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Sample records for hospital northwest ethiopia

  1. Hematological reference intervals determination in adults at Gondar university hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yalew, Aregawi; Terefe, Betelihem; Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2016-11-02

    Hematological reference values are important for the clinical decisions in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of patients. The correct interpretation of laboratory results depends entirely on the reference intervals that have been established for the locality. But, in sub-Saharan African countries particularly in Ethiopia, locally derived reference intervals were not established and they are forced to use intervals established from western population. Thus this study aimed to establish locally derived hematological reference values that could be used in Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014 with 120 male and 120 female apparently health adult blood donors at Gondar University Hospital. A structured pretested questionnaire was used for socio demographic and clinical data collection. About 4 ml of blood was collected with EDTA test tube and analyzed using Cell-Dyn 1800 to enumerate the hematological parameters. The data were collected and entered into SPSS version 20 for analysis. Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine reference intervals and Harris and Boyd test was used to determine the reference intervals that need partition. The 95th percentile of measurements was taken as a reference interval. Median and 95th percentile of WBC for general population were lower than Caucasian population, Addis Ababa, Burkina Faso and Kenya of similar studies. The RBC, Hgb and PCV lower 95% limit values of both sex were lower than studies in Addis Ababa, Kenya, Burkina Faso and text book. While PCV upper limit values higher than the above countries. MCV values of the current study were higher than those countries while MCHC values were lower. Similarly, the absolute values of neutrophils in the current study were lower than Caucasian and Afro Caribbean but higher than African countries and Jamaica but lymphocyte count was higher. The hematological reference intervals established in this study was different from those reported in

  2. Depression in diabetic patients attending University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birhanu, Anteneh Messele; Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke; Balcha, Shitaye Alemu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus, frequently associated with comorbid depression, contributes to the double burden of individual patients and community. Depression remains undiagnosed in as many as 50%–75% of diabetes cases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2014 among 422 sampled diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a standardized and pretested questionnaire linked with patient record review. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with depression. Results A total of 415 diabetic patients participated in the study with a response rate of 98.3%. The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients was found to be 15.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.7–19.2). Only religion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.65 and 95% CI: 1.1–6.0) and duration of diabetes (AOR =0.27 and 95% CI: 0.07–0.92) were the factors associated with depression among diabetic patients. Conclusion The prevalence of depression was low as compared to other similar studies elsewhere. Disease (diabetes) duration of 10 years and above and being a Muslim religion follower (as compared to Christian) were the factors significantly associated with depression. Early screening of depression and treating depression as a routine component of diabetes care are recommended. Further research with a large sample size, wider geographical coverage, and segregation of type of diabetes mellitus is recommended. PMID:27274296

  3. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebriel, Zemichael; Ejigu, Yohannes; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2016-01-01

    Background Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation) used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05). Results Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores) were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers’ overall level of motivation with absolute

  4. Increasing Trends of Diabetes Mellitus and Body Weight: A Ten Year Observation at Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Alemu, Shitay

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming one of the major causes of premature adult mortality in developing countries. However, there is a very little documentation of the morbidity trend in such countries. Objective To assess the ten-year trend of diabetes mellitus at Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based retrospective record review was done at the main referral hospital in northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from medical records of all registered diabetic patients in the Diabetic Follow up Clinic between 2000 and 2009. An Extended Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test for the linear trend was used to examine the trend over time. Result Out of the total 354,524 patients who visited the Outpatient Department of the hospital during the study period, 1553 (4.4/1000) were diabetes patients, of which 50.1% was type 1 and 49.9% type 2 diabetes mellitus. The average increase in the proportion of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus cases between 2000 and 2009 was 125%. The mean (±SD) age for Type 1 diabetes mellitus was 29.1 (±12), and 53.5 (±12) for Type 2 diabetes. Overall 42.5% of the diabetes mellitus patients were female and 31.7% were rural residents. The mean body mass index for both type of diabetes mellitus increased from 15.9 to 18.3 kg for type 1 and from 23.8 to 24.6 for type 2 between 2000 and 2009, respectively. Conclusion The number of diabetes mellitus cases seen at Gondar Referral Hospital is rising steadily. A comprehensive diabetes prevention, treatment, and care program is needed to improve the quality of life of the increasing diabetes mellitus cases in Ethiopia. PMID:23536904

  5. Clinical profile of tetanus patients attended at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Derbie, Awoke; Amdu, Anteneh; Alamneh, Amanuel; Tadege, Amare; Solomon, Amelwork; Elfu, Bihanu; Mekonnen, Daniel; Mezgebu, Yinebeb; Worku, Seble; Biadglegne, Fantahun

    2016-01-01

    Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles. Tetanus remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia like other developed nations. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical profile and outcome of tetanus patients in a referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. This is a retrospective cross sectional study in which we collected, compiled and analyzed medical records of patients aged greater than 15 years who were admitted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital from Sep 2012 to Sep 2015. Tetanus was diagnosed using clinical observations. Data were entered, cleared, and analyzed using SPSS statistical software package. Among 110 tetanus cases 84 (76.4 %) were males. Trauma was the most common antecedent cause. Most of the patients had no history of tetanus toxoid immunization. Aspiration pneumonia at 34.5 % and dysautonomia at 11.8 % were found to be the most frequently observed complications. About 36 (32.7 %) patients were died due to tetanus and the most common immediate cause of death was respiratory failure at (83.3 %). Patients' area of residence (p = 0.004), type of complications (p = 0.00) and severity of tetanus (p = 0.00) were found to be statistically associated with the type of treatment outcomes. In the study, the case-fatality rate was found to be very high. Therefore, there is a need to universal tetanus immunization and health information dissemination.

  6. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five - year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Belay; Muche, Abebe; Bekele, Assegedech; Reissig, Dieter; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Background In Gondar University Teaching Hospital standardized tuberculosis prevention and control programme, incorporating Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) started in 2000. According to the proposal of World Health Organization (WHO), treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs. This study investigated the outcome of tuberculosis treatment at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods We analyzed the records of 4000 tuberculosis patients registered at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2003 to May 2008. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. Results From the total of 4000 patients, tuberculosis type was categorized as extrapulmonary in 1133 (28.3%), smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in 2196 (54.9%) and smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 671 (16.8%) cases. Of all patients, treatment outcome was classified as successfully treated in 1181(29.5%), defaulted in 730 (18.3%), died in 403 (10.1%), treatment failed in six (0.2%) and transferred out in 1680 (42.0%) patients. Males had the trend to be more likely to experience death or default than females, and the elderly were more likely to die than younger. The proportion of default rate was increased across the years from 97(9.2%) to 228(42.9%). Being female, age group 15-24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and being urban resident were associated with higher treatment success rate. Conclusion The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was unsatisfactorily low (29.5%). A high proportion of patients died (10.1%) or defaulted (18.3%), which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently. PMID:19799801

  7. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five--year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Muche, Abebe; Bekele, Assegedech; Reissig, Dieter; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich

    2009-10-04

    In Gondar University Teaching Hospital standardized tuberculosis prevention and control programme, incorporating Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) started in 2000. According to the proposal of World Health Organization (WHO), treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs. This study investigated the outcome of tuberculosis treatment at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. We analyzed the records of 4000 tuberculosis patients registered at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2003 to May 2008. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. From the total of 4000 patients, tuberculosis type was categorized as extrapulmonary in 1133 (28.3%), smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in 2196 (54.9%) and smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 671 (16.8%) cases. Of all patients, treatment outcome was classified as successfully treated in 1181(29.5%), defaulted in 730 (18.3%), died in 403 (10.1%), treatment failed in six (0.2%) and transferred out in 1680 (42.0%) patients. Males had the trend to be more likely to experience death or default than females, and the elderly were more likely to die than younger. The proportion of default rate was increased across the years from 97(9.2%) to 228(42.9%). Being female, age group 15-24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and being urban resident were associated with higher treatment success rate. The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was unsatisfactorily low (29.5%). A high proportion of patients died (10.1%) or defaulted (18.3%), which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently.

  8. Attitudes of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician collaboration in northwest Ethiopia: a hospital based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Amsalu, Eden; Boru, Brihanu; Getahun, Firehiwot; Tulu, Begna

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration between professionals is important in health institutions where most activities are team-performed. Ineffective nurse-physician collaboration affects patient outcome, nurses' job satisfaction and organizational cost and is challenged by personal, interpersonal and organizational factors. The main objective of this study was to assess attitudes of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician collaboration and the level of satisfaction with regard to quality of collaboration between them at Referral Hospitals of Northwest Ethiopia, from February 1st to April 30, 2013. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 176 nurses and 53 physicians working in Felegehiwot and Gondar University Referral Hospitals. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Attitudes of nurses and physicians were measured using Jefferson scale of attitudes towards nurse-physician Collaboration. Results were summarized using descriptive statistics and difference of means and proportions were evaluated using student t test p <0.05 was considered as significant. The overall response rate was 90.50%. Nurses demonstrate more favorable attitudes than physicians with mean score of 49.63 and 47.49 and standard error of mean 0.474 and 0.931 respectively with p = 0.043. For the Jefferson Scale Attitudes towards Nurse-Physician Collaboration includes four subscales, which are: 1) shared education and teamwork, 2) Caring vs curing, 3) nurses autonomy and 4) physician dominance. Nurses scored higher on three subscales (1, 2 and 4). However, statistically significant differences were noted with regard to subscales 2 and 4 (p = 0.01, p = 0.004, respectively). This study identified that neither nurses nor physicians were satisfied with their current collaboration and nurses demonstrated less satisfaction with the current nurse physician collaboration. As compared with physicians nurses had more favorable attitudes towards collaboration specifically toward

  9. Medication administration error reporting and associated factors among nurses working at the University of Gondar referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Beshah, Debrework Tesgera

    2016-01-01

    Medication administration is the final step/phase of medication process in which its error directly affects the patient health. Due to the central role of nurses in medication administration, whether they are the source of an error, a contributor, or an observer they have the professional, legal and ethical responsibility to recognize and report. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of medication administration error reporting and associated factors among nurses working at The University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based quantitative cross - sectional study was conducted among 282 Nurses. Data were collected using semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire of the Medication Administration Errors Reporting (MAERs). Binary logistic regression with 95 % confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with medication administration errors reporting. The estimated medication administration error reporting was found to be 29.1 %. The perceived rates of medication administration errors reporting for non-intravenous related medications were ranged from 16.8 to 28.6 % and for intravenous-related from 20.6 to 33.4 %. Education status (AOR =1.38, 95 % CI: 4.009, 11.128), disagreement over time - error definition (AOR = 0.44, 95 % CI: 0.468, 0.990), administrative reason (AOR = 0.35, 95 % CI: 0.168, 0.710) and fear (AOR = 0.39, 95 % CI: 0.257, 0.838) were factors statistically significant for the refusal of reporting medication administration errors at p-value <0.05. In this study, less than one third of the study participants reported medication administration errors. Educational status, disagreement over time - error definition, administrative reason and fear were factors statistically significant for the refusal of errors reporting at p-value <0.05. Therefore, the results of this study suggest strategies that enhance the cultures of error reporting such as providing a clear definition of

  10. Bacterial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in septicemia suspected patients attending Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial blood stream infection constitutes a significant public health problem and it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bacterial isolates from septicemia suspected patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in Gondar University Hospital. Methods This laboratory based retrospective study of 390 blood culture and susceptibility tests was conducted in Bacteriology Laboratory of the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. The samples were collected and processed following standard microbiological techniques as part of the routine clinical management of the patient. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done on pure culture isolates employing disc-diffusion method for the commonly used antibiotics. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and the results were summarized by using tables and graphs. Results Out of 390 blood culture results, 71 (18.2%) were culture positive. The predominant bacteria isolated from blood culture were Coagulase negative staphylococci 30 (42.3%), followed by S. aureus 17 (23.9%) and Klebiesella spp 9 (12.9%), E. coli 5 (7.0%), Pseudomonas aeroginosa 4 (5.6%) and Salmonella spp. 3 (4.2%). The gram positive and gram negative bacteria constituted 49 (69%) and 22 (31%) of the culture isolates; respectively. The isolates showed high rates of resistance to most antibiotics tested. The range of resistance for Gram positive and Gram negative were from 23.5% – 58.8%, and 20%– 100% respectively. Conclusions In the present study most of the pathogens isolated from blood culture showed high rate of resistance to most commonly used antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections. Therefore, rational use of antibiotics should be practiced. PMID:23875886

  11. Bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion at university of gondar hospital blood bank, northwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wondimu, Hailegebriel; Addis, Zelalem; Moges, Feleke; Shiferaw, Yitayal

    2013-01-01

    Background. Transfusion associated bacterial infection has remained more frequent with a sever risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar hospital blood bank from December 2011 to June 2012. Bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done as per the standard procedure. Chi-square test and P value were used to assess associations between risk factors and the bacterial isolation rate. Results. Twenty-one (15.33%) blood units were found contaminated with bacteria, and 95.24% contamination was due to external sources. The commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Streptococci species, Enterobacter species, and Citrobacter species. All of the bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, and Doxycycline. Multiple antimicrobial resistances were observed in 66.7% of the isolates. Not using glove by phlebotomist, touching disinfected phlebotomy site and double puncture at the same hand or both hands of a donor were found to be risk factors for bacterial contamination. Conclusion. Bacterial contamination of blood to be transfused is a common problem in the hospital. So attention should be given to activities performed at the blood bank for safe transfusion practices.

  12. Physicians' and nurses' satisfaction with the clinical laboratory service of Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Addis, Zelalem; Birhan, Wubet; Derseh, Dejene; Sahle, Biruktawit; Gizaw, Netsanet

    2013-09-01

    To assess physicians' and nurses' satisfaction with the service provided by the laboratory at Gondar University Hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 196 nurses and physicians. Overall level of satisfaction was 51.1% for nurses and 51.5% for physicians. Lack of consistency in the quality of laboratory work, absence of a timely report of critical values, test turnaround time, acceptability of results released, and reporting of reference ranges with test results were areas mentioned as sources of dissatisfaction. The study showed wide room for improvement. In addition to taking intervention, root causes of dissatisfaction need to be investigated and means of improving the satisfaction level should be designed and implemented.

  13. Smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis disease at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zenebe, Yohannes; Anagaw, Belay; Tesfay, Wogahta; Debebe, Tewodros; Gelaw, Baye

    2013-01-18

    While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also an important clinical problem. However, no adequate information had been made available on the prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients at University of Gondar Hospital. A cross-sectional study on extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from January 2012 to April, 2012. Specimens of patients suspected of extra pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained from fine needle aspiration and body fluid samples collected by pathologist. Demographic characteristics and other variables were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Smears were prepared from each sample and stained by Ziehel Neelson and Wright stain. The result of the study was analyzed with bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 344 extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected clients were included in the study and specimens were taken from lymph node aspirates and body fluids. The overall prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis was 34 (9.9%). Of these cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis, lymph node tuberculosis constituted the largest proportion (82.4%). Among the 34 extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients, over half of them (52.9%) were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. The largest proportion of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus cases occurred among persons with in the age group of 31-40 years. Previous history of tuberculosis (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.86-12.24), contact to a known tuberculosis cases (OR = 6.67 95% CI 2.78-16.90), history of underlying diseases (OR = 2.79 95% CI 1.15-6.78) and income (OR = 12.9 95% CI 2.25-68.02) were significantly associated with extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection. The prevalence of

  14. Determinants of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in adult hospitalized patients, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tsega, Bayew; Srikanth, Bhagavathula Akshaya; Shewamene, Zewdneh

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the rate of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and to identify any determinants among adult patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 351 ART patients in the ART clinic of the University of Gondar referral hospital. Data were collected by a pretested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire from May to June 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors significantly associated with adherence. Results Of 351 study subjects, women were more predominant than men (64.4% versus 35.6%). Three hundred and forty (96.9%) patients agreed and strongly agreed that the use of ART is essential in their life, and approximately 327 (93.2%) disclosed their sero-status to family. Seventy-nine (22.5%) participants were active substance users. The level of adherence was 284 (80.9%). Three hundred forty-one (97.2%) respondents had good or fair adherence. Among the reasons for missing doses were forgetfulness (29 [43.3%]), missing appointments (14 [20.9%]), running out of medicine (9 [13.4%]), depression, anger, or hopelessness (4 [6.0%]), side effects of the medicine used (2 [3.0%]), and nonbelief in the ART (2 [3.0%]). The variables found significantly associated with non-adherence were age (P-value 0.017), employment (P-value 0.02), HIV disclosure (P-value 0.04), and comfortability to take ART in the presence of others (P-value 0.02). Conclusion From this study, it was determined that forgetfulness (43.3%) was the most common reason for missing doses. Also, employment and acceptance in using ART in the presence of others are significant issues observed for non-adherence. Hence, the ART counselor needs to place more emphasis on the provision and use of memory aids. PMID:25784793

  15. Compliance with Standard Precautions and Associated Factors among Healthcare Workers in Gondar University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile, Tariku Gebre; Engeda, Eshetu Haileselassie; Abdo, Abdella Amano

    2017-01-01

    Background. In many studies, compliance with standard precautions among healthcare workers was reported to be inadequate. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess compliance with standard precautions and associated factors among healthcare workers in northwest Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 01 to April 30, 2014. Simple random sampling technique was used to select participants. Data were entered into Epi info 3.5.1 and were exported to SPSS version 20.0 for statistical analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated to identify associated factors. Results. The proportion of healthcare workers who always comply with standard precautions was found to be 12%. Being a female healthcare worker (AOR [95% CI] 2.18 [1.12-4.23]), higher infection risk perception (AOR [95% CI] 3.46 [1.67-7.18]), training on standard precautions (AOR [95% CI] 2.90 [1.20-7.02]), accessibility of personal protective equipment (AOR [95% CI] 2.87 [1.41-5.86]), and management support (AOR [95% CI] 2.23 [1.11-4.53]) were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion and Recommendation. Compliance with standard precautions among the healthcare workers is very low. Interventions which include training of healthcare workers on standard precautions and consistent management support are recommended.

  16. Compliance with Standard Precautions and Associated Factors among Healthcare Workers in Gondar University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Tariku Gebre

    2017-01-01

    Background. In many studies, compliance with standard precautions among healthcare workers was reported to be inadequate. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess compliance with standard precautions and associated factors among healthcare workers in northwest Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 01 to April 30, 2014. Simple random sampling technique was used to select participants. Data were entered into Epi info 3.5.1 and were exported to SPSS version 20.0 for statistical analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated to identify associated factors. Results. The proportion of healthcare workers who always comply with standard precautions was found to be 12%. Being a female healthcare worker (AOR [95% CI] 2.18 [1.12–4.23]), higher infection risk perception (AOR [95% CI] 3.46 [1.67–7.18]), training on standard precautions (AOR [95% CI] 2.90 [1.20–7.02]), accessibility of personal protective equipment (AOR [95% CI] 2.87 [1.41–5.86]), and management support (AOR [95% CI] 2.23 [1.11–4.53]) were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion and Recommendation. Compliance with standard precautions among the healthcare workers is very low. Interventions which include training of healthcare workers on standard precautions and consistent management support are recommended. PMID:28191020

  17. Hospital acquired infections among surgical, gynaecology and obstetrics patients in Felege-Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Silabat; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Damtie, Meku; Alamrew, Kassahun

    2012-04-01

    Hospital-acquired infection is an important public health problem that contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hospital-acquired infections and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates in Felege-Hiwot referral hospital. The study was conducted during April-August 2009. A total of 1383 patients admitted to Surgical and Gynecology/Obstetrics wards were followed throughout their stay in the hospital for development of infections. Data on sociodemographic, underlying diseases and risk factors were collected and analysed Laboratory investigations including culture, biochemical tests, Gram staining and antibacterial sensitivity tests using disc diffusion methods were done. Of the 1383 patients assessed 961 surgical, 333 obstetrics and 89 gynaecology patients assessed, 17.1% 21.0% and 13.5% developed infections, respectively. The over all incidence of hospital acquired infections was 246 (17.8%) with 251 (18.1%) episodes of bacterial infections. Urinary tract and surgical site infections were detected in 118 (48%) and 112 (45.6%) of the cases, respectively. Of the bacterial isolates, 132 (52.6%) were gram negative and 119 (47.4%) gram positive. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, were the dominant gram negative isolates accounting for 49 (19.5%), 36 (14.3%) and 26 (10.4%), respectively. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, and Enteroccocus species were isolated in 91 (36.3%), 18 (7.2%) and 10 (4.0%), respectively. Surgery, catheterization, underlying diseases, antibiotics prophylaxis and length of hospital stay were risk factors for infection (P<0.0001). Most, >80% of isolates showed high rate of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and amoxacillin-clavulanic acid The incidence of surgical site infection in surgical and UTI in obstetrics patients was high. Escherichia coli from urinary

  18. High bacterial load of indoor air in hospital wards: the case of University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, Zemichael; Gebrehiwot, Mulat; Yenew, Chalachew

    2016-01-01

    The air inhaled by people is abundantly populated with microorganisms which also are called bioaerosols. Bioaerosols is a colloidal suspension, formed by liquid droplets and particles of solid matter in the air, whose components contain or have attached to them viruses, fungal spores and conidia, bacterial endospores, plant pollen and fragments of plant tissues. They account for 5-34 % of indoor air pollution. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the bacteriological concentration and to identify specific species of bacteria in the indoor air of Gondar University teaching hospital. Air samples were taken from 14 randomly selected wards. Bacterial measurements were made by passive air sampling technique i.e., the settle plate method. In each ward five Petri dishes were exposed for 30 and 60 min in the morning and afternoon. Bacteria were collected on nutrient agar and blood agar media. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. The quantitative analysis was mainly conducted to determine bacterial load or number of bacteria in the indoor air. Bacterial load was enumerated as colony forming units. Qualitative analysis was conducted to identify specific species of bacteria. For this study we have selected Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus which had high public health concern. Mannitol test was used to isolate Staphylococcus aureus, whereas Bacitracin test was conducted to isolate Streptococcus pyogene. The result of this study indicated that the highest bacterial load which was 1468 CFU/m(3) has been recorded at 2:00 PM in Ward C at 60 min exposure time and the lowest bacterial concentration (i.e., 480 CFU/m(3)) was recorded at 8:00 AM in physiotherapy ward. Based on the result bacterial concentration of indoor air of Gondar University teaching hospital was found between 480 and 1468 CFU/m(3). The result of one way ANOVA showed that the highest mean bacterial concentration (1271.00 CFU/m(3)) was found in Medical ward and the

  19. Prevalence of Bacteriuria and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Attending at Debre Tabor Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Derbie, Awoke; Adem, Yesuf; Biadglegne, Fantahun

    2017-01-01

    Background. Urinary tract infection is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Information about bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at isolating bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods. A hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Tabor. Urine sample was inoculated onto cysteine lysine electrolyte deficient (CLED) medium. Bacterial pathogens were identified using standard bacteriological methods. The data were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 20. P value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Result. A total of 384 study participants were included in the study. Of them, 21 (10.9%) were from diabetics and 9 (4.7%) of them were from nondiabetics. Large proportion of gram positive bacteria at 18 (58.1%) were isolated compared to gram negatives at 13 (41.9%). Gram positive isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole 10 (58.8%). Conclusion. The isolation rates of bacterial pathogens were higher in diabetic than nondiabetic patients. Bacteriuria was significantly associated with sex and type of diabetes. Multidrug resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in 56.7% of bacterial isolates. Rational use of antimicrobial agent should be thought of to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistance. PMID:28348597

  20. Healthcare Professionals’ Awareness, Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions and Beliefs about Ebola at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Tefera, Yonas Getaye; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Brown, Brandon; Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku

    2016-01-01

    A poor understanding of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) among Health Care Professionals (HCPs) may put our lives at risk. We aimed to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, beliefs of HCPs towards Ebola at Gondar University Hospital (GUH) in Northwest Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital based, cross-sectional survey among 245 randomly selected HCPs working at GUH from August-October, 2015. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. We calculated descriptive statistics with P<0.05 being statistically significant. Of the 245 participants, 211 (86.1%) completed the study. The majority had heard about EVD and used news media (62%) as a source of information. Still, many were afraid of getting EVD (56.4%; P=0.001). A significant number of HCPs thought EVD can cause paralysis like polio (45%) and can be treated with antibiotics (28.4%). In addition, 46.4% of the HCPs felt anger or fear towards Ebola infected patients (P=0.006). We identified poor knowledge and negative incorrect beliefs among doctors and allied health professionals. There is a need for intensive training for all HCPs reduce EVD risk. PMID:28299161

  1. Time to first consultation, diagnosis and treatment of TB among patients attending a referral hospital in Northwest, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yimer, Solomon A; Bjune, Gunnar A; Holm-Hansen, Carol

    2014-01-10

    Early detection and treatment of TB is essential for the success of TB control program performance. The aim of this study was to determine the length and analyze predictors of patients', health systems' and total delays among patients attending a referral hospital in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among newly diagnosed TB cases ≥ 15 years of age. Delay was analyzed at three levels: the periods between 1) onset of TB symptoms and first visit to medical provider, i.e. patients' delay, 2) the first visit to a medical provider and the initiation of treatment i.e. health systems' delay and 3) onset of TB symptoms and initiation of treatment i.e. total delay. Uni- and multi-variate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate predictors of patients', health systems' and total delays. The median time of patients' delay was 21 days [(interquartile range (IQR) (7 days, 60 days)]. The median health systems' delay was 27 days (IQR 8 days, 60 days) and the median total delay was 60 days (IQR 30 days, 121 days). Patients residing in rural areas had a three-fold increase in patients' delay compared to those from urban areas [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 3.4; 95% (CI 1.3, 8.9)]. Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were more likely to experience delay in seeking treatment compared to pulmonary (PTB) cases [(AOR 2.6; 95% (CI 1.3, 5.4)]. Study subjects who first visited health centres [(AOR) 5.1; 95% (CI 2.1, 12.5)], private facilities [(AOR) 3.5; 95% (CI 1.3, 9.7] and health posts [(AOR) 109; 95% (CI 12, 958], were more likely to experience an increase in health systems' delay compared to those who visited hospitals. The majority of TB patients reported to medical providers within an acceptable time after the onset of symptoms. Rural residence was associated with patients' and total delays. Providing the population with information about TB symptoms and the importance of early health seeking may be an efficient way to decrease TB transmission

  2. Prevalence and drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending two public hospitals in East Gojjam zone, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adane, Kelemework; Ameni, Gobena; Bekele, Shiferaw; Abebe, Markos; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-20

    The spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains has become a challenge to the global TB control and prevention program. In Ethiopia, particularly in rural areas, information on drug-resistant TB is very limited. In this study, we determined the drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates from pulmonary TB patients attending two public hospitals in the East Gojjam zone of northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2011 and January 2012 using Region of difference-9 (RD9) typing for the identification of species mycobacterium. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis isolates to the first-line drugs: isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin was performed by the indirect proportion method on Middle brook 7H10 Agar media. Out of 385 pulmonary TB suspects studied, 124 (32.2%) were culture positive among which 120 were M. tuberculosis strains. Susceptibility testing was performed for 89 isolates. Resistance to at least one drug was 15.58% ([12/77], 95% CI: 7.48-23.68) among newly diagnosed and 50.0% ([6/12], 95% CI: 21.71-78.29) among previously treated cases. Resistance among newly diagnosed patients was most common for streptomycin 5.19% (4/77) and ethambutol 5.19% (4/77) followed by rifampicin 3.89% (3/77). Among retreatment cases, isoniazid resistance was most frequent in which 33.33% (4/12) of the isolates were resistant. MDR prevalence was 1.29% (1/77) for newly diagnosed and 16.67% (2/12) for retreatment cases. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age group of 25-34 years (adjusted OR = 4.24; 95% CI: 1.02-17.5; P = 0.046) and previous history of treatment (adjusted OR = 5.42; 95% CI: 1.56-27.49; P = 0.01) were independently associated with anti-TB drug resistance. In general, the magnitude of anti-TB drug resistance including MDR-TB was comparable to previous studies in other areas of Ethiopia. However, rifampicin resistance was high

  3. Improved detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum by the bleach-concentration techinique at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Anagaw, Belay; Mulu, Andargachew; Abate, Ebba; Anagaw, Berhanu; Belay, Tessema; Gelaw, Aschalew; Alemayehu, Martha; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Biadglegne, Fantahun; Schön, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Direct sputum smear microscopy remains the most widespread method for the diagnosis and followup of patients with tuberculosis despite its limited sensitivity. Our aim was to investigate whether sputum smears prepared using liquefaction with household bleach and concentration by centrifugation was more sensitive for the detection and quantification of acid-fast bacilli as compared to smears processed directly from sputum. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia in April 2008. Three consecutive sputum samples were collected from the study participants and examined for acid fast bacilli using the standard direct microscopy as well as the household bleach-concentration technique. Out of 264 samples examined, 33 (12.5 %) were smear positive by direct microscopy and 61 samples (23.2 %) were smear positive by the bleach-concentration method (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4, p < 0.010). There was an absolute increase in the number of acid fast bacilli per slide using the bleach-concentration technique compared to the direct method. The detection of acid fast bacilli was superior in early morning sputum followed by overnight spot samples. The bleach-concentration method for sputum smear samples significantly increased the detection rate of smear positive patients compared to the direct method Thus, a shift from direct sputum microscopy to the bleach-concentration technique should be considered.

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis treatment outcome and its determinants in northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Welay, Getachew Mebrahtu; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for the high mortality rate of this condition in resource-limited settings such as Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify the proportion of poor VL treatment outcomes in northwest Ethiopia and to evaluate the determinants associated with poor outcomes. METHODS A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital in northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7.0 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the determinants of VL treatment outcomes. Adjusted odds ratio (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used, and p-values <0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS The proportion of poor treatment outcomes was 23.7%. Late diagnosis (≥29 days) (aOR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.22 to 8.46), severe illness at admission (inability to walk) (aOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.40) and coinfection with VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (aOR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.40 to 5.20) were found to be determinants of poor VL treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Poor treatment outcomes, such as death, treatment failure, and non-adherence, were found to be common. Special attention must be paid to severely ill and VL/HIV-coinfected patients. To improve VL treatment outcomes, the early diagnosis and treatment of VL patients is recommended. PMID:28092934

  5. Risky sexual practice and associated factors among HIV positive adults attending anti-retroviral treatment clinic at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Risky sexual practice among people living with HIV/AIDS is a public health concern because of the risk of transmission of the virus to sero-discordant partner/s. There is also the risk of re-infection with new, drug resistant viral strains between sero-concordant partners. However, there is lack of information on risky sexual practices among HIV positive adults. Therefore, this study aimed to assess risky sexual practice and associated factors among adult HIV positive clients at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015. Methods An institution based cross sectional study was conducted at Gondar University Referral Hospital from May to June 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Using systematic random sampling technique, a total of 513 respondents were participated in this study. The data were entered into EPI info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. A P-value <0.05 was considered to determine the statistical significance of the association between factors (independent variables) and risky sexual practice. The Odds ratio was also used to determine the presence and the degree of association between the dependent and independent variables. Results A total of 513 respondents were participated in this study. The prevalence of risky sexual practices in the past three months was 38% (95% CI: 33.3%, 42.3%). Being in the age range of 18–29 years (AOR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.47) and 30–39 years (AOR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.48, 3.53), being single (AOR = 6.32, 95%CI: 2.43, 16.44),being married (AOR = 6.06, 95% CI: 2.81, 13.07), having no child (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.17, 5.72), and a CD4 count of greater than 500/mm3 were factors significantly associated with risky sexual practices. Conclusions A considerable number of HIV positive clients had risky sexual practices. It is strongly recommended that the Regional Health Bureau

  6. A cross sectional study on nursing process implementation and associated factors among nurses working in selected hospitals of Central and Northwest zones, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Baraki, Zeray; Girmay, Fiseha; Kidanu, Kalayou; Gerensea, Hadgu; Gezehgne, Dejen; Teklay, Hafte

    2017-01-01

    The nursing process is a systematic method of planning, delivering, and evaluating individualized care for clients in any state of health or illness. Many countries have adopted the nursing process as the standard of care to guide nursing practice; however, the problem is its implementation. If nurses fail to carry out the necessary nursing care through the nursing process; the effectiveness of patient progress may be compromised and can lead to preventable adverse events. This study was aimed to assess the implementation of nursing process and associated factors among nurses working in selected hospitals of central and northwest zones of Tigray, Ethiopia, 2015. A cross sectional observational study design was utilized. Data was collected from 200 participants using structured self-administered questionnaire which was contextually adapted from standardized, reliable and validated measures. The data were entered using Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Data were summarized and described using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship of independent and dependent variable. Then, finally, data were presented in tables, graphs, frequency percentage of different variables. Seventy (35%) of participants have implemented nursing process. Different factors showed significant association. Nurses who worked in a stressful atmosphere of the workplace were 99% less likely to implement the nursing process than nurses who worked at a very good atmosphere. The nurses with an educational level of BSc. Degree were 6.972 times more likely to implement the nursing process than those who were diploma qualified. Nurses with no consistent material supply to use the nursing process were 95.1% less likely to implement the nursing process than nurses with consistent material supply. The majority of the participants were not implementing the nursing process properly. There are many factors that hinder them

  7. Factors associated with late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) diagnosis among peoples living with it, Northwest Ethiopia: hospital based unmatched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Aniley, Abebayehu Bitew; Ayele, Tadesse Awoke; Zeleke, Ejigu Gebeye; Kassa, Assefa Andargie

    2016-10-12

    Early HIV diagnosis and access to treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent its further spread and to protect the health of those living with the virus. However, delay in diagnosis is the major risk factor for uptake of and response to antiretroviral therapy. Institution-based unmatched case-control study design was used in the study. The study was conducted in Debre-Markos and Finote-Selam Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Cases were people living with HIV who had CD4 count <350cells/mm(3) or WHO clinical stage III and IV regardless of the CD4 count at first presentation and controls were those who had CD4 count ≥350cells/mm(3) or WHO clinical stage I and II. If both criteria were available, the CD4 count was used in the study as World Health Organization recommended. A total of 392 respondents (196 cases and 196 controls) were recruited and selected systematically. The data were collected by trained nurses using chart review and interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was used to identify the factors associated with late HIV diagnosis. About 95.9 % of study participants provided complete response. Having no understanding, compared to having understanding, about HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.7, 95 %CI = 1.08-2.79) and ART (AOR = 2.1, 95 %CI: 1.25-3.72), being tested as a result of symptoms/ illness, compared to being tested for risk exposure (inverted AOR =2.5, 95 %CI: 1.64-4.76), and acquiring HIV through sexual contact, compared to acquiring it through other modes (AOR = 2.5, 95 %CI = 1.52-4.76) were positively and independently associated with late HIV diagnosis. Unlike perceived HIV stigma, having no understanding about HIV and ART, being tested for presence of symptoms/illness, and acquiring HIV through sexual contact were independent and significant factors for late HIV diagnosis.

  8. Frequency of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from blood culture, Gondar University teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jemal; Kebede, Yenew

    2008-04-01

    Bacterial bloodstream infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, with up to one-quarter of affected patients dying as a result of their infection. Up-to-date information on blood culture isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is very important as guide for immediate prescription of antimicrobial agents and monitoring of emergence of drug resistant strains. To determine the frequency of blood culture isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates in Gondar University teaching hospital. This was retrospective analysis of records of blood culture results for febrile patients seen at Gondar University teaching hospital, bacteriology section from March 2001 to April 2005. During the four years period, blood cultures were done for a total of 472 febrile patients. Among these, 233 (49.4%) were females and 239 (50.6%) were males. The median age was 20.5 years (age range of 2 hours to 78 years). Out of these, total of 114 bacterial strains were isolated with culture positivity rate of 24.2%. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated with the highest frequency in 38 (33.3%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 34 (29.8%), Salmonella species other than Salmonella typhi in 12 (10.5%), Klebsiella species in 10 (8.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae in 6 (5.3%), Salmonella typhi in 4 (3.5%), Enterobacter species in 3 (2.6%), Escherichia coli in 2 (1.7%). The gram positive and gram negative bacteria constituted 80 (70.2%) and 34 (29.8%) of the culture isolates, respectively. Culture positivity rates vary as for neonates, 63% (17 out of 27);followed by 25.6% (36 out of 141) in children and 20% (61 out of 304) in adults. The isolates especially gram negative bacteria showed multiple drug resistance, to Ampicillin and penicillin. However, ciprofloxacin is fairly effective against both gram negative and gram positive isolates. An effective documented data may serve as a guide for initial empirical treatment of bloodstream infections

  9. Changing Trends in Prevalence and Antibiotics Resistance of Uropathogens in Patients Attending the Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tiruneh, Moges; Yifru, Sisay; Gizachew, Mucheye; Molla, Kassie; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Moges, Feleke; Endris, Mengistu

    2014-01-01

    Background. In most hospitals of developing countries, urinary tract infections are treated empirically because of lack of culture facilities. This leads to emergence of multiresistant uropathogens. Culturing and drug susceptibility testing are essential to guide therapy. Objectives. To assess changing prevalence and resistance pattern of uropathogens to commonly used antibiotics in a two-year study period. Methods. Urine specimens were collected and cultured. Uropathogens were identified by standard methods and tested for antibiotics resistance. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical sofware. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The commonest isolates in both the previous and present studies were E. coli, Klebsiella, CoNS, S. aureus, Proteus, and Citrobacter species. Previous isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas present isolates developed 31% to 60% resistance to it. Previous isolates were less resistant to gentamycin than the present ones. Multiresistance isolates were predominant in present study than previous ones. Conclusion. E. coli was predominant in the two study periods. Present isolates were more resistant than previous ones. Some previous isolates were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas present isolates were increasingly resistant. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin have been recommended for empiric treatment of urinary tract infections.

  10. Molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia: new phylogenetic lineages found in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Merker, Matthias; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C; Niemann, Stefan

    2013-03-11

    Although Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world's 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries, little is known about strain diversity and transmission. In this study, we present the first in-depth analysis of the population structure and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Northwest Ethiopia. In the present study, 244 M. tuberculosis isolates where analysed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit - variable number tandem repeat 24-loci typing and spoligotyping methods to determine phylogenetic lineages and perform cluster analysis. Clusters of strains with identical genotyping patterns were considered as an indicator for the recent transmission. Of 244 isolates, 59.0% were classified into nine previously described lineages: Dehli/CAS (38.9%), Haarlem (8.6%), Ural (3.3%), LAM (3.3%), TUR (2.0%), X-type (1.2%), S-type (0.8%), Beijing (0.4%) and Uganda II (0.4%). Interestingly, 31.6% of the strains were grouped into four new lineages and were named as Ethiopia_3 (13.1%), Ethiopia_1 (7.8%), Ethiopia_H37Rv like (7.0%) and Ethiopia_2 (3.7%) lineages. The remaining 9.4% of the isolates could not be assigned to the known or new lineages. Overall, 45.1% of the isolates were grouped in clusters, indicating a high rate of recent transmission. This study confirms a highly diverse M. tuberculosis population structure, the presence of new phylogenetic lineages and a predominance of the Dehli/CAS lineage in Northwest Ethiopia. The high rate of recent transmission indicates defects of the TB control program in Northwest Ethiopia. This emphasizes the importance of strengthening laboratory diagnosis of TB, intensified case finding and treatment of TB patients to interrupt the chain of transmission.

  11. Isolation and characterization of multiple drug resistance bacterial pathogens from waste water in hospital and non-hospital environments, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of bacterial isolates from waste water environment as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance and a potential source of novel resistance genes to clinical pathogens is underestimated. This study is aimed at to isolate and characterize public health important bacteria from waste water in hospital and non- hospital environments and evaluate the distribution of multiple drug resistance bacteria in the study area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gondar from January-June 2012. The hospital waste water was taken from different sections of the Gondar University Teaching Hospital. Non- hospital environment samples were taken at different sites of the university campuses, Gondar College of Teachers education, and soft drink factory in Gondar. Samples were aseptically collected, transported and processed with in two hours following standard procedure. Identified organisms were assessed for different antibiotics following Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. All data was registered and entered in to SPSS version 16 computer program. P-values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Result A total of 60 waste water samples were processed for the presence of drug resistance pathogens. Among the total samples 113 bacterial isolates were recovered and of these 65 (57.5%) were from hospital environment and 48 (42.5%) were from non-hospital environment. The most frequently identified bacterium was Klebsiella spp. 30 (26.6%) followed by Pseudomonas spp. 19(16.8%), E. coli (11.5%) and Citrobacter spp (11.5%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%). The over all prevalence of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in this study was 79/113 (69.9%). MDR in hospital environment was found to be 53/68 (81.5%) while in non hospital environment was found to be 26/48 (54.2%). Conclusions Multiple drug resistance to the commonly used antibiotics is high in the study area. The contamination of waste water by antibiotics or other pollutants lead to the rise

  12. Isolation and characterization of multiple drug resistance bacterial pathogens from waste water in hospital and non-hospital environments, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Feleke; Endris, Mengistu; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Worku, Walelegn

    2014-04-05

    The importance of bacterial isolates from waste water environment as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance and a potential source of novel resistance genes to clinical pathogens is underestimated. This study is aimed at to isolate and characterize public health important bacteria from waste water in hospital and non- hospital environments and evaluate the distribution of multiple drug resistance bacteria in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gondar from January-June 2012. The hospital waste water was taken from different sections of the Gondar University Teaching Hospital. Non- hospital environment samples were taken at different sites of the university campuses, Gondar College of Teachers education, and soft drink factory in Gondar. Samples were aseptically collected, transported and processed with in two hours following standard procedure. Identified organisms were assessed for different antibiotics following Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. All data was registered and entered in to SPSS version 16 computer program. P-values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. A total of 60 waste water samples were processed for the presence of drug resistance pathogens. Among the total samples 113 bacterial isolates were recovered and of these 65 (57.5%) were from hospital environment and 48 (42.5%) were from non-hospital environment. The most frequently identified bacterium was Klebsiella spp. 30 (26.6%) followed by Pseudomonas spp. 19(16.8%), E. coli (11.5%) and Citrobacter spp (11.5%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%). The over all prevalence of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in this study was 79/113 (69.9%). MDR in hospital environment was found to be 53/68 (81.5%) while in non hospital environment was found to be 26/48 (54.2%). Multiple drug resistance to the commonly used antibiotics is high in the study area. The contamination of waste water by antibiotics or other pollutants lead to the rise of resistance due to selection

  13. Blood donation practice and its associated factors among health professionals of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Arage, Getachew; Ibrahim, Seada; Adimasu, Endeshaw

    2017-07-19

    Blood donation has remained a challenge in developing countries, like Ethiopia. In Ethiopia there is a high reliance on family surrogate and waged blood donors which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Health workers are expected to practice blood donation so as to create a good image to the public. A study on blood donation behavior may improve successful implementation of the blood donation programs. An institution based cross-sectional study was deployed from January to June 2015. An aggregate of 427 health workers were included in the study by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by using pre tested and structured questionnaire via self-administrated method. Descriptive and summary statistics were employed. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were computed. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the level of significance. A total of 427 participants were included in the final analysis (response rate = 100%). Among these participants, 33.2% of them practice blood donation. Age above 25 years [AOR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.1, 3.0)], health professionals' knowledge of blood donation [AOR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 3.1)], health professionals' attitude towards blood donation [AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1. 8, 4.9)], and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood [AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 3.7, 8.7)] were significantly and independently associated with blood donation behavior of health professionals. Blood donation practice of health professionals in this study was found to be low as compared to other studies conducted in developing countries. Health professionals' knowledge, attitude, age and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood before were independently associated with blood donation practice. Thus, awareness has to be created for health professionals to improve blood donation practices.

  14. Phenotypic variation of native chicken populations in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Halima, Hassen; Neser, F W C; van Marle-Koster, E; de Kock, A

    2007-10-01

    Seven indigenous chicken populations were identified and characterized from four administrative zones in northwest Ethiopia. A total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage color. About 25.49, 22.3, and 16.4 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colors, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity like black, multicolor, black with white tips, red brownish and white with red striped plumage colors. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain head shape (51.18%), yellow shank color (64.42%) and pea comb (50.72%). About 97.52% of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed on quantitative characters such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits characterized on intensive management system.

  15. Change in serum level of vitamin D and associated factors at early phase of bone healing among fractured adult patients at University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a prospective follow up study.

    PubMed

    Fentaw, Yalelet; Woldie, Haile; Mekonnen, Solomon; Tsegaye, Adino Tesfahun

    2017-09-05

    Currently, Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem and it affects more than one billion people worldwide. Vitamin D is crucial for bone mineralization and ossification. Patients with fractures need Vitamin D for the healing of their fractured bone. The current study was carried out to determine if there is change in the serum level of Vitamin-D associated with factors at early phase of fractured bone healing (ossification) process among adult fractured patients at University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. This facility-based prospective follow up study was conducted from March to June 2016. Data was collected by an interviewer, and pretested and structured questionnaires were used. Biological samples were collected to determine the serum level of vitamin-D in all subjects. In addition, X-Ray findings were used to determine the early phase of bone healing process. Data was entered into EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to screen for factors associated with decreased serum levels of Vitamin-D. In the Multivariate regression analysis, those variables which had a P-value of <0.05 were considered as independently associated with change in serum level of Vitamin-D. A total of 118 adult patients with fractures participated in this study. The prevalence of patients' with decreased serum levels of vitamin-D at post-test was 63.6% [95% CI; (0.551-0.720)]. Inadequate intake of milk and milk products in the 1st week of fracture [AOR = 95%CI: 0.20 (0.05-0.90)], Poor Dietary Diversity Score [AOR = 95% CI: 29.1 (2.27-371.65)], and ossified bone [AOR =95% CI: 4.10 (1.12-14.95)] showed statistically significant association with decreased serum level of Vitamin-D. Decreased serum level of Vitamin-D at early phase of fractured bone healing process was found in the majority of patients (>63%) raising concern

  16. 2. View northwest of main hospital building complex, hospital building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northwest of main hospital building complex, hospital building (Building 90), administration and clinical hospital building (Building 88), and hospital building (Building 91) - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers Western Branch, 4101 South Fourth Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  17. Institution Based Prospective Cross-Sectional Study on Patterns of Neonatal Morbidity at Gondar University Hospital Neonatal Unit, North-West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kokeb, Mehretie; Desta, Teshome

    2016-01-01

    Every year, millions of babies are born and a large proportion of them are being admitted to hospital for various indications. This study was conducted to identify the general characteristics, disease spectrum and common causes of Neonatal morbidity and mortality at Gondar University Hospital, Neonatal Unit. Institution based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Gondar University Hospital (GUH), Neonatal Unit, from January 1(st) to March 31(st), 2014. The study included 325 newborns who were admitted to the unit during the study period. The neonates were followed up using structured checklist and neonatal parameters like Neonatal sex, place of delivery, address, length of stay, gestational age, diagnosis and discharge conditions were transcribed into an electronic database for all observations. The primary outcome measures were death and cause of death. A total of 325 neonates were admitted during the study period. Of these, 75.1%, 23.1%, 1.2% and 0.6% were discharged improved, died, discharged with same condition and disappeared, respectively. Ten variables were found to have significant statistical associations with neonatal mortality after adjusting for demographic covariates: Prematurity (p < 0.001), Meningitis (p <0.001), Hemorrhagic Diseases (P <0.001), Hyaline Membrane Disease (P<0.001), Neonatal Sepsis (p <0.05), Meningitis (<0.05), Perinatal Asphyxia (p <0.05), Neonatal Seizure (p <0.05), Home delivery (p <0.05) and Meconium Aspiration (p <0.05). Our study showed that the common causes of neonatal mortality are almost similar with the previous evidences (problems of prematurity, Asphyxia and Sepsis).

  18. Risk factors for postoperative throat pain after general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gemechu, Biruk Melkamu; Gebremedhn, Endale Gebreegziabher; Melkie, Tadesse Belayneh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative sore throat is listed from the top as patients’ most undesirable outcome in the postoperative period. It is believed to originate from mucosal dehydration or edema, tracheal ischemia secondary to the pressure of endotracheal tube cuffs, aggressive oropharyngeal suctioning, and mucosal erosion from friction between delicate tissues and the endotracheal tube. Even if the problem was indicated in many literatures, it has never been studied in our country. The study aimed to assess prevalence and factors associated with postoperative sore throat among patients who were operated under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Methods Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from February 25 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar University hospital. Patient interview and chart review were employed for data collection. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine the association. Results A total of 240 out of 299 patients were included in this study with a response rate of 80.3%. The prevalence of postoperative sore throat within 48 hours after operation was 59.6%. Factors which had association with postoperative sore throat from the multivariate logistic regression were female sex (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.07, 10.375), repeated number of attempts to intubate (AOR = 3.291, 95% CI: 1.658, 6.531), and the use of nasogastric tube (AOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.174, 0.965) respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of postoperative sore throat was high in Gondar University Hospital. Awareness creation about the problem should be made for health professionals and postoperative sore throat management protocol need to be introduced. PMID:28904657

  19. Bacterial Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Wound Infections among Inpatients and Outpatients Attending the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Aynalem; Tiruneh, Moges

    2017-01-01

    Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media. The bacterial pathogens were identified using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion technique following Kirby-Bauer method. Results. A total of 137 study subjects were included in the study with bacterial isolation rate of 115 (83.9%). Of all, 81 (59.1%) were males. Seventy-seven (57%) of the isolates were Gram-negative and 59 (43%) were Gram-positive. From the total isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant isolate 39/115 (34%) followed by Klebsiella species (13%), coagulase negative staphylococci spp. (12%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin (86.4%), amoxicillin (83%), penicillin (81.3%), oxacillin (74.6%), and tetracycline (59.4%), while Gram-negative isolates were resistant to amoxicillin (97.4%), ampicillin (94.8%), tetracycline (72.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%), and chloramphenicol (54.5%). Conclusion. High prevalence of bacterial isolates was found, Staphylococcus aureus being the most dominant. High rates of multiple drug resistance pathogens to the commonly used antimicrobial agents were isolated. Therefore, concerned bodies should properly monitor the choice of antibiotics to be used as prophylaxis and empiric treatment in the study area. PMID:28386280

  20. Hematological Parameters and Hemozoin-Containing Leukocytes and Their Association with Disease Severity among Malaria Infected Children: A Cross-Sectional Study at Pawe General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birhanu, Muluken; Adissu, Wondimagegn; Yemane, Tilahun; Zemene, Endalew

    2017-01-01

    Hematological parameter changes are the most common complications in malaria. We aimed to determine the hematological parameters and hemozoin-containing leukocytes and their association with disease severity in malaria infected children aged between 1 and 15 years. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Pawe General Hospital from July 31 to December 30, 2014. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each study participant for hematological investigations. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The overall prevalence of anemia was 40.3%, most of which were mildly anemic. Leukocytosis was found in 15.4% of study participants. More than a fourth (27%) of the children had severe malaria. Hemozoin-containing monocytes and neutrophils were found in 80.1% and 58.9% of the study participants, respectively. Under-five years of age (AOR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.83–7.39, P < 0.001), leukocytosis (AOR = 3.20, 95% CI: 1.65–6.24, P = 0.001), mean hemozoin-containing monocytes >5% (AOR = 6.26, 95% CI: 2.14–14.29, P < 0.001), mean hemozoin-containing neutrophils >5% (AOR = 7.93, 95% CI: 3.09–16.86, P < 0.001), and high density parasitemia (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.13–3.18, P = 0.015) were associated with severe malaria. Hemozoin-containing leukocytes, leukocytosis, and other identified associated factors should be considered for proper management of children with severe malaria. PMID:28298924

  1. First-line antiretroviral treatment failure and associated factors in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Kumilachew, Dawit; Belay, Assefa; Getu, Samson; Teju, Derso; Endale, Desalegn; Tsegaye, Yemisirach; Wale, Zebiba

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. But treatment failure erodes this advantage and leads to an increased morbidity and compromised quality of life in HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with first-line ART failure in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. Patients and methods A retrospective study was conducted on 340 adults who had started ART during the period of September 2011 to May 2015. Data regarding patients’ sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and treatment-related information were collected through review of their medical charts. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, and binary and multiple logistic regressions were utilized. P<0.05 was used to declare association. Results Among the 340 patients enrolled, 205 were females (60.3%). The mean age at ART initiation was 34.4 years. A total of 14 (4.1%) patients were found to have treatment failure. The median duration of treatment failure from initiation of treatment was 17.5 months (8–36 months). Poor adherence to treatment and low baseline CD4 cell count were found to be significant predictors of treatment failure. Conclusion The prevalence of first-line ART failure was 4.1%. Treatment failure was most likely to occur for the patients who had poor drug adherence and those who were delayed to start ART till their CD4 cell count became very low (<100 cells/mm3). PMID:27621669

  2. Hematological Parameters and Hemozoin-Containing Leukocytes and Their Association with Disease Severity among Malaria Infected Children: A Cross-Sectional Study at Pawe General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Birhanu, Muluken; Asres, Yaregal; Adissu, Wondimagegn; Yemane, Tilahun; Zemene, Endalew; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2017-01-01

    Hematological parameter changes are the most common complications in malaria. We aimed to determine the hematological parameters and hemozoin-containing leukocytes and their association with disease severity in malaria infected children aged between 1 and 15 years. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Pawe General Hospital from July 31 to December 30, 2014. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each study participant for hematological investigations. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The overall prevalence of anemia was 40.3%, most of which were mildly anemic. Leukocytosis was found in 15.4% of study participants. More than a fourth (27%) of the children had severe malaria. Hemozoin-containing monocytes and neutrophils were found in 80.1% and 58.9% of the study participants, respectively. Under-five years of age (AOR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.83-7.39, P < 0.001), leukocytosis (AOR = 3.20, 95% CI: 1.65-6.24, P = 0.001), mean hemozoin-containing monocytes >5% (AOR = 6.26, 95% CI: 2.14-14.29, P < 0.001), mean hemozoin-containing neutrophils >5% (AOR = 7.93, 95% CI: 3.09-16.86, P < 0.001), and high density parasitemia (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.13-3.18, P = 0.015) were associated with severe malaria. Hemozoin-containing leukocytes, leukocytosis, and other identified associated factors should be considered for proper management of children with severe malaria.

  3. Nurse uniform wearing practices and associated factors among nurses working in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based study.

    PubMed

    Desta, Etaferahu Alamaw; Gebrie, Mignote Hailu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2015-01-01

    Wearing uniforms help in the formation of professional identity in healthcare. It fosters a strong self image and professional identity which can lead to good confidence and better performance in nursing practice. However, most nurses in Ethiopia are not wearing nursing uniforms and the reasons remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this research is to assess nurse uniform wearing practices among nurses and factors associated with such practice in hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2014 in five hospitals located in Northwest Ethiopia. A total 459 nurses participated in the study. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were analyzed in order to characterize the study population. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were computed to identify factors associated with nursing uniform practice. Nurse uniform wearing practice was found to be 49.2 % of the total sample size. Around 35 % of the respondents that did not implement nurse uniform wearing practices stated that there was no specific uniform for nurses recommended by hospital management. In addition to this, nurse uniform wearing practices were positively associated with being female [AOR = 1.58, 95 % CI (1.02, 2.44)], studying nursing by choice [AOR =3.16, 95 % CI (2.03, 4.92)], and the appeal of nursing uniforms to nurses [AOR = 3.43 95 % CI (1.96, 5.98)]. Nurse uniform wearing practices were not exceptionally prevalent in Northwest Ethiopian hospitals. However, encouraging students to pursue interest-based careers and implementing a nurse uniform wearing policy may have the potential to improve such practices.

  4. Childhood tuberculosis: management and treatment outcomes among children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Zemene Tigabu; Taye, Belaynew Wasie; Matebe, Yohannes Hailu

    2017-01-01

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) treatment is becoming a major challenge in the TB control efforts of the Ethiopian health system. This study assessed childhood tuberculosis management, and treatment outcomes among children who completed anti-TB treatment in Northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among children who completed their anti-TB treatment in Gondar University Referral Hospital and 6 satellite health centers. Data from each child with tuberculosis were obtained from review of medical records. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The commonest method of childhood TB diagnosis was clinical assessment combined with chest x-ray (48.5%). Absence of compliance with TB treatment guideline (98.7%), providing inadequate anti-TB regimen (1.8%), and poor adherence to treatment (22.5%) were challenges in management of childhood tuberculosis. Treatment success rate was 78.9%. In the bivariate regression, factors associated with TB treatment outcomes were permanent residence (OR=8.3, 95%CI: 4.1, 16.7), antiretroviral therapy (OR=4.5, 95%CI: 1.2, 16), and adherence to treatment (p < 0.001). After controlling for confounders, adherence to anti-TB treatment (OR=0.003, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.02) was independent predictor of treatment success. Anti-tuberculosis treatment success rate was still low among children in Northwest Ethiopia. The health centers and hospital shall enhance strong follow-up of children on anti-tuberculosis treatment to improve treatment success with focus on rural children.

  5. 5. Hospital Point, northeast bulkhead (typical), view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Hospital Point, northeast bulkhead (typical), view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  6. Knowledge and practice of tuberculosis infection control among health professionals in Northwest Ethiopia; 2011.

