest Ethiopia, in 2013. Concentrated surface runoff, traditional ditches, graded terraces without suitable water ways and road construction are the main causes of such serious gully erosion. Over grazing, tunnel flow and lack of proper immediate gully treatment actions after gully initiation are found to be additional causes of the problem. Gully erosion was also found as the major source of sediment for downstream rivers and water reservoirs. The annual volume of soil eroded from only four gullies was 1941.3 m3. To control gully erosion, SSDs were found to be important physical structures, which can trap significant amount of sediment within gullies and they can convert unproductive gully land to productive agricultural land for fruit and crop production. Eight SSDs trapped about 44*103 m3 of sediment within 2 to 8 years. Two representative SSDs constructed using gabion and stone were tested for their STE. Results showed that their efficacy was 74.1% and 66.4% for the gabion and stone SSDs, respectively. Six of the older SSDs were already full of sediment and created 0.75 ha of productive land within 2 to 8 years. SSDs best fits to treat large size and deep gullies where other gully control measures, check dams, could not function well. To prevent gully formation, controlling its causes that is avoiding traditional ditches, practicing grassed water ways to safely remove runoff water from graded terraces, integrated watershed and road side management practices are important solutions. KEY WORDS: Sediment storage dam, gully erosion, sediment trapping efficacy

  15. 3. View to northwest showing swimming pool, filtration/chlorination building (at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View to northwest showing swimming pool, filtration/chlorination building (at left), and southeast elevation of Carpenter & Paint Shop (HABS No. VA-1287-L, at rear) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Shower Room & Swimming Pool, Green Street, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  16. South wall, looking northwest, with scale bar U.S. Veterans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South wall, looking northwest, with scale bar - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Medical Officer in Charge Residence, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  17. Andes Altiplano, Northwest, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Andean Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. Snow is more apparent on the south faces of the slopes where the sunlight is less direct and therefore, cooler. The Altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is the inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America.

  18. Strengthening Pharmaceutical Care Education in Ethiopia Through Instructional Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Tadeg, Hailu; Downing, Don; Suleman, Sultan; Bedada, Worku; Paulos, Getahun; Mekonnen, Hailemeskel; Negussu, Mekonnen; Bartlein, Rebecca; Stergachis, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and initial outcomes of a pharmaceutical care training-of-trainers course developed to assist Ethiopian pharmacy faculty members and graduate students in the development of curriculum and provision of pharmaceutical care services of relevance to this low-income country. Design. In this collaboration, US and Ethiopian faculty members worked together in a week-long seminar and in hospital ward rounds to develop and offer a course to facilitate faculty members, curricular, and service development in pharmaceutical care in Ethiopia. Assessment. Assessments were conducted during the seminar, immediately post-seminar, at 3 months post-seminar, and at 1 year post-seminar. An examination was administered at the conclusion of the course to assess immediate learning outcomes for the graduate students. Post-course assessments of short-term (3-month) and longer-term (12-month) impact were conducted to identify pharmaceutical care services that had been implemented to assess knowledge and skill gained during the seminar. Correspondence between seminar participants and the US faculty members as well as graduate student thesis projects provided further evidence of changes at 3 and 12 months post-course. Conclusion. Pharmaceutical care training was developed for Ethiopian faculty members through a seminar and hospital ward rounds. Enhancements have been added to curricula for bachelor in pharmacy students and select pharmaceutical care services have been implemented through master's thesis projects. PMID:21969720

  19. 1. General view to northwest along Williamson Drive, showing, L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view to northwest along Williamson Drive, showing, L to R: medical Officer's Quarters B (HABS No. VA-1287-E) and Medical Officer's Quarters C - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Medical Officer's Quarters C, West side Williamson Drive, 400 feet South of Rixey Drive, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  20. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5), west wall of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5), west wall of the North Wing (Wing 2) and rear elevations of the facade and its flanking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. STS-65 Earth observation of Omo River Delta, Lake Turkana in Ethiopia / Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of Omo River Delta and Lake Turkana in Ethiopia / Kenya. The Omo Delta at the north end of Lake Turkana (Rudolph) is one of the long-term environmental study sites of the Space Shuttle program. The environmental interest in this instance is the documentation of the delta's extension into the lake. This delta extension, or aggradation, is felt to be the result of large-scale soil erosion in the recently deforested areas of Ethiopia in the watershed of the Omo River. Using digitized, rectified, machine-classified, and mensurated NASA photography, it has been determined that the Omo Delta has increased in area by approximately 400% to about 1,800 square kilometers since it was first photographed during the Gemini program in 1965. This photograph documents the long-term and increasing turbidity of Lake Turkana and the continuing delta extension southward by both the northwest and northeast distributaries of the Om

  2. Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.

    PubMed

    Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success.

  3. Northwest corner of Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A near vertical view of the snow-covered northwest corner of Wyoming (43.5N, 109.5W), as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A small portion of Montana and Idaho is in this photograph, also. The dark area is Yellowstone National Park. The largest body of water is Yellowstone Lake. The elongated range in the eastern part of the picture is the Big Horn Moutains. The Wind River Range is at the bottom center. The Grand Teton National Park area is almost straight south of Yellowstone Lake. Approximately 30 per cent of the State of Wyoming can be seen in this photograph.

  4. Northwest Area Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  5. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  6. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  7. Microscopic examination and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Keflie, Tibebe Seyoum; Ameni, Gobena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients. Methods A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10. Results A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335). Conclusion The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission. PMID:25810798

  8. Treatment Outcome and Associated Factors among Tuberculosis Patients in Debre Tabor, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Melese, Addisu; Zeleke, Balew; Ewnete, Biniam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Assessing the outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is an important indicator for evaluation of the effectiveness of tuberculosis control programs. In Ethiopia, directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) was included in the national tuberculosis control program as a strategy but little is known about its effectiveness in the study area. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the treatment outcomes of TB patients and associated factors in Debre Tabor, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among TB patients for the period from May 2008 to April 2013 at Debre Tabor Health Center, northwest Ethiopia. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive statistics were used to generate frequency tables and figures. Logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with treatment outcomes at P value ≤ 0.05. Results. Out of 339 patients (197 males and 142 females) registered for antituberculosis treatment in Debre Tabor Health Center, only 303 patients were included in the treatment outcome analysis and 87.1% had successful treatment outcome while 12.9% had unsuccessful treatment outcome. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds of successful treatment outcome were higher among patients ≥45 years of age (AOR = 3.807, 95% CI: 1.155-12.544) and lower among females (AOR = 0.347, 95% CI: 0.132-0.917), rural residents (AOR = 0.342, 95% CI: 0.118-0.986), and negative smear result at the second month of treatment (AOR = 0.056, 95% CI: 0.005-0.577) as compared to their counterparts. Conclusion. The treatment outcome of all forms of tuberculosis patients in Debre Tabor health center was satisfactory as expected from effective implementation of DOTS. Although the observed successful treatment outcome was in agreement with the national target, follow-up of patients during the course of treatment to trace the treatment outcomes of transferred-out patients and assessment of other

  9. Treatment Outcome and Associated Factors among Tuberculosis Patients in Debre Tabor, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zeleke, Balew; Ewnete, Biniam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Assessing the outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is an important indicator for evaluation of the effectiveness of tuberculosis control programs. In Ethiopia, directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) was included in the national tuberculosis control program as a strategy but little is known about its effectiveness in the study area. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the treatment outcomes of TB patients and associated factors in Debre Tabor, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among TB patients for the period from May 2008 to April 2013 at Debre Tabor Health Center, northwest Ethiopia. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive statistics were used to generate frequency tables and figures. Logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with treatment outcomes at P value ≤ 0.05. Results. Out of 339 patients (197 males and 142 females) registered for antituberculosis treatment in Debre Tabor Health Center, only 303 patients were included in the treatment outcome analysis and 87.1% had successful treatment outcome while 12.9% had unsuccessful treatment outcome. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds of successful treatment outcome were higher among patients ≥45 years of age (AOR = 3.807, 95% CI: 1.155–12.544) and lower among females (AOR = 0.347, 95% CI: 0.132–0.917), rural residents (AOR = 0.342, 95% CI: 0.118–0.986), and negative smear result at the second month of treatment (AOR = 0.056, 95% CI: 0.005–0.577) as compared to their counterparts. Conclusion. The treatment outcome of all forms of tuberculosis patients in Debre Tabor health center was satisfactory as expected from effective implementation of DOTS. Although the observed successful treatment outcome was in agreement with the national target, follow-up of patients during the course of treatment to trace the treatment outcomes of transferred-out patients and assessment of

  10. Pacific Northwest: paradise lost

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.V.

    1980-04-18

    An influx of new residents to the Pacific Northwest is changing social patterns and is endangering the region's valued wilderness and resources. A growing population and a feeling that the national govenment is more exploitive than conserving of its resources combines with a political tension between progressive populism and conservative Mormon influences to make residents wary of either newcomers or new prosperity. The abundant hydro power is threatened as power demand increases and utilities, industries, and the state and local governments compete for their fair share. A plan to restructure the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been introduced in Congress to give it a single appointed administrator with the authority to decide how power will be distributed and which new power sources to develop. Concern about the two national nuclear waste repositories at Hanford and Idaho Falls led to a six-month moratorium at Hanford to warn the government that the site was not intended to be a permanent solution. A legislative proposal to set up regional nuclear parks will not relieve the Pacific Northwest's problems for some time. Leaders blame the policymakers for looking on the area as too remote and underpopulated to worry about. 18 references (DCK)

  11. Northwest Climate Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, P.; Dalton, M. M.; Snover, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the US National Climate Assessment, the Northwest region undertook a process of climate risk assessment. This process included an expert evaluation of previously identified impacts, their likelihoods, and consequences, and engaged experts from both academia and natural resource management practice (federal, tribal, state, local, private, and non-profit) in a workshop setting. An important input was a list of 11 risks compiled by state agencies in Oregon and similar adaptation efforts in Washington. By considering jointly the likelihoods, consequences, and adaptive capacity, participants arrived at an approximately ranked list of risks which was further assessed and prioritized through a series of risk scoring exercises to arrive at the top three climate risks facing the Northwest: 1) changes in amount and timing of streamflow related to snowmelt, causing far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences; 2) coastal erosion and inundation, and changing ocean acidity, combined with low adaptive capacity in the coastal zone to create large risks; and 3) the combined effects of wildfire, insect outbreaks, and diseases will cause large areas of forest mortality and long-term transformation of forest landscapes.

  12. Analysis of gene mutations associated with isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The emergence of drug resistance is one of the most important threats to tuberculosis control programs. This study was aimed to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with resistance to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) and ethambutol (EMB) among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Northwest Ethiopia, and to assess the performance of the GenoType® MTBDRplus and GenoType® MTBDRsl assays as compared to the BacT/ALERT 3D system. Methods Two hundred sixty Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from smear positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed between March 2009 and July 2009 were included in this study. Drug susceptibility tests were performed in the Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Leipzig, Germany. Results Of 260 isolates, mutations conferring resistance to INH, RMP, or EMB were detected in 35, 15, and 8 isolates, respectively, while multidrug resistance (MDR) was present in 13 of the isolates. Of 35 INH resistant strains, 33 had mutations in the katG gene at Ser315Thr 1 and two strains had mutation in the inhA gene at C15T. Among 15 RMP resistant isolates, 11 had rpoB gene mutation at Ser531Leu, one at His526Asp, and three strains had mutations only at the wild type probes. Of 8 EMB resistant strains, two had mutations in the embB gene at Met306Ile, one at Met306Val, and five strains had mutations only at the wild type probes. The GenoType® MTBDRplus assay had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 99% for INH resistance, and 100% sensitivity and specificity to detect RMP resistance and MDR. The GenoType® MTBDRsl assay had a sensitivity of 42% and specificity of 100% for EMB resistance. Conclusion The dominance of single gene mutations associated with the resistance to INH and RMP was observed in the codon 315 of the katG gene and codon 531 of the rpoB gene, respectively. The GenoType® MTBDRplus assay is a sensitive and specific tool for diagnosis of resistance to INH

  13. Northwest Education, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee, Ed.; Kneidek, Tony, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Volume 4 of "Northwest Education" contains four issues. Each issue has a theme and typically consists of an opening review article on current trends and research related to the theme, followed by articles on exemplary schools or programs in the Northwest, promising practices, outstanding teachers, or suggestions for program implementation or staff…

  14. Physics Northwest: An Academic Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, James L.

    2007-01-01

    It's a weekday in mid-October, late at night and with another teaching assignment not far below the horizon. Yet 40 teachers are laughing, joking, and sharing in the fun that is associated with physics teaching. The event: a Physics Northwest (PNW) meeting, an organization that is in its 20th year and thriving. "Physics Northwest meetings are not…

  15. Northwest Education, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee, Ed.; Boss, Suzie, Ed.; Weeks, Denise Jarrett, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document contains the four issues of Northwest Education published during the 2002-03 school year. Issue themes are: (1) "Closing the Gap: How Northwest Schools Are Raising Minority Achievement"; (2) "Focus on Writing"; (3) "The Hidden Disability: When Bright Children Struggle To Learn"; and (4) "Discoveries in Learning: Lessons from Lewis &…

  16. Sustainability Assessment of University of Gondar, Gondar, North-West Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moges, Haimanot Gebrehiwot; Kifle, Desalegn Woldeyohannes; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Woldyohhanes, Solomon Meseret

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the cross-institutional assessment of sustainable development practices in the University of Gondar (UoG). The focus of the assessment was the level of UoG academic departments' integration of sustainability concerns in teaching, research and community service. Management contributions…

  17. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A.

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Space Science Network Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J.

    2002-12-01

    Space Science Network Northwest (S2N2) is a new NASA Office of Space Science Education Broker/Facilitator that serves the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. The headquarters of S2N2 is at the University of Washington in Seattle and the Director is Julie Lutz (206-543-0214; nasaerc@u.washington.edu). Each state has an S2N2 representative. Their contact information can be found on the Web site (www.s2n2.org) or by contacting Julie Lutz. The purpose of S2N2 is to form and nurture partnerships between space scientists and others (K-12 teachers, schools and districts, museums, planetariums, libraries, organizations such as Girl Scouts, amateur astronomy clubs, etc.). S2N2 can help space scientists come up with appropriate activities and partners for education and public outreach proposals and projects. S2N2 also provides information and advice about education materials and programs that are available from all of the Office of Space Science missions and scientific forums (Solar System Exploration, Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Sun-Earth Connection, Astronomical Search for Origins).

  19. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Mac; Aregawi, Maru; Were, Wilson; Karema, Corine; Medin, Ambachew; Bekele, Worku; Jima, Daddi; Gausi, Khoti; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Korenromp, Eline; Low-Beer, Daniel; Grabowsky, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old prior to (2001–2005/6) and after (2007) nationwide implementation of LLIN and ACT. Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old in Rwanda fell by 55% and 67%, respectively, and in Ethiopia by 73% and 62%. Over this same time period, non-malaria cases and deaths generally remained stable or increased. Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children < 5 years or all households and nationwide distribution of ACT in the public sector was associated with substantial declines of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia. Clinic-based data was a useful tool for local monitoring of the impact of malaria programmes. PMID:19144183

  20. Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taddese, G

    2001-06-01

    Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation.

  1. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

    2005-01-20

    Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland.