    PubMed

    Temesgen, Chanie; Demissie, Meaza

    2014-11-19

    Tuberculosis (TB) is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, making the risk of infection transmission high in these countries. Despite high prevalence of TB and expected high probability of nosocomial transmission in Ethiopia, a rapid assessment done in 2008 revealed that most health facilities in Ethiopia do not use tuberculosis infection control (TBIC) practices. Patients and providers are therefore at risk of exposure to TB, especially at high case load facilities. The purpose of this study was to assess TBIC knowledge and practices among health professionals working in hospitals in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia. An institution-based hybrid study was implemented form August 2010 to January 2011. The subjects were health professionals who were proportionally selected from each hospital. Subjects self-administered a questionnaire that contained sections on socio-demographics and on TBIC knowledge and practice. Those answering ≥60% of knowledge questions correctly and ≥50% of practice questions correctly were considered to have good knowledge and practice, respectively. A total of 313 healthcare professionals were enrolled from four healthcare facilities. The response rate was 96%. Only 18.8% received in-service training. Among those who were trained, 74.4%, 95% CI (69.6, 79.3%) were found to have good knowledge and 63.2%, 95% CI (57.9, 68.6%) good practice on TBIC. Training was found to be a predictor of TBIC knowledge, AOR* 3.386 and 95% CI (1.377, 8.330) while knowledge of TBIC was a strong predictor of good TBIC practice, AOR* 10.667 and 95% CI (5.769, 19.721). Though the majority of the respondents had good TBIC knowledge and practice, a considerable proportion of healthcare professionals were not trained on TBIC. Respondents trained on TBIC were found to be more knowledgeable than those not trained. Similarly, respondents with good TBIC knowledge were 10 times more likely to have good TBIC practice compared to those with poor TBIC knowledge

  7. Spatial patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and relationships to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Viney, Kerri; McBryde, Emma S; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia. An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015. District level population data were extracted from the Ethiopia National and Regional Census Report. Spatial autocorrelation was explored using Moran's I statistic, Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), and the Getis-Ord statistics. A multivariate Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation approach with Gibbs sampling, in WinBUGS. A total of 264 MDR-TB patients were included in the analysis. The overall crude incidence rate of MDR-TB for the six-year period was 3.0 cases per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was observed in Metema (21 cases per 100,000 population) and Humera (18 cases per 100,000 population) districts; whereas nine districts had zero cases. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was observed in districts located in the Ethiopia-Sudan and Ethiopia-Eritrea border regions, where large numbers of seasonal migrants live. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was positively associated with urbanization (RR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04) and the percentage of men (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.99) in the districts; after accounting for these factors there was no residual spatial clustering. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB, fully explained by demographic factors (urbanization and percent male), was detected in the border regions of northwest Ethiopia, in

  8. Spatial patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and relationships to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Viney, Kerri; McBryde, Emma S.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia. Methods An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015. District level population data were extracted from the Ethiopia National and Regional Census Report. Spatial autocorrelation was explored using Moran’s I statistic, Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), and the Getis-Ord statistics. A multivariate Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation approach with Gibbs sampling, in WinBUGS. Results A total of 264 MDR-TB patients were included in the analysis. The overall crude incidence rate of MDR-TB for the six-year period was 3.0 cases per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was observed in Metema (21 cases per 100,000 population) and Humera (18 cases per 100,000 population) districts; whereas nine districts had zero cases. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was observed in districts located in the Ethiopia-Sudan and Ethiopia-Eritrea border regions, where large numbers of seasonal migrants live. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was positively associated with urbanization (RR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04) and the percentage of men (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.99) in the districts; after accounting for these factors there was no residual spatial clustering. Conclusion Spatial clustering of MDR-TB, fully explained by demographic factors (urbanization and percent male), was detected in the border

  9. High incidence of interpersonal violence in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Bewket Tiruneh; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Kelkay, Mengistu Mekonnen; Adane, Kasaw Chuffa; Gorgas, Diane L

    2015-07-01

    Interpersonal violence has devastating consequences for the mental, physical and sexual health of the victim. It is a leading cause of injury in east Africa. Studies in Ethiopia report that the most common cause of injury was interpersonal conflict. Our objective was to study the incidence of interpersonal violence related injury and associated factors among patients visiting the emergency department of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional institutional based study design was employed from November 2013-June 2014. The source population was a cohort sample of all patients presenting for treatment of a traumatic injury. Data were collected using injury surveillance guidelines developed by the World Health Organization. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify the presence and strength of association. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. The overall incidence of interpersonal violence related injury was 28.5% of all emergency department trauma patients. Multivariate logistic regression shows that conflict in the family prior to the event [AOR = 9.9 (95% CI: 4.433-9.536)], poor behavioral control [AOR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.192-5.460)], alcohol use [AOR =  .406 (95% CI: 1.813-6.398)] and paternal education [AOR = 2.441(95% CI: 1.209-4.929)] were found to be independently associated with interpersonal violence related injury. The incidence of interpersonal violence related injury was high. Counseling and education on conflict resolution methods should be given for the community using mass media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to be a major public health problem among women of reproductive age in South East Asia and Africa. In Ethiopia, there are no studies conducted on serum vitamin A status of HIV-infected pregnant women. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the level of serum vitamin A and VAD among pregnant women with and without HIV infection in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L) was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P < 0.05). Likewise, the level of serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive non-pregnant women (0.74 ± 0.39) was significantly lower than that in HIV negative non-pregnant women (1.18 ± 0.59 μmol/L, P < 0.004). VAD (serum retinol < 0.7 μmol/L) was observed in 18.4% and 17.7% of HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women, respectively. Forty six percent of non-pregnant women with HIV infection had VAD while only 28% controls were deficient for vitamin A (P = 0.002). Conclusion The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A) supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection. PMID:21762514

  11. 6. Hospital Point, stairs at northwest bulkhead, view to north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Hospital Point, stairs at northwest bulkhead, view to north - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  12. 12. 1960 highrise hospital, front (south) facade, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. 1960 high-rise hospital, front (south) facade, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  13. Clinical aspects of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in North-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Gebregziabiher, Berhane; Assefa, Abraham; Lakew, Wubishet; Belew, Zewdu; Hailu, Asrat; Boelaert, Marleen; van Griensven, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in north-west Ethiopia is causing an overwhelming case load among adult migrant workers that masked the disease burden in children. This study describes the clinical profile and explores comorbidities in paediatric VL patients. A prospective study at two hospitals in this region (Gondar and Humera) was conducted in a year period, 2011-2012. The clinical manifestations and comorbidities such as malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency and HIV infection were assessed, and treatment outcomes noted. A total of 122 children with VL were detected during the study period with median age of 8.5 years (IQR 5-12 years); 23% were under 5 years. Eighty-five (69.7%) cases were male. The clinical manifestations were similar to the adult patients. High rates of malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis (47.5%) and hypovitaminosis D (56.4%) were detected. The proportion of stunting and wasting was 63% and 22.2% in children aged under five years, and 50.5% and 75.9% in 5-year and older children, respectively, using WHO standard growth curves. Only one child had HIV infection. In 95% of the cases, sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days) was used for treatment. The treatment success rate at end of therapy was 98.3%, but the definitive outcome at 6 months could not be determined because of a high loss to follow-up (80.2%). While HIV co-infection was rare, malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency were frequent indicating the need for further research on their role in the pathophysiology. Meanwhile, systematic assessment and management of malnutrition and intestinal parasitosis in VL programmes is recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Determinants for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia: a multicentre case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Awoke, Worku; Wilder-Smith, Annalies

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify determinants for tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia. Design Case–control study. Setting Three hospitals and 10 health centres in Northwest Ethiopia. Participants A total of 446 individuals consented to participate in the study (150 cases and 296 controls). Cases were HIV-infected adults diagnosed with active TB, and controls were HIV-infected adults without active TB. Main outcome measure The link between TB and determinants was assessed using logistic regression. Determinants were categorised as sociodemographic, host-related, clinical and environmental. Results Smoking (adjusted OR (AOR) 5.47; 95% CI 2.26 to 13.22), presence of a TB patient in the family (AOR 2.66; 95% CI 1.25 to 5.66), alcohol consumption (AOR 2.49; 95% CI 1.29 to 4.80) and chewing khat (AOR 2.22; 95% CI 1.11 to 4.41) were independent determinants for increased occurrence of TB. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (AOR 0.25; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.51), isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41) and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (AOR 0.32; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.55) had a protective effect against TB. Conclusions HIV-infected adults with substance abuse (tobacco smoking, khat chewing and alcohol) should be prioritised for TB screening. This study reaffirmed that HAART and IPT are some of the best strategies for reducing TB occurrence in HIV-infected adults. These findings provide impetus to intensify tracing of TB household contacts. PMID:27084271

  15. Determinants for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia: a multicentre case-control study.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Awoke, Worku; Wilder-Smith, Annalies

    2016-04-15

    The objective of this study was to identify determinants for tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia. Case-control study. Three hospitals and 10 health centres in Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 446 individuals consented to participate in the study (150 cases and 296 controls). Cases were HIV-infected adults diagnosed with active TB, and controls were HIV-infected adults without active TB. The link between TB and determinants was assessed using logistic regression. Determinants were categorised as sociodemographic, host-related, clinical and environmental. Smoking (adjusted OR (AOR) 5.47; 95% CI 2.26 to 13.22), presence of a TB patient in the family (AOR 2.66; 95% CI 1.25 to 5.66), alcohol consumption (AOR 2.49; 95% CI 1.29 to 4.80) and chewing khat (AOR 2.22; 95% CI 1.11 to 4.41) were independent determinants for increased occurrence of TB. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (AOR 0.25; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.51), isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41) and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (AOR 0.32; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.55) had a protective effect against TB. HIV-infected adults with substance abuse (tobacco smoking, khat chewing and alcohol) should be prioritised for TB screening. This study reaffirmed that HAART and IPT are some of the best strategies for reducing TB occurrence in HIV-infected adults. These findings provide impetus to intensify tracing of TB household contacts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING FACILITY NO. 525 AND HOSPITAL (FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING FACILITY NO. 525 AND HOSPITAL (FACILITY No. 515) BEYOND. See CA-2398-CP-8 for detail of the stairway in the distance - Hamilton Field, Amphitheater, North Oakland Drive near East Hospital Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  17. The Needs and Resources of Drug Information at Community Pharmacies in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birarra, Mequanent Kassa

    2017-01-01

    Background Community pharmacists are in a key position to provide information on drugs and thus promote the rational use of drugs. Objectives The present study was designed to determine the needs and resources of drug information in community pharmacies. Methods A prospective institution based cross-sectional study was carried out and data were collected on 48 community pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, using interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Results Almost all pharmacists (N = 47, 97.9%) often receive drug related queries and these were mainly from consumers (N = 41, 85.4%). While most questions relate to drug price (N = 29, 60.4%) and dosage (N = 21, 43.8%), the information resources mainly referred to were drug package inserts and national standard treatment guidelines. However, limited availability of information resources as well as limited ability to retrieve relevant information influenced the practice of pharmacists. Female pharmacists claimed better use of different information resources than males (P < 0.05). Conclusions Community pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, are often accessed for drug related information. But there are limitations in using up to date and most reliable resources. Therefore, intervention aimed at improving pharmacists' access to and evaluation of drug information is urgently needed. PMID:28951876

  18. Childhood Diarrhea Exhibits Spatiotemporal Variation in Northwest Ethiopia: A SaTScan Spatial Statistical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azage, Muluken; Kumie, Abera; Worku, Alemayehu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrhea continues to be a public health problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Detecting clusters and trends of childhood diarrhea is important to designing effective interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate spatiotemporal clustering and seasonal variability of childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective record review of childhood diarrhea was conducted using quarterly reported data to the district health office for the seven years period beginning July 1, 2007. Thirty three districts were included and geo-coded in this study. Spatial, temporal and space-time scan spatial statistics were employed to identify clusters of childhood diarrhea. Smoothing using a moving average was applied to visualize the trends and seasonal pattern of childhood diarrhea. Statistical analyses were performed using Excel® and SaTScan programs. The maps were plotted using ArcGIS 10.0. Results Childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia exhibits statistical evidence of spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal clustering, with seasonal patterns and decreasing temporal trends observed in the study area. A most likely purely spatial cluster was found in the East Gojjam administrative zone of Gozamin district (LLR = 7123.89, p <0.001). The most likely spatiotemporal cluster was detected in all districts of East Gojjam zone and a few districts of the West Gojjam zone (LLR = 24929.90, p<0.001), appearing from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2011. One high risk period from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 (LLR = 9655.86, p = 0.001) was observed in all districts. Peak childhood diarrhea cases showed a seasonal trend, occurring more frequently from January to March and April to June. Conclusion Childhood diarrhea did not occur at random. It has spatiotemporal variation and seasonal patterns with a decreasing temporal trend. Accounting for the spatiotemporal variation identified in the study areas is advised for the prevention and control of

  19. Technical efficiency of selected hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Murad; Debela, Megersa; Bamud, Tewfik

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the relative technical efficiency of 12 hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. Using six-year-round panel data for the period between 2007/08 and 2012/13, this study examines the technical efficiency, total factor productivity, and determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and DEA- based Malmquist productivity index used to estimate relative technical efficiency, scale efficiency, and total factor productivity index of hospitals. Tobit model used to examine the determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. The DEA Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) estimate indicated that 6 (50%), 5 (42%), 3 (25%), 3 (25%), 4 (33%), and 3 (25%) of the hospitals were technically inefficient while 9 (75%), 9 (75%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%) and 8 (67%) of hospitals were scale inefficient between 2007/08 and 2012/13, respectively. On average, Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (MTFP) of the hospitals decreased by 3.6% over the panel period. The Tobit model shows that teaching hospital is less efficiency than other hospitals. The Tobit regression model further shows that medical doctor to total staff ratio, the proportion of outpatient visit to inpatient days, and the proportion of inpatients treated per medical doctor were negatively related with technical inefficiency of hospitals. Hence, policy interventions that help utilize excess capacity of hospitals, increase doctor to other staff ratio, and standardize number of inpatients treated per doctor would contribute to the improvement of the technical efficiency of hospitals.

  20. HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in two referral hospitals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wodajo, Befekadu S; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria; Akpor, Oluwaseyi A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (SAD) and its associated factors in healthcare settings. Primary data were collected from June to September 2014 from two referral hospitals located in north-west Ethiopia. The study used pre-test/post-test design with a non-equivalent control group using a quantitative approach. Healthcare professionals were divided into strata and then, using the stratified random sampling technique, the study participants were selected from each stratum. The median age of study respondents in the treatment group was 32.2 years with standard deviation (SD) of 7.74. The regressions of stigma for the pre-tests of the first hospital and second hospital participants' knowledge about SAD-related issues and perceived risk of HIV infection were found to be significantly associated with stigma in the first hospital. In the first hospital, healthcare professionals who felt HIV risk of infection at different contact points with HIV-positive patients were more than 13 times more likely to present stigmatising attitudes towards the patients (OR = 13.46, p = 0.005). In the second hospital, only perceived risk of infection was significantly associated with stigma (p = 0.036). Interventions to lessen HIV and AIDS-related SAD in healthcare settings must focus on improving the knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals as well as overcoming the institutional barriers existing in the healthcare settings through staff training and hospital strategy development.

  1. Podoconiosis patients’ willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n = 393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. Conclusions The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government’s primary health care system. PMID:24642085

  2. Podoconiosis patients' willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Abreham; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Gedefaw, Molla; Tomczyk, Sara; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil

    2014-03-19

    Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient's willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n=393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government's primary health care system.

  3. Traditional child health practices in communities in north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnew, M B; Damena, M

    1990-01-01

    A study in 3 villages in northwest Ethiopia was designed to find the type and extent of health damaging traditional child practices. The result of the survey showed high rates of uvulectomy and milk teeth extraction, and low rates of eyelid incision and female circumcision. More than 84.5% and 98.8% of the mothers surveyed, respectively, reported milk teeth extraction as a useful treatment for diarrhea and eyelid incision in the treatment of eye disease. The damage done by milk teeth extraction includes complications from unhygienic conditions (e.g. ostitis and osteomyelitis). Although many children survive these ill advised procedures and their complications, the considerable damage done to some of the children makes these procedures serious health hazards. Intensive health education with relevant health activities to correct the use of these traditional practices is advised.

  4. Exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Gete, Yigzaw Kebede

    2015-05-01

    Despite the overall national success in reducing infant mortality rate in Ethiopia, infant mortality rate is still high in northwest Amhara region. This study is conducted in one of the high mortality areas with the aim of identifying risk factors that are associated with infant mortality in Northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A prospective open cohort study involving 1752 infants (1472.4518 person years of follow-up) was undertaken from November 2009 to August 2011. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis was used to estimate infant mortality rate. Risk factors associated with infant mortality were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression. The overall infant mortality rate was 88 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 74.3, 104.9). After controlling other important predictors in multivariate Poisson regression, infants not exclusively breastfed [IRR = 7.86, 95% CI: (5.11, 12.10), )], breast milk initiated after 24 hours of birth [IRR = 4.84,95% CI: (2.94,7.99)], mothers not washing hands with soap after visiting toilet and before feeding child [IRR = 4.61, 95% CI: (2.24, 9.48)], being rural residents [IRR = 2.33, 95% CI: (1.12, 4.88)], infants born within 24 months for the previous birth [IRR = 2.79, 95%CI: (1.88, 4.15)], have increased the risk of infant mortality. In conclusion, exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in this predominantly rural setting where hygienic standards are poor. Supporting mothers to exclusively breast feeding which is cost effective, safe and feasible strategy, can help reduce infant mortality in the study setting.

  5. Predictors of perinatal mortality in rural population of Northwest Ethiopia: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Andargie, Gashaw; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Kebede, Yigzaw

    2013-02-23

    Perinatal mortality is one of the serious challenges in meeting maternal and child Millennium Development Goals in developing countries. Identifying its predictors is an important step to develop focused and appropriate health interventions for reducing perinatal deaths. This study therefore aims at identifying predictors of perinatal mortality in a rural setting in northwest Ethiopia. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance site, northwest Ethiopia, from November 2009 to August 2011. Data were collected by interviewing the mothers or guardians of eligible children. Multiple logistic regressions were employed to identify potential predictors. A total of 1752 eligible children were included in the study. Perinatal mortality rate in the study population was 50.22 per 1000 (95% CI: 39.99, 60.46) total births. In multiple logistic analysis, previous still birth [(AOR = 8.38, 95% CI: 3.94, 17.83)], twin birth [(AOR = 7.09, 95% CI: (3.22, 15.61)], not receiving tetanus toxoid vaccine during the index pregnancy [(AOR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.34)], short birth interval of less than 24 months [(AOR = 2.58, 95% CI: (1.61, 4.13)], maternal illiteracy [(AOR = 4.83, 95% CI: (1.45, 16.05)] and mothers' running own business [(AOR = 5.40, 95% CI: 1.40, 27.96)] were the main predictors associated with increased risk of perinatal death. Predictors of perinatal death in the study area are easily recognizable and potentially preventable with the existing maternal health programs. Efforts need to be intensified in expanding maternal and newborn health services to significantly reduce perinatal mortality in rural settings.

  6. Interior view of pool facing northwest Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pool facing northwest - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. Efficacy of Chloroquine for the Treatment of Vivax malaria in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo; Beyene, Melkamu Bedimo; Ebstie, Yehenew Asmamaw; Desalegn, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance to anti-malarials is a major challenge for effective malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. This triggered a need for routine monitoring of the efficacy of the antimalarial drugs every two years in all malaria endemic countries. Chloroquine remained the drug of choice for the treatment of vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Though, a strong scientific evidence of chloroquine resistance to P.vivax that could have brought change of treatment regimen is yet to be established in Ethiopia, continuous and regular monitoring of drug’s efficacy is critical for establishing rational anti-malarial drug policies. This study therefore, assessed the therapeutic efficacy of Chloroquine (CQ) for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections in Northwestern Ethiopia. Methods An observational, 28- day therapeutic clinical efficacy study was conducted from August to December, 2014, in Northwest Ethiopia. Patients confirmed to have monoinfection of vivax malaria, aged above 6 months were included. All subjects were treated with standard chloroquine dose of 25 mg/kg for three (3) days. Parasitological and clinical outcomes of treated patients were then evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 during the entire 28-day follow-up period. A portable spectrophotometer (HemoCue Hb 301 System, Sweden) was used to estimate hemoglobin concentration. Results A total of 69 subjects had completed follow up. Some 57/69 (82.6%) had fever at enrolment and the rest 12 patients 48 hours before enrollment. Out of total, 65/69 (94.2%) and 66/69 (95.6%) of the study subjects were free of fever by day 1 and day 2 respectively but fever was cleared in all subjects by day 3. At base line the mean asexual parasitemia was 3540 parasites/μL of blood. Parasite carriage on day 3 was 3%. The overall cure rate (an adequate and clinical parasitological response) was very high (97%) [(95% CI = 93.1–99.4)]. The time to parasite, fever and gametocyte clearance as expressed in mean (SD) was 35 (3

  8. Recovery rate and associated factors of children age 6 to 59 months admitted with severe acute malnutrition at inpatient unit of Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral hospital therapeutic feeding unite, northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desyibelew, Hanna Demelash; Fekadu, Abel; Woldie, Haile

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite numerous advances made in improving child health and the clinical management protocols for treating severe acute malnutrition at treatment centers, evidences concerning the treatment outcomes are scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the recovery rate and associated factors of severely acute malnourished children of age 6 to 59 months admitted to inpatient therapeutic feeding unit at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. Methods We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study including 401 severely malnourished children who were admitted from September 2012 to January 2016. Bivariable and a Multivariable logistic regression model were fitted to identify factors associated with recovery rate. Adjusted Odds ratio with its 95% CI was reported and P-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Fifty eight percent (58.4%) (95%CI: 53.1–64.1) of admitted children were recovered with a mean recovery time of 18 (±6.3) days. Being female, children who were fully and partially vaccinated, who had better MUAC measurement, who stayed longer in the hospital, and children who took routine vitamin-A supplementation had better recovery rate. However, children who had co-morbidity at admission, had human immune virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) infection, and who had edema were less likely to recover. Interpretation Recovery rate was low as compared to international SPHERE cutoff points (> 75% recovery rate). Interventions that could address the outlined factors would be helpful to improve treatment recovery rate of admitted children. PMID:28166247

  9. Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…

  10. Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…

  11. Prevalence of disability and associated factors in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Chala, Mulugeta Bayisa; Mekonnen, Solomon; Andargie, Gashaw; Kebede, Yigzaw; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Alemu, Kassahun; Awoke, Tadesse; Wubeshet, Mamo; Azmeraw, Temesgen; Birku, Melkamu; Tariku, Amare; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Shimeka, Alemayehu; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2017-10-02

    Despite the high burden of disability in Ethiopia, little is known about it, particularly in the study area. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with disability at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, northwest Ethiopia. A population-based study was conducted from October to December 2014 at Dabat HDSS site. A total of 67,395 people were included in the study. The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with disability. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to show the strength of association. A p-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. One thousand two hundred twenty-eight individuals were reported to have a disability giving a prevalence rate of 1.82%, of which, about 39% was related to a vision disability. The high odds of disability were observed among the elderly (≥50 years) [AOR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.95, 10.33], severely food in-secured [AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.59, 2.80], and separated marital status [AOR: 7.52; 95% CI: 1.18, 47.84]. While having a paid job [AOR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.77], being in the richest quintile [AOR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.75], and high engagement in work-related physical activities [AOR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.49] were inversely associated with the disability. Disability is a major public health problem, and the burden is noticeable in the study area. Vision disability is the highest of all disabilities. Thus, efforts must be made on educating the public about disability and injury prevention. Measures that reduce disability should target the elderly, the poorer and the unemployed segment of the population.

  12. Childhood diarrhea in high and low hotspot districts of Amhara Region, northwest Ethiopia: a multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    Azage, Muluken; Kumie, Abera; Worku, Alemayehu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2016-05-16

    Childhood diarrhea is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. Multiple factors at different levels contribute to the occurrence of childhood diarrhea. The objective of the study was to identify the factors affecting childhood diarrhea at individual and community level. A cross-sectional study design was employed from February to March 2015 in high and low hotspot districts of Awi and West and East Gojjam zones in Amhara Region, northwest Ethiopia. Districts with high and low hotspots with childhood diarrhea were identified using SaTScan spatial statistical analysis. A total of 2495 households from ten (five high and five low hotspot) randomly selected districts were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered and cleaned in Epi Info 3.5.2 version and analyzed using Stata version 12. A multilevel logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with childhood diarrhea. The prevalence of childhood diarrhea was 13.5 % and did not show significant variation between high [14.3 % (95 % CI 12.3-16.2 %)] and low [12.7 % (95 % CI 10.9-14.6 %)] hotspot districts. Individual- and community-level factors accounted for 35 % of childhood diarrhea variation across the communities in the full model. Age of children (6-35 months), complementary feeding initiation below 6 months, inadequate hand washing practices, limited knowledge of mothers on diarrhea, lowest wealth status of households, and longer time interval to visit households by health extension workers were factors for increasing the odds of childhood diarrhea at the individual level. At the community level, lack of improved water supply and sanitation and unvaccinated children with measles and rotavirus vaccine were the factors associated with childhood diarrhea. In this study, childhood diarrhea occurrences remained high. Both individual- and community-level factors determined the occurrence of diarrhea. Interventions should consider both

  13. Successful TB treatment outcome and its associated factors among TB/HIV co-infected patients attending Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: an institution based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sinshaw, Yenework; Alemu, Shitaye; Fekadu, Abel; Gizachew, Mucheye

    2017-02-08

    Tuberculosis/Human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) co-infection is bidirectional and synergistic which mainly affects interventions that have been taken on the area. Tb patients co-infected with HIV have poorer treatment outcome as compared to non-co-infected patients. There is limited information regarding successful TB treatment outcomes and its associated factors; a reason that this study was planned to investigate. An institution based cross sectional study was carried out from July 2010 to January 2016. Data were abstracted from patients' medical chart using data abstraction format. The completeness of the data was checked and cleaned manually. Then, it was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Bi-variable and Multi-variable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with successful Tb treatment outcome. Significance was obtained through adjusted odds ratio with its 95% CI and a p < 0.05. Successful TB treatment outcome among TB/HIV co-infected patients in Gondar University Hospital was 77.3% [95%CI 72.6-81.9]. Being residing in outside the Gondar town [AOR = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.25-0.80], having less than the mean baseline weight (<43.7 kg) at initiation of TB treatment [AOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29-0.89], being in the bedridden condition [AOR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.1-0.23], and experiencing anti-TB treatment side effect [AOR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.12-0.98] were the factors that resulted the patient in treatment failure. Successful Tb treatment outcome among TB/HIV co-infected patients was lower than the target set by Global Plan to Stop TB 2011-2015. Strengthening collaborative TB/HIV management activities that would trace the identified factors shall be recommended to increase successful treatment outcome of TB.

  14. Anemia among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Hermela; Wassie, Molla Mesele; Woldie, Haile; Tadesse, Abilo; Mesfin, Nebiyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Anemia is a major public health problem in HIV patients around the world. It has a negative effect on the quality of life of HIV patients and progression of the HIV disease. In the sub-Saharan African setting, including Ethiopia where both HIV infection and under-nutrition are expected to be high, there is a paucity of data on the matter. This study was aimed to reveal the magnitude and factors associated with anemia among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was used among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital from April 1 to May 30, 2015. The diagnosis of anemia was made following the 2011 World Health Organization recommendation on hemoglobin cut-off points. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess factors associated with anemia. Results A total of 377 patients’ charts were reviewed. Most of the participants (n=237, 62.9%) were taking antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of anemia was 23% (95% CI: 19.1, 27.6). Being ART-naïve (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.14), having treatment history with anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug (AOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 8.67), taking zidovudine (ZDV)-containing ART regimen (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.57), and having recent CD4+ T-lymphocytes count of <200 cells/μL (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.36) were associated with occurrence of anemia among adult HIV patients. Conclusion and recommendation Anemia continues to be a major co-morbidity among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia. Adult HIV patients who are taking ZDV-containing ART, with a history of TB treatment, have a low CD4+T-lymphocytes count and are ART-naïve should be carefully screened and treated for anemia. PMID:28243151

  15. Prevalence and determinants of active trachoma among preschool-aged children in Dembia District, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ferede, Ayanaw Tsega; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Tariku, Amare; Adane, Akilew Awoke

    2017-10-09

    Trachoma is an infectious eye disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In areas where trachoma is endemic, active trachoma is common among preschool-aged children, with varying magnitude. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of active trachoma and associated risk factors among preschool-aged children in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among preschool-aged children of northwest Ethiopia. Multistage systematic random sampling was used to select 695 subjects. Trained clinical optometrists subjected each child to an ocular examination and assessed the presence of active trachoma. Face to face interview using pretested and structured questionnaire were conducted to collect data on possible risk factors. Trachoma cases were graded following a World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. All statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS software version 20. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to identify factors associated with active trachoma. Of the 681 preschool-aged children studied, 18% (95% CI: 15.4% - 21.1%) had a prevalence of active trachoma. Children who had clean faces (absence of nasal and ocular discharges) had a lower chance of having active trachoma [aOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37 - 0.82]. The odds of having active trachoma decreased with an increase in the distance to a water point [aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.33 - 0.78]. Similarly, no or poor utilization of liquid waste disposal in the child's household was associated with an increased chance of having active trachoma [aOR = 3.83, 95% CI: 1.26 - 11.61]. The prevalence of active trachoma in these preschool-aged children was found to be high and needs special interventions that focus on educating families about proper face washing, liquid waste disposal, and improving safe water supply near the households.

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of pterygium among adults living in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of pterygium among adults living in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional design study was carried out in 390 participants in Gondar city from April 15 to May 7, 2016. Basic ophthalmic examination was performed using portable slit lamb, 3.5x magnifying loop with torch light and a pretested and structured questionnaire was completed. The raw data has been entered into EPI INFO 3.5.1 and analyzed by SPPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics was summarized descriptive data. Logistic regression was used to summarize the predictors of pterygium. The variables with p-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant risks of pterygium. Result The prevalence of pterygium among study participants was 151(38.7% (95%CI; 33.8–43.8)). Among those who have pterygium, 149(98.7%) were developed pterygium on the nasal side and 15(9.9%) on temporal side of the either eye and 13(8.6%) have both. Age between 41-60(AOR = 2.20(95%CI: 1.22, 3.39)), age between 61-86(AOR = 7.97(95%CI: 2.74, 23.17)), male sex (AOR = 2.20(95%CI: 1.28, 3.82)), outdoor working area(AOR = 3.75(95%CI: 2.18, 6.46)), the use of traditional eye medication (AOR = 2.55 (95%CI: 1.04, 5.90)) and family history of pterygium (AOR = 6.68(95% CI: 2.53, 17.60)) were positively associated with pterygium whereas use of sunglass/hat (AOR = 0.40(95%CI:0.20, 0.78)) was negatively associated. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of pterygium in Gondar city northwest Ethiopia. Old age, male sex, outdoor working area, utilization of traditional eye medication and family history of pterygium were statistically significant predictors of pterygium. The use of sunglass/hat was protective against pterygium. PMID:28358813

  17. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites. PMID:28265572

  18. Preliminary survey of domestic animal visceral leishmaniasis and risk factors in north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kenubih, Ambaye; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Almaw, Gizat; Abebe, Tamerat; Takele, Yegnasew; Hailu, Asrat; Lemma, Wessensegad

    2015-02-01

    After the epidemics of L. donovani complex in 2004/05 in human patients, to investigate the presence of antibodies against L. donovani in domestic animals in north-west Ethiopia. Two hundred and three domestic animals were screened. Serum and biopsy samples were collected. A modified direct agglutination test (DAT) for canine reservoirs was used to screen serum samples at ≥ 1:320 cut-off titre. Giemsa stain and culture on Novy macNeal Nicolae (NNN) media were used for biopsy samples. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to elicit information on potential risk factors. Antibody against L. donovani in domestic animals was detected in 30.5% of animals. The highest seropositivity rates were 41.9% in cattle, 40% in dogs, 33.3% in donkeys, 10% in goats and 4.8% in sheep. No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, skin snip and exudates, bone marrow or lymph node of dogs. Dogs owned by households with history of kala-azar treatment and humans sharing the house with cattle were more affected by visceral leishmaniasis (P < 0.05). This study showed a high serological prevalence of leishmaniasis in domestic animals. Their role in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis remains unclear. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P < 0.05) in sheep but not in goats (P > 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.

  20. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P < 0.05) in sheep but not in goats (P > 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required. PMID:26464950

  1. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Practice and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) plan in resource limited settings to decrease maternal mortality. Therefore, this study was done to assess the status of BPCR and associated factors among pregnant women in South Wollo, Northwest Ethiopia, by involving 819 pregnant women from March to April, 2014. Data were collected by using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.00. Results. Pregnant women who were prepared for at least three elements of BPCR were 24.1%. Pregnant women knowing at least three key danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period were 23.2%, 22.6%, and 9.6%, respectively. Women having secondary education and higher were 6.20 (95% CI = [1.36, 28.120]) times more likely to be prepared than illiterates. Women having a lifetime history of stillbirth [5.80 (1.13, 29.63)], attending ANC for last child pregnancy [5.44 (2.07, 14.27)], participating in community BPCR group discussion [4.36 (1.17, 16.26)], and having their male partner involved in BPCR counseling during ANC follow-up [4.45 (1.95, 10.16)] were more likely to be prepared. Conclusions. BPCR was very low and should be strengthened through health communication by involving partner in BPCR counseling. PMID:27722201

  2. Self-Medication Pattern among Social Science University Students in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. Inappropriate self-medication causes wastage of resources among others. Method. This survey study was conducted to determine self-medication pattern of 404 social science university students in Northwest Ethiopia, who were selected through stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20 statistical software. Binary Logistic Regression analysis was employed with P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Result. At 95.3% response rate, mean age of 21.26 ± 1.76 years, and male/female ratio of 1.26, the prevalence of self-medication during the six month recall period was 32.7%. Headache (N = 87, 69.1%) was the primary complaint that prompted the practice and hence analgesics (N = 67, 53.2%) were the mostly used drugs followed by antimicrobials (N = 50, 39.7%). The top two reasons driving the practice were nonseverity of the illness (N = 41, 32.5%) and suggestions from friends (N = 33, 26.2%). Female sex (P = 0.042) and higher income (P = 0.044) were associated with the practice. Conclusion. Self-medication practice, involving the use of both nonprescription and prescription drugs such as antimicrobials, among the social science university students is high. Therefore health education interventions regarding the risks of inappropriate self-medication are essential. PMID:28191360

  3. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  4. Rate of Recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Frozen Acid-Fast-Bacillus Smear-Positive Sputum Samples Subjected to Long-Term Storage in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at −20°C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at −20°C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  5. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however.

  6. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl), 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl), 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl), 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and

  7. Cultural Competence among Maternal Healthcare Providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Aragaw, Amanu; Yigzaw, Tegbar; Tetemke, Desalegn; G/Amlak, Wubalem

    2015-09-24

    Cultural competency is now a core requirement for maternal health providers working in multicultural society. However, it has not yet received due attention in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the level of cultural competence and its associated factors among maternal health care providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Maternal health care providers from all health facilities were our study participants. Structured Questionnaire with some modification of Campinha Bacote's tool was used to collect quantitative data from health workers and semi structured guide line was used for qualitative data among women. While quantitative data analysis was done using SPSS, qualitative data was analyzed using open code software. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken to determine statistical significance. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal reliability and a factor loading of 0.3 or greater was the criterion used to retain items. Two hundred seventy four health workers and seven women were involved in the study. The overall competency level was 57.3 % thought vary in different subscales or stages. Of the cultural competent health workers near to three fourth (73.0 %) were in awareness stage which is the earliest stage of competence in which individuals were aware only their own culture but not the world view of their clients. The voices of mothers in the qualitative assessment also showed discordance in cultural competence with their healthcare providers. Female health workers almost six times [AOR,5.5; 2.71, 11.30] more competent than male providers and those who got in-service training related to maternal care provided services more culturally competent than their counter parts with [AOR,3.5; 1.4, 8.64]. Reliability Cronbach's α coefficient value of cultural competence subscales showed 0.672,0 .719, 0.658, 0.714, and 0.631 for cultural

  8. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Fantahun, Bereket; Tafess, Ketema; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Yismaw, Gizachew; Ayane, Tilahun; Yabutani, Tomoki; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-13

    Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and 18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl), 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl), 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl), 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient

  9. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  10. Awareness and utilization of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Contraception is a major component of reproductive health. Assessing the levels of contraceptive awareness and use helps to identify potential areas of intervention. Hence, this study was conducted to assess awareness, practice and associated factors of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 204 street women from Gondar and Bahir Dar cities. Participants were recruited from “cluster” sites such as main road sides, isolated slum areas, around Churches and/or Mosques (in the mornings of Sundays and other religious feast days) and streets where street women usually reside and/or sleep. Data were collected using a pre-tested and structured interview questionnaire in local language (Amharic) after informed verbal consent. Data were then entered into SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary logistic regression models were fit to assess associations and control confounding. Associations were measured by the Odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results The mean (±SD) age of participants was 30.9 (± 8.7) years. Majority (90.7%) had ever heard about modern contraceptives. Nearly half (47.1%) had ever used and a third (34.3%) were current users. Three quarter of the current users (74.3%) were using injectables while 10% were on long acting or permanent methods. Marital status (AOR=2.81), family size (AOR=2.67) and age of 25–34 years (AOR=3.45) were associated with modern contraceptive use. Conclusions Current contraceptive use among street women is satisfactory considering their life styles and living conditions. However, further research is required to explain perceptions and hidden barriers. PMID:23031722

  11. Postpartum contraceptive use in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abera, Yeshewas; Mengesha, Zelalem Birhanu; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa

    2015-01-01

    Addressing family planning in the postpartum period is crucial for better maternal, neonatal and child survival because it enables women to achieve healthy interval between births. The contraceptive behavior of women in the postpartum period is usually different from other times in a woman's life cycle due to the additional roles and presence of emotional changes. Therefore, this study is conducted with the aim of assessing the contraceptive behavior of women in the postpartum period. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2013 among women who gave birth one year before the study period in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was employed to recruit a total of 703 study participants. For data collection, a structured and pretested questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics were done to characterize the study population using different variables. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed to identify factors associated with contraceptive use. Nearly half (48.4%) of the postpartum women were using different types of contraceptives. The most commonly used method was injectable (68.5%). Resumption of mensus [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 8.32 95% Confidence Interval (CI): (5.27, 13.14)], age ≤24 years [AOR = 2.36, 95% CI: (1.19, 4.69), duration of 7-9 months after delivery [AOR = 2.26 95% CI: (1.12, 4.54)], and having antenatal care [AOR = 5.76, 95% CI: (2.18, 15.2)] were the factors positively associated with contraceptive use in the extended postpartum period. Postpartum contraceptive practice was lower as compared to the Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2011 report for urban areas. Strengthening family planning counseling during antenatal care visit and postnatal care would improve contraceptive use in the postpartum period.

  12. Herbal Medicines: Personal Use, Knowledge, Attitude, Dispensing Practice, and the Barriers among Community Pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birarra, Mequanent Kassa

    2017-01-01

    Background Herbal medicine use is increasing and the global market is estimated to be US$107 billion by the year 2017. Objectives This study aimed at assessing community pharmacists' personal use, knowledge, attitude, dispensing practice, and the barriers regarding herbal medicines. Methods Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 47 community pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, using a structured interviewing questionnaire. Results Nearly half of the respondents (n = 22, 46.8%) sometimes use herbal medicines. Although knowledge related to such preparations was self-rated as poor/acceptable (n = 34, 72.4%), majority (n = 44, 93.7%) of community pharmacists agree/strongly agree that herbal medicines have beneficial effects. Only 6 (12.7%) of them are sometimes/often engaged in dispensing herbal medicines and most of them (n = 34, 72.3%) rarely/never counseled clients regarding these preparations. Limited knowledge on and access to information regarding herbal medicines are the main barriers to the pharmacists' practice. Conclusion Although community pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, commonly use and demonstrated good attitude towards herbal medicines, they are less involved in dispensing such products. They are also challenged with limited knowledge on and access to herbal medicine information. Thus, pharmacy educators, professional organizations, and the government shall pay more attention to solve the problem. Regulatory provisions on herbal medicine dispensing must be enacted and communicated very well. PMID:28904558

  13. Predictors of treatment failure on second-line antiretroviral therapy among adults in northwest Ethiopia: a multicentre retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Tsegaye, Adino Tesfahun; Wubshet, Mamo; Awoke, Tadesse; Addis Alene, Kefyalew

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of patients using second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased over time. In Ethiopia, 1.5% of HIV infected patients on ART are using a second-line regimen and little is known about its effect in this setting. Objective To estimate the rate and predictors of treatment failure on second-line ART among adults living with HIV in northwest Ethiopia. Setting An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted at three tertiary hospitals in northwest Ethiopia from March to May 2015. Participants 356 adult patients participated and 198 (55.6%) were males. Individuals who were on second-line ART for at least 6 months of treatment were included and the data were collected by reviewing their records. Primary outcome measure The primary outcome was treatment failure defined as immunological failure, clinical failure, death, or lost to follow-up. To assess our outcome, we used the definitions of the WHO 2010 guideline. Result The mean±SD age of participants at switch was 36±8.9 years. The incidence rate of failure was 61.7/1000 person years. The probability of failure at the end of 12 and 24 months were 5.6% and 13.6%, respectively. Out of 67 total failures, 42 (62.7%) occurred in the first 2 years. The significant predictors of failure were found to be: WHO clinical stage IV at switch (adjusted HR (AHR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.1); CD4 count <100 cells/mm3 at switch (AHR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.5); and weight change (AHR 0.92, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.95). Conclusions The rate of treatment failure was highest during the first 2 years of treatment. WHO clinical stage, CD4 count at switch, and change in weight were found to be predictors of treatment failure. PMID:27932339

  14. In vivo efficacy of artemether–lumefantrine against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deressa, Tekalign; Seid, Mengistu Endris; Birhan, Wubet; Aleka, Yetemwork; Tebeje, Biniam Mathewos

    2017-01-01

    Background Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ethiopia since 2004. Antimalarial drug resistance is one of the major obstacles for malaria control and curtails the lifespan of several drugs. Thus, continued monitoring of the efficacy of AL is of great public health importance in malaria endemic areas. Objective This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of AL for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the Dembia district, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A prospective study was conducted from April 2015 to February 2016 at Kola Diba Health Center (KHC) in the Dembia district to determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of AL for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum monoinfection. Patients were treated with the six-dose regimen of AL over 3 days and followed up for 28 days as per the World Health Organization protocol. Results Of the total 80 patients enrolled in the AL efficacy study, 75 patients completed the 28 days follow-up. None of the participants reported major adverse events. No early treatment failure or late clinical failure were observed during the study, but there were 6 (8.0%) late parasitological failures. The uncorrected per protocol cure rate of AL was 92.0 (95% CI: 85.7–98.3). Treatment with AL cleared parasitemia and fever in >95% of the patients by day 3. Conclusion This study showed that AL is well tolerated and remains efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in northwest Ethiopia. However, the observed late parasitological failures in this study are of a concern and warrant continued monitoring of drug efficacy as per the World Health Organization recommendations. PMID:28243110

  15. Determinants of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Ambo Hospital, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengiste, Bezatu; Mesfin, Frehiwot; Godana, Wanzahun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis seen in cases in Ambo Hospital, Ethiopia. Design A facility-based prospective case-control study. Setting Patients attending Ambo Hospital from 01 December 2011 to 29 March 2012. Participants The sample included 312 adult patients attending Ambo Hospital. The main outcome measure was presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Explanatory measures Age, gender, occupation, educational status, marital status, place of residence, patient history of TB, family history of TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, smoking, alcohol intake, khat chewing, body mass index (BMI), employment, diabetes, history of asthma, previous history of worm infestation, history of hospitalisation, number of adults living in the household (HH), person per room, housing condition. Results A total of 312 study participants, including 104 active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases (cases) and 208 non-active PTB cases (controls), were recruited for the present study. Having one or more family member with a history of TB (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.50–12.90), marital status (OR = 7.6; 95% CI: 2.2–12.6), male gender (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4–7), rural residence (OR = 3.3; P = 0.012), being a current or past smoker (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1–7.2), BMI < 18.5 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.03–4.2), HIV infection (OR = 8.8; 95% CI: 2.4–23.8) and a history of worm infestation (OR = 6.4; 95% CI: 2.6–15.4) remained significant independent host-related factors for active PTB. Conclusion Patients who came from a compound with more than two HHs were more likely to develop active PTB than those who came from a compound with only one HH. Those who lived in houses with no windows were more likely to develop active PTB than those who lived in houses with one or more windows, had a family history of TB, lived in rural areas. Sex of the patient was a predicting factor. Not being the owner of the house was

  16. Food Insecurity in Farta District, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross–sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to sufficient food is essential for household welfare as well as for accomplishing other development activities. Households with insufficient access to food often face other challenges related to food insecurity including poor health and a decline in productivity. These challenges can often create a vicious circle whereby households are unable to produce enough food even during a good crop season. Thus, this study aimed to determine the magnitude of food insecurity and its determinants in rural households of Farta District, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2012. Household heads were recruited using a multistage random sampling technique. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) tool after verbal informed consent. Data were entered to Epi info 2002 and exported to SPSS version 16 for analysis. Multiple logistic regressions were fitted and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to identify associated factors and control confounding effect. Results A total of 836 households were included in this study. Nearly three quarters of the households (70.7%) had food insecurity. Households headed by females (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI:1.08, 15.21), lack of education (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.46, 4.60), family size of 4-7 (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.21,4.70), family size of >7 (AOR = 13.23,95% CI:6.18, 28.32), few or absence of livestock (AOR = 5.60, 95% CI:1.28, 24.43), absence of income from off-farm activities (AOR = 3.12, 95% CI:1.53, 6.36), lack of irrigation (AOR = 3.54, 95% CI:2.14, 5.18) and lack of perennial income (AOR = 3.15, 95% CI:1.88, 5.27) were factors associated with food insecurity. Conclusions This study revealed that most households of the district were food insecure. Hence, the promotion of contraceptive use, off-farm employment activities and the development of small

  17. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Moges, Feleke; Fantahun, Bereket; Admassu, Mengesha; Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework

    2012-09-07

    There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years). Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P < 0.05). Fish, fruits and vegetables were consumed less frequently or never at all by a large proportion of the subjects. Oil and butter were eaten daily by most of the participants. Mean energy intakes fell below the estimated energy requirements in women (1929 vs 2031 kcal/day, P = 0.05) while it was significantly higher in men participants (3001 vs 2510 kcal/day, P = 0.007). Protein intake was inadequate (<0.8 g/kg/day) in 11.2% of the participants whereas only 2.8% reported carbohydrate intake below the recommended dietary allowances (130 g/day). Inadequate intakes of calcium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid were seen in 90.4%, 100%, 73%, 92.4%, 86.2% and 95.5% of the participants. The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes

  18. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years). Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P < 0.05). Fish, fruits and vegetables were consumed less frequently or never at all by a large proportion of the subjects. Oil and butter were eaten daily by most of the participants. Mean energy intakes fell below the estimated energy requirements in women (1929 vs 2031 kcal/day, P = 0.05) while it was significantly higher in men participants (3001 vs 2510 kcal/day, P = 0.007). Protein intake was inadequate (<0.8 g/kg/day) in 11.2% of the participants whereas only 2.8% reported carbohydrate intake below the recommended dietary allowances (130 g/day). Inadequate intakes of calcium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid were seen in 90.4%, 100%, 73%, 92.4%, 86.2% and 95.5% of the participants. Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a high-transmission area in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklemariam, Michael; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kassa, Moges; Mohammed, Hussien; Mamo, Hassen

    2017-01-01

    Malaria, particularly due to Plasmodium falciparum, remains a major public health threat in Ethiopia. Artemether-lumefantine (AL) has been the first-line antimalarial drug against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the country since 2004. Regular monitoring of antimalarial drugs is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to help early detection of drug resistant strains of the parasite and contain their rapid spread. The objective of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of AL in a high-transmission setting in Ethiopia. The study site was Setit Humera, northwest Ethiopia. Single-arm prospective study of a 28-day follow-up was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015 according to the revised WHO 2009 drug efficacy study protocol. Study end-points were classified into primary end-point and secondary end-point. While the primary end-point was the day-28 adequate clinical and parasitological response the secondary end-points were clinical and parasitological evaluations (parasite, fever and gametocyte clearance rate, incidence of drug adverse events) and the relative increment in hemoglobin (Hb) level from baseline to day (D) 14 and D28. A total of 92 patients were enrolled and 79 had completed the 28-day follow-up period. The overall cure rate was 98.8% with 95% confidence interval of 0.915-0.998 without polymerase chain reaction correction. The parasite clearance rate was high with fast resolution of clinical symptoms; 100% of the study participants cleared parasitaemia and fever on D3. Gametocyte carriage was reduced from 7% on D0 to 1% on D3 and complete clearance was achieved on D14. Mean Hb concentration significantly increased on D28 compared to that on D14. There was no serious adverse event. AL was efficacious and safe in a high-transmission setting for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

  20. Hospital Bed Occupancy and HIV/AIDS in three Major Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Melesse; Haidar, Jemal

    2010-09-01

    In countries like Ethiopia where the spread of HIV infection is extensive, health services are faced with an increased demand for care. The most obvious reflection of this increased demand is through patient load, longer bed occupancy perhaps to the exclusion of patients with other ailments. The purpose of this study was to describe the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of HIV/AIDS inpatients of three major public hospitals. A Retrospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in three major hospitals of Addis Ababa namely Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Tikure Anbessa Hospital and Saint Paul's Hospital from February to March 2004. Of the total 453 sampled inpatients, 293 (65 %) were HIV positives. Over half (55.0%) were Males. The most affected age group was between 24 and 56 years. The majority (85.8%) were from Addis Ababa and over half (57.7%) was married. Housewives constituted about a quarter (26.3%) of all the admitted cases. The most common co-morbidities resulted in admission to the medical wards among the HIV-positive cases were Tuberculosis (73.0%) and jirovicii pneumonia (70.3%), and their occurrence was significantly higher among HIV+ than their counter parts (p=0.001). Although numbers of patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa hospital was more than Saint Paul's and Zewditu Memorial hospitals (ZMH), the proportion of HIV positive cases admitted to ZMH however was higher (49.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (14.0%) and Saint Paul's hospitals (18.0%). Likewise the number of inpatient days was also higher in ZMH (n=7765) than the other hospitals. The bed occupancy rate was however, higher in ZMH (53.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (12.0%) and Saint Paul's (12.0%) hospitals. One of the most obvious consequences of HIV/AIDS patients are the increased occupancy of hospitals beds suggesting that only 81.1 % of the beds are for all other afflictions in the hospitals. It appears that there is a lot of concern that patients with HIV are competing with the non-HIV infected

  1. Hospital Bed Occupancy and HIV/AIDS in three Major Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tamiru, Melesse; Haidar, Jemal

    2010-01-01

    Background: In countries like Ethiopia where the spread of HIV infection is extensive, health services are faced with an increased demand for care. The most obvious reflection of this increased demand is through patient load, longer bed occupancy perhaps to the exclusion of patients with other ailments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of HIV/AIDS inpatients of three major public hospitals. Methods: A Retrospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in three major hospitals of Addis Ababa namely Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Tikure Anbessa Hospital and Saint Paul’s Hospital from February to March 2004. Results: Of the total 453 sampled inpatients, 293 (65 %) were HIV positives. Over half (55.0%) were Males. The most affected age group was between 24 and 56 years. The majority (85.8%) were from Addis Ababa and over half (57.7%) was married. Housewives constituted about a quarter (26.3%) of all the admitted cases. The most common co-morbidities resulted in admission to the medical wards among the HIV-positive cases were Tuberculosis (73.0%) and jirovicii pneumonia (70.3%), and their occurrence was significantly higher among HIV+ than their counter parts (p=0.001). Although numbers of patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa hospital was more than Saint Paul’s and Zewditu Memorial hospitals (ZMH), the proportion of HIV positive cases admitted to ZMH however was higher (49.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (14.0%) and Saint Paul’s hospitals (18.0%). Likewise the number of inpatient days was also higher in ZMH (n=7765) than the other hospitals. The bed occupancy rate was however, higher in ZMH (53.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (12.0%) and Saint Paul’s (12.0%) hospitals. Conclusion: One of the most obvious consequences of HIV/AIDS patients are the increased occupancy of hospitals beds suggesting that only 81.1 % of the beds are for all other afflictions in the hospitals. It appears that there is a lot of concern that

  2. Prevalence of tuberculosis and treatment outcome among university students in Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Yismaw, Gizachew; Workineh, Meseret; Alemu, Shitaye; Mekonnen, Desalew; Diro, Ermias; Tesema, Belay; Kassu, Afework

    2015-01-21

    Universities tend to be highly congregate settings, both in the classroom and in residences, and thus provide special opportunities for large number of persons to be exposed to a person with tuberculosis (TB). Despite the high prevalence of TB in Ethiopia, the TB prevalence and the treatment outcome among students have never been studied. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence and treatment outcome of TB among students at University of Gondar from January 2007 to December 2011. Data on age, sex, TB type, category, and treatment outcome of students with TB was collected from medical records of University of Gondar Hospital, TB Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) clinic. All TB cases diagnosed with smear, culture, and/or radiography were included in the study. During the five year study period in the university, there were an average of 36 students with TB per year out of a mean of 10,036 enrolled students. Smear positive pulmonary TB, smear negative pulmonary TB, and extra pulmonary TB, respectively, were observed in 46 (25.4%), 81 (44.8%) and 54 (29.8%) of the cases. The prevalence of all forms of TB per 100,000 populations in the University ranged from 297.6 in 2009 to 404 in 2011, respectively. The prevalence of TB in the Social Sciences and Humanities Faculty was higher than the one observed in the Medical College. The overall treatment outcome was classified as cured in 36 (19.9%), completed in 91 (50.3%), defaulted in 9 (5%), failed in 3 (1.7%), died in 1 (0.6%), and transferred out in 41 (22.7%) of the cases. Treatment success rate (TSR) among students in University was generally low ranging from 58.1% in 2009 to 82.9% in 2011 with a mean TSR of 70.2%. The prevalence of TB is higher in comparison to the national figure among students in University of Gondar. Active surveillance systems could be important to get a clear picture of the TB situation in such settings. Assessing the factors associated with the high prevalence to

  3. Diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yared, Solomon; Gebresilassie, Araya; Akililu, Essayas; Deribe, Kebede; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-07-13

    The Leishmaniases are caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are widely distributed in different parts of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies from Kafta Humera to Gondar town in northwest Ethiopia. Seven localities were selected with distinct altitudinal variations between 550m above sea level (m a.s.l) and 2300m a.s.l. In each locality, sand flies were collected using standard CDC light traps and sticky traps during the active sand fly season from December 2012 to May 2013. Shannon-Weiner species diversity index and Jaccard's coefficient were used to estimate species diversity and similarity between altitudes and localities, respectively. A total of 89,044 sand flies (41,798 males and 47, 246 females) were collected from the seven localities/towns throughout the study period. Twenty-two species belonging to 11 species in the genus Phlebotomus and 11 species in the genus Sergentomyia were documented. Of these, Sergentomyia clydei (25.87%), S. schwetzi (25.21%), S. africana (24.65%), S. bedfordi (8.89%), Phlebotomus orientalis (6.43%), and S. antennata (4.8%) were the most prevalent species. The remaining 10 Phlebotomus species and six Sergentomyia were less frequent catches. In CDC light trap and sticky trap, higher species diversity and richness for both male and female sand flies was observed at low altitude ranging from 550 to 699m a.s.l in Adebay village in Kafta Humera district whereas low species richness and high evenness of both sexes were also observed in an altitude 1950-2300m a.s.l. The results revealed that the presence of leishmaniasis vectors such as P. orientalis, P. longipes, P. papatasi, and P. duboscqi in different altitudes in northwest Ethiopia. P. orientalis a vector of L. donovani, occurred between altitude 500-1100m

  4. Young people's parental discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues and its associated factors in Awabel woreda, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayehu, Atitegeb; Kassaw, Teketo; Hailu, Getachew

    2016-03-08

    In Ethiopia besides the very low health seeking behavior of young people, they do not have access to sexual and reproductive health information and even the existing health services are adult-centered. Furthermore, health providers are not well equipped in addressing young people sexual and reproductive health needs. Therefore, parent-young people discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues are crucial in increasing their awareness and reduces their risky sexual behaviors. This study was aimed to assess young people's parental discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues and its associated factors in Awabel woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 young people aged 10-24 years in Awabel Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A pre-tested structured interview administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. The collected data were entered using Epi Data 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 21. In the past 6 months, about one quarter, 25.3% of young people had a parental discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues. Young people who reside in urban areas were more likely to discuss on sexual and reproductive health issues with their parents [AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.54-3.89]. Similarly, being male was more likely to have a parental discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues than females [AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.11-2.38]. Furthermore, the odds of parent-young people discussion about SRH matters was more likely among young people aged 20-24 years [AOR = 4.57, 95% CI: 2.13-9.82], living with fathers [AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.20-5.04] and had attained a primary level of education [AOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.22-6.87]. Parents lack of interest to discuss, feeling ashamed and culturally not acceptable to talk about sexual matters were found to deter young people's in discussing sexual and reproductive health matters. Parent-young people discussion about sexual

  5. West wing, northwest corner, looking southeast U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, northwest corner, looking southeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Main Hospital, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  6. East wing, northwest corner, looking southeast U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wing, northwest corner, looking southeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Main Hospital, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  7. Magnitude of Birth Defects in Central and Northwest Ethiopia from 2010-2014: A Descriptive Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Taye, Molla; Afework, Mekbeb; Fantaye, Wondwossen; Diro, Ermias; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth defects are defined as structural and functional defects that develop during the organogenesis period and present at birth or detected later in life. They are one of the leading causes of infant and child mortality, morbidity, and long term disability. The magnitude of birth defects varies from country to country and from race/ethnicity to race/ethnicity, and about 40–60% of their causes are unknown. The known causes of birth defects are genetic and environmental factors which may be prevented. For various reasons, there is lack of data and research on birth defects in Ethiopia. Objective The major objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude of birth defects in Ethiopia. Subject and Methods A hospital based, retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted. The subjects were babies/children aged 0–17years who visited selected hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Fourteen hospitals (8 in Addis Ababa, 6 in Amhara Region) were selected purposively based on case load. A data retrieving form was developed to extract relevant information from record books. Results In the hospitals mentioned, 319,776 various medical records of children aged 0–17years were found. Of these, 6,076 (1.9% with 95% CI: 1.85%–1.95%) children were diagnosed as having birth defects. The majority (58.5%) of the children were male and 41.5% female. A slightly more than half (51.1%) of the children were urban dwellers, while 48.9% were from rural areas. Among the participants of the study the proportion of birth defects ranged as follows: orofacial (34.2%), neural tube (30.8%), upper and lower limb (12.8%), cardiovascular system (10.3%), digestive system and abdominal wall (4.8%), unspecified congenital malformations (2.5%), Down syndrome (2%), genitourinary system (2%), head, face, and neck defects (0.4%), and others (0.3%). The trend of birth defects increased linearly over time [Extended Mantel-Haenszel chi square for linear trend = 356.7 (P<0

  8. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in Zarima town, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Abebe; Atnafu, Asmamaw; Addis, Zelalem; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Teklu, Takele; Mathewos, Biniam; Birhan, Wubet; Gebretsadik, Simon; Gelaw, Baye

    2011-07-09

    In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4%) of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22%) followed by Hookworms (19%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%). Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  9. Assessment of Factors Associated with Breast Self-Examination among Health Extension Workers in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early detection of breast cancer using breast self-examination (BSE) plays an important role in decreasing its morbidity and mortality. Objective. To identify factors associated with BSE among health extension workers in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Cross-sectional study design was employed from October to November, 2012 in West Gojjam Zone of Amhara region. Simple random sampling technique was used to recruit a total of 390 health extension workers (HEWs). A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 16.0. Result. This study found that 37% of HEWs had ever practiced BSE and 14.4% practiced it regularly. The three main reasons for not doing regular BSE were no breast problem (53.2%), not knowing the technique of BSE (30.6%), and not knowing the importance of BSE (21.4%). Discussion with families on BSE and history of breast examination by health professionals were found significantly associated with ever practice of BSE. Conclusion. BSE practice was found low in this study. Having information on the importance of BSE was predictor of BSE practice. Therefore, it is important to give training on BSE techniques and its role on breast cancer prevention for HEWs.

  10. Assessment of Factors Associated with Breast Self-Examination among Health Extension Workers in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early detection of breast cancer using breast self-examination (BSE) plays an important role in decreasing its morbidity and mortality. Objective. To identify factors associated with BSE among health extension workers in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Cross-sectional study design was employed from October to November, 2012 in West Gojjam Zone of Amhara region. Simple random sampling technique was used to recruit a total of 390 health extension workers (HEWs). A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 16.0. Result. This study found that 37% of HEWs had ever practiced BSE and 14.4% practiced it regularly. The three main reasons for not doing regular BSE were no breast problem (53.2%), not knowing the technique of BSE (30.6%), and not knowing the importance of BSE (21.4%). Discussion with families on BSE and history of breast examination by health professionals were found significantly associated with ever practice of BSE. Conclusion. BSE practice was found low in this study. Having information on the importance of BSE was predictor of BSE practice. Therefore, it is important to give training on BSE techniques and its role on breast cancer prevention for HEWs. PMID:24298389

  11. Multilocus microsatellite typing revealed high genetic variability of Leishmania donovani strains isolated during and after a Kala-azar epidemic in Libo Kemkem district, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Cruz, Israel; Kuhls, Katrin; Alvar, Jorge; Cañavate, Carmen; Hailu, Asrat; Schönian, Gabriele

    2011-06-01

    In 2004, an outbreak of kala-azar (KA) occurred for the first time in Libo Kemkem district, in the highland area of northwest Ethiopia. In order to track the possible origins of the outbreak parasites, we have investigated 19 strains of Leishmania donovani that were collected during (n = 6) and after (n = 13) the outbreak by using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Unique microsatellite profiles were obtained for all strains from Libo Kemkem. When compared to those of L. donovani strains from different Ethiopian, Kenyan and Sudanese foci, by genetic distance and Bayesian clustering model analyses, most strains from Libo Kemkem grouped with strains from: (i) Humera and Metema in the lowlands and Belessa in the highland of Ethiopia, and (ii) Sudan, at different hierarchal levels. The strains from Libo Kemkem district were assigned at least to three genetically distinct clusters (A, B1 and B2) of which only one, cluster B2, consisted exclusively of strains from Libo Kemkem. The fact that most of the outbreak strains were found to be related to strains from well-known KA foci in northwest Ethiopia and Sudan might suggest multiple introductions of L. donovani strains from these foci into Libo Kemkem district.

  12. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4%) of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22%) followed by Hookworms (19%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%). Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible. PMID:21740589

  13. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among individuals living with HIV/AIDS at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kiros, Habtom; Nibret, Endalkachew; Munshea, Abaineh; Kerisew, Bizuayehu; Adal, Melaku

    2015-06-01

    HIV infection continues to pose a serious challenge to global health by predisposing patients to opportunistic infections. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to February 2013 to assess the enteric protozoan infection status among individuals living with HIV/AIDS in Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Stool specimens from 399 HIV-positive individuals were examined for the presence of trophozoites, cysts, and oocysts using direct wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. In addition, CD4+ T-cell counts were measured to evaluate the immune status of the study subjects. An overall prevalence of 30.6% enteric protozoan infections was recorded. Pre-ART (antiretroviral treatment) individuals were more infected than patients on ART, although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The highest prevalence of enteric protozoan infection was due to Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (19.3%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp (5.8%), Giardia lamblia (4.3%), and Isospora belli (1.3%). A CD4+ T-cell count of <200 cells/μl and status of being diarrhoeic were significantly associated with the overall prevalence of enteric protozoan infection. A relatively high prevalence of enteric protozoan infection was observed among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Routine stool and CD4+ T-cell examinations should be conducted to monitor the status of HIV/AIDS patients. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, North-West Nigeria: Hospital-Based Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains a common problem worldwide and the role of douching as a predisposing factor is unclear. Aim: This study was undertaken to highlight the prevalence and predisposing factors of VVC in North-west Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective study done at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), North-west. AKTH is a 500-bed tertiary hospital located in Kano, the most populous state in Nigeria. Ethical clearance was obtained. Three hundred patients with VVC were recruited from the gynecologic and general outpatients’ clinics of AKTH. Research structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical information. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Frequency, mean and simple percentages were used to analyze data. Result: Candida albicans was the most frequent cause of the positive high vaginal swabs constituting 84.5% (316/374) while Proteus vulgaris was the least frequent cause constituting 0.53% (2/374). Fifty-three percent (143/270) of those with VVC were aged 26–35 years; the married were 80% (216/270) and those who were unmarried were 20% (54/270). Douching was the commonest predisposing factor occurring in 42.5% (115/270) of cases. Conclusion: VVC was the most prevalent cause of vaginosis in North-west Nigeria, and douching was the commonest predisposing factor. PMID:26229716

  15. Magnitude of cytopenias among HIV-infected children in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia: a comparison of HAART-naïve and HAART-experienced children

    PubMed Central

    Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Tadele, Agerie; Addis, Zelalem; Alemu, Agersew; Melku, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Background AIDS, caused by HIV, is a multisystem disease that affects hematopoiesis. The aim of this study was to assess cytopenias among HIV-infected children who had a follow-up at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted between April and May 2013. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the study participants. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test as well as chi-square and logistic regression were used for analysis. A p-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results A total of 224 children (112 highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]-naïve and 112 HAART-experienced) participated in the study. The magnitude of anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, leukopenia and pancytopenia among HAART-naïve HIV-infected children were 30.4%, 9.8%, 8%, 4.5% and 1.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and pancytopenia were 29.5%, 8.9%, 8%, 4.5% and 1.4%, respectively. Cluster of differentiation-4 percentage and mean corpuscular volume were significantly different between HAART-experienced and HAART-naïve children. Being of younger age and severely immunosuppressed were risk factors of anemia. Conclusion Anemia was the most common cytopenia, followed by neutropenia. Severe immunosuppression and younger age were significantly associated with anemia. Therefore, emphasis should be given for investigation and management of cytopenias in HIV-infected children, particularly for those who are immunosuppressed and of younger age. PMID:28260948

  16. Non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment and determinant factors among patients with tuberculosis in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adane, Akilew Awoke; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Koye, Digsu Negese; Zeleke, Berihun Megabiaw

    2013-01-01

    Non-adherence to anti tuberculosis treatment is one of the crucial challenges in improving tuberculosis cure-rates and reducing further healthcare costs. The poor adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment among patients with tuberculosis is a major problem in Ethiopia. Hence, this study assessed level of non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis therapy and associated factors among patients with tuberculosis in northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted among tuberculosis patients who were following anti-tuberculosis treatment in North Gondar zone from February 20--March 30, 2013. Data were collected by trained data collectors using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multiple logistic regressions were fitted to identify associations and to control potential confounding variables. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval was calculated and p-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 280 tuberculosis patients were interviewed; 55.7% were males and nearly three quarters (72.5%) were urban dwellers. The overall non-adherence for the last one month and the last four days before the survey were 10% and 13.6% respectively. Non-adherence was high if the patients had forgetfulness (AOR 7.04, 95% CI 1.40-35.13), is on the continuation phase of chemotherapy (AOR: 6.95, 95% CI 1.81-26.73), had symptoms of tuberculosis during the interview (AOR: 4.29, 95% CI 1.53-12.03), and had co-infection with HIV (AOR: 4.06, 95% CI 1.70-9.70). Non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment was high. Forgetfulness, being in the continuation phases of chemotherapy, having symptoms of tuberculosis during the interview, and co-infected with HIV were significantly associated with non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis therapy. Special attention on adherence counseling should be given to symptomatic patients, TB/HIV co

  17. Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among tuberculosis suspects attending spiritual holy water sites in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Derseh, Dejene; Moges, Feleke; Tessema, Belay

    2017-01-26

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases. In Ethiopia, tuberculosis patients have different pattern of health care seeking behavior. They usually adopt other approaches like traditional healers and spiritual holy water sites before consulting public health facilities. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among tuberculosis suspects attending spiritual holy water sites. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01, 2015 to March 30, 2015 in seven selected holy water sites in Northwest Ethiopia. During the study period, a total of 1384 adult holy water users were screened for PTB symptoms. A total of 382 pulmonary tuberculosis suspects participated in the study. Socio-demographic data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Spot-morning-spot sputum specimens were collected and examined for acid fast bacilli using Auramine O fluorescence staining technique. Smear positive sputum samples were tested by GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for rifampicin resistance. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were employed using SPSS-16 software. The prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 2.9% with point prevalence of 795/100, 000 holy water users. History of contact with tuberculosis patient (AOR = 9.174, 95% C.I = 2.195-38.34) and the number of family members > 5 per household (AOR = 9.258, 95% C.I = 1.14-74.97) were significantly associated with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Rifampicin resistance was not detected from all smear positives by GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. The prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in spiritual holy water sites was 7.4 fold higher than the general population. History of contact with active tuberculosis patients and increased family size were significantly associated with smear positive pulmonary TB. The national tuberculosis

  18. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Undernutrition among Adults with Major Depressive Disorder in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gezahegn, Edmialem; Edris, Melkie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Undernutrition and major depressive disorder are frequently co-occurring. Patients with impaired mental health are strongly vulnerable to the risks of having involuntary weight loss or deficiency of essential nutrients. However, there is no study which assesses undernutrition among major depressive patients in Ethiopia. Method. A total of 422 clients were included in the study. Structured questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used for collecting the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with undernutrition. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The prevalence of undernutrition was 31.4% [95% CI: 27.2–36.0]. Being in a rural residence [AOR = 1.84, 95% CI (1.18–2.85)], taking multiple medication [AOR = 1.77, 95% CI (1.03–3.05)], taking prescribed diet [AOR = 1.90, 95% CI (1.06–3.41)], and current use of alcohol [AOR = 2.96, 95% CI (1.34–6.55)] were factors significantly associated with undernutrition among depressive patients. Conclusion. The prevalence of undernutrition among adults with major depressive disorder was found to be higher than the general population. Appropriate nutritional education and nutritional assessment are recommended during the course of major depressive disorder. PMID:27990420

  19. Examining Perceptions of Rapid Population Growth in North and South Gondar Zones, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Alemayehu

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia is one of the most populous countries in Africa and ranks second only to Nigeria. Rapid population growth has hampered the country's development, making the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger difficult. This study which had two components—quantitative and qualitative—was aimed at exploring the perceptions of women and other social groups on the prevailing population pressures. The quantitative study involved 3,512 women aged 15–49 years. The qualitative study consisted of five focus-group discussions and six key-informant interviews. Over 90% of women (n=3,512) who participated in the quantitative study and nearly all the focus-group discussants and interviewees (n=39) felt that something should be done to keep the population from growing too fast. Most (over 90%) participants approved of the Government passing a law regarding the maximum number of children that a couple should have. It is, therefore, timely for the responsible bodies to exert maximum effort and commitment in responding to the emerging attitudes of the people by making the population problem a priority. PMID:20099762

  20. Southeast corner, looking northwest U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast corner, looking northwest - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  1. South (front) wall, looking northwest U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (front) wall, looking northwest - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Medical Officer in Charge Residence, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  2. Health Professionals' readiness to implement electronic medical record system at three hospitals in Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Biruk, Senafekesh; Yilma, Tesfahun; Andualem, Mulusew; Tilahun, Binyam

    2014-12-12

    Electronic medical record systems are being implemented in many countries to support healthcare services. However, its adoption rate remains low, especially in developing countries due to technological, financial, and organizational factors. There is lack of solid evidence and empirical research regarding the pre implementation readiness of healthcare providers. The aim of this study is to assess health professionals' readiness and to identify factors that affect the acceptance and use of electronic medical recording system in the pre implementation phase at hospitals of North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted on 606 study participants from January to July 2013 at 3 hospitals in northwest Ethiopia. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The data were entered using the Epi-Info version 3.5.1 software and analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Descriptive statistics, bi-variate, and multi-variate logistic regression analyses were used to describe the study objectives and assess the determinants of health professionals' readiness for the system. Odds ratio at 95% CI was used to describe the association between the study and the outcome variables. Out of 606 study participants only 328 (54.1%) were found ready to use the electronic medical recording system according to our criteria assessment. The majority of the study participants, 432 (71.3%) and 331(54.6%) had good knowledge and attitude for EMR system, respectively. Gender (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI: [1.26, 2.78]), attitude (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI: [1.03, 2.49]), knowledge (AOR = 2.12, 95% CI: [1.32, 3.56]), and computer literacy (AOR =1.64, 95% CI: [0.99, 2.68]) were significantly associated with the readiness for EMR system. In this study, the overall health professionals' readiness for electronic medical record system and utilization was 54.1% and 46.5%, respectively. Gender, knowledge, attitude, and

  3. Prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Andargie, Gashaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

    2008-12-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria species (41.7%) isolated from fingernail contents, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Klebsiella species (5.5%), Escherichia coli (3.1%), Serratia species (1.58%), Citrobacter species (0.8%), and Enterobacter species (0.8%). Shigella species were isolated from stool samples of four food-handlers (3.1%). None of the food-handlers was positive for Salmonella species and Shigella species in respect of their fingernail contents. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of the food-handlers included Ascaris lumbricoides (18.11%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%), hookworm species (0.8%), Gardia lamblia (0.8%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.8%); 1.6% of the study subjects were positive for each of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, hookworm, and G. lamblia. The findings emphasize the importance of food-handlers as potential sources of infections and suggest health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression among Pregnant Women in Debretabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bisetegn, Telake Azale; Mihretie, Getnet; Muche, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression during pregnancy is a major health problem because it is prevalent and chronic, and its impact on birth outcome and child health is serious. Several psychosocial and obstetric factors have been identified as predictors. Evidence on the prevalence and predictors of antenatal depression is very limited in Ethiopia. This study aims to determine prevalence and associated factors with antenatal depression. Methods Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 527 pregnant women recruited in a cluster sampling method. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews on socio-demographic, obstetric, and psychosocial characteristics. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The List of Threatening Experiences questionnaire (LTE-Q) and the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSS-3) were used to assess stressful events and social support, respectively. Data were entered into Epi-info and analyzed using SPSS-20. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results The prevalence of antenatal depression was found to be 11.8%. Having debt (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.85), unplanned pregnancy (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = (1.20, 4.76), history of stillbirth (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = (1.67,9.41), history of abortion (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.005, 6.61), being in the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.07,2.72), presence of a complication in the current pregnancy (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.66,6.53), and previous history of depression (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.71,7.06) were factors significantly associated with antenatal depression. Conclusion The prevalence of antenatal depression was high, especially in the third trimester. Poverty, unmet reproductive health needs, and obstetric complications are the main determinants of antenatal depression. For early detection and appropriate intervention, screening for depression during the routine antenatal care should be promoted. PMID:27618181

  5. Prevalence of Bacteria and Intestinal Parasites among Food-handlers in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Andargie, Gashaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

    2008-01-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria species (41.7%) isolated from fingernail contents, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Klebsiella species (5.5%), Escherichia coli (3.1%), Serratia species (1.58%), Citrobacter species (0.8%), and Enterobacter species (0.8%). Shigella species were isolated from stool samples of four food-handlers (3.1%). None of the food-handlers was positive for Salmonella species and Shigella species in res-pect of their fingernail contents. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of the food-handlers included Ascaris lumbricoides (18.11%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%), hookworm species (0.8%), Gardia lamblia (0.8%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.8%); 1.6% of the study subjects were positive for each of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, hookworm, and G. lamblia. The findings emphasize the importance of food-handlers as potential sources of infections and suggest health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures. PMID:19069624

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression among Pregnant Women in Debretabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bisetegn, Telake Azale; Mihretie, Getnet; Muche, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is a major health problem because it is prevalent and chronic, and its impact on birth outcome and child health is serious. Several psychosocial and obstetric factors have been identified as predictors. Evidence on the prevalence and predictors of antenatal depression is very limited in Ethiopia. This study aims to determine prevalence and associated factors with antenatal depression. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 527 pregnant women recruited in a cluster sampling method. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews on socio-demographic, obstetric, and psychosocial characteristics. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The List of Threatening Experiences questionnaire (LTE-Q) and the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSS-3) were used to assess stressful events and social support, respectively. Data were entered into Epi-info and analyzed using SPSS-20. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out. The prevalence of antenatal depression was found to be 11.8%. Having debt (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.85), unplanned pregnancy (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = (1.20, 4.76), history of stillbirth (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = (1.67,9.41), history of abortion (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.005, 6.61), being in the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.07,2.72), presence of a complication in the current pregnancy (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.66,6.53), and previous history of depression (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.71,7.06) were factors significantly associated with antenatal depression. The prevalence of antenatal depression was high, especially in the third trimester. Poverty, unmet reproductive health needs, and obstetric complications are the main determinants of antenatal depression. For early detection and appropriate intervention, screening for depression during the routine antenatal care should be promoted.

  7. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215). C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81%) patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177) of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177), C. krusei 5.6% (10) and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177). Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90), 7.7% (7/90) and 4.7% (4) of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs. PMID:23398783

  8. Perceived quality of life among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected migrant male-workers in Northwest Ethiopia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Mekuriaw; Wubshet, Mamo; Mesfin, Nebiyu; Gebayehu, Abebaw

    2017-02-16

    There is paucity of data on quality of life as a dimension of treatment outcome among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected patients. This study sought to explore perceived quality of life among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected male migrant workers in Northwest Ethiopia. Twenty Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected study participants took part in the in-depth interviews at Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV treatment centers. Ten participants were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the remaining 10 have not yet started ART. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated for analysis. Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis using Open Code software version 3.4. Participants reported on four aspects of quality of life: liveability of the environment, utility of life, life ability of a person and appreciation of life. Respondents living environment, therapeutic side effects of Visceral Leishmaniasis drugs, poverty and stigma negatively affected their quality of life. On the contrary, good treatment response and financial security were reported to positively affect their quality of life. Challenges related to the living environment, financial limitations and sub-optimal response of Visceral Leishmaniasis drug and relapse of Visceral Leishmaniasis disease are factors most negatively affecting the quality of life of Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected patients. Micro-financing and other socio-economical support programs should be launched to assist the unemployed males migrating to Visceral Leishmaniasis endemic and relatively higher HIV prevalent areas to work as daily laborers. HIV prevention programs in HIV positive-living counseling programs should target such high risk migrant workers in the endemic areas.

  9. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-10-03

    Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6-23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaire were used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses was employed to identify factors associated with minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. A total of 920 children 6-23 months were included. Proportion of children who met the minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was 12.6 and 50.4 %, respectively. Mothers education [AOR =2.52], age of a child [AOR = 2.05], birth order of index child [AOR = 2.08], living in urban area [AOR = 2.09], having home gardening [AOR = 2.03], and media exposure [AOR = 2.74] were positively associated with dietary diversity. Moreover, age of the child [AOR = 3.03], birth order of index child [AOR = 1.58], mothers involvement in decision making [AOR = 1.51], media exposure [AOR = 2.62], and having postnatal visit [AOR = 2.30] were positively associated with meal frequency. The proportion of children who received minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was low. Being at younger age, first birth order, and lack of media exposure affect both dietary diversity and meal frequency. Increasing mother's education, home gardening, mass media promotion and empowering women in decision making are highly recommended to increase dietary diversity and meal frequency.

  10. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tamene, Masresha Molla; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Beyera, Getahun Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections are among the most important public health problems in the world. People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from March 20 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar town. The quantitative data were collected through interviewing 488 female sex workers while in-depth interview was administered to collect qualitative data from 10 female sex workers. The collected data were entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between condom utilization and independent variables. Results This study revealed that less than half (47.7%) of the respondents utilized condom with any type of client. Secondary education or above, perceiving themselves at risk of HIV/AIDS infection, having awareness that sexually transmitted infections could increase HIV infection, being tested for HIV/AIDS in the last 12 months, and having lower number of clients in a month were positively associated with condom utilization. Conclusion This finding depicted that condom utilization was low among female sex workers. Thus, developing and implementing target oriented behavioral change and communication strategies are needed to prevent the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers. PMID:26405486

  11. Multiple-drug resistant Trypanosoma congolense populations in village cattle of Metekel district, north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Afewerk, Y; Clausen, P H; Abebe, G; Tilahun, G; Mehlitz, D

    2000-10-02

    Investigations were carried out to determine the prophylactic activity of isometamidium chloride in village populations of cattle naturally infected with trypanosomes in Metekel district, northwest Ethiopia. In a cross-sectional study in March 1997, 484 randomly selected cattle from four villages were examined for trypanosome infections by the dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat technique (BCT). The trypanosome prevalence was 17.2%. Trypanosoma congolense was the dominant species accounting for 47.6% of the overall infections. Fifty parasitaemic cattle from two villages were treated with isometainidium chloride (Trypamidium(R)) at a prophylactic dose of 1.0 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) and thereafter monitored on a monthly basis for parasitaemia. Trypanosomes were detected in six cattle within 1 month and in 18 cattle within 2 months of treatment. Twenty three percent (6/26) of cattle infected with T. congolense at the time of treatment were detected parasitaemic with this trypanosome species 1 month after treatment. Mice were infected with three T. congolense isolates obtained from cattle which were detected parasitaemic within one or 2 months after isometamidium treatment. The mice were subsequently treated with ranges of doses of isometamidium chloride or diminazene aceturate (Berenil(R)) and thereafter monitored for parasitaemia for a period of 60 days. Isometamidium chloride at doses of 0.5-4.0 mg/kg b.w. and diminazene aceturate at doses of 3.5-28.0 mg/kg b.w. failed to cure T. congolense infections in any of the animals. Three clones were derived from one of the isolates; each clone expressed high levels of resistance to both trypanocides when tested in mice. Based on these results it is concluded that the prophylactic activity of isometamidium is greatly reduced for some of the T. congolense populations present in the area, and in addition there is resistance to diminazene aceturate in this trypanosome species.

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Communities of Amhara State: A Longitudinal Study in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    López-Perea, Noemí; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Cruz, Israel; Hailu, Tsegaye; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefanía

    2014-01-01

    Background In the northwest of Ethiopia, at the South Gondar region, there was a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outbreak in 2005, making the disease a public health concern for the regional health authorities ever since. The knowledge on how the population perceives the disease is essential in order to propose successful control strategies. Methodology/Principal findings Two surveys on VL knowledge, attitudes and practices were conducted at the beginning (May 2009) and at the end (February 2011) of a VL longitudinal study carried out in rural communities of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, two districts of the Amhara Regional State. Results showed that VL global knowledge was very low in the area, and that it improved substantially in the period studied. Specifically, from 2009 to 2011, the frequency of proper knowledge regarding VL signs and symptoms increased from 47% to 71% (p<0.0001), knowledge of VL causes increased from 8% to 25% (p<0.0001), and knowledge on VL protection measures from 16% to 55% (p<0.0001). Moreover, the improvement observed in VL knowledge was more marked among the families with no previous history of VL case. Finally, in 2011 more than 90% of the households owned at least an impregnated bed net and had been sprayed, and attitudes towards these and other protective measures were very positive (over 94% acceptance for all of them). Conclusions/Significance In 2009 the level of knowledge regarding VL was very low among the rural population of this area, although it improved substantially in the study period, probably due to the contribution of many actors in the area. VL patients and relatives should be appropriately informed and trained as they may act as successful health community agents. VL risk behavioural patterns are subject to change as attitudes towards protective measures were very positive overall. PMID:24743328

  13. Level of male involvement and associated factors in family planning services utilization among married men in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Mihretie; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Gedefaw, Molla

    2014-12-02

    Men's participation is crucial to the success of family planning programs and women's empowerment and associated with better outcomes in reproductive health such as contraceptive acceptance and continuation, and safer sexual behaviors. Limited choice and access to methods, attitudes of men towards family planning, perceived fear of side-effects, poor quality of available services, cultural or religious oppositions and gender-based barriers are some of the reasons for low utilization of family planning. Hence, this study assessed the level of male involvement in family planning services utilization and its associated factors in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2013. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 524 eligible samples. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Epi Info and SPSS were used to enter and analyze the data; univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to display the outputs. Only 44 (8.4%) respondents were using or directly participating in the use of family planning services mainly male condoms. The reasons mentioned for the low participation were the desire to have more children, wife or partner refusal, fear of side effects, religious prohibition, lack of awareness about contraceptives and the thinking that it is the only issue for women. Opinion about family planning services, men approval and current use of family planning methods were associated with male involvement in the services utilization. In this study, the level of male involvement was low. Lack of information, inaccessibility to the services and the desire to have more children were found to be the reasons for low male involvement in family planning services utilization. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations, donors and relevant stakeholders should ensure availability, accessibility and sustained advocacy for use of family planning

  14. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tamene, Masresha Molla; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Beyera, Getahun Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are among the most important public health problems in the world. People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from March 20 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar town. The quantitative data were collected through interviewing 488 female sex workers while in-depth interview was administered to collect qualitative data from 10 female sex workers. The collected data were entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between condom utilization and independent variables. This study revealed that less than half (47.7%) of the respondents utilized condom with any type of client. Secondary education or above, perceiving themselves at risk of HIV/AIDS infection, having awareness that sexually transmitted infections could increase HIV infection, being tested for HIV/AIDS in the last 12 months, and having lower number of clients in a month were positively associated with condom utilization. This finding depicted that condom utilization was low among female sex workers. Thus, developing and implementing target oriented behavioral change and communication strategies are needed to prevent the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers.

  15. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis: prevalence and risk factors in districts of metema and west armachiho, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Feleke; Tessema, Belay; Moges, Feleke; Gelaw, Aschalew; Eshetie, Setegn; Kumera, Gemechu

    2015-10-26

    Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging challenge for TB control programs globally. According to World health organization, 2012 report Ethiopia stands 15(th) out of the 27 high priority countries in the world and 3(rd) in Africa. Updated knowledge of the magnitude of MDR-TB is so substantial to allocate resources, and to address prevention and control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated risk factors in West Armachiho and Metema districts of North Gondar. A cross-sectional study was conducted in West Armachiho and Metema districts between February 01 and June 25, 2014. A total of 124 consecutive smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included in the study. Socio-demographic and possible risk factor data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Drug susceptibility testing was first performed for rifampicin using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For those rifampicin resistant strains, drug susceptibility testing was performed for both isoniazid and rifampicin to identify MDR-TB using the proportional method on LJ media. Data were analyzed using statistical Package SPSS version 20; binary logistic regression was used to assess the association. P-values < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Of 124 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients, 117 (94.4 %) were susceptible to Rifampicin, while 7 (5.7 %) were confirmed to be resistant to Rifampicin and Isoniazid. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB was 5.7 % (2.3 % among new cases and 13.9 % among previously treated cases). History of previous treatment (OR = 7, P = 0.025) was significantly associated risk factor for MDR-TB. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB was 5.7 % among cases at five health centers and a history of previous treatment was found to be a risk factor for being infected by an MDR-TB strain. Therefore, maximizing early case detection and treatment, strengthening TB infection control activities and proper

  16. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amare, Bemnet; Ali, Jemal; Moges, Beyene; Yismaw, Gizachew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebretsadik, Simon; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tafess, Ketema; Abate, Ebba; Endris, Mengistu; Tegabu, Desalegn; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Fantahun, Bereket; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-12

    Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117-2076, n=80) and 610 IU/ml (143-1833, n=20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z=-0.198, P>0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the

  17. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. Methods A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction. Result A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n = 80) and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n = 20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = −0.198, P > 0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this

  18. Diabetes Mellitus in Outpatients in Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Tsega, Wendwesen Dibekulu; Wale, Bayu Yihun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries and these will experience the greatest increase in cases of diabetes over the next 22 years. Objective. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus among outpatients of Debre Berhan Referral Hospital. Methods and Materials. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015 among 385 patients. Random quota sampling technique was used to get individual patients and risk factors assessment. Patients diabetes status was ascertained by World Health Organization Diabetes Mellitus Diagnostic Criteria. The collected data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed and Chi-square test was applied to test any association between dependent and independent variable. Result. Out of the total 385 study patients, 368 have participated in the study yielding a response rate of 95.3%. Concerning clinical presentation of diabetes mellitus, 13.3% of patients reported thirst, 14.4% of patients declared polyurea, and 14.9% of patients ascertained unexplained weight loss. The statistically significant associated factors of diabetes mellitus were hypertensive history, obesity, the number of parities, and smoking history. Conclusion. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among outpatients in Debre Berhan Referral Hospital was 0.34% and several clinical and behavioral factors contribute to the occurrence of diabetes mellitus which impose initiation of preventive, promotive, and curative strategies. PMID:26881245

  19. Diabetes Mellitus in Outpatients in Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Tsega, Wendwesen Dibekulu; Wale, Bayu Yihun

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries and these will experience the greatest increase in cases of diabetes over the next 22 years. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus among outpatients of Debre Berhan Referral Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015 among 385 patients. Random quota sampling technique was used to get individual patients and risk factors assessment. Patients diabetes status was ascertained by World Health Organization Diabetes Mellitus Diagnostic Criteria. The collected data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed and Chi-square test was applied to test any association between dependent and independent variable. Result. Out of the total 385 study patients, 368 have participated in the study yielding a response rate of 95.3%. Concerning clinical presentation of diabetes mellitus, 13.3% of patients reported thirst, 14.4% of patients declared polyurea, and 14.9% of patients ascertained unexplained weight loss. The statistically significant associated factors of diabetes mellitus were hypertensive history, obesity, the number of parities, and smoking history. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among outpatients in Debre Berhan Referral Hospital was 0.34% and several clinical and behavioral factors contribute to the occurrence of diabetes mellitus which impose initiation of preventive, promotive, and curative strategies.

  20. Co-morbidity of depression and epilepsy in Jimma University specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tsegabrhan, Hagos; Negash, Alemayehu; Tesfay, Kenfe; Abera, Mubarek

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a serious and frequent co-morbid illness among people with epilepsy (PWE) and the risk for depression in PWE is higher than the general population. However, depression among PWE is often under diagnosed and treated by physicians other than psychiatrists in resource-limited settings like Ethiopia. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and factors associated with depression and its implication for treatment among PWE in Southwest Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was facilitated among 300 adult subjects diagnosed with epilepsy at the Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) from August to October 2012. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scale which was found to have Cronbach's Alpha of 0.82 for this study. A total of 300 adult subjects with epilepsy were interviewed making a response rate of 100%. The prevalence of depressive disorder among patient with epilepsy was 49.3%. Of these, 39.9%, 38.5%, and 21.6% of the patient were found to have mild, moderate, and severe depression, respectively. Epilepsy-related perceived stigma, high seizure frequency, and low educational status were found to be independent predictors of depression among subjects with epilepsy. In this study, depression was found to be highly prevalent. Early recognition and treatment of depression through routine screening and assessment of PWE should become an essential part of diagnosis and treatment protocol.

  1. A national system for monitoring the performance of hospitals in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika; Endeshaw, Abraham; Tatek, Dawit; Conteh, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many countries struggle to develop and implement strategies to monitor hospitals nationally. The challenge is particularly acute in low-income countries where resources for measurement and reporting are scarce. We examined the experience of developing and implementing a national system for monitoring the performance of 130 government hospitals in Ethiopia. Using participatory observation, we found that the monitoring system resulted in more consistent hospital reporting of performance data to regional health bureaus and the federal government, increased transparency about hospital performance and the development of multiple quality-improvement projects. The development and implementation of the system, which required technical and political investment and support, would not have been possible without strong hospital-level management capacity. Thorough assessment of the health sector’s readiness to change and desire to prioritize hospital quality can be helpful in the early stages of design and implementation. This assessment may include interviews with key informants, collection of data about health facilities and human resources and discussion with academic partners. Aligning partners and donors with the government’s vision for quality improvement can enhance acceptability and political support. Such alignment can enable resources to be focused strategically towards one national effort – rather than be diluted across dozens of potentially competing projects. Initial stages benefit from having modest goals and the flexibility for continuous modification and improvement, through active engagement with all stakeholders. PMID:26600614

  2. A national system for monitoring the performance of hospitals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika; Endeshaw, Abraham; Tatek, Dawit; Conteh, David; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2015-10-01

    Many countries struggle to develop and implement strategies to monitor hospitals nationally. The challenge is particularly acute in low-income countries where resources for measurement and reporting are scarce. We examined the experience of developing and implementing a national system for monitoring the performance of 130 government hospitals in Ethiopia. Using participatory observation, we found that the monitoring system resulted in more consistent hospital reporting of performance data to regional health bureaus and the federal government, increased transparency about hospital performance and the development of multiple quality-improvement projects. The development and implementation of the system, which required technical and political investment and support, would not have been possible without strong hospital-level management capacity. Thorough assessment of the health sector's readiness to change and desire to prioritize hospital quality can be helpful in the early stages of design and implementation. This assessment may include interviews with key informants, collection of data about health facilities and human resources and discussion with academic partners. Aligning partners and donors with the government's vision for quality improvement can enhance acceptability and political support. Such alignment can enable resources to be focused strategically towards one national effort - rather than be diluted across dozens of potentially competing projects. Initial stages benefit from having modest goals and the flexibility for continuous modification and improvement, through active engagement with all stakeholders.

  3. A cross-sectional study of trypanosomosis and its vectors in donkeys and mules in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Rahmeto; Wolde, Amanuel

    2010-03-01

    A preliminary study was conducted in January 2009 in four peasant associations (PAs) selected from two districts in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia to investigate the prevalence and species of trypanosomes infecting donkeys and mules and identify the fly vectors playing a role in the transmission of trypanosomosis. Blood samples were collected from a total of 334 donkeys and 52 mules and examined by dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat technique and Giemsa-stained blood smears. Accordingly, trypanosome species were encountered in 6.3% of the examined donkeys (n = 21) while none of the mules examined was positive for trypanosome infection. Trypanosomes and tsetse flies were detected in two of the four PAs surveyed (Tsetsa adurno and Bamadone) with significant (P = 0.004) difference in prevalence. The inability to find trypanosomes in the other two PAs (Ura and Ashura) was most likely due to the absence of appropriate fly vectors. Three species of trypanosomes were detected in donkeys, which in order of predominance were Trypanosoma congolense (52.4%), Trypanosoma brucei (28.6%), and Trypanosoma vivax (19.05%). There was a significant (P = 0.008) difference in mean PCV between trypanosome infected and non-infected donkeys. The body condition score of the donkeys was significantly associated with both prevalence of infection (P = 0.009) and mean packed cell volume (PCV; P < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed between male and female donkeys regarding both prevalence of infection and mean PCV (P > 0.05 for each factor). The entomological surveys revealed the presence of Glossina morsitans submorsitans and other biting flies of the family Stomoxys, Tabanus, and Haematopota. In conclusion, the prevalence of trypanosomosis obtained in the current study is generally low compared to previous studies. As the present study design was a cross-sectional, one that only depicts a momentary picture of the infection status in the herd, a further

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practices related to visceral leishmaniasis among residents in Addis Zemen town, South Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), commonly known as kala-azar is a systemic disease caused by parasitic protozoan species of genus Leishmania and transmitted by species of Phlebotomus (sand flies). It is a poverty-related disease and associated with malnutrition, displacement, poor housing, weakness of the immune system and lack of resources. For the success of prevention and control programs of any disease, the most important prerequisite is community participation. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of residents towards VL in Addis Zemen town, south Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among residents in Addis Zemen town from February to March 2012. A total of 346 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques from three kebeles in the town. Data was collected using structured Questionnaire. For knowledge, attitude and practice variables each right response was given a score of 1 while a wrong or unsure response was scored 0. Data were double entered and analyzed using SPSS-15 statistical software. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Results From a total of 346 study participants (136 males and 210 females), 87.6% heard of the disease kala-azar. From participants who heard about kala-azar 93.5% males and 86.7% females had awareness about the disease. The majority (95.7%) of participants had favourable attitude towards the treatment of kala-azar whereas 14.8% didn’t use anything to prevent it. More than half of the respondents (68.6%) did practice proper methods for the prevention and control of kala-azar in the study area. Conclusion In general our findings showed that the residents had good awareness and favourable attitude about the disease, but their overall practice about prevention and control of the disease was low. Therefore, our investigation call for continued and strengthened

  5. Survey of safety practices among hospital laboratories in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sewunet, Tsegaye; Kebede, Wakjira; Wondafrash, Beyene; Workalemau, Bereket; Abebe, Gemeda

    2014-10-01

    Unsafe working practices, working environments, disposable waste products, and chemicals in clinical laboratories contribute to infectious and non-infectious hazards. Staffs, the community, and patients are less safe. Furthermore, such practices compromise the quality of laboratory services. We conducted a study to describe safety practices in public hospital laboratories of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Randomly selected ten public hospital laboratories in Oromia Regional State were studied from Oct 2011- Feb 2012. Self-administered structured questionnaire and observation checklists were used for data collection. The respondents were heads of the laboratories, senior technicians, and safety officers. The questionnaire addressed biosafety label, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, physical/mechanical hazards, personal protective equipment, first aid kits and waste disposal system. The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis with SPSS version16 statistical software. All of the respondents reported none of the hospital laboratories were labeled with the appropriate safety label and safety symbols. These respondents also reported they may contain organisms grouped under risk group IV in the absence of microbiological safety cabinets. Overall, the respondents reported that there were poor safety regulations or standards in their laboratories. There were higher risks of microbial, chemical and physical/mechanical hazards. Laboratory safety in public hospitals of Oromia Regional State is below the standard. The laboratory workers are at high risk of combined physical, chemical and microbial hazards. Prompt recognition of the problem and immediate action is mandatory to ensure safe working environment in health laboratories.

  6. Job satisfaction of nurses in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Nebiat

    2016-03-01

    In Ethiopia nurses have played a very important role in providing timely and quality health service in healthcare organizations. However, there is a limited literature in the area of nurses' job satisfaction in Ethiopian public hospitals. The objective of this research is to measure job satisfaction of nurses in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital and to determine the influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012 in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. All full-time nurses with nonsupervisory management position and more than 1 year of work experience were invited to participate in the study. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 175 copies of the questionnaires were returned out of 186 copies distributed to the respondents. The results indicated that nurses were not satisfied by their job (mean=2.21, SD=0.52). Remuneration (r=0.71, P<0.01) and job advancement (r=0.69, P<0.01) were statically significant and strongly correlated with nurses' job satisfaction. Job security was associated with highest satisfaction (r=0.41, P<0.05) CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Remuneration and job advancement were the most important factors for nurses' job satisfaction. Hospital administrators as well as health policy makers need to address the two major identified sources of nurses' job dissatisfaction in the study (i.e. remuneration and narrow opportunity of job advancement) and take appropriate measures to overcome their consequences.

  7. Medication non-adherence among adult psychiatric out patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfay, Kenfe; Girma, Eshetu; Negash, Alemayehu; Tesfaye, Markos; Dehning, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    Information on adherence of adult psychiatric patients to biological modes of treatment is scarce in Ethiopia. Knowledge on adherence is essential in terms of future prognosis, quality of life and functionality of such patients. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude and associated factors of non-adherence to medication. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2011 at the psychiatry facility of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, which provides service to more than 10 mill people. A sample of 422 adults with psychiatric illness in the follow-up outpatients was selected consecutively. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire by face-to-face interview and from patient medical records. The four-item Morisky scale was used to assess degree of medication adherence. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and descriptive, chi-square test and logistic regression statistical methods were used. P-Value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant in the final model. Out of the 422 patients, 40.3% were females and 59.7% males. The prevalence rate for non-adherence was 41.2%, non-affective psychoses diagnosis contributing the highest rate (44.5%). From the total non-adherent respondents, 78.2% attributed their non-adherence to forgetting. Irregular follow-up, poor social support and complex drug regimen were independently associated variables with non-adherence. The result of the study showed that non-adherence among psychiatric patients in Southwest Ethiopia is high and revealed possible associated factors. Adherence needs integrated efforts in creating a mechanism in enhancing regular follow-up, informal social support system and ongoing awareness creation among professionals.

  8. Antimicrobial use in paediatric patients in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Hafte Kahsay; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldehaimanot, Tewodros Eyob; Goro, Kabaye Kumela

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study collated data from 614 pediatrics patients admitted in pediatrics ward at Jimma University Teaching Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the type and pattern of antibiotics. The number of prescriptions per a patient was also compared with the WHO standard. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20 for mackintosh. Results Antimicrobials were prescribed for 407(86.4%) patients of which 85.9% were in the form of injectables. A total of 1241 (90%) medicines were administered parenterally followed by oral 110 (8%). The maximum number of medicines per prescription was eight for all types of drugs in general, and five for antimicrobials in particular. All antimicrobials were prescribed empirically without any microbiological evidence. Pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis were the main reasons for antimicrobial use in the ward. Out of the total of 812 antibiotics prescribed; Penicillin G crystalline was the most (20%) frequently prescribed, followed by gentamicin (19%) and ampicillin (16). Conclusions Majority of the prescribed antibiotics were antimicrobials, and was in the form of injectables. Antimicrobials were over prescribed and the number of drugs per prescription was also far from WHO recommendation. Strict prescribing standard guidelines and treatment habits should be developed in the country, to prevent antimicrobial resistance. PMID:28264021

  9. Urinary tract infection among fistula patients admitted at Hamlin fistula hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dereje, Matifan; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinesh; Asrat, Daneil; Ayenachew, Fekade

    2017-02-16

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) causes a serious health problem and affects millions of people worldwide. Patients with obstetric fistula usually suffer from incontinence of urine and stool, which can predispose them to frequent infections of the urinary tract. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the etiologic agents, drug resistance pattern of the isolates and associated risk factor for urinary tract infection among fistula patients in Addis Ababa fistula hospital, Ethiopia. Across sectional study was conducted from February to May 2015 at Hamlin Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics and other UTI related risk factors were collected from study participants using structured questionnaires. The mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on Cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient agar and blood agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by using disc diffusion method and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Out of 210 fistula patients investigated 169(80.5%) of the patient were younger than 25 years. Significant bacteriuria was observed in 122/210(58.1%) and 68(55.7%) of the isolates were from symptomatic cases. E.coli 65(53.7%) were the most common bacterial pathogen isolated followed by Proteus spp. 31(25.4%). Statistical Significant difference was observed with history of previous UTI (P = 0.031) and history of catheterization (P = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria isolates showed high level of resistance (>50%) to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while all gram positive bacteria isolated were showed low level of resistance (20-40%) to most of antibiotic tested. The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection among fistula patient is 58.1%. This study showed that the predominant pathogen of UTI were E.coli followed by Proteus spp. It also showed that amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was a drug of choice for urinary tract

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care follow-up at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Birru, Eshetie Melese; Tizazu, Balem; Ahmedin, Alima

    2017-02-01

    Improving maternal and child health is one of the public health priorities in several African countries including Ethiopia. However, research on herbal medicine use during pregnancy is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care (ANC) follow-up at Gondar university referral hospital, Ethiopia METHODS: An institutional-based cross sectional study was conducted on 364 pregnant women attending ANC clinic from March to May 2016 at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Data on socio-demography, pregnancy related information as well as herbal medicine use was collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use. From 364 respondents, 48.6% used herbal medicine during current pregnancy. ginger (40.7%) and garlic (19%) were the two most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. Common cold (66%) and inflammation (31.6%) were the most common reasons for herbal use. Majority of herbal medicine users (89.8%) had not consulted their doctors about their herbal medicine use. Rural residency (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.15, Confidence interval (CI): 1.17-6.14), illiteracy (AOR: 4.05, CI: 2.47-6.62) and average monthly income less than 100 USD (AOR: 3.08CI: 1.221-7.77) were found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. The use of herbal medicine during pregnancy is a common practice and associated with residency, level of education and average monthly income. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, the health care providers should often consult pregnant women regarding herbal medicine use.

  11. In vivo experimental drug resistance study in Trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave; McCulloch, Richard; Goddeeris, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Ethiopia, particularly in the Northwest region, is affected by both tsetse fly and non-tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA) or isometamidium chloride (ISM), respectively. However, since these two trypanocides have been on the market for more than 40 years, this may have resulted in drug-resistance. Therefore, in vivo drug resistance tests on two Ethiopian isolates of Trypanosoma vivax were completed, one from an area where tsetse flies are present and one from an area where tsetse flies are not present. Twenty four cattle (Bos indicus) aged between 6 and 12 months, purchased from a trypanosome-free area (Debre Brehan: Northcentral Ethiopia) and confirmed to be trypanosome-negative, were randomly assigned into four groups of six animals, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area, and in each case treated with curative doses of DA or ISM. Each animal were inoculated intravenously 3×10(6) trypanosomes from donor animals. Parasitaemia became patent earlier in infections with non-tsetse T. vivax (∼7 days post-infection) than tsetse (∼14 days post-infection). Both groups were treated at the highest peak parasitaemia with DA or ISM and nine cattle, four with non-tsetse T. vivax (two ISM- and two DA-treated) and five with tsetse T. vivax (three ISM- and two DA-treated) showed relapses of parasitaemia. Moreover, treatment did not improve diagnostic host markers of trypanosome infections in these animals. In conclusion, in vivo drug tests indicated the presence of resistant parasites (>20% of treated animals in each group relapsed) against recommended doses of both available trypanocidal drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of previous maternal health services has a limited role in reattendance for skilled institutional delivery: cross-sectional survey in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Bekana; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Andargie, Gashaw

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality rates are unacceptably high in Ethiopia. Institutional delivery with skilled care of the mother is one of the interventions proven to reduce the risk of complications that can cause maternal and neonatal mortality. Quality of service given during antenatal visits and childbirth are important measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of skilled institutional delivery and its repeat use during a subsequent pregnancy and to identify any reasons why women avoid institutional delivery. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2012 in Chilga Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were collected from women who gave birth during the year preceding the survey. Information was entered and cleaned using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was used to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome. Results A total of 402 (84.2%) women gave birth at home. Previous experience of skilled institutional delivery had a limited role in subsequent acceptance or use of institutional delivery. Most mothers who had previously had institutional delivery gave birth at home. Although 111 (40.8%) women visited the health facility during their pregnancy only because of illness, 184 (38.8%) did not know when to visit for antenatal care. In multivariate analysis, lower maternal education, being a rural resident, previous use of institutional delivery, remoteness of the health facility, and multiparity were factors significantly associated with less likelihood of institutional delivery. Number of months pregnant at the time of the first antenatal visit had no role in increasing the likelihood of institutional delivery. Conclusion The quality of the obstetric services presently available for women living in Ethiopia needs review. PMID:23459063

  13. Assessment of Current Malaria Status in Light of the Ongoing Control Interventions, Socio-Demographic and Environmental Variables in Jiga Area, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayalew, Seble; Mamo, Hassen; Animut, Abebe; Erko, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Following substantial decline in malaria burden in Ethiopia, the country is planning to eliminate malaria in certain low transmission settings by 2020. To evaluate the attainability of this goal in-depth examination of malaria parasite carriage at community level is necessary. This study was, therefore, aimed at assessing the current situation of malaria in relation to ongoing control interventions in Jiga area, Jabi Tehnan District in northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional household (HH) survey was conducted in November-December 2013. Out of 2,574 HHs (11,815 people) in the entire Jabi Tehnan District, 392 (accommodating 1911 people) were randomly selected from three purposely selected villages. One randomly selected member from each selected HH was tested for malaria using rapid diagnostic test (mRDT). All participants tested for malaria (n = 392) were afebrile (axillary temperature <37.5°C). Eleven individuals (2.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.2-4.4%) were found to be mRDT positive. Most HHs (95.9%, 95% CI: 93.5-97.5%) had at least 1 long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN). Insecticide residual spraying (IRS) coverage the last six months was 85.5% (95% CI: 82.0-88.9%). Malaria prevalence remains unexpectedly high despite high HH coverage of control interventions.

  14. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrie, Fikir; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  15. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Melku, Mulugeta; Terefe, Betelihem; Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin; Shiferaw, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood.

  16. Clinical chemistry reference intervals of healthy adult populations in Gojjam Zones of Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Zewdie; Amuamuta, Asmare; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Adem, Yesuf; Abera, Bayeh; Gebeyehu, Wondemu; Gebregziabher, Yakob

    2017-01-01

    Reference interval is crucial for disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring, progression and treatment efficacy. Due to lack of locally derived reference values for the parameters, clinicians use reference intervals derived from western population. But, studies conducted in different African countries have indicated differences between locally and western derived reference values. Different studies also indicated considerable variation in clinical chemistry reference intervals by several variables such as age, sex, geographical location, environment, lifestyle and genetic variation. This study aimed to determine the reference intervals of common clinical chemistry parameters of the community of Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Population based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 in healthy adult populations of Gojjam zone. Data such as, medical history, physical examination and socio-demographic data were collected. In addition, laboratory investigations were undertaken to screen the population. Clinical chemistry parameters were measured using Mindray BS 200 clinical chemistry autoanalyzer as per the manufacturer's instructions. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean, median and 95th percentiles. Independent sample T-test and one way ANOVA were used to see association between variables. After careful screening of a total of 799 apparently healthy adults who were consented for this study, complete data from 446 (224 females and 222 males) were included for the analysis. The mean age of both the study participants was 28.8 years. Males had high (P<0.05) mean and 2.5th-97.5th percentile ranges of ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine and direct bilirubin. The reference intervals of amylase, LDH, total protein and total bilirubin were not significantly different between the two sex groups (P>0.05). Mean, median, 95% percentile values of AST, ALP, amylase, LDH, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin across

  17. The consequence of delayed neurosurgical care at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cadotte, David W; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Cadotte, Adam; Bernstein, Mark; Munie, Tadios; Freidberg, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH) is the major teaching hospital for Addis Ababa University and the only tertiary referral hospital for neurosurgery in Ethiopia. We explore the consequence of delayed treatment by examining the current system in place for treating patients and the wait times experienced by patients. A retrospective chart review was carried out on patients who received a neurosurgical operation at TAH between January 1 and June 30, 2007. We divided patients into those requiring an elective procedure and those requiring emergency surgical care. Based on data entered in the chart, we determined the length of time from symptom onset to neurosurgical consultation and the time from consultation to receiving an operation. Selective cases were chosen to illustrate the effects of delayed care. A total of 172 neurosurgical operations were performed between January 1 and June 30, 2007, at TAH. Of these, 107 (62.2%) charts were available for retrospective review. Fifty-six elective cases were reviewed. The median time from symptom onset to neurosurgical consultation was 185 days. The median time from neurosurgical consultation to operation was 44 days. Fifty-one trauma/emergency surgical cases were reviewed. The median time from symptom onset or traumatic event to neurosurgical consultation was 3 days. The median time from neurosurgical consultation to operation was 1 day. Delayed neurosurgical care comes with a high personal and social cost. By measuring the time from diagnosis to treatment and taking note of institutional practices, changes can be initiated to improve patient waiting times.

  18. Prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Soressa, Urgessa; Mamo, Abebe; Hiko, Desta; Fentahun, Netsanet

    2016-06-04

    In Africa, acute intestinal obstruction accounts for a great proportion of morbidity and mortality. Ethiopia is one of the countries where intestinal obstruction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to determine prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital in Oromia region, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study design was used. Data covering the past three years were collected from hospital medical records of sampled patients. The collected data were checked for any inconsistency, coded and entered into SPSS version 16.0 for data processing and analysis. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used. Statistical significance was based on confidence interval (CI) of 95 % at a p-value of < 0.05. 262 patients were admitted with intestinal obstruction. The prevalence of intestinal obstruction was 21.8 % and 4.8 % among patients admitted for acute abdomen surgery and total surgical admissions, respectively. The mortality rate was 2.5 % (6 of 262). The most common cause of small bowel obstruction was intussusceptions in 48 patients (30.9 %), followed by small bowel volvulus in 47 patients (30.3 %). Large bowel obstruction was caused by sigmoid volvulus in 60 patients (69.0 %) followed by colonic tumor in 12 patients (13.8 %). After controlling for possible confounding factors, the major predictors of management outcome of intestinal obstruction were: duration of illness before surgical intervention (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.49, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.97); intra-operative findings [Viable small bowel volvulus (SBV) (AOR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.95) and viable (AOR = 0.17, 95 % CI: 0.03-0.88)]; completion of intra-operative procedures (bowel resection & anastomosis (AOR = 3.05, 95 % CI: 1.04-8.94); and length of hospital stay (AOR = 0.05, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.16). Small bowel obstruction was more prevalent than large bowel obstruction. Intussusceptions and

  19. Routine health information system utilization and factors associated thereof among health workers at government health institutions in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Atsede Mazengia; Zegeye, Dessalegn Tegabu; Assefa, Solomon; Yenit, Melaku Kindie

    2017-08-07

    Using reliable information from routine health information systems over time is an important aid to improving health outcomes, tackling disparities, enhancing efficiency, and encouraging innovation. In Ethiopia, routine health information utilization for enhancing performance is poor among health workers, especially at the peripheral levels of health facilities. Therefore, this study aimed to assess routine health information system utilization and associated factors among health workers at government health institutions in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at government health institutions of East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia from April to May, 2013. A total of 668 health workers were selected from government health institutions, using the cluster sampling technique. Data collected using a standard structured and self-administered questionnaire and an observational checklist were cleaned, coded, and entered into Epi-info version 3.5.3, and transferred into SPSS version 20 for further statistical analysis. Variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 at multiple logistic regression analysis were considered statistically significant factors for the utilization of routine health information systems. The study revealed that 45.8% of the health workers had a good level of routine health information utilization. HMIS training [AOR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.62], good data analysis skills [AOR = 6.40, 95%CI: 3.93, 10.37], supervision [AOR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.42, 4.75], regular feedback [AOR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.38, 3.51], and favorable attitude towards health information utilization [AOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.78, 4.54] were found significantly associated with a good level of routine health information utilization. More than half of the health workers working at government health institutions of East Gojjam were poor health information users compared with the findings of others studies. HMIS training, data

  20. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at cow and herd level in dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, S A; Koop, G; Melkie, S T; Getahun, C D; Hogeveen, H; Lam, T J G M

    2017-09-15

    Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A cross-sectional study that describes prevalence and causative agents of subclinical mastitis (SCM) as well as risk factors at cow and herd level was conducted on 167 dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia. On average, 33% of the quarters and 62% of the cows were California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive, but the within herd quarter level prevalence ranged between 0 and 100%. A total of 1543 milk samples, being 27 quarters that showed signs of CM, 606 CMT positive quarters and 910 CMT negative quarters were cultured, respectively 40%, 67% and 47% was positive on bacteriological culture. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (31%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Based on face-to-face questionnaire data, 35 herd level and 13 cow level factors were evaluated for their association with SCM (based on CMT) and with a positive culture for any bacteria, CNS or S. aureus. Cows with a history of CM, of higher parity, >150days in milk (DIM) and herds with owners that have >10th grade level of education had higher odds of SCM. The odds of being culture positive for any bacteria was higher in cows with ≥25% Holstein Friesian blood level (HBL), >150 DIM, housed on cemented floors, and milked by squeezing rather than stripping. Similarly, the odds of culturing CNS was higher in cows with 25-50% HBL, >150 DIM, and milked by squeezing. Staphylococcus aureus was more often found in cows with a history of CM and in larger herds. Checking the udder for mastitis, feeding cows according to their requirements and allowing calves to suckle the cows were negatively associated with SCM, with culturing any bacteria and with culturing CNS, respectively. Higher

  1. Prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practices and associated factors among mothers in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. World Health Organization (WHO) recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for six months which has a great contribution in reducing under five mortality, which otherwise leads to death of 88/1000 live birth yearly in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess prevalence of EBF and associated factors in mothers in the city of Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 to 25 June 2012 among mothers who delivered 12 months earlier in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. A cluster sampling technique was used to select a sample of 819 participants. Data were collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire by face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to check associations and control confounding. Results Of 819 mother-infant pairs sampled, the overall age appropriate rate of EBF practice was found to be 50.3%. Having a young infant aged 0-1 month (AOR = 3.77, 95% CI = 1.54, 9.24) and 2-3 months (AOR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.71, 4.58), being a housewife (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.48, 3.16), having prenatal EBF plan (AOR = 3.75, 95% CI = 2.21, 6.37), delivering at a health facility (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.55, 5.89), giving birth vaginally (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.87) and receiving infant feeding counseling/advice (AOR = 5.20, 95% CI = 2.13, 12.68) were found to be significantly associated with EBF practice. Conclusion Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was low in Bahir Dar. Strengthening infant feeding advice/counseling both at the community and institutional levels, promoting institutional delivery, providing adequate pain relief and early assistance for mothers who gave birth by caesarean section, and enabling every mother a prenatal EBF plan during antenatal care were recommended in order to increase the proportion of women practicing EBF. PMID

  2. Knowledge of direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality and associated factors among reproductive age women in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Fikreselassie; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Ayana, Mulatu; Amsalu, Endawoke

    2017-01-01

    in Ethiopia, 20,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth with much more maternal morbidity occurring for each maternal death. Good knowledge of women related with direct causes of maternal mortality is important in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess knowledge of direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality and associated factors among reproductive age of women in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling followed by simple random sampling technique. The study was conducted in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 844 reproductive age women were included in the study. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews by 12 data collectors. Data was cleaned, coded and entered into Epi-data, then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were computed to identify factors related to knowledge of obstetric causes of maternal mortality. The crude and adjusted odds ratios together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. A P-value less than 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. This study found that almost half (49.6%) of respondents have good knowledge level towards obstetric causes of maternal mortality. Significant variables associated with knowledge towards obstetric causes of maternal mortality were; being government employee (AOR=3.6, 95% CI=1.4-8.9), respondents who had additional monthly income from family members (AOR=1.54, 95% CI=1.04-2.27), respondents who attended primary school and above (AOR=1.6, 95% CI=1.13-2.25), distance of health facility in which the time it took less than 20 minutes (AOR=2.25, 95% CI(1.24-4.09), 20-39minutes (AOR=3.06, 95% CI=1.66-5.64), 40-60 minutes (AOR=2.38, 95% CI=1.52-5.26), and previous

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children in Bahirdar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Yoseph; Derso, Terefe; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2017-01-04

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, most nutrition efforts have concentrated on under-nutrition in children. However, national surveys rarely report the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Likewise, in Ethiopia there is growing recognition of the emergence of a "double-burden" of malnutrition, with under and over nutrition occurring simultaneously among children, especially allied with improvements in socio-economic conditions. Hence, the study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children aged 3-6 years in Bahirdar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted in Bahirdar Town, northwest Ethiopia from August to September, 2015. Anthropometric measurements such as weight and height were taken from 462 private Kindergarten preschool children aged 3-6 years; socio-economic and demographic factors and feeding practices were collected by interviewing the, mothers or caregivers of the children. The z-score values for BMI-for-age of children were generated using Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) for Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief Transitions (SMART) 2011. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity in children. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to show the strength of association. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.9% [95% CI 2.4, 11.4]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 4.1 and 2.8%, respectively. The odds of overweight and obesity was higher among children with high dietary diversity score (DDS) [AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.42, 18.47], family size of less than five [AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 1.84, 12.31] and a family having a private car [AOR = 3.43, 95% CI 1.02, 11.49]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among private kindergarten preschool children in the study area was high. Interventions on improving feeding

  4. Depression and anxiety disorder among epileptic people at Amanuel Specialized Mental Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tegegne, Minale Tareke; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Awoke, Andargie Abate; Assaye, Ashagre Molla; Gebrie, Belete Temitm; Eshetu, Desalegn Asmare

    2015-09-02

    Although depression and anxiety disorders are very common in people with epilepsy; there are no studies that assessed the magnitude and associated factors among epileptic people in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2013, among 423 people with epilepsy from the outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among epileptic people were 33.5 and 32.8%, respectively. Monthly income, frequency of seizure and side effects of anti convulsants were found to be significantly associated with both depression and anxiety. Being divorced/widowed was associated with anxiety while using poly-therapy of anti convulsants, perceived stigma, and inability to read or write were associated with depression. The prevalence of co-morbid anxiety and depression was found to be high among people with epilepsy. Early identification of co-morbid depression and anxiety in people with epilepsy and managing epilepsy to become seizure free should be of great concern for health care providers.