  2. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

    2005-01-20

    Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland. PMID:15662421

  3. Perspective view of Building No. 61 from northwest. These duplex ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Building No. 61 from northwest. These duplex quarters were built during the 1920s on the south edge of the Northwestern Branch campus. This building is sited on a rise and shares paths and lawn with two similar structures - Buildings 56 and 79. Now located directly adjacent to the current hospital complex (background), all three duplexes are slated for demolition. - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Quarters, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  4. Induced Second Trimester Abortion and Associated Factors in Amhara Region Referral Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Mulat, Amlaku; Bayu, Hinsermu; Mellie, Habtamu; Alemu, Amare

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although the vast majority of abortions are performed in the first trimester, still 10–15% of terminations of pregnancies have taken place in the second trimester period globally. As compared to first trimester, second trimester abortions are disproportionately contribute for maternal morbidity and mortality especially in low-resource countries where access to safe second trimester abortion is limited. The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of induced second trimester abortion in Amhara region referral hospitals, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in Amhara region referral hospitals among 416 women who sought abortion services. Participants were selected using systematic sampling technique. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire through interviewing. After the data were entered and analyzed; variables which have P value < 0.2 in bivariate analysis, not colinear, were entered into multiple logistic regressions to see the net effect with 95% CI and P value < 0.05. Results. The prevalence of induced second trimester abortion was 19.2%. Being rural (AOR = 1.86 [95% CI = 1.11–3.14]), having irregular menstrual cycle (AOR = 1.76 [95% CI = 1.03–2.98]), not recognizing their pregnancy at early time (AOR = 2.05 [95% CI = 1.21–3.48]), and having logistics related problems (AOR = 2.37 [95% CI = 1.02–5.53]) were found to have statistically significant association with induced second trimester abortion. Conclusion. Induced second trimester abortion is high despite the availability of first trimester abortion services. Therefore, increase accessibility and availability of safe second trimester abortion services below referral level, counseling and logistical support are helpful to minimize late abortions. PMID:25918704

  5. Infection Control Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Healthcare Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward A.; Margoles, Lindsay; Kacha, Ermias; Blumberg, Henry M.; Kempker, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To better understand hospital infection control practices in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, attitudes and practices about hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures. Methods An anonymous, 76-item questionnaire was administered to HCWs at two university hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Knowledge items were scored as correct/incorrect. Attitude and practice items were assessed using a Likert scale. Results 261 surveys were completed by physicians (51%) and nurses (49%). Fifty-one percent of respondents were male; mean age was 30 years. While hand hygiene knowledge was fair, self-reported practice was suboptimal. Physicians reported performing hand hygiene 7% and 48% before and after patient contact, respectively. Barriers for performing hand hygiene included lack of hand hygiene agents (77%), sinks (30%), proper training (50%), and irritation and dryness (67%) caused by hand sanitizer made per WHO formulation. TB infection control knowledge was excellent (>90% correct). Most HCWs felt at high risk for occupational acquisition of TB (71%) and that proper TB infection control can prevent nosocomial transmission (92%). Only 12% of HCWs regularly wore a mask when caring for TB patients. Only 8% of HCWs reported masks were regularly available and 76% cited a lack of infrastructure to isolate suspected/known TB patients. Conclusions Training HCWs about the importance and proper practice of hand hygiene along with improving hand sanitizer options may improve patient safety. Additionally, enhanced infrastructure is needed to improve TB infection control practices and allay HCW concerns about acquiring TB in the hospital. PMID:24225614

  6. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult dyspeptic patients in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asrat, D; Nilsson, I; Mengistu, Y; Ashenafi, S; Ayenew, K; Al-Soud, W Abu; Wadström, T; Kassa, E

    2004-03-01

    In developing countries such as Ethiopia, where chronic gastritis and peptic-ulcer disease are the most common endoscopic findings, it is important to study the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases. Both invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods were therefore used to investigate 300, consecutive, adult patients with dyspepsia, from the gastrointestinal clinic of Tikur Anbassa University Hospital, Addis Ababa. The apparent overall prevalence of H. pylori infection varied according to the detection method employed. Culture revealed H. pylori in only 69% of the patients but this pathogen appeared more common when rapid urease tests (71%), PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (91%), histopathology (81%), silver staining (75%) or stool-antigen tests (81%) were employed. Antibodies to H. pylori were detected, both by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) and immunoblotting, in approximately 80% of the patients, whether the antigens used were of a reference strain or from a local isolate of H. pylori. When some of the EIA-positive and EIA-negative sera were cross-absorbed with antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and re-tested by EIA, the H. pylori-positive sera remained positive and the negative sera remained negative. Dyspeptic patients in Ethiopia, like most of those previously observed elsewhere in Africa, are often infected with H. pylori. It is important that the management of these patients should not be hampered by the misinterpretation of the African epidemiology of this pathogen.

  7. Demand for Modern Family Planning among Married Women Living with HIV in Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Melka, Alemu Sufa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction People living with HIV (PLHIV) have diverse family planning (FP) needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL. Results The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting). Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting), making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting). Whereas age 25–34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI))  = .397 (.204–.771)] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI)  = 2.531 (1.689–9.290)] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI)  = 3.616(1.869–6.996)] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP. Conclusions There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning. PMID:25390620

  8. Medical Aid, Repression, and International Relations: The East German Hospital at Metema.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1988, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) built a hospital in a remote part of Ethiopia, close to the Sudanese border. The project evolved in a complex combination of contexts, including the general foreign policy goals of the GDR, its specific alliance with Ethiopia, the famine of 1984-85, civil war in Ethiopia, and a controversial resettlement program by the government of Mengistu Haile Mariam. Though almost unknown today, it was a high-profile project at the time, which received the personal support both by Erich Honecker in the GDR and Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia. However, their interest was directed more at the political goals the project was expected to serve than at the hospital itself. Both the preparation and the implementation of the project were extremely difficult and almost failed due to problems of transportation, of red tape, and of security. The operation of the hospital was also not ideal, involving frustrated personnel and less than complete acceptance by the local population. Ironically, for all its practical difficulties, the hospital has outlived both governments and their political goals, surviving as a medical institution. PMID:26037639

  9. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  10. Front (south side) of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (south side) of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. West side of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. North side of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. East side of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North Hickey Street, 775 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Rainfall and runoff variability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time

  17. Viral diseases in Ethiopia: a review.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A

    1993-10-01

    Ethiopia is endemic for many viral diseases. Serosurveys have demonstrated the high prevalence rate of hepatitis B virus. There are also indications of high transmission for hepatitis C, hepatitis E and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The population is exposed to poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, measles, rubella and mumps early in life. Rotaviral diarrhoea is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Vast areas of the country are endemic for yellow fever and rabies. The extent of many other viral diseases in the country is unknown. There is a need for a well organised national laboratory to assess the impact of vaccination efforts and to support control as well as surveillance measures within the country.

  18. Viral diseases in Ethiopia: a review.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A

    1993-10-01

    Ethiopia is endemic for many viral diseases. Serosurveys have demonstrated the high prevalence rate of hepatitis B virus. There are also indications of high transmission for hepatitis C, hepatitis E and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The population is exposed to poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, measles, rubella and mumps early in life. Rotaviral diarrhoea is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Vast areas of the country are endemic for yellow fever and rabies. The extent of many other viral diseases in the country is unknown. There is a need for a well organised national laboratory to assess the impact of vaccination efforts and to support control as well as surveillance measures within the country. PMID:8187657

  19. Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

  20. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  1. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  2. Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Elias; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time-motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health worker

  3. Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Elias; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time–motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health

  4. Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Elias; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time-motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health worker

  5. The Prevalence of Precancerous Cervical Cancer Lesion among HIV-Infected Women in Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The magnitude of precancerous cervical cancer lesions as well as invasive cervical cancer is higher in HIV-infected women than non HIV-infected women. Thus, screening targeting HIV-infected women is being undertaken in developing countries, including Ethiopia. However, data on the prevalence and determinants of precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV-infected women in southern Ethiopia is lacking. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV- infected women in southern Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013 among HIV-infected women in Southern Ethiopia. Four hundred forty eight HIV-infected women who had been screened and treated for precancerous cervical cancer lesion were included in the study. Data were collected by using structured and pretested questionnaire. Visual inspection with acetic acid was applied for screening and treatment. SPSS version 16.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Logistic regression analysis was fitted and odds ratios with 95% Confidence intervals and p-values were computed to identify factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion. Results Out of 448 study participants, 99 (22.1%) were found to be positive for precancerous cervical cancer. Being currently on highly active antiretroviral treatment (AOR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.35, 0.92), history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR=2.30, 95%CI: 1.23, 4.29) and having only one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=0.33, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.56) were factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion. Conclusions The prevalence of precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV-infected women in southern Ethiopia was found to be high. Intervention to access all HIV-infected women like scaling up the limited services and awareness creation should be undertaken. Measures aimed at preventing the acquisition and transmission of

  6. Northwest Ohio Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Kevin

    2015-03-04

    Improvement Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily

  7. Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

    Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…

  8. Lessons on the Northwest Ordinance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The purpose of this packet of six lessons is to make it easier for teachers to include substantial instruction about the Northwest Ordinance in their secondary school courses. Each lesson includes a lesson plan for teachers and a lesson for students to study. The lessons are concise and can be completed in one or two class meetings. Each lesson…

  9. 75 FR 23823 - Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PACIFIC NORTHWEST ELECTRIC POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council (Northwest Power and...

  10. Health Care Seeking Behavior in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Begashaw, Bayu; Tessema, Fasil; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural and urban populations have disparate socio-demographic and economic characteristics, which have an influence on equity and their health seeking behavior. We examined and compared the health care seeking behavior for perceived morbidity between urban and rural households in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Analytic cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural households living in Esera district of Southwest Ethiopia. A random sample of 388 head of households (126 urban and 262 rural) were selected. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used for data collection with face-to-face interview. In addition to descriptive methods, binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with health seeking behavior at p value of less than 0.05. Results Of the sample household heads, 377 (97.2%) (119 urban and 258 rural) were successfully interviewed. Among these, 58.4% (95% CI, 53.3–63.3%) of the households sought care from modern health care that was lower among rural (48.1%) than urban (80.7%) households. The prevalence of self-treatment was 35.3% in urban and 46.1% in rural households. Among the factors considered for modern health care utilization, higher monthly income (AOR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.04–15.4), perceived severity of disease (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.8), acute duration of disease (AOR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.4–33.3) and short distance from health facilities (AOR, 3; 95% CI, 1.2–8.4) among rural and being married (AOR, 11.3; 95% CI, 1.2–110.2) and perceived severity of disease (AOR, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.1–10.9) among urban households showed statistically significant association. Conclusions The general health seeking behavior of households on perceived morbidity was satisfactory but lower in rural compared to urban households. Self-medication was also widely practiced in the study area. The findings signal the need to work more on accessibility and promotion of healthcare seeking behavior especially among rural households

  11. Establishing space research capability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.

    It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere

  12. Integration of mother and child health services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Walley, J D; McDonald, M

    1991-01-01

    In Wollo region of Ethiopia, various non-governmental officers have been working closely with each other and with the Regional Health Department to implement the policy of daily integrated mother and child health services. The record cards, registers, procedures and training courses of the separate 'vertically' organized services were brought together to enable the development of a model integrated service. There were improvements in accessibility, acceptability and output of the services. The system was evaluated by a joint Ministry of Health and UNICEF team, and was adopted for use in the rest of Ethiopia.

  13. The burden of road traffic injuries in an emergency department in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, E.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Hedt-Gauthier, B.; Silkondez, W.; Abebe, D.; Deressa, W.; Enquessilase, F.; Edwards, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The emergency department (ED) of Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Objective: To document the proportion, trend, characteristics and outcomes of road traffic injury (RTI) related ED admissions (⩾15 years) between 2014 and 2015. Design: A retrospective, cross-sectional study using routinely collected ED data. Results: Of 10 007 ED admissions, 779 (8%) were RTI cases; this proportion peaked in the month of January (11%). Medical records were available for 522 (67%) of these RTI cases. The median age was 28 years and 69% were males. The majority were pedestrians (69%) injured by an automobile (78%). On triage, 32% were classified as needing urgent/immediate intervention. Head injuries (20%) were the second most common injury after lower limb injuries (36%). ED outcomes were as follows: discharged (68%), hospitalised (17%), referred (17%) and died (1%). Among the 78 hospitalised cases, respectively 62% and 16% were admitted to the surgical and orthopaedic departments. Of 146 RTI cases with head injuries, 25% were hospitalised, of whom 82% were admitted to the surgical department. Conclusion: Our findings can guide policy makers in referral hospitals in improving the planning of hospital resources and the prioritisation of public health needs linked to further urban development. A comprehensive plan to prevent RTIs, particularly among pedestrians in Addis Ababa, is urgently needed. PMID:27358798

  14. The Prevalence of Skilled Birth Attendant Utilization and Its Correlates in North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemayehu, Mulunesh; Mekonnen, Wubegzier

    2015-01-01

    The low utilization of skilled birth attendants sustained high maternal mortality. The aim of this study was to assess its magnitude and correlates in Northwest Ethiopia. A study was conducted on 373 randomly selected women who gave birth in the 12 months preceding the survey. Correlates were identified using binary logistic regression. Skilled birth attendance was 18.8%. Inability to perform cultural practices in health facilities (65.5%), expecting smooth delivery (63.4%), and far distance (62%) were the main barriers. Women with urban residence (AOR = 5.46: 95% CI [2.21–13.49]), primary (AOR = 2.10: 95% CI [0.71–6.16]) and secondary-plus (AOR = 6.12: [1.39–26.92]) educational level, four-plus ANC visits (AOR = 17.33: 95% CI [4.22–71.29]), and proximity to health centers (AOR = 5.67: 95% CI [1.47–25.67]) had higher odds of using skilled birth attendants though women with no labor complications had lower odds (AOR = 0.02: 95% CI [0.01–0.05]). Skilled birth attendance use was low. Urban residence, primary-plus level of education, frequent ANC visits, living nearby the health centers, and a problem during labor were positively correlated with skilled birth attendance utilization. Stakeholders should enhance girls' education beyond primary level and ANC services and shorten distances to health facilities. PMID:26504806

  15. Sawflies of Ethiopia (Hymenoptera: Argidae, Tenthredinidae).

    PubMed

    Koch, Frank; Pauly, Alain; Hora, Zewdu A; Boevé, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-24

    Sawflies were collected in Ethiopia during 2010-2013. Three species represent new records for the country: Arge deckerti Koch, 2005, Athalia excisa Koch, 2006 and Xenapates nigrifrons Koch, 2012. Arge flavifrons Mocsáry, 1909, syn. n. and A. transvaalensis Cameron, 1911, syn. n. are subjective synonyms of A. micheli (Buysson, 1900) that is re-described here. Athalia fumosa Gribodo, 1879 sp. rev. is recognized as a valid species and is removed from synonymy with A. scioensis Gribodo, 1879. Distega braunsi Enslin, 1911 syn. n. and D. brunniventris Enslin, 1913 syn. n. are subjective synonyms of D. montium Konow, 1907. Pseudoneacidiophora Koch, 1998 is a new junior synonym of Kivua Forsius, 1934 (syn. n.), resulting in the new combination Kivua pleuritica (comb. n.) for Athalia pleuritica Forsius, 1927. Kivua camerunensis nom. n. is proposed for P. bicolor Koch, 1998 (preoccupied in Kivua by K. bicolor (Pasteels, 1949) (Bicrista bicolor Pasteels)), the second species formerly included in Pseudoneacidiophora. The female of Distega abyssinica Pasteels, 1955 is described for the first time. An annotated and illustrated list including six distribution maps is given for Ethiopian sawflies. It is composed of 34 species belonging to the genus Arge (Argidae), and seven genera of Tenthredinidae: Athalia (Athaliinae), Kivua, Neacidiophora, Xenapates (Allantinae), Distega, Trisodontophyes (Blennocampinae), and Dulophanes (Selandriinae). Some ecological aspects of Athalia species are discussed, especially for the most abundantly collected A. vollenhoveni Gribodo, 1879.

  16. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide.

  17. Quaternary glaciation of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Henry A.; Mitchell, Wishart A.; Osmaston, J. A. Nigel

    2005-09-01

    Central Ethiopia comprises a high plateau at 2000-3000 m, formed from Tertiary lava flows and bisected by the Eastern African Rift. Ten volcanic mountains rise to altitudes of just over 4000 m, but on only three has Quaternary glaciation been substantiated by published field observations. On the Bale Mountains (4400 m), a previous report based on limited evidence proposed an ice-cap extending to 600 km2. Based on aerial photographs and ground surveys, this paper reports evidence of a more complex situation. A wide spread of large erratic boulders on the plateau records a central ice cap of 30 km2, though ice probably extended for a further 40 km2. Further north two groups of deeply incised and clearly glaciated valleys contain moraines and roches moutonnées (60 km2). On interfluves between them and on the open north slopes are moraines from an earlier stage of the same glaciation or from a distinct older event. Altogether about 180 km2 may have been glaciated. Cores dated by 14C from inside and outside the glaciated area suggest that at least the northern valley glaciers may date from the Last Glacial Maximum. Estimated equilibrium line altitudes for these glaciers and the ice-cap are 3750-4230 m. Copyright

  18. 3. VIEW OF SITE A FROM HOOD AVENUE, FACING NORTH/NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF SITE A FROM HOOD AVENUE, FACING NORTH/NORTHWEST. (BUILDINGS 116, 117, 120, 118, 128, AND 122 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  19. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%), unemployed (70.3%) and male (65.1%). Nearly all participants (97.4%) expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p < 0.001), single marital status (OR = 3.39; 95% CI = 1.40, 8.22; p = 0.019) and having prominent psychotic symptoms (OR = 2.33; 95% CI = 1.17, 4.61; p = 0.016) were associated independently with a higher stigma score. Almost half of those who discontinued their treatment reported that they had done so because of perceived stigma. Those who had attempted suicide (45.3%) were more likely to have a high stigma score (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.27, 4.11; p = 0.006). Over 60% of the variation in the experience of stigma was explained by four factors: social withdrawal (16.7%), perceived discrimination (14.1%), alienation (13.9%) and stereotype endorsement (12.7%). Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process. PMID:23272796

  20. Health Sector Initiatives for Disaster Risk Management in Ethiopia: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventions which have been undertaken in the health sector. Methods: Relevant documents were identified by searches in the websites of different sectors in Ethiopian and international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies. Using selected keywords, articles were also searched in the data bases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, pertinent articles from non-indexed journals were referred to. Results: Disaster management system in Ethiopia focused on response, recovery, and rehabilitation from 1974 to 1988; while the period between 1988 and 1993 marked the transition phase towards a more comprehensive approach. Theoretically, from 1993 onwards, the disaster management system has fully integrated the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness phases into already existing response and recovery approach, particularly for drought. This policy has changed the emergency response practices and the health sector has taken some initiatives in the area of emergency health care. Hence, drought early warning system, therapeutic feeding program in hospitals, health centers and posts in drought prone areas to manage promptly acute malnutrition cases have all been put in place. In addition, public health disease emergencies have been responded to at all levels of health care system. Conclusions: Emergency health responses to drought and its ramifications such as acute malnutrition and epidemics have become more comprehensive in the context of basic disaster

  1. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  2. Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia: A Critical Analysis of Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semela, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…

  3. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  4. What Community Participation in Schooling Means: Insights from Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift-Morgan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…

  5. Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Baneth, Gad; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Hailu, Asrat; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the first molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis in local breeds of cattle in Ethiopia. A conventional PCR utilizing major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) were used to characterize T. orientalis and to assess the infection intensity, respectively. Of 232 blood samples tested, T. orientalis DNA was detected in only 2.2% of samples using conventional PCR; two genotypes buffeli (1.3%; 3/232) and type 5 (0.9%; 2/232) of T. orientalis were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the buffeli MPSP sequences from Ethiopia were closely related to those reported from Kenya, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and type 5 sequences from Ethiopia grouped with those from Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand. A higher number of samples (3.9%; 9/232) were test-positive by MT-PCR and four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of T. orientalis were detected. The average intensity of infections with genotypes buffeli (DNA copy numbers 11,056) and type 5 (7508) were significantly higher (P<0.0001) than the pathogenic genotype ikeda (61 DNA copies). This first insight into T. orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia using MPSP gene provides a basis for future studies of T. orientalis in various agroclimatic zones and of the impact of oriental theilerosis on cattle in this and other countries of Africa. PMID:27034193

  6. Household Constraints on Schooling by Gender: Empirical Evidence from Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Pauline; Al-Samarrai, Samer

    2001-01-01

    Examines individual and household characteristics that affect the probability of a boy or girl attending and completing primary school in two regions of Ethiopia. Finds that school attendance was related to household wealth, parents' education, and child's nutritional status, while completion was affected more by economic constraints and, for…

  7. Quality Education Reform and Aid Effectiveness: Reflections from Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…

  8. Adult Basic Literacy "Initiatives" in Ethiopia: Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenea, Ambissa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…

  9. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A; Norheim, Gunnstein

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012-2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed.

  10. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012–2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed. PMID:26689450

  11. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  12. Education for International Understanding: The Case of Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Paris (France).

    This study reviews Ethiopia's efforts, experiences, and achievements with respect to developing education for international understanding over the past two decades in response to the United Nations recognition of the role education plays in promoting peace. It is an overture aimed at sharing ideas and experiences with all concerned for the…

  13. Higher Education in Ethiopia: Expansion, Quality Assurance and Institutional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2014-01-01

    This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…

  14. Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

  15. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  16. A review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Jones, J L

    2012-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide zoonosis. In this paper published information on toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia is reviewed. Limited data indicate that the prevalence of T. gondii in humans in Ethiopia is very high, up to 41% of children aged 1-5 years were reported to be seropositive. There is little information on seroprevalence data in pregnant women and no data on congenital toxoplasmosis in children. About 1 million adults in Ethiopia are considered to be infected with HIV with less than one-third likely receive highly active antiviral therapy. Based on a conservative T. gondii seroprevalence of 50%, thousands might die of concurrent opportunistic infections, including toxoplasmosis. However, exact figures are not available, and most serological surveys are not current. Serological surveys indicate up to 79% of goats and sheep have T. gondii antibodies. However, there is no information on losses due to toxoplasmosis in livestock or the presence of viable T. gondii in any host in Ethiopia.

  17. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  18. Is tuberculous lymphadenitis over-diagnosed in Ethiopia? Comparative performance of diagnostic tests for mycobacterial lymphadenitis in a high-burden country.

    PubMed

    Iwnetu, Rahel; van den Hombergh, Jan; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asfaw, Mulat; Gebrekirstos, Cherinet; Negussie, Yared; Bekele, Teklu; Ashenafi, Senait; Seyoum, Berhanu; Melaku, Kibrebeal; Yamuah, Lawrence; Tilahun, Hiwot; Tadesse, Zerihun; Aseffa, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia reports the third highest number of extrapulmonary TB cases globally, most of which are lymph node TB (TBLN). We investigated the performance of the available diagnostic tests for TBLN. Fine needle aspirate (FNA) and excision biopsy samples from affected lymph nodes were collected from 150 consenting patients with suspected TBLN visiting regional hospitals in Ethiopia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of histopathology against culture as reference was 92%, 88%, 97% and 77% and of FNA cytology (FNAC) 76%, 88%, 100% and 55%, respectively. Naked eye examination of FNA had 67% sensitivity and 64% specificity. HIV coinfection did not diminish the performance of macroscopic examination, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, histology or cytology examinations. When any positive result in ZN, histopathology or culture was considered confirmatory, clinical diagnosis could be confirmed in 85% of the patients, suggesting that TBLN is over-diagnosed in up to 15% of cases. With combined criteria as reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of FNAC was 72%, 100%, 100% and 55%, respectively. FNAC is a practical tool that can improve the diagnosis of TBLN in high-burden settings. Over-diagnosis alone cannot explain the high burden of LNTB in Ethiopia. PMID:19382003

  19. Geology and mineral potential of Ethiopia: a note on geology and mineral map of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Solomon; Milesi, Jean-Pierre; Deschamps, Yves

    2003-05-01

    This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1:2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format so that the map and the database could be available to users on a personal computer. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.

  20. Gully Development in North Ethiopia's Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Meire, Ellen; de Dapper, Morgan; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku

    2010-05-01

    Understanding trends in gully erosion, and the relation with changes in its triggers, is important to make sustainable development possible in semi-arid regions suffering from low food security and threatened by climatic deterioration. The reconstruction of long-term (1868-2009) patterns in gully erosion in North Ethiopia and environmental control, i.e. LUC changes and rainfall pattern changes, requires an extensive database of ground-based photographs (1868-1975), aerial photographs (1964-1992), satellite images (1972-2009), meteorological station data (1950s-2009) and field measurements. Quantifying gully erosion networks and volumes is done from an integrated analysis of historical ground-based photographs, aerial photographs and IKONOS imagery. Therefore, new methodologies are being developed based on fieldwork, digital photogrammetry and Geographic Information Science techniques. LUC mapping and change analysis for periods prior to satellite imagery and aerial photography is done by developing a new methodology that georeferences LUC boundaries identified on historical photographs to the horizontal plane of the map. For the LANDSAT LUC analysis (1972-2000), images dated 1974-5 were calibrated using photographs of the same period. Therefore, a methodology was developed that involves the development of spectral signatures based on LUC observed on the photographs, and the recording of the location of those LUC units by GPS. Rainfall pattern changes will be analyzed from Rainfall Estimates(2001-2009) and meteorological station data. Early results show that gully erosion was already extensive in the late 19th century, caused by a largely degraded environment and that critical gully expansion occurred after the mid 20th century. Little care was given to land management in 1868 resulting in very low vegetation cover which depleted to a minimum in dry spells like in the 1980s. In recent decades land management practices result in an environmental recovery and

  1. Radargrammetry helps fight hunger in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanshie, Tadesse K.; Romeijn, Paul P.; Nezry, Edmond; Yakam-Simen, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the operational implementation of radargrammetry for the production of Digital Elevation Models, or DEMs, to areas of rugged topography. The Southern Ethiopian Highlands east of lake Abaya, with elevations between ca. 900 and 4,400 meters, were mapped. Currently available topographical maps are of insufficient quality to assist a study of the area's unique land use system, which is arguably the oldest and most durably sustained land use system of the planet. Without external inputs or terracing, the land use system maintains soil fertility and staves-off hunger. It has been doing so during the past 30 years of unrest and civil war, in one of the most crowded regions of Ethiopia. However, the central role of the staple crop enset within the land use system and its production cycles has hardly been the subject of scientific study. Understanding of this system is most likely to be relevant to enhancement of health and productivity in many regions of the world. Upon the request of the Agricultural Bureau for Gedeo Zone, geocoded and georeferenced topographical maps with accuracy of 20 meters (x, y and z) were made by PRIVATEERS N.V. on the basis of RADARSAT multi-incidence (S2/S7) images. These maps are now incorporated as the basic layer within the Bureau's GIS system. Map production techniques proved to be cost effective and relevant; especially for mountainous areas with poor accessability where correct geographic information is not available. The ease of orientation proved of invaluable help to rationalize execution and planning of cost-effective environmental field work and reporting.

  2. Ethiopia: between Sub-Saharan Africa and western Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Lovell, A; Moreau, C; Yotova, V; Xiao, F; Bourgeois, S; Gehl, D; Bertranpetit, J; Schurr, E; Labuda, D

    2005-05-01

    Ethiopia is central to population genetic studies investigating the out of Africa expansion of modern humans, as shown by Y chromosome and mtDNA studies. To address the level of genetic differentiation within Ethiopia, and its relationship to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia, we studied an 8 kb segment of the X-chromosome from 72 chromosomes from the Amhara, Oromo and Ethiopian Jews, and compared these results with 804 chromosomes from Middle Eastern, African, Asian and European populations, and 22 newly typed Saharawi. Within Ethiopia the two largest ethnic groups, the Amhara and Oromo, were not found to be statistically distinct, based on an exact test of haplotype frequencies. The Ethiopian Jews appear as an admixed population, possibly of Jewish origin, though the data remain equivocal. There is evidence of a close relationship between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, likely a result of indirect gene flow. Within an African and Eurasian context, the distribution of alleles of a variable T(n) repeat, and the spread of haplotypes containing Africa-specific alleles, provide evidence of a genetic continuity from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Near East, and furthermore suggest that a bottleneck occurred in Ethiopia associated with an out of Africa expansion. Ethiopian genetic heterogeneity, as evidenced by principal component analysis of haplotype frequencies, most likely resulted from periods of subsequent admixture. While these results are from the analysis of one locus, we feel that in association with data from other marker systems they add a complementary perspective on the history of Ethiopia.

  3. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  4. Epidemiological study on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sanja area, Amhara region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of schistosomiasis is well documented and its geographic distribution has been mapped and there is an ongoing mapping in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, new transmission foci have been discovered in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the establishment of transmission and determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school children from Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional parasitological survey involving 384 school children in two primary schools of Sanja Town was conducted between February and April 2013. Stool specimens were collected and microscopically examined using Kato-Katz and Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) concentration methods. Malacological survey was also carried out to identify snail intermediate hosts and larval infection rate in the snail. The snails collected were checked for trematode infection by shedding. Observation was also made on water contact habits of the study population. Results The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection using Kato-Katz method was high among male (79.5%) children in Sanja Primary school while it was high among female (75%) children in Ewket Amba Primary school. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection among Sanja Primary school children in the age groups 5–9 and 10–14 years were 84.6% and 75.2%, respectively while in Ewket Amba Primary school, the prevalence was 66% and 77.9% in the age groups 5–9 and 10–14 years respectively. The prevalence of schistosome infection in Biomphalaria pfeifferi was 16.9% and 0.027% during February and April, respectively. S. mansoni infection was successfully established in laboratory mice and adult worms were harvested after six weeks of laboratory maintenance. Observations made on water contact activities showed swimming, bathing and washing in the river and the stream as the high risk activities for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Conclusion The study has shown

  5. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  6. Improving maternity care in Ethiopia through facility based review of maternal deaths and near misses.

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Tewolde, Birukkidus T

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to initiate facility based review of maternal deaths and near misses as part of the Ethiopian effort to reduce maternal mortality and achieve United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. An in-depth review of all maternal deaths and near misses among women who visited 10 hospitals in four regions of Ethiopia was conducted between May 2011 and October 2012 as part of the FIGO LOGIC initiative. During the study period, a total of 2774 cases (206 deaths and 2568 near misses) were reviewed. The ratio of maternal deaths to near misses was 1:12 and the overall maternal death rate was 728 per 100 000 live births. Socioeconomic factors associated with maternal mortality included illiteracy 1672 (60.3%) and lack of employment outside the home 2098 (75.6%). In all, 1946 (70.2%) women arrived at hospital after they had developed serious complications owing to issues such as lack of transportation. Only 1223 (44.1%) women received prenatal follow-up and 157 (76.2%) deaths were attributed to direct obstetric causes. Based on the findings, facilities adopted a number of quality improvement measures such as providing 24-hour services, and making ambulances available. Integrating review of maternal deaths and near misses into regular practice provides accurate information on causes of maternal deaths and near misses and also improves quality of care in facilities.

  7. Factors associated with age at first sexual initiation among youths in Gamo Gofa, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early sexual initiation increases the risk of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. This study aimed to determine age at first sexual initiation and associated factors among youths in south west Ethiopia. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in South west Ethiopia from January 15 – March 20, 2012. A sample of youths aged 15–24 years was taken from six health centers and three hospitals using systematic sampling technique. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to assess the association between the outcome and explanatory variables. Result A total of 405 youths participated in the study and the mean ( ±SD ) age of sexual initiation was 17.07 years (±2.12). Age at first sexual initiation was positively associated with lack of employment [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 7.372 (1.455, 37.357)], lack of comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 8.247 (2.121, 32.067)], alcohol use [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 3.815 (1.315, 11.070)] and khat use [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 7.241 (1.871, 28.016)]. Conclusion Majority of the study participants experienced sexual initiation. Strategies should be designed to control the use of substances like alcohol and khat which were found to be responsible for first sexual initiation. PMID:23819567

  8. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    PubMed Central

    Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Gebresilassie, Begashaw Melaku; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Woldie, Habtamu Gebremeskel

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia. Methods A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance. Results Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69%) of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90.3%), whereas “chief complaint” was the least to be taken (23%), for patients presenting with diarrhea. Approximately 96 (85.0%) cases were provided with one or more medications. The remaining 17 (15%) cases did not receive any medication. A total of six pharmacologic groups of medications were given to alleviate acute diarrheal symptoms. Majority (66, 29.6%) of the medications were oral rehydration salts with zinc. The mean number of medications was 1.99 per visit. Components of advice

  9. Norovirus - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... Symptoms start within 24 to 48 hours of infection, and can last for 1 ... norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  10. Population level mental distress in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD = 60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common

  11. Tephrochronology of the Western Margin, Gona, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinsasser, L. L.; Quade, J.; Levin, N.; McIntosh, W.; Simpson, S. W.; Semaw, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project (GPRP) area includes many rich fossil localities that are of great consequence to the study of human evolution. Genetic estimates of the divergence between human and chimpanzee lineages indicate that this split happened between 5 and 7 Mya. The sedimentary deposits at Gona range in age from .15 Ma to 4.5 Ma at the base of the Sagantole Formation, with additional minor sedimentary deposits in the underlying Adu-Asa Formation. These older sedimentary deposits occur as small, disconnected packages interlayered with lava flows and are repeated due to NS-trending, west-dipping normal faults that accommodated extension in the Afar rift. New 40Ar-39Ar dates on tuffs from the Adu-Asa Formation indicate that the oldest hominid fossils thus found at Gona are around 5.5 Ma, and that all of the fossil sites in the Adu-Asa Formation identified thus far are approximately the same age. One tuff, named the Belewa, is dated at 5.51+/- .03 Ma, while the Kobo'o tuff, which outcrops to the west and thus is lower in the section, is dated at 5.42 +/-.07 Ma. Both dates are from sanidine and errors are at the 2 sigma level. In addition to these 40Ar-39Ar dates for the Adu-Asa Formation, the relative ages of many deposits have been clarified through studies of the major element geochemistry of glass shards from ashfall tuffs, which occur as beds within the sedimentary deposits. These geochemical comparisons, along with detailed stratigraphic sections through many sedimentary packages, have allowed the identification and correlation of four major tuffs, including the Belewa and Kobo'o tuffs, throughout the pre-4.5 Ma deposits of the Gona project area. Such studies may also lead to larger-scale correlations between the Gona project and other paleoanthropological projects in Ethiopia. Additional work on the tephrochronology and stratigraphy in the younger Sagantole, Hadar, and Busidima Formations has furthered our understanding of those deposits

  12. The Northwest Ordinance. A Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Bernard W., Ed.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight articles discuss different aspects of the Northwest ordinances. W. W. Abbot emphasizes George Washington's enduring, complex, and deep involvement with the west and its land. Robert V. Remini points out the value of the Articles of Confederation by emphasizing that it was the Congress under the Articles that passed the Northwest Ordinance.…

  13. 77 FR 40565 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Forest Service Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Administrative Meetings for the Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees. SUMMARY... up under the Northwest Forest Plan. The PIECs facilitate the successful implementation of the...

  14. 2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 SHOWING. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  15. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory CALIOPE overview

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, R.S.; Kelly, J.F.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1995-03-01

    This overview covers progress in the following areas in which Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributes to the CALIOPE Program: (1) Fabrication of electro-optic modulators to generate FM-coding on IR lasers in the 8-12 and 3-5 {mu}m regions. (2) IR spectroscopy of signature species, abnormal isotopic distributions, hydrolysis and kinetics of effluents interacting with the atmosphere, and reflectance measurements of natural surfaces. (3) Systems analysis of FM-DIAL concepts, including lateral phase coherence and MTF measurements, and laboratory tests of detector technology and demodulation methods. (4) Field tests of FM-DIAL, covering field validation of portable diode laser concepts, FM-CO{sub 2} interrogation of Hanford sites, and signal returns from natural specular surfaces. (5) Ancillary matters: ground-truthing at Hanford (and RSTR?), countermeasures, and new laser design concepts.

  17. Infecundity and subfertility among the rural population of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaghiorghis, H

    1991-10-01

    A 1980-81 survey of the rural population of Ethiopia found high levels of infecundity and subfertility, although there was considerable variation by region, ethnicity and age of women. Higher levels of infecundity were geographically concentrated in a broad belt that ran from the south and south-west of the country, across to the north-east. The analyses suggest that infecundity is influenced by ecological factors, more than by ethnicity.

  18. Flow, melt and fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

    2014-05-01

    Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.

  19. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  20. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  1. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  2. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Formal Vocational Education Programs in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malle, Abebe Yehualawork; Pirttimaa, Raija; Saloviita, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia, individuals with disabilities have limited access to educational and vocational training opportunities. This study investigates prevailing challenges and opportunities for the participation of students with disabilities in vocational education programs in Ethiopia. Data for the study were gathered from the five biggest regions out of…

  3. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  4. Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia: Motivated by Politics or the Educational Needs of Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…

  5. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  6. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce.