  5. Abortion and unwanted pregnancy in Adigrat Zonal Hospital, Tigray, north Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gessessew, Amanuel

    2010-09-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal mortality and morbidity. This study was done to determine the causes of unwanted pregnancy and its impact on maternal health. A cross sectional study (February 1, 2002-January 31, 2004) was conducted on 907 patients with diagnosis of abortion and admitted to the gynecological ward of Adigrat zonal hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. This accounts to 12.6% of all hospital and 60.6% of gynecological admissions. The majority of these women (69.8%) had unwanted pregnancy. Modern contraception methods were not in use in 76.2% of unwanted and 57.7% of wanted pregnancies (P = 0.008). Interference was reported in 81.4% of unwanted pregnancy. High incidence of complication was reported in patients with unwanted pregnancy. In this study it is found that unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality. The development and prompt implementation of a strategy that enables women to safely manage unwanted pregnancy is recommended.

  6. More than eight in every nineteen inmates were living with depression at prisons of Northwest Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, a cross sectional study design.

    PubMed

    Beyen, Teresa Kisi; Dadi, Abel Fikadu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Muluneh, Niguse Yigzaw; Bisetegn, Telake Azale

    2017-01-19

    Mental health is the greatest challenges for the current and future generations. Worldwide, out of the 66 million people suffering from depression; majority (85%) were from low and middle income countries. The prevalence was more common among the prisons population than the community. However, a worldwide consideration given to the problems is very low, particularly for prisoners. To assess level of depression and associated factors among prisoners in prisons of Northwest Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, Institutional based cross sectional study was employed on 727 prisoners selected by multistage random sampling from three prisons of northwest Amhara. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess an individuals' depression level. The reliability of the tool was checked by Cronbach's Alpha (yielding value of 0.841). Multivariable logistic regression was done to identify factors associated with depression after Hosmer and lemeshow goodness of fit test was used for model fitness. Of the total prisoners participated (649), 284 (43.8%; 95% CI: 39.90, 47.67%) had symptoms of depression. Detainees' satisfaction level about life before imprisonment, belief about their life after imprisonment, plan to commit suicide, social support and types of prisons were significantly associated with depression. Depression level among detainees was found to be high. Thus, providing training to scale up satisfaction of prisoners, on how to cope up with environment just before imprisonment and release, and treating prisoners will improve the problem.

  7. Predictors of multidrug resistant tuberculosis among adult patients at Saint Peter Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dessalegn, Muluken; Daniel, Ermias; Behailu, Sileshi; Wagnew, Maereg; Nyagero, Josephat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a major public health concern that threatens advances made in global TB control efforts. Though the problem is prevalent, it did not receive major attention to generate supportive evidence for the prevention and control of MDR-TB. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of MDR-TB in a national TB referral centre in Ethiopia. Methods An unmatched, case-control study was conducted at St. Peter Hospital to assess risk factors associated with MDR-TB. The study included 103 culture proven, MDR-TB patients referred to the hospital during the study period (cases) and 103 randomly-selected TB patients with confirmed TB who turned negative after treatment (controls). Regressions analyses were used to determine the association of variables. Results The mean age among cases and controls was 30.5 (±9.26) and 34.73 (±11.28) years, respectively. The likelihood of having MDR-TB was 20.3 times higher among those who had a any previous history of TB treatment (AOR=20.3 [CI 5.13, 80.58]), 15.7 times higher among those who had TB more than once (AOR=15.7 [CI 4.18, 58.71]) compared those who had once, 6.8 times higher among those who had pulmonary TB (AOR=6.8 [CI 1.16, 40.17]) and 16.1 times higher for those who had experienced treatment with a Category II regimen (AOR=16.1 [CI 2.40, 108.56]). HIV infection was less common among cases than controls. Conclusion This study concluded that special attention should be given to patients with a history of the following: TB more than once, presence of pulmonary TB, and used a Category II treatment regimen, as these were all determining factors for MDR-TB. Thus, this study urges the development and implementation of well-planned and integrated strategies for MDR-TB control and prevention in Ethiopia. PMID:28439330

  8. Predictors of multidrug resistant tuberculosis among adult patients at Saint Peter Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dessalegn, Muluken; Daniel, Ermias; Behailu, Sileshi; Wagnew, Maereg; Nyagero, Josephat

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a major public health concern that threatens advances made in global TB control efforts. Though the problem is prevalent, it did not receive major attention to generate supportive evidence for the prevention and control of MDR-TB. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of MDR-TB in a national TB referral centre in Ethiopia. An unmatched, case-control study was conducted at St. Peter Hospital to assess risk factors associated with MDR-TB. The study included 103 culture proven, MDR-TB patients referred to the hospital during the study period (cases) and 103 randomly-selected TB patients with confirmed TB who turned negative after treatment (controls). Regressions analyses were used to determine the association of variables. The mean age among cases and controls was 30.5 (±9.26) and 34.73 (±11.28) years, respectively. The likelihood of having MDR-TB was 20.3 times higher among those who had a any previous history of TB treatment (AOR=20.3 [CI 5.13, 80.58]), 15.7 times higher among those who had TB more than once (AOR=15.7 [CI 4.18, 58.71]) compared those who had once, 6.8 times higher among those who had pulmonary TB (AOR=6.8 [CI 1.16, 40.17]) and 16.1 times higher for those who had experienced treatment with a Category II regimen (AOR=16.1 [CI 2.40, 108.56]). HIV infection was less common among cases than controls. This study concluded that special attention should be given to patients with a history of the following: TB more than once, presence of pulmonary TB, and used a Category II treatment regimen, as these were all determining factors for MDR-TB. Thus, this study urges the development and implementation of well-planned and integrated strategies for MDR-TB control and prevention in Ethiopia.

  9. Factors affecting performance of public hospital nurses in Addis Ababa region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Nebiat; Berehe, Costantinos

    2016-03-01

    Nurses have a major role to play in providing timely, quality health services in hospitals. It is important to identify factors influencing the performance of nurses to improve the quality of healthcare delivered in healthcare organizations. The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing job performance of nurses in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June 2010 to December 2010 in five public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Among 658 nurses meeting the inclusion criteria, the estimated sample size of 290 nurses was selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. A total of 230 (80%) questionnaires were returned of the 290 questionnaires distributed to respondents. The results of the study indicated that nurses have rated the following as below average: job performance (mean=2.71, SD=0.48), job satisfaction (mean=2.55, SD=0.39), and organizational commitment (mean=2.45, SD=0.36). Organizational commitment (β=0.69, P<0.01), career development (β=0.39, P<0.01), payment (β=0.41, P<0.01), relationship with colleagues (β=0.32, P<0.01), work condition (β=0.21, P<0.05), and years of experience (β=0.27, P<0.05) have significant effect on nurses' job performance. This study highlighted that organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and work experience were significant predictors of nurses' job performance. Healthcare organization should give more attention to factors that contribute to job satisfaction and organizational commitments to improve nurses' job performance.

  10. Knowledge and beliefs on antimicrobial resistance among physicians and nurses in hospitals in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health problem both in hospital and community acquired infections. The present study assessed the knowledge and beliefs on AMR among physicians and nurses in 13 hospitals in Amhara region, Ethiopia, which is a low-income country. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was applied. Results A total of 385 participants (175 physicians and 210 nurses) took part in the study. Sixty five percent of physicians and 98% of nurses replied that they need training on antimicrobial stewardship. Only 48% of physicians and 22.8% of nurses had exposures for local antibiogram data. Overall, 278 (72.2%) of participants were knowledgeable about AMR. Majority of participants agreed or strongly agreed AMR as worldwide and national problem but few considered AMR as problem in their own hospitals. The two most important factors mentioned for AMR development were patients’ poor adherence to prescribed antimicrobials (86%) and overuse of antibiotics (80.5%). The most leading local factors identified for AMR development were: self-antibiotic prescription (53.5%), lack of access to local antibiogram data (12.3%) and prescriber poor awareness about AMR (9.2%). Factors perceived for excessive antibiotic prescriptions were: patient drive (56%), treatment failure (79%), unknown febrile illnesses (39.7%) and upper respiratory tract infections (33.4%). Conclusion Majority of physicians and nurses lack up to-date knowledge on AMR. Unavailability of local antibiogram data, self-prescription by patients and poor awareness on AMR are areas of interventions for prevention and control of AMR. PMID:24887310

  11. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy. PMID:25625049

  12. Sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia: a community based study.

    PubMed

    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2014-07-16

    Sex trafficking is a contemporary issue in both developed and developing countries. The number of trafficked women and young girls has increased globally. Females aged 18-25 are the most targeted group of trafficking. Although the problem is evident in Ethiopia, there are no studies that explored sex trafficking awareness among females. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from February 1st-30th 2012 from a total of 417 youth females. The participants in the study were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with sex trafficking awareness. Two hundred forty-nine (60%) of the participants reported that they had heard or read about sex trafficking. Television (64%), friends (46%) and radio (39%) were the most frequently mentioned sources of information about sex trafficking. About 87% and 74% of the participants mentioned friends and brokers respectively as mediators of sex trafficking. Having TV at home (AOR = 2. 19, 95% CI: 1.31-3.67), completing grade 10 or more (AOR = 2. 22, 95% CI: 1.18-4.17), taking training on gender issues (AOR = 3. 59, 95% CI: 2.11-6.10) and living together with parents (AOR = 3. 65, 95% CI: 1.68-7.93) were factors found associated with sex trafficking awareness. In this study, sex trafficking awareness was low among youth females. Having TV at home, living together with someone and being trained on gender issues were predictors of sex trafficking awareness. Therefore, providing education about sex trafficking will help to increase sex trafficking awareness among youth females.

  13. Knowledge about Danger Signs of Obstetric Complications and Associated Factors among Postnatal Mothers of Mechekel District Health Centers, East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Amenu, Gedefa; Mulaw, Zerfu; Seyoum, Tewodros; Bayu, Hinsermu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Developing countries like Ethiopia contributed highest level of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women awareness of obstetric danger sign to recognize complications to seek medical care early is the first intervention in an effort to decrease maternal death. Objective. To assess knowledge about danger signs of obstetric complications and associated factors among postnatal mothers at Mechekel district health centers, East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2014, in Mechekel district health centers. Systematic random sampling was used to select four hundred eleven study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the presence and strength of association. Results. According to this study, 55.1% participants were knowledgeable about danger signs of obstetric complications. Maternal and husband educational level ((AOR = 1.977, 95% CI: 1.052, 3.716) and (AOR = 3.163, 95% CI: 1.860, 5.3770), resp.), family monthly income ≥ 1500 (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI: 1.289, 6.770), being multipara (AOR = 7.463, 95% CI: 1.301, 12.800), ANC follow-up during last pregnancy (AOR = 2.184, 95% CI: 1.137, 4.196), and place of last delivery (AOR = 1.955, 95% CI: 1.214, 3.150) were variables found to be significantly associated with women's knowledge on danger signs of obstetric complications. Conclusion. Significant proportion of respondents were not knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs and factors like educational status, place of last delivery, and antenatal follow-up were found to be associated. PMID:27375920

  14. Vitamin D deficiency among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and their tuberculosis negative household contacts in Northwest Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Moges, Feleke; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Yismaw, Shewaye; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Kassie, Yewulsew; Girma, Belaineh; Melese, Muluken; Suarez, Pedro G

    2017-05-11

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that increases the immunity against tuberculosis (TB), decreases the re-activation of latent TB and reduces the severity of active TB disease. Epidemiological studies on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and its association with TB showed inconsistent results in different countries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with TB in Northwest Ethiopia. A case-control study was conducted among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and their household contacts without symptoms suggestive of TB. Study participants were recruited at 11 TB diagnostic health facilities in North and South Gondar zones of Amhara region between May 2013 and April 2015. The spot-morning-spot sputum samples and 5 ml blood sample were collected prior to commencing TB treatment for the diagnosis of TB and serum vitamin D assay, respectively. The diagnosis of TB was performed using smear microscopy and GeneXpert. Serum vitamin D level was analyzed using VIDAS 25 OH Vitamin D Total testing kits (Biomerieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) on mini VIDAS automated immunoassay platform. Vitamin D status was interpreted as deficient (<20 ng/ml), insufficient (20-29 ng/ml), sufficient (30-100 ng/ml) and potential toxicity (>100 ng/ml). Of the total study participants, 134 (46.2%) were vitamin D deficient, and only 56 (19.3%) had sufficient vitamin D level. A total of 59 (61.5%) TB patients and 75 (38.7%) non TB controls were vitamin D deficient. Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses showed a significantly higher vitamin D deficiency among tuberculosis cases (p < 0.001), females (p = 0.002), and urban residents (p < 0.001) than their respective comparison groups. Moreover, age groups of 35-44 (p = 0.001), 45-54 (p = 0.003) and ≥55 (p = 0.001) years had significantly higher vitamin D deficiency compared with age group <15 years. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent

  15. Prevalence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in dhfr and dhps genes of Plasmodium falciparum three years after SP withdrawal in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemeskel, Elifaged; Kassa, Moges; Taddesse, Gemechu; Mohammed, Hussien; Woyessa, Adugna; Tasew, Geremew; Sleshi, Markos; Kebede, Amha; Petros, Beyene

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia changed the first-line anti-malarial drug for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria from sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to Coartem(®) in 2004 following nation-wide assessment of the efficacy of both drugs in 2003. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in dhfr and dhps genes of P. falciparum three years after SP withdrawal in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 165 blood spot samples were collected from patients infected with P. falciparum in Bahir Dar Health Center in 2005 (n=78) and 2008 (n=87) using Whatman (3M) filter papers. The three dhfr codons (dhfr108, dhfr 51 and dhfr 59) and the two dhps codons (dhfr 437 and 540) which are believed to determine SP resistance were detected by using nested PCR-based dot blot-hybridization technique. In dhfr, only the dhfr59Arg mutant-type showed statistically significant reduction from 80.3% in 2005 to 56.4% in 2008 (p<0.01) with a significant increase of the wild type dhfr59Cys haplotypes from 4.9% in 2005 to 29.5% in 2008 (p<0.01). The double mutants dhfr108Asn/51Ile were detected at rate of 98.4% in 2005 and 98.7% in 2008. A significant decrease in the triple dhfr (108Asn/51Ile/59Arg) mutation was observed from 2005 (78.6%) to 2008(56.4%) (p<0.01). The quadruple mutations of dhfr (108Asn/51Ile/59Arg)/dhps437Gly were significantly declined from 78.6% in 2005 to 53.8% in 2008 (p<0.01) while quintuple mutations (dhfr (108Asn/51Ile/59Arg)/dhps437Gly/dhps540Glu) showed a reduction from 60.6% to 37.2% after three years (p<0.01). In conclusion, the decline in the prevalence of dhfr/dhps combination mutations might indicate the re-emergence of sensitive parasites in the population following SP withdrawal. Therefore, further monitoring and assessment is important to determine the feasibility of re-introduction of SP alone or in combination as a more affordable and safer drug in the future in Ethiopia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Legal rights to safe abortion: knowledge and attitude of women in North-West Ethiopia toward the current Ethiopian abortion law.

    PubMed

    Muzeyen, R; Ayichiluhm, M; Manyazewal, T

    2017-07-01

    To assess women's knowledge and attitude toward Ethiopian current abortion law. A quantitative, community-based cross-sectional survey. Women of reproductive age in three selected lower districts in Bahir Dar, North-West Ethiopia, were included. Multi-stage simple random sampling and simple random sampling were used to select the districts and respondents, respectively. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire comprising questions related to knowledge and attitude toward legal status of abortion and cases where abortion is currently allowed by law in Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and multivariable logistic regression computed to assess the magnitude and significance of associations. Of 845 eligible women selected, 774 (92%) consented to participate and completed the interview. A total of 512 (66%) women were aware of the legal status of the Ethiopian abortion law and their primary sources of information were electronic media such as television and radio (43%) followed by healthcare providers (38.7%). Among women with awareness of the law, 293 (57.2%) were poor in knowledge, 188 (36.7%) fairly knowledgeable, and 31 (6.1%) good in knowledge about the cases where abortion is allowed by law. Of the total 774 women included, 438 (56.5%) hold liberal and 336 (43.5%) conservative attitude toward legalization of abortion. In the multivariable logistic regression, age had a significant association with knowledge, whereas occupation had a significant association with attitude toward the law. Women who had poor knowledge toward the law were more likely to have conservative attitude toward the law (adjusted odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.61). Though the Ethiopian criminal code legalized abortion under certain circumstances since 2005, a significant number of women knew little about the law and several protested legalization of abortion. Countries such as Ethiopia with high maternal mortality records need to lift

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eskezia, Debassu; Aderaw, Zewdie; Ahmed, Kedir Y; Tadese, Fentaw

    2016-08-24

    Refuse collectors are at a high risk for fatal and non-fatal occupational accidents. This is more intensified in developing countries, like Ethiopia, due to physically demanding nature of the job. However, information on occupational injuries and related factors are almost non-existent in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of occupational injuries and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region from February to May 2015. Computer generated simple random sampling technique was used to select the samples. Interviewer administrated questionnaires were used for the data collection process. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between outcome variables and explanatory variables. In this study, the annual prevalence of at least one occupational injury among solid waste workers was 34.3 % (95 % CI: 29.52, 39.10). Of these, 50.7 % of them were visited health facility to receive health care. The independent predictors of at least one occupational injury were shorter service years, low monthly salary, history of job related stress, and sleeping disturbance related to the job. Being illiterate, having lower monthly income, and those who reported sleeping disturbance were significantly and positively associated with severe occupational injuries of solid waste collectors. The magnitude of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors is lower than other similar studies conducted in Ethiopia. Based on the finding of this and other studies, job rotation among work components, improvement of employees' income, job specific guideline regarding maximum production limits, and replacement of bags and bins with wheeled containers are an interventions expected to cope with the problem. There is also a need of specific periodic health surveillance (PHS) for refuse collectors to detect early signs of work related complaints and

  18. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Debere, Mesfin Kote; Gelaye, Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo, Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa, Zemedu Mehamed

    2013-01-12

    Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public), were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private). The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1). Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22%) in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%). The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001). The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p < 0.05). The waste separation and treatment practices were very poor. Other alternatives for waste treatment rather than incineration such as a locally made autoclave should be evaluated and implemented. These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor.

  19. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public), were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private). Results The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1). Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22%) in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%). The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001). The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p < 0.05). The waste separation and treatment practices were very poor. Other alternatives for waste treatment rather than incineration such as a locally made autoclave should be evaluated and implemented. Conclusion These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor. PMID:23311573

  20. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  1. Malaria, Typhoid Fever, and Their Coinfection among Febrile Patients at a Rural Health Center in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Birhanie, Meseret; Tessema, Belay; Ferede, Getachew; Endris, Mengistu; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria and typhoid fever are major public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries. People in endemic areas are at risk of contracting both infections concurrently. Objectives. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of malaria, typhoid, and their coinfection among febrile patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 febrile patients suspected for malaria and/or typhoid fever from April to May, 2013, at Ayinba Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected for blood culture, Widal test, and blood film preparation. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Results. The prevalence of malaria was 36.5% (n = 73). Among these 32 (43.8%), 30 (41.1%) and 11 (15.1%) were positive for P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. The seroprevalence of typhoid fever was 38 (19%), but 1 (0.5%) with blood culture. Malaria typhoid fever coinfection was 13 (6.5%). 2-5-year-old children and poor hand washing habit were significantly associated with malaria and typhoid infection, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever was found high. Further studies should be done on the other determinants of malaria and typhoid fever coinfection in different seasons and different study areas.

  2. Malaria, Typhoid Fever, and Their Coinfection among Febrile Patients at a Rural Health Center in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Belay; Ferede, Getachew; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria and typhoid fever are major public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries. People in endemic areas are at risk of contracting both infections concurrently. Objectives. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of malaria, typhoid, and their coinfection among febrile patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 febrile patients suspected for malaria and/or typhoid fever from April to May, 2013, at Ayinba Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected for blood culture, Widal test, and blood film preparation. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Results. The prevalence of malaria was 36.5% (n = 73). Among these 32 (43.8%), 30 (41.1%) and 11 (15.1%) were positive for P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. The seroprevalence of typhoid fever was 38 (19%), but 1 (0.5%) with blood culture. Malaria typhoid fever coinfection was 13 (6.5%). 2–5-year-old children and poor hand washing habit were significantly associated with malaria and typhoid infection, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever was found high. Further studies should be done on the other determinants of malaria and typhoid fever coinfection in different seasons and different study areas. PMID:26556415

  3. The relative persuasiveness of gain-framed versus loss-Framed HIV testing message: evidence from a field experiment in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relative advantages of gain- versus loss-framed messages for promoting HIV testing among a sample of urban and rural residents in northwest Ethiopia. The authors randomly assigned 394 participants to read gain-framed (n = 196) or loss-framed (n = 198) HIV testing message prepared in a form of brochure. Experience with HIV testing, concern about and information needs on HIV/AIDS, and urbanity versus rurality significantly moderated the effects of framing on intention to test for HIV. A gain-frame advantage was found among urbanites, participants with high experience with HIV testing, and those with high concern about and information needs on HIV/AIDS, suggesting a more likely construal of HIV testing as a prevention behavior among these individuals. In contrast, a loss-frame advantage was found among ruralites and participants with low concern about and information needs on HIV/AIDS, suggesting a more likely construal of HIV testing as a detection behavior among such individuals. Moreover, gain- and loss-framing led to similar outcomes among individuals with low levels of experience with HIV testing, with a slight advantage for the loss-framed message. All of the framing effects obtained were of small to medium size.

  4. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS FROM AN AREA PREVIOUSLY NOT KNOWN TO BE ENDEMIC; DANGUR, BENSHANGUL-GUMUZ, REGIONAL STATE, NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Abera, Adugna; Tasew, Geremew; Degu, Abay; Almneh, Mulusew; Mulugeta, Abate; Aseffa, Abraham; Gadisa, Endalamaw

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a ftial and growing public health problem in Ethiopia. VL is recently reported outside the major endemic foci, the lowlands in the northwest and the Omo and Abaroba-plain, Segen and Woito valleys in the southwest. Here, we report a visceral leishmaniasis case from Benishangul-Gumuz Regional state near the Guba area. The patient had no history of travel to known VL endemic areas. The patient is a temporary farm laborer from West Go'jam Zone, Wanbermna District in Amhara Regional State. While in Benishangul-Gumuz, the patient was diagnosed with prolonged and intermittentfever, epistaxis, splenomegaly, skin pallor, diarrhea, cough and oedema. Laboratory diagnosis results showed that he had marked leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The patient was suspected of having VL and checked with rK39 immunochromnatography and direct agglutination tests which were positive for anti leishmanial antibodies. After getting full dose of sodium stibogluconate as per the national visceral leishmaniasis treatment guideline, was clinically cured. As the area in Benshangul-Gumuz where this patient contracted visceral leishmaniasis is under social and ecological transformation with large scale projects attracting huge influx of temporary laborers and settlers, due attention is needed with respect to introduction or emergence of VL transmission.

  5. Diagnostic performance of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria at public health facilities in north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getnet, Gebeyaw; Getie, Sisay; Srivastava, Mitaly; Birhan, Wubet; Fola, Abebe A; Noedl, Harald

    2015-11-01

    To assess the performance of RDTs against nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for the diagnosis of malaria in public health facilities in north-western Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study at public health facilities in North Gondar, Ethiopia, of 359 febrile patients with signs and symptoms consistent with malaria. Finger prick blood samples were collected for testing in a P. falciparum/pan-malaria RDTs and for molecular analysis. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were determined for the RDTs using nPCR as reference diagnostic method. Kappa value was determined to demonstrate the consistency of the results between the diagnostic tools. By RDTs, 22.28% (80/359) of patients tested positive for malaria, and by nPCR, 27.02% (97/359) did. In nPCR, 1.67% (6/359) and 0.28% (1/359) samples were positive for P. ovale and P. malariae, which had almost all tested negative in the RDTs. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria were 62.9%, 92.7%, 76.3% and 87.1%, respectively, with 0.589 measurement agreement between RDTs and nPCR. The sensitivity and specificity of RDTs for P. falciparum identification only were 70.8% and 95.2%, and 65.2% and 93.1% for P. vivax. Although RDTs are commonly used at health posts in resource-limited environments, their sensitivity and specificity for the detection and species identification of Plasmodium parasites were poor compared to nPCR, suggesting caution in interpreting RDTs results. Particularly, in the light of expanded efforts to eliminate malaria in the country, more sensitive diagnostic procedures will be needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Girma, Eshetu; Tesfaye, Markos

    2011-08-22

    Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness. A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16. Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%), schizophrenia 55 (14.3%) and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2%) were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8%) and other patients 75 (19.5%). Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%), came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2%) or an herbalist 77 (20.1%) before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6%) and evil eye 61 (15.9%), whereas 73 (19.0%) of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7%) believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior. There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers were the first place where help was sought for mental

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among malaria suspects attending Gambella hospital, southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tsegaye, Arega; Golassa, Lemu; Mamo, Hassen; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-11-18

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) is widespread across malaria endemic regions. G6PD-deficient individuals are at risk of haemolysis when exposed, among other agents, to primaquine and tafenoquine, which are capable of blocking malaria transmission by killing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and preventing Plasmodium vivax relapses by targeting hypnozoites. It is evident that no measures are currently in place to ensure safe delivery of these drugs within the context of G6PDd risk. Thus, determining G6PDd prevalence in malarious areas would contribute towards avoiding possible complications in malaria elimination using the drugs. This study, therefore, was aimed at determining G6PDd prevalence in Gambella hospital, southwest Ethiopia, using CareStart™ G6PDd fluorescence spot test. Venous blood samples were collected from febrile patients (n = 449) attending Gambella hospital in November-December 2013. Malaria was diagnosed using blood films and G6PDd was screened using CareStart™ G6PDd screening test (Access Bio, New Jersey, USA). Haematological parameters were also measured. The association of G6PD phenotype with sex, ethnic group and malaria smear positivity was tested. Malaria prevalence was 59.2% (96.6% of the cases being P. falciparum mono infections). Totally 33 participants (7.3%) were G6PD-deficient with no significant difference between the sexes. The chance of being G6PD-deficient was significantly higher for the native ethnic groups (Anuak and Nuer) compared to the 'highlanders'/settlers (odds ratio (OD) = 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.481-31.418 for Anuak vs 'highlanders'; OD = 4.9, 95% CI 0.635-38.00 for Nuer vs 'highlanders'). G6PDd prevalence among the Nuer (14.3%) was significantly higher than that for the Anuak (12.0%). G6PDd prevalence in the area is substantial with 30 (90.9%) of the 33 deficient individuals having malaria suggesting the non-protective role of the disorder at least from clinical malaria

  8. Household food insecurity is associated with both body mass index and middle upper-arm circumference of mothers in northwest Ethiopia: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Motbainor, Achenef; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity and associated malnutrition result in serious health problems in developing countries. This study determined levels of maternal undernutrition and its association with food insecurity in northwest Ethiopia. This was a community-based comparative cross-sectional study conducted May 24-July 20, 2013. Multistage random sampling was used to select 4,110 samples. Availability of Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Programme was used for grouping the study areas. A food-security access scale developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistant project was used to measure food security. Sociodemographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. A binary logistic regression model was used to assess the association of food insecurity and maternal undernutrition. From the total participants, 12.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.6%-13.6%) had a body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m(2). Comparison of maternal undernutrition in the two study areas revealed 8.8% (95% CI 7.6%-10.2%) in the program area and 16.4% (95% CI 14.8%-18.1%) in nonprogram areas were undernourished. Severe food insecurity was significantly associated with BMI of mothers (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] 3.6 and 2.31, 95% CI 2.32-5.57 and 1.52-3.5, respectively) in both program and nonprogram areas. Mild (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6) and moderate (AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.18-2.16) food insecurity significantly associated with maternal undernutrition in nonprogram areas. In the same way, all forms of food insecurity significantly associated with maternal middle upper-arm circumference in both program and nonprogram areas. The odds of mothers who did not exercise decision-making practice on the household income was also 4.13 times higher than those who did (AOR 4.13, 95% CI 2.2-7.77) in the program area. Food insecurity significantly associated with both maternal BMI and middle upper-arm circumference in both study areas. Female authority also significantly associated with BMI of the mothers in the

  9. Sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia: a community based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sex trafficking is a contemporary issue in both developed and developing countries. The number of trafficked women and young girls has increased globally. Females aged 18–25 are the most targeted group of trafficking. Although the problem is evident in Ethiopia, there are no studies that explored sex trafficking awareness among females. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from February 1st-30th 2012 from a total of 417 youth females. The participants in the study were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with sex trafficking awareness. Result Two hundred forty-nine (60%) of the participants reported that they had heard or read about sex trafficking. Television (64%), friends (46%) and radio (39%) were the most frequently mentioned sources of information about sex trafficking. About 87% and 74% of the participants mentioned friends and brokers respectively as mediators of sex trafficking. Having TV at home (AOR = 2. 19, 95% CI: 1.31-3.67), completing grade 10 or more (AOR = 2. 22, 95% CI: 1.18-4.17), taking training on gender issues (AOR = 3. 59, 95% CI: 2.11-6.10) and living together with parents (AOR = 3. 65, 95% CI: 1.68-7.93) were factors found associated with sex trafficking awareness. Conclusion In this study, sex trafficking awareness was low among youth females. Having TV at home, living together with someone and being trained on gender issues were predictors of sex trafficking awareness. Therefore, providing education about sex trafficking will help to increase sex trafficking

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Enfranze, north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getnet, Gebeyaw; Fola, Abebe Alemu; Alemu, Agersew; Getie, Sisay; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Noedl, Harald

    2015-06-24

    Plasmodium falciparum accounts for approximately 60% of malaria cases in Ethiopia and artemether-lumefantrine has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria since 2004. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in north-western Ethiopia. A 28-day one-arm, prospective evaluation of the clinical and parasitological response to the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria was conducted in Enfranze Health Centre in accordance with the 2009 WHO efficacy study guidelines. Patients were treated with a 3-day course of AL and clinical and parasitological parameters were monitored over a 28-day follow-up. All data from recruited patients were imported into an electronic data base and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for analysing primary [early treatment failures (ETF), late clinical failure (LCF), late parasitological failures (LPF), and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR)] and secondary (PCT, GCT and FCT) outcomes. Eighty patients were enrolled and all of them completed the 28-day follow-up period. The PCR-corrected cure rate was 95.0% (95% CI 87.0-98.4%) and there were two ETF, one LCF and three LPF. Two of the LPF were classified as re infections by PCR. Seventy three point seven five percent, 91.25 and 95% of patients had cleared their parasitaemia by days 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 75, 91.25 and 96.25% of patients had cleared their fever by days 1, 2, and 3. All patients completely cleared their gametocytes by day 7. The relatively high cure rate, low proportion of patients still positive on day 3 as well as parasite clearance times in this study would indicate no imminent threat of artemisinin resistance development in the region. However, the threat of spreading or de novo development of artemisinin resistance warrants regular monitoring of drug efficacy throughout the region.

  11. The status of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Kibatu; Nibret, Endalkachew; Gedefaw, Molla

    2014-04-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 and July 2012. One school containing 750 children aged between 6 and 18 years was randomly selected. Two hundred students from this school were selected by systematic random sampling. Physical examination was made according to WHO goiter classification system; 50 salt samples from households to which the sampled children belonged were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits and titration; a casual urine sample (5 ml) was taken from 30 children to measure urinary iodine spectrophotometrically, and 5 ml venous blood sample were collected from 37 children to measure thyroid relevant blood constituents using ELISA. The total goiter prevalence was 39.5%; 60% of the salt samples contained no iodine. The median urinary iodine concentration ranged from 20.54 - 62.2 (39.9 µg/L). School children who were assessed for thyroid hormones showed 18.92% elevated and 27.03% suppressed TSH levels. The study demonstrated that iodine deficiency is still a severe public health problem in Metekel Zone. There is a need to further strengthen the existing controlling and monitoring system in order to achieve proper elimination of IDDs in the community.

  12. Comparative biochemical changes in young Zebu cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave J; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2014-10-15

    Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne protozoan disease of animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, particularly the northwest region is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and compare differences in virulence of Trypanosoma vivax infection between tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia on the basis of serum biochemical values in Zebu cattle. Eighteen cattles purchased from trypanosome free area and aged between 9 and 12 months were assigned into three groups of six animals (Group TT=infected with T. vivax from tsetse infested area, Group NT=infected with T. vivax from non-tsetse infested area and Group C=non-infected control). For each experimental animal 3 ml of blood from naturally infected cattle was inoculated intravenously at 10(6) trypanosomes/ml except the control. Blood sample was collected once a week for 8 consecutive weeks for analyzing serum biochemical values (glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and enzymes including GOT, GPT and ALP) using a Humastar 80 clinical chemistry analyzer. Both T. vivax parasites caused an acute infection with parasites appearing in circulation on 6 and 12 days post-infection for NT and TT cattle, respectively. A significant reduction (P<0.001) in glucose levels was observed in infected groups compared with the control with mean values of 33.8 ± 3.6 mg/dl for TT, 34.3 ± 3.6 mg/dl for NT and 70.9 ± 3.0 mg/dl for control groups. A similar reduction was also seen in total cholesterol values (P=0.001) with 70.4 ± 10.6 mg/dl for TT and 78.0 ± 10.6 mg/dl for NT groups compared to 139.5 ± 8.7 mg/dl for the control group. No difference was observed for total serum protein between the three groups (P=0.260) whereas the mean albumin level was significantly (P<0.001) decreased (3.5 ± 0.1g/dl and 2.9 ± 0.1g/dl in TT and NT groups respectively) compared to that for control cattle (4.5 ± 0.1g

  13. Prevalence and determinants of acute diarrhea among children younger than five years old in Jabithennan District, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Andargie, Kassawmar; Tarekegn, Molalign

    2017-01-19

    Despite the global decline in death rates of children younger than five years old, the risk of a child dying before turning five years of age remains highest in the WHO African Region. The problem of child death in Ethiopia is worse, with an Ethiopian child being 30 times more likely to die by his/her fifth birthday than a child in Western Europe. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with diarrhea among children younger than five years old. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers who had children younger than five years old from April to June 2014. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select eligible women. The data were coded, entered, cleaned and analyzed with the SPSS software package, version 16. he data of 775 mothers were included in the analysis, and 21.5% of the children had diarrhea in the two weeks before the survey. The main factors affecting the occurrence of diarrhea were residence (Odds ratio (AOR) = 11.29, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 3.49-36.52), sex (AOR = 2.52, 95% CI:1.28-4.93), methods of complementary feeding (AOR = 50.88, 95% CI: 23.85- 108.54), types of water storage equipment (AOR = 19.50, 95% CI: 8.11-46.90), and cleansing materials used to wash hands (AOR = 5.53, 95% CI: 2.19-13.99). Approximately one-fifth of the children included in the study reported diarrheal disease. Residence, sex of the child, type of water storage container, methods of complementary feeding, and cleansing materials to wash the hands were the most important variables that affected the occurrence of diarrhea in children. Therefore, families, the government and nongovernmental organizations working in the area must cooperate in interventions and prevention to minimize the risk of disease.

  14. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Results Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%). The majority (67.5%) of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18–39 years. One hundred ninety four (97%) of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5%) food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8%) was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%), Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5), Taenia species 1(0.5%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%). Conclusion The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler’s training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers. PMID:23031414

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation and associated factors among adults in Debre Markos town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemberu, Yenework Acham; Esmael, Ahmed; Ahmed, Kedir Y

    2016-01-01

    Although the demand for blood supply has progressively increased in developing countries, evidences indicate that there is a major shortage of blood and blood products in these countries, particularly in Ethiopia. Thus, identifying motivational factors affecting blood donation and recruitment of safe and low risk donors is necessary. For this reason, the study aimed at assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood donation and its associated factors. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debre Markos town from February to April, 2015. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to recruit a total of 845 study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaire was employed as a data collection tool. Binary logistic regression was applied to assess the relationship between explanatory variables and outcome variables. In this study, 436 (56.5 %) and 403 (52.2 %) were found to be knowledgeable and having favorable attitude, respectively, while the other 124 (16.1 %) reported to have the practice of blood donation. Younger age group, male sex, those who attended formal education and radio listener were significantly associated with the knowledge of blood donation. Attending secondary and above education, having higher income, listening to radio broadcasts, and knowledge of blood donation were found to be the independent predictors of attitude. The practice of blood donation was higher among respondents who were older, attended certificate and above education, knowledgeable, and favorable attitude groups. The prevalence of knowledge and practice of blood donation is found to be higher compared to similar study conducted in Mekelle, whereas the level of attitude is found to be lower. The finding of this study also justified any possible interventions on the independent predictors. There should be a regularly scheduled awareness creation and voluntary blood donation campaigns organized at the community level to utilize potential blood

  16. Effects of human-induced environmental changes on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gezie, Ayenew; Anteneh, Wassie; Dejen, Eshete; Mereta, Seid Tiku

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands of Lake Tana Watershed provide various ecological and socioeconomic functions. However, they are losing their vigor at alarming rate due to unwise management. Hence, there is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources so as to identify the major drivers of its degradation and to provide information for management decisions. In this context, we aimed to assess the effects of human activities on macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed. Biotic and abiotic data were collected from 46 sampling sites located in eight wetlands. A total of 2568 macroinvertebrates belonging to 46 families were recorded. Macroinvertebrate metrics such as Biological Monitoring Working Party score, Shannon diversity index, Ephemeroptera and odonata family richness, and total family richness portrayed a clear pattern of decreasing with increasing in human disturbances, whereas Family biotic index score, which is an indicator of organic pollution, increased with increasing in human disturbances. The regression analysis also revealed that livestock grazing, leather tanning, and eucalyptus plantation were important predictors of macroinvertebrate metrics (p < 0.05). In conclusion, human activities in and around the wetlands such as farming, leather tanning, solid waste dumping, and effluent discharges were contributed to the degradation of water quality and decreasing in the macroinvertebrate richness and diversity. These alterations could also reduce the availability of wetland products (sedges, craft materials, etc.) and the related ecosystem services. This in turn has an adverse effect on food security and poverty alleviation with considerable impact on communities who heavily depend on wetland products for their livelihood. Therefore, it is essential to formulate wetland policy for achieving wise use goals and necessary legal and institutional backup for sustainable wetland management in Ethiopia.

  17. Community-based tsetse fly control significantly reduces fly density and trypanosomosis prevalence in Metekel Zone, Northwest, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girmay, Gebrerufael; Arega, Bezna; Tesfaye, Dawit; Berkvens, Dirk; Muleta, Gadisa; Asefa, Getnet

    2016-03-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a great obstacle to livestock production where tsetse flies play a major role. Metekel zone is among the tsetse-infested areas. Community-based tsetse fly and trypanosomosis control using targets was conducted from June 2011 to May 2012 in Metekel zone, Ethiopia, to decrease trypanosomosis and tsetse fly. Cloth screen targets were developed, impregnated with 0.1 % deltamethrin, and deployed alongside rivers by the research team together with the community animal health workers. Monthly parasitological and entomological data were collected, processed, and compared with similar data collected before control. Overall average tsetse fly (Glossina tachinoides) density decreased from 1.13 to 0.18 fly/trap/day after control. The density was decreased in all sites with no significant difference among the sites. However, higher decrements were observed in the dry and late dry seasons by more than 12 and 6 times, respectively. The reduction in overall apparent prevalence of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma vivax from 12.14 % before to 3.61 % after control coincides with the tsetse fly reduction. In all the study sites, significant reduction was observed before and after control. The highest decrement was observed in the late dry season when the apparent prevalence was reduced from 7.89 to 1.17 % before and after control, respectively. As this approach is simple, cost-effective, and appropriate for riverine tsetse species, we recommend to be scaled up to other similar places.

  18. Habitat preference and seasonal dynamics of Phlebotomus orientalis in urban and semi-urban areas of kala-azar endemic district of Kafta Humera, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yared, Solomon; Gebresilassie, Araya; Akililu, Essayas; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a significant public health problem in northwest Ethiopia, particularly in Kafta Humera district. The study was designed to determine the species composition and population dynamics of sand flies in five villages representing urban and semi-urban areas of Kafta Humera district namely, Setit Humera, Mykadra, Rawyan, Bereket and Adebay. Sand flies were collected for two to three nights monthly from May 2011 to April 2012 using CDC light-traps and sticky traps. Traps were placed in villages, at periphery of villages and farm fields. Sticky traps were also used for sampling indoor active sand flies. In total, 13,097 sand fly specimens of eight Phlebotomus species and 91,949 Sergentomyia specimens were collected. Among the Phlebotomus, P. orientalis was the predominant species (58.1%) followed by P. papatasi (29.6%), P. lesleyae (5.6%), P. bergeroti (3.8%), P. duboscqi (2.1%), P. alexandri (0.4%), P. heischi (0.2%) and P. rodhaini (0.2%). Significantly, higher number of P. orientalis was caught in Adebay village and the least in Setit Humera town. Seasonal abundance of P. orientalis increased during the dry season (January-May) and dropped drastically in the wet season (late June-September). Significant positive correlation was found between monthly abundance of P. orientalis and the monthly average air and surface soil temperature, while a negative correlation was found with monthly average rainfall and relative humidity. Higher number of P. orientalis was collected outdoors, especially in the farm fields followed by periphery of villages. Thus, various observations strongly suggested P. orientalis to be the principal vector in the study areas, where farm lands and periphery of villages were identified as the most risky habitats, whereas the indoors were the least ones. Appropriate control methods should be designed and implemented according to the knowledge of P. orientalis habitat preferences and seasonal dynamics in the district.

  19. The detection and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella isolates from meat and swab samples at butchers' shops in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Garedew, Legesse; Hagos, Zenabu; Zegeye, Bidir; Addis, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Food borne pathogens are major causes of deaths, illnesses and billions of dollars of expenses. The burden of food borne illness is worsened by the ever increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance microbes. Shigella, a bacterial pathogen associated with food, is reported to account for higher prevalence rates of food borne illness in different settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to June 30, 2013, at the butcher houses of Gondar town in the Northwest of Ethiopia to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella. Cattle raw meat and swab samples from selected critical control points, including knives, chopping boards, and the hands and noses of butchers, were collected and analyzed. The identification of Shigella was carried out using colony characteristics, the Gram reaction, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The overall hygienic status of the butcher shops was also assessed using a checklist. An observational analysis revealed that the sanitary condition of the butcher shops and their premises was poor. Of 306 samples screened, 10.5% were positive for Shigella. Approximately 7.4% of meat samples and 10.2% of swab samples were contaminated with Shigella. Out of the total Shigella isolates, 90.6%, 46.9%, 18.8% and 9.4% were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone and tetracycline, respectively. A multidrug resistance pattern was recorded in 27.8% of the isolates. In conclusion, the safety of meat sold at Gondar butchers houses was poor. The identified Shigella isolates showed high levels of drug resistance and multidrug resistance patterns for commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine. Practicing wise use of antimicrobials and strict sanitary interventions at different critical control points is strongly recommended, in addition to further in-depth studies to prevent unprecedented consequences from

  20. Effect of residence on mothers' health care seeking behavior for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross--sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2014-10-08

    Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via interview was used to collect the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 827 (274 urban and 553 rural) mothers were interviewed. Among these, 79.3% (95% CI: (76.5%, 82.06%)) of the mothers were sought health care in the district. Health care seeking behavior was higher among urban mothers (84.6%) than rural mothers (76.7%). Marital status, completion health extension package, and sex of child were significantly associated with health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Whereas age of child, age and occupation of mothers, educational level of fathers, wealth quintile, and type of reported illness were significantly associated with rural mothers. Perceived severity of illness was significantly associated with both urban and rural mothers for health care seeking behavior. The overall health seeking behaviors of mothers for common childhood illness was high. However, urban mothers seek health care more than rural. Socio Economic position and types of reported illness has an effect for health seeking behavior of rural mothers. Whereas child sex preference and graduation status for health extension package has an effect for health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Work on strengthen accessibility of health care services in the rural mothers and increase awareness of mothers about the disadvantage of sex preferences will improve the health care seek behavior of

  1. Quality of family planning counseling among women attending prenatal care at a hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Abel; Birara, Malede; Rominski, Sarah D

    2017-05-01

    To assess the quality of family planning counseling among women attending a prenatal clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between February and April, 2015, at the prenatal care clinic of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pregnant women in their third trimester were interviewed about their experience of family planning counseling. Data were collected via a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of satisfaction with the counseling service. During the study period, 400 women were interviewed. Only 139 women (34.8%) were counseled about family planning. Among those counseled, 126 (90.6%) decided to use a contraceptive method after delivery and 46 (36.7%) decided to use an injectable contraceptive. Women were more likely to report high satisfaction when their provider asked about their partner's attitude toward contraceptive methods (adjusted odds ratio 6.6; P<0.001), and when asked about their concerns and worries regarding family planning methods (adjusted odds ratio 5.1; P<0.001). Very few women were counseled about contraception during prenatal care. Asking about a partner's attitude toward contraceptives and discussing women's fears or worries about contraceptives should be considered during family planning counseling to improve satisfaction and quality of care. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Educational status as determinant of men's knowledge about vasectomy in Dangila town administration, Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Temach, Abrham Jemberie; Fekadu, Gedefaw Abeje; Achamyeleh, Anemaw Asrat

    2017-04-18

    Although vasectomy is effective and less expensive contraceptive method, only few men are using it in Africa. The main reason for low level use may be low knowledge about vasectomy among men. Only few studies tried to investigate level of knowledge of vasectomy among married men in Ethiopia. But these studies have limitations in measuring knowledge. This study was therefore designed to assess knowledge of vasectomy among married men in Dangila town. A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Dangila town. Sample size was calculated using OpenEPI online sample size calculator for population based surveys. Multistage sampling technique was employed to recruit the study participants. Data collectors interviewed selected men using structured Amharic questionnaire from June to July, 2014. Two days training was given to data collectors and supervisors. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to identify determinants of knowledge about vasectomy. A total of 872 men were interviewed. About 75% of men reported that they had ever heard about vasectomy. Men mentioned friends as main source of information for vasectomy. Among those who had ever heard, only 60.8% defined vasectomy correctly. About 20% defined vasectomy as "it is making the man impotent." Similarly about 16% equated vasectomy with castration. In this study, only 44.8% of men were knowledgeable about vasectomy. Married men who completed secondary education were 4.10(95%CI; 2.48 - 6.75) times more likely to be knowledgeable about vasectomy compared to those who did not attend formal education. Those who attended above secondary education were 5.73(95%CI 3.76 - 8.73) times more likely to be knowledgeable about vasectomy compared to those who did not attend formal education. Level of knowledge about vasectomy among married men in Dangla town was low and educational status was an important predictor of knowledge about vasectomy. Efforts are

  3. Risk factors for multiple myeloma: a hospital-based case-control study in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qixia; Wang, Yiwei; Ji, Zhaohua; Chen, Xiequn; Pan, Yaozhu; Gao, Guangxun; Gu, Hongtao; Yang, Yang; Choi, Bernard C K; Yan, Yongping

    2012-10-01

    The distinctive racial/ethnic and geographic distribution of multiple myeloma (MM) suggests that both family history and environmental factors may contribute to its development. A hospital-based case-control study consisting of 220 confirmed MM cases and 220 individually matched patient controls, by sex, age and hospital was carried out at 5 major hospitals in Northwest China. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, family history, and the frequency of food items consumed. Based on multivariate analysis, a significant association between the risk of MM and family history of cancers in first degree relatives was observed (OR=4.03, 95% CI: 2.50-6.52). Fried food, cured/smoked food, black tea, and fish were not significantly associated with the risk of MM. Intake of shallot and garlic (OR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.43-0.85), soy food (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.36-0.75) and green tea (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.27-0.53) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of MM. In contrast, intake of brined vegetables and pickle was significantly associated with an increased risk (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.41-2.93). A more than multiplicative interaction on the decreased risk of MM was found between shallot/garlic and soy food. Our study in Northwest China found an increased risk of MM with a family history of cancer, a diet characterized by low consumption of garlic, green tea and soy foods, and high consumption of pickled vegetables. The effect of green tea in reducing the risk of MM is an interesting new finding which should be further confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethnicity and anticoagulation management of hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation in northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xinchun; Zhou, Xianhui; Song, Shifei; Wu, Min; Baolatejiang, Roza; Lu, Yanmei; Li, Yaodong; Zhang, Wenhui; Lv, Wenkui; Ye, Yuanzheng; Zhou, Qina; wang, Hongli; Zhang, Jianghua; Xing, Qiang; Tang, Baopeng

    2017-01-01

    The therapeutic management and health challenges caused by atrial fibrillation (AF) differ between different groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features of patients hospitalized with AF and to explore the use of anticoagulation treatments in Han and Uygur patients in Xinjiang, northwest China. Data were collected from a retrospective descriptive study involving patients hospitalized at 13 hospitals in Xinjiang, China from Jul 1, 2014 to Jun 31, 2015. Anticoagulation management was measured according to guideline-recommended risk scores. A total of 4,181 patients with AF were included (mean age 69.5 ± 11.7 years, 41.4% females; 71.5% Han, 28.5% Uygur). The prevalence of AF in Uygur individuals may occur earlier than in Han individuals (mean age 64.9 vs 71.3, P < 0.001). Most of the hospitalized patients with AF had a high risk of stroke (CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2; 80.6% Han vs 73.7% Uygur, P < 0.05); this risk was especially high in elderly patients. In AF patients, the application of anticoagulants according to the guidelines is far from expected, and the underutilization of anticoagulants exists in both ethnic groups. PMID:28393880

  5. Small scale water treatment practice and associated factors at Burie Zuria Woreda Rural Households, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Belay, Hailegebriel; Dagnew, Zewdu; Abebe, Nurilign

    2016-08-26

    Consuming unsafe water results in infections that lead to illness or death from water borne diseases. Though there is an increasing effort from Ethiopian government to access safe water still there are households with limited access of safe water as a result, they depend on rain, well and spring water source for domestic use. However, the water treatment practice with the available technology is not studied before in the study area. This study was conducted in rural area where there was no improved water source for domestic consumption. Households' access water from rain, spring, river and well water which need some ways of action to make water safe for the intended utilization termed as treatment. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude of small scale water treatment practices and associated factors at household level in Burie zuria woreda, North West Ethiopia, 2015. Community based cross-sectional study design with multi-stage sampling technique was used to evaluate water treatment practice and associated factors among rural households in Burie Zuria Woreda. A total of 797 households included in the study. Completeness of questionnaires were checked daily and data were coded and entered into Epi-Data and transported to SPSS version 16 software package for further analysis. Binary and multivariable logistic regression models fit to identify associated factors at 95 % CI and P-value <0.05. A total of 797 out of 846 participants responded to a questionnaire with a response rate of 94.2 %. The mean age of respondents was 44.9(SD ±10.7) years. Among the total study participants, 357(44.8 %) of them were practicing small scale water treatment at household level. Methods of water treatment at household level were; chlorine, boiling and let stand and settle. Associated factors were female headed households practice water treatment than male headed households (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI = 1.24-2.62), educational status of being literate was associated

  6. Risk factors for hospital-acquired infections in teaching hospitals of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia: A matched-case control study.

    PubMed

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2017-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infection affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. It is a major global issue for patient safety. Understanding the potential risk factors is important to appreciate the local context. A matched case control study design, which is the first of its kind in the study region, was undertaken to identify risk factors in teaching hospitals of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. A matched case control study design matched with age and hospital type was used. The study was conducted in University of Gondar and Felege-Hiwot medical teaching hospital. Cases were patients who fulfilled the criteria based on CDC definition of hospital-acquired infection and controls were patients admitted to the hospital that stayed for more than 48 hours in the ward in the study period, but who did not develop infection. For one case, four controls were selected. Of 545 patients, 109 were cases and 436 were controls. Conditional logistic regression using STATA 13 was used for data analysis. The median length of stay for cases and controls was 7 and 8 days, respectively. Patients admitted in wards with the presence of medical waste container in the room had 82% less chance of developing hospital-acquired infection (AOR 0.18; 95% CI, 0.03-0.98). The odds of developing hospital-acquired infection among immune deficient patients were 2.34 times higher than their counterparts (95% CI; 1.17-4.69). Patients received antimicrobials, central vascular catheter and surgery since admission had 8.63, 6.91 and 2.35 higher odds of developing hospital-acquired infection, respectively. Health providers and mangers should consider the provision and availability of healthcare materials and facilities in all of the ward rooms, follow appropriate safe medical procedures for use of external devices on patients, and give attention to the immunocompromised patients for the prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections.