  7. Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-04-01

    Southern Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

  8. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce. PMID:10979229

  9. Exploring Agro-Climatic Trends in Ethiopia Using CHIRPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Brown, M. E.; Korecha, D.; Seid, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) uses the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) to monitor agricultural food production in different regions of the world. CHIRPS is a 1981-present, 5 day, approximately 5km resolution, rainfall product based on a combination of geostationary satellite observations, a high resolution climatology and in situ station observations. Furthermore, FEWS NET has developed a gridded implementation of the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), a water balance measurement indicator of crop performance. This study takes advantage of the CHIRPS' long term period of record and high spatial and temporal resolution to examine agro-climatic trends in Ethiopia. We use the CHIRPS rainfall dataset to calculate the WRSI for the boreal spring and summer crop seasons, as well as for spring-summer rangelands conditions. We find substantial long term rainfall declines in the spring and summer seasons across southeastern and northeastern Ethiopia. Crop Model results indicate that rainfall declines in the cropped regions have been associated with water deficits during the critical grain filling periods in well populated and/or highly vulnerable parts of eastern Ethiopia. WRSI results in the pastoral areas indicate substantial reductions in rangeland health during the later part of the growing seasons. These health declines correspond to the regions of Somaliland and Afar that have experienced chronic severe food insecurity since 2010. Key words: CHIRPS, satellite estimated rainfall, agricultural production

  10. Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year−1 and downward trends in rainfall of − 0.4 mm month−1 year−1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

  11. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  12. Analysis of the Junction of the East African Rift and the Cretaceous-Paleogene Rifts in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariita, N. O.; Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2003-12-01

    The East African rift (EAR) is a Tertiary-Miocene system that extends from the Middle East, through East Africa, to Mozambique in southern Africa. Much of the present information is from the Ethiopian and Kenyan parts of the rift. Several characteristics of the EAR such as rift-related volcanism, faulting and topographic relief being exposed make it attractive for studying continental rift processes. Structural complexities reflected in the geometries of grabens and half-grabens, the existence of transverse fault zones and accommodation zones, and the influence of pre-existing geologic structures have been documented. In particular, the EAR traverses the Anza graben and related structures near the Kenya/Ethiopian border. The Anza graben is one in a series of Cretaceous-Paleogene failed rifts that trend across Central Africa from Nigeria through Chad to Sudan and Kenya with an overall northwest-southeast trend. In spite of a number of recent studies, we do not understand the interaction of these two rift systems. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, the rift segments share some broad similarities in timing and are related in a geographic sense. For example, volcanism appears to have generally preceded or in some cases have been contemporaneous with major rift faulting. Although, these segments are distinct entities, each with its own tectonic and magmatic evolution, and they do connect in the region crossed by the Anza graben and related structures. In our present study, we are using a combination of recently collected seismic, gravity and remote sensing data to increase our understanding of these two segments of the EAR. We hope that by analysing the satellite data, the variety and differences in the volume of magmatic products extruded along in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya will be identified. The geometry of structures (in particular, those causing the gravity axial high) will be modelled to study the impact of the older Anza graben structural trends with the

  13. How Can the Health System Retain Women in HIV Treatment for a Lifetime? A Discrete Choice Experiment in Ethiopia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Margaret E.; Riley, Patricia L.; Palma, Anton M.; Adhikari, Sweta; Ahoua, Laurence; Arnaldo, Carlos; Belo, Dercio F.; Brusamento, Serena; Cumba, Luisa I. G.; Dziuban, Eric J.; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Gutema, Yoseph; Habtamu, Zelalem; Heller, Thomas; Kidanu, Aklilu; Langa, Judite; Mahagaja, Epifanio; McCarthy, Carey F.; Melaku, Zenebe; Shodell, Daniel; Tsiouris, Fatima; Young, Paul R.; Rabkin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Option B+, an approach that involves provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected pregnant women for life, is the preferred strategy for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Lifelong retention in care is essential to its success. We conducted a discrete choice experiment in Ethiopia and Mozambique to identify health system characteristics preferred by HIV-infected women to promote continuity of care. Methods Women living with HIV and receiving care at hospitals in Oromia Region, Ethiopia and Zambézia Province, Mozambique were shown nine choice cards and asked to select one of two hypothetical health facilities, each with six varying characteristics related to the delivery of HIV services for long term treatment. Mixed logit models were used to estimate the influence of six health service attributes on choice of clinics. Results 2,033 women participated in the study (response rate 97.8% in Ethiopia and 94.7% in Mozambique). Among the various attributes of structure and content of lifelong ART services, the most important attributes identified in both countries were respectful provider attitude and ability to obtain non-HIV health services during HIV-related visits. Availability of counseling support services was also a driver of choice. Facility type, i.e., hospital versus health center, was substantially less important. Conclusions Efforts to enhance retention in HIV care and treatment for pregnant women should focus on promoting respectful care by providers and integrating access to non-HIV health services in the same visit, as well as continuing to strengthen counseling. PMID:27551785

  14. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  15. Geochronology of the Turkana depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP. PMID:22170691

  16. Geochronology of the Turkana depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP.

  17. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad.

    PubMed

    Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad.

  18. Survival patterns of patients on maintenance hemodialysis for end stage renal disease in Ethiopia: summary of 91 cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease is an important challenge for health systems around the world. Access for care of the disease in Ethiopia is extremely limited. The main purpose of the study was to investigate survival pattern and assess risk factors for poor outcome of patients on maintenance hemodialysis for end stage renal disease in Ethiopia. Methods Medical records of patients on maintenance hemodialysis for end stage renal disease at Saint Gabriel General Hospital between 2002 and 2010 were reviewed. The data was collected by complete review of patient’s clinical data. Descriptive statistics was used for most variables and Chi-square test, where necessary, was used to test the association among various variables. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was done to assess both short and long term survival. P-values of < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results A total of 190 patients were registered for hemodialysis at the hospital 91 of which were included in the final assessment. Mean age at dialysis initiation was 58 ± 15 years. Fifty-five (60.4%) of the patients had prior history of diabetes. Almost all of them had serum creatinine of > 5mg/dl and some degree of anemia at dialysis initiation. Forty-one (45.1%) deaths occurred during dialysis treatment and 21 (23.1%) of patients died within the first 90 days of starting dialysis. Only 42.1% of them survived longer than a year. The frequently registered causes of death were septicemia (34.1%) and cardiovascular diseases (29.3%). Use of catheter as vascular access was associated with decreased short term and long term survival. Conclusion Dialysis as treatment modality is extremely scarce in Ethiopia and affordable to only the rich. Survival pattern in those on the treatment is less satisfactory and short of usual standards in the developed world and needs further investigation. We thus recommend a large scale analysis of national dialysis

  19. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  20. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria.

  1. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. PMID:25843811

  2. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  3. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  4. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in rural Ethiopia: evidence from clinical vignettes

    PubMed Central

    Mebratie, Anagaw D; Van de Poel, Ellen; Yilma, Zelalem; Abebaw, Degnet; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the determinants of healthcare-seeking behaviour using five context-relevant clinical vignettes. The analysis deals with three issues: whether and where to seek modern care and when to seek care. Setting This study is set in 96 villages located in four main regions of Ethiopia. The participants of this study are 1632 rural households comprising 9455 individuals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Probability of seeking modern care for symptoms related to acute respiratory infections/pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, tetanus and tuberculosis. Conditional on choosing modern healthcare, where to seek care (health post, health centre, clinic and hospital). Conditional on choosing modern healthcare, when to seek care (seek care immediately, the next day, after 2 days, between 3 days to 1 week, a week or more). Results We find almost universal preference for modern care. Foregone care ranges from 0.6% for diarrhoea to 2.5% for tetanus. There is a systematic relationship between socioeconomic status and choice of providers mainly for adult-related conditions with households in higher consumption quintiles more likely to seek care in health centres, private/Non-Government Organization (NGO) clinics as opposed to health posts. Delays in care-seeking behaviour are apparent mainly for adult-related conditions and among poorer households. Conclusions The analysis suggests that the lack of healthcare utilisation is not driven by the inability to recognise health problems or due to a low perceived need for modern care. PMID:24525391

  5. Scaling-up essential neuropsychiatric services in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is an immense need for scaling-up neuropsychiatric care in low-income countries. Contextualized cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide relevant information for local policies. The aim of this study is to perform a contextualized CEA of neuropsychiatric interventions in Ethiopia and to illustrate expected population health and budget impacts across neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A mathematical population model (PopMod) was used to estimate intervention costs and effectiveness. Existing variables from a previous WHO-CHOICE regional CEA model were substantially revised. Treatments for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy were analysed. The best available local data on epidemiology, intervention efficacy, current and target coverage, resource prices and salaries were used. Data were obtained from expert opinion, local hospital information systems, the Ministry of Health and literature reviews. Results Treatment of epilepsy with a first generation antiepileptic drug is the most cost-effective treatment (US$ 321 per DALY adverted). Treatments for depression have mid-range values compared with other interventions (US$ 457–1026 per DALY adverted). Treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are least cost-effective (US$ 1168–3739 per DALY adverted). Conclusion This analysis gives the Ethiopian government a comprehensive overview of the expected costs, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing basic neuropsychiatric interventions. PMID:26491060

  6. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Perceived Stigma among Patients with Epilepsy in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fanta, Tolesa; Azale, Telake; Assefa, Dawit; Getachew, Mekbit

    2015-01-01

    Background. Epilepsy stigma is considered to be one of the most important factors that have a negative influence on people with epilepsy. Among all types of stigma perceived stigma further exerts stress and restricts normal participation in society. Methods. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1, 2013, to May 30, 2013. All patients with epilepsy in Ethiopia were source population. The sample size was determined using single population proportion formula and 347 subjects were selected by using systematic random sampling method. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 346 participants with mean age of 29.3 ± 8.5 SD participated with a response rate of 99.7%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was 31.2%. Age range between 18 and 24 [AOR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.02, 7.92], difficulty to attend follow-up because of stigma [AOR = 3.15, 95%CI: 1.19, 8.34], seizure related injury [AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.12, 3.15], and contagion belief [AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.10, 5.08] were significantly associated with perceived stigma. Conclusions. Perceived stigma was found to be a common problem among patients suffering from epilepsy. The results reinforce the need for creating awareness among patients with epilepsy and addressing misconceptions attached to epilepsy. PMID:26425541

  7. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  8. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  9. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among medical waste handlers at Gondar town Health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver due to viral infections and there are groups of viruses that affects the liver of which hepatitis B and C viruses are the causative agents of sever form of liver disease with high rate of mortality. Medical waste handlers who undergo collection, transportation, and disposal of medical wastes in the health institutions are at risk of exposure to acquire those infections which transmit mainly as a result of contaminated blood and other body fluids including injury with sharp instruments, splash to the eye or mucous membrane. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and/or C viruses and associated risk factors among medical waste handlers. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted from April, 2011 to June, 2011 in government health institutions at Gondar town. Socio-demographic and possible risk factors data from medical waste handlers were collected using pre-tested and well structured questionnaires. Venous bloods were collected and the serums were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody using rapid Immunochromatography assay. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS software package (version16). Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to assess risk of association. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistical significance. A total of 100 medical waste handlers and 100 non-clinical waste handlers were examined for HBV and HCV viruses. HBV was detected in 6 (6.0%) and 1 (1.0%) and HCV in 1 (1.0%) and 0 (0.0%) of medical waste handlers and non-clinical waste handlers, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the detection rates of HBV (OR = 6.3; X2 = 4.1; P = 0.04) and overall infection rate (HBV + HCV) (OR = 7.5; X2 = 5.2; P: 0.02) in medical waste handlers when compared with non-clinical waste handlers. It was found that none of the observed risk factors significantly associated with rate of hepatitis infection compared to others. Conclusions Prevalence of HBV and HCV were significantly higher in medical waste in relation to non-clinical waste handlers. There were poor waste management system which contributed for occurrence of higher degree of sharps injury and blood and body fluids splash. PMID:22264306

  10. Birth interval and its predictors among married women in Dabat District, Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective follow up study.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Zeleke, Berihun Megabiaw; Ayele, Tadesse Awoke

    2013-06-01

    Birth intervals (time between two successive live births) if short are associated with diverse complications. We assessed birth interval and its predictors among 613 married women who gave birth from January 1 to December 30, 2008. Data were collected in April 2012. Life table and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to estimate cumulative probabilities and median birth interval, respectively. Log rank test was employed to compare survival between categories of explanatory variables. Cox-proportional hazards model was fitted to compute hazard ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Median birth interval was 32.6 months (95% CI: 31.2-34.1). The cumulative probabilities of survival at 12, 24, and 36 months were 0.97, 0.82 and 0.56 respectively. Death of the index child (AHR = 3.12), contraceptive non use (AHR = 4.29) and husband's education (AHR = 2.20) were significant predictors. Birth interval was short. Contraceptive use and paternal education should be given greater attention in addition to prevention of infant and child mortality. PMID:24069750

  11. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Afework Bitew, Aschalew; Abera, Bayeh; Seyoum, Walle; Endale, Befekadu; Kiber, Tibebu; Goshu, Girma; Admass, Addiss

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.1–89%). STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7–70.2%). The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3–36.6%), 29.4% (25–31%) and 3.1% (1.8–5.4%), respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1–18.1%). Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5–5.5). Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13%) and 18 (4.9%) of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place. PMID:27203749

  12. Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolated from Tuberculosis Patients in Bahir Dar City and Its Surroundings, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Nuru, Anwar; Mamo, Gezahegne; Worku, Adane; Admasu, Aschalew; Medhin, Girmay; Pieper, Rembert; Ameni, Gobena

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the diversity of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) species in a specific geographical region can contribute to the control of tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted to identify the MTBC isolates to the species and spoligotype international type (SIT) level by spoligotyping. A total of 168 MTBC isolates were recovered from TB patients, spoligotyped, and their patterns were compared with those of the strains registered in the SITVIT2 database. Of 168 isolates spoligotyped, 89 patterns were identified. Ninety-eight isolates were clustered into 19 strain groups with clustering percentage of 58.3%. Forty-four strains matched the preexisting SITs in the SITVIT2 database. The dominant strains were SIT289, SIT134, and SIT3411, comprising 16.7% (28/168), 7.14% (12/168), and 4.76% (8/168) of the isolates, respectively. Euro-American (51.2%), East-African-Indian (34.5%), and M. africanum (9.52%) were the major lineages identified. Two strains of M. bovis were isolated from TB lymphadenitis cases. The high percentage of clustered strains of M. tuberculosis could suggest that a small number of lineages of M. tuberculosis are causing the disease in the area while isolation of M. bovis could suggest its zoonotic potential. Additionally, identification of M. africanum requires further confirmation by tools with a better discriminatory power. PMID:26491657

  13. Knowledge and Attitude of Obstetric Care Providers on Partograph and Its Associated Factors in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Zelellw, Desalegne Amare; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Getie, Girma Alem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Universal use of partograph is recommended during labor, to improve maternal and fetal outcome. The aim was to assess knowledge and attitude of obstetric caregivers about partograph and associated factors. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 273 study participants. Study facilities and study units were selected using simple random sampling technique. Midwives, Nurses, Public Health Officers, Medical Doctors, and masters in Emergency Surgery and Obstetric were included in the study. Epi-data and SPSS statistical software were used. Results. About 153 (56.04%) and 150 (54.95%) of the obstetric caregivers had good knowledge and favorable attitude about partograph, respectively. Knowledge of partograph was significantly higher among obstetric caregivers that learnt about partograph during their College and who had received partograph on job training (AOR: 2.14, 95% C.I (1.17–3.93)) and (AOR: 2.25, 95% C.I (1.21–4.19)), respectively. Favorable attitude towards partograph was significantly higher among obstetrical caregivers who had training and learnt about partograph during their college (AOR: 3.37, 95% C.I (1.49–5.65)) and (AOR: 2.134, 95% C.I (1.175–3.877)), correspondingly. Conclusion. Above half of obstetric caregivers had good knowledge and a favorable attitude on partograph. The provision of on preservice and job training is necessary to improve caregivers' knowledge and attitude. PMID:27403453

  14. Knowledge and Attitude of Obstetric Care Providers on Partograph and Its Associated Factors in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zelellw, Desalegne Amare; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Getie, Girma Alem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Universal use of partograph is recommended during labor, to improve maternal and fetal outcome. The aim was to assess knowledge and attitude of obstetric caregivers about partograph and associated factors. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 273 study participants. Study facilities and study units were selected using simple random sampling technique. Midwives, Nurses, Public Health Officers, Medical Doctors, and masters in Emergency Surgery and Obstetric were included in the study. Epi-data and SPSS statistical software were used. Results. About 153 (56.04%) and 150 (54.95%) of the obstetric caregivers had good knowledge and favorable attitude about partograph, respectively. Knowledge of partograph was significantly higher among obstetric caregivers that learnt about partograph during their College and who had received partograph on job training (AOR: 2.14, 95% C.I (1.17-3.93)) and (AOR: 2.25, 95% C.I (1.21-4.19)), respectively. Favorable attitude towards partograph was significantly higher among obstetrical caregivers who had training and learnt about partograph during their college (AOR: 3.37, 95% C.I (1.49-5.65)) and (AOR: 2.134, 95% C.I (1.175-3.877)), correspondingly. Conclusion. Above half of obstetric caregivers had good knowledge and a favorable attitude on partograph. The provision of on preservice and job training is necessary to improve caregivers' knowledge and attitude. PMID:27403453

  15. Health workers’ perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to institutional delivery in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that the three delays, delay in 1) deciding to seek medical care, 2) reaching health facilities and 3) receiving adequate obstetric care, are still contributing to maternal deaths in low-income countries. Ethiopia is a major contributor to the worldwide death toll of mothers with a maternal mortality ratio of 676 per 100,000 live births. The Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched a community-based health-care system in 2003, the Health Extension Programme (HEP), to tackle maternal mortality. Despite strong efforts, universal access to services remains limited, particularly skilled delivery attendance. With the help of ‘the three delays’ framework, this study explores health-service providers’ perceptions of facilitators and barriers to the utilization of institutional delivery in Tigray, a northern region of Ethiopia. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were carried out with eight health extension workers (HEWs) and four midwives. Each interview lasted between 90 and 120 minutes. Data were analysed through a thematic analysis approach. Results Three themes emerged from the analysis: the struggle between tradition and newly acquired knowledge, community willingness to deal with geographical barriers, and striving to do a good job with insufficient resources. These themes represent the three steps in the path towards receiving adequate institutional delivery care at a health facility. Of the themes, ‘increased community awareness’, ‘organization of the community’ and ‘hospital with specialized staff’ were recognized as facilitators. On the other hand, ‘delivery as a natural event’, ‘cultural tradition and rituals’, ‘inaccessible transport’, ‘unmet community expectation’ and ‘shortage of skilled human resources’ were represented as barriers to institutional delivery. Conclusions The participants in this study gave emphasis to the major barriers to institutional delivery that are closely connected with the

  16. Hospital fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID

  17. Hospital fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols.

  18. Holocene paleoenviroments of northwest Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.G.; Bettis, E.A. III; Schwert, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents the biotic, sedimentary, geomorphic, and climatic history of the upper part of the Roberts Creek Basin, northeastern Iowa for the late-glacial and Holocene, and compares these records with a C-O isotopic sequence from Coldwater Cave, 60 km northwest of Roberts Creek. the biotic record (pollen, vascular plant and bryophyte macrofossils, and insects) is preserved in floodplain alluvium that underlies three constructional surfaces separated by low scarps. Each surface is underlain by a lithologically and temporally distinct alluvial fill. The highest surface is underlain by the Gunder Member of the Deforest Formation, dating from 11,000 to 4000 yr BP; beneath the intermediate level is the Roberts Creek Member, dating from 4000 to 400 yr BP; and the lowest level is underlain by the Camp Creek Member, deposited during the last 380 yr. Pollen and plant macrofossils in the alluvial fill show that a typical late-glacial spruce forest was replaced by Quercus and Ulmus in the early Holocene. This early-to-middle Holocene forest became dominated by medic elements such as Acer saccharum, Tila americana, Ostyra virginiana, and Carpinus caroliniana as late as 5500 yr BP; in contrast, the closest sites to the west and north were at their warmest and driest were covered by prairie vegetation between 6500 and 5500 yr BP. After 5500 yr BP, the forest in the roberts Creek area was replaced by prairie, as indicated by a rich assemblage of plant macrofossils, although only Ambrosia and Poaceae became abundant in the pollen record. The return of Quercus {approx} 3000 BP (while nonarboreal pollen percentages remained relatively high) indicates the oak savanna prevailed with little change until settlement time. 83 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  20. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact.

  1. Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

    2014-05-01

    is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.

  2. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia.

  3. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia. PMID:25481716

  4. Teaching the right hydrology with minimum resources in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai

    2010-05-01

    This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept

  5. Diarrhoea morbidity in an urban area of southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, T; Assefa, A; Tadesse, Z

    1997-08-01

    A diarrhoea morbidity survey was conducted in children between the ages of six and 59 months in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia. Nearly 37% of the 820 children surveyed had one or more episodes of diarrhoea over a period of one month preceding the study. Although several factors showed significant association with diarrhoea morbidity on bivariate analysis, child's age, immunisation status, father's ethnicity, family income and availability of latrine were the only significant variables on multivariate analysis. Based on the study results feasible intervention measures are recommended.

  6. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Background Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. Methods The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. Results A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Conclusion Economic growth

  7. Erosion-driven environmental degradation in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, N.; Willenbring, J.; Terwilliger, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Tigray Plateau of Northern Ethiopia is a key region for the study of relationships between climate, land use and the rise and fall of complex societies. Tigray has been the home to a succession of highly developed and powerful kingdoms and has a long history of agriculture, dating back to ~ 6,000 yrs BP. Unfortunately its mountainous topography makes the region particularly susceptible to accelerated erosion and mass wasting from intense land use practices and its location along the ITCZ and the East African rift system make the area prone to climatic changes. Today, after 6,000 years of agriculture, of which the last ~3,000 years have involved intense land use, the once fertile Tigray region is now highly degraded with frequent famine and some of the highest rates of soil erosion in the world. We find, based on a comparison of background (long-term) and anthropogenic short-term time-averaged erosion rates that deforestation and a transition to cropland farming likely increased rates of localized upstream erosion and downstream deposition by up to an order of magnitude greater than the natural background rates. We define three distinct periods of note in terms of rates and patterns of Holocene erosion and deposition in the east Tigray Plateau of Ethiopia. First, we take note of the depositional record and paleo-flaural reconstructions of a time of regional climate change yet little landuse change in Ethiopia, 7,500 - 6,000 cal yr BP (Late Prehistory and the beginning of the migration of peoples out of the Sahara and into Sudan and the highlands of Ethiopia). Second, we look at the stratigraphic record of the beginning of intense landuse and cultivation in the gently sloping lowland areas, 3200 -2300 Cal yrs BP (Pre-Aksumite period and the establishment of the first large centralized government in the upper Highlands). Third, we identify from the geological record a period of deforestation and farming of higher elevation, steep sloped hillsides and terraces 2300

  8. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  9. Hospital philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean G; Clement, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    It remains an open question whether hospital spending on fundraising efforts to garner philanthropy is a good use of funds. Research and industry reports provide conflicting results. We describe the accounting and data challenges in analysis of hospital philanthropy, which include measurement of donations, measurement of fundraising expenses, and finding the relationships among organizations where these cash flows occur. With these challenges, finding conflicting results is not a surprise. PMID:23614267

  10. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation. PMID:14753323

  11. 2. Oblique view of west portion of hospital complex showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of west portion of hospital complex showing in foreground, from left to right, Recreation Building (HABS No. VA-1287-N), shower room and swimming pool (HABS No. VA-1287-M); and in right middle ground, from front to rear, carpenter & paint shop (HABS No. VA-1287-L), medical storage building (HABS No. VA-1287-K), and central power house(HABS No. VA-1287-J), view to northwest from roof of 1960 high rise hospital - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  12. Reliability and Validity of Amharic Version of EORTC QLQ-C 30 Questionnaire among Gynecological Cancer Patients in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayana, Birhanu Abera; Negash, Shiferaw; Yusuf, Lukman; Tigeneh, Wendemagegnhu

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is a growing public health problem worldwide. The focus of cancer treatment, in addition to curation, is improving the quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of Amharic version of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) among gynecological cancer patients in Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted using the Amharic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 on 153 gynecological cancer patients in Tikur Anbassa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multivariable linear regression were employed in statistical analysis. Results The Amharic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 had a Cronbach’s α value of 0.81. The internal consistency for each domain of EORTC QLQ-C30 was also acceptable (Cronbach’s α >0.7) except for cognitive function domain (Cronbach’s α = 0.29). Stepwise multivariable linear regression analysis showed that emotional functioning (p<0.001), fatigue (p<0.001) and social functioning (p = 0.004) were the determinative scales of EORTC QLQ-C30 on global health status (GHS). The clinical validity test (Known group validity) showed that there were significant differences in score for twelve out of 15 domains, between surgery and radiation scheduled patients. All items of emotional function, role function, fatigue, and GHS meet the discriminate validity criterion. Conclusion The Amharic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 found to be reliable and had an acceptable validity to assess the QOL for gynecological cancer patients. We recommend further work on the validity and responsiveness of the EORTC QLQ-C30 with stronger design. PMID:27304066

  13. Toward universal access to HIV counseling and testing and antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia: looking beyond HIV testing and ART initiation.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Van Damme, Wim; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kloos, Helmut

    2010-08-01

    Expanding access to HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) has reduced morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. As a result, many countries are scaling up HIV/AIDS services. In this paper we discuss challenges experienced during the move toward universal access to HCT and ART services in Ethiopia. We reviewed routine reports from the Ministry of Health and implementing partners. We also had interviews, about linkage to and retention in care of patients, with 10 HIV/AIDS program managers, as well as 2 to 7 health care providers and 5 to 15 patients in each of 23 health centers and 32 hospitals in all regions of the country. We found that the number of people tested for HIV increased 10-fold from 435,854 in 2005 to 4,559,954 in 2008. Only 61% of the HIV-positive patients were linked to chronic care immediately after tested for HIV. The number of patients initiated on ART annually increased from 26,021 in 2005 to 53,696 in 2008. Attrition of patients increased from 18% in 2005 to 26% in 2008. Our interviews indicated that fear of stigma, transport cost, feeling healthy and opting for traditional medicines were the main reasons for poor linkage to and retention in care. Lack of nutrition and feeling better were also reasons for poor retention. In conclusion, in spite of the rapid scale-up of HCT and ART services in Ethiopia, linkage and retention were not adequate. Therefore, strategies should be developed and implemented to improve linkage and retention.

  14. Green 'heart' for new community hospital.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Replacing a healthcare facility first opened in 1908 as a 20-bed cottage hospital, the recently opened 'new' Finchley Memorial Hospital in north-west London was designed by architects, Murphy Philipps, 'to be at the heart of a health campus', surrounded by green space for use by both the hospital itself, and the local community. The 28 million pounds hospital, which has achieved a BREAAM Excellent rating - with an annual energy target of just 35 GJ/100 m3 set by SHINE, the Department of Health-backed learning network for sustainable healthcare buildings - has also featured as one of only 20 projects in the RIBA Health Buildings Exhibition. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, met with lead architect, Marc Levinson, to find out more about the key elements, and the thinking, that went into the design.

  15. Dynamically downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts over Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.

  16. Outbreak of tungiasis following a trip to Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Grupper, M; Potasman, I

    2012-09-01

    Tungiasis is a skin disease caused by the ectoparasite sand flea Tunga penetrans. Although tungiasis is an important health problem in endemic areas, mainly South America and sub-Saharan Africa, it is reported uncommonly in travelers. We describe an outbreak of tungiasis in a group of travelers to Ethiopia. Following the diagnosis of tungiasis in a member of a group of 17 Israeli travelers to Ethiopia, other affected members were identified by photograph assisted self diagnosis. The characteristics, including relevant demographic and epidemiologic data were recorded using a telephone interview and computerized questionnaire, and analyzed subsequently. The attack rate of tungiasis in the travel group was 53% (9 patients). Most of the patients (89%) wore open sandals during prolonged periods of their journey, but the pattern of shoeware use was similar in unaffected group members. An insect bite was not felt by any patient. The median number of skin lesions was one, and most lesions were located on the foot (7 of 9 travelers), but the hands were also affected in 2 travelers. All skin lesions healed without a need for a major intervention and without major sequela within 5 weeks of their appearance. Tungiasis may be underdiagnosed in travelers. Medical personnel should include tungiasis in pre-travel recommendations, and post-travel assessment. PMID:23031181

  17. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission.

  18. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mashalla, Yohana J.S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Setting The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socio-economic standing. Conclusion Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions. PMID:27542289

  19. Participatory Forest Management in Ethiopia: Learning from Pilot Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-04-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  20. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  1. New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity.

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Gibert, Luis; Melillo, Stephanie M; Ryan, Timothy M; Alene, Mulugeta; Deino, Alan; Levin, Naomi E; Scott, Gary; Saylor, Beverly Z

    2015-05-28

    Middle Pliocene hominin species diversity has been a subject of debate over the past two decades, particularly after the naming of Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Kenyanthropus platyops in addition to the well-known species Australopithecus afarensis. Further analyses continue to support the proposal that several hominin species co-existed during this time period. Here we recognize a new hominin species (Australopithecus deyiremeda sp. nov.) from 3.3-3.5-million-year-old deposits in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. The new species from Woranso-Mille shows that there were at least two contemporaneous hominin species living in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 3.3 and 3.5 million years ago, and further confirms early hominin taxonomic diversity in eastern Africa during the Middle Pliocene epoch. The morphology of Au. deyiremeda also reinforces concerns related to dentognathic (that is, jaws and teeth) homoplasy in Plio-Pleistocene hominins, and shows that some dentognathic features traditionally associated with Paranthropus and Homo appeared in the fossil record earlier than previously thought. PMID:26017448

  2. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773

  3. Hyponatremia in patients hospitalized with heart failure: a condition often overlooked in low-income settings

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Khalid; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Gudina, Esayas Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality in patients with heart failure (HF). It is independently associated with increased short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality. The main objective of this study was to assess patterns of hyponatremia and its association with discharge outcomes in patients with HF admitted to a teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Patients and methods This is a descriptive, prospective, hospital-based cohort study of patients with HF admitted to Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia, between November 1, 2013 and July 31, 2014. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical profile at admission, and outcomes at discharge. Plasma sodium concentration was analyzed at admission for all patients. The relationship between hyponatremia at admission and in-hospital mortality, as well as length of hospital stay, was assessed using both bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regressions. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results Of 152 participants admitted with HF, 44 (28.9%) had hyponatremia, which is defined as serum sodium level <135 mmol/L. Patients on salt restriction, on chronic diuretic treatment (furosemide and spironolactone), and with impaired renal function at admission were found to be highly affected. Hyponatremia was found to be associated with increased in-hospital mortality (P=0.008) and longer hospital stay (16.6 vs 12 days, P<0.001). Patients with hyponatremia also had lower blood pressure and poor functional status at discharge. Conclusion This study demonstrates that hyponatremia is highly prevalent in patients hospitalized with HF and is associated with increased in-hospital mortality and longer hospital stay. Thus, great emphasis should be given to identify high-risk patients, and prevention and early detection of hyponatremia to prevent its deleterious effects. Large-scale national studies are also needed to complement our

  4. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  5. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations.

  6. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales

    PubMed Central

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L.; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Citta, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  8. Production Efficiency and Market Orientation in Food Crops in North West Ethiopia: Application of Matching Technique for Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ayenew, Habtamu Yesigat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Agricultural technologies developed by national and international research institutions were not benefiting the rural population of Ethiopia to the extent desired. As a response, integrated agricultural extension approaches are proposed as a key strategy to transform the smallholder farming sector. Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) of Ethiopian Farmers project is one of the development projects initiated by integrating productivity enhancement technological schemes with market development model. This paper explores the impact of the project intervention in the smallholder farmers’ wellbeing. Methods To test the research hypothesis of whether the project brought a significant change in the input use, marketed surplus, efficiency and income of farm households, we use a cross-section data from 200 smallholder farmers in Northwest Ethiopia, collected through multi-stage sampling procedure. To control for self-selection from observable characteristics of the farm households, we employ Propensity Score Matching (PSM). We finally use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques to estimate technical efficiency of farm households. Results The outcome of the research is in line with the premises that the participation of the household in the IPMS project improves purchased input use, marketed surplus, efficiency of farms and the overall gain from farming. The participant households on average employ more purchased agricultural inputs and gain higher gross margin from the production activities as compared to the non-participant households. The non-participant households on average supply less output (measured both in monetary terms and proportion of total produce) to the market as compared to their participant counterparts. Except for the technical efficiency of production in potato, project participant households are better-off in production efficiency compared with the non-participant counterparts. Conclusion We verified the idea that Improving

  9. A Venue-Based Survey of Malaria, Anemia and Mobility Patterns among Migrant Farm Workers in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Schicker, Rebekah Stewart; Hiruy, Neway; Melak, Berhanu; Gelaye, Woyneshet; Bezabih, Belay; Stephenson, Rob; Patterson, Amy E.; Tadesse, Zerihun; Emerson, Paul M.; Richards, Frank O.; Noland, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile populations present unique challenges to malaria control and elimination efforts. Each year, a large number of individuals travel to northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia to seek seasonal employment on large-scale farms. Agricultural areas typically report the heaviest malaria burden within Amhara thereby placing migrants at high risk of infection. Yet little is known about these seasonal migrants and their malaria-related risk factors. Methods and Findings In July 2013, a venue-based survey of 605 migrant laborers 18 years or older was conducted in two districts of North Gondar zone, Amhara. The study population was predominantly male (97.7%) and young (mean age 22.8 years). Plasmodium prevalence by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was 12.0%; One quarter (28.3%) of individuals were anemic (hemoglobin <13 g/dl). Nearly all participants (95.6%) originated from within Amhara Region, with half (51.6%) coming from within North Gondar zone. Around half (51.2%) slept in temporary shelters, while 20.5% regularly slept outside. Only 11.9% of participants had access to a long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN). Reported net use the previous night was 8.8% overall but 74.6% among those with LLIN access. Nearly one-third (30.1%) reported having fever within the past two weeks, of whom 31.3% sought care. Cost and distance were the main reported barriers to seeking care. LLIN access (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30, P = 0.04) and malaria knowledge (OR = 0.50, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with reduced Plasmodium infection among migrants, with a similar but non-significant trend observed for reported net use the previous night (OR = 0.16, P = 0.14). Conclusions High prevalence of malaria and anemia were observed among a young population that originated from relatively proximate areas. Low access to care and low IRS and LLIN coverage likely place migrant workers at significant risk of malaria in this area and their return home may facilitate parasite transport to other