  7. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mulugeta, Gebru; Fentaw, Surafael; Mihret, Amete; Hassen, Mulu; Abebe, Engida

    2016-01-01

    Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1%) were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1%)) was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%)). More than 58 (75%) of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs). Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8%) Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5%) E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%). Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials. PMID:27446213

  8. Undernutrition among HIV positive women in Humera hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2013: antiretroviral therapy alone is not enough, cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, undernutrition among women on antiretroviral therapy has been a major challenge to achieve the full impact of intervention. Twenty seven percent and 17% of reproductive age Ethiopian women are chronically malnourished and anemic, respectively. Most studies to examine risk factors have been limited to the general population and ART-naive HIV-positive women, making it difficult to generalize findings to ART-treated HIV-positive women. The objectives of this study were thus to assess nutritional status and associated factors among adult women (≥20 years) on antiretroviral therapy. Methods From August to September we conducted an Institution based cross-sectional survey among 276 women on antiretroviral therapy in Humera Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia. Data was collected using structured and standard face to face interview, anthropometric measurements, BD FACS (CD4 count machine) and Sysmex-21 (hemoglobin analyzer). Logistic regression was done using SPSS version 16 to identify factors that are associated with nutritional status. Results The prevalence of under nutrition (Body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2) Was 42.3% (95% CI: 37.4% - 47.3%). Severe, moderate and mild under nutrition was detected on 12%, 10% and 20.3% respondents, respectively. The prevalence of wasting (percentage body weight loss >5%) was 75% (95% CI: 70.4% - 79.2%). Severe wasting was accounted for 26.9% of respondents. In the multivariate analysis, Household food insecurity [AOR = 1.85; 95%CI 1.16, 2.86], inadequate dietary diversity [AOR = 1.19; 95%CI 1.08, 1.75], anemia [AOR = 1.67; 95%CI 1.05, 2.65] and absence of nutritional support [AOR = 0.34 95%CI 0.22, 0.54) were found to be independent predictors of under-nutrition. Conclusion HIV/AIDS is associated with an increased burden of undernutrition even among ART treated women in Humera Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia. In addition to ART among HIV positive women interventions to ameliorate poor nutritional status

  9. Undernutrition among HIV positive women in Humera hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2013: antiretroviral therapy alone is not enough, cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hadgu, Tsegazeab Hailu; Worku, Walelegn; Tetemke, Desalegn; Berhe, Hailemariam

    2013-10-09

    In Ethiopia, undernutrition among women on antiretroviral therapy has been a major challenge to achieve the full impact of intervention. Twenty seven percent and 17% of reproductive age Ethiopian women are chronically malnourished and anemic, respectively. Most studies to examine risk factors have been limited to the general population and ART-naive HIV-positive women, making it difficult to generalize findings to ART-treated HIV-positive women. The objectives of this study were thus to assess nutritional status and associated factors among adult women (≥ 20 years) on antiretroviral therapy. From August to September we conducted an Institution based cross-sectional survey among 276 women on antiretroviral therapy in Humera Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia. Data was collected using structured and standard face to face interview, anthropometric measurements, BD FACS (CD4 count machine) and Sysmex-21 (hemoglobin analyzer). Logistic regression was done using SPSS version 16 to identify factors that are associated with nutritional status. The prevalence of under nutrition (Body mass index < 18.5 kg/m(2)) Was 42.3% (95% CI: 37.4% - 47.3%). Severe, moderate and mild under nutrition was detected on 12%, 10% and 20.3% respondents, respectively. The prevalence of wasting (percentage body weight loss >5%) was 75% (95% CI: 70.4% - 79.2%). Severe wasting was accounted for 26.9% of respondents.In the multivariate analysis, Household food insecurity [AOR = 1.85; 95%CI 1.16, 2.86], inadequate dietary diversity [AOR = 1.19; 95%CI 1.08, 1.75], anemia [AOR = 1.67; 95%CI 1.05, 2.65] and absence of nutritional support [AOR = 0.34 95%CI 0.22, 0.54) were found to be independent predictors of under-nutrition. HIV/AIDS is associated with an increased burden of undernutrition even among ART treated women in Humera Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia. In addition to ART among HIV positive women interventions to ameliorate poor nutritional status may be necessary in this and similar settings. Such

  10. The Effect of Job Demand-Control-Social Support Model on Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Specialized Teaching Hospitals, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Nebiat; Kaur, Geetinder

    2016-07-01

    The job demand-control-social support model has been widely studied in western countries but has not been theoretically addressed on health workers of sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between Job Demand-Control-Support Model and job satisfaction in specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2014 to May 2015 in three public specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Among 1371 nurses, 360 were selected as sample. Data was collected using Job Content Questionnaire and Job Satisfaction Survey Questionnaire. After the data was collected, it was analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed using of descriptive statistics followed by inferential statistics on the variables. The result revealed that control variables (gender, age, educational qualification, and work experience) accounted for a significant increment explaining 2.1 percent of the variance in job satisfaction. Job demand and social support together explained 24.5 percent of job satisfaction. Job demand(β=-0.152; p<0.01) had significant but negative relationship with job satisfaction and social support (β=0.458; p<0.01) had significant and positive relationship with job satisfaction. On the other hand, job control (β=0.042; p>0.05) did not have a significant relationship with job satisfaction. Furthermore, there was no straight three-way interaction effect among job demand, job control and social support (β=0.05, p>0.05). Job demand and social support are related to nurses' job satisfaction, but job control neither related to nor moderated the relationship between job demands and job satisfaction. Furthermore, there was no joint three-way interaction effect among job demand, job control and social support.

  11. Demand for long acting contraceptive methods among married HIV positive women attending care at public health facilities at Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelagay, Abebaw Addis; Koye, Digsu Negese; Yeshita, Hedija Yenus

    2015-08-27

    The use of long acting contraceptive methods (LACMs) is one of the strategies for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Studies noted that significant proportion of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive women was due to contraceptive failure mainly of short term contraceptives. This highlights the need to use most effective types of modern contraception, long acting contraceptive. However, studies conducted on demand for long acting contraceptive methods in this particular group of people are scarce in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess demand for long acting contraceptive methods and associated factors among married reproductive age women attending care at Antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinics in public health institutions at Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 654 systematically selected women attending care in ART clinics in public health facilities at Bahir Dar city from March to April, 2014. A structured and pretested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered using EPI info version 3.5.3 and then exported to SPSS version 16 for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-demographic and economic characteristics of the study participants. Logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with demand for long acting contraceptive methods. Odds ratios with 95 % CI were used to assess the presence and strength of association. A total of 654 respondents have participated in the study (response rate 99. 09 %). The demand for long acting contraceptive methods was 36.7 % (95 % CI: 33.2 %, 40.6 %). The odds of demand for LACMs among HIV positive women who were living in urban were three times [AOR = 3.05, 95 % CI: 1.34, 6.89] higher than those who were living in rural. The odds of demand for LACMs among the respondents who were in elementary educational level were two times [AOR = 2.31, 95

  12. Cryptosporidiosis among medical patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mengesha, B

    1994-06-01

    Fresh stool specimens, collected at random from 63 medical in-patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), were studied prospectively for Cryptosporidium oocyst. The diagnosis of AIDS was made according to the clinical case definition of the Bangui criteria. These patients presented with profuse watery diarrhoea, significant weight loss and other associated symptoms and signs of clinical manifestations of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Using the modified Kinyoun acid fast staining technique, 25(39.7%) of the stool specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium oocyst. This study showed that the protozoan, Cryptosporidium parvum, may be responsible for a significant proportion of cases of chronic diarrhoea among AIDS patients in Ethiopia.

  13. Tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in health centers of West Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Kassahun; Wasie, Belaynew; Azage, Muluken

    2016-08-08

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem. The emerging epidemic of multi- and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) TB further imperils health workers, patients and public health. Health facilities with inadequate infection control are risky environments for the emergence and transmission of TB. There was no study that presented data on infection control practices of health care workers. This study aimed to assess tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative observation and key informant interview was conducted. Six hundred sixty two health care workers were selected by multistage random sampling method. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. Observation checklists and key informant interview guides were used to collect qualitative data. Quantitative data were entered in to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with TB infection control practice of health care workers. Qualitative data were translated, transcribed, analyzed and triangulated with the quantitative findings. The proportion of proper TB infection control (TBIC) practices was 38 %. Qualitative data showed that administrative, environmental and personal respiratory protection control measures were not practiced well. Knowledge on the presence of TBIC plan [AOR = 4.25, 95 % CI: 2.46 - 7.35], knowledge on the presence of national guideline [AOR = 8.95, 95 % CI: 4.35 - 18.40] and working department of the health care workers were independent predictors of TBIC practices. The proportion of proper TBIC practices of health care workers was low. TBIC practices were determined by knowing the presence of TBIC plan and national guideline and working department. Hence, supportive

  14. Household food insecurity is associated with both body mass index and middle upper-arm circumference of mothers in northwest Ethiopia: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Motbainor, Achenef; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera

    2017-01-01

    Background Food insecurity and associated malnutrition result in serious health problems in developing countries. This study determined levels of maternal undernutrition and its association with food insecurity in northwest Ethiopia. Materials and methods This was a community-based comparative cross-sectional study conducted May 24–July 20, 2013. Multistage random sampling was used to select 4,110 samples. Availability of Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme was used for grouping the study areas. A food-security access scale developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistant project was used to measure food security. Sociodemographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. A binary logistic regression model was used to assess the association of food insecurity and maternal undernutrition. Results From the total participants, 12.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.6%–13.6%) had a body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2. Comparison of maternal undernutrition in the two study areas revealed 8.8% (95% CI 7.6%–10.2%) in the program area and 16.4% (95% CI 14.8%–18.1%) in nonprogram areas were undernourished. Severe food insecurity was significantly associated with BMI of mothers (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] 3.6 and 2.31, 95% CI 2.32–5.57 and 1.52–3.5, respectively) in both program and nonprogram areas. Mild (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.21–2.6) and moderate (AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.18–2.16) food insecurity significantly associated with maternal undernutrition in nonprogram areas. In the same way, all forms of food insecurity significantly associated with maternal middle upper-arm circumference in both program and nonprogram areas. The odds of mothers who did not exercise decision-making practice on the household income was also 4.13 times higher than those who did (AOR 4.13, 95% CI 2.2–7.77) in the program area. Conclusion Food insecurity significantly associated with both maternal BMI and middle upper-arm circumference in both study areas. Female

  15. Household flood preparedness and associated factors in the flood-prone community of Dembia district, Amhara National Regional State, northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ashenefe, Baye; Wubshet, Mamo; Shimeka, Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Background Flood preparedness empowers the community to respond effectively to related hazards. However, there was no research done in the country concerning household flood preparedness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess household flood preparedness and associated factors in the flood-prone community of Dembia district, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2014 in the Dembia district. A two-stage sampling technique was used. The study was conducted using 806 flood-prone participants. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The collected data were entered using Epi info version 3.5.1 and transported into SPSS version 16 for further analysis. Descriptive and analytic statistics were computed. Variables having association with the outcome variable were reported using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). Model fitness was checked by Hosmer and Lemeshew chi-square test. Results Household flood preparedness was found to be 24.4%. The age group of ≥ 46 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.62; 95% CI: 1.12, 6.00) above, monthly household income >893 Ethiopian Birr, (AOR=6.72; 95% CI: 2.2 7, 19.88) attending primary level education (AOR=22.08; 95% CI: 8.16, 59.74), warning system in household (AOR=5.41; 95% CI: 2.38, 12.32), knowledge of flood prevention, (AOR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.43, 5.57) were positively associated with household flood preparedness. Conclusion and recommendation This study has demonstrated that household flood preparedness was found to be low in the study area. Household flood preparedness was significantly associated with the older age group, attending primary level education, having a higher monthly income, receive household level warning messages, having knowledge on preparedness, prior exposure to a flood, and length of flood >6 days. Strengthening household flood preparedness in advance is important in order to prevent flood and its related

  16. High prevalence of substance use and associated factors among high school adolescents in Woreta Town, Northwest Ethiopia: multi-domain factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Birhanu, Anteneh Messele; Bisetegn, Telake Azale; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret

    2014-11-20

    Substance use is a major public health concern in global settings, and is very common during adolescence period leading to physical and/or mental health complications. This study assessed the prevalence of substance use and associated factors among high school adolescents in Woreta Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2012. A school based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 7 to April 15, 2012 amongst 684 9th to 12th grade high school students in the town of Woreta. Participants were selected by stratified sampling, and data were collected using an anonymous questionnaire adapted from the 2008 Community That Care Youth Survey. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with substance use. A total of 651 students participated in the study with a response rate of 95.2%. The current prevalence of substance use among Woreta high school students was 47.9% and life-time prevalence was 65.4%. The current and lifetime prevalence of alcohol use was 40.9% and 59% respectively. Siblings' use of substances (AOR [95% CI]: 2.72 [1.79, 4.14]), family history of alcohol and substance use (AOR [95% CI] 2.24 [1.39-3.59]) and friends' use of substances (AOR [95% CI] 2.14 [1.44-3.18]) were factors positively associated with substance use. On the other hand, religiosity and social skill were found to be 54% (AOR [95% CI] 0.46, [0.31-0.68]) and 39% (AOR [95% CI] 0.6 [0.40-0.91]) negatively associated with substance use. The prevalence of substance use amongst adolescents was high for the three substances namely alcohol, cigarette and khat with alcohol being the most common. Community norms favorable to substance use, family history of alcohol and substance use, siblings' substance use, poor academic performance, low perceived risk of substances and friends' use of substances had positive association with adolescent substance use while religiosity and social skills were found to have negative association with adolescent substance

  17. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most important agents of infectious diseases. Both HBV and HIV share common modes of transmission and have serious effects on both pregnant women and infants. In Bahir Dar city administration, there is a scarcity of information on sero-prevalence of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women. The main objective of this study was to assess sero-prevalence and risk factors of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to April 2013. Socio-demographic and explanatory variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face to face interview. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HIV infection was also detected using the national HIV test algorithms. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence intervals were calculated. Results A total of 318 pregnant women with the mean age of 25.72 (SD. ±5.14) years old were enrolled. Overall, 21/318 (6.6%) and 12 /318 (3.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for HIV and HBsAg, respectively. Of these, HIV/HBV co-infection rate was 4 (19.0%). Previous history of blood transfusion (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 9.02-14.84), body tattooing (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.24-26.50), history of surgery (AOR = 11.1, 95% CI, 2.64-46.88) and unsafe injection (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 1.44-22.19) were significantly associated with HBV infection. Previous history of piercing with sharp materials (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.17-7.80) and history of abortion (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI 2.50-17.71) were also statistically significant for HIV infection. Conclusions This study indicates that HIV and HBV infections are important public health issues in our region that need to be addressed. All pregnant women need

  18. Factors associated with the length of delay with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment among adult tuberculosis patients attending at public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bogale, Selamsew; Diro, Ermias; Shiferaw, Atsede Mazengia; Yenit, Melaku Kindie

    2017-02-14

    Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential for an effective tuberculosis (TB) control program. However, significant proportion of cases remains undiagnosed and untreated. Delay in diagnosis and treatment increases transmission. Hence, the study assessed the length of delay and associated factors with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment among adults attending public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May, 2016. A total of 296 adults who came to health facilities for treatment for pulmonary TB from February to May, 2016, were included in the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire through interviewing and record review, cleaned, coded, and entered into Epi-info version 3.5.3, and transferred into SPSS version 20.0 for further statistical analysis. A p-value of less than 0.05 at multiple linear regression analysis was considered statistically significant. The mean duration of the total delay (in days) for tuberculosis diagnosis and initiation of treatment was 41.6 days (SD = 16.6). In this study, the mean duration of patient delay and the median health system delay were 33.9 days (SD = 14) and 5 days (IQR = 4-7), respectively. Total delay for TB diagnosis and treatment was shorter among HIV positive people (β:-12.62, 95% CI: -20.72,-4.53). Longer patient delay was noted among rural dwellers (β: 8.0, 95% CI: 5.26, 10.75); increased household income (β:-0.006, 95% CI: -0.008,-0.004) was associated with a shorter delay. Health system delay was positively associated with seeking care from more than one health care providers (β: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.34) and seeking initial care from primary level health care facilities (β: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.13). In this study, the majority of patients faced delayed in seeking health care and continued as sources of infection. Longer days of delay for TB diagnosis and treatment were noted among

  19. Demand for long acting contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, Northwest Ethiopia: a health facility based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yalew, Saleamlak Adbaru; Zeleke, Berihun Megabiaw; Teferra, Alemayehu Shimeka

    2015-02-04

    Demand for long acting contraceptive methods is one of the key factors for total fertility rate and reproductive health issues. Increased demand for these methods can decline fertility rate through spacing and limiting family size in turn improving maternal and family health and socioeconomic development of a country. The aim of this study was to assess demand for long acting contraceptives and associated factors among family planning users in Debre-Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2013. Data was collected on 487 current family planning users through face to face interview using structured questionnaire. Study participants were selected by systematic sampling method. Data were entered in to Epi Info and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bi-variable and multi-variable regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with demand for long acting contraceptive methods. Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to assess the association between the independent variables and demand for long acting family planning methods. The study showed that, demand for long acting contraceptives was 17%. Only 9.2% of the women were using long acting contraceptive methods (met need). About 7.8% of women were using short acting methods while they actually want to use long acting methods (unmet need). Demand for LACMs was positively associated 3 with being a daily labour (AOR = 3.87, 95% CI = [1.06, 14.20]), being a student (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = [1.27, 5.47]), no future birth intensions (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI = [1.12, 4.23]), having five or more children (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = [1.58, 4.83]), deciding together with husbands for using the methods (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI = [1.40, 5.32]) and often having discussion with husband (AOR = 3.89, 95% CI = [1.98, 7.65]). Clients treated poorly by the health care providers during taking the services was negatively associated with demand for LACMs (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = [0.24, 0

  20. Availability and components of maternity services according to providers and users perspectives in North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun

    2013-08-23

    The goal of reducing maternal mortality can be achieved when women receive important service components at the time of their maternity care. This study attempted to assess the availability and the components of maternity services according to the perspectives of service users and providers. A linked facility and population-based survey was conducted over three months (January to March 2012) in North Gondar Zone. Twelve kebeles (clusters) were selected randomly from six districts to identify maternity clients cared for by skilled providers. Then 12 health centers and 3 hospitals utilized by the corresponding cluster population were selected for facility survey. Interview with facility managers/heads, providers and clients and observations were used for data collection. Data were entered using Epi Info and were exported to SPSS software for analysis. Antenatal and delivery care were available in most of the visited facilities. However, the majority of them were not fully functioning for EmOC according to their level. Signal functions including administration of anticonvulsants and assisted vaginal delivery were missing in seven and five of the 12 health centers, respectively. Only one hospital met the criteria for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (performed cesarean section). Only 24% of the providers used partograph consistently. About 538 (32.3%) and 231 (13.8%) of the women received antenatal and delivery care from skilled providers, respectively. Most of the services were at health centers by nurses/midwives. At the time of the antenatal care, women received the important components of the services (percentage of users in bracket) like blood pressure checkup (79%), urine testing (35%), tetanus immunization (45%), iron supplementation (64%), birth preparedness counseling (51%) and HIV testing (71%). During delivery, 80% had their blood pressure measured, 78% were informed on labor progress, 89% had auscultation of fetal heartbeat, 80% took drugs to prevent

  1. Availability and components of maternity services according to providers and users perspectives in North Gondar, northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of reducing maternal mortality can be achieved when women receive important service components at the time of their maternity care. This study attempted to assess the availability and the components of maternity services according to the perspectives of service users and providers. Method A linked facility and population-based survey was conducted over three months (January to March 2012) in North Gondar Zone. Twelve kebeles (clusters) were selected randomly from six districts to identify maternity clients cared for by skilled providers. Then 12 health centers and 3 hospitals utilized by the corresponding cluster population were selected for facility survey. Interview with facility managers/heads, providers and clients and observations were used for data collection. Data were entered using Epi Info and were exported to SPSS software for analysis. Results Antenatal and delivery care were available in most of the visited facilities. However, the majority of them were not fully functioning for EmOC according to their level. Signal functions including administration of anticonvulsants and assisted vaginal delivery were missing in seven and five of the 12 health centers, respectively. Only one hospital met the criteria for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (performed cesarean section). Only 24% of the providers used partograph consistently. About 538 (32.3%) and 231 (13.8%) of the women received antenatal and delivery care from skilled providers, respectively. Most of the services were at health centers by nurses/midwives. At the time of the antenatal care, women received the important components of the services (percentage of users in bracket) like blood pressure checkup (79%), urine testing (35%), tetanus immunization (45%), iron supplementation (64%), birth preparedness counseling (51%) and HIV testing (71%). During delivery, 80% had their blood pressure measured, 78% were informed on labor progress, 89% had auscultation of fetal heartbeat

  2. Nutritional care and support among adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Zelalem; Birhan, Yifru; Abebe, Hiwot

    2013-11-01

    Background Improving nutritional care and support for people living with HIV (PLHIV) is an integral part of comprehensive HIV treatment according to the National Nutritional Strategy of Ethiopia. However, there is no adequate published study that assesses the nutritional care and support services for adult people living with HIV/ AIDS (PLHIV) in this setting. Objective The objective of the study was to identify the existing nutritional care and support services and determine the challenges facing adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study was carried out using focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and participant observation. Four FDGs were held and five in-depth interviews were conducted. A two-week participant observation was also conducted by trained nurses. All interviews and FDGs were tape-recorded and transcribed; those conducted in Amharic were translated back to English. Finally thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results Most of the FDG participants were unsatisfied with their nutritional care and support services and expressed difficulty with disclosing their HIV status for fear of stigma and discrimination. The in-depth interviews and participant observation showed results similar to those of the FDG. Some key informants expressed a fear that such poor nutritional care and support may threaten the quality of life of people living with HIV and suggested that all stakeholders work on improving the services. Conclusion Current nutritional care and support services for people living with HIV are not well coordinated. They focus mainly on monthly supplementation of antiretroviral drugs and occasional handouts of food. The need to provide health education on antiretroviral drugs and nutrition, and to emphasise strategies aimed at improving the nutritional status of peoples living with HIV is critical. Furthermore, the study recommended strengthening the initiatives of some

  3. Evaluation of the 2007 WHO guideline to diagnose smear negative tuberculosis in an urban hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) guideline to diagnose smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-prevalent settings was mainly based on expert advice and therefore requires evaluation in real life situations. Methods In 2009, this guideline was introduced at the ALERT hospital in Ethiopia. From October 2009 to January 2011, the accuracy of the guideline was evaluated using Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity as reference standard in HIV positive TB suspects. Results A total of 459 TB suspects were enrolled during the study period; 336 (73.2%) were HIV positive. Acid fast bacilli sputum smear microscopy was done for 74.7% (251/336) HIV positive TB suspects; 94.4% (237/251) were smear negative. A chest X-ray was performed in 92.8% (220/237) and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture in 63.7% (151/237). The median TB diagnostic delay for smear negative cases was 3 days (interquartile range 3–4 days). Of the 75 patients diagnosed with smear negative pulmonary TB, 89. 4% (67/75) were diagnosed by chest X-ray, 9.4% (7/75) by culture and 1.3% (1/75) by clinical suspicion only. In 147 smear negative TB suspects Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and chest X-ray results were available. Among these 147 patients, the sensitivity of the chest X-ray to diagnose smear negative TB in HIV-positive TB suspects was 53.3% (95% CI: 26.7-78.7); the specificity 67.4% (95% CI: 58.7-75.3). Conclusion The 2007 WHO diagnostic algorithm for the diagnosis of smear negative TB is likely to reduce the diagnostic delay and therefore decrease morbidity and mortality of TB in a HIV prevalent settings like Ethiopia. PMID:24020936

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses infection among military personnel at Bahir Dar Armed Forces General Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Birku, Tigist; Gelaw, Baye; Moges, Feleke; Assefa, Abate

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel are high-risk people for parenteral and sexually transmitted diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Data regarding HBV and HCV prevalence among military personnel in Ethiopia is limited. Hence, the study aimed to determine sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of HBV and HCV among military personnel at Bahir Dar Armed Forces General Hospital, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 403 military personnel from February to May 2015. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors were collected through face to face interview using structured questionnaire. HBV and HCV infection was determined using HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody rapid tests. Logistic regression analysis was employed to assess possible risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. The sero-prevalence of HBV and HCV infection were 4.2 and 0.2%, respectively. None of the study subjects were co-infected with HBV and HCV. Higher prevalence of HBV infection (11.3%) was observed in the age group of 40 and above. Being at the age of 40 years and above (COR 7.6; 95% CI 2.0-29.0, p = 0.003), history of nose piercing (COA 5.9; 95% CI 1.2-29.9, p = 0.033) and sexually transmitted infection (COR 4.3; 95% CI 1.1-16.4, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with these viral hepatitis infections. Intermediate prevalence of HBV and low prevalence of HCV were observed among military personnel. Strengthening HBV screening strategies among military personal may further reduce these viral diseases.

  5. Measuring equity in utilization of emergency obstetric care at Wolisso Hospital in Oromiya, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Improving equity in access to services for the treatment of complications that arise during pregnancy and childbirth, namely Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC), is fundamental if maternal and neonatal mortality are to be reduced. Consequently, there is a growing need to monitor equity in access to EmOC. The objective of this study was to develop a simple questionnaire to measure equity in utilization of EmOC at Wolisso Hospital, Ethiopia and compare the wealth status of EmOC users with women in the general population. Methods Women in the Ethiopia 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) constituted our reference population. We cross-tabulated DHS wealth variables against wealth quintiles. Five variables that differentiated well across quintiles were selected to create a questionnaire that was administered to women at discharge from the maternity from January to August 2010. This was used to identify inequities in utilization of EmOC by comparison with the reference population. Results 760 women were surveyed. An a posteriori comparison of these 2010 data to the 2011 DHS dataset, indicated that women using EmOC were wealthier and more likely to be urban dwellers. On a scale from 0 (poorest) to 15 (wealthiest), 31% of women in the 2011 DHS sample scored less than 1 compared with 0.7% in the study population. 70% of women accessing EmOC belonged to the richest quintile with only 4% belonging to the poorest two quintiles. Transportation costs seem to play an important role. Conclusions We found inequity in utilization of EmOC in favour of the wealthiest. Assessing and monitoring equitable utilization of maternity services is feasible using this simple tool. PMID:23607604

  6. Measuring equity in utilization of emergency obstetric care at Wolisso Hospital in Oromiya, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wilunda, Calistus; Putoto, Giovanni; Manenti, Fabio; Castiglioni, Maria; Azzimonti, Gaetano; Edessa, Wagari; Atzori, Andrea; Merialdi, Mario; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Vogel, Joshua; Criel, Bart

    2013-04-22

    Improving equity in access to services for the treatment of complications that arise during pregnancy and childbirth, namely Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC), is fundamental if maternal and neonatal mortality are to be reduced. Consequently, there is a growing need to monitor equity in access to EmOC. The objective of this study was to develop a simple questionnaire to measure equity in utilization of EmOC at Wolisso Hospital, Ethiopia and compare the wealth status of EmOC users with women in the general population. Women in the Ethiopia 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) constituted our reference population. We cross-tabulated DHS wealth variables against wealth quintiles. Five variables that differentiated well across quintiles were selected to create a questionnaire that was administered to women at discharge from the maternity from January to August 2010. This was used to identify inequities in utilization of EmOC by comparison with the reference population. 760 women were surveyed. An a posteriori comparison of these 2010 data to the 2011 DHS dataset, indicated that women using EmOC were wealthier and more likely to be urban dwellers. On a scale from 0 (poorest) to 15 (wealthiest), 31% of women in the 2011 DHS sample scored less than 1 compared with 0.7% in the study population. 70% of women accessing EmOC belonged to the richest quintile with only 4% belonging to the poorest two quintiles. Transportation costs seem to play an important role. We found inequity in utilization of EmOC in favour of the wealthiest. Assessing and monitoring equitable utilization of maternity services is feasible using this simple tool.

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Melku, Mulugeta; Addis, Zelalem; Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64%) and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76%) anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%). Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33]), large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52]), hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25]), and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69]) were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size.

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64%) and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76%) anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%). Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33]), large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52]), hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25]), and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69]) were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. PMID:24669317

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia: Cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chisha, Yilma; Terefe, Wondwossen; Assefa, Huruy; Lakew, Serawit

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently 93 million people are estimated as living with diabetic retinopathy worldwide. The prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in developed countries have been well documented; but in Ethiopia, data on prevalence and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy is lacking. Objective To determine prevalence and factors associated with development of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia. Method Cross-sectional study design with record review of 400 diabetic patients was conducted at Arbaminch General Hospital from November to January 2015. Among 400 diabetic patients, 270 patients with baseline information and without history of hypertension at baseline were included in this study. But patients with gestational diabetes and with retinopathy at baseline were excluded from the study. Consecutive sampling technique was applied to select study participants. Data of cohorts was extracted from medical record using pre tested structured extraction check list. Data cleaning, coding, categorizing, merging and analysis carried out by STATA version 12. Descriptive statistics was done and presented accordingly. Bivariate binary logistic regression analysis was done to select potential candidates for the full model at P-value cutoff point ≤ 0.25 and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was made to estimate the independent effect of predictors on the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. Model diagnostic tests were done, final model fitness was checked using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi square test. Finally, statistical significance was tested at P-value <0.05. Result Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital was 13%. Adjusted analysis showed that the odds of diabetic retinopathy were statistically and significantly associated with baseline age (AOR = 6.06: 95%CI; 2.42, 15.21), baseline systolic blood pressure level (AOR = 4.38: 95%CI; 1.64, 11

  10. Latent Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Associated Risk Factors among HIV-Infected Individuals at Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). The parasite has cosmopolitan distribution, infecting almost all species of warm-blooded animals. Latent T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS patients is a risk for development of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT). The aim of this study is to determine seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection and assess its associated factors among individuals infected with HIV in Arba Minch Hospital, south Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study involving 170 HIV-infected individuals attending Arba Minch Hospital antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic was conducted from April to June 2013. Data on demographic profile of the study participants and factors associated with T. gondii infection were gathered using a questionnaire. Serum was tested for IgG anti-T. gondii antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study participants was 88.2%. Consumption of raw meat (AOR = 4.361; 95% CI: 1.409–13.496) and involvement in farming/gardening activities (AOR = 4.051; 95% CI: 1.112–14.758) were independent predictors of T. gondii seropositivity. This study revealed high prevalence of latent T. gondii infection, similar to other studies. Monitoring of the patients to prevent reactivation of the latent T. gondii infection is recommended. PMID:25431660

  11. Latent Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Associated Risk Factors among HIV-Infected Individuals at Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohanes, Tsegaye; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). The parasite has cosmopolitan distribution, infecting almost all species of warm-blooded animals. Latent T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS patients is a risk for development of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT). The aim of this study is to determine seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection and assess its associated factors among individuals infected with HIV in Arba Minch Hospital, south Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study involving 170 HIV-infected individuals attending Arba Minch Hospital antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic was conducted from April to June 2013. Data on demographic profile of the study participants and factors associated with T. gondii infection were gathered using a questionnaire. Serum was tested for IgG anti-T. gondii antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study participants was 88.2%. Consumption of raw meat (AOR = 4.361; 95% CI: 1.409-13.496) and involvement in farming/gardening activities (AOR = 4.051; 95% CI: 1.112-14.758) were independent predictors of T. gondii seropositivity. This study revealed high prevalence of latent T. gondii infection, similar to other studies. Monitoring of the patients to prevent reactivation of the latent T. gondii infection is recommended.

  12. Molecular typing of mycobacteria isolated from extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients at Debre Birhan Referral Hospital, central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Garedew, Legesse; Mihret, Adane; Ameni, Gobena

    2013-07-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) constitutes about 10% to 20% of all cases of tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients and more than 50% of the cases in HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Little information is available on the clonal diversity of Mycobacterium species in Ethiopia from EPTB. This study was carried out on smear-negative EPTB patients to molecularly characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. A questionnaire, smear staining, culture, deletion typing, and spoligotyping were employed. The proportional distribution of EPTB and isolates did not vary substantially (p > 0.05) amongst the socio-demographic parameters considered in the current investigation. Out of 98 fine needle aspirates processed for culture, 36.7% (36/98) were positive for mycobacterial growth. Further speciation of those culture-positive isolates showed that 88.9% were M. tuberculosis and the remaining could be non-tuberculous mycobacterial species. Spoligotyping revealed 16 clusters out of which 2 were new to the SITVIT database. The most dominant spoligotypes were SIT54, SIT53, and SIT149 in decreasing order. SIT54, SIT134, SIT173, SIT345, SIT357, SIT926, SIT91088, and SIT1580 were reported for the first time in Ethiopia. The family with the highest frequency identified was M. tuberculosis family T1, followed by family 33. Most of the strains belonged to Euro-American (61.4%) and Indo-Oceanic (36.3%) lineages. The present study shows the importance of M. tuberculosis as a major cause of EPTB in the study area. Moreover, the majority of isolates of M. tuberculosis were found in clusters, suggesting the possibility of the existence of recent transmission. This warrants strengthening of the control programs for EPTB in the study area.

  13. Injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a prospective hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Seid, Mohammed; Azazh, Aklilu; Enquselassie, Fikre; Yisma, Engida

    2015-05-20

    Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world's roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in Africa. A prospective hospital based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of fatalities among the road traffic crash victims. A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7%) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims' ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3%)) and students (28 (12.2%)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Head (50.4%) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0%) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0%) and open wounds (56.5%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4%. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age of the victims (ß = 0.16, p < 0.05), systolic blood pressure on admission (ß = -0.35, p < 0.001) and Glasgow coma scale (ß = -0.44, p < 0.001) were statistically significant predictors of fatalities among the victims. This study showed diverse injury characteristics and high morbidity and mortality among the victims attending Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The

  14. A cross sectional study on factors influencing professionalism in nursing among nurses in Mekelle Public Hospitals, North Ethiopia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Professionalism is defined as the conceptualization of obligations, attributes, interactions, attitudes, and role behaviors required of professionals in relationship to individual clients and to society as a whole. Professionalism attributes include knowledge, spirit of inquiry, accountability, autonomy, advocacy, innovation and visionary, collaboration and collegiality, and ethics. The study assessed level and attributes of professionalism in nursing in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods Institutional based cross sectional study supplemented by qualitative design was employed. Self administered semi structured questionnaire developed from RANO guideline was used. The FGD guideline was developed from different literatures. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics and significance was checked at p < 0.05. Professionalism was measured using ANOVA. Qualitative of data were analyzed using coding technique. Written informed consent was obtained from the nurses and confidentiality was assured for all the information provide. Results The mean scores for the nurses in Mekelle public hospitals on the professionalism were 140.50, knowledge (25.06), followed by ethics (25.00). The attitudes of respondents on professionalism were at high, moderate, low and very low level. Pearson product–moment correlation analysis revealed small yet significant associations among several professionalism attributes and characteristics of nurses in Mekelle Public hospitals. Age of respondents and work experience were significantly correlated with total professionalism. Work setting in Mekelle hospital was significantly associated with professionalism. Depending on FGD, the major factors were workload, had no vision, FMOH did not focused nursing as a profession, Weakness of the Ethiopian Nursing Association, lack of life insurance as well as the Health professionals and society’s views of the profession. Conclusion Nurses with longer years of experience and

  15. A cross sectional study on factors influencing professionalism in nursing among nurses in Mekelle Public Hospitals, North Ethiopia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Fantahun, Atsede; Demessie, Asrat; Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Zemene, Ayalnesh; Yetayeh, Gebre

    2014-04-04

    Professionalism is defined as the conceptualization of obligations, attributes, interactions, attitudes, and role behaviors required of professionals in relationship to individual clients and to society as a whole. Professionalism attributes include knowledge, spirit of inquiry, accountability, autonomy, advocacy, innovation and visionary, collaboration and collegiality, and ethics. The study assessed level and attributes of professionalism in nursing in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross sectional study supplemented by qualitative design was employed. Self administered semi structured questionnaire developed from RANO guideline was used. The FGD guideline was developed from different literatures. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics and significance was checked at p < 0.05. Professionalism was measured using ANOVA. Qualitative of data were analyzed using coding technique. Written informed consent was obtained from the nurses and confidentiality was assured for all the information provide. The mean scores for the nurses in Mekelle public hospitals on the professionalism were 140.50, knowledge (25.06), followed by ethics (25.00). The attitudes of respondents on professionalism were at high, moderate, low and very low level. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis revealed small yet significant associations among several professionalism attributes and characteristics of nurses in Mekelle Public hospitals. Age of respondents and work experience were significantly correlated with total professionalism. Work setting in Mekelle hospital was significantly associated with professionalism. Depending on FGD, the major factors were workload, had no vision, FMOH did not focused nursing as a profession, Weakness of the Ethiopian Nursing Association, lack of life insurance as well as the Health professionals and society's views of the profession. Nurses with longer years of experience and the older respondents had significantly

  16. Utilization of dual contraception method among reproductive age women on antiretroviral therapy in selected public hospitals of Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Solomon Weldemariam; Azeze, Gedion Asnake; Robles, Carmen C; Adinew, Yohannes Mehretie

    2017-10-05

    Sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent among pregnant women in Africa. Among the incidence of HIV infection in children, 90% of the infection is attributable to their mothers. Ethiopia is one of the countries with an increasing risky sexual behavior and the most affected by the HIV epidemic. If prevention of mother to child transmission focuses on increasing contraception, it will prevent more than 29% of HIV infection at birth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess utilization of dual contraceptive  method and associated factors among reproductive age women on antiretroviral therapy in selected public hospitals of Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted in selected public hospitals of Mekelle among women under antiretroviral therapy from March 1-April 31, 2016. We used a systematic sampling technique to select 331 women. A pretested interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were entered in to Epi data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was computed. Odds ratio along with 95% CI was computed to ascertain the association. Statistical tests at p-value of < 0.05 were considered as cut off point to determine statistical significance. Only 51(15.7%) of participants have utilized dual contraception method. Being single[AOR 5.43, 95% CI (1.61, 18.32)] and cohabitated [AOR 6.06; 95% CI: (2.16, 16.95)] in marital status, having HIV negative partner [AOR 4.44; 95% CI: (1.23, 16.04)], exposure to post diagnosis counseling [AOR 3.03; 95% CI: 1.34, 6.80], disclosed HIV status [AOR 6.06; 95% CI: (1.78, 20.87)] and discussing safer sex with partner [AOR 6.96; 95% CI: (2.75, 16.62)] were positively associated with utilization of dual contraceptive method. The overall magnitude of dual contraceptive use is still low in this study. This will be a great concern on the transmission of the virus

  17. Relapse and hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a comparative quantitative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ayano, Getnet; Duko, Bereket

    2017-01-01

    Relapse and hospital admission are common among, and carry a heavy burden in, patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of relapse and hospitalizations in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A hospital-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2016. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 521 (260 schizophrenia cases and 261 bipolar disorder cases) study participants. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained psychiatry professionals. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV (SCID) were used. The risk of relapse and hospitalizations was slightly higher in patients with bipolar disorder than in patients with schizophrenia. A majority of schizophrenic (213 [81.92%]) and bipolar (215 [82.37%]) patients had a history of hospital admission, and 228 (87.69%) schizophrenic and 230 (88.12%) bipolar patients had a history of relapse. Patients who had a history of hospitalizations also had co-occurring substance use disorders compared to those who had no history of hospitalizations for schizophrenia (81.5% vs 37.9%) and bipolar disorder (82.56% vs 38.2%), respectively. Similarly, those patients who had a history of relapse had high comorbid substance use disorders than those who had no history of relapse for both schizophrenia (87.88% vs 47.37%) and bipolar disorder (88.37% vs 47.19%), respectively. It is vital that, in the local context, mental health professionals strengthen their therapeutic relationships with patients and their caregivers. This might enable patients and their caregivers to express their needs and concerns to them, as well as help to plan proper interventions for patients. Attention needs to be given to screening for comorbid substance use disorders in patients with

  18. Relapse and hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a comparative quantitative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ayano, Getnet; Duko, Bereket

    2017-01-01

    Background Relapse and hospital admission are common among, and carry a heavy burden in, patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of relapse and hospitalizations in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patients and methods A hospital-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2016. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 521 (260 schizophrenia cases and 261 bipolar disorder cases) study participants. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained psychiatry professionals. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV (SCID) were used. Results The risk of relapse and hospitalizations was slightly higher in patients with bipolar disorder than in patients with schizophrenia. A majority of schizophrenic (213 [81.92%]) and bipolar (215 [82.37%]) patients had a history of hospital admission, and 228 (87.69%) schizophrenic and 230 (88.12%) bipolar patients had a history of relapse. Patients who had a history of hospitalizations also had co-occurring substance use disorders compared to those who had no history of hospitalizations for schizophrenia (81.5% vs 37.9%) and bipolar disorder (82.56% vs 38.2%), respectively. Similarly, those patients who had a history of relapse had high comorbid substance use disorders than those who had no history of relapse for both schizophrenia (87.88% vs 47.37%) and bipolar disorder (88.37% vs 47.19%), respectively. Conclusion It is vital that, in the local context, mental health professionals strengthen their therapeutic relationships with patients and their caregivers. This might enable patients and their caregivers to express their needs and concerns to them, as well as help to plan proper interventions for patients. Attention needs to be given to screening for

  19. Epidemiology of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance patterns and trends in tuberculosis referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abate, Dereje; Taye, Bineyam; Abseno, Mohammed; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2012-08-28

    Drug-resistant TB has emerged as a major challenge facing TB prevention and control efforts. In Ethiopia, the extent/trend of drug resistance TB is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and trend of resistance to first line anti-TB drugs among culture positive retreatment cases at St.Peter's TB Specialized Hospital. A hospital based retrospective study was used to assess the pattern of anti-TB drug resistance among previously treated TB patients referred to St.Peter's TB Specialized Hospital from January 2004-December 2008 Gregorian calendar(GC) for better diagnosis and treatment. Among 376 culture positive for M. tuberculosis one hundred and two (27.1%) were susceptible to all of the four first line anti-TB drugs -Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF), Ethambutol (ETB) & Streptomycin (STM). While 274 (72.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. Any resistance to STM (67.3%) was found to be the most common and the prevalence of MDR-TB was 174 (46.3%). Trend in resistance rate among re-treatment cases from 2004 to 2008 showed a significant increase for any drug as well as for INH, RIF, and MDR resistance (P <0.05 for trend). There has been an increasing trend in drug resistance in recent years, particularly in retreatment cases. Therefore, establishing advanced diagnostic facilities for early detection of MDR-TB and expanding second line treatment center to treat MDR-TB patients and to prevent its transmission is recommended.

  20. Occurrence of extended spectrum beta (b)-lactamases in multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from a clinical setting in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulualem, Yohannes; Kasa, Tesfaye; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Suleman, Sultan

    2012-06-01

    Resistance to antibiotics has grave consequences leading to treatment failure and increased health care costs. This public health risk has become a global problem with some countries like Ethiopia seriously affected. Members of the family enterobacteriaceae, including E. coli, are among the most important human pathogens accounting for the majority of bacterial strains isolated from clinical patient samples. Moreover, there is insufficient data regarding Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence among Escherichia coli strains from Ethiopia. Thus, the objective was to determine the production of ESBL among clinical isolates and assess the in vitro susceptibility of the E. coli to the routinely used selected antibiotics. We collected a total of 359 clinical specimens (56 urine, 116 sputum, 72 stool and 15 wound swabs) from in- and outpatients at Jimma University Specialised Hospital, Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. E. coli was isolated from 67 (18.66%) clinical specimens, of which 24 (36%) isolates were ESBL producers. The resistance pattern to the tested antibiotics was: penicillin (97%), amoxacillin and ampicillin (86.6% each), tetracycline (73.1%), amoxacillin-clavulanate (70.1%), co-trimoxazole (56.7%), chloramphenicol (35.8%), ciprofloxacine (20.9%), norfloxacine (16.4%), cefotaxime (9%), ceftazidime (6%), gentamicin (3%). All the isolates tested showed resistance to two or more drugs, and were considered to be multi-drug resistant. A higher rate (46%) of ESBL production and multi-drug resistance was seen among isolates from inpatients as compared to outpatients (33%) at the hospital.

  1. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lamboro, Tesfahun; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8%) and 2 (1.1%), respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100%) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and nalidixic acid (26.3%) while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each). Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large. PMID:27642307

  2. The yield and feasibility of integrated screening for TB, diabetes and HIV in four public hospitals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jerene, Degu; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Jemal, Ilili; Gebrekiros, Wondimu; Anteneh, Tadesse; Habte, Dereje; Melese, Muluken; Suarez, Pedro; Sangiwa, Gloria

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrated care for TB, HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) in a pilot project in Ethiopia. Healthcare workers in four hospitals screened patients with TB for HIV and DM; patients with HIV for DM and TB; and patients with DM for TB. Fasting and random plasma glucose (RPG) tests were used to confirm the diagnosis of DM. We used screening checklists for TB and DM, and additional risk scoring criteria to identify patients at risk of DM. Of 3439 study participants, 888 were patients with DM, 439 patients with TB and 2112 from HIV clinics. Six of the patients with DM had TB of whom five were already on treatment; and 141 (32.4%) patients with TB had DM, of whom only five were previously diagnosed with DM. Symptomatic patients and those with a risk score of 5 or more were about three times more likely to have abnormal blood glucose level. Of 2075 HIV patients with RPG determined, only 31 (1.5%) had abnormal RPG. Tri-directional screening was feasible for detecting and managing previously undiagnosed TB and DM. More work is needed to better understand the interaction between HIV and DM.

  3. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Takele, Abulie; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can’t control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM) curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure. Result The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79–11.30) per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61–7.73)].Similarly, lower CD4 count (<100 m3/dl) at initiation of ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46–5.84).Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98–12.73)] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08–4.07)] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72–5.44)]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99–9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also

  4. Prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Michael, Yadani; Assegid, Sahilu

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a common medical condition worldwide. It is an important public health challenge because of the associated morbidity, mortality, and the cost to the society. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among attendants of adult outpatient departments at Jimma University Specialized Hospital in southwest Ethiopia. Materials and methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 734 participants aged 15 years or older from May 2012 to June 2012. A pretested structured questionnaire consisting of characteristics related to sociodemographic profiles and risk factors for hypertension was used for data collection. Three separate measurements of blood pressure and relevant anthropometric evaluation were taken according to current recommended standards. Chi-square test and other statistical analyses were done to employ appropriate interpretations of the findings. P-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of the participants was 42.3 ± 13.2 years and 71.7% of them were 35 years and older; 58% of them were females. Overall prevalence of hypertension – defined by systolic blood pressure ≥140 and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 or reporting history of hypertension – was found to be 13.2%. Only 35.1% of them were aware of their hypertension and only 23.7% were on treatment. The overall control rate was 15.5%. Family history of hypertension, having diabetes mellitus, being overweight, and oral contraceptive use were associated with high blood pressure. Conclusion Hypertension was found to be prevalent; morbidity, awareness, treatment, and control in those with hypertension were low. Hence, intervention measures should be undertaken at the community level; particular emphasis should be placed on prevention by introducing lifestyle modifications and creating awareness about the problem so that early detection and intervention is possible

  5. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from blood culture in Tikur Anbassa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asrat, D; Amanuel, Y W

    2001-04-01

    Between Mid-1996 and Mid-1998, 238 bacteria strains isolated from blood culture of adult patients of Tikur Anbassa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, were retrospectively analyzed for their frequency of isolation and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (CNS) were isolated with the highest frequency 103 (43.3%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus 34(14.3%), Klebsiella spp. 23(9.7%), E. Coli 19(8.1%), Pseudomonas spp. 16(6.7%), Acinetobacter spp. 12(5%), Salmonella spp. 9(3.8%) and miscellaneous group 22(9.2%). The gram positive bacteria constituted 149(62.6%) of the total blood isolates. It is suggested that a proportion of both the gram positive and gram negative isolated represent contaminants at blood sampling. Rates of susceptibility for gram positive range from 12% to 76%, and for gram negatives range from 8% to 46%. In general, rates of susceptibilities to all antibiotics tested for gram negatives were very low as compared to gram positives. Among the gram positives, more than half of the isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and methicillin. Gram negative bacteria showed a high rate of resistance to many of the commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs: amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (65%), ampicillin (87.5%), amoxicillin (91.7%), carbenicillin (75%), cephalothin (73.6%), chloramphenicol (65%), gentamicin (55.6%), kanamycin (54%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (64%) and tetracycline (61%). If generally considered, only gentamicin and kanamycin were relatively effective against gram negatives. Over 85% Salmonella spp were sensitive to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Compared to previous studies done in the same hospital, there is a higher rate of antibiotic resistance for most types of blood culture isolates particularly for gram negatives. The rational use of drugs should be practiced in order to minimize the spread

  6. Lifespan and associated factors of peripheral intravenous Cannula among infants admitted in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016.

    PubMed

    Birhane, Eskedar; Kidanu, Kalayou; Kassa, Mekuria; Gerezgiher, Dawit; Tsegay, Lidia; Weldu, Brhanu; Kidane, Genet; Gerensea, Hadgu

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral Intravenous cannula (IV) is the most common vascular access device used to administer medications with the exception of medication or fluid with high or low PH or hyperosmolarity which may cause severe damage to small veins. The insertion of a peripheral intravenous cannula in newborn infants can be difficult. Appropriate veins with sufficient capacity to insert a cannula become less available throughout the hospital stay. Once a peripheral intravenous cannula is inserted, it is desirable that its patency can be maintained as long as possible. This study was aimed to assess the lifespan and associated factors of peripheral intravenous cannula among infants admitted in public hospitals of Mekelle city, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016. The method used was a prospective cohort study. 178 study subjects were recruited using systematic random sampling technique. The data was collected by structured questionairre and observational checklist. More than half of infants (94) had a short cannula lifespan (below 30 h). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) [AOR = 6.93; 95% CI (1.56,30.71)], clinical experience (3-5 years) [AOR = 0.168; 95% CI (0.060-0.469)], insertion site (arm) [AOR = 0.126;95% CI (0.046-0.349)], reason for removal (dislodgement and complication) [AOR = 8.15; 95% CI (2.49,26.63) [AOR = 10.48;95% CI (3.08,35.65)], medication [AOR = 0.17;95% CI (0.37,0.784)], corticosteroids [0.164; 95% CI (0.034,0.793)] and blood transfusion [AOR = 0.12; 95% CI (0.028-0.509)] were the statistically significant variables associated with the lifespan of a peripheral intravenous cannula. Untimely removal of peripheral intravenous cannulas was higher in infants and demographic. Cannulation and health care factors had significant effects on the lifespan of a peripheral intravenous cannula.

  7. Job related stress among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dagget, Tadesse; Molla, Ashagre; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress exists in every profession, nevertheless, the nursing profession appears to experience more stress at work compared to other health care workers. Unmanaged stress leads to high levels of employee dissatisfaction, illness, absenteeism, high turnover, and decreased productivity that compromise provision of quality service to clients. However, there is a scarcity of information about nurses' job stress in Jimma zone public hospital nurses. The aim of the present study was to assess job related stress and its predictors among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South-West Ethiopia in 2014. An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March 10 to April 10, 2014 through a census of nurses who are working in Jimma Zone public hospitals using a structured self-administered questionnaire. SPSS Statistics Version 20 used. For the outcome variable: overall job related stress, the participant's responses on each item score summed: a stress score ranging from a minimum of 26 and maximum score of 116. The higher the sum the more the stressed the nurse. The level of stress calculated through tertial the lower to low stress, the middle to moderate & the higher to high stress. Moreover, bivariate and multivariable linear regressions done to see the association between the predictor (sex, age, mutual understanding at work, Job satisfaction and working unit/department) and the outcome variable (Job related stress). A total of 341 nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals were given the questionnaire, and the response rate was 92.3 % (315). This study indicated an average overall job related stress level of 58.46 ± 12.62. The highest level of job related stress was on the sub scale of dealing with death & dying mean score of 62.94 % followed by uncertainty regarding patient treatment 57.72 % and workload 57.6 %. While job related stress from sexual harassment had the lowest mean score of 46.19 %. Overall job related stress varies

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation of Electronic Medical Record System Use and User Satisfaction at Five Low-Resource Setting Hospitals in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Fleur

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional’s satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. Methods A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Results Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an

  9. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in the Public Hospitals, Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagne, Tesfaye; Beyene, Waju; Berhanu, Negalign

    2015-07-01

    Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. Facility based cross-sectional survey was employed. All health professionals who served at least for 6 months in Ambo, Gedo and Gindeberet hospitals were included. Self-administered Likert scale type questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean motivation calculated as percentage of maximum scale score was used. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were done to see the independent effects of explanatory variables. The overall motivation level of health professionals was 63.63%. Motivation level of health professionals varied among the hospitals. Gindeberet Hospital had lower motivation score as compared to Ambo Hospital (B = -0.54 and 95% CI; -0.08,-0.27). The mean motivation score of health professionals who got monthly financial benefit was significantly higher than those who did not (B = 0.71 and 95% CI; 0.32, 1.10). Environmental factors had higher impact on doctors' motivation compared to nurses' (B = 0.51 and 95% CI; 0.10, 0.92). Supervisor-related factors highly varied in motivation relative to other variables. Motivation of health professionals was affected by factors related to supervisor, financial benefits, job content and hospital location. Efforts should be made to provide financial benefits to health professionals as appropriate especially, to those who did not get any such benefits. Officially recognizing best performance is also suggested.

  10. Determinants of Glycemic Control among Insulin Treated Diabetic Patients in Southwest Ethiopia: Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Angamo, Mulugeta Tarekegn; Melese, Belete Habte; Ayen, Wubeante Yenet

    2013-01-01

    Background Good glycemic control reduces the risk of diabetic complications. Despite this, achieving good glycemic control remains a challenge in diabetic patients. The objective of this study is to identify determinants of glycemic control among insulin treated diabetic patients at Jimma University Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on systematically sampled 284 insulin-treated diabetic patients with a regular follow up. Data was collected by interviewing patients during hospital visits and reviewing respective databases of September 2010 to December 2011. Data collection took place from February 20 to May 20, 2012. Poor glycemic control was defined as fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥126 mg/dL. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of poor glycemic control. Results Patients had a mean age of 41.37 (±15.08) years, 58.5% were males, the mean duration of insulin treatment was 4.9 (±5.1) years, 18.3% achieved good glycemic control (FBS≤126 mg/dL), 95% self-reported repeated use of disposable insulin syringe-needle and 48% correctly rotating insulin injection sites. Most (83.1%) of study participants had one or more complications. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, body weight of >70 Kg (AOR = 0.21; P<0.001), total daily dose of insulin ≤35 IU/day (AOR = 0.26; P<0.001), total daily dose variation without checking glycemic level (AOR = 3.39; P = 0.020), knowledge deficit about signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia (AOR = 3.60; P = 0.004), and non-adherence to dietary management (AOR = 0.35; P = 0.005) were independent predictors of poor glycemic control. Conclusions The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was high, which resulted in the development of one or more complications regardless of duration on insulin treatment. Hence, appropriate management of patients focusing on the relevant associated factors and independent

  11. PATTERNS AND SEASONAL VARIATION OF INTUSSUSCEPTION IN CHILDREN: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF CASES OPERATED IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Gadisa, Anteneh; Tadesse, Amezene; Hailemariam, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Intussusception is one of the frequent causes of bowel obstruction in infants and toddlers (1). It involves invagination of a portion of intestine into another(2-4). The peak age of occurrence is between the age of 4 and 8 months. The aim of this study is to review the pattern of clinical presentation and seasonal variation of intussusception in our hospital, and to analyze the mode and outcomes of treatment. This is a four-year retrospective study of children aged 13 years and below who were admitted and treated for intussusception between January 2011 and December 2014 at the pediatric surgery unit of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital (TAH) in Ethiopia. Information on the patients' demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and month of occurrence as well as the operative findings and outcome were obtained from the pediatric surgery unit record book, patient charts, and the operating theatre registry. One hundred and thirty six cases of intussusception were admitted to TAH, Addis Ababa over a four year period, of which 130 charts were retrieved and analyzed. Males dominated in the series. Age distribution showed that 59.2% of the cases were ≤ one year old, and 77.7 % were ≤ two years old. Abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody mucoid diarrhea and a mass palpated abdominally and/or rectally were the most common modes of presentations, with the classic triad of abdominal pain, vomiting and bloody mucoid diarrhea occurring in nearly two third of cases. The highest peak of presentation was in the month of June with 18 (13.9%) cases. The mean duration of symptoms before presentation to our hospital was 5.2 days with a range of 1-21 days. Intraoperatively, it was found that ileocolic intussusception was the most common type. Simple reduction without bowel resection was possible in 70.8% of cases. There were 44 (33.9 %) complications, wound site infection being the most common occurring in 20 (15.4%) cases and there were 6 deaths. Intussusception was more common

  12. Risk Factors for Neonatal Sepsis in Public Hospitals of Mekelle City, North Ethiopia, 2015: Unmatched Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Destaalem; Berhe, Haftu; Gebrekirstos, Kahsu

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Delays in the identification and treatment of neonatal sepsis are among the main contributors to the high mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of neonatal sepsis in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray Region, North Ethiopia, 2015. A hospital based case control study was done in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray region. Cases were neonates who had sepsis with their index mothers and controls were neonates who hadn't had sepsis with their index mothers. Hematologic findings were used to diagnose sepsis once the neonates were being clinically suspected. Cases and controls were selected using the systematic sampling technique. Data were entered using Epi info version 7 and then analyzed using SPSS window 20. The binary logistic regression model was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the associated risk factors to neonatal sepsis. A total of 78 cases and 156 controls were included in this study. More than three quarters (76.8%) of cases had early onset sepsis. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the possible risk factors of neonatal sepsis in this study were; history of maternal urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infection [AOR = 5. 23; 95% CI (1.82, 15.04)], prolonged rupture of membrane [AOR = 7. 43; 95% CI (2.04, 27.1)], Place of delivery; health center delivery [AOR = 5. 7; 95% CI (1.71, 19.03)], intrapartum fever [AOR = 6. 1 95% CI (1.29, 28.31)], APGAR score <7 at 5th minute [AOR = 68. 9; 95% CI (3.63, 1308)] and not crying immediately at birth [AOR = 124. 0; 95% CI (6.5, 2379)]. Both maternal and neonatal factors had contributed to the risk of neonatal sepsis. Strengthening of the existing risk based prevention strategies as well as improvement of institutional delivery practices

  13. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mengistie, Zemenu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Adera, Addis

    2014-11-20

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common genital tract infections among reproductive age group. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis varies from country to country even in the same country it varies among populations of interest. Different social and sexual factors can contribute to the development of bacterial vaginosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and to identify the possible risk factors associated among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Randomly selected 57 symptomatic and 195 asymptomatic pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years visiting obstetric and gynecological clinic from November 2011 to April 2012 screenedusing Gram stain Nugent scoring system. Statistical analysis like univariate analysis to calculate frequencies and proportions, bivariate analysis to see association of selected exposure variables with the outcome variable, and multivariate analysis to check the association of possible factors with bacterial vaginosis by adjusting potential confounding factors was calculated using SPSS (Version 16.0). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 19.4% using Gram stain Nugent scoring system. In addition, prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 31.6% and 15.9% among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women respectively. A high percentage of bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women were asymptomatic (63.3%). 36.7% bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women reported abnormal vaginal discharge with or without unpleasant smell. Multiple lifetime sexual partner (OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 2.5, 29) and previous history of spontaneous abortion (OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.5, 23) had remained significantly associated with prevalence of bacterial vaginosis. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is higher among asymptomatic pregnant women and associated with the factors previous history of multiple lifetime sexual partner and spontaneous abortion.

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital, southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy. PMID:22410271

  15. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women of Reproductive Age Attending the Gynecology Clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Amsalu, Anteneh; Shimelis, Techalew

    2016-01-01

    Background Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis(CT) is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) world-wide, especially in developing nations where routine laboratory diagnosis is unavailable. Little is known about the epidemiology of this infection in Ethiopia where other STIs are prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT infection among women of reproductive age. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 consecutive women aged between 15–49 years at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from November 2014 to April 2015. Data on socio-demography and potential risk factors for genital infection were collected using structured questionnaires. Moreover, endocervical swabs were collected from all participants, screened for CT antigen using rapid immunochromatography assay, and cultured following the standard bacteriological method to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Result In this study, the overall prevalence of CT antigen and N. gonorrhoeae infection was 61(18.9%) and 1(0.31%), respectively. Women aged 15–24 years had the highest prevalence of CT infection (24.2%), followed by those aged 25–34 years (16.8%) and those aged 35–49 years (9.6%). CTinfection was associated with women who had unprotected sex within the last six months (aOR = 3.459; 95% CI = 1.459–8.222) and were sexually active for 6–10 years (aOR = 3.076; 95% CI = 1.152–8.209). None of the clinical symptoms and diagnoses was significantly associated with CT antigen positivity. Conclusions The high prevalence of genital CT infection in this study highlights the need for further large-scale studies on the general population. Thus, screening of women regardless of their symptoms should be in place. PMID:28006003

  16. Poverty, inequality and health: the challenge of the double burden of disease in a non-profit hospital in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Accorsi, Sandro; Kedir, Nejmudin; Farese, Pasquale; Dhaba, Shallo; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Seifu, Abera; Manenti, Fabio

    2009-05-01

    This study was aimed at describing disease patterns in a rural zone of Oromiya region, Ethiopia through a retrospective analysis of discharge records for 22,377 inpatients of St. Luke Hospital, Wolisso, Ethiopia in the period 2005-2007. The leading cause of admission was childbirth, followed by injuries, malaria and pneumonia. Injuries were the leading cause of in-hospital deaths, followed by pneumonia, malaria, cardiovascular disease and AIDS. Vulnerable groups (infants, children and women) accounted for 73.3% of admissions. Most of the disease burden resulted from infectious diseases, the occurrence of which could be dramatically reduced by cost-effective preventive and curative interventions. Furthermore, a double burden of disease is already emerging at the early stage of the epidemiological transition, with a mix of persistent, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and increasing prevalence of chronic conditions and injuries. This will lead to fundamental changes in the volume and composition of demand for healthcare, with a more complex case mix and more costly service utilization patterns. The challenge is to address the double burden of disease, while focusing on poverty-related conditions and targeting vulnerable groups. Monitoring disease and service utilization patterns through routine hospital information systems can provide sustainable, low-cost support for evidence-based health practice.

  17. Job satisfaction and its determinants among health workers in jimma university specialized hospital, southwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yami, Alemshet; Hamza, Leja; Hassen, Alima; Jira, Challi; Sudhakar, Morankar

    2011-08-01

    Human power is the back bone for the provision of quality health care for the population. High level of professional satisfaction among health workers earns high dividends such as higher worker force retention and patients satisfaction. There is limited amount of literature in the areas related to factors affecting job satisfaction and retention. The objective of this study was to determine the job satisfaction of health professionals working in Jimma University Specialized Hospital and factors affecting their level of satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the level and factors affecting job satisfaction and retention of health professionals working in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study was conducted from March to October 2009 and included all categories of health professionals working in the hospital during the study period. Data was collected using self administered questionnaire and focus group discussion. After the data was collected, it was entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 windows statistical software. Chi-square tests were made to evaluate association of different variables with job satisfaction, and P-value < 0.05, at 95% CI was taken as cut off point for statistical significance. A total of 145 health professionals have responded for the self administered questionnaire. The result showed that sixty seven (46.2%) of the health workers are dissatisfied with their job. The major reasons reported for their dissatisfaction were lack of motivation, inadequate salary, insufficient training opportunities and inadequate number of human resources. Only sixty (41.4%) health professionals were satisfied with their job, the major reasons given were getting satisfaction from helping others and professional gratification. Suggestion given by the respondents to improve job satisfaction and increase retention rate included motivation of staff through different incentives such us bonus, house allowance

  18. Magnitude and outcomes of road traffic accidents at Hospitals in Wolaita Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemichael, Feleke; Suleiman, Mohammed; Pauolos, Wondimagegn

    2015-04-09

    A Road traffic accident is an incident on a way or street open to public traffic, resulting in one or more persons being killed or injured, and involving at least one moving vehicle. The aim of this study is to assess magnitude and outcome of road traffic accidents among trauma victims at hospitals in Wolaita zone. A cross sectional hospital based study design using retrospective chart review was conducted from March 5th to March 25th, 2014. Simple random sampling technique was applied to identify sample population. The data was entered in to Epi info version 3.5.1 and transferred to SPSS version 16 for further analysis. A total of 384 trauma victims were incorporated in the study of which 240 (62.5%) were due to road traffic accidents. The majority of patients were male 298 (77.6%) and most commonly aged between 20-29 (35.42%). The principal outcome of injury was more commonly lower extremity (182 patients, 47.4%), compared to upper extremity (126 patients, 32.8%). Of all trauma patient presenting to hospitals (62.5%) are the result of road traffic accident. Hence, the provision of tailored messages to all members of the community regarding knowledge and practices of road safety measures like appropriate use of pavements by pedestrians and avoiding risky driving behaviors. Besides this make use of compulsory motorcycle helmets would appear to be a very important intervention.

  19. Retrospective analysis of 10 year medical board proceedings at Amanuel Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2001.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay

    2004-01-01

    The Medical board at Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital assesses mental disability. Analysis of the board's proceedings from 1985--1994 is discussed in this paper. The proceeding record showed that the board has assessed 1963 during the ten-year period, but analysis was done only on 1854 cases because of incomplete information. Over 80 % of the cases assessed by the board were males and 96% were below the age of 50 years. Teachers were presented to the board more often than other occupational groups. Over 50% of the cases presented to the board had psychotic illness and 12% had no mental illness. There was a decline in the number of cases presented to the board in the later part of the ten year period (Chi-square for trend=206.36, P<001). Request for assessment of fitness accounted for 79% of all requests presented to the board. Positive recommendation to the request was given to 66% of the cases and transfer from one working place to another was the most frequently given recommendation. It appears that assessment of disability used to be one of the major activities of the psychiatrists at Amanuel Hospital. Creating conducive working environment to the employees, putting some effort to change the attitude of employers toward the mentally disturbed worker and training health workers working in the clinics of enterprises/organizations on basic counseling principles are recommmended to minimize the flow of cases to Amanuel Hospital for this purpose.

  20. Incident Reporting Behaviours and Associated Factors among Nurses Working in Gondar University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. A comprehensive and systematic approach to incident reporting would help learn from errors and adverse events within a healthcare facility. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess incident reporting behaviours and associated factors among nurses. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 14 to 29, 2015. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were coded, entered into Epi Info 7, and exported to SPSS version 20 software for analysis. A multivariate logistic regression model was fitted and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to determine the strength of association. Results. The proportion of nurses who reported incidents was 25.4%. Training on incident reporting (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) [95% CI] 2.96 [1.34–6.26]), reason to report (to help patient) (AOR [95% CI] 3.08 [1.70–5.59]), fear of administrative sanctions (AOR [95% CI] 0.27 [0.12–0.58]), fear of legal penalty (AOR [95% CI] 0.09 [0.03–0.21]), and fear of loss of prestige among colleagues (AOR [95% CI] 0.25 [0.12–0.53]) were significantly associated factors with the incident reporting behaviour of nurses. Conclusion and Recommendation. The proportion of nurses who reported incidents was very low. Establishing a system which promotes incident reporting is vital. PMID:28116219

  1. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling among tuberculosis patients in a hospital in the Oromia region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yadeta, Damtew; Alemseged, Fisehaye; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2013-06-01

    Routine testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in settings with generalized HIV epidemics affords the benefit of diagnosing the infection early and thereby preventing morbidity, mortality and sustained transmission; early detection hastens the initiation of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess HIV counseling and testing among tuberculosis patients under routine care conditions in the Bishoftu hospital within the Oromia region of Ethiopia. A retrospective study was conducted from a tuberculosis (TB) registry, which included data from all adult patients who were diagnosed and treated at Bishoftu Hospital in Oromia from 2009 through 2011. The data were reviewed, coded and entered into the computer software, SPSS version 16.0, for analysis. We used a descriptive and multi-variable logistic regression model to predict HIV-positive status. Among the 682 patients recorded on the TB registry, the required variables for this study were completed for 681 adult tuberculosis patients. Out of all the TB patients for whom the variables were collected, 98% (669/681) were offered HIV counseling and testing, and nearly all of them (668/669) accepted and were tested for HIV. Among those patients who accepted for testing and were tested for HIV, 32.2% (215/668) tested positive. Pulmonary TB, among all types of all forms of TB, urban residence and the 25-64 age group were more generally associated with an HIV-positive status; however, male sex and pulmonary-positive types of TB were less likely to be HIV-positive. The acceptance rate for HIV counseling and testing services among TB patients was very high. However, there were missed cases in which the test was not offered. The prevalence of HIV was very high, and the infection was more prevalent among urban residents, females, young people and pulmonary-negative TB patients; thus, these patients need attention from all concerned parties. Copyright

  2. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Waja, Tsegereda; Ebrahim, Jemal; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. Methods An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60%) were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9–12) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69]), not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39]), availability of house (AOR =2.04, [1.10, 3.78]), taking carbamazepine (AOR =2.38, [1.13, 5.01]), and drinking alcohol to find relief from stress (AOR =4.28, [1.89, 9.67]) were significantly associated with alcohol use disorder among people with epilepsy. Conclusion and recommendation The findings of this

  3. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Waja, Tsegereda; Ebrahim, Jemal; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60%) were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9-12) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69]), not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39]), availability of house (AOR =2.04, [1.10, 3.78]), taking carbamazepine (AOR =2.38, [1.13, 5.01]), and drinking alcohol to find relief from stress (AOR =4.28, [1.89, 9.67]) were significantly associated with alcohol use disorder among people with epilepsy. The findings of this study revealed that the prevalence of alcohol use disorder

  4. Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ewnetu, Yalemwork; Lemma, Wossenseged; Birhane, Nega

    2013-10-19

    Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees and has nutritional and therapeutic uses. In Ethiopia, honeys are used traditionally to treat wounds, respiratory infections and diarrhoea. Recent increase of drug resistant bacteria against the existing antibiotics forced investigators to search for alternative natural remedies and evaluate their potential use on scientific bases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different types of honeys in Ethiopia which are used traditionally to treat different types of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Mueller Hinton agar (70191) diffusion and nutrient broth culture medium assays were performed to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and resistant clinical isolates (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), Escherichia coli(R) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), using honeys of Apis mellifera and stingless bees in northern and north western Ethiopia. Honey of the stingless bees produced the highest mean inhibition (22.27 ± 3.79 mm) compared to white honey (21.0 ± 2.7 mm) and yellow honey (18.0 ± 2.3 mm) at 50% (v/v) concentration on all the standard and resistant strains. Stingless bees honey was found to have Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25% (6.25 mg/ml) for 80% of the test organisms compared to 40% for white and yellow Apis mellifera honeys. All the honeys were found to have minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5% (12.5 mg/ml) against all the test organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was susceptible to amoxicillin, methicillin, kanamycine, tetracycline, and vancomycine standard antibiotic discs used for susceptibility tests. Similarly, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) was found susceptible for kanamycine, tetracycline and vancomycine. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) has not been tested for amoxicillin ampicillin and methicillin. The susceptibility tests performed against

  5. Drug-related problems among medical ward patients in Jimma university specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tigabu, Bereket Molla; Daba, Daniel; Habte, Belete

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The increasing number of available drugs and drug users, as well as more complex drug regimens led to more side effects and drug interactions and complicates follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess drug-related problems (DRPs) and associated factors in hospitalized patients. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, located in the south west of Addis Ababa. All patients who were admitted to the medical ward from February 2011 to March 2011 were included in the study. Data on sociodemographic variables, past medical history, drug history, current diagnosis, current medications, vital signs, and relevant laboratory data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and data collection forms which were filling through patient interview and card review. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 for windows. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, Chi-square, and logistic regression were utilized. Findings: Out of 257 study participants, 189 (73.5%) had DRPs and a total of 316 DRPs were identified. From the six classes of DRPs studied, 103 (32.6%) cases related to untreated indication or need additional drug therapy, and 49 (15.5%) cases related to high medication dosage. Unnecessary drug therapy in 49 (15.5%) cases, low medication dosage in 44 (13.9%) cases, and ineffective drug therapy in 42 (13.3%) cases were the other classes of problems identified. Noncompliance in 31 (9.8%) cases was the least prevalent DRP. Independent factors which predicted the occurrence of DRPs in the study population were sex, age, polypharmacy, and clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions. The prevalence of DRPs was substantially high (73.5%). Conclusion: Drug-related problems are common among medical ward patients. Indication-related problems, untreated indication and unnecessary drug therapy were the most common types of DRPs among patients of our

  6. Predictors of preoperative anxiety among surgical patients in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, South Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospitalization and surgery are critical negative life events that lead to the experience of considerable anxiety in patients. Patients may perceive the day of surgery as the biggest and the most threatening day in their lives. There is paucity of information on predictors of anxiety in the current study area. The main objective of this study is to assess predictors of preoperative anxiety among patients scheduled for surgery in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative data collection technique in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital from February 13 to April 13, 2012 on 239 patients scheduled for surgery. The data were collected by five trained diploma nurses using structured interviewer administered questionnaires that were prepared based on state trait anxiety inventory measurement scale. The quantitative data were entered into SPSS for windows version 16. 0 and descriptive, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 239 patients were enrolled in the study with a response rate of 93.0%. Their mean age was 42.7 ± 1.8 years (range 16 to 85 years). Nearly over half 53.6% were females, while 48.1% illiterate, 72.4% Oromo and 56.5% were Muslim followers. Significant preoperative anxiety was seen in 70.3% patients. The most common factors that lead to anxiety were fear of death 38.1% and fear of unknown origin 24.3% and the most common strategy mentioned by patient in reducing anxiety were talking to other patient 79.8% and religious belief. Conclusions In the present study, two third 70.3% of preoperative patients had anxiety. Factors which were positively correlated with anxiety were trait anxiety, single and divorced, time of operation and income. Factors which were shown to reduce anxiety were preoperative anxiety related information provision and afternoon operation. Health professionals working in the hospital

  7. Antibiogram of nosocomial urinary tract infections in Felege Hiwot referral hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Melaku, S; Kibret, M; Abera, B; Gebre-Sellassie, S

    2012-06-01

    Nosocomial infections increase the cost of medical care, extend hospital stay and reflect on the morbidity and mortality of the admitted patients. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections in humans. To determine the prevalence and antibiogram of nosocomial UITs from a referral hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1 254 patients from April to August 2010. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done using disc diffusion technique as per the standard of Kirby-Bauer method. Of the 1 254 patients, 118 (9.4%) developed nosocomial UTIs. Seventy three (61.9%) and 44 (37.1%) of the bacterial isolates were gram negative and gram positive, respectively. One patient had a mixed infection. E. coli, S.aureus and K. pneumonia were the most predominant isolates. Gender, catheterization and pre-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis and underlying diseases were significantly associated with the occurrence of nosocomial UTIs (p=0.001). Most bacterial isolates showed high resistance rates (>80%) to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol and cloxacillin. Catheterization and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis were found to be the risk factors for nosocomial infection. Effective infection prevention measures should be in place to reduce the prevalence of nosocomial UTIs.

  8. Pattern of acute adult poisoning at Tikur Anbessa specialized teaching hospital, a retrospective study, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Desalew, Mekonnen; Aklilu, Azaje; Amanuel, Amare; Addisu, Melkie; Ethiopia, Tesfaye

    2011-07-01

    Acute poisoning continues to be an important public health problem. Medical records of 116 adult patients presented to Tikur Anbessa Specialized University Hospital from January 2007 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Females outnumbered males. Mean age was 21 years. Most (96.5%) were intentional self-harm poisonings. Household cleansing agents were the leading causes of poisoning (43.1%) followed by organophosphate (21.6%) and phenobarbitone (10.3%). Loss of consciousness, vomiting and epigastric pain were the common presenting features accounting 46.2%, 23.8% and 22.5%, respectively. A total of 13(11.2%) patients had already known mental illness and 12 of them poisoned by using their own medications. Among 65 patients who reported their reason of poisoning, temporary quarrel (57%) and emotional disturbance (26%) were frequently cited. The case fatality rate was 8.6%. Death was most occurred by organophosphate (5/25) and phenobarbitone poisoning (3/12). Awareness on proper handling of chemicals and prescribed agents should be forwarded to users of these agents. Majority of patients poisoned for intentional self-harm purposes so that linkage of suicidal patients to appropriate mental health service is recommended. The availability of psychiatry consultation in the hospital is also recommended.

  9. Drug therapy of epileptic seizures among adult epileptic outpatients of University of Gondar Referral and Teaching Hospital, Gondar, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birru, Eshetie Melese; Shafi, Miftah; Geta, Mestayet

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the practice of pharmacotherapy of epilepsy and its treatment outcomes in adult epileptic outpatients at the University of Gondar Referral and Teaching Hospital, Gondar, North West Ethiopia. Methods An institution based, retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical charts of 336 adult epileptic patients at the outpatient epileptic clinic of Neurology Department of University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from May 2014 to April 2015. Reviewing follow-up information from the medical charts was used to evaluate antiepileptic drug (AED) prescribing patterns and treatment outcome. Data were collected by using data collection format and analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results The most common type of seizure diagnosed was generalized tonic–clonic seizure (n=245, 72.91%). Monotherapy with an AED accounted for 80.35% of the cases, whereas dual therapy and polytherapy with three AED combinations accounted for 16.37% and 3.28%, respectively. The most frequently prescribed AED was phenobarbitone (62.47%) followed by carbamazepine (17.91%). From the total epileptic cases, 277 (82.4%) had well-controlled seizure status in the last three consecutive months. Conclusion Most of the patients were maintained by monotherapy, and largely this was by the older antiepileptic drug, phenobarbitone. Considering the development of pharmacotherapy of epilepsy and other patient related factors, the standard treatment guideline for Ethiopia needs to be revised periodically. PMID:28053533

  10. Time Series Analysis of Trends in Malaria Cases and Deaths at Hospitals and the Effect of Antimalarial Interventions, 2001–2011, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Aregawi, Maru; Lynch, Michael; Bekele, Worku; Kebede, Henok; Jima, Daddi; Taffese, Hiwot Solomon; Yenehun, Meseret Aseffa; Lilay, Abraham; Williams, Ryan; Thomson, Madeleine; Nafo-Traore, Fatoumata; Admasu, Kesetebirhan; Gebreyesus, Tedros Adhanom; Coosemans, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Ethiopia and its partners have deployed artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) since 2004 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) since 2005. Malaria interventions and trends in malaria cases and deaths were assessed at hospitals in malaria transmission areas during 2001–2011. Methods Regional LLINs distribution records were used to estimate the proportion of the population-at-risk protected by LLINs. Hospital records were reviewed to estimate ACT availability. Time-series analysis was applied to data from 41 hospitals in malaria risk areas to assess trends of malaria cases and deaths during pre-intervention (2001–2005) and post-interventions (2006–2011) periods. Findings The proportion of the population-at-risk potentially protected by LLINs increased to 51% in 2011. The proportion of facilities with ACTs in stock exceeded 87% during 2006–2011. Among all ages, confirmed malaria cases in 2011 declined by 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–79%) and SPR by 37% (CI, 20%–51%) compared to the level predicted by pre-intervention trends. In children under 5 years of age, malaria admissions and deaths fell by 81% (CI, 47%–94%) and 73% (CI, 48%–86%) respectively. Optimal breakpoint of the trendlines occurred between January and June 2006, consistent with the timing of malaria interventions. Over the same period, non-malaria cases and deaths either increased or remained unchanged, the number of malaria diagnostic tests performed reflected the decline in malaria cases, and rainfall remained at levels supportive of malaria transmission. Conclusions Malaria cases and deaths in Ethiopian hospitals decreased substantially during 2006–2011 in conjunction with scale-up of malaria interventions. The decrease could not be accounted for by changes in hospital visits, malaria diagnostic testing or rainfall. However, given the history of variable malaria transmission in Ethiopia, more data would be required to exclude the

  11. Drug-related problems in medical wards of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Megersa, Teshome Nedi; Mengistu, Yewondwossen Taddese

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of drug-related problems (DRPs), identify the most common drugs, and drug classes involved in DRPs as well as associated factors with the occurrence of DRPs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 225 patients admitted to medical wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa from March to June 2014. Data regarding patient characteristics, medications, diagnosis, length of hospitalization, investigation, and laboratory results were collected using data abstraction forms through review of patients’ medical card and medication charts. Identified DRPs were recorded and classified using DRP registration forms. The possible intervention measures for the identified DRPs were proposed and communicated to either the physician or the patient. Data were entered into Epi Info 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp. Released 2012, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Findings: DRPs were found in 52% of study subjects. A drug-drug interaction (48% of all DRPs) was the most common DRP followed by adverse drug reaction (23%). Anti-infectives and gastrointestinal medicines were commonly involved in DRPs. Drugs with the highest drug risk ratio were gentamycin, warfarin, nifedipine, and cimetidine. The number of drugs taken by the patient per day is an important risk factor for DRPs. Conclusion: DRPs are common among medical ward patients. Polypharmacy has a significant association with the occurrence of DRP. Drugs such as gentamycin, warfarin, nifedipine, and cimetidine have the highest probability of causing DRP. So, patients who are taking either of these drugs or polypharmacy should be closely assessed for identification and timely correction of DRPs. PMID:26645029

  12. Substance abuse and the risk of readmission of people with schizophrenia at Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bimerew, M S; Sonn, F C T; Kortenbout, W P

    2007-06-01

    Frequent readmissions of people with schizophrenia pose considerable pressure on the psychiatric service provision of Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital. The purpose of the study was to ascertain factors mainly contributing to the rate of readmissions of people with schizophrenia. Descriptive survey methods and qualitative focus group interviews were employed to conduct the study. Random sampling techniques were used to select 43 respondents of people with schizophrenia from 231 people with schizophrenia who were readmitted for two or more times in the last two years and who gained access during the time of the study. Structured interviews were used for respondents of people with schizophrenia. Fourteen (N=14) family members/caregivers were selected using purposive sampling methods for focus group discussions. Quantitative data was analyzed using the SPSS Version 11.00 program and the qualitative data was analyzed by generating themes and categories. The results suggest that alcohol and khat abuse were contributing factors for the rate of readmissions of people with schizophrenia into the Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital. It was found that communities contribute to the problems of substance abuse by providing and/or selling it to those mentally ill people. The study also revealed that patients use alcohol and khat in order to tolerate the severe side effects of the anti-psychotic drugs, to suppress hunger due to shortage of food and to avoid drowsiness. Raising community awareness, psycho-education, strengthening the capacities of caretakers and laws to prevent substance abuse, as well as campaigning to prevent people from abusing mentally ill sufferers, should be established.

  13. Hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mochungong, Peter I K; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Due to the infectious nature of some clinical waste, poor disposal practices have sparked concern regarding the impact on public health and the environment. Lack of sufficient knowledge of the associated risks may be a strong factor contributing to inadequate disposal practices. We conducted a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection, segregation, transportation, and disposal of clinical waste at the three hospitals. Of 475 total respondents, most lacked sufficient awareness of any environmental or public health impacts of poor clinical waste disposal and had never heard of any policy--national or international--on safe clinical waste management. Methods of collecting, segregating, transporting and disposing clinical waste at the three hospitals was poor. The development of a comprehensive policy on efficient clinical waste management in Cameroon is imperative.

  14. Multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates in infected wounds at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Godebo, Girma; Kibru, Gebre; Tassew, Himanot

    2013-07-23

    The term 'Multidrug-resistant' (MDR) applies to a bacterium that is simultaneously resistant to a number of antimicrobials belonging to different chemical classes. The effectiveness of currently available antmicrobial drugs is decreasing due to the increasing number of resistant strains causing infections so that available therapeutic options for such organisms are severely limited. The aim of this study was to determine multidrug-resistance rate of bacterial isolates that caused wound infections. A Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 322 wound samples taken from consecutive patients seen at inpatient and outpatient department of Jimma University Specialized Hospital from June to December 2011. Swabs from surgical incisions, burns, abscess and traumatic wounds were collected aseptically using Levine's technique. Bacteriological culture and examination was done following standard microbiological techniques. Multidrug-resistance test was performed by disk diffusion method against 10 classes of antimicrobials. The data was analyzed for descriptive statistics using SPSS version 16 and Microsoft Excel. The overall MDR among gram positive and gram negative bacterial isolates were (77%) and (59.3%) respectively. About, 86.2% S.aureus and 28.6% of Coagulase negative Staphylococci became MDR. Nearly 30.1% of S.aureus was resistant to six classes of antimicrobials. The average MDR rate of Proteus, Klebsiella, and Providencia species was 74.8%, 69.6% and 75% in that order. Nearly, 30.8% of Proteus sp, 32.6% of Klebsiella sp and 61% of Citrobacter sp were resistance to 4 classes each. Surprisingly, the average MDR rate for Citrobacter sp was 100%. About (76.7%) of S.aureus was Oxacillin/Methicillin resistant while (16.4%) were Vancomycin resistant. Proteus species was the predominant isolates (27.9%) followed by P.aeruginosa and S.aureus (19.3%) and (19%) respectively. This study indicated that, the overall rate of MDR bacterial pathogens that caused wound

  15. Prevalence of oral and perioral manifestations in HIV positive adults at Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Guteta, Senbeta; Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Fekade, Daniel; Neway, Makonnen; Diro, Ermias

    2008-10-01

    Oral lesions are often characteristic in HIV patients and in the majority of cases can be diagnosed by their clinical features alone. To date there is no study addressing the prevalence of oral and perioral lesions in HIV patients in Ethiopia. To assess prevalence of oral and perioral manifestations, the clinical symptoms of oral disease, and to assess the association of oral and perioral lesions to the socio- demographic status and CD4 count of ART naive HIV patients. A cross-sectional study on 384 consecutive HIV patients before initiation of ARV treatment was conducted. Oral and perioral lesions were diagnosed according to the EC-clearinghouse's classification and diagnostic criteria for oral lesions in HIV infection and WHO collaborating centre on oral manifestations of HIV, 1992. One hundred and twenty six (32.8%) of the study subjects were males and 258 (67.2%) were females and mean age was 35.4 +/- 9.94 years (range of 14-84 years). Overall prevalence of oral lesions was 64.3%, and perioral lesions was 15.4%. Nearly half (44%) had dental caries. Pseudomembraneous candidiasis (20.1%), linear gingival erythema (11.7%), and erythematous candidiasis (9.1%) were the three most common HIV associated oral lesions. Angular cheilitis (8%) and molluscum contagiosum (4%) were the two most common perioral conditions. The most common oral symptoms reported were dry mouth (34.4%), difficulty eating (27.9%), and oral pain (27.3%). Oral symptoms and a CD4 count < 200 mm(-3) were significantly (X2 = 22.4, P = 0.0001) associated with presence of oral and perioral lesions. Age above 40 years (31%) was significantly associated with oral lesions (P = 0.016), but not with perioral lesions (P = 0.26). Oral and perioral lesions were common in HIV positive adults at Tikur Anbessa Specialized hospital and represent a treatable morbidity associated with this disease. Thus, a comprehensive oral examination is important in the clinical evaluation, management, and follow up of patients

  16. Prevalence of unrecognized depression and associated factors among patients attending medical outpatient department in Adare Hospital, Hawassa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tilahune, Asres Bedaso; Bekele, Gezahegn; Mekonnen, Nibretie; Tamiru, Eyerusalem

    2016-01-01

    Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way a person eats, sleeps, feels about him or herself and thinks about things. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders affecting 121 million people in the world, and it frequently goes unrecognized among patients. It is estimated that 5%–10% of the population at any given time is suffering from identifiable depression needing psychiatric or psychosocial intervention. An institution-based cross-sectional study design was implemented to determine the magnitude and associated factors of unrecognized depression among patients attending the adult medical outpatient department in Adare Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, Ethiopia, among 326 patients selected using systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using the interviewer-administered technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and other independent variables. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. Data were entered and ana-lyzed using SPSS 20. The level of significance was determined at P<0.05. About 326 patients were interviewed, of whom 186 (57.1%) were males. The mean age of participant was 34 with standard deviation of ±13.1 years. Current substance users accounted for 106 (32.5%) of the total participants. Of 326 respondents, 80 (24.5%) had significant depressive symptoms, while the detection rate of depression by the clinician was 0%. Depression was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.63 [1.14–2.34]), age >60 years (AOR =4.14 [1.87–9.14]), being divorced (AOR =3.13 [1.70–5.76]), and having an average monthly income <750 ETB (AOR =1.92 [1.119–3.195]). The findings of this study revealed that the prevalence of depression among patients attending general medical outpatient department was highly underrecognized and unmanaged. On the basis of

  17. Assessment of client satisfaction in labor and delivery services at a maternity referral hospital in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Melese, Tadele; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Bisetegne, Daniel; Habte, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Patients perception about service quality shapes their confidence with regard to use of the available health care facility. This study is aimed to assess the client`s satisfaction in a maternal health care setting. This is an institution based cross sectional descriptive study. A total of 423 postpartum women were interviewed. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. The proportion of mothers who are completely satisfied with health care ranges between 2.4 to 21%. Pain control was the poorest source of satisfaction with 82% reporting dissatisfaction. Provider's communication with clients yielded complete satisfaction rates ranging between 0.7 to 26%. Inadequate information about the drug prescribed and explanation of procedures to be done to the client were found to be major causes of dissatisfaction. The complete satisfaction rate with environmental factor of the hospital was between 3.3 to 40.2%. Age of the client, educational status, income of the client and client's address away from Addis Ababa were found to be the predictors of client satisfaction. Provider's attitude and communication, as well as longer duration of stay in the ward were independent predictors of client satisfaction. Pain management, client privacy and client provider communication need to be addressed to ensure the satisfaction of maternity clients. The clients need to be involved in the management of their own health problems.

  18. Assessment of the structural and process aspects of pharmaceutical care at a university hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Surur, Abdrrahman Shemsu; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Girmay, Genet; Moges, Elsabet; Tesfa, Meseret; Abraha, Messele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the structural and process components of the pharmaceutical care at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH). Materials and Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on all the four pharmacies at GURH from October 1 to December 31, 2013. By adopting data collection instruments from a previously done study, the structural aspects of the pharmacies were assessed using an observation checklist and the process of pharmaceutical care delivery using a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected was entered to and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: none of the pharmacies had a private counseling room, fire extinguisher and meeting area. None of the pharmacy stores were equipped with fan and air ventilation system and had no cross aisles. The mean values for documentation, patient assessment and implementation of therapeutic objective were 12.14, 14.03 and 5.64 respectively. Many pharmacists (64.29%) did not participate in ward rotation with physicians. The overall pharmacy professionals’ level of job satisfaction was found to be 2.77. Conclusion: There were gaps in the structure and the process of the provision of pharmaceutical care in GURH. PMID:25883512

  19. Gastrojejunocolic fistula after gastrojejunostomy in Ayder referral hospital Northern Ethiopia: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Araaya, Girmay Hagos; Desta, Kibrom Gebresilasie; Gebremeskel, Weldehawaria Weldu; Wasihun, Araya Gebreyesus

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastrojejunocolic fistula (GJCF) is a late and severe complication of a stomal ulcer after gastrojejunostomy, which develops as a result of inadequate resection of stomach or incomplete vagotomy. The occurrence of perforation in a GJCF is even more a rare complication because long evolution time or latent period is required for its appearance. Patients with this condition usually present with diarrhea, weight loss, feculent vomiting, under-nutrition and features of peritonitis that require immediate surgical intervention. Case presentation We described two cases of gastrojejunocolic fistula in men aged 60 and 40, first cases of gastrojejunocolic fistula seen in our referral hospital and in the whole region following more than a decade after gastrojejunostomy. Both patients initially presented with watery diarrhea, vomiting of fecal materials, poor appetite and weight loss. Upper GI series or barium enema studies allowed a conclusive diagnosis to be made. Both patients underwent one-stage en bloc resection, and their postoperative course and outcome was one cure and one death. Conclusion As it is rare phenomenon, high clinical suspicion is very important in the diagnosis of GJCF on patients who manifest with chronic diarrhea, vomiting of fecal matter, abdominal pain and features of malnutrition. Careful preoperative preparation is mandatory before any type of surgical procedure is carried out. Pre-operative nutritional status should be evaluated in patients undergoing corrective surgery. Adequate resection of the stomach after Gastrojejunostomy and complete vagotomy is important to prevention development of GJCF. PMID:26693276

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children <15 years (p = 0.005). Latrine availability, source of drinking water and hand washing habits before meal were statistically significant with shigellosis (p < 0.05). Isolates of Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  1. Assessment of client satisfaction in labor and delivery services at a maternity referral hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Tadele; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Bisetegne, Daniel; Habte, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients perception about service quality shapes their confidence with regard to use of the available health care facility. This study is aimed to assess the client`s satisfaction in a maternal health care setting. Methods This is an institution based cross sectional descriptive study. A total of 423 postpartum women were interviewed. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. Results The proportion of mothers who are completely satisfied with health care ranges between 2.4 to 21%. Pain control was the poorest source of satisfaction with 82% reporting dissatisfaction. Provider's communication with clients yielded complete satisfaction rates ranging between 0.7 to 26%. Inadequate information about the drug prescribed and explanation of procedures to be done to the client were found to be major causes of dissatisfaction. The complete satisfaction rate with environmental factor of the hospital was between 3.3 to 40.2%. Age of the client, educational status, income of the client and client's address away from Addis Ababa were found to be the predictors of client satisfaction. Provider's attitude and communication, as well as longer duration of stay in the ward were independent predictors of client satisfaction. Conclusion Pain management, client privacy and client provider communication need to be addressed to ensure the satisfaction of maternity clients. The clients need to be involved in the management of their own health problems. PMID:25018826

  2. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Hospitalized Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulu, Habtamu; Hamza, Leja; Alemseged, Fesehaye

    2016-05-01

    HIV/AIDS predisposes to malnutrition. Malnutrition exacerbates HIV/AIDS progression resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of malnutrition in HIV/AIDS patients has not been well studied in Ethiopian setup. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients admitted to Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 109 HIV/AIDS patients admitted from November 2013 to July 2014. Cohort design was also used for outcome assessment. Serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin and CD4 counts were determined. Data were organized, coded, cleaned, entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive analysis was done initially. Those variables in the bivariate analysis with P-value < 0.25 were then considered as candidates to be included in the multivariable logistic regression model. A P-vale of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean age of the patients was 32.7±8.12 with male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Patients were in either clinical stage, 3(46.8%), or stage, 4(53.2%). Forty nine (45%) of the respondents had a CD4 count of < 200 cells/µL. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 46.8% (BMI<18.5kg/m2) and 44.1% (MUAC≤ 20cm). Eighty four (77.1%) of the patients had a serum albumin level of ≤3.5g/dl while 76 (69.6%) of the patients had anemia (Hg<12g/dl). The prevalence of malnutrition was found to be high. WHO Stage 4 disease and CD4 count <200cells/µl were independent predictors of malnutrition.

  3. Pediatric Hydrocephalus in Ethiopia: Treatment Failures and Infections: A Hospital-Based, Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Laeke, Tsegazeab; Tirsit, Abenezer; Biluts, Hagos; Murali, Deeptha; Wester, Knut

    2017-04-01

    Treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus in sub-Saharan countries is associated with significant complication rates. The objective of this study is to analyze the management of hydrocephalus and complication rates of surgical intervention in the Ethiopian setting to improve future quality. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a neurosurgical teaching hospital. Two cohorts separated by 2.5 years were analyzed. A total of 128 (58.6% male and 41.4% female) children with isolated hydrocephalus, meningomyelocele (MMC)-related hydrocephalus, or MMC without hydrocephalus were included. Their age ranged from 1 day to 5 years, for a mean age of 7.2 months (median age 2 months). One hundred thirteen patients had hydrocephalus, of whom 57 (44.5.3%) had isolated hydrocephalus and 56 (43.8%) had hydrocephalus associated with MMC. Seventy-seven (74.7%) patients underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting, whereas 24 (23.3%) underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). The incidence of shunt infection was 23.4%. Reoperation was needed in 54 (52.4%) patients, with the most common indication being shunt failure. ETV failed in 14 (58.3%) of the 24 patients undergoing ETV. VP shunt insertions had unacceptably high infection rate despite the presence of a protocol for the procedure. Intraoperative guidelines should be developed further and followed strictly to reduce infections. Such measures should include restricting the number of surgeons performing the procedure. In our opinion, one should avoid insertion of a VP shunt as the primary treatment. ETV has proved to be a good alternative in other studies and the decreasing pattern of ETV failure in our study also suggest ETV as a better alternative to VP shunt. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Current status of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni infection among children in two primary schools in North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mathewos, Biniam; Alemu, Abebe; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Alemu, Agersew; Addis, Zelalem; Tiruneh, Moges; Aimero, Mulugeta; Kassu, Afework

    2014-02-10

    School age children are one of the groups at high risk for intestinal parasitic infections especially in developing countries like Ethiopia as the supply of good quality drinking water and latrine coverage are poor. Though there are previous data on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma mansoni infection among these high risk groups current status in the study area is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence and associated risk factors of STHs and S. mansoni infections among school children. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gorgora and Chuahit towns, North Gondar Zone, North West Ethiopia from January 20 to February 25, 2012 involving 261 school children. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using Kato Katz method. Chi-square test was used to see if there is association between sociodemographic factors and other risk factors for STH and S. mansoni infection and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed as measures of association. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Out of the 261 study participants, 174 (66.7%) were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolates (39.8%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.1%) and Hookworms (4.9%). Schistosoma mansoni was detected in 33.7% of the children. Among infected individuals, 9.5% were coinfected by S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides and 1.5% with S. mansoni and T. trichiura. Swimming habit (OR: 2.536, 95% CI: 1.122, 5.737, P = 0.022) was significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni was high among school children. This should call for implementation of an integrated strategy to reduce morbidity and control of transmission of STH and S. mansoni.

  5. Level of immunization coverage and associated factors among children aged 12-23 months in Lay Armachiho District, North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Melkamu Beyene; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Teferra, Alemayehu Shimeka

    2015-06-13

    Immunization against childhood disease is one of the most important public health interventions with cost effective means to preventing childhood morbidity, mortality and disability. However, complete immunization coverage remains low particularly in rural areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the level of immunization coverage and associated factors in Lay Armachiho District, North Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in March, 2014 among 751 pairs of mothers to children aged 12-23 months in Lay Armachiho District. A two stage sampling technique was employed. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to compute association between factors and immunization status of children. Backwards stepwise regression method was used and those variables significant at p value 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Seventy-six percent of the children were fully immunized during the study period. Dropout rate was 6.5% for BCG to measles, 2.7% for Penta1 to Penta3 and 4.5% for Pnemonia1 to Pnemonia3. The likelihood of children to be fully immunized among mothers who identified the number of sessions needed for vaccination were higher than those who did not [AOR = 2.8 (95% C1 = 1.89, 4.2)]. Full immunization status of children was higher among mothers who know the age at which the child become fully immunized than who did not know [AOR = 2.93 (95% CI = 2.02, 4.3)]. Taking tetanus toxoid immunization during pregnancy showed statistically significant association with full immunization of children [AOR 1.6 (95% CI = 1.06, 2.62)]. Urban children were more likely to be fully immunized than rural [AOR = 1.82 (95% CI = 1.15, 2.80)] and being male were more likely to be fully immunized than female [AOR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.26, 2.6)]. Vaccination coverage was low compared to the Millennium Development Goals target. It is important to increase and maintain the immunization level to the intended target. Efforts should be made

  6. Appropriate health-seeking behavior and associated factors among people who had cough for at least two weeks in northwest Ethiopia: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Senbeto, Meseret; Tadesse, Sebsibe; Tadesse, Takele; Melesse, Tesfahun

    2013-12-23

    Tuberculosis remains the major debilitating public health problem in Ethiopia. However, studies to understand the patients' perspectives on the illness and their health-seeking behavior have been few in the country. In this study, we seek to investigate the magnitude of appropriate health-seeking behavior and factors associated with tuberculosis among people who had cough for at least two weeks. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to October 2012 in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia. All people aged ≥ 15 years and had cough for at least two weeks were included in the study. Data collected by using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire were entered and cleaned using the Epi Info version 2002 statistical software. The statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 16.0 was also employed for descriptive and logistics regression analysis. Out of the 25,701 people aged ≥ 15 years surveyed, the proportion of people who had cough for at least two weeks was reported to be 843(3.3%). Appropriate health-seeking behavior towards tuberculosis was reported by 674(80.0%) of them. Factors significantly associated with health-seeking behavior for tuberculosis were being female [AOR: 0.56, 95%CI: (0.39-0.79)], high monthly real per capita income [AOR: 1.66, 95%CI: (1.15-2.38)], large family size [AOR: 0.50, 95%CI: (0.35-0.72)], and use of traditional-healing practices [AOR: 13.27, 95%CI: (9.10-25.41)]. This study showed that the magnitude of appropriate health-seeking behavior during the event of chronic cough was high. However, this doesn't mean that there will be no need for further strengthening of the intervention activities as significant proportions of the study communities still demonstrate inappropriate health-seeking behavior. So tuberculosis control programs need to emphasize factors, such as sex, family size, socioeconomic inequalities, and traditional-healing practices in resource-poor settings.

  7. Assessment of drug use patterns in terms of the WHO patient-care and facility indicators at four hospitals in Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gidebo, Kassa Daka; Summoro, Temesgen Sidamo; Kanche, Zewde Zema; Woticha, Eskinder Wolka

    2016-11-10

    Patient-centered care is now the goal for virtually all healthcare systems. The aim of this research was to evaluate the patient care quality in regard to drug dispensing in four hospitals in southern Ethiopia namely Wolaita Sodo University teaching and referral hospital (WSUTRH), Tercha zonal hospital (TZH), Sodo Christian hospital (SCH) and Dubo St. Mary's Catholic primary hospital (DSMCPH). A cross sectional study was conducted by using the WHO patient care and facility indicators between September 10 and October 20, 2014. Patients who visited the outpatient departments of the four hospitals were selected by systematic random sampling method and interviewed. In total 384 patients were selected based on a rough estimate of proportion of patients visiting to the four hospitals. Facility indicators including the availability of essential drugs list (EDL), national drug formulary, standard treatment guideline (STG) and key drugs were evaluated. Descriptive statistical calculations were performed using SPSS® version 20.0 software. The mean number of drugs was in the range between 1.9 ± 0.9 to 2.2 ± 2.0. The mean consultation time range was found to be 4.2 ± 1.6 to 4.9 ± 5.0 min whereas the mean dispensing time was ranged from 96.1 ± 52.0 to 152.3 ± 47.6 s. The overall mean number of drug prescribed for the four hospitals was 2.0 ± 1.2 and the mean percentage of medications actually dispensed in the hospitals was thus calculated to be 86.3. The mean percentage of medications clearly labeled was 45.4. Patients who knew their dosage forms accurately were 78.8. Among the four hospitals evaluated only one hospital (25 %) had at least a copy of the Ethiopian essential drug list (EDL), standard treatment guideline for hospitals and drug formulary. The mean availability of key drugs in the hospitals was found to be 65.7 %. The result of the present study indicates that the patient consulting time, medications labeling and availability

  8. Serological evidence of Leishmania donovani infection in apparently healthy dogs using direct agglutination test (DAT) and rk39 dipstick tests in Kafta Humera, north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kalayou, S; Tadelle, H; Bsrat, A; Abebe, N; Haileselassie, M; Schallig, H D F H

    2011-06-01

    Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of significant medical and veterinary importance. Over the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS in North Western Ethiopia. This paper reports on serological evidence of possible Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) infection in dogs using two serological tests: direct agglutination test (DAT) and Kalazar detect rapid test (KDRT). Two hundred and seventeen asymptomatic local breed dogs were examined for L. donovani antibodies. Performance of the DAT and KDRT was assessed in 162 matching samples of blood collected on filter paper and serum, respectively. Using DAT and KDRT testing in parallel, the overall seroprevalence of L. donovani infection was 27.7% and 14.8%, respectively. The degree of agreement was found to be fair (68.8%, k = 0.234). Univariable logistic regression analysis of some risk factors for L. donovani infection in dogs using DAT indicates that place of residence, sex, age, dog keeping purpose and dog housing condition were not significantly associated with seropositivity. The high proportion of positive dogs suggests the exposure of these animals to L. donovani infection and needs further investigation. Isolation and typing of the parasite aiming at confirming the role of these animals in maintenance and transmission of kala-azar is advocated.

  9. Determination of urinary iodine excretion to assess iodine deficiency level and iodine intake in primary school children, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bezabih, Belay; Assefa, Yihun; Yismaw, Gizachew; Mulu, Andargachew

    2007-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem all over the world, particularly among preschool children and pregnant women in low-income countries like Ethiopia and it is known to be the most common cause of preventable brain damage. to determine urinary iodine concentration and to assess the level of iodine deficiency disorders. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 386 randomly selected primary school children to determine urinary iodine concentrations as to assess level of iodine deficiency and iodine in take in Bahir Dar town. Median urinary iodine excretion was 58.8 mg/L (12.89 mg/L to 564.5 mg/L) which indicated the presence of mild iodine deficiency. Eighty seven percent of the children had urinary iodine excretion of below 100 mg/L and the intake of iodine was below 150 mg/day. Mild iodine deficiency disorder was found in Bahir Dar primary school children, Iodine intake was also found insufficient. Therefore, use of salt ionization should be advocated and strengthened.

  10. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zenebe, Yohannes; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with high risk of maternal complications and has become a leading cause of fetal death. So the main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infections among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in Bahir Dar health institutions, Ethiopia. This was institutional based cross-sectional study that included 318 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic in Bahir Dar health institutions from January 2013 to June 2013. Appropriate data was gathered from study participants. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis C virus was determined by detecting immunoglobulin of HCV using ELISA kit. Data was entered and analyzed with SPSS version 16 statistical software. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C virus among pregnant women was 0.6%. None of the expected risk factors had significant outcome. In conclusion, prevalence of the Hepatitis C virus among pregnant women attending in Bahir Dar health institutions was low and expected variables were not statistically significant. PMID:26327995

  11. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the environs of Tara-gedam and Amba remnant forests of Libo Kemkem District, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Chekole, Getnet; Asfaw, Zemede; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2015-01-07

    Remnant forests found in areas that have long been converted to agricultural landscapes are refuges of wild useful plants; and societies inhabiting them are custodians of rich indigenous botanical knowledge. This study was undertaken to document the medicinal plants used by the people living in and around Tara-gedam and Amba remnant forests, northwestern Ethiopia, together with the associated ethnomedicinal knowledge. Data were collected from 105 informants through semi-structured interviews, guided field walk, market survey; and analyzed using standard ethnobotanical analytical tools including ranking and comparison. A total of 163 medicinal plant species in 145 genera and 67 families were recorded among which Zehneria scabra drew the highest community consensus. Seventy-one percent of the medicinal plants were those used for treating human ailments only, 21% for both human and livestock and 8% for livestock only. Asteraceae, with 14 species, had the highest number of medicinal plant species. The medicinal plants mainly (79.1%) belong to the shrub and herb categories and most of them were sourced from the wild habitats. Leaves and fresh plant materials were more frequently used for medicine preparation than other parts. Protected government and church forests as well as tree propagation in nurseries followed by planting them and local practices constitute the major forest conservation efforts that indirectly protect the medicinal plants in the area. Elders and healers knew more about the medicinal plants, their distribution, the local ethnomedicinal practices and knowledge transfer patterns. Though important for the local healthcare system and with potentials for modern drug discovery, both the plants and the knowledge pool are under threat. The diversity of medicinal plants and the associated indigenous knowledge of Tara-gedam and its environs are of a considerable value to the local community and beyond. There is, therefore, a need for conservation of the

  12. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Mothers/Caregivers on Household Water Treatment Methods in Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Bitew, Bikes Destaw; Gete, Yigzaw Kebede; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Adafrie, Takele Tadesse

    2017-07-17

    In Ethiopia, ensuring safe drinking water remains a big challenge where waterborne diseases, including diarrhea cause a great harm in many rural communities. Limited knowledge, misinformation, negative attitude, and lack of experience toward best practices of alternative water treatment technologies were among the leading challenges. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 23 to 30, 2015, in Dabat District. The study participants were selected by using simple random sampling method. Questionnaire-based face-to-face interview technique of data collection was used by 20 data collectors under close supervision with six supervisors. From the total of 845 participants with mother-child paired 49.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] (45.8, 52.5%) had good knowledge, and 54.8%, 95% CI (51.6, 58.3%) had favorable-attitude toward household water treatment. Only 23.1%, 95%CI (20, 26%) of the study participants had practiced household water treatment. Being an urban resident (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.58, 95% CI: [1.62, 4.11]), having good-knowledge (AOR: 2.62, 95% CI: [1.81, 3.79]), favorable attitude (AOR: 1.45, 95% CI: [1.01, 2.08]), and used unimproved water source (AOR: 1.67, 95% CI: [1.11, 2.50]) were factors associated with household water treatment practices in the district. Despite mothers/caregivers having a fairly good knowledge and positive attitude, their practice of treating drinking water at household level was quite low. Thus, well designed strategy for health education on effective water treatment methods through the national health extension program is recommended.

  13. Total Delay Is Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcome among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebreegziabher, Senedu Bekele; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Background delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) may worsen the disease, increase mortality and enhance transmission in the community. This study aimed at assessing the association between total delay and unfavorable treatment outcome among newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region of Ethiopia from October 2013 to May 2015. Newly diagnosed PTB patients who were ≥15 years of age were consecutively enrolled in the study from 30 randomly selected public health facilities. Total delay (the time period from onset of TB symptoms to first start of anti-TB treatment) was measured. Median total delay was calculated. Mixed effect logistics regression was used to analyze factors associated with unfavorable treatment outcome. Results Seven hundred six patients were enrolled in the study. The median total delay was 60 days. Patients with total delay of > 60 days were more likely to have unfavorable TB treatment outcome than patients with total delay of ≤ 60 days (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–5.26). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive TB patients were 8.46 times more likely to experience unfavorable treatment outcome than HIV negative TB patients (AOR, 8.46; 95% CI, 3.14–22.79). Conclusions Long total delay and TB/HIV coinfection were associated with unfavorable treatment outcome. Targeted interventions that can reduce delay in diagnosis and treatment of TB, and early comprehensive management of TB/HIV coinfection are needed to reduce increased risk of unfavorable treatment outcome. PMID:27442529

  14. Status of respectful and non-abusive care during facility-based childbirth in a hospital and health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asefa, Anteneh; Bekele, Delayehu

    2015-04-16

    According to the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, 90.1% of mothers do not deliver in health facilities, with 29.5% citing non-customary service as causative. A low level of skilled attendance at birth is among the leading causes of maternal mortality in low--and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in four health facilities (one specialized teaching hospital and its three catchment health centers) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to quantitatively determine the level and types of disrespect and abuse faced by women during facility-based childbirth, along with their subjective experiences of disrespect and abuse. A questionnaire was administered to 173 mothers immediately prior to discharge from their respective health facility. Reported disrespect and abuse during childbirth was measured under seven categories using 23 performance indicators. Among multigravida mothers (n = 103), 71.8% had a history of a previous institutional birth and 78% (75.3% in health centers and 81.8% in hospital; p = 0.295) of respondents experienced one or more categories of disrespect and abuse. The violation of the right to information, informed consent, and choice/preference of position during childbirth was reported by all women who gave birth in the hospital and 89.4% of respondents in health centers. Mothers were left without attention during labor in 39.3% of cases (14.1% in health centers and 63.6% in hospital; p < 0.001). Although 78.6% (n = 136) of respondents objectively faced disrespect and abuse, only 22 (16.2%) subjectively experienced disrespect and abuse. This quantitative study reveals a high level of disrespect and abuse during childbirth that was not perceived as such by the majority of respondents. It is every woman's right to give birth in woman-centered environment free from disrespect and abuse. Understanding how women define abuse is crucial if Ethiopia is to succeed in increasing the uptake of facility-based births.