  10. Adult Literacy for Development in Ethiopia: A Review of Policy and Performance at Mid-Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    When Ethiopia launched its National Literacy Campaign (NLC) in July 1979, it was announced that illiteracy would be removed from the urban areas of the country by 1982 and from rural Ethiopia by 1987. By the end of the 12th round of the NLC in February 1985, 16.9 million youths and adults had been covered by the campaign, and 12 million (almost…

  11. ‘Why should I worry, since I have healthy feet?’ A qualitative study exploring barriers to use of footwear among rural community members in northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kelemework, Abebe; Tora, Abebayehu; Amberbir, Tsigie; Agedew, Getnet; Asmamaw, Abiyu; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of personal, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to footwear use and non-use in northern Ethiopia. Design A qualitative study was conducted using focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Data were collected using semistructured interview guides. Setting The study was conducted in East and West Gojjam Zones, Amhara region, northwest Ethiopia. Participants A total of 91 individuals from 4 target groups participated in individual and group interviews: (1) non-affected community leaders including Idir (a form of social insurance) leaders, school principals, kebele (the lowest administrative unit) officials, health professionals, teachers, merchants and religious leaders; (2) affected men and women; (3) non-affected men and women not in leadership positions; and (4) school children (both male and female). Results Participants perceived a range of health benefits from donning footwear, including protection against injury and cold. Various types of shoes are available within the community, and their use varied depending on the nature of activities and the season. Personal and socioeconomic barriers hindered the desire to consistently use footwear. Widely established barefoot traditions and beliefs that footwear is uncomfortable, heavy and may weaken the feet have made the regular use of footwear uncommon. Economic constraints were also mentioned as hindering ownership and use of footwear. Distance from places where shoes could be bought also contributed to limited access. Cultural influences promoting gender inequality resulted in women being least able to access shoes. Conclusions We identified several individual, cultural and socioeconomic barriers that influence individuals’ decisions about and use of footwear in rural northern Ethiopia. Promoting education on the health benefits of footwear, curbing podoconiosis-related misconceptions and integrating these with economic empowerment programmes, may all

  12. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  13. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-12-19

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

  14. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa. PMID:25526797

  15. Key informants' perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia's health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  16. Improved health among people living with HIV/AIDS who received packages of proven preventive health interventions, Amhara, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Ciara E; Taylor, Ethel V; Ayers, Tracy; Fantu, Ribka; Abayneh, Sisay Alemayehu; Marston, Barbara; Molla, Yordanos B; Sewnet, Tegene; Abebe, Fitsum; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, basic care packages (BCP) containing health products were distributed to HIV-infected persons in Ethiopia who were clients of antiretroviral therapy clinics. To measure health impact, we enrolled clients from an intervention hospital and comparison hospital, and then conducted a baseline survey, and 7 bi-weekly home visits. We enrolled 405 intervention group clients and 344 comparison clients. Intervention clients were more likely than comparison clients to have detectable chlorine in stored water (40% vs. 1%, p<0.001), soap (51% vs. 36%, p<0.001), and a BCP water container (65% vs. 0%, p<0.001) at every home visit. Intervention clients were less likely than comparison clients to report illness (44% vs. 67%, p<0.001) or health facility visits for illness (74% vs. 95%, p<0.001), and had lower median illness scores (1.0 vs. 3.0, p<0.05). Participation in the BCP program appeared to improve reported health outcomes.

  17. Improved Health among People Living with HIV/AIDS Who Received Packages of Proven Preventive Health Interventions, Amhara, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Taylor, Ethel V.; Ayers, Tracy; Fantu, Ribka; Abayneh, Sisay Alemayehu; Marston, Barbara; Molla, Yordanos B.; Sewnet, Tegene; Abebe, Fitsum; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, basic care packages (BCP) containing health products were distributed to HIV-infected persons in Ethiopia who were clients of antiretroviral therapy clinics. To measure health impact, we enrolled clients from an intervention hospital and comparison hospital, and then conducted a baseline survey, and 7 bi-weekly home visits. We enrolled 405 intervention group clients and 344 comparison clients. Intervention clients were more likely than comparison clients to have detectable chlorine in stored water (40% vs. 1%, p<0.001), soap (51% vs. 36%, p<0.001), and a BCP water container (65% vs. 0%, p<0.001) at every home visit. Intervention clients were less likely than comparison clients to report illness (44% vs. 67%, p<0.001) or health facility visits for illness (74% vs. 95%, p<0.001), and had lower median illness scores (1.0 vs. 3.0, p<0.05). Participation in the BCP program appeared to improve reported health outcomes. PMID:25233345

  18. A national system for monitoring the performance of hospitals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika; Endeshaw, Abraham; Tatek, Dawit; Conteh, David; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2015-10-01

    De nombreux pays s'efforcent d'élaborer et de mettre en œuvre des stratégies pour contrôler les hôpitaux à l'échelle nationale. C'est un défi de taille, en particulier pour les pays à faible revenu, qui disposent de peu de ressources pour effectuer des mesures et des comptes-rendus. Nous avons analysé l'expérience qui a consisté à élaborer et mettre en œuvre un système national de contrôle des performances de 130 hôpitaux publics en Éthiopie. Des observations participatives ont révélé que ce système de contrôle a entraîné une communication plus systématique des données sur les performances aux bureaux régionaux de la santé et au gouvernement fédéral de la part des hôpitaux, a amélioré la transparence concernant les performances de ces derniers et a permis d'élaborer plusieurs projets d'amélioration de la qualité. L'élaboration et la mise en œuvre de ce système, qui ont nécessité des investissements et des soutiens techniques et politiques, n'auraient pas été possibles sans d'importantes capacités de gestion dans les hôpitaux. Il peut être utile, aux premiers stades de la conception et de la mise en œuvre, d'évaluer de manière approfondie l'ouverture au changement du secteur de la santé ainsi que son souhait de placer au premier plan la qualité des services hospitaliers. Cette évaluation peut s'appuyer sur des entretiens avec des informateurs clés, sur la collecte de données au sujet des établissements de santé et des ressources humaines, ou encore sur une discussion avec des partenaires universitaires. Le fait d'associer des partenaires et des donateurs à l'objectif d'amélioration de la qualité visé par le gouvernement peut permettre de renforcer son acceptabilité ainsi que le soutien politique en la matière. Cela peut permettre de faire converger les ressources de façon stratégique vers un même effort national, plutôt que de les éparpiller dans des dizaines de projets potentiellement concurrents. Au cours des premières phases, il est bénéfique d'avoir des objectifs modestes et de faire preuve de souplesse afin de permettre des modifications et une amélioration continues, par le biais d'un engagement actif auprès de l'ensemble des parties prenantes.

  19. Diabetes mellitus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: admissions, complications and outcomes in a large referral hospital.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, M; Harries, A D; Ade, S; Tayler-Smith, K; Ali, E; Firdu, N; Yifter, H

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Hôpital de référence du Black Lion, Addis Ababa, Ethiopie.Objectif : Documenter les indications d’admission, les complications et le devenir des patients atteints de diabète (DM) admis à l’hôpital entre 2010 et 2013.Schéma : Etude descriptive rétrospective sur dossiers médicaux.Résultats : Sur 8048 admissions, 523 (6,5%) avaient un DM et parmi eux, 418 dossiers médicaux ont été retrouvés : 301 (72%) patients avaient un DM de type 2 et 104 (28%) avaient un DM de type 1 ; les hommes (62%) et les personnes âgées (âge médian 60 ans) étaient caractéristiques du type 2. Les diagnostics d’admission les plus fréquents du type 2 étaient l’ulcère diabétique du pied (39%) et les problèmes cardiovasculaires (21%), et celui du type 1, l’acidocétose diabétique (62%). L’hypertension, les neuropathies, les néphropathies, la rétinopathie et le pied diabétique représentaient 85% des 756 complications existantes. La mortalité totale des patients admis a été de 21%. Sur ces 89 décès, 77 patients étaient de type 2 avec comme indications principales d’admission l’ulcère diabétique du pied/la gangrène et les problèmes cardiovasculaires.Conclusion : Le DM, surtout de type 2, est une cause importante d’admission dans le plus grand hôpital de référence du pays. De nombreux patients avaient déjà développé des complications liées au DM lors de l’admission, et la mortalité a été élevée. Il est nécessaire d’améliorer la connaissance et les soins relatifs au DM en Ethiopie.

  20. Implementation of an in-patient pediatric mortality reduction intervention, Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D M; Shehibo, A; Tazebew, A; Huddart, M R; Kadir, A; Allen, N; Draper, H; Kokeb, M

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Le centre hospitalier universitaire de Gondar (GUH) est un hôpital de troisième niveau ayant des ressources limitées dans le nord de l'Ethiopie.Objectif : Evaluer l'effet cumulé de la standardisation des soins, des directives institutionnelles et de la formation basée sur la simulation sur la mortalité pédiatrique dans un hôpital aux ressources limitées.Schéma : Etude pré/post non contrôlée. Les patients hospitalisés au GUH âgés de 30 jours à 14 ans ont été inclus dans l'évaluation du programme (avant l'intervention, 11 septembre–18 novembre 2010 ; après l'intervention, 19 septembre–9 décembre 2011). Les internes attachés au service de pédiatrie du GUH du 6 septembre au 9 décembre 2011 ont été inclus dans l'évaluation de la formation. Des directives de prise en charge spécifiques de cette institution ont été préparées pour les cas de suffocation, détresse respiratoire, déshydratation, septicémie, défaillance cardiaque, coma et convulsions. L'approbation de ces protocoles a été obtenue de chaque membre de la faculté de pédiatrie. Les internes ont bénéficié d'une formation basée sur la simulation de 3 à 5 h en matière de triage, compétences procédurales et utilisation des protocoles. Le résultat principal était le taux global de mortalité (%). Les résultats secondaires étaient le décès dans les 24 h suivant l'admission (%), et les scores médians des tests de prise en charge des urgences avant/après la formation (%).Résultats : Aucune différence n'a été observée en termes de mortalité globale (OR 0,72 ; IC95% 0,40–1,29 ; P = 0,265) ou de mortalité pendant les premières 24 h (OR brut 0,97 ; IC95% 0,37–2,55). Par contre, les scores d'examens de prise en charge des personnes formées sont passés de 33% à 74% (P < 0,001).Conclusion : La combinaison de standardisation des soins, de protocoles de prise en charge et de formation basée sur la simulation n'a pas réduit la mortalité des enfants hospitalisés. Cependant, la formation ciblée et basée sur la simulation a amélioré les scores obtenus par les internes dans les tests à court terme.

  1. Hospitality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  2. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  3. Postnatal Care Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Women Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months prior to the Study in Debre Markos Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Limenih, Miteku Andualem; Endale, Zerfu Mulaw; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Improving maternal and newborn health through proper postnatal care services under the care of skilled health personnel is the key strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, there were limited evidences on utilization of postnatal care services in Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. Cluster sampling technique was used to select 588 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with postnatal care utilization. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be 33.5%. Awareness about maternal complication (AOR: 2.72, 95% CI (1.71, 4.34)), place of delivery of last child (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: (1.01, 2.79)), outcome of birth (AOR: 2.71, 95% CI (1.19, 6.19)), delivery by cesarean section (AOR: 4.82, 95% CI (1.86, 12.54)), and delivery complication that occurred during birth (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI (1.56, 4.28)) were factors associated with postnatal care service utilization. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be low. Increasing awareness about postnatal care, preventing maternal and neonatal complication, and scheduling mothers based on the national postnatal care follow-up protocol would increase postnatal care service utilization. PMID:27433481

  4. Postnatal Care Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Women Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months prior to the Study in Debre Markos Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Limenih, Miteku Andualem; Endale, Zerfu Mulaw; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Improving maternal and newborn health through proper postnatal care services under the care of skilled health personnel is the key strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, there were limited evidences on utilization of postnatal care services in Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. Cluster sampling technique was used to select 588 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with postnatal care utilization. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be 33.5%. Awareness about maternal complication (AOR: 2.72, 95% CI (1.71, 4.34)), place of delivery of last child (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: (1.01, 2.79)), outcome of birth (AOR: 2.71, 95% CI (1.19, 6.19)), delivery by cesarean section (AOR: 4.82, 95% CI (1.86, 12.54)), and delivery complication that occurred during birth (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI (1.56, 4.28)) were factors associated with postnatal care service utilization. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be low. Increasing awareness about postnatal care, preventing maternal and neonatal complication, and scheduling mothers based on the national postnatal care follow-up protocol would increase postnatal care service utilization.

  5. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  6. 69. TURBINE BUILDING (LOCATION N), THIRD LEVEL LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. TURBINE BUILDING (LOCATION N), THIRD LEVEL LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING BASE OF CONDENSOR AND RIVER WATER OUTLET PIPE - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  7. 8. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK (LEFT), PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK (LEFT), PRIMARY WATER STORAGE TANK (CENTER), CANAL WATER STORAGE TANK (RIGHT) (LOCATIONS E,F,D) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  8. 4. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF FUEL HANDLING BUILDING (CENTER), REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF FUEL HANDLING BUILDING (CENTER), REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING (RIGHT), MACHINE SHOP (LEFT) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  9. 46. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), LOOKING NORTHWEST AT STEAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), LOOKING NORTHWEST AT STEAM AND FEEDWATER PIPING AND PRESSURIZER AND FLASH/BLOWOFF TANK ROOMS (LOCATION EEE) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  10. 3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 6. General interior overview of addition. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General interior overview of addition. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 2. Southeast side of addition. View to northwest. Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast side of addition. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST CORNER, April 1, 1929, photographer Commercial Photo Company - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 9. INTERIOR, TOOL ROOM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF 'CENTRAL NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR, TOOL ROOM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF 'CENTRAL NORTH WING,' FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest Pumpkin Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  17. 5. Light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, northwest and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, northwest and southwest sides - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  18. 3. Keeper's house, view northwest, southeast and northeast sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Keeper's house, view northwest, southeast and northeast sides - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  19. 7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest Pumpkin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  20. View of northwest elevation of Building No. 42. Parking Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of northwest elevation of Building No. 42. Parking Area No. 28 at front right. Looking southeast - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 42, Northwest corner of Foothill Avenue & South Twenty-eighth Street, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. 3. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. 77 FR 50979 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees AGENCY... United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces solicitation for nominations to fill vacancies... Agriculture established the Pacific Northwest Provincial Advisory Committees (PACs) to the...

  3. View of the northwest corner of the Justice Department Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the northwest corner of the Justice Department Building at Tenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 3. Interior view southeast to northwest showing space heater in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view southeast to northwest showing space heater in northwest corner - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Dispatcher House, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  5. 1. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, FRONT AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, FRONT AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mill Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  6. 14. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SMALL ROASTER (DISMANTLED). Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SMALL ROASTER (DISMANTLED). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  7. INTERIOR OF VESTIBULE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF VESTIBULE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. INTERIOR ELEVATION LOOKING TOWARD THE LEANTO OF THE NORTHWEST SIDE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR ELEVATION LOOKING TOWARD THE LEAN-TO OF THE NORTHWEST SIDE. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Hangar, Lexington Boulevard, south of Enterprise Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. The Bicentennial of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the political history surrounding the development of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Includes a shortened and simplified version of the major articles of the Ordinance. Identifies three instructional resources for teaching about the Northwest Ordinance in secondary schools. (JDH)

  10. 2. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST AND NORTHEAST SIDES (NORTH CORNER). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST AND NORTHEAST SIDES (NORTH CORNER). NORTHWEST SIDE OF ASSAY OFFICE ON LEFT - Juniata Mill Complex, Mine Office, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  11. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, INTERIOR , VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, INTERIOR , VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. View of the Executive Director's Office (in the northwest corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Executive Director's Office (in the northwest corner of the second floor), looking from the northwest - Sewall-Belmont House, 144 Constitution Avenue, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  14. Pulse crop diseases in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United Nations declared that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses (IYP). This UN declaration of IYP will certainly increase awareness of pulses and likely position pulses as a primary source of protein and other essential nutrients for human diets. The US Pacific Northwest region (Idaho, Or...

  15. Distance Education Resource Directory for Northwest Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holznagel, Donald C.

    This directory is designed to address the need for technology planning in the curriculum, as well as to provide information about the distance education technology options available for school districts in the Northwest states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. The following areas are covered: satellite television, two-way audio;…

  16. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  17. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  18. The Northwest Ordinance, 1787: A Bicentennial Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert M., Jr., Ed.

    The essays and annotations in this publication provide an opportunity for citizens and students to consider not only the history of the Northwest Ordinance but also basic and enduring issues in U.S. political life. The book is divided into three main parts. The first part provides a background to the Ordinance and its passage by the Confederation…

  19. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest study will be the third regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the first two—the Midwest in 2013 and the Southeast in 2014 (Van Metre and others, 2012, 2014).

  20. Learning: Tradition & Change in the Northwest Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly, Yellowknife. Special Committee on Education.

    In 1981-82 the Legislative Assembly's Special Committee on Education held 43 public hearings throughout the Northwest Territories to gather information on all aspects of public concern about education. Written in English and Inupiaq, this document outlines problems related to: (1) preparation for a traditional Native life versus preparation for…

  1. Raindrop Characteristics in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest, influenced by maritime air masses for most of the year, generally exhibits low rainfall intensities. The drop-size characteristics of such low-intensity storms are rarely studied. An investigation of natural drop sizes and their distribution was conducted at the Palouse ...