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood donation among health care providers in hospitals at Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abera, Bayeh; Mohammed, Beyan; Betela, Wendmagegn; Yimam, Reshid; Oljira, Adam; Ahmed, Merhab; Tsega, Wubet; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yizengaw, Endalew

    2017-06-01

    Like other sub-Saharan Africa, in Ethiopia there is a shortage of adequate and safe blood supplies. Health care providers are potential resource and promoter of voluntary blood donation. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation among health care providers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. Paper based questionnaire was distributed to 276 health care providers from May 01 to June 30, 2016. Overall, 42.8% had donated blood at least once. Of these, males accounted for 60%. The median age of blood donors was 26 years. Voluntary-unpaid donation was 21.2%. Overall, 75.5% health care providers were knowledgeable. The levels of knowledge were significantly different among different disciplines (One-way ANOVA; F=69.7; P=0.004). Males were more knowledgeable than females (P<0.05). The overall favorable attitude was 78.6%. Previous practice of blood donation determined the odds of favorable attitude to be a future regular voluntary-unpaid blood donor (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 3.2-10.4). Majority of health care providers had adequate knowledge and favorable attitude. However, voluntary-unpaid donation practice (21.1%) was lower compared to 100% target of voluntary-unpaid donation. There should be motivation packages to enhance voluntary-unpaid blood donation among health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among School Children in a Rural Area of the Amhara Region, North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    de Lucio, Aida; Amor-Aramendía, Aranzazu; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M.; Anegagrie, Melaku; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Zewdie, Derjew; Ayehubizu, Zimmam; Yizengaw, Endalew; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Mulu, Wondemagen; Hailu, Tadesse; Herrador, Zaida; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Backgroud Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries. Methods We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Principal Findings The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study. Conclusions Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G

  17. Knowledge of pregnant women on mother-to-child transmission of HIV, its prevention, and associated factors in Assosa town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abtew, Solomon; Awoke, Worku; Asrat, Anemaw

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death of children in sub-Saharan African countries. Almost all HIV-positive children acquire infection through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Successful intervention toward prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and achieving the goal of eliminating the new HIV infection is highly dependent on everyone; especially, women of child-bearing age should have accurate and up-to-date knowledge about HIV transmission, risk of transmission to babies, and possible interventions. However, knowledge of MTCT of HIV, its prevention, and associated factors among women was not well studied in Benshangul Gumuz Region (Ethiopia). A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving 398 pregnant women who attended antenatal care services at governmental health institutions from February to March 2014 in Assosa town. Based on the flow of antenatal care attendants, the calculated sample size was proportionally allocated to the health facilities before data collection. Following this, systematic sampling method was used, and data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS version 20 statistical packages. A total of 386 pregnant women participated with a response rate of 97%, and 222 (57.5%) of them had full knowledge about the three critical modes of HIV transmission from mother to child, but only 67 (17.4%) knew the possible prevention methods. Knowledge on MTCT of HIV was positively associated with women who had sufficient knowledge on HIV/AIDS (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] =2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.54-5.32), women who had a favorable attitude to provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing (AOR =2.19, 95% CI =1.22-3.92), and women who did not expect any partner's reaction to positive HIV test result after testing (AOR =1.58, 95% CI =1.01-2.49). Correspondingly, knowledge on PMTCT of HIV was positively

  18. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among School Children in a Rural Area of the Amhara Region, North-West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    de Lucio, Aida; Amor-Aramendía, Aranzazu; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M; Anegagrie, Melaku; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Zewdie, Derjew; Ayehubizu, Zimmam; Yizengaw, Endalew; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Mulu, Wondemagen; Hailu, Tadesse; Herrador, Zaida; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries. We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study. Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G. duodenalis genetic variants. Importantly, the

  19. Patients' and health system's delays in the diagnosis and treatment of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gebreegziabher, Senedu Bekele; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2016-11-11

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern in the developing world. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment is essential for effective TB control. The aim of this study was to determine the length and analyze associated factors of patients' and health system's delays in the diagnosis and treatment of new pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 randomly selected public health facilities in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Newly diagnosed PTB patients who were ≥15 years of age were consecutively enrolled in the study. Patients' delay (the time period from onset of TB symptoms to first presentation to a formal health provider) and health system's delay (the time period from first presentation to a formal health provider to first start of TB treatment) were measured. Median patients' and health system's delays were calculated. Mixed effect logistic regression was used to analyze predictors of patients' and health system's delays. Seven hundred six patients were enrolled in the study. The median patients' delay was 18 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 8-34 days) and the median health system's delay was 22 days (IQR: 4-88 days). Poor knowledge of TB (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.33; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.34-4.05), first visit to non-formal health provider (AOR, 47.56; 95 % CI, 26.31-85.99), self-treatment (AOR, 10.11; 95 % CI, 4.53-22.56) and patients' age (≥45 years) (AOR, 2.99; 95 % CI, 1.14-7.81) were independent predictors of patients' delay. Smear-negative TB (AOR, 1.88; 95 % CI, 1.32-2.68) and first visit to public health centers (AOR, 2.22; 95 % CI, 1.52-3.25) and health posts (AOR, 5.86; 95 % CI, 1.40-24.39) were found to be independent predictors of health system's delay. The health system's delay in this study was long and contributed more than 50 % of the total delay. Better TB diagnostic tools to complement sputum smear microscopy are needed to early diagnose PTB cases

  20. Determinants of maternal near miss among women in public hospital maternity wards in Northern Ethiopia: A facility based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mekango, Dejene Ermias; Alemayehu, Mussie; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Goba, Gelila

    2017-01-01

    In Ethiopia, 20,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum. For every woman that dies, 20 more experience injury, infection, disease, or disability. "Maternal near miss" (MNM), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a woman who nearly dies, but survives a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of a termination, is a proxy indicator of maternal mortality and quality of obstetric care. In Ethiopia, few studies have examined MNM. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among a small population of women in Tigray, Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia, from January 30-March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from among women seeking obstetric care at six (6) public hospitals. Clients with life-threatening obstetric complications, including hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infection, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia (in women without hemorrhage) were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were controls. Cases were selected based on proportion to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression ("odds ratio") analyses were calculated at 95% CI. Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married and 25% experienced their first pregnancy before the age of 16 years. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6% of cases had gestational ages between 37-41 weeks. Among cases, severe obstetric hemorrhage (44.7%), hypertensive disorders (38.8%), dystocia (17.5%), sepsis (9.7%) and severe anemia (2.9%) were leading causes of MNM. Histories of chronic maternal medical problems like hypertension, diabetes were reported in 55.3% of cases and 33.2% of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR = 3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12], being less than 16 years of age at first pregnancy [AOR = 2.5;95%CI:1

  1. Satisfaction of clients with the services of an outpatient pharmacy at a university hospital in northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Surur, Abdrrahman Shemsu; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Girmay, Genet; Moges, Elsabet; Tesfa, Meseret; Abraha, Messele

    2015-06-11

    Evaluation of patient/client satisfaction with pharmacy services as a crucial part of the health services through appropriate studies is important. This will help identify specific areas of the service which need improvement in realizing high quality pharmacy services in general and enhance the positive changes in the current pharmaceutical services provision in Ethiopia. The current study aimed at assessing the level of client satisfaction with the services of the outpatient pharmacy of Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH) in northwestern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving 400 clients who had prescriptions/orders filled at the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital during the period of 5th to 25th of November 2013. The data on the level of satisfaction of clients with the services of the outpatient pharmacy in the hospital was collected using a structured interview guide adopted from an instrument translated into Amharic and validated. The data collected was entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. The overall mean score the respondents gave to satisfaction with the pharmaceutical services was 2.48 out of a maximum of 5.00 score. The mean scores for all the individual parameters rated were less than 3.00. Maximum mean scores were given for parameters asking about the promptness of prescription medication service (2.99), and professionalism of the pharmacy staff (2.96) with the lowest being scored for information given to clients about the storage of medication (1.25), and explanations of possible side effects (1.27). Clients who were served free of fee recorded significantly higher level of satisfaction than those who paid. Higher levels of satisfaction were also reported among illiterates, older adults and those with no job compared to those with higher education, merchants and government employees. This study showed that the overall mean satisfaction level of clients

  2. Detection of multi drug resistant bacteria in major hospitals in Kano, North-West, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, I; Arzai, A H; Haruna, M; Sharif, A A; Getso, M I

    2014-01-01

    Two major hospitals in Kano, North West Nigeria have recorded increasing resistance of clinical pathogens to broad spectrum β lactams, mediated by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL) and non ESBLs. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the occurrence and prevalence of plasmid and chromosomal mediated AmpC βL and carbapenemase in addition to already known ESBL due to increasing resistance of pathogens from the two hospitals to carbapenems, cephamycins and flouroquinolones. Antibiogram tests and ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase production tests were performed on all the isolates. AmpC and carbapenemase producers were further screened for AmpC inducibility and metallo beta lactamase production respectively. Majority of the isolates (> 80%) were resistant to both β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. Reduced susceptibility to levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin among the isolates were observed with the exception of P. aeruginosa which is totally resistant to imipenem and levofloxacin. An overall prevalence of 14.4%, 11.9% and 11.9.3% for ESβL, AmpC and carbapenemase was observed respectively. About 7.9% of the AmpC producers can over expressed the chromosomally mediated AmpC and 85.8% of the carbapenemase producers require metal for their action. Co-production of either of two and/or all of the enzymes was observed in E. coli, P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa. Antibiotic resistance among isolates from the two hospitals is increasing and the major cause of this resistance in the pathogens studied are production of AmpC, carbapenemase (especially Metallo β-lactamase) in addition to already known ESBL enzymes by the pathogens. Some of the isolates also possess the capacity to elaborate two or more of the enzymes concurrently, which would renders them resistant to a multitude of antibiotics.

  3. Detection of multi drug resistant bacteria in major hospitals in Kano, North-West, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, I.; Arzai, A.H.; Haruna, M.; Sharif, A.A.; Getso, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Two major hospitals in Kano, North West Nigeria have recorded increasing resistance of clinical pathogens to broad spectrum β lactams, mediated by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL) and non ESBLs. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the occurrence and prevalence of plasmid and chromosomal mediated AmpC βL and carbapenemase in addition to already known ESBL due to increasing resistance of pathogens from the two hospitals to carbapenems, cephamycins and flouroquinolones. Antibiogram tests and ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase production tests were performed on all the isolates. AmpC and carbapenemase producers were further screened for AmpC inducibility and metallo beta lactamase production respectively. Majority of the isolates (> 80%) were resistant to both β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. Reduced susceptibility to levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin among the isolates were observed with the exception of P. aeruginosa which is totally resistant to imipenem and levofloxacin. An overall prevalence of 14.4%, 11.9% and 11.9.3% for ESβL, AmpC and carbapenemase was observed respectively. About 7.9% of the AmpC producers can over expressed the chromosomally mediated AmpC and 85.8% of the carbapenemase producers require metal for their action. Co-production of either of two and/or all of the enzymes was observed in E. coli, P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa. Antibiotic resistance among isolates from the two hospitals is increasing and the major cause of this resistance in the pathogens studied are production of AmpC, carbapenemase (especially Metallo β-lactamase) in addition to already known ESBL enzymes by the pathogens. Some of the isolates also possess the capacity to elaborate two or more of the enzymes concurrently, which would renders them resistant to a multitude of antibiotics. PMID:25477909

  4. Incidence of Road Traffic Injury and Associated Factors among Patients Visiting the Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru

    2014-01-01

    Background. Road traffic injuries are a major public health issue. The problem is increasing in Africa. Objective. To assess the incidence of road traffic injury and associated factors among patients visiting the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. A total of 356 systematically selected study subjects were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify associated factors with road traffic injury. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The incidence of road traffic injury in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital was 36.8%. Being a farmer (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.06–10.13), conflict with family members (AOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 3.49–8.84), financial problem (AOR = 9.91; 95% CI = 4.79–6.48), psychological problem (AOR = 17.58; 95% CI = 7.70–12.14), and alcohol use (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.61–5.27) were independently associated with road traffic injury. Conclusion and Recommendation. In this study the incidence of road traffic injury was high. Alcohol is one of the most significant factors associated with Road Traffic Injury. Thus urgent education on the effect of alcohol is recommended. PMID:25165583

  5. Electronic Information Sources Access and Use for Healthcare Services in Governmental and Non-Governmental Hospitals of Western Oromia, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Senait; Bayissa, Getachew; Asaminewu, Selam; Alaro, Tesfamichael

    2016-07-01

    Access to and use of electronic information sources for clinical decision is the key to the attainment of health related sustainable goals. Therefore, this study was to assess Electronic Information Sources (EIS) access and use for healthcare service among hospitals of Western Oromia, Ethiopia, 2013. A descriptive study design with quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was employed. Study subjects were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Quantitative data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Moreover, multiple logistic regression was fitted to identify independent predictors, and qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed thematically. A total of 590 health professionals were participated in the study with response rate of 95%. Forty-two percent of health professionals had used Electronic Information Sources (EIS). Out of them, more than half used to get latest health information. About three-fourth of health professionals had no formal training on how to use EIS. Moreover, there is a significant association between use of electronic information source and information literacy training, computer literacy level, access to internet connection and access to computers. In this study, it was determined that more than half of health professionals in the study area were not using EIS. Information literacy training, self-stated computer literacy level, access to internet connection and access to computers with in hospitals were found to be statistically significant factors affecting use of EIS.

  6. Trends of preeclampsia/eclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes among women delivering in addis ababa selected government hospitals, Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wagnew, Maereg; Dessalegn, Muluken; Worku, Alemayehu; Nyagero, Josephat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The burden of preeclampsia has been a major concern worldwide, particularly in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Preeclampsia is associated with substantial maternal complications, both acute and long-term. The aim of this research was to determine the magnitude and trends of preeclampsia/ eclampsia, maternal complications, and neonatal complications among women delivering babies at selected government hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods Data were collected retrospectively by reviewing the five-year medical records for 2009 to 2013, using data abstraction tools, to identify mothers with preeclampsia/eclampsia. A total of 1,809 cases were reviewed for general characteristics of the mother, delivery details, and any complications. Descriptive analyses were employed. In addition, extended Mantel Haenszel chi square for linear trend was used to check for significance of the trends. Results The five year average proportion of preeclampsia/eclampsia was 4.2% (95%CI 4.02%, 4.4%). The proportion of women with preeclampsia was 2.2% in 2009 and increased to 5.58% in 2013 (p<0.001), which was a 154% increase. Of the 1,809 mothers with preeclampsia/eclampsia, 36% (95%CI 33.85%, 38.28%) experienced at least one maternal complication; there was an increase of 26.5% (p<0.01) over the five year period. The main complications were HELLP (variant of preeclampsia with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome, 257 (39.5%); aspiration pneumonia, 114 (17.5%); pulmonary edema, 114 (17.5%); and abruption placentae, 100 (15.3%). At least one neonatal complication occurred in 66.4% (95%CI 64.24%, 68.59%) of deliveries during the five-year study. A decreasing trend in neonatal complications was observed from 2009 (76%) to 2013 (66%), which showed a percentage change over time of negative 13.2%. The most common neonatal complications were stillbirths, which accounted for 363 (30.2%); prematurity, with 395 (32.8%); respiratory distress syndrome, with 456

  7. Trends of preeclampsia/eclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes among women delivering in addis ababa selected government hospitals, Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wagnew, Maereg; Dessalegn, Muluken; Worku, Alemayehu; Nyagero, Josephat

    2016-01-01

    The burden of preeclampsia has been a major concern worldwide, particularly in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Preeclampsia is associated with substantial maternal complications, both acute and long-term. The aim of this research was to determine the magnitude and trends of preeclampsia/ eclampsia, maternal complications, and neonatal complications among women delivering babies at selected government hospitals in Ethiopia. Data were collected retrospectively by reviewing the five-year medical records for 2009 to 2013, using data abstraction tools, to identify mothers with preeclampsia/eclampsia. A total of 1,809 cases were reviewed for general characteristics of the mother, delivery details, and any complications. Descriptive analyses were employed. In addition, extended Mantel Haenszel chi square for linear trend was used to check for significance of the trends. The five year average proportion of preeclampsia/eclampsia was 4.2% (95%CI 4.02%, 4.4%). The proportion of women with preeclampsia was 2.2% in 2009 and increased to 5.58% in 2013 (p<0.001), which was a 154% increase. Of the 1,809 mothers with preeclampsia/eclampsia, 36% (95%CI 33.85%, 38.28%) experienced at least one maternal complication; there was an increase of 26.5% (p<0.01) over the five year period. The main complications were HELLP (variant of preeclampsia with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome, 257 (39.5%); aspiration pneumonia, 114 (17.5%); pulmonary edema, 114 (17.5%); and abruption placentae, 100 (15.3%). At least one neonatal complication occurred in 66.4% (95%CI 64.24%, 68.59%) of deliveries during the five-year study. A decreasing trend in neonatal complications was observed from 2009 (76%) to 2013 (66%), which showed a percentage change over time of negative 13.2%. The most common neonatal complications were stillbirths, which accounted for 363 (30.2%); prematurity, with 395 (32.8%); respiratory distress syndrome, with 456 (37.9%); and low birth

  8. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ameni, Gobena

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97). CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives. PMID:27820957

  9. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tachbele, Erdaw; Ameni, Gobena

    2016-01-01

    The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97). Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.

  10. Pre-ART retention in care and prevalence of tuberculosis among HIV-infected children at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Emil; Jerene, Degu; Mulissa, Zewdie; Hallström, Inger; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2014-10-04

    The Ethiopian epidemic is currently on the wane. However, the situation for infected children is in some ways lagging behind due to low treatment coverage and deficient prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Too few studies have examined HIV infected children presenting to care in low-income countries in general. Considering the presence of local variations in the nature of the epidemic a study in Ethiopia could be of special value for the continuing fight against HIV. The aim of this study is to describe the main characteristics of children with HIV presenting to care at a district hospital in a resource-limited area in southern Ethiopia. The aim was also to analyse factors affecting pre-ART loss to follow-up, time to ART-initiation and disease stage upon presentation. This was a prospective cohort study. The data analysed were collected in 2009 for the period January 2003 through December 2008 at Arba Minch Hospital and additional data on the ART-need in the region were obtained from official reports. The pre-ART loss to follow-up rate was 29.7%. Older children (10-14 years) presented in a later stage of their disease than younger children (76.9% vs. 45.0% in 0-4 year olds, chi-square test, χ2 = 8.8, P = 0.01). Older girls presented later than boys (100.0% vs. 57.1%, Fisher's exact test, P = 0.02). Children aged 0-4 years were more likely to be lost to follow-up (40.0 vs. 21.8%, chi-square test, χ2 = 5.4, P = 0.02) and had a longer time to initiate ART (Cox regression analysis, HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25-0.97, P = 0.04, controlling for sex, place of residence, enrollment phase and WHO clinical stage upon presentation). Neither sex was overrepresented in the sample. Tuberculosis prevalence upon presentation and previous history of tubercolosis were 14.5% and 8% respectively. The loss to follow-up is alarmingly high and children present too late. Further research is needed to explore specific causes and possible solutions.

  11. Evaluation of trends of drug-prescribing patterns based on WHO prescribing indicators at outpatient departments of four hospitals in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Summoro, Temesgen Sidamo; Gidebo, Kassa Daka; Kanche, Zewde Zemma; Woticha, Eskinder Wolka

    2015-01-01

    Background Rational prescribing is a primary step to ensure rational drug use. Often, half of the medicines are prescribed irrationally and half of these are even used incorrectly as the patients fail to take their medicines appropriately. The aim of this research was to evaluate drug-prescribing patterns of four hospitals in southern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between May 15 and June 25, 2014, to evaluate the drug-prescribing patterns based on the World health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators. The prescription papers, kept for the last 1 year in the outpatient departments of the four hospitals, were analyzed according to WHO guidelines. Also, prescriptions in the hospitals were analyzed to determine the most frequently prescribed drugs. All the statistical calculations were performed using SPSS® version 20.0 software. Results and discussion The average number of drugs per prescription ranges from 1.82±0.90 to 2.28±0.90, whereas the percentage of use of antibiotics and injections ranged from 46.7 to 85 and 15 to 61.7, respectively. The average percentages of drugs prescribed by generic name and from the essential drugs list were 95.8 and 94.1, respectively. Anti-infective and analgesic drugs are found to be the most frequently prescribed medicines. In terms of polypharmacy, there was a slight deviation in prescribing patterns from what is acceptable according to the WHO criteria. Prescribing by generic name and from essential drug list was almost optimal. There was a significant deviation in the use of injectables in two of the four hospitals (50%), whereas their use in the other two hospitals was within the acceptable range. The use of antibiotics in all the hospitals in present study was higher than the acceptable range. Conclusion Generally, it seems that there is need for improvement of the prescribing patterns in the hospitals, although this should be consolidated with further studies to link the patient

  12. Enhancing emergency medicine initiatives with a quality improvement program: lessons learned in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Azazh, Aklilu; Brown, Lori Di Prete; Ayele, Roman Aydiko; Teklu, Sisay; W/Tsadik, Assefu; Tefera, Muluwork; Bacha, Tigist; Geremew, Haymanot; Tefera, Girma; Busse, Heidi

    2014-07-01

    A Twinning Partnership between the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) and Addis Ababa University (AAU) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was formed to strengthen the development of emergency medical services at AAU's Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASHI) through medical education and exchanges. The Twinning philosophy which emphasizes collaboration and joint learning was an ideal program in which QI program was incorporated to maximize success, promote sustainability, and reinforce basic principles for effective healthcare service delivery. This article describes the QI methodology, capacity building strategy, implementation approach, and lessons learned. QI initiative at TASH ED started during EM fellowship in 2010 when Priority problems in the department were identified, and root cause analysis and possible strategies for improvement were devised. Then Baseline and sensitization was undertaken which was followed by Quality Improvement Projects cycles. The Federal Ministry of health key performance indicators (KPI) were used as standard and measurement tool when it was relevant. The findings were analyzed and trends presented to the ED staff and other stakeholders. In the past four years Since QI initiatives started in TASH EM department different achievements have been registered. The main developments were capacity building with QI training of EM fellows, EM residents and EM and critical care nurses. QI Training was also conducted to Tikur Anbessa Hospital and college of health sciences leadership. In addition, various QI projects have been designed and started, while some are finalized and the rest are on implementation. The QI experience in the department suggests that a QI program can effectively support, complement, and enhance health system strengthening partnerships, and that establishment of a QI program at the department level is feasible and beneficial, enhancing the adoption and sustainability of health care improvements such as marked improvements in

  13. Perceived Nurse—Physician Communication in Patient Care and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Fikadu Balcha; Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurse–physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims. Objective The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results The response rate of the study was 91.55%. The mean perceived nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88±19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52±19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care. Conclusion Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for

  14. Gender differential on characteristics and outcome of leprosy patients admitted to a long-term care rural hospital in South-Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In previous studies, women are less aware of causation and symptoms of leprosy and have less access to health care coverage than men, thus contributing to their delay in seeking for treatment. We assess the gender differences in leprosy cases admitted to a rural referral hospital in Ethiopia for 7 and a half years. Methods Retrospective data of the leprosy patients admitted to referral hospital were collected using leprosy admission registry books from September 2002 to January 2010. Variables were entered in an Excel 97 database. Results During the period of study, 839 patients with leprosy were admitted; 541 (64.5%) were male, and 298 (35.6%) female. Fifteen per cent of female patients, and 7.3% of male patients were paucibacillary leprosy cases while 84.8% of female patients and 92.7% of males were multibacillary leprosy cases (p<0.001). Female leprosy patients were younger than male ones (median: 36 versus 44 years) (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-0.98; p<0.001), admission for cardiovascular diseases (OR: 7.6, 95% CI: 1.9-29.3; p=0.004), admission for gastroenteritis (OR: 14.0; 95% CI: 1.7-117; p=0.02), admission from out patients clinic (OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.1-4.01; p=0.02), and mortality as final outcome (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-8.0; p=0.02) were independently associated with female gender. Conclusions Female patients with leprosy admitted to hospital were younger, had a different profile of admission and a higher mortality rate than male ones. PMID:23035879

  15. Expectation and satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients toward the pharmaceutical care provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Haile, Kaleab Taye; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Measurements of patient satisfaction help to assess the performance of health service provision and predict treatment adherence and outcomes. This study aimed to assess human HIV/AIDS patients’ expectation of and satisfaction with the pharmaceutical service delivered at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Patients and methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was performed from May 11 to 25, 2015. A total of 291 patients living with HIV/AIDS were included using a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using structured questionnaires measuring expectation and satisfaction of respondents using a Likert scale of 1–5 through face-to-face interviews. The data collected were entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Comparison was made between those respondents who lived in and outside the town. Results The overall mean expectation and satisfaction of respondents toward pharmacy setting and services were 3.62 and 3.13, respectively. More than half (56.1%) of the participants were dissatisfied with the comfort and convenience of waiting area and private counseling room. Similarly, 69.3% of the respondents claimed that pharmacy professionals did not give information about side effects and drug–drug and drug–food interactions of antiretroviral medications. There was a statistically significant difference between respondents who live in and outside Gondar town in overall expectation (t=3.415, P=0.001) with the pharmacy setting and services. Conclusion In this study, the overall satisfaction level of respondents with pharmaceutical service (pharmacy setting and services) provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital was found to be low, while the overall respondents’ expectation from the pharmaceutical services were exceedingly high. The hospital should implement good dispensing practice systems in relation to the services and continuing professional development to professionals in order to

  16. Ocular bacterial infections at Quiha Ophthalmic Hospital, Northern Ethiopia: an evaluation according to the risk factors and the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Teweldemedhin, Mebrahtu; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Gebreyesus, Araya; Gebreegziabiher, Dawit

    2017-03-14

    External and intraocular infections can lead to visual impairments, which is a major public health problem. Bacteria are the most frequent pathogens affecting ocular structures; the increasing rate of antimicrobial drug resistance is a worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of bacteria in ocular infections, their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and risk factors in bacterial ocular infection. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to December 2015 at Quiha Ophthalmic Hospital, Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Ocular specimens from blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, endophthalmitis, periorbital cellulitis and dacrocystitis were collected from 270 individuals with suspected ocular infection. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors were also collected using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 and 0.05 with a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was considered statistically significant. Among 270 study subjects, 180 (66.7%) were culture positive for different bacterial isolates. The predominant bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (40, 22.2%), coagulase negative staphylococci (31, 17.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21, 11.7%). Ocular surface disease, ocular trauma, hospitalization and cosmetic application practices were significantly associated with the occurrence of bacterial infection. Concerning antimicrobial susceptibility, most isolates were susceptible to amikacin (137, 93.2%), gentamicin (131, 89.1%) and ciprofloxacin (141, 89.2%). Overall, 40 (22.5%), 34 (19.1%) and 62 (34.8%) isolates were resistant to one, two, and three or more antimicrobials, respectively. Bacteria were isolated from the majority of the study subjects. More than half of the bacterial isolates were resistant at least to one drug and a significant rate of multidrug resistance was detected. Therefore, identification of the etiologic agent

  17. The prevalence of Group B Streptococus recto-vaginal colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in pregnant mothers at two hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldu, Zufan Lakew; Teklehaimanot, Tatek Gebreegziabher; Waji, Sisay Teklu; Gebremariam, Mahlet Yigeremu

    2014-12-05

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. GBS recto-vaginal colonization rates significantly vary among different communities and geographic locations. Limited data is available on the prevalence and effects of GBS recto-vaginal colonization among pregnant mothers in developing countries like Ethiopia. To assess the prevalence of GBS recto-vaginal colonization among near term pregnant mothers and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on pregnant mothers at gestational age of 35-37 weeks attending Ante Natal Clinics at Ghandi Memorial (GMH) and Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa. Samples from lower genital tract and rectum were collected and cultured for GBS on CHROM agar Strep B. Twenty two of the 300 pregnant mothers (7.2%) studied were found to have positive GBS recto-vaginal culture. Twelve isolates (55%) were sensitive to penicillin while 20 (91%) were sensitive to ampicilline. All isolates except one were sensitive to Erythromycin. The study showed recto-vaginal GBS colonization among near term pregnant mothers is reasonably high in our community calling for the need to screen mothers near term and provide appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent potential adverse maternal and neonatal outcome.

  18. Incidence of normal pineal and chroids plexus calcification on brain CT (computerized tomography) at Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Admassie, Daniel; Mekonnen, Abebe

    2009-01-01

    To determine the incidence of normal calcification of pineal gland and choroids plexus on Brain -CT (computerized Tomography) and to see its association with age and sex. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Radiology Department, Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from May 2001 to August 2002. A total of 518 patients; 312 males and 206 females underwent brain-CT without pineal or choroids plexus pathology. The over all incidence of normal pineal gland calcification was 72.0 % and that of choroid plexus 43.3 %. The incidence of normal pineal gland and choroids plexus calcification were higher in males than in females by 13.1% and 6.0% respectively. The frequency of pineal gland and choroids plexus calcification showed a steady increase with age on both sex groups. The incidence of normal pineal gland calcification in this study is similar to most of the findings of other studies while the incidence of choroids plexus calcification was lower as compared the finding of other studies.

  19. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated. PMID:22958880

  20. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among HIV Positive Persons Who Are Naive and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklemariam, Zelalem; Abate, Degu; Mitiku, Habtamu; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infection affects the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive individuals who are naive and who are on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 (112 ART-naive group and 259 on ART) HIV positive individuals. Stool specimens were collected and examined by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration technique, and modified ziehl-Neelsen methods. Results. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 33.7%; it was significantly higher among the study participants who were ART-naive group (45.5%) (AOR: 2.60(1.56,4.34)) and diarrheic (53.3%) (AOR: 2.30(1.34,3.96)) and with CD4 count <200 cells/μL (46%) (AOR: 2.07(1.06,4.04)). The most commonly identified parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.5%), Giardia lamblia (8.1%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.0%), and Cryptosporidium species (2.2%). Conclusion. HIV positive individuals with diarrhea and low CD4 count and ART naive groups were more infected with intestinal parasites than their counterparts. Early stool examination and treatment of intestinal parasites for HIV/AIDS patients is essential. PMID:24052888

  1. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  2. Evaluation of cotrimoxazole use as a preventive therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS in Gondar University Referral Hospital, northwestern Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Gebeyehu, Minaleshewa Biruk; Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Tadesse, Yokabd Dechassa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) is a feasible, inexpensive, and well-tolerated way of using cotrimoxazole intervention for patients living with HIV/AIDS to reduce HIV/AIDS-related morbidities and mortalities caused by various bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH), northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was used to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS at GURH, northwestern Ethiopia from September 2013 to October 2015. Medical records of 264 patients were selected by using systematic random sampling technique from the sampling frame list of all patients’ medical records. Data were collected from patients’ medical records using the structured checklist and evaluated against World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The quantitative data were analyzed using the statistical packages for social sciences Version 20. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used to describe and assess the association between different variables. Results Approximately 95 (36.0%) patients were at WHO clinical stage III at the start of CPT. The use of CPT was consistent with the guidelines in the rationale for indication 200 (75.75%) and dose 263 (99.62%), despite the presence of contraindications in 24 (9.90%) patients. The occurrence of cotrimoxazole-associated side effects was higher in the first month of therapy. Problems regarding drug–drug interactions were identified in 63 (23.86%) patients, and 92 (34.84%) patients discontinued CPT due to different reasons. Conclusion Although the practice of discontinuation of CPT and follow-up for adverse drug effects were not consistent with WHO guidelines on the rational use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, the use

  3. Adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications and factors associated for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tibebu, Abel; Mengistu, Daniel; Negesa, Lemma

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases is hypertension (HTN). The availability of effective antihypertensive medications does not result in the expected outcomes in terms of controlling blood pressure. The rationale for these and other findings of uncontrolled HTN points toward poor adherence. The most neglected causes of uncontrolled HTN are unhealthy lifestyles. Few studies have been conducted to show the gap and magnitude of self-management adherence. Objective This study aimed to assess adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications of hypertensive patients undergoing follow-up at chronic follow-up units of public health hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016. Methods Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four public health hospitals which were selected by drawing lots. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The results of the descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages and frequencies. Associations between lifestyle modification and independent variables were ana-lyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study was conducted from February 15, 2016 to April 15, 2016. Results The study included 404 respondents with a 97% response rate; 210 (52%) were male and the mean age was 54.00±10.77 years. The respondents’ adherence to lifestyle modifications was 23%. The lifestyle adherence was found to be better in females, patients who had comorbidities, and had been knowledgeable about the disease and was poor among young adult respondents. Conclusion The rates of adherence to lifestyle changes were generally found to be low. Educational sessions that especially focus on lifestyle modifications and ongoing support for patients should be designed and studies which assess all the components of self-management should be conducted for comparison among different subgroups. PMID:28280305

  4. Pattern of chemotherapy-related adverse effects among adult cancer patients treated at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global problem and constitute a major clinical problem in terms of human suffering. The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic agents makes oncology pharmacovigilance essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the pattern of ADRs occurring in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study over a 2-year period from September 2013 to August 2015 was conducted on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at Gondar University Referral Hospital Oncology Center. Data were collected directly from patients and their medical case files. The reported ADRs were assessed for causality using the World Health Organization's causality assessment scale and Naranjo's algorithm. The severities of the reported reactions were also assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology CTCAE version 4.0. The Pear-son's chi-square test was employed to examine the association between two categorical variables. A total of 815 ADRs were identified per 203 patients included in the study. The most commonly occurring ADRs were nausea and vomiting (18.9%), infections (16.7%), neutropenia (14.7%), fever and/or chills (11.3%), and anemia (9.3%). Platinum compounds (31.4%) were the most common group of drugs causing ADRs. Of the reported ADRs, 65.8% were grades 3-4 (severe level), 29.9% were grades 1-2 (mild level), and 4.3% were grade 5 (toxic level). Significant association was found between age, number of chemotherapeutic agents, as well as dose of chemotherapy with the occurrence of grades 3-5 toxicity. The high incidence of chemotherapy-related ADRs among cancer patients is of concern. Setting up an effective ADR monitoring and reporting system (onco-pharmacovigilance) and creating awareness among health care professionals regarding the importance of ADR reporting may help prevent the problem.

  5. Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and Associated Factors among People with Glaucoma Attending Outpatient Clinic at Menelik II Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bedasso, Kufa; Feyera, Fetuma; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Yohannis, Zegeye

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of blindness from glaucoma is high. Therefore, people suffering from a serious eye disease such as glaucoma, which can lead to blindness, usually have an emotional disturbance on the patient. Untreated psychiatric illness is associated with increased morbidity and increased costs of care. Objective This study aimed to assess prevalence of common mental disorders and associated factors among people with Glaucoma attending Menelik II referral hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2014. Methods Institution based Cross-sectional study design was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology Menelik II Referral Hospital from April 10 to May 15, 2014. 423 participants who had undergone through investigation, examination and diagnosed as patients of glaucoma were selected randomly from the glaucoma clinic. Data were collected through face to face interview using Self Reporting Questionnaire consisted of 20 items. Study subjects who scored ≥11 from SRQ-20 were considered as having common mental disorders. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis with 95% CI were done and variables with P<0.05 in the final model were identified as independent factors associated with common mental disorders. Results Four hundred five patients with glaucoma were included in our study with response rate of 95.7% and 64.5% were males. The average age was 59±13.37 years. Common mental disorders were observed in 23.2% of Glaucoma patients. It is quite obvious that levels of CMDs were high among patients with glaucoma. There was a significant association between age, sex, chronic physical illness, income and duration of illness at P < 0.05. Conclusion and Recommendation Symptoms of common mental disorders were the commonest comorbidities among patients with glaucoma. It will be better to assess and treat Common mental disorders as a separate illness in patients with glaucoma. PMID:27584147

  6. Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and Associated Factors among People with Glaucoma Attending Outpatient Clinic at Menelik II Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bedasso, Kufa; Bedaso, Asres; Feyera, Fetuma; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Yohannis, Zegeye

    2016-01-01

    The burden of blindness from glaucoma is high. Therefore, people suffering from a serious eye disease such as glaucoma, which can lead to blindness, usually have an emotional disturbance on the patient. Untreated psychiatric illness is associated with increased morbidity and increased costs of care. This study aimed to assess prevalence of common mental disorders and associated factors among people with Glaucoma attending Menelik II referral hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2014. Institution based Cross-sectional study design was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology Menelik II Referral Hospital from April 10 to May 15, 2014. 423 participants who had undergone through investigation, examination and diagnosed as patients of glaucoma were selected randomly from the glaucoma clinic. Data were collected through face to face interview using Self Reporting Questionnaire consisted of 20 items. Study subjects who scored ≥11 from SRQ-20 were considered as having common mental disorders. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis with 95% CI were done and variables with P<0.05 in the final model were identified as independent factors associated with common mental disorders. Four hundred five patients with glaucoma were included in our study with response rate of 95.7% and 64.5% were males. The average age was 59±13.37 years. Common mental disorders were observed in 23.2% of Glaucoma patients. It is quite obvious that levels of CMDs were high among patients with glaucoma. There was a significant association between age, sex, chronic physical illness, income and duration of illness at P < 0.05. Symptoms of common mental disorders were the commonest comorbidities among patients with glaucoma. It will be better to assess and treat Common mental disorders as a separate illness in patients with glaucoma.

  7. Pattern of chemotherapy-related adverse effects among adult cancer patients treated at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku

    2016-01-01

    Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global problem and constitute a major clinical problem in terms of human suffering. The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic agents makes oncology pharmacovigilance essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the pattern of ADRs occurring in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study over a 2-year period from September 2013 to August 2015 was conducted on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at Gondar University Referral Hospital Oncology Center. Data were collected directly from patients and their medical case files. The reported ADRs were assessed for causality using the World Health Organization’s causality assessment scale and Naranjo’s algorithm. The severities of the reported reactions were also assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology CTCAE version 4.0. The Pear-son’s chi-square test was employed to examine the association between two categorical variables. Results A total of 815 ADRs were identified per 203 patients included in the study. The most commonly occurring ADRs were nausea and vomiting (18.9%), infections (16.7%), neutropenia (14.7%), fever and/or chills (11.3%), and anemia (9.3%). Platinum compounds (31.4%) were the most common group of drugs causing ADRs. Of the reported ADRs, 65.8% were grades 3–4 (severe level), 29.9% were grades 1–2 (mild level), and 4.3% were grade 5 (toxic level). Significant association was found between age, number of chemotherapeutic agents, as well as dose of chemotherapy with the occurrence of grades 3–5 toxicity. Conclusion The high incidence of chemotherapy-related ADRs among cancer patients is of concern. Setting up an effective ADR monitoring and reporting system (onco-pharmacovigilance) and creating awareness among health care professionals regarding the importance of ADR reporting may help prevent the problem

  8. Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hagos, Fisseha; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Balcha, Fikadu; Berhe, Semarya; Aregay, Alemseged

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it's affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90%) of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75%) of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress. PMID:24649360

  9. Low Coverage of Hepatitis B Vaccine and Determinants Among Health Professionals Working in Amhara Regional State Hospitals, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    More than two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 360 million have chronic infection and 600,000 die each year from HBV-related liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma. Each year more than 66,000 health professionals are infected by hepatitis b virus and vaccination against hepatitis B saves the life’s of these health professionals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of hepatitis B vaccine coverage in a resource limited settings. A cross sectional study design was conducted. The study was conducted on 1184 health professionals at Amhara national regional state, Ethiopia. Simple random sampling technique was used. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the prevalence while Binary logistic regression was used to assess the determinants of hepatitis B vaccine coverage. The coverage of hepatitis B vaccine was 4%. Vaccination were affected by work load (AOR=0.19, 95%CI= 0.08-0.46; P<0.01), negligence (AOR=0.04, 95%CI=0.01-0.11: P<0.01), universal precaution training (AOR=14.75, 95%CI=5.66-38.44: P<0.01), perception that they are not at risk of infection (AOR=0.34, 95%CI=0.15-0.79: P=0.01), unaffordable cost (AOR=0.12, 95%CI=0.05-0.28: P<0.01), awareness about the vaccine (AOR=4.55, 95%CI=1.53-13.49: P<0.01), peer pressure (AOR=3.8, 95%CI=1.34-10.74: P=0.01), knowledge about where to get the vaccine (AOR=5.13, 95%CI=1.87-14.11: P=0.02), unavailability of the vaccine (AOR=0.25, 95%CI=0.1-0.63: P=0.03), year of experience (AOR=7.27, 95%CI=2.23-23.72: P<0.01). Low hepatitis B vaccine coverage was observed. The ministry of health should avail the vaccine to all those health professionals, develop awareness on HBV and improve the affordability of the vaccine. PMID:28299157

  10. Knowledge and experience sharing practices among health professionals in hospitals under the Addis Ababa health bureau, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asemahagn, Mulusew Andualem

    2014-09-24

    Health professionals need updated health information from credible sources to improve their knowledge and provide evidence based health care services. Various types of medical errors have occurred in resource-limited countries because of poor knowledge and experience sharing practices among health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge-sharing practices and determinants among health professionals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among 320 randomly selected health professionals from August12-25/2012. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about different variables. Data entry and analysis were done using Epi-Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version20 respectively. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were applied to describe study objectives and identify the determinants of knowledge sharing practices respectively. Odds ratio at 95% CI was used to describe the strength of association between the study and outcome variables. Most of the respondents approved the need of knowledge and experience sharing practices in their routine activities. Nearly half, 152 (49.0%) of the study participants had knowledge and experience sharing practices. A majority, 219 (70.0%) of the respondents showed a willingness to share their knowledge and experiences. Trust on others' knowledge, motivation, supportive leadership, job satisfaction, awareness, willingness and resource allocation are the determinants of knowledge and experience sharing practices. Supportive leadership, resources, and trust on others' knowledge can enhance knowledge and experience sharing by OR = 3.12, 95% CI = [1.89 - 5.78], OR = 2.3, 95% CI = [1.61- 4.21] and OR = 2.78, 95% CI = [1.66 - 4.64] times compared with their counterparts respectively. Even though most of the respondents knew the importance of knowledge and experience sharing practices, only a limited number

  11. Assessment of composition and generation rate of healthcare wastes in selected public and private hospitals of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfahun, Esubalew; Kumie, Abera; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Beyene, Abebe

    2014-03-01

    In many developing countries, the inadequacy of data regarding the quantity and composition of healthcare waste is one of the major reasons for improper healthcare waste management. We investigated the generation rate and composition of healthcare wastes in six public and three private hospitals. We conducted healthcare waste composition and characterization measurements for seven consecutive days in the selected hospitals following the protocol described by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results revealed that the total generation rate of healthcare wastes of hospitals ranged from 0.25 to 2.77 kg/bed/day with a median value of 1.67 kg/bed/day for inpatients to 0.21-0.65 in kg/patient/day with a median value of 0.31 kg/patient/day for outpatients. The waste generation rate in private hospitals (median 3.9 kg/bed/day) was significantly greater (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05) than in government hospitals (median 1.5 kg/bed/day). The median values of percent hazardous waste estimated for private and government hospitals were 63.4% and 52.2%, respectively. These figures are about three times greater than the threshold values recommended by the WHO. This situation might be attributed to the improper practice of healthcare waste segregation by health professionals and auxiliary health workers due to inadequate risk perception and lack of enforced public health regulations. The study revealed that the generation rate and proportion of hazardous waste significantly varies between public and private hospitals and number of patients treated per day.

  12. High Gastrointestinal Colonization Rate with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalized Patients: Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desta, Kassu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Azazh, Aklilu; Mohammod, Halima; Desalegn, Dawit; Shimelis, Damte; Gulilat, Dereje; Lamisso, Biruk; Makonnen, Eyasu; Worku, Alemayehu; Mannerqvist, Kerstin; Struwe, Johan; Aspevall, Olov; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the gastrointestinal colonization rate and antibiotic resistance patterns of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalized patients admitted at Ethiopia’s largest tertiary hospital. Fecal samples/swabs from 267 patients were cultured on chrome agar. ESBL. Bacterial species identification, verification of ESBL production and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done using Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, France). Phenotype characterization of ESBL-E.coli and ESBL- K.pneumoniae was done using Neo-Sensitabs™. ESBL positivity rate was much higher in K. pneumoniae (76%) than E. coli (45%). The overall gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in hospitalized patients was 52% (95%CI; 46%–58%) of which, ESBL-E. coli and K.pneumoniae accounted for 68% and 32% respectively. Fecal ESBL-E carriage rate in neonates, children and adults was 74%, 59% and 46% respectively. Gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL-E.coli in neonates, children and adults was 11%, 42% and 42% respectively. Of all E. coli strains isolated from adults, children and neonates, 44%, 49% and 22% were ESBL positive (p = 0.28). The prevalence of ESBL-K.pneumoniae carriage in neonates, children and adults was 68%, 22% and 7% respectively. All K. pneumoniae isolated from neonates (100%) and 88% of K. pneumoniae isolated from children were ESBL positive, but only 50% of K.pneumoniae isolated from adults were ESBL positive (p = 0.001). Thirteen patients (5%) were carriers of both ESBL-E.coli and ESBL-KP. The overall carrier rate of ESBL producing isolates resistant to carbapenem was 2% (5/267), all detected in children; three with E.coli HL cephalosporinase (AmpC), resistant to ertapenem and two with K. pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) resistant to meropenem, ertapenem and impenem. We report a high gastrointestinal colonization rate with ESBL-E and the emergence of carbapenems-resistant K

  13. Retention and Treatment Outcomes of an Undernutrition Program for HIV patients involving Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food at Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Dawson, Angela; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite global efforts to eradicate poverty and hunger, under-nutrition is still a major health problem, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV/AIDS prevalence is also a serious burden. Aim To assess the retention and outcomes of under-nutrition treatment program in Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV positive children and adults participating in the Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) treatment program at Gondar University Hospital ART clinic for one year from November 2012 to November 2013. Materials and Methods Six hundred and thirty six patient records were followed-up for one year. Outcome variables were Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) values measured as severe, moderate acute malnutrition, normal after treatment, non-respondent, relapsed and lost to follow-up using the hospital records of HIV positive children and adults eligible for the program. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to compute Crude Odds Ratio (COR) and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR). Statistical significance was set at p-value<0.05. Results Among 636 clients, 44.2% achieved MUAC measures ≥ 125 mm for children and ≥ 21 cm for adults at 4 and 6 months. 70.1% of those were children while 29.9% of the 281 were adults. Moreover, a more positive initial response to ready-to-use therapeutic food was found among children as there was significant increase (p<0.05) in MUAC value after the second month of initiating treatment while adults achieved a significant (p<0.05, p<0.01) in MUAC at the 4th and 6th month respectively. There was a significant association between age, nutrition status and treatment outcome, while sex, HIV status, education and residency were not associated with treatment outcome. Conclusion Recovery and weight gain rates were below 50%. Defaulter rates were higher than the Sphere standards and recovery was better in children than adults. Integrated RUTF and

  14. Adherence to Treatment and Factors Affecting Adherence of Epileptic Patients at Yirgalem General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasiso, Temesgen Yohannes; Desse, Tigestu Alemu

    2016-01-01

    Background Non adherence of epileptic patients to antiepileptic medication often leads to an increased risk of seizures and worsening of disease, death and increased health care costs. Objective to assess adherence to treatment and factors affecting adherence of epileptic patients at Yirgalem General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. Methods and Materials We conducted a cross-sectional study on epileptic patients from February 9 to 22, 2015. Data were collected from patients ≥18 years old. Adherence was measured using the eight-item Morisky’s medication adherence scale. All consecutive patients coming to epilepsy clinic during the study period were interviewed until the calculated sample size (210) was obtained. We collected patient demographics, perception about epilepsy and adherence to medication(s). We used chi-square tests and a binary logistic regression model for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results out of a total of 210 participants, 194 were willing to participate and were studied. Of the 194 participants, 109 (56.2%) were males. The mean age of the participants was 33.62±11.44 years; range 18 to 66 years. The majority, 123(63.41%), of the participants were taking two antiepileptic medications. Sixty two (32%) of the participants were adherent to their treatment. The most common reported reasons for non-adherence were forgetfulness 49(75.4%) and run out of pills 7(10.8%). Factors that affect medication adherence are epilepsy treatment for <1 year (P = 0.011), epilepsy treatment for 1–3 years (P = 0.002), epilepsy treatment for 3–5 years (P = 0.007), being married (P = 0.006), grade 9–12 education (P = 0.028), college or university education (P = 0.002) and absence of co-morbidity (P = 0.008). Conclusions The rate of adherence observed in this study was low. The most common reason for non- adherence was forgetfulness. Therefore, the hospital should devise strategies to improve adherence of epileptic patients

  15. Retention and Treatment Outcomes of an Undernutrition Program for HIV patients involving Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food at Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Tegegn, Henok Getachew; Dawson, Angela; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-08-01

    Despite global efforts to eradicate poverty and hunger, under-nutrition is still a major health problem, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV/AIDS prevalence is also a serious burden. To assess the retention and outcomes of under-nutrition treatment program in Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV positive children and adults participating in the Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) treatment program at Gondar University Hospital ART clinic for one year from November 2012 to November 2013. Six hundred and thirty six patient records were followed-up for one year. Outcome variables were Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) values measured as severe, moderate acute malnutrition, normal after treatment, non-respondent, relapsed and lost to follow-up using the hospital records of HIV positive children and adults eligible for the program. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to compute Crude Odds Ratio (COR) and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR). Statistical significance was set at p-value<0.05. Among 636 clients, 44.2% achieved MUAC measures ≥ 125 mm for children and ≥ 21 cm for adults at 4 and 6 months. 70.1% of those were children while 29.9% of the 281 were adults. Moreover, a more positive initial response to ready-to-use therapeutic food was found among children as there was significant increase (p<0.05) in MUAC value after the second month of initiating treatment while adults achieved a significant (p<0.05, p<0.01) in MUAC at the 4(th) and 6(th) month respectively. There was a significant association between age, nutrition status and treatment outcome, while sex, HIV status, education and residency were not associated with treatment outcome. Recovery and weight gain rates were below 50%. Defaulter rates were higher than the Sphere standards and recovery was better in children than adults. Integrated RUTF and HIV program and strict follow-up and education or counselling of HIV positive patients should be

  16. Infant feeding practice and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Debre Markos Referral Hospital East Gojam zone, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wakwoya, Elias Bekele; Zewudie, Tatek Abate; Gebresilasie, Kahsay Zenebe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dilemma posed between lifesaving benefit and risk of transmission through breast feeding complicates infant feedings among communities grossly affected by HIV/AIDS. According to the world health organization’s guideline which was revised in 2010, exclusive breast feeding and exclusive replacement feeding are the recommended infant feeding practices for HIV positive mothers. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from May to September 2013. A Randomly selected 260 HIV positive mothers were included. The data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed to check association and to control confounders. Results From a total of 260 HIV positive mothers, 85.8% of them were feeding their children based on the recommended feeding way of infant feeding practice with the remaining percentage 14.2% were practicing mixed feeding. In multivariate analysis mothers attending high school and above AOR = 5.3 [95% CI = 1.25-22.1], having antenatal care follow up AOR = 5.5 [95% CI = 1.5-20.16], being on anti-retro viral therapy AOR = 6.5 [95% CI = 1.88-22.51] and disclosure of HIV status AOR = 7.1 [95% CI = 1.26-39.76] were found to be independently associated with infant feeding practice. Conclusion This study revealed that large proportion of HIV positive mothers had followed the recommended infant feeding practice and significantly high number of mothers had practiced mixed feeding. Educating mothers, increasing ANC utilization, counseling mothers to start ART, encouraging and supporting mothers to disclose their HIV status were recommended. PMID:28154655

  17. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study.

    PubMed

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting.

  18. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting. PMID:24967300

  19. Stigma resistance among people with schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based study.

    PubMed

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse

    2014-09-12

    Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling and severely stigmatized mental disorders. Together with social stigma, internalized stigma and perceived stigma can trigger a vicious cycle and diminishes the stigma resistance abilities of individual. Helping patients to cope up with perceived and internalized stigma play crucial role in fighting stigma. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of stigma resistance among people with schizophrenia attending the outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study design was employed. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify the presence and strength of association. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of low stigma resistance was found to be 51.6%. Rural residence (AOR = 0.29 (95% CI: 0.142, 0.594), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication (AOR = AOR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.155, 0.542), internalized stigma (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: (0.111, 0.530), alienation (AOR = 0.5, 95% CI: (0.270, 0.927), stereotype endorsement (AOR = 0.37(95% CI: 0.312, 0.463) and social withdrawal (AOR = 0.27, 95% CI: (0.156, 0.468) were factors statistically associated with low stigma resistance. In this study, overall more than half of the study participants had low stigma resistance. Rural residence, difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, high internalized stigma, alienation and social withdrawal were factors statistically associated with low stigma resistance. Encouraging participations in different social relationships such as befriending programs, family and peer support groups are

  20. Antibiotic resistant airborne bacteria and their multidrug resistance pattern at University teaching referral Hospital in South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Fithamlak Bisetegen; Wadilo, Fiseha Wada; Arota, Amsalu Amache; Abraham, Yishak Leka

    2017-04-12

    Hospitals provide a reservoir of microorganisms, many of which are multi-resistant to antibiotics. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains in a hospital environment, particularly in developing countries is an increasing problem to infection treatment. This study aims at assessing antibiotic resistant airborne bacterial isolates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Wolaita Sodo university teaching and referral Hospital. Indoor air samples were collected by using passive air sampling method. Sample processing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done following standard bacteriological techniques. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Medically important bacterial pathogens, Coagulase negative staphylococci (29.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (26.3%), Enterococci species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (16.5%), Acinetobacter species (9.5%), Escherichia coli (5.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.3%) were isolated. Antibiotic resistance rate ranging from 7.5 to 87.5% was detected for all isolates. Acinetobacter species showed a high rate of resistance for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin (78.2%) and ciprofloxacin (82.6%), 28 (38.9%) of S. aureus isolates were meticillin resistant, and 7.5% Enterococci isolates of were vancomycin resistant. 75.3% of all bacterial pathogen were multi-drug resistant. Among them, 74.6% were gram positive and 84% were gram negative. Multi-drug resistance were observed among 84.6% of P. aeruginosa, of 82.5% Enterococcii, E. coli 78.6%, S. aureus 76.6%, and Coagulase negative staphylococci of 73.6%. Indoor environment of the hospital was contaminated with airborne microbiotas, which are common cause of post-surgical site infection in the study area. Bacterial isolates were highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics with high multi-drug resistance percentage. So air quality of hospital environment, in restricted settings deserves attention, and requires long-term surveillance to protect both

  1. Surgical site infection and its associated factors following cesarean section: a cross sectional study from a public hospital in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelaw, Kelemu Abebe; Aweke, Amlaku Mulat; Astawesegn, Feleke Hailemichael; Demissie, Birhanu Wondimeneh; Zeleke, Liknaw Bewket

    2017-01-01

    A cesarean section is a surgical procedure in which incisions are made through a woman's abdomen and uterus to deliver her baby. Surgical site infections are a common surgical complication among patients delivered with cesarean section. Further it caused to increase maternal morbidity, stay of hospital and the cost of treatment. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the magnitude of surgical site infection following cesarean Site Infections and its associated factors at Lemlem Karl hospital July 1, 2013 to June 30, 2016. Retrospective card review was done on 384 women who gave birth via cesarean section at Lemlem Karl hospital from July 1, 2013 to June 30, 2016. Systematic sampling technique was used to select patient medical cards. The data were entered by Epi info version 7.2 then analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences windows version 20. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was done to test association between predictors and dependent variables. P value of < 0.05 was considered to declare the presence of statistically significantly association. Among 384 women who performed cesarean section, the magnitude of surgical site infection following cesarean section Infection was 6.8%. The identified independent risk factors for surgical site infections were the duration of labor AOR=3.48; 95%CI (1.25, 9.68), rupture of membrane prior to cesarean section AOR=3.678; 95%CI (1.13, 11.96) and the abdominal midline incision (AOR=5.733; 95%CI (2.05, 16.00). The magnitude of surgical site infection following cesarean section is low compare to other previous studies. The independent associated factors for surgical site infection after cesarean section in this study: Membranes rupture prior to cesarean section, duration of labor and sub umbilical abdominal incision. In addition to ensuring sterile environment and aseptic surgeries, use of WHO surgical safety checklist would appear to be a very important intervention to

  2. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among children at South Wollo Zone Hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy negatively affects the suppression of viral replication. It increases risks of drug resistance, treatment failure, Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related morbidity and mortality among children. This study assessed the level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among children at hospitals in South Wollo Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected children in April 2013. A total of 464 children who were taking Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in the hospitals were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires using a face-to-face interview method. Descriptive and summary statistics were employed. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were computed. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were computed to determine the level of significance. Results Of the 464 study samples, 440 children with their caregivers were included in the final analysis. A total of 78.6% of the caregivers reported that their children were adherent to antiretroviral therapy in the month prior to the interview. Caregivers' knowledge about antiretroviral treatment [AOR = 2.72(95% CI: 1.82, 5.39)], no current substance use of the caregivers [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.21(95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.34, 7.13)], proximity to the health care facility [AOR = 2.31(95% CI: 1.94, 4.63)], if the child knows HIV-positive status [AOR = 3.47(95% CI: 2.10, 6.81)] and caregiver’s educational status [AOR = 0.59(95% CI: 0.21, 0.82)] were significantly and independently associated with adherence of children to antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion Adherence of antiretroviral therapy in this study was comparable to other studies conducted in developing countries. Caregiver’s knowledge about antiretroviral therapy, no current use of substances, close proximity to

  3. Anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV co-infected patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia: nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hassen Ali, Alima; Belachew, Tefera; Yami, Alemeshet; Ayen, Wubeante Yenet

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the incidence and predictors of anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV co-infected patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia. A nested case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts of all TB/HIV co-infected patients who commenced anti-TB treatment from January 2008 to December 2011 at Jimma University Hospital. Patients who had developed hepatotoxicity after at least 5 days of standard doses of anti-TB drug therapy were labeled as "cases" and those without hepatotoxicity were "controls". Each case with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was compared with 3 controls selected randomly from the cohort. From a cohort of 296 TB/HIV co-infected patients 8 were excluded from the study as the causality between anti-TB drugs and hepatotoxicity was not confirmed, 33 had developed hepatotoxicity. On bivariate logistic regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 Kg/m(2) [P = 0.01; OR (95%CI): 3.6 (1.4-9.5)], disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.00; OR (95%CI): 5.6 (2.2-14.6)], CD4 count ≤50 [P = 0.016; OR (95%CI): 3.6(1.27-10.23)] and WHO stage 4 [P = 0.004, OR (95%CI): 3.8 (1.68-8.77)] were significantly associated with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. Predictor variables with p-value <0.05 by bivariate analysis were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis and identified disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.001; AOR (95%CI) = 5.6 (2.1-15.0)] and BMI <18.5 [P = 0.014; AOR (95%CI)= 3.6 (1.3-10.1)] as independent predictors of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. The incidence of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was 11.5%. The results suggest that in the presence of disseminated pulmonary TB and/or BMI <18.5 Kg/m(2), TB/HIV co-infected patients should be closely followed for the occurrence of hepatotoxicity during the intensive phase of TB treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  4. Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Blood Culture Isolates among Septicemia Suspected Children in Selected Hospitals Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Negussie, Adugna; Mulugeta, Gebru; Bedru, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Shimeles, Damte; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood stream infections are major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. The emerging of causative agents and resistance to various antimicrobial agents are increased from time to time. The main aim of this study was to determine the bacterial agents and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among children suspected of having septicemia. Methods A cross sectional study involved about 201 pediatric patients (≤ 12 years) was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012 at pediatric units of TikurAnbessa Specialized Hospital and Yekatit 12 Hospital. Standard procedure was followed for blood sample collection, isolate identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results Among 201 study subjects 110 (54.7%) were males. Majority 147 (73.1%) of them were neonates (≤ 28 days). The mean length of hospital stay before sampling was 4.29 days. Out of the 201 tested blood samples, blood cultures were positive in 56 (27.9%).Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria constituted 29(51.8%) and 26(46.4%), respectively. The most frequent pathogen found was Staphylococcus aureus 13 (23.2%), followed by Serratia marcescens 12(21.4%), CoNS 11(19.6%), klebsiella spp 9(16%) and Salmonella spp 3(5.4%). Majority of bacterial isolates showed high resistance to Ampicillin, Penicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Gentamicin and Tetracycline which commonly used in the study area. Conclusion Majority of the isolates were multidrug resistant. These higher percentages of multi-drug resistant emerged isolates urge us to take infection prevention measures and to conduct other large studies for appropriate empiric antibiotic choice. PMID:26997847

  5. Knowledge and attitude of health care professionals regarding hepatitis B virus infection and its vaccination, University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Horssa, Boressa Adugna; Getachew, Nardose; Amare, Sitotaw; Getnet, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is a global public health problem affecting approximately 10% of the world population. Health care professionals (HCPs) are at an increased risk of acquiring hepatitis B infection due to occupational exposure. Having enough knowledge and proper attitudes toward the infection and its vaccination is crucial in preventing the infection. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as well as its vaccination among HCPs working in University of Gondar Hospital. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed from April 1 to May 1, 2016 on 297 HCPs working at University of Gondar Hospital. A self-administered questionnaire prepared in the English language was used to collect the data. The questionnaire contained sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude-related questions. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS software version 20.1. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, and binary logistic regression were utilized. P<0.05 was used to declare association. Results From a total of 297 HCPs participated in the study 73.1% have good knowledge of HBV transmission, progress, and its vaccination. The majority (91.3%) of the respondents believe that their job puts them at risk of HBV infection. The majority of study participants (94%) believe vaccination is necessary. Medical doctors have 8.4 times better knowledge of HBV and its vaccination than other professionals (adjusted odds ratio =8.399, CI =1.536–45.936). Conclusion The majority of HCPs working in University of Gondar Hospital have good knowledge of HBV transmission, progress, and its vaccination. The majority of HCPs believe that their job puts them at greater risk for HBV and vaccination is necessary. Knowledge of the HCPs significantly varies across professions. PMID:28008291

  6. Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy and associated factors among adult diabetes mellitus patients in Bahr Dar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jember, Gashaw; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu; Fisseha, Berihu; Sany, Kedir; Gelaw, Asmare Yitayeh; Janakiraman, Balamurugan

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic sensory neuropathy is a common form of microvascular complication among diabetic patients. The swiftly growing population of people living with diabetes in Ethiopia and lack of elaborated scientific data on peripheral sensory neuropathy among diabetic population in Ethiopia prompted this work. This study was set out to assess the enormity and associated factors of peripheral sensory neuropathy among diabetes patients attending chronic illness clinic of Felege Hiwot Regional Referral Hospital, Bahr Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital chronic illness clinic using Michigan neuropathy screening instrument tool for diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy on 408 diabetic patients during 2016. Data were collected using interview, patient record review, anthropometric measurements and physical examination. Both bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with peripheral sensory neuropathy. Odds ratios with their 95% CI and P value less than 0.05 used to determine statistically significant associations. A total of 368 patients were included with the mean age of 49 ± 14.3 years. The overall prevalence of Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy was found to be 52.2%. The major associated factors identified by multivariate analysis were age >50 years: AOR: 3.0 CI [1.11, 7.89]; overweight and obese: AOR: 7.3 CI [3.57, 14.99]; duration of DM: AOR: 3.4 CI [1.75, 6.60]; not involved in physical exercise: AOR: 4.8 CI [1.90, 7.89]; male gender: AOR: 2.4 CI [1.18, 5.05]. Almost half of the diabetic patients who attended Felege Hiwot regional referral hospital during study period were found to present with peripheral sensory neuropathy. Socio-demographic and bio characteristics like patients age, Body Mass Index, level of physical activity and marital status were significantly associated with diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy.

  7. Knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia: computer literacy in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Incorporation of information technology advancements in healthcare has gained wide acceptance in the last two decades. Developed countries have successfully incorporated information technology advancements in their healthcare system thus, improving healthcare. However, only a limited application of information technology advancements is seen in developing countries in their healthcare system. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among 304 health workers who were selected using stratified sampling technique from all governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data was collected from April 15 to April 30, 2010 using a structured, self-administered, and pre-tested questionnaire from five government hospitals in Addis Ababa. The data was entered into Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16. Analysis was done using multinomial logistic regression technique. Results A total of 270 participants, age ranging from 21 to 60 years responded to the survey (88.8% response rate). A total of 91 (33.7%) respondents had an adequate knowledge of computers while 108 (40.0%) had fair knowledge and 71(26.3%) of the respondents showed inadequate knowledge. A total of 38(14.1%) were adequately utilizing computers, 14(5.2%) demonstrated average or fair utilization and majority of the respondents 218(80.7%) inadequately utilized computers. Significant predictor variables were average monthly income, job satisfaction index and own computer possession. Conclusions Computer knowledge and utilization habit of health workers were found to be very low. Increasing accessibility to computers and delivering training on the use of computers for workers will increases the knowledge and utilization of computers. This will facilitate the rate of diffusion of the technology to the health sector. Hence, programs targeted at enhancing

  8. Osteosarcoma of limb bones: a clinical, radiological and histopathological diagnostic agreement at Black Lion Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wamisho, Biruk L; Admasie, Daniel; Negash, Bayush E; Tinsay, Mihiret W

    2009-06-01

    To measure the strength of agreement in clinical, radiological and histopathological diagnosis of osteosarcoma in a 5 year study period. Addis Ababa University, Black-Lion ('Tikur Anbessa') Hospital-BLH, is the country's highest tertiary level referral and teaching hospital. The departments involved in this study (Radiology, Pathology and Orthopedics) receive referred patients from all over the country. All bone tumor patients, presenting to the three departments at BLH between the study period, December, 2003 - March, 2008 were recruited for the study. 51 patients with radiological diagnosis of osteosarcoma of the extremities were identified and their clinical and histopathological diagnoses reviewed in detail. All patients had a clinical examination, plain radiographs and biopsies of the affected part of the extremity. Radiographs of selected difficult cases were discussed at joint orthopedic & radiologic sessions every week. The radiological and histopathological diagnoses made were categorized separately using WHO classification of bone tumors. Strength of agreement between radiological and histopathological diagnoses was measured using Cohen's Kappa test. Of the total of 216 bone tumor patients presented and biopsied in the five year period, fifty one (51) had osteosarcoma of extremity bones. Commonest age affected by osteosarcoma was 16 (7-55 years) and sex ratio was 1:1. Osteosarcoma was also the single most common clinical, radiological and histological diagnosis made. Considering all bone tumors presented together, the study indicated that radiological diagnosis was confirmed by similar histological diagnosis in 172 out 205 cases (84%) and the corresponding Cohen's Kappa value (0.82) showed excellent level of agreement between radiological and histological diagnoses of all bone tumors. The agreement between radiological and histopathological diagnoses of osteosarcoma of the limbs was 84.5%. There is an excellent agreement between clinical, radiological and

  9. Readiness of Health Centers and Primary Hospitals for the Implementation of Proposed Health Insurance Schemes in Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abazinab, Sabit; Woldie, Mirkuzie; Alaro, Tesfamichael

    2016-09-01

    In response to the 2005 World Health Assembly, many low income countries developed different healthcare financing mechanisms with risk pooling stategy to ensure universal coverage of health services. Accordingly, service availability and readiness of the health system to bear the responsibility of providing service have critical importance. The objective of this study was to assess service availability and readiness of health centers and primary hospitals to bear the responsibility of providing service for the members of health insurance schemes. A facility based cross sectional study design with quantitative data collection methods was employed. Of the total 18 districts in Jimma Zone, 6(33.3%) districts were selected randomly. In the selected districts, there were 21 functional public health facilities (health centers and primary hospitals) which were included in the study. Data were collected by interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated by using SPSS version 20.0. Prior to data collection, ethical clearance was obtained. Among the total 21 public health facilities surveyed, only 38.1% had all the categories of health professionals as compared to the national standards. The majority, 85.2%, of the facilities fulfilled the criteria for basic equipment, but 47.7% of the facilities did not fulfill the criteria for infection prevention supplies. Moreover, only two facilities fulfilled the criteria for laboratory services, and 95.2% of the facilities had no units/departmenst to coordinate the health insurance schemes. More than nine out of ten facilities did not fulfill the criteria for providing healthcare services for insurance beneficiaries and are not ready to provide general services according to the standard. Hence, policy makers and implementers should devise strategies to fill the identified gaps for successful and sustainable implementation of the proposed insurance scheme.

  10. [Genital elephantiasis: reconstructive treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema with a myocutaneous M. gracilis flap. Experiences from a District Hospital in Ethiopia].

    PubMed

    Prica, S; Donati, O F; Schaefer, D J; Peltzer, J

    2008-08-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an illness leading to serious functional and aesthetic as well as psychosocial impairment. Since the 19th century there have been articles describing methods for surgical ablative treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema. However, most of these methods ignore the creation a new drainage for the lymph. We now describe a new technique using a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap for the reconstruction of the soft tissue damage resulting from radical excision, thus ensuring drainage of the lymph into the deep muscle compartment of the thigh. In the District Hospital "Mettu-Karl Hospital" in the Ethiopian rain forest region of Illubabor, during a period of 6 months the described surgical procedure was applied to 9 patients suffering from severe forms of this grotesquely disfiguring disease. Two patients presented with combined penoscrotal oedema, while the other 7 patients were suffering from isolated scrotal lymphoedema alone. All patients benefited from reconstruction with a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap after radical excision of the affected tissue. All patients were evaluated after 3 and 12 months postoperatively in the presence of a translator. All nine patients showed a functionally and aesthetically satisfying result after 3 months without postoperative occurrence of infection. The evaluation 12 months postoperatively showed no recurrence of genitoscrotal lymphoedema. All patients reported on having regained normal ability for sexual intercourse and no occurrence of urinary tract infections since the operation. Concerning fertility, no statements could be made. A significant improvement in the quality of life was observed by the regained ability to walk and work and consequently the reintegration of the patients into their socio-economic environment. Radical excision of the affected tissue followed by transferring a functioning lymphatic drainage into the deep muscle compartment of the ipsilateral thigh using a proximally based

  11. Factors influencing the exit knowledge of patients for dispensed drugs at outpatient pharmacy of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hirko, Nigatu; Edessa, Dumessa

    2017-01-01

    Background A satisfactory counseling process between the patient and pharmacist is critical for rational use of dispensed drug(s) and is highly influenced by many factors including the experience of pharmacist in dispensing process. To improve patients’ knowledge of dispensed drugs, it is necessary to understand the factors that optimize a pharmacist interaction with a patient in each activity of the dispensing process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the pharmacist and patient factors that influence knowledge of dispensed drugs by ambulatory patients at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Ethiopia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 422 respondents. Data were collected by interviews using a structured questionnaire that measures “exit knowledge” of the ambulatory patients for dispensed drugs. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0. Potential covariates were identified using χ2 test, and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to adjust for the covariates. Results Our findings showed significant proportions of the patients did not recall the name of their dispensed medication (53.6%), major side effects (66.4%), and what to do in case of missed doses (65.4%). Patients’ knowledge of dispensed drugs was significantly associated with their educational level (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–3.84 [primary], AOR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.04–4.04 [secondary], and AOR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.35–5.46 [tertiary]); clear instruction from the pharmacist (AOR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.16–9.72); and the politeness of the pharmacist (AOR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.04–4.04). Conclusion We found that the majority of patients poorly understood the name of the dispensed medication, side effects, and what to do in case of missed doses. In addition, the formal educational level of the patient, clear instruction from the pharmacist, and the politeness of pharmacist were the factors

  12. Light-emitting diode fluorescent microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF® assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among patients attending Ambo hospital, west-central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelalcha, Alemu Gadissa; Kebede, Abebaw; Mamo, Hassen

    2017-09-11

    The relatively simple and cheaper light-emitting diode fluorescent microscopy (LED-FM) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to replace the conventional tuberculosis (TB) microscopy in both high- and low-volume laboratories. More recently the WHO also endorsed one more technique, Xpert MTB/RIF® assay (Xpert), for improved TB diagnosis particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cases. However, the relative performance of both of these tools differs from setting to setting in reference to the conventional TB diagnostics. This study thus aimed to evaluate these tools for TB detection in individuals visiting Ambo Hospital, west-central Ethiopia. Cross-sectional early-morning sputum samples were collected from presumptive TB patients between January and August 2015. Socio-demographic data were captured using a structured questionnaire. Clinical information was gathered from patients' medical records. The sputum samples were diagnosed using LED-FM, Xpert, concentrated Ziehl-Neelsen (cZN) staining and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture as the gold standard. Drug sensitivity test (DST) was also conducted. Out of 362 sputum samples collected and processed, 36(9.9%) were positive by LED-FM, 42(11.6%) by cZN and 50(13.8%) by Xpert. But, only 340 samples could be declared culture positive or negative for mycobacteria. Of these 340, eight were non-tubercle mycobacteria (NTM). Out of the remaining 332 samples, 45(13.6%) had culture-confirmed TB with 11(24.4%) being HIV co-infected. LED-FM, Xpert and culture detected 54.5% (6/11), 90.9% (10/11) and 100% (11/11) mycobacteria in HIV-positive individuals and 81.3% (26/32), 73.7% (28/38), 78.8% (26/33) and 73.2% (30/41), in HIV negatives respectively. Two samples were rifampicin resistant by both Xpert and DST. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of LED-FM and Xpert were 77.8, 100, 100 and 96; and 93.3, 98, 97.5 and 98.9% respectively. The data demonstrated

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among HIV-infected women within reproductive age group at Mizan Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu

    2017-01-26

    Toxoplasmosis is serious in the case of immune suppression and prenatal transmission. In immunocompromised hosts, it is manifested primarily as a life-threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. Congenital toxoplasmosis results in abortion or congenitally acquired disorders which primarily affect the central nervous system. This study assessed seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and associated factors among HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group (18-49 years) at Mizan Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01 to May 30, 2015. Systematic random sampling technique was employed for participant selection. Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay was used to test for T. gondii from venous blood specimens. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaire for different variables. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed during data analysis. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 270 HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group were included in the study. Mean age of the respondents was 31 years (SD = ±6.5). Of the total study participants, 255 (94.4%), 95% CI (91.6, 97.2%) were found to be seropositive for T. gondii anti-immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, and 6 (2.2%), 95% CI (1.3, 3.1%) for anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM). All the anti-IgM positive samples were also positive for IgG. Multivariate analysis showed that; age within 28-37 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.58, 95% CI 1.01, 6.60), level of education with unable or only able to read and write (AOR = 4.46, 95% CI 1.20, 16.60), and substance abuse (AOR = 4.49, 95 CI 1.60, 12.55) were significantly associated with seropositivity of T. gondii infection. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the HIV-infected women in the childbearing age group in Mizan Aman was high. Age, educational status

  14. Bacterial agents and antibiotic resistance profiles of infections from different sites that occurred among patients at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Ayele, Haimanot; Abate, Dereje

    2017-07-06

    In developing countries like Ethiopia, infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria become a real threat. Hence, monitoring of local level antimicrobial resistance profile is indispensable to contain the spread of drug resistant bacteria and intervene poor awareness on antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, this study aimed at determining bacterial and antibiotic resistance profiles of infections from different sites that occurred among patients. Retrospective data recorded were analyzed on culture and drug susceptibility test results at Debre Markos Referral Hospital which were performed from 2011 to 2014. Drug susceptibility tests were performed using disk-diffusion technique. Chi square test was computed to compare the proportion of bacterial isolates with patients' age and sex. Out of 575 clinical samples processed, 280 (48.7%) were culture positive for aerobic bacteria pathogens. Wound 238 (41.4%) and urine 108 (18.8%) were the most frequent samples processed. Overall, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was the predominant isolate 100 (31.5%) followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) 39 (13.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) 30 (10.3%) and Salmonella spp. 25 (8.9%). P. aeruginosa was the most frequent isolate followed by S. aureus from ear infection. E. coli was the leading isolate followed by Klebsiella spp. from urinary tract infection. Salmonella and Shigella spp. were the most frequent isolates in stool in children below 5 years of age. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) 16 (76.2%) was the most common isolate from urethral discharge. The overall multidrug-resistant Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolates were 113 (84.6%) and 96 (72.2%), respectively. Gram positive bacteria revealed resistance to cotrimoxazole (80%), gentamicin (83.1%), amoxicillin (85.1%), ampicillin (85.8%), penicillin (89.7%), clindamycin (93.2%) and erythromycin (90.9%). Gram negative bacteria showed resistance to cotrimoxazole (53.1%), amoxicillin (58.8%), ampicillin

  15. CARDIAC SURGERY FOR VALVULAR HEART DISEASE AT A REFERRAL HOSPITAL IN ETHIOPIA: A REVIEW OF CASES OPERATED IN THE LAST 30 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Guteta, Senbeta; Yadeta, Dejuma; Azazh, Aklilu; Mekonnen, Dufera

    2016-04-01

    Valvular heart disease has been a significant cause of heart disease worldwide. In Ethiopia, it particularly affects young individuals and constitutes the major cause of cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with choice of treatment for advanced valvular heart disease are variable. The objective of this study is to review surgery done for Ethiopian patients with valvular heart disease. We analyzed data on patients who had valve surgery and follow-up at the Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital cardiology unit. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, the pre-operative status of effected valves and co-morbidities, and assessed their associations with patient management options. A total of 157 valve surgeries were done from 1983 to 2013. Mean age at time of surgery was 26.7 years and females constituted 66% of the cases. Patients with rheumatic heart disease were younger, more likely to be female and have atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have impaired left ventricular systolic function when compared to patients with non-rheumatic heart disease. More than 75% of the surgical procedures done were mechanical valve replacement. Mechanical valves, compared with bioprosthetic valves, were more likely to be used in patients with rheumatic heart disease. The median age of those receiving mechanical valves, 24 (IQR 22-28) years, was lower than those receiving bioprosthetic valves, 31.5 (IQR 29.9-37.9) years. Mechanical valve replacement was significantly higher in those under the age of 20 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio 41.0, 95% CI: 3.0-557.2) and in those between 20 and 29 years of age (Adjusted Odds Ratio 14.3, 95% CI: 2.3-88.6). Valve surgery for valvular heart diseases has been more common performed for young and female patients. A great majority of the replacements done have been with mechanical valves. As many of the patients have been younger and female, the choice of valve surgery and the need for anticoagulation impacts subsequent management of

  16. Learning from developing countries in strengthening health systems: an evaluation of personal and professional impact among global health volunteers at Addis Ababa University's Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    Busse, Heidi; Aboneh, Ephrem A; Tefera, Girma

    2014-09-05

    The positive impact of global health activities by volunteers from the United States in low-and middle-income countries has been recognized. Most existing global health partnerships evaluate what knowledge, ideas, and activities the US institution transferred to the low- or middle-income country. However, what this fails to capture are what kinds of change happen to US-based partners due to engagement in global health partnerships, both at the individual and institutional levels. "Reverse innovation" is the term that is used in global health literature to describe this type of impact. The objectives of this study were to identify what kinds of impact global partnerships have on health volunteers from developed countries, advance this emerging body of knowledge, and improve understanding of methods and indicators for assessing reverse innovation. The study population consisted of 80 US, Canada, and South Africa-based health care professionals who volunteered at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Surveys were web-based and included multiple choice and open-ended questions to assess global health competencies. The data were analyzed using IBRM SPSS® version 21 for quantitative analysis; the open-ended responses were coded using constant comparative analysis to identify themes. Of the 80 volunteers, 63 responded (79 percent response rate). Fifty-two percent of the respondents were male, and over 60 percent were 40 years of age and older. Eighty-three percent reported they accomplished their trip objectives, 95 percent would participate in future activities and 96 percent would recommend participation to other colleagues. Eighty-nine percent reported personal impact and 73 percent reported change on their professional development. Previous global health experience, multiple prior trips, and the desire for career advancement were associated with positive impact on professional development. Professionally and personally meaningful learning happens often

  17. Prevalence of Dermatophytic Infection and the Spectrum of Dermatophytes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklebirhan, Gebreabiezgi; Bitew, Adane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4%) by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4%) samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7%) cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed. PMID:26448763

  18. Association of Hepatitis C Virus Infection with Type II Diabetes in Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Solomon; Abera, Solomon; Mihret, Adane; Abebe, Tamrat

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become the global “epidemic” with an estimated 123 million people currently infected worldwide. As the same time diabetes is also rapidly emerging as a global health care problem that threatens to reach pandemic levels by 2030. Objective. To investigate the magnitude of HCV infection in type II diabetes as compared to controls. Methodology. A case control study design was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from May to June 2010. A total of 604 study subjects were included in this study. Sociodemographic and risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. From serum sample, HCVAb screening was done by rapid antibody screening test. Liver functioning tests and total cholesterol tests were done by Dr. Lange LP 800 spectrophotometer. Results. The prevalence of HCV in type II diabetes and nondiabetic controls was 9.9% and 3.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, HCV seropositives have high risk of developing diabetes as compared with seronegatives (AOR = 2.997, 95% CI: (1.08, 8.315)). Conclusion. In this study, we found a positive association between past HCV infection and type II diabetes. As we did not perform HCV RNA test, we could not assess the association with HCV viremia. PMID:23049551

  19. Prevalence of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Associated Factors among Outpatients with Schizophrenia Attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Siranesh; Debencho, Nigussie; Kisi, Teresa; Tareke, Minale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71), repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50), history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88), longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87), and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98) were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy.

  20. Prevalence of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Associated Factors among Outpatients with Schizophrenia Attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tesfaye, Siranesh; Debencho, Nigussie; Kisi, Teresa; Tareke, Minale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71), repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50), history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88), longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87), and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98) were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. PMID:26904586

  1. Louse-borne relapsing fever profile at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Louse- borne relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by Borrelia recurrentis and is transmitted by body lice, Pediculus humanus corporis. The disease has occurred as epidemic in different parts of the country.Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was conducted to assess the LBRF profile for the last four years. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on patients with LBRF admitted from 2009–2012 at Felegehiwot referral hospital. The diagnosis was based on both clinical and laboratory methods. Patients with strong clinical suspicion of LBRF and positive for Borrelia species in their blood was diagnosed as LBRF cases. Data was collected from all patients with LBRF- like symptoms in their registration book. Data was checked for completeness, coded and analysed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was considered significant for comparison. Results Of the 4559 patients admitted with LBRF- like symptoms, 4178 (91.6%) were males and 381 (8.4%) were females. Most of the patients (74.2%) were within age groups 11–20 years. The majority of patients (94.4%) were from urban residence. The overall prevalence of LBRF was 225 (4.9%) and the highest prevalence 171 (5.1%) was observed in age groups of 11–20 years. The association between seasonal variation and prevalence of LBRF showed that more patients with positive for Borrelia species were recorded in dry 27 (9.7%) than wet 198 (4.6%) seasons (P < 0.001). Finally, a trend in prevalence of LBRF for the last four years showed that the highest numbers of cases were documented in 2010. Conclusion The overall prevalence of LBRF was high and the highest prevalence was observed in young age groups. Moreover, most of the patients with LBRF were from urban dwellers. Therefore, health education should be delivered towards LBRF prevention in the city. PMID:24742342

  2. Assessment of isoniazid preventive therapy in the reduction of tuberculosis among ART patients in Arba Minch Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abossie, Ashenafi; Yohanes, Tsegaye

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. The study was a hospital-based retrospective study. A total of 271 study participants' available information such as demographic data, the type of prophylaxis used, and TB/HIV coinfection status as well as other variables were collected from clinical laboratory and HIV care/ART follow-up clinic. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. TB-infected ART patients were higher among non-IPT group (37 [27.8%]) compared to IPT group (12 [8.7%]). The finding showed that IPT prophylaxis significantly reduces acquiring TB with the relative risk =0.31 (95% confidence interval =0.122, 0.49) in ART patients of this study site where the tuberculosis prevalence is prominent. ART had significant contribution for CD4(+) T-cell lymphocyte count improvement in both IPT and non-IPT groups (P<0.05) in this study. IPT had significant contributions to reduce the burden of TB in ART patients than non-IPT group. This result highlights the use of IPT for the prevention of TB, especially for all ART patients. Other longitudinal studies are needed to observe the benefits and side effects of IPT prophylaxis in tuberculin skin test-positive individuals.

  3. The exposure rate to hepatitis B and C viruses among medical waste handlers in three government hospitals, southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and risk factors for exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among medical waste handlers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015. A total of 152 medical waste handlers (MWH) and 82 non-medical waste handlers (NMWH) were studied. Serum samples were collected from participants and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and anti-HCV using rapid immunochromatography assay. MWH were also screened for hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs). RESULTS: The respective prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV was 1.3%, 39.4%, and 0.7% in MWH, compared to 2.4%, 17.1%, and 1.2%, respectively, in NMWH. Among MWH, 58.6% were susceptible to HBV infection. There was a significant difference in the rate of lifetime exposure to HBV in MWH compared with NMWH (odds ratio [OR], 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 6.13). However, there was no significant difference between participant groups with respect to current HBV infection (OR, 0.53; 95%CI, 0.07 to 3.86) or anti-HCV (OR, 0.54; 95%CI, 0.03 to 8.69). Age older than 40 years and working in a hospital laundry were independent predictors of lifetime exposure to HBV infection. Eleven (7.2%) respondents were vaccinated against HBV. CONCLUSIONS: Lifetime exposure to HBV infection was significantly higher in MWH than in NMWH. The majority of MWH was not vaccinated against HBV and thus remains susceptible to contracting the infection. Screening upon hire followed by vaccination of MWH is recommended to reduce the transmission of HBV. PMID:26797221

  4. Assessment of isoniazid preventive therapy in the reduction of tuberculosis among ART patients in Arba Minch Hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abossie, Ashenafi; Yohanes, Tsegaye

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. Methods The study was a hospital-based retrospective study. A total of 271 study participants’ available information such as demographic data, the type of prophylaxis used, and TB/HIV coinfection status as well as other variables were collected from clinical laboratory and HIV care/ART follow-up clinic. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results TB-infected ART patients were higher among non-IPT group (37 [27.8%]) compared to IPT group (12 [8.7%]). The finding showed that IPT prophylaxis significantly reduces acquiring TB with the relative risk =0.31 (95% confidence interval =0.122, 0.49) in ART patients of this study site where the tuberculosis prevalence is prominent. ART had significant contribution for CD4+ T-cell lymphocyte count improvement in both IPT and non-IPT groups (P<0.05) in this study. Conclusion IPT had significant contributions to reduce the burden of TB in ART patients than non-IPT group. This result highlights the use of IPT for the prevention of TB, especially for all ART patients. Other longitudinal studies are needed to observe the benefits and side effects of IPT prophylaxis in tuberculin skin test-positive individuals. PMID:28392698

  5. Hepatitis B Virus Infections and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic at Deder Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Umare, Abdi; Seyoum, Berhanu; Gobena, Tesfaye; Haile Mariyam, Tamirat

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. Methods and Findings A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015. Data were collected by face to face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Serum was withdrawn for each study subject and used to test for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. The prevalence of HBV infection was found to be 6.9%. Interestingly, the history of abortion (AOR 10.9; 95% CI: 2.2–53.9), nose piercing (AOR 9.1; 95% CI: 1.34–61.79), surgical procedure (AOR 12.8; 95% CI: 1.68–97.06) and history of multiple sexual partners (AOR 16.8; 95% CI: 3.18–89.06) were significant predictors of HBV infection. Conclusions This study determined that the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women was 6.9%, implying that it is high-intermediate endemic area, which is important public health issue needs to be addressed. History of abortion, nose piercing, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners were significantly associated with this viral infection. Accordingly we advocate that health education programs on the mode of HBV transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions should be instituted at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection. It is also advisable to implement

  6. Risk factors for developing drug-related problems in patients with cardiovascular diseases attending Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abdela, Ousman Abubeker; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Getachew, Henok; Kelifa, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are often accompanied with comoribidities and complications leading to taking multiple drugs and thus are more liable to be exposed to drug-related problems (DRPs). DRPs can occur at any stages of medication process from prescription to follow-up treatment. However, a few studies have assessed the specific risk factors for occurrence of at least one potential DRP per patient with CVDs in sub-Saharan African region. Aim: We aim to assess the risk factors for developing potential DRPs in patients with CVDs attending Gondar University Referral Hospital (GUH). Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study. A structured systematic data review was designed focusing on patients with CVDs (both out and inpatients) with age >18 years of both genders attending GUH from April to June 2015. All DRPs were assessed using drugs.com and Medscape. The causes of DRPs were classified using Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe version 6.2. Risk factors that could cause DRPs were assessed using binary logistic regression showing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 227 patients with CVDs were reviewed with a mean age of 52.0 ± 1.7 years. Majority were females (143, 63%), outpatients (133, 58.6%), and diagnosed with heart failure (71, 31.3%). Diuretics (199, 29.5%) were the most commonly prescribed drugs. A total of 265 DRPs were identified, 63.4% of patients have at least one DRP (1.17 ± 1.1). The most common DRPs were found to be an inappropriate selection of drug (36.1%) and dose (24.8%). The most identified risk factors causing DRPs were: Need of additional drug therapy and lack of therapeutic monitoring. Conclusion: The most identified risk factors for developing DRPs were the need of additional drug therapy and lack of therapeutic monitoring. There is a need for clinical pharmacist interventions to monitor and prevent the risk of developing DRPs and contribute to

  7. Risk factors for low birth weight in Bale zone hospitals, South-East Ethiopia : a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Demelash, Habtamu; Motbainor, Achenif; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Melese, Addisu

    2015-10-13

    Low birth weight (LBW) is closely associated with foetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibite growth and cognitive development and resulted chronic diseases later in life. Many factors affect foetal growth and thus, the birth weight. These factors operate to various extents in different environments and cultures. The prevalence of low birth weight in the study area is the highest in the country. To the investigator's knowledge in Bale Zone, no study has yet been done to elucidate the risk factors for low birth weight using case control study design. This study was aimed to identify the risk factors of low birth weight in Bale zone hospitals. A case-control study design was applied from April 1st to August 30th, 2013. A total of 387 mothers (136 cases and 272 controls) were interviewed using structured and pretested questionnaire by trained data collectors working in delivery ward. For each case, two consecutive controls were included in the study. All cases and controls were mothers with singleton birth, full term babies, no diabetes mellitus and no hypertensive. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. The association between the independent variables and dependent variable (birth weight) was evaluated through bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. Maternal age at delivery <20 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-5.73), monthly income <26 United States Dollarr (USD) (AOR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.54-9.41), lack of formal education (AOR = 6; 95% CI = 1.34-26.90), being merchant (AOR = 0.1; 95%CI = 0.02-0.52) and residing in rural area (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.04-4.33) were socio-economic variables associated with low birth weight. Maternal risk factors like occurrence of health problems during pregnancy (AOR = 6.3; 95% CI = 2.75-14.48), maternal body mass index <18 kg/m2 (AOR = 6.7; 95% CI = 1.21-37.14), maternal height <1.5m (AOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1

  8. Assessment of knowledge, accessibility and utilization of palliative care services among adult cancer patients at Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2014: a cross-sectional institution based study.

    PubMed

    Lakew, Serawit; Musema, Hasna; Shimeles, Tsehay; Challinor, Julia

    2015-11-07

    Cancer has been the leading cause of death worldwide for more than two decades. More than 150,000 cancer cases were estimated to exist in Ethiopia each year. The goal of cancer palliative care (PC) services are to prevent and relieve suffering and to support the best possible quality of life (QOL) for patients and their families, regardless of the stage of disease or the need for other therapies. This study attempted to assess the knowledge, accessibility and Utilization of PC Services for adult cancer patients by their perspective at Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional Institution based study was conducted among respondents who had Cancer at TASH. TASH was the only referral center of PC and cancer treatment in Ethiopia. The Hospital was selected for this study purposively. Data was collected by interviewing the client's using a pretested Amharic version questionnaire. During the survey, 384 respondents with cancer were interviewed. Data entry was done using Epi Info version 3.5.2 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Logistic regression model was applied to control confounders. Of the total clients interviewed, more than 62.2 % respondents had previous knowledge for cancer PC services. About 86 % of client's were in the age 35 years and older. About 9 out of 10 (89.8 %) respondents reported problems on accessibility of PC services. Respondents previous knowledge of PC services (AOR = 26.9, 95 % CI 12.3, 59), presence of little (more than 75 % of physical problems/symptoms responded) physical well being of the respondents (AOR = 3.1, 95 % CI 1.96, 4.9), full (all social relationship problems responded as good/positive by respondents) social well being of the respondents (AOR = 1.7, 95 % CI 1.01, 2.8); monthly income $US 25-50 of the respondents (AOR = 0.25, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.7) and marital status single (never married) (AOR = 55.4, 95 % CI 1.2, 2660.4) were significantly associated with respondents utilization of

  9. On a mission: training traditional birth attendants in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ciolino, Alice

    2011-06-01

    Alice Ciolino, a midwife from London spent eight months in Ethiopia with Doctors of the World. Her mission was to train Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Based in the Somali region of Ethiopia, access to healthcare facilities was limited; indeed Kebri Dehar had the only hospital in the region. Here Alice shares her experience of what it is like to live and work in a remote part of the world, far from the medical facilities we take for granted in the West.

  10. Human Cystic Echinococcosis in West Azerbaijan, Northwest Iran: A Retrospective Hospital Based Survey from 2000 To 2009

    PubMed Central

    Hajipirloo, H Mohammadzadeh; Bozorgomid, A; Alinia, T; Tappeh, KH Hazrati; Mahmodlou, R

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in west Azerbaijan, Iran during a 10 year period (2000-2009). Methods We surveyed medical records of infected patients with hydatid cyst who had been operated in four hospitals in Urmia City, the capital of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Several parameters were analyzed including age, sex, place of residency, hospitalization time, and the location of cysts. Results Of 294 cases, 53.3% were female and 46.7% were male with the mean age of 39.4 years (5–93). The average number of operated cysts per year was 29.4 (0.98/100,000 of population). The most affected age group was 20-30 year olds (18.7% of the cases). Cysts were localized in liver and lung in 57.5% and 21.8% of cases respectively and the average hospitalization time was 9 days. Single organ involvement was seen in the majority of patients and 28 (9.5%) cases had multiple involvement. The distribution of residence in patients showed 108 (36.9%) of them to have urban origin and 185 (63.1%) were rural residents. The lowest number (n = 17) and the highest number of operation (n= 48) recorded in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of hydatidosis is high in this city and further studies are needed for evaluation of economic burden and risk factors for CE in this region. PMID:23914247

  11. The prehistory of psychiatry in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Giel, R

    1999-01-01

    Ethiopian psychiatry has changed considerably during the last few years with an increasing number of Ethiopian doctors and nurses trained in psychiatry. In the paper is given an outline of the history of psychiatry in Ethiopia from 1965 onwards. Important improvements in the Amanuel Mental Hospital in Addis Ababa which for long was the only psychiatric facility in the country, the establishment of the Department of Psychiatry at the Medical Faculty of the University of Addis Ababa and the introduction of psychiatry in the curriculum of the medical faculty are important steps. Recently training of nurses and doctors in psychiatry has led to the establishment of psychiatric clinics in 26 district hospitals throughout the country staffed with psychiatric nurses supervised by psychiatrists from Amanuel Hospital in Addis Ababa. The development of psychiatric research in Ethiopia is also outlined.

  12. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in the outpatient unit of Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013: Cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sintayehu, Mezinew; Mulat, Haregwoin; Yohannis, Zegeye; Adera, Tewodros; Fekade, Maereg

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers like family members or other relatives are central and provide not only practical help and personal care but also give emotional support, and they are suffering from plenty of challengeable tasks. These, eventually, cast out family caregivers into multidimensional problems prominently for mental distress like depression, anxiety, sleep problem and somatic disorder which are followed by physiologic changes and impaired health habits that ultimately lead to illness and possibly to death. Numerous studies demonstrate that mental distress of caregivers are two times compared to general populations. Despite it was not uncommon to observe manifestations of caregivers' mental distress, yet there was no study on this area. Therefore, this study was intended to assess the prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among the caregivers of persons with severe mental illness in the out patients unit of Amanuel Hospital, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 31, 2013 at Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique with "k" interval of 13 was employed to withdraw a total of 423 participants from study population. Five psychiatric nurses carried out interview by using standardized and validated Self Reported Questionnaire (SRQ 20). Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. This study revealed that the overall prevalence of mental distress was found to be 221(56.7 %). The factors like missed social support, two or more times admission of patient, care giving for psychotic patient, being farmer and being female were found to be predictors for mental distress of caregivers with this [AOR 95 % CI = 9.523(5.002, 18.132)], 3.293(1.474, 3.3560), 2.007(1.109, 3.634), 2.245(1.129, 4.463) and 3.170(1.843, 5.454)] respectively. In this respect the study observed that there was a higher level of mental distress experienced by caregivers of

  13. Low Serum Vitamin C Status Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugwa, Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu; Iwasam, Elemi Agbor; Nwali, Matthew Igwe

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin C levels are low in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine serum Vitamins C levels among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano, and this can help further research to determine the place of Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. This was a prospective study of 400 pregnant women who presented for antenatal care in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Kano, Nigeria. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents. Determination of serum Vitamin C was done using appropriate biochemical methods. Vitamin C deficiency was found in 79.5% of the participants. The values for Vitamin C were 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/dl during the first trimester, 0.50 ± 0.99 mg/dl in the second trimester, and 0.35 ± 0.36 mg/dl in the third trimester and P = 0.001. There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins C concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the second trimester. Therefore, Vitamin C supplementation is suggested during pregnancy, especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate.

  14. Low Serum Vitamin C Status Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu; Iwasam, Elemi Agbor; Nwali, Matthew Igwe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin C levels are low in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine serum Vitamins C levels among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano, and this can help further research to determine the place of Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. Methods: This was a prospective study of 400 pregnant women who presented for antenatal care in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Kano, Nigeria. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents. Determination of serum Vitamin C was done using appropriate biochemical methods. Results: Vitamin C deficiency was found in 79.5% of the participants. The values for Vitamin C were 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/dl during the first trimester, 0.50 ± 0.99 mg/dl in the second trimester, and 0.35 ± 0.36 mg/dl in the third trimester and P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins C concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the second trimester. Therefore, Vitamin C supplementation is suggested during pregnancy, especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate. PMID:27014432

  15. Vitamins A and E Deficiencies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, North-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamins A and E deficiency is prevalent in developing countries, and plasma levels are low in pregnancy. This study was undertaken to determine the serum Vitamins A and E status among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano and to provide the necessary information needed to suggest the supplementation of Vitamins A and E during pregnancy. Methods: The study was done in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu Local Government Area. Dawakin Kudu, a rural community in Kano State is about 12 km from Kano metropolis which is the most populous city in Nigeria and commercial nerve center of Northern Nigeria. Most of the women are housewives, however, some engage in subsistent farming and petty trading. This was a prospective study of 200 pregnant women at various maternal ages, gestational ages, and parities. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 200 respondents which showed age and parity distributions. Determination of Serum Vitamins A and E was done using methods of Bessey, et al. and Tsen. Ethical approval for the research was obtained from General Hospital, Dawakin Kudu, Kano. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17 statistical software (SPSS Inc., IL, Chicago, USA). Descriptive statistics was done. Mean serum Vitamins A and E concentration between trimesters were compared using two-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the women were aged 20–39 years with mean of 23.67 ± 6.11. Most were in the 1–4 parity range. Mean birth weight was 2.42 ± 0.74 kg. Above 65% were deficient while 34.5% had normal levels of Vitamin A and 51% were deficient of serum Vitamin E. Serum Vitamins A and E levels showed a marked reduction from first through third trimester. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum

  16. Vitamins A and E Deficiencies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, North-West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugwa, Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins A and E deficiency is prevalent in developing countries, and plasma levels are low in pregnancy. This study was undertaken to determine the serum Vitamins A and E status among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano and to provide the necessary information needed to suggest the supplementation of Vitamins A and E during pregnancy. The study was done in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu Local Government Area. Dawakin Kudu, a rural community in Kano State is about 12 km from Kano metropolis which is the most populous city in Nigeria and commercial nerve center of Northern Nigeria. Most of the women are housewives, however, some engage in subsistent farming and petty trading. This was a prospective study of 200 pregnant women at various maternal ages, gestational ages, and parities. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 200 respondents which showed age and parity distributions. Determination of Serum Vitamins A and E was done using methods of Bessey, et al. and Tsen. Ethical approval for the research was obtained from General Hospital, Dawakin Kudu, Kano. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17 statistical software (SPSS Inc., IL, Chicago, USA). Descriptive statistics was done. Mean serum Vitamins A and E concentration between trimesters were compared using two-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Majority of the women were aged 20-39 years with mean of 23.67 ± 6.11. Most were in the 1-4 parity range. Mean birth weight was 2.42 ± 0.74 kg. Above 65% were deficient while 34.5% had normal levels of Vitamin A and 51% were deficient of serum Vitamin E. Serum Vitamins A and E levels showed a marked reduction from first through third trimester. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins A and E concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with

  17. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tesfaye, Weghata; Anagaw, Belay; Tessema, Belay; Debebe, Tewodrose; Anagaw, Berhanu; Mulu, Andargachew; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, with TBL accounting for 80% of these patients. In Ethiopia, pathological services, culture, and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium species are not available as routine tests, not even for cases with suspected infection by drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia is currently unsatisfactory. Against this background, a high index of clinical doubt and timely use of diagnostic methods, prompt confirmation of diagnosis, and early initiation of specific anti-TB treatment are the key factors for the successful management of MDR-TB and TBL in Ethiopia.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety among patients with tuberculosis at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, South Ethiopia, Cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duko, Bereket; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Ayano, Getnet

    2015-09-14

    Anxiety and depression are frequently and highly occurring mental disorders in patients with tuberculosis. When depression and anxiety co-morbid with tuberculosis, it leads to poor adherence to anti TB medication, which is important barrier to global control of tuberculosis & increases the risk of morbidity and mortality due to TB. Cross sectional study was conducted to assess prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety among patients with TB at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.A total of 417 TB patients, who had regular follow up at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, South Ethiopia, were recruited to assess depression and anxiety and its associated correlates. Depression and anxiety were assessed through face to face interviews by trained psychiatry nurses using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Correlates for depression and anxiety were assessed using a structured questionnaire, Oslo social support scale and TB stigma Scale. The prevalence of depression and anxiety among patients with TB were 43.4% (181) and 41.5% (173) respectively. When we adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, patients who had co-morbid HIV infection [AOR = 5.90,(95% CI: 2.34,15.93)], poor social support [AOR = 18.06, (95% CI:11.21,25.45)] & perceived TB stigma [AOR = 10.86, (95% CI:10.26,23.47)] were more likely to have depression as compared to individuals who had no co-morbid HIV infection, good social support and no perceived TB stigma respectively. Patients who had co-morbid HIV infection [AOR = 9.61,(95% CI:3.56,25.96)], poor social support [AOR = 8.93,(95% CI: 5.01,15.94)], perceived TB stigma [AOR = 3.11,(95% CI:1.78,5.42)], being female [AOR = 1.72 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.95)], current substance use[AOR = 4.88, (95% CI: 1.79, 13.28)] and being on intensive phase of TB treatment [AOR = 1.91, (95% CI: 1.08, 3

  19. Youth services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Meredith, P

    1990-12-01

    Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom.

  20. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital in Kano, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugwa, E A

    2016-01-01

    Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors contributing to maternal undernutrition in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to explore some of the taboos and nutritional practices among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 220 pregnant women. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to interview the respondents, which showed various sociodemographic information, cultural nutritional processes, taboos of the community, and a 24 h food recall. The ages, parities, and gestational ages of the women were collated. Descriptive statistics was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software Version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritional practices and taboos was determined using Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. At the end of the study, 200 participants (91%) gave complete information. Most of the women, 70% (140/200) were in the 20-39 years age range with mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 23.7 (6.1) years, mostly uneducated, 70% (140/200), and unemployed, 51% (102/200). Most of the women did a child spacing of 12-24 months, 62% (124/200) with mean (SD) child spacing interval of 26.32 (10.19) months. Gestational age at booking was mostly 13-26 weeks, 48% (96/200) with an average of 26.60 (8.01). Most of the women had 1-4 children, 54.5% (109/200) with mean (SD) of 2.47 (2.50). Most of the women agreed that they had adequate intake of oil, 86% (172/200), meat/fish, 92% (194/200), fruit/vegetables 56% (112/200), and had 3 meals/day 80% (152/200), and did not practice pica 83% (166/200). All of the women, 100% (200/200) believe that women should eat more during pregnancy in order to have healthy babies. They were mostly supported by their husbands, 53% (106/200) and less likely by the community, 34% (17/200). The

  1. Screening for Cervical Cancer: A Review of Outcome among Infertile Women in a Tertiary Hospital in North-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, DC; Nwobodo, EI; Ekele, BA; Sahabi, SM

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital tract malignancy in the developing countries of the world. Interestingly, it has a pre-invasive stage, which can be detected through screening. The etiological organism of the disease is the human papilloma virus (HPV) that is sexually transmitted and sexually transmitted infections play a major role in the causation of infertility in developing countries. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical smear among infertile women at Usmanu Dan-Fodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH) Sokoto, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of cervical smears taken from infertile women attending the gynecological out-patient clinic of UDUTH sokoto over a 12-month period. cross-sectional study involving the assessment of the cervical smears taken from infertile women attending the gynecological out-patient clinic of UDUTH Sokoto over a 12-month period. Statistical analysis of the results was carried out using the EPI-INFO 3.5.1 (CDC, Atlanta Georgia, USA). Chi square test was used for association at p-value< 0.05 at 95 % confidence interval Results: A total of 162 patients were screened during the study period. Their ages ranged from 15 to 46 years with a mean of 27.9 (6.2) years and modal age of 25-34 years. Majority of the subjects 88/159 (55.4%) were in the lower socio-economic class and 75/159 (47.2%) of the women were nullipara. Out of the 159 subjects with adequate smears, 58/159 (36.8%) were normal while 44/159 (27.8%) had inflammatory lesions. Cervical intraepithelial lesions were observed in 18/159 (11.3%) of the smears while 25 (15.7%) had evidence of HPV infection. Conclusions: Considering the relatively high incidence 18/159 (11.3%) of cervical intraepithelial lesions seen among the subjects, there is the need to integrate cervical smear in the general infertility work-up. PMID:24971213

  2. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital in Kano, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors contributing to maternal undernutrition in pregnancy. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore some of the taboos and nutritional practices among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 220 pregnant women. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to interview the respondents, which showed various sociodemographic information, cultural nutritional processes, taboos of the community, and a 24 h food recall. The ages, parities, and gestational ages of the women were collated. Descriptive statistics was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software Version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritional practices and taboos was determined using Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: At the end of the study, 200 participants (91%) gave complete information. Most of the women, 70% (140/200) were in the 20–39 years age range with mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 23.7 (6.1) years, mostly uneducated, 70% (140/200), and unemployed, 51% (102/200). Most of the women did a child spacing of 12–24 months, 62% (124/200) with mean (SD) child spacing interval of 26.32 (10.19) months. Gestational age at booking was mostly 13–26 weeks, 48% (96/200) with an average of 26.60 (8.01). Most of the women had 1–4 children, 54.5% (109/200) with mean (SD) of 2.47 (2.50). Most of the women agreed that they had adequate intake of oil, 86% (172/200), meat/fish, 92% (194/200), fruit/vegetables 56% (112/200), and had 3 meals/day 80% (152/200), and did not practice pica 83% (166/200). All of the women, 100% (200/200) believe that women should eat more during pregnancy in order to have healthy babies. They were mostly supported by their husbands, 53% (106/200) and

  3. Current Level and Correlates of Traditional Cooking Energy Sources Utilization in Urban Settings in the Context of Climate Change and Health, Northwest Ethiopia: A Case of Debre Markos Town

    PubMed Central

    Geremew, Kumlachew; Gedefaw, Molla; Dagnew, Zewdu; Jara, Dube

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional biomass has been the major source of cooking energy for major segment of Ethiopian population for thousands of years. Cognizant of this energy poverty, the Government of Ethiopia has been spending huge sum of money to increase hydroelectric power generating stations. Objective. To assess current levels and correlates of traditional cooking energy sources utilization. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches on systematically selected 423 households for quantitative and purposively selected 20 people for qualitative parts. SPSS version 16 for windows was used to analyze the quantitative data. Logistic regression was fitted to assess possible associations and its strength was measured using odds ratio at 95% CI. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Result. The study indicated that 95% of households still use traditional biomass for cooking. Those who were less knowledgeable about negative health and environmental effects of traditional cooking energy sources were seven and six times more likely to utilize them compared with those who were knowledgeable (AOR (95% CI) = 7.56 (1.635, 34.926), AOR (95% CI) = 6.68 (1.80, 24.385), resp.). The most outstanding finding of this study was that people use traditional energy for cooking mainly due to lack of the knowledge and their beliefs about food prepared using traditional energy. That means “…people still believe that food cooked with charcoal is believed to taste delicious than cooked with other means.”  Conclusion. The majority of households use traditional biomass for cooking due to lack of knowledge and belief. Therefore, mechanisms should be designed to promote electric energy and to teach the public about health effects of traditional cooking energy source. PMID:24895591

  4. Knowledge, Practice, and Associated Factors of Home-Based Management of Diarrhea among Caregivers of Children Attending Under-Five Clinic in Fagita Lekoma District, Awi Zone, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Desta, Bogale Kassahun; Ashenafi, Tesfaye Demeke

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia, it is the second cause for clinical presentation among under five-year child population. Objective The main aim of this study was to assess knowledge, practice, and associated factors of home-based management of diarrhea among caregivers of children attending the under-five clinic. Methods Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out from March 1, 2016, to April 22, 2016. Results Two hundred eight (56.2%) of them had good knowledge and one hundred thirty-nine (37.6%) of them had the good practice of home management of diarrhea, specifically, primary education (AOR: 5.384, 95% CI: 2.008, 14.438), secondary and above education (AOR: 11.769, 95% CI: 3.527, 39.275), daily laborer (AOR: 0.208, 95% CI: 0.054, 0.810), and no information about diarrhea (AOR: 0.139, 95% CI: 0.054, 0.354). Moreover, age range of 25–35 (AOR: 4.091, 95% CI: 1.741, 9.616) and 36–45 (AOR: 3.639, 95% CI: 1.155, 11.460), being single (AOR: 0.111, 95% CI: 0.013, 0.938), being divorced (AOR: 0.120, 95% CI: 0.024, 0.598), illiteracy (AOR: 0.052, 95% CI: 0.017, 0.518), primary education (AOR: 0.143, CI: 0.046, 0.440), and no information about diarrhea (AOR: 0.197, 95% CI: 0.057, 0.685) were significantly associated variables with the outcome variables in multivariate regression. Conclusion Caregivers had slightly adequate knowledge but poor practice. PMID:28912970

  5. Detection and molecular characterisation of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba spp. among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in Gambo Hospital, Oromia Region, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Flecha, María J; Benavides, Cynthia M; Tissiano, Gabriel; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Cuadros, Juan; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Cano, Lourdes; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of the enteric protozoa species G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms compatible with infections by these pathogens seeking medical attention in a rural area in southern Ethiopia. A total of 92 stool samples were initially screened by direct microscopy and immunochromatography and further confirmed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis-positive samples were molecularly characterised by multilocus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was used for the subtyping of Cryptosporidium isolates. Detection and differential diagnosis of E. histolytica/dispar were conducted by real-time PCR. PCR-based prevalences were 10.9% for G. duodenalis, 1.1% for Cryptosporidium spp. and 3.3% for Entamoeba spp. Seven (four novel and three known) subtypes of G. duodenalis assemblage B were identified at the GDH locus and 5 (one novel and four known) at the BG locus. A novel variant of C. hominis subtype IbA9G3 was also identified. Two Entamoeba isolates were assigned to E. dispar and an additional one to E. histolytica. Although preliminary, our results strongly suggest that giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis and amoebiasis represent a significant burden in Ethiopian rural population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pathways to psychiatric care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Y Y; Flisher, A J; Alem, A; Baheretebeb, Y

    2009-03-01

    Understanding the pathways to psychiatric care and recognition of delay points are crucial for the development of interventions that aim to improve access to mental health-care services. Over a 2-month period in 2003, a total of 1044 patients at the commencement of new episodes of care at Amanuel Specialized Mental Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were interviewed using the encounter form that was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the study of pathways to psychiatric care. The mental hospital was contacted directly by 41% of patients. The remaining patients sought care from up to four different caregivers before arriving at the psychiatric hospital. Where the initial service was not received at the psychiatric hospital, 30.9% of patients sought care from priests/holy water/church. The median delay between onset of illness and arrival at the psychiatric hospital was 38 weeks. The longest delays before arriving at the mental hospital were associated with having no formal education, joblessness, and diagnoses of epilepsy and physical conditions. Implementing a robust referral system and establishing a strong working relationship with both traditional and modern health-care providers, as well as designing a service delivery model that targets particular segments of the population, such as those who are uneducated, jobless and/or suffer from epilepsy and somatic conditions, should be the most important strategies towards improving mental health service delivery and shortening of undue delay for patients receiving psychiatric care in Ethiopia.

  7. English Teaching Profile: Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England).

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and goes on to outline the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  8. English Teaching Profile: Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England).

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and goes on to outline the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  9. Insulin-requiring diabetes in Ethiopia: associations with poverty, early undernutrition and anthropometric disproportion.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, S; Yigzaw, M; Alemu, S; Dessie, A; Fieldhouse, H; Girma, T; Trimble, E R; Phillips, D I W; Parry, E H O

    2010-10-01

    Most insulin-requiring diabetes patients in Ethiopia have an atypical form of the disease, which resembles previous descriptions of malnutrition-related diabetes. As so little is known about its aetiology, we have carried out a case-control study to evaluate its social and nutritional determinants. Men and women with insulin-requiring diabetes (n=107), aged 18-40 years, were recruited in two centres, Gondar and Jimma, 750 km northwest and 330 km southwest of the capital, Addis Ababa, respectively. Controls of similar age and sex (n=110) were recruited from patients attending other hospital clinics. Diabetes was strongly associated with subsistence farming, odds ratio=3.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-7.8) and illiteracy/low levels of education, odds ratio=4.0 (2.0-8.0). Diabetes was also linked with a history of childhood malnutrition, odds ratio=5.5 (1.0-29.0) the mother's death during childhood, odds ratio=3.9 (1.0-14.8), and markers of poverty including poorer access to sanitation (P=0.004), clean water (P=0.009), greater overcrowding (P=0.04), increased distance from the clinic (P=0.01) and having fewer possessions (P=0.01). Compared with controls, people with diabetes had low mid upper arm circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fat/lean body mass (P<0.01). In addition, men with the disease tended to be shorter, were lighter (P=0.001), with reduced sitting height (P=0.015) and reduced biacromial (P=0.003) and bitrochanteric (P=0.008) diameters. Insulin-requiring diabetes in Ethiopia is strongly linked with poor education and markers of poverty. Men with the disease have associated disproportionate skeletal growth. These findings point towards a nutritional aetiology for this condition although the nature of the nutritional deficiency and its timing during growth and development remains obscure.

  10. The epidemiology of burns in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Courtright, P; Haile, D; Kohls, E

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and cost of the service. Adult members of a systematic random sample (20%) of households from 16 communities (total population = 10,183) were interviewed. Questions focused on what to do to put out the fire, what to do for first aid for a burn, the major cause of adult and childhood burns, and a history of burn in any household member. SETTING--The study was conducted at Attat Hospital and in the surrounding Gurage-Chaha Region of West Shoa Province of Ethiopia. STUDY SUBJECTS--There were 271 burn inpatients during the 7 year period from 1983-1989; 163 households were selected for interview; there were no refusals. MAIN RESULTS--During the 7 year period the cost of tertiary inpatient burn treatment at Attat Hospital has been estimated to be US$86,366.72, of which the hospital absorbed 66%. From community based information the cumulative incidence of burns in this population was found to be 5-11%. The absence of a cumulative increase in burns over time in men suggests that female respondents may not fully recall burn histories in adult male household members. The study population possess inadequate knowledge regarding burn prevention and burn first aid. Deleterious traditional compounds were used on 32% of burn patients in the villages. CONCLUSIONS--Since most burns are related to household fires, generally in the domain of women in rural Ethiopia, women's groups may be the most appropriate setting for education on burn prevention and first aid. Burn prevention and first aid education should also be recognised as a priority in schools and in the training of community health workers. PMID:8436886

  11. Pre-ART nutritional status and its association with mortality in adult patients enrolled on ART at Fiche Hospital in North Shoa, Oromia region, Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tesfamariam, Kokeb; Baraki, Negga; Kedir, Haji

    2016-12-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compromises the nutritional status of infected individuals and in turn, malnutrition worsens the effects of the infection itself by weakening the immune system consequently accelerating disease progression and death. However, few studies have examined the association between nutritional status at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and early mortality. Therefore, this study assesses pre-ART nutritional status and other baseline characteristics and mortality among adult patients on ART at Fiche Hospital, Ethiopia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 489 ART enrolled adult patients between August 01, 2006 and September 30, 2013 in Fiche Hospital. Study participants were selected by using systematic random sampling method. Actuarial table was used to estimate survival of patients after ART initiation and log rank test was used to compare the survival curves. Cox proportional-hazard regression was used to determine independent predictors of time to death. Most of the study subjects were females 254 (51.9%). A total of 489 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 87 died during a median study follow-up of 22 months. The estimated mortality among malnourished was 21, 28, 33, and 38% at 5, 10, 15, and 25 months respectively with mortality incidence density of 5.63 deaths per 100 person years. The independent predictors of mortality were: BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) (AHR = 5.4 95% CI 3.03-9.58), baseline ambulatory functional status (AHR = 3.84; 95% CI 2.19-6.74), bedridden functional status (AHR = 4.78; 95% CI 2.14-10.65), WHO clinical stage III (AHR 2.21; 95% CI 1.16-4.21), WHO clinical stage IV (AHR 4.05; 95% CI 1.50-10.97) and CD4 count less than 200 cells/μl (AHR = 2.95; 95% CI 1.48-5.88), two and more opportunistic infections (AHR 2.30; 95% CI 1.11-4.75). Undernutrition at the time of ART initiation was associated with increased risk of death, particularly during the first 3 months after ART initiation

  12. Socio-demographic characteristics, clinical profile and prevalence of existing mental illness among suicide attempters attending emergency services at two hospitals in Hawassa city, South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ayehu, Moges; Solomon, Tarekegn; Lemma, Kinfe

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. It contributes for more than one million deaths each year. Since previous suicidal attempt was considered as the best predictor of future suicide, identifying factors behind suicidal attempt are helpful to design suicide prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess socio-demographic characteristics, clinical profile and prevalence of existing mental illness among patients presenting with suicidal attempt to emergency services of general hospitals in South Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients presenting with complications of suicidal attempt to emergency departments of two general hospitals in Hawassa city from November, 2014 to August, 2015. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire which contained socio-demographic and clinical variables. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5 (MINI PLUs) was used to assess the prevalence of existing mental illness among study participants. Data was entered and analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 21 software package. A total of 96 individuals were assessed, of whom 56 (58.3%) were females. The mean age of study participants was 21.5 (8.0) years. The majority, 75 (78.1%), of the study participants were aged below 25 years. Ingesting pesticide poisons and corrosive agent were used by the majority to attempt suicide. Mental illness was found in only three (3.1%) of the study participants. Impulsivity (the time between decision to attempt suicide and the actual attempt of less than 5 min) was reported by 30 (31.2%) of the study participants, of whom 18 (60%) were males. Males were found three times more likely to attempt suicide impulsively than women (COR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.3). Quarreling with family members, facing financial crisis, and having unplanned and unwanted pregnancy were reported by the majority of study participants as immediate reasons to attempt suicide. The presence of stressful life events and

  13. Northwest side view showing 3 windows and security light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest side view showing 3 windows and security light - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Hospital, Animal House, Near intersection of Hospital Way & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Pacific Northwest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The Rocky, Cascade, and Coast Mountain Ranges dominate the landscape of the Pacific Northwest