  2. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  3. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  4. Treatment delay among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in pastoralist communities in Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected. Treatment delay is an important indicator of access to TB diagnosis and treatment. However, little is known about factors associated with treatment delay of pulmonary TB among pastoralists. Health facility based cross sectional study was conducted on 129 pulmonary TB patients in pastoralist community. The study was conducted in three health centers and a hospital. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay), and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (provider's delay) were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Findings A total of 129 new smear positive pulmonary TB patients participated in the study. The median total delay was 97 days. The median patient and health provider delays were 63 and 34 days, respectively. Ninety six percent of the patients were delayed for more than the twenty one days cutoff point. Patient delay was positively associated with first visit to traditional healer/private clinic/drug shop, rural residence, being illiterate, living in more than 10 kilometers from health facility; severity of illness at first presentation to health facility. Provider delay was positively associated with rural residence, being illiterate, patient with good functional status, patients in contact with more than two health providers, and place of first visit being traditional healer/private clinic/drug shop. Conclusions This study showed that majority of smear positive patients delayed either for diagnosis or treatment, thus continue to serve as reservoirs of infection. This indicates that there is a need for intervention to decrease patient and provider delays. Effort to reduce delays in pastoralist communities should focus on improving access to services in rural communities, engaging traditional and private health providers and

  5. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

  6. 76 FR 4890 - Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Application January 20, 2011. Take notice that on January 11, 2011, Northwest Pipeline GP (Northwest), 295 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, Utah... Project consists of: Abandonment in place of approximately 15 miles of 16-inch diameter pipeline...

  7. 77 FR 37663 - Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 4, 2011, Northwest Pipeline GP (Northwest), 295 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, filed in Docket... by removal of 10-inch diameter pipeline segments between mileposts 0.00 and 2.01 and mileposts...

  8. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  9. 78 FR 25067 - Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... April 12, 2013, Northwest Pipeline GP (Northwest), 295 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, filed in... authorizing Northwest to construct and operate the Blue Water Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Meter Station and associated appurtenances at Benton County, Washington. The Blue Water LNG Meter Station will include...

  10. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.2 Pacific Northwest marketing area....

  11. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  12. 4. View of junction from the northwest looking southeast over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of junction from the northwest looking southeast over the northwest leg and northwest ramp of the cloverleaf toward the western side of bridge no. 5820. - Cloverleaf Interchange, Junction of Trunk Highways 52, 3, & 55, Inver Grove Heights, Dakota County, MN

  13. Conceptual design of first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, T.D.; Melaku, M.; Betemariam, G.

    1996-12-31

    The Aluto-Langano Geothermal Pilot Plant will be the first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia. Its purpose is to utilize existing wells, drilled about a decade ago, to generate additional electricity for the power system and to prove the capability of the Aluto-Langano field to support expansion to 30 MWe. This paper discusses the evaluation of possible production wells, in combination with three power cycle options, leading to selection of a preferred development concept. Despite the small size of the pilot plant, the high elevation of the site, and the very high gas content of the field, a condensing unit was selected. Particular design features proposed for the steamfield and power plant are explained, including those that reflect the pilot plant nature of the project.

  14. What Time is it? Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tiruneh, Yordanos M.; Wilson, Ira B.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and explored the sociocultural context in which they relate to their regimen requirements. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 105 patients on ART and observations held at the study clinic. We analyzed data using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Our findings indicate that study participants are highly adherent to dose but less adherent to dose schedule. Strict dose time instructions were reported as stressful and unrealistic. The discrepancy between adherence to dose and dose schedule could be explained by time perception, difficulty with the strictness of medication regimens, or beliefs about dose timing adherence. Care providers should acknowledge the complexities of medication practices and engage in shared decision-making to incorporate patients’ perspectives and identify effective interventions. PMID:26873491

  15. The tale of the hearts: deciding on abortion in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Meselu Taye; Hilden, Per Kristian; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary Ethiopia, abortion decision-making is a challenging process involving moral and/or religious dilemmas, as well as considerations of health and safety. Amidst widespread condemnation of female premarital sex and clear moral sanction against induced abortion, young Ethiopian women are nevertheless sexually active and induced abortions are still sought and performed, with the potential for grave physical harm and social stigmatization. This paper examines young unmarried Ethiopian women's narratives of abortion decision-making. In particular, it identifies and explores the operations of a particular discursive shape from within in such narratives, here described as The tale of the hearts. Analysing The tale of the hearts as a decision-making resource, it is argued, allows us to explore the particular, local, historical and cultural character of Ethiopian women's abortion decision-making dilemmas and the culturally available resources contributing to their resolution.

  16. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  17. Factors associated with place of death in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying at home is highly prevalent in Africa partly due to lack of accessibility of modern health services. In turn, limited infrastructure and health care deliveries in Africa complicate access to health services. A weak infrastructure and limited health facilities with lower quality in Ethiopia resulted poor health service utilization and coverage, high morbidity and mortality rates. We examined whether people in Addis Ababa died in health facilities and investigated the basic factors associated with place of death. Methods We used verbal autopsy data of 4,776 adults (age>14 years) for the years 2006–2010 from the Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program (AAMSP). The main data source of AAMSP is the burial surveillance from all cemeteries in Addis Ababa. We provide descriptive statistics of place of adult deaths and discussed their covariates using multivariate analyses. Results Only 28.7% died at health facilities, while the remaining died out of health facilities. There was an increase trend in the proportion of health facility deaths from 25.3% in 2006 to 32.5% in 2010. The risk of health facility death versus out of health facility deaths decreased with age. Compared with those who had no education educated people were more likely to die at health facilities. The chance of in health facility death was a little higher for females than males while religion, occupational status and ethnicity of the deceased had no any significance difference in place of death. Conclusion Both demographic and social factors determine where adults will die in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The majority of people in Addis Ababa died out of health facilities. The health system should also give special attention to the emerging non communicable diseases like cancer for effective treatment of patients. PMID:23530478

  18. Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 35,000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models against geologic structures over a part of the Afro-Arabian shield. The area of Ethiopia covers an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ≈5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and the Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinesz (flexural rigidity D = 10 22 Nm) models. The isostatic residual anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expressions of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity in the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. The small mean isostatic residual anomaly (about 8 mGal) and the isostatic analysis show a slight positive bias indicating under compensation. The undercompensation may imply that there are upper crustal features that are not compensated regionally (probably supported by the rigidity of the lithosphere) and isostatic disequilibrium in the region. Therefore, the high topography of Ethiopia and East African plateau is partly compensated by thicker crust (broad negative isostatic regional anomaly) and partly by dynamic forces. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and quantitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  19. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  20. Child survival during the 2002-2003 drought in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    De Waal, A; Taffesse, A Seyoum; Carruth, L

    2006-01-01

    Droughts in Ethiopia have commonly been associated with increased child mortality. Early indications were that the 2002/03 drought, which affected 13.2 million people, was no exception, despite a large relief operation. Humanitarian agencies reported sharp increases in child deaths and pockets of acute distress in some hard-hit localities. In response, the 2004 Ethiopia Child Survival Survey (ECSS) was designed to investigate the impact of the drought on child survival in the general population. The survey covered 4816 households in both drought-affected and non-drought affected, as well as rural and urban localities. Data from the ECSS indicate that child mortality was indeed higher in drought-affected areas. However, a closer analysis reveals that this differential is attributable to chronic conditions in those localities, rather than the immediate impact of the 2002/03 drought. Multivariate analysis was used to construct a model for the determinants of child survival in the sample population. Household-level demographic factors, household-level food and livelihood security, community-level economic production, and access to potable water, were predictive of child survival. Additionally, household receipt of food aid had a small but significant positive association with child survival, even though the ECSS cannot determine either the underlying causal mechanisms of this association or the role of confounding factors. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that the most extensive drought in the country's modern history passed without a measurable increase in child mortality among the general population. Yet Ethiopian children still suffer unacceptably high rates of chronic malnutrition and poor life chances, and large populations continue to live at the brink of destitution and calamity.

  1. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  2. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included randomly selected primary school students. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer. A child was identified as anemic if the hemoglobin concentration was <11.5 g/dl for children (5–11 yrs) and < 12 g/dl for child older than 12 years age. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to calculate prevalence ratios. Result The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.1% (95% CI: 24.98, 29.14): 13.8% had mild, 10.8% moderate, and 2.3% severe anemia. Children with in the age group of 5-9 years (APR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.044- 1.124) were at higher risk for anemia. Paternal education (Illiterate, 1.109; 1.044 - 1.178) was positively associated with anemia. Children who had irregular legume consumption (APR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.022 -1.118) were at higher risk for anemia. Conclusion About a quarter of school children suffer from anemia and their educational potential is likely to be affected especially for those with moderate and severe anemia. Child age, irregular legume consumption, and low paternal schooling were associated with anemia. Intervention programmes aimed to reduce anemia among school children are crucial to ensure proper growth and development of children. PMID:25902055

  3. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  4. Assessment of Geothermal Resources for Electric Generation in the Pacific Northwest, Draft Issue Paper for the Northwest Power Planning Council

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, John D.; Kellerman, L.M.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1989-09-26

    This document reviews the geothermal history, technology, costs, and Pacific Northwest potentials. The report discusses geothermal generation, geothermal resources in the Pacific Northwest, cost and operating characteristics of geothermal power plants, environmental effects of geothermal generation, and prospects for development in the Pacific Northwest. This report was prepared expressly for use by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The report contains numerous references at the end of the document. [DJE-2005

  5. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  6. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts. PMID:26949190

  7. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts.

  8. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  9. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 5

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-19

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 186,627 customers remain without power. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 6 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below.

  10. Site Testing in the Northwest of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; García Lambas, D.; Muriel, H.; Stasyszyn, F.; Renzi, V.; Vrech, R.; Viramonte, J.; Sarazin, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present results of the characterization of the Tolar Grande-Macon Range site in the North-West of Argentina. This project is being developed by the IATE in collaboration with ESO in the framework of the E-ELT project. We present and discuss one year of image quality measurements with MASS and DIMM, three years of meteorological data and detailed studies of seismic activity and geo-technical aspects as well as diverse logistic issues.

  11. Andes Altiplano, Northwest Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the Andes Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. The altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is an inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America and includes hundreds of volcanic edifices (peaks, cinder cones, lava flows, debris fields, lakes and dry lake beds (salars).

  12. Sustaining the Northwest Way of Life.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Customer Services.

    1991-08-01

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms Most Competitive'' and Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues.

  13. Pacific Northwest geothermal - Review and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, W.

    1980-11-01

    Activities associated with geothermal exploration and development in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington are reviewed. A geothermal electric plant on the Raft River is almost operational. Tests for space heating projects at Rexburg and in the City of Boise continue. The State of Oregon conducts its regional temperature gradient drilling program, and a number of shallow wells were drilled in 1979 and 1980. Deep well drilling (projected to 5,000 to 7,000 ft.) is pursued at Mount Hood. The eruption of Mount St. Helens has increased interest in the geothermal resources in Washington. A study of the warm and hot water potential on the northwest flank of Mount Ranier is negotiated. Possible space heating sources in 22 cities, towns, and hamlets in the Columbia Basin have been identified. Deleterious environmental impact on the forest regions of the Pacific Northwest is one reason for the Federal leasing problems. The electric power situation will be critical in the Northwest in 1983, as no additional power will probably be available to utilities from the Bonneville Power Administration. Indigenous U.S. energy sources can be developed and exploration activity can be increased if federal lease processing is greatly expedited.

  14. Serving the People of the Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-01

    IF YOU LIVE IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, CHANCES ARE YOU USE ELECTRICITY THAT’S MARKETED BY THE BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION OR IS TRANSMITTED OVER BPA POWER LINES. Headquartered in Portland, Ore., BPA is a federal agency that markets wholesale electricity and transmission to the region’s utilities as well as to some large industries. BPA provides about one-third of the electricity used in the Northwest and operates over three-fourths of the region’s high-voltage transmission. BPA does not rely on annual appropriations from Congress for its financing. Instead, the agency recovers all of its costs through sales of electricity and transmission services and repays the U.S. Treasury in full with interest for any money it borrows. BPA sells wholesale power at cost rather than charging market prices. The bulk of the power BPA sells is generated at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River, thus providing some of the lowest-cost electricity in the nation. This low-cost, clean power has been a cornerstone of the Northwest economy for decades, stimulating growth and new jobs. As concerns about global climate change are placing a new premium on clean energy, the federal hydro system has become an increasingly valuable resource. In addition to being low cost, electricity produced by the federal hydro system has no greenhouse gas emissions. And this power source is renewable — replenished each year by the region’s rainfall and snowmelt.

  15. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teshale, Sori; Kumsa, Bersissa; Menandro, Maria Luisa; Cassini, Rudi; Martini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Although ticks are widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia, information on tick-borne pathogens is scarce. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. in Rhipicephalus evertsi and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus collected from cattle and sheep at Bako, western Oromia, Ethiopia, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in Rh. decoloratus, whereas only A. ovis was detected in Rh. evertsi. Both tick species were found to harbor DNA belonging to Rickettsia spp., and Rickettsia africae. Our findings highlight the risk of infection of animals and humans with these zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in Ethiopia. PMID:27411938

  16. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces. PMID:25911028

  17. Establishing a Cosmic Ray Station and Other Space Research Facilities in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damtie, B.; Bosinger, T.; Usoskin, I.

    This paper describes the potential of Ethiopia in establishing space research facilities and conducting collaborative research and training. It also describes the goals and objectives of a proposed cosmic ray station in Ethiopia which would greatly improve the abilities of the existing worldwide network for heliospheric and cosmic ray research. The station will be located at the geomagentic equator, which is a very unique place for geomagnetic and heliospheric studies. Moreover, the paper presents an overview of the research and training activities in space physics and the successful collaborative project between Ethiopia and Finland, which facilitated the installation of a pulsation magnetometer and a photometer at Entoto Mountain in a suburb of the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.

  18. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces.

  19. 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, S; Renne, P; Harris, J W; Feibel, C S; Bernor, R L; Fesseha, N; Mowbray, K

    1997-01-23

    The Oldowan Stone tool industry was named for 1.8-million-year-old (Myr) artefacts found near the bottom of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Subsequent archaeological research in the Omo (Ethiopia) and Turkana (Kenya) also yielded stone tools dated to 2.3 Myr. Palaeoanthropological investigations in the Hadar region of the Awash Valley of Ethiopia, revealed Oldowan assemblages in the adjacent Gona River drainage. We conducted field work in the Gona study area of Ethiopia between 1992 and 1994 which resulted in additional archaeological discoveries as well as radioisotopic age control and a magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Gona sequence. These occurrences are now securely dated between 2.6-2.5 Myr. The stone tools are thus the oldest known artefacts from anywhere in the world. The artefacts show surprisingly sophisticated control of stone fracture mechanics, equivalent to much younger Oldowan assemblages of Early Pleistocene age. This indicates an unexpectedly long period of technological stasis in the Oldowan.

  20. Performance of LED Fluorescence Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Positive Individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Getachew, Konjit; Abebe, Tamrat; Kebede, Abebaw; Mihret, Adane; Melkamu, Getachew

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite its lower sensitivity, smear microscopy remains the main diagnostic method for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in resource-limited countries as TB culturing methods like LJ (Lowenstein-Jensen) are expensive to use as a routine base. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of LED-FM for the diagnosis of PTB in HIV positive individuals. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Zewditu Memorial Hospital and Teklehaimanot Health Center HIV/ART clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Each sample was stained with ZN and Auramine O staining and examined with bright-field microscope and LED-FM microscope, respectively. LJ culture was used as a reference. Results. Out of 178 study participants, twenty-four (13.5%) patients were confirmed as positive for MTB with LJ culture. The yield of ZN microscopy and LED-FM in direct and concentrated sample was 3.9%, 8.4%, 6.2%, and 8.4%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of direct ZN microscopy were 29.2%, 100%, 100%, and 90.1%, respectively, and of LED-FM microscopy in direct sputum sample were 62.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.5%, respectively. Conclusion. LED-FM has better sensitivity for the diagnosis of PTB in HIV positive individuals as compared to conventional ZN microscopy. LED-FM can be used as an alternative to conventional ZN microscopy. PMID:26688753

  1. Performance of LED Fluorescence Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Positive Individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Konjit; Abebe, Tamrat; Kebede, Abebaw; Mihret, Adane; Melkamu, Getachew

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite its lower sensitivity, smear microscopy remains the main diagnostic method for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in resource-limited countries as TB culturing methods like LJ (Lowenstein-Jensen) are expensive to use as a routine base. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of LED-FM for the diagnosis of PTB in HIV positive individuals. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Zewditu Memorial Hospital and Teklehaimanot Health Center HIV/ART clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Each sample was stained with ZN and Auramine O staining and examined with bright-field microscope and LED-FM microscope, respectively. LJ culture was used as a reference. Results. Out of 178 study participants, twenty-four (13.5%) patients were confirmed as positive for MTB with LJ culture. The yield of ZN microscopy and LED-FM in direct and concentrated sample was 3.9%, 8.4%, 6.2%, and 8.4%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of direct ZN microscopy were 29.2%, 100%, 100%, and 90.1%, respectively, and of LED-FM microscopy in direct sputum sample were 62.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.5%, respectively. Conclusion. LED-FM has better sensitivity for the diagnosis of PTB in HIV positive individuals as compared to conventional ZN microscopy. LED-FM can be used as an alternative to conventional ZN microscopy. PMID:26688753

  2. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover among Nurses in Sidama Zone Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Belachew, Tefera; Yimam, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6%) of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27) years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51]), single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13]), and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30]) were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations. PMID:24707397

  3. Notes from the field: hepatitis E outbreak among refugees from South Sudan - Gambella, Ethiopia, April 2014-January 2015.

    PubMed

    Browne, Lauren B; Menkir, Zeray; Kahi, Vincent; Maina, Gidraf; Asnakew, Solomon; Tubman, Michelle; Elyas, Hajir Z; Nigatu, Alemayehu; Dak, David; Maung, U Aye; Nakao, Jolene H; Bilukha, Oleg; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2015-05-22

    In early April 2014, two South Sudanese refugees in the Gambella region of western Ethiopia experienced acute onset of jaundice, accompanied by fever. One patient was a pregnant woman aged 24 years evaluated at a routine prenatal clinic visit in Leitchour refugee camp. The second patient was a malnourished boy aged 1 year who resided in Tierkidi refugee camp. The boy died despite hospitalization. During the last 2 weeks of May, four more cases of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS), defined as yellow discoloration of the eyes, were detected in Leitchuor. By mid-June, an additional 50 AJS cases were reported across three large camps in the region, Kule, Leitchuor, and Tierkidi, with 45 (90%) of these cases reported in Leitchuor. Sera collected from a convenience sample of 21 AJS cases were sent to Addis Ababa and Nairobi for real-time polymerase chain reaction testing; 12 (57%) were positive for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. By January 2015, a total of 1,117 suspected cases of hepatitis E meeting the case definition of AJS were reported among refugees in camps across Gambella.

  4. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. Objective The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Results Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. Conclusion The government’s endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of

  5. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-02-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led to mixed feelings among the Ethiopian public. While some laud the opportunities and advantages these new institutions bring, others are apprehensive that the quality of education might be compromised by an expansion motivated by monetary gain. This article sheds light on these paradoxes and provides suggestions for policy and practices.

  6. Conceptual groundwater flow model of the Mekelle Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary outlier and surroundings (northern Ethiopia) using environmental isotopes and dissolved ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girmay, Ermias; Ayenew, Tenalem; Kebede, Seifu; Alene, Mulugeta; Wohnlich, Stefan; Wisotzky, Frank

    2015-03-01

    A wide range of lithologic units and tectonic disturbances by cross-cutting faults and folds has resulted in the quite complex hydrogeological setting of the sedimentary outlier and its surroundings at Mekelle, northern Ethiopia. The environmental isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen and patterns of dissolved ion concentrations in the groundwater, coupled with understanding of the three-dimensional geological framework, are used to conceptualize the groundwater flow model and recharge-discharge mechanisms in the area. In agreement with the piezometric-surface map, recharge areas are determined to be the highlands (northwest, north, east and south of the study area), characterized by relatively more depleted isotopic compositions, higher d-excess, and lower concentrations of dissolved ions in the groundwater samples; the narrow major river valleys of Giba, Illala, Chelekot and Faucea Mariam are discharge areas. The groundwater divide between the Tekeze and the Denakil basins coincides with the surface-water divide line of these two basins. In most cases, groundwater feeds the semi-perennial streams and rivers in the area. However, isotopic signatures in some wells indicate that there are localities where river flow and seepage from micro-dams locally feed the adjacent aquifers. The lithostratigraphic, geomorphologic, isotopic and hydrochemical settings observed in this study indicate that three groundwater flow systems (shallow/local, intermediate and deep/semi-regional) can exist here. Tritium data indicate that the groundwater in the study area has generally short residence time and is dependent on modern precipitation.

  7. Hospitals for sale.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael M; West, Daniel J; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The pace of hospital merger and acquisition activity reflects the economic theory of supply and demand: Publicly traded hospital companies, private equity funds, and large nonprofit hospital systems are investing capital to purchase and operate freestanding community hospitals at a time when many of those hospitals find themselves short of capital reserves and certain forms of management expertise. But the sale of those community hospitals also raises questions about the impact of absentee ownership on the communities which those hospitals serve.

  8. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions HIV discordant couples

  9. Predictors of institutional delivery in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Woldie, Mirkuzie; Tafese, Fikru

    2013-01-01

    Background Women are more liable to die during or following delivery than during pregnancy but use of both delivery services and post-partum care is low. Objective To find out the prevalence and predictors of institutional delivery in Wolaita Sodo (Sodo) town, southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to look at 844 women who had given birth in the previous five years in Sodo town. The study employed a multistage-sampling scheme. Codes were given for all identified women in selected kebeles (neighbourhoods) and a simple random-sampling technique was used after generating random numbers using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). SPSS was then used to carry out binary- and multiple logistic regressions. A 95% CI for the odds ratio was applied to judge the presence of relationships between variables. Results The prevalence of institutional delivery-service utilisation in Sodo town was 62.2%. Husband educational status, parity, number of antenatal clinic visits, perceived quality of care and knowledge regarding pregnancy danger signs were independent predictors of utilisation of institutional delivery services. Conclusion Institutional delivery service utilisation in Sodo town was much higher than the national figure. Findings in this study showed that promotion of antenatal care, involvement of men in maternal healthcare, provision of health education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and improvement of service quality are recommended in order to sustain or even improve the current level of utilisation in the town.

  10. Pictorial approaches for measuring time use in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Yuta J.; Fortmann, Lea; Gugerty, Mary Kay; Smith-Nilson, Marla; Cook, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Time use researchers working in least developed countries (LDCs) face difficulties collecting data from illiterate populations who may conceptualize time differently than those in industrialized countries. We identify existing gaps in time use data collection methods and discuss two novel, pictorial methods to collect time use data from these populations. The first method is a modified recall interview modeled on participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods that asks respondents to place macaroni on pictures of activity categories in proportion to the amount of time spent on that activity during the previous day. The second is a simplified pictorial time diary that uses a timer and sequentially-numbered stickers to re-create the temporal order of activities in 30-minute increments. The latter method also avoids recall bias problems. We present time use data collected in 2009 using these methods in a study examining the impacts of water infrastructure on women and children’s time use in rural Ethiopia. In total, we collected information using the first method from 263 household members over age 10, including 167 water collectors, and pilot-tested the pictorial diary approach with 10 adult respondents. PMID:25620832

  11. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  12. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. PMID:25132572

  13. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-06-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  14. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Y

    2001-07-12

    Molecular studies suggest that the lineages leading to humans and chimpanzees diverged approximately 6.5-5.5 million years (Myr) ago, in the Late Miocene. Hominid fossils from this interval, however, are fragmentary and of uncertain phylogenetic status, age, or both. Here I report new hominid specimens from the Middle Awash area of Ethiopia that date to 5.2-5.8 Myr and are associated with a wooded palaeoenvironment. These Late Miocene fossils are assigned to the hominid genus Ardipithecus and represent the earliest definitive evidence of the hominid clade. Derived dental characters are shared exclusively with all younger hominids. This indicates that the fossils probably represent a hominid taxon that postdated the divergence of lineages leading to modern chimpanzees and humans. However, the persistence of primitive dental and postcranial characters in these new fossils indicates that Ardipithecus was phylogenetically close to the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans. These new findings raise additional questions about the claimed hominid status of Orrorin tugenensis, recently described from Kenya and dated to approximately 6 Myr.

  15. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Berta Badi, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general.

  16. Census in a rural area of Ethiopia: methodology and results.

    PubMed

    Materia, E; Mehari, W; Mele, A; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Damen, H M; Basile, G; Kifle, T; Miuccio, G; Ferrigno, L

    1993-01-01

    A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic services were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary meetings and community health agents participated in the data collection process. A total of 64,714 people in 12,152 households were registered. The repeatability of age assessment was investigated by comparing the results from two villages with data obtained in a pilot study carried out 6 months earlier. The technical error was only 0.80 and 1.67 in the 0-5 and 6-15 age-groups, respectively. Three percent of the total population was under one year, less than previously estimated. This may, in part, be due to the family planning programme in the region. Eighteen percent of the households were headed by females. School attendance was less common among females and in the Oromo ethnic group. The availability of basic services, including safe water and basic sanitation supplies, was very poor in the area.

  17. Volcanic outcrops of southeast Ethiopia and the Ogaden Dyke Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter-­-supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon-­-filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro-­-Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW-­-directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.

  18. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face.

  19. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Berta Badi, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general. PMID:27656213

  20. Marriage through abduction ('Telefa') in rural north west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getahun, H

    2001-04-01

    A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural district of North West Ethiopia between February and April 1997 to determine the magnitude of marriage through abduction ('Telefa') and identify problems associated with it. Randomly selected and currently married 1,168 women were interviewed. The prevalence of marriage through abduction was 6.2% (72/1168). All the abductions reported were only once in lifetime during the first marriage. The median age at first marriage of abducted women was 13 years with a range of 13 (Minimum = 7 and Maximum 20). About two third (66.7%) of abducted women had been married more than once in their life time. Following a multivariate analysis in a logistic regression model abducted women were likely to be victims of abortion [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.71 (1.10-3.05)], marital instability [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.10-3.18)], rape [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 7.77 (3.78-15.95)] and domestic violence [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.69 (1.11-2.81)]. The recognition of the magnitude and the associated health problems of marriage through abduction (Telefa) is important. Appropriate strategies that address the health needs of abducted women must be designed. Enforcing the judiciary system to discourage this harmful practice and empowerment of young girls and rural women is needed. PMID:11501287

  1. Level and differentials of fertility in Awassa town, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Samson; Betre, Mulugeta

    2009-03-01

    A cross-sectional, descriptive study with internal comparison was conducted among 1376 women of reproductive age with the objective of assessing the level and determinants of fertility in Awassa town, Ethiopia. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was 3.4 and the mean Child Ever Born (CEB) was 1.72 and 3.02 among all women and married women. Regarding proximate determinants of fertility, the mean age at first marriage and duration of postpartum infecundability were 17.75 years and 12.3 months, respectively. Further, Contraceptive Prevalence Rate among married women was 41.2% and Total Abortion Rate was 0.02. Sociodemographic characteristics of mothers like poor educational status, absence of income, rural place of birth, early marriage, and other variables like history of child death, negative husbands' attitude towards contraceptive use, poor educational status of husbands, need for additional children, were found to have significant association with high fertility; accordingly, these variables need to addressed in activities against high fertility. PMID:20687268

  2. Field temperature measurements at Erta'Ale Lava Lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Caillet, Marc; Haefeli, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The shield volcano Erta'Ale, situated in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia, is known for its active lava lake. In February 2001, our team visited this lake, located inside an 80-m-deep pit, to perform field temperature measurements. The distribution and variation of temperature inside the lake were obtained on the basis of infrared radiation measurements performed from the rim of the pit and from the lake shores. The crust temperature was also determined from the lake shores with a thermocouple to calibrate the pyrometer. We estimated an emissivity of the basalt of 0.74 from this experiment. Through the application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we then obtained an estimate of the total radiative heat flux, constrained by pyrometer measurements of the pit, and visual observations of the lake activity. Taking into account the atmospheric convective heat flux, the convected magma mass flux needed to balance the energy budget was subsequently derived and found to represent between 510 and 580 kg s-1. The surface circulation of this mass flux was also analyzed through motion processing techniques applied to video images of the lake. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-002-0224-3.

  3. Genetic characterization of Moniezia species in Senegal and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diop, Gora; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Ito, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity of Moniezia spp. from domestic ruminants in Senegal and Ethiopia was investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 64 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep, goat and cattle, and the tapeworms from cattle were all morphologically identified as Moniezia benedeni. On the other hand, the tapeworms obtained from sheep and goat were identified as Moniezia expansa or could not be identified because of the lack of diagnostic morphologic character, i.e. interproglottidal glands (IPGs). Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 gene sequences revealed that the worms from sheep/goat and cattle formed distinct clades, and three mitochondrial lineages were confirmed within the sheep/goat tapeworms. The maximum pairwise divergences among the three mitochondrial linages were about 3% in cox1 and 0.1% in SSU rDNA, while that between the worms from sheep/goat and cattle reached 13% in cox1 and 2.7% in SSU rDNA. All of the three mitochondrial lineages contained tapeworms morphologically identified as M. expansa, and the tapeworms without IPGs were confirmed in one of the three lineages, indicating the tapeworms without IPGs were also M. expansa.

  4. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Tewodros Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-07-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

  5. Post-rifting relaxation in the Afar region, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooner, Scott L.; Bennati, Laura; Calais, Eric; Buck, W. Roger; Hamling, Ian J.; Wright, Tim J.; Lewi, Elias

    2009-11-01

    Crustal accretion at divergent plate boundaries typically occurs via the periodic intrusion of dikes, but their emplacement and the associated deformation are rarely observed. The few existing observations at subaerial rifts show that these diking events are followed by a decadal-scale period with extension rates faster than the secular divergent plate motion. This transient accelerated deformation has been explained by continued subsurface magma injection or by relaxation, in the viscoelastic mantle, of the stress changes imparted by dike opening. For the first time, GPS measurements were collected within a few months of a rifting event at a major plate boundary, the September 2005, 60 km-long dike intrusion in the Dabbahu segment, Afar, Ethiopia. Extension rates for the first 3 years greatly exceed the plate motion (Nubia-Arabia) secular divergence rate, even at sites located more than 60 km from the rift axis. Here we show that these observations are consistent with stress relaxation in a viscoelastic upper mantle with a viscosity of about 5 × 1018 Pa·s overlain by a 12-14 km-thick elastic crust. The alternative model of continued diking requires continuous opening well below the Moho and is therefore unlikely. Instead, magma injection in Afar since June 2006 has taken the form of smaller discrete diking events, tapping into a mid-crustal melt reservoir under the segment center.

  6. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  7. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Getu Melese, Kidest; Gebrie, Mignote Hailu; Berta Badi, Martha; Fekadu Mersha, Wubalem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general. PMID:27656213

  8. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deribew, Ketema; Tekeste, Zinaye; Petros, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P<0.05). The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S. haematobium infected children showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community. PMID:23620856

  9. Epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Innocent, G T; Trawford, A F; Reid, S W J; Love, S

    2010-05-11

    A cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. The overall prevalence of the infection was 44.4% in coprologically examined donkeys, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined post-mortem was 41.9%. The infection prevalence was significantly higher in Bereh and Ada regions than in Akaki and Boset regions. Bereh with 72.6% and Boset with 21.5% showed a significantly higher and lower infection prevalence, respectively, than the rest of the regions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different age groups of donkeys in the infection prevalence (P>0.05) but infection intensity was significantly higher in donkeys 8 years old and above (P<0.0001). Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were identified.

  10. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4–2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965

  11. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N

    2013-06-25

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  12. Technology transfer at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) manages an aggressive technology transfer program for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to help US industry implement the results of federally developed technologies. A benefit of this program is that PNL increases the use of results from its research programs and assists industries in solving technical problems, enhancing their productivity and international competitiveness. The technology transfer program began at PNL in 1981 with one person. Since then, it has evolved into an innovative organization that manages the deployment of technologies developed by the Laboratory's research and engineering centers. Technology transfer is a vital mission of the Laboratory.

  13. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 6

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-20

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 134,868 customers remain without power. The number of outages is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent less than 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy and Seattle City Light.

  14. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 3

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-17

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 468,200 customers, including Canada, remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 16 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below. The Olympic pipeline reports that the pipeline is operational; however, pipeline throughput remains reduced since one substation along the line remains without power. Complete power restoration is expected later today. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel distribution and production.

  15. Color view to Northwest of Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers) view was obtained on sol 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The view is toward the northwest, showing polygonal terrain near the lander and out to the horizon.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Health Extension Workers' and Mothers' Attitudes to Maternal Health Service Utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Ruth; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Godefay, Hagos; Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher

    2016-01-01

    Background The maternal health system in Ethiopia links health posts in rural communities (kebeles) with district (woreda) health centres, and health centres with primary hospitals. At each health post two Health Extension Workers (HEWs) assist women with birth preparedness, complication readiness, and mobilize communities to facilitate timely referral to mid-level service providers. This study explored HEWs’ and mother’s attitudes to maternal health services in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region. Methods In this qualitative study, we trained 16 HEWs to interview 45 women to gain a better understanding of the social context of maternal health related behaviours. Themes included barriers to health services; women’s social status and mobility; and women’s perceptions of skilled birth attendant’s care. All data were analyzed thematically. Findings There have been substantial efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality in Adwa Woreda. Women identified barriers to healthcare including distance and lack of transportation due to geographical factors; the absence of many husbands due to off-woreda farming; traditional factors such as zwar (some pregnant women are afraid of meeting other pregnant women), and discouragement from mothers and mothers-in-law who delivered their children at home. Some women experienced disrespectful care at the hospital. Facilitators to skilled birth attendance included: identification of pregnant women through Women’s Development Groups (WDGs), and referral by ambulance to health facilities either before a woman’s Expected Due Date (EDD) or if labour started at home. Conclusion With the support of WDGs, HEWs have increased the rate of skilled birth attendance by calling ambulances to transfer women to health centres either before their EDD or when labour starts at home. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that health workers at the community level can work with women’s groups to improve maternal

  17. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF MIDDLE ARCH SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW OF MIDDLE ARCH SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Cumberland & Pennsylvania Railroad, Wills Creek Bridge, Spanning Wills Creek 587 feet West of Eckhart Junction, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  18. Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. 9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  20. 8. STATIC TEST TOWER NORTHWEST ELEVATION FROM THE POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. STATIC TEST TOWER - NORTHWEST ELEVATION FROM THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL