Science.gov

Sample records for hospital parirenyatwa zimbabwe

  1. Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Zimbabwe is a land-locked plateau country of 151,000 square miles, divided into 8 provinces, in Southeastern Africa, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. Its population consists of 8.8 million blacks, divided between the Shona-speaking Mashona (80%) and the Sindebele-speaking Matabele (19%), 100,000 whites, 20,000 coloreds, and 10,000 Asians. Many of the blacks are Christians. More than 1/2 the whites migrated to Zimbabwe after the Second World War at a rate of about 1000 a year until the mid-1970s; since then 12,000 whites have left the country. The official language is English, and education is free. Most African children 5-19 years old attend school, and literacy is between 40% and 50%. The University of Zimbabwe is located in Harare, the capital, and there are several technical institutes and teacher-training colleges. Zimbabwe has been inhabited since the stone age, and evidence of a high indigenous civilization remains in the "Great Zimbabwe Ruins" near Masvingo. The present black population is descended from later migrations of Bantu people from central Africa. Cecil Rhodes was granted concessions for mineral rights in the area in 1888, and the territory, which administered by the British South Africa Company, was called Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing entity within the British Empire in 1913. In 1953 Southern Rhodesia was joined with the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Central African Federation, but this dissolved in 1963, and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became independent as Zambia and Malawi in 1964. Independence was withheld from Rhodesia because Prime Minister Ian Smith refused to give Britain assurances that the country would move toward majority rule. In 1965 Smith issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the UK. In 1966 the UN Security Council imposed mandatory economic sanctions on Rhodesia. Within Rhodesia the major African nationalist groups -- the

  2. The Hospitalization Costs of Diabetes and Hypertension Complications in Zimbabwe: Estimations and Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Mutowo, Mutsa P.; Lorgelly, Paula K.; Laxy, Michael; Mangwiro, John C.; Owen, Alice J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Treating complications associated with diabetes and hypertension imposes significant costs on health care systems. This study estimated the hospitalization costs for inpatients in a public hospital in Zimbabwe. Methods. The study was retrospective and utilized secondary data from medical records. Total hospitalization costs were estimated using generalized linear models. Results. The median cost and interquartile range (IQR) for patients with diabetes, $994 (385–1553) mean $1319 (95% CI: 981–1657), was higher than patients with hypertension, $759 (494–1147) mean $914 (95% CI: 825–1003). Female patients aged below 65 years with diabetes had the highest estimated mean costs ($1467 (95% CI: 1177–1828)). Wound care had the highest estimated mean cost of all procedures, $2884 (95% CI: 2004–4149) for patients with diabetes and $2239 (95% CI: 1589–3156) for patients with hypertension. Age below 65 years, medical procedures (amputation, wound care, dialysis, and physiotherapy), the presence of two or more comorbidities, and being prescribed two or more drugs were associated with significantly higher hospitalization costs. Conclusion. Our estimated costs could be used to evaluate and improve current inpatient treatment and management of patients with diabetes and hypertension and determine the most cost-effective interventions to prevent complications and comorbidities. PMID:27403444

  3. Teenage Suicide in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Wilson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)

  4. Pharmacy Education in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castiglia, Mary; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Pharmacy education at the University of Zimbabwe is somewhat like that in the United States; communication skill development and the pharmacist's role as drug expert are emphasized. Compounding is a major focus of study because bulk compounding is more economical for a developing country. The university's curriculum emphasizes rural practice, and…

  5. The Oxfam Medical programme in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Walt, G; Walker, G; Sanders, D

    1983-11-05

    2 distinct phases have occurred in the Oxfam Medical Program in Zimbabwe, developed to improve health care for the majority rural population: taking stock of the situation at the end of hostilities in the struggle for independence and reestablishing health services; and consolidation once reconstruction was begun in earnest and the new government had more information and greater control. The 1st team of 6 doctors and 2 nurses was recruited for 6 months. Following consultations with the Zimbabwean Association of Church Hospitals, Oxfam and the government identified 6 mission hospitals, in particularly isolated locations, to which team members were allocated. The main characteristic of phase 1 was relief work to revive rural health services. Some of the doctors were immersed immediately in demanding hospital work while others spent time outside the hospital in relief work to aid the refugees returning from neighboring countries or leaving the "protected" villages. Outreach clinics were restablished after representatives of branch and district committees determined that this was what people wanted, and some of the Oxfam team collaborated with Ministry of Health vaccination teams. Team members became involved in training health personnel. 1 important task undertaken by the 1st team was a nutrition study to document the extent of undernutrition in Zimbabwe. The findings indicated that overall children's nutritional status was poor, with a high degree of severe undernourishment. During the 2nd phase, a team of 6 doctors and 3 nurses were recruited for 2 years (September 1980-82). Much of the team's time was devoted to improving administration, information, and drug distribution within the mission hospitals. Appropriate therapeutic practices were established in most hospital situations. The team worked with Zimbabweans and have become well integrated into the hospital structure. They have also established contacts with central and local government organizations at

  6. Routine prophylactic antibiotic use in the management of snakebite

    PubMed Central

    Tagwireyi, Dexter D; Ball, Douglas E; Nhachi, Charles FB

    2001-01-01

    Background Routine antibiotic prophylaxis following snakebite is not recommended but evidence suggests that it may be common practice in Zimbabwe. This study set out to determine and describe the extent of this practice at Parirenyatwa Hospital, a large teaching hospital in Zimbabwe Methods A retrospective case review (1996 to 1999 inclusive) of all cases of snakebite was undertaken at Parirenyatwa Hospital. Cases with a diagnosis of snakebite, presenting within 24 hours of the bite and with no complications or concurrent illness were defined as "routine prophylactic antibiotic use". Results From 78 cases which satisfied the inclusion criteria, 69 (88.5%) received antibiotics. Ten different antibiotics from 6 different classes were used with penicillins the most commonly prescribed (benzylpenicillin in 29% of cases, alone or in combination). Over 40% of antibiotics were given parenterally although all patients were conscious on admission. The total cost of antibiotics used was estimated at US$522.98. Conclusion Routine prophylactic use of antibiotics in snakebite at Parirenyatwa Hospital is common practice. This may highlight the lack of a clearly defined policy leading to wasteful inappropriate antibiotic use which is costly and may promote bacterial antibiotic resistance. Further work is required to investigate the reasons for this practice and to design appropriate interventions to counter it. PMID:11710972

  7. Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

  8. Praying until Death: Apostolicism, Delays and Maternal Mortality in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Religion affects people’s daily lives by solving social problems, although it creates others. Female sexual and reproductive health are among the issues most affected by religion. Apostolic sect members in Zimbabwe have been associated with higher maternal mortality. We explored apostolic beliefs and practices on maternal health using 15 key informant interviews in 5 purposively selected districts of Zimbabwe. Results show that apostolicism promotes high fertility, early marriage, non-use of contraceptives and low or non-use of hospital care. It causes delays in recognizing danger signs, deciding to seek care, reaching and receiving appropriate health care. The existence of a customized spiritual maternal health system demonstrates a huge desire for positive maternal health outcomes among apostolics. We conclude that apostolic beliefs and practices exacerbate delays between onset of maternal complications and receiving help, thus increasing maternal risk. We recommend complementary and adaptive approaches that address the maternal health needs of apostolics in a religiously sensitive manner. PMID:27509018

  9. Indigenous plant remedies in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chinemana, F; Drummond, R B; Mavi, S; de Zoysa, I

    1985-01-01

    Two household surveys undertaken in Zimbabwe between 1981 and 1983 revealed extensive use of indigenous plant remedies in the home-management of childhood diarrhoea and many adult illnesses. Names of the local plants, trees and shrubs are listed, together with the part of the plant used and the type of condition treated. The usage of medicinal plants underscores the need for further study of indigenous pharmacopoeias and the therapeutic properties of plants. The role of indigenous plant remedies within local health care systems is also worthy of closer investigation.

  10. The social impact of cost recovery measures in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyambuya, M N

    1994-03-01

    Since the International Monetary Fund/World Bank Economic Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP) in Zimbabwe was adopted in 1990, health care and education costs have escalated, and many people fail to get these services owing to poverty. The post-independence era in Zimbabwe witnessed a tremendous growth in education and health with many schools, colleges, hospitals and clinics built, professional staff employed, and a general expansion in demand. Nevertheless, the question of drug shortages and ever-increasing health care costs were not addressed. A deficient transport network, the increases in drug prices, the exodus of professional staff, the devaluation of the Zimbabwe dollar, and the cost recovery measures endangered the right to acceptable health care. The social service cutbacks adopted by the government in education will deepen poverty. After independence, the Zimbabwean education system had a free tuition policy at primary school levels. Now that the government reintroduced school fees, a generation of illiterate and semi-illiterate school dropouts will grow up. The social implications of this include increases in crime, prostitution, the number of street kids, the spread of diseases, and social discontent, which are the symptoms of a shrinking economy. As a result of the cost recovery measures, school enrollment in rural areas has gone up. Some urban parents have been forced to transfer their children to rural schools. Higher education also suffers, as government subsidies to colleges and universities have been drastically curtailed. The budgetary cuts have grave repercussions for teaching and research, as poor working conditions and low morals of lecturers and students become prevalent. Most wage-earning Zimbabweans' living standards have deteriorated as the cost of living continues to escalate, coupled with the cost recovery measures in the name of ESAP.

  11. Snake poisoning in rural Zimbabwe--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nhachi, C F; Kasilo, O M

    1994-01-01

    Over a period of 2 years (January 1991 to December 1992) 274 cases of snake bite were admitted to hospital in the eight provinces of Zimbabwe. Of these patients, 54% were males and 88% belonged to the 6-40-year age group. Five deaths (1.8% of the total cases) were reported. The majority of snake bites (63%) occurred at night (between 6.30 p.m. and midnight) and over 74% took place during the hot rainy season, i.e. between November and April. In over 58% of the cases the victim accidentally stepped on the snake, the snake being cobra in 37%, puff adder in 20% and the black and green mamba in 18% of the cases. Most of the bites occurred on the leg, below the knee. Treatment of snake envenomation consisted mainly of the administration of antibiotics (151 cases), analgesics (144 cases), antivenom tropical snake polyvalent (ATT) (89 cases), antitoxoid tetanus (TT) (61 cases), antihistamines (47 cases) and traditional medicines (43 cases). This study indicates that snake envenomation in rural Zimbabwe is common but fatalities are relatively rare.

  12. Zimbabwe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    remain skeptical that the parties will be able to work together effectively to implement reforms deemed necessary by international donors, and, without an...MISA) has stated that AIPPA is “one of the most effective legal instruments of state control over the media and civil society communication...suggested neither faction would be effective unless they could resolve their differences and reunite

  13. Zimbabwe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    will be able to work together effectively to implement reforms deemed necessary by international donors, and, without a significant influx of foreign...has stated that AIPPA is “one of the most effective legal instruments of state control over the media and civil society communication anywhere in the... effective unless they could resolve their differences and reunite. !&& $ ’ On February 22, 2007, the

  14. Zimbabwe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-26

    program are the main reason for reduced food production .92 Nearly all of the country’s 4,500 commercial farms have now been taken over; the government’s...land redistribution program is reportedly plagued by inefficiencies, with large portions of redistributed land not being actively farmed. Tractors ...and other inputs to production are reportedly in short supply. Thousands of experienced farm workers were reportedly forced to flee seized commercial

  15. Zimbabwe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-06

    inefficiencies, with large portions of redistributed land not being actively farmed. Tractors and other inputs to production are reportedly in short supply...and nonmetallic ores), steel, wood products , cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages. Sources: CIA World Factbook...believe that disruptions to the farming sector resulting from Mugabe’s land seizure program are the main reason for reduced food production .87 Nearly

  16. Zimbabwe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    mere X on a ballot. How can a ballpoint pen fight with a gun?඘ Tsvangirai was detained by police several times during the runoff campaign, and on...held many of the election officer positions, were specifically targeted by government supporters. The Power Sharing Agreement and the New Coalition...humanitarian assistance in FY2009. The U.S. government provided over $7.3 million in FY2009 specifically to address the cholera outbreak and a further $8.6

  17. Earth Science Education in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Kevin L.

    1999-05-01

    Zimbabwe is a mineral-rich country with a long history of Earth Science Education. The establishment of a University Geology Department in 1960 allowed the country to produce its own earth science graduates. These graduates are readily absorbed by the mining industry and few are without work. Demand for places at the University is high and entry standards reflect this. Students enter the University after GCE A levels in three science subjects and most go on to graduate. Degree programmes include B.Sc. General in Geology (plus another science), B.Sc. Honours in Geology and M.Sc. in Exploration Geology and in Geophysics. The undergraduate curriculum is broad-based and increasingly vocationally orientated. A well-equipped building caters for relatively large student numbers and also houses analytical facilities used for research and teaching. Computers are used in teaching from the first year onwards. Staff are on average poorly qualified compared to other universities, but there is an impressive research element. The Department has good links with many overseas universities and external funding agencies play a strong supporting role. That said, financial constraints remain the greatest barrier to future development, although increasing links with the mining industry may cushion this.

  18. Special Education Professional Development Needs in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Changara, Darlington M.; Chitiyo, George; Montgomery, Kristen M.

    2017-01-01

    Since 1980 when Zimbabwe obtained political independence, special education has not received the same priority as the entire education system. One of the manifestations of this discrepancy is the shortage of qualified special education teachers in the country. In order to address this trend and promote the development of special education,…

  19. Widening Access in Higher Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariwo, Michael Tonderai

    2007-01-01

    Higher education in Zimbabwe is undergoing changes mainly because of the rapid expansion that started in 1999. The current situation is that higher education is going through a series of crises due to the fact that government subventions are diminishing in real terms as a result of the decline in economic growth, yet at the same time, student…

  20. Entrepreneurial Careers of Women in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ncube, Lisa B.; Greenan, James P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathways of entrepreneurial career development and the processes involved for women to become entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe. Women entrepreneurs were studied to gain an understanding of why women chose self-employment and how local enterprise programs should be designed to benefit them. The study…

  1. Vocationalising Curriculum in Zimbabwe. An Evaluation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumbo, Samson D.

    When Zimbabwe was still Rhodesia, the education provided blacks was very different from that provided to whites. As more blacks passed through the school system it became obvious that for many young Zimbabweans the system provided education for unemployment and frustration. In 1966 African secondary schools were divided into F(1) academic and F(2)…

  2. Learning To Cope with Drought in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Kotze, Astrid

    2002-01-01

    A program started during a drought in Zimbabwe involved the cultivation of drought-resistant crops. The program made the women less dependent on their often-absent husbands and changed the relationship between men and women in the village. (JOW)

  3. Ndebele Culture of Zimbabwe's Views of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngara, Constantine; Porath, Marion

    2007-01-01

    This study explored Ndebele culture of Zimbabwe's views of giftedness. Using questionnaire narratives, data were collected from thirty Zimbabwean teachers and lecturers of Ndebele cultural background. The study established that Ndebele culture views giftedness as an unusually outstanding ability blessed in an individual from birth, which manifests…

  4. Shona Culture of Zimbabwe's Views of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngara, Constantine; Porath, Marion

    2004-01-01

    In an exploratory study designed to investigate Shona culture of Zimbabwe's views of giftedness, data were collected from sixteen Zimbabwean academics of Shona cultural background. Using questionnaire narratives, the study established that Shona culture views giftedness as an unusual ability blessed in an individual through ancestry which enables…

  5. Zimbabwe Culture before Mapungubwe: New Evidence from Mapela Hill, South-Western Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Manyanga, Munyaradzi; Pollard, A. Mark; Bandama, Foreman; Mahachi, Godfrey; Pikirayi, Innocent

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2−Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220–1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300–1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450–1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models. PMID:25360782

  6. Zimbabwe culture before Mapungubwe: new evidence from Mapela Hill, South-Western Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Manyanga, Munyaradzi; Pollard, A Mark; Bandama, Foreman; Mahachi, Godfrey; Pikirayi, Innocent

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2-Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220-1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300-1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450-1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models.

  7. Zimbabwe: Internally or Externally Driven Meltdown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Army (ZIPRA) and the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA). It notes that while accusations of disruptive activities were made by Mugabe...along with Nkomo’s persistent denial of ZAPU involvement and repeated appeals for all dissidents to cease their activities no matter who they felt they...card became essential for safety.”70 Responding to the growing criticism, the government established a commission to investigate the activities of

  8. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  9. Effective Participation in Wildlife Management in Zimbabwe's CAMPFIRE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphorst, D.; Koopmanschap, E.; Oudwater, N.

    1997-01-01

    The CAMPFIRE program in Zimbabwe is based on principles of active local participation in wildlife management projects. However, community participation seemed restricted to program implementation and benefits were not equally shared within the community. (SK)

  10. Vocational Rehabilitation in Zimbabwe: A Socio-Historical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlieger, Patrick J.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the legacy of Zimbabwe's missionary and colonial history; the postcolonial period; approaches to employment of people with disabilities; the impact of migration; and new developments throughout Africa and their implications for vocational rehabilitation. (SK)

  11. Potential Greenstone Belt Continuity Undercover, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Álvarez, I.; Aurore, J.; McCuaig, C. T.; Alok, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Zimbabwean craton is one of the most metal-endowed cratons on the Earth with abundant deposits of Au, Ni, Cr and PGE that are spatially and genetically associated with greenstone belts. This study aims at tracing the possible undercover continuity of these greenstone belts. A conjunctive interpretation of regional-scale geological, gravity and magnetic data was carried out, focusing on the Harare-Shamva region, NE Zimbabwe. The datasets used in the study included: (1) public geological maps and reports; (2) Zimbabwean Government aeromagnetic surveys (1983-1992) with line spacing and terrain clearance ranging 250-1000 m, and 120-305 m, respectively; and (3) the national gravity dataset of Zimbabwe (1996) with >12,000 gravity measurements. The Harare-Shamva gravity coverage corresponds to one station per ˜10 km2. A digital elevation model was generated from the NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data (90m resolution) to preprocess the gravity data. Standard gravity corrections, namely, the latitude, free-air, Bouguer- slab and terrain corrections, were applied to the observed gravity data. A distance of 167 km was used for the terrain correction, and an average density value of 2.67 g.cm3 (expected granite density) was used for the Bouguer-slab correction. In the Harare-Shamva area, long wavelength Bouguer anomalies were filtered out by applying a second-order polynomial and extracting the residual anomalies interpreted as representing the effect of density heterogeneities located below the surface down to a depth of ˜10 km. These residual gravity anomalies are used to characterize the geometry of the greenstone bodies in the area. Based on the composite Bouguer map, positive anomalies are associated with the geometry of the Harare, Shamva, Mutoko, Guruve, Filabusi, Masvingo, Fort Rixon, Shangani, Bulawayo and Gwanda greenstone belts. These greenstone belts comprise metamorphosed ultramafic-mafic suites that are intercalated with felsic volcanics

  12. Maternal education and child mortality in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Grépin, Karen A; Bharadwaj, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    In 1980, Zimbabwe rapidly expanded access to secondary schools, providing a natural experiment to estimate the impact of increased maternal secondary education on child mortality. Exploiting age specific exposure to these reforms, we find that children born to mothers most likely to have benefited from the policies were about 21% less likely to die than children born to slightly older mothers. We also find that increased education leads to delayed age at marriage, sexual debut, and first birth and that increased education leads to better economic opportunities for women. We find little evidence supporting other channels through which increased education might affect child mortality. Expanding access to secondary schools may greatly accelerate declines in child mortality in the developing world today.

  13. Precursor conditions related to Zimbabwe's summer droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nangombe, Shingirai; Madyiwa, Simon; Wang, Jianhong

    2016-11-01

    Despite the increasing severity of droughts and their effects on Zimbabwe's agriculture, there are few tools available for predicting these droughts in advance. Consequently, communities and farmers are more exposed, and policy makers are always ill prepared for such. This study sought to investigate possible cycles and precursor meteorological conditions prior to drought seasons that could be used to predict impending droughts in Zimbabwe. The Single Z-Index was used to identify and grade drought years between 1951 and 2010 according to rainfall severity. Spectral analysis was used to reveal the cycles of droughts for possible use of these cycles for drought prediction. Composite analysis was used to investigate circulation and temperature anomalies associated with severe and extreme drought years. Results indicate that severe droughts are more highly correlated with circulation patterns and embedded weather systems in the Indian Ocean and equatorial Pacific Ocean than any other area. This study identified sea surface temperatures in the average period June to August, geopotential height and wind vector in July to September period, and air temperature in September to November period as precursors that can be used to predict a drought occurrence several months in advance. Therefore, in addition to sea surface temperature, which was identified through previous research for predicting Zimbabwean droughts, the other parameters identified in this study can aid in drought prediction. Drought cycles were established at 20-, 12.5-, 3.2-, and 2.7-year cycles. The spectral peaks, 12.5, 3.2, and 2.7, had a similar timescale with the luni-solar tide, El Niño Southern Oscillation and Quasi Biennial Oscillation, respectively, and hence, occurrence of these phenomena have a possibility of indicating when the next drought might be.

  14. Understanding women's attitudes towards wife beating in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Hindin, Michelle J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with attitudes towards wife beating among women in partnerships in Zimbabwe in order to assist public health practitioners in preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: A nationally representative survey of 5907 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was conducted in Zimbabwe. Women were asked about their attitudes towards wife beating in five situations. The survey included sociodemographic characteristics, partnership characteristics, and household decision-making. FINDINGS: Over half of all women in Zimbabwe (53%) believed that wife beating was justified in at least one of the five situations. Respondents were most likely to find wife beating justified if a wife argued with her spouse (36%), neglected her children (33%), or went out without telling her spouse (30%). Among women in partnerships (n=3077), younger age, living in rural areas, lower household wealth, schooling at a lower level than secondary, and lower occupational status were associated with women reporting that wife beating is justified. Women who reported that they make household decisions jointly with their partners were less likely to say that wife beating is justified. CONCLUSIONS: Zimbabwe has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly because the younger generation of women is significantly more likely to believe that wife beating is justified compared with older women. Given the current social and political climate in Zimbabwe, finding means to negotiate rather than settle conflict through violence is essential from the household level to the national level. PMID:12973642

  15. Maternal mortality and morbidity. Zimbabwe's birth force.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    The training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) as a national public health strategy was implemented in the late 1970's in Zimbabwe. Since 1982, the Manicaland rural health programs have trained 6000 women in 12-week courses to change their practices of using unsterilized razor blades, shards of glass, or knives to sever the umbilical cord. These practices and others had led to high rates of neonatal tetanus mortality and maternal mortality. TBAs learned from state certified nurses the basics of personal and domestic hygiene, identification of pregnancy and associated risk factors, the importance of good nutrition, rest, and immunization for pregnant women, and safe practices in labor and delivery. Refresher courses and additional training in prenatal care and family planning have been added recently to the program. Completion of the program leads to a public recognition of their graduation in the base village. Maternity care services are provided as back up. This includes village based maternity waiting homes for women in labor, community health workers, and auxiliary midwives with higher level training. A district health center has been set up for more complicated cases. This access to better health care has led to a 50 and 66% reduction in maternal and infant mortality rates, respectively. A 1988 government survey shows increases in the use of contraceptives and the number of women receiving prenatal care. The components of the program which have contributed to program success and provided similarities to other country's TBA programs are as follows: developing a sense of self esteem and pride among TBAs for their work, utilizing creative ways to teach the largely illiterate TBA population through role plays and songs, and providing involvement in the health care system which reaffirms the TBA's importance. In spite of the advancements made however, there are still problems to solve. Unsafe practices are resorted to when TBAs forget their training

  16. Factors determining the attractiveness of the teaching profession in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivore, B. R. S.

    1988-03-01

    This article analyses the factors influencing the attractiveness of the secondary teaching profession in Zimbabwe. The findings are based on data collected from more than 200 non-graduate student teachers by means of a questionnaire, supplemented by documents and interviews. Among the 21 relevant factors listed in the questionnaire, those relating to salary, fringe benefits and working conditions were considered to have the greatest influence. In particular, benefits similar to those of comparable professions in the public and private sectors were identified as crucial. The author broadens the context of his conclusions by comparing the situation in Zimbabwe to that in other developing countries.

  17. Holistic Initiatives for Enhancing Graduate Employability in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to document initiatives for enhancing graduate employability and building successful future careers for students. The author used the case of Zimbabwe to explore interventions by higher education institutions, government, industry and commerce as well as professional bodies. The methodology involved a mix of…

  18. The Zimbabwe Student Movement: Love-Hate Relationship with Government?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makunike, Blessing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to trace the development of student unionism in Zimbabwe. On the basis of a discussion of the nature of the university, the article argues that because the university environment tolerates and promotes academic freedom and liberal values, it provides an environment conducive to critical thought and oppositional…

  19. Cultures in Collision: Education and Dialogical Encounter in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungazi, Dickson A.

    The central theory of Paulo Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" is that all human beings are capable of engaging in a dialogical encounter with their world. Application of this theory to the bitter civil war that occurred in Zimbabwe from 1972 to 1979 leads to four conclusions. First, the lack of educational opportunity for the Africans…

  20. Secondary Schooling and Rural Youth Transitions in Lesotho and Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Based on case studies centered on two rural secondary schools in Lesotho and Zimbabwe, this article examines the gendered impacts of schooling on young people's transitions to adulthood. School attendance is shown first to disrupt the conventional pathways to adulthood: Young people attending school may leave home sooner than they otherwise would…

  1. Counseling in Zimbabwe: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Kimberly A. M.; Zivave, Athanas T.; Govere, Saunsuray M.; Mphande, Joyce; Dupwa, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Counseling in Zimbabwe has a long tradition, dating back to pre-Colonial times. In the modern context, counseling has evolved through the educational and health care sectors. Since the 1990s, Zimbabwean counselors have advocated for professional recognition, a struggle similar to that of counselors in the United States. In this article, the…

  2. Music Acquisition of Children in Rural Zimbabwe: A Longitudinal Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreutzer, Natalie Jones

    2001-01-01

    This article provides qualitative description of behaviors that bring children to musical competence by age 5 in Nharira Communal Lands in Zimbabwe. Based on observation of three villages comprised of multiple extended family groups, the narrative focuses on area demographics, the community's people, musical influences, musical interactions of…

  3. Integration of Information Services in the Parliament of Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiwandamira, Lyn

    This paper discusses the integration of information services in the Parliament of Zimbabwe (PoZ). An organizational chart of the information systems at PoZ in 1999 is provided, and each of the four departments managing information services are described, i.e., the library, the research department, public relations, and information technology. An…

  4. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  5. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  6. Design and production of an atlas for diplomacy in Zimbabwe and the Southern African Development Community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, T.W.; Larson, C.R.; Granneman, B.J.; Evans, G.A.; Gacke, C.K.; Pearson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    An atlas of Zimbabwe and the Southern African Development Community was designed and produced for use by American diplomats in Zimbabwe. Two copies of the bound atlas are used by the Embassy of the United States of America (U.S. Embassy) and the Mission of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in Harare, Zimbabwe, to orient visitors and discuss matters of diplomacy and development in Zimbabwe and the Southern African Development Community. The atlas contains maps derived from satellite images showing features of the physical geography of Southern Africa and Zimbabwe and plastic overlays showing rivers and lakes and manmade features, such as major roads, railroads, and cities. The atlas is an important tool that American diplomats can use to orient participants in discussions of the environment and to develop agreements for management of the environment in Zimbabwe and Southern Africa.

  7. Critical pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Ncube, R.; Ela, W.

    2016-06-01

    In most countries worldwide regulatory bodies set effluent discharge limits into rivers and other natural water bodies. These limits specify the maximum permissible concentration of defined pollutants that may be discharged into the water body. This limit is conceptually based on the self-purification (assimilative) capacity of the receiving water. However, this self-purification constant is itself a function of the water's pollutant loading. Umguza River situated south west of Zimbabwe, is fed by tributaries that drain an urban catchment and as such is prone to pollution due to human activities in the catchment. This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to April 2014. The self-purification capacity was determined using a formula that compares the mass flux of a pollutant upstream and downstream of the selected stretch of the river. Statistical analysis was used to establish relationships between the pollutants and the self-purification capacity of the river. The study found that the levels of ammonia and phosphates were very high compared to the regulated limits (2 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l; and 8 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l respectively). It was also found that the self-purification capacity varied significantly across pollutants. It was therefore concluded that a critical pollutant concentration exists above which the river completely loses its natural ability to assimilate and decrease its pollutant load over

  8. Education policy and gender in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R

    1994-01-01

    It is concluded that equality for women in education, which was a state aim in 1980, is no longer a state concern in Zimbabwe. It is argued that protection of the patriarchal order has been the operating principle of both colonial and post-colonial periods, and education is used to maintain the gender imbalance. Black women under colonialism were subjected to both sexism and racism. The socioeconomic order was maintained by ensuring that Blacks remained uneducated and unskilled. Colonial policy was race specific. Education was free and compulsory for Whites only. Black parents paid fees for a son's education. Post colonialism and in 1971, only 43.5% of Black children were enrolled in school, of which 3.9% were in secondary school. Only 19 girls with at the highest level in school. School curriculum was gender based, which meant girls were taught cooking and typing. During independence, education policy was instituted, and education was considered as a human right and gender neutral. Tuition fees in primary grades were eliminated, and education was expanded. However, changes after independence did not result in equal advantage for girls. By 1985-91, girls had lower enrollments at all grade levels. The widest gaps in enrollment were at the highest levels. School curriculum changed very little, and girls were directed to the "feminine" courses of study. Girls performed poorly in math and sciences. Girls were underenrolled in technical and vocational institutions. After 1989, structural adjustment programs negatively impacted on women. There was reduced access to employment, limited access to services, and increased demands on women's time in order to compensate for gaps created by cuts in services. New changes in education policy are expected to negatively impact on girl's education. Fees for primary school were reintroduced in urban areas, and secondary school fees were increased. The government dropped the requirement of certification for technical and commercial

  9. Cryptococcus neoformans population diversity and clinical outcomes of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis patients in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyazika, Tinashe K; Hagen, Ferry; Machiridza, Tendai; Kutepa, Melody; Masanganise, Faith; Hendrickx, Marijke; Boekhout, Teun; Magombei-Majinjiwa, Tricia; Siziba, Nonthokozo; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Mateveke, Kudzanai; Meis, Jacques F; Robertson, Valerie J

    2016-11-01

    HIV and cryptococcal meningitis co-infection is a major public health problem in most developing countries. Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto is responsible for the majority of HIV-associated cryptococcosis cases in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the available information, little is known about cryptococcal population diversity and its association with clinical outcomes in patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. In a prospective cohort, we investigated the prevalence and clinical outcome of Cryptococcusneoformans sensu stricto meningitis among HIV-infected patients in Harare, Zimbabwe, and compared the genotypic diversity of the isolates with those collected from other parts of Africa. Molecular typing was done using amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping and microsatellite typing. The majority of patients with HIV-associated Cryptococcusneoformans sensu stricto meningitis in this cohort were males (n=33/55; 60.0 %). The predominant Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto genotype among the Zimbabwean isolates was genotype AFLP1/VNI (n=40; 72.7 %), followed by AFLP1A/VNB/VNII (n=8; 14.6 %), and AFLP1B/VNII was the least isolated (n=7; 12.7 %). Most of the isolates were mating-type α (n=51; 92.7 %), and only four (7.3 %) were mating-type a. Overall in-hospital mortality was 55.6 % (n=30), and no difference between infecting genotype and clinical outcome of patient (P=0.73) or CD4+ counts (P=0.79) was observed. Zimbabwean Cryptococcusneoformans sensu stricto genotypes demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity by microsatellite typing, and 51 genotypes within the main molecular types AFLP1/VNI, AFLP1A/VNB/VNII and AFLP1B/VNII were identified. This study demonstrates that Cryptococcusneoformans sensu stricto in Zimbabwe has a high level of genetic diversity when compared to other regional isolates.

  10. Masculinity as a barrier to men's use of HIV services in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies highlight men's disinclination to make use of HIV services. This suggests there are factors that prevent men from engaging with health services and an urgent need to unpack the forms of sociality that determine men's acceptance or rejection of HIV services. Methods Drawing on the perspectives of 53 antiretroviral drug users and 25 healthcare providers, we examine qualitatively how local constructions of masculinity in rural Zimbabwe impact on men's use of HIV services. Results Informants reported a clear and hegemonic notion of masculinity that required men to be and act in control, to have know-how, be strong, resilient, disease free, highly sexual and economically productive. However, such traits were in direct conflict with the 'good patient' persona who is expected to accept being HIV positive, take instructions from nurses and engage in health-enabling behaviours such as attending regular hospital visits and refraining from alcohol and unprotected extra-marital sex. This conflict between local understandings of manhood and biopolitical representations of 'a good patient' can provide a possible explanation to why so many men do not make use of HIV services in Zimbabwe. However, once men had been counselled and had the opportunity to reflect upon the impact of ART on their productivity and social value, it was possible for some to construct new and more ART-friendly versions of masculinity. Conclusion We urge HIV service providers to consider the obstacles that prevent many men from accessing their services and argue for community-based and driven initiatives that facilitate safe and supportive social spaces for men to openly discuss social constructions of masculinity as well as renegotiate more health-enabling masculinities. PMID:21575149

  11. A framework for the decentralised management of wastewater in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhapi, Innocent

    The traditional wastewater management style is now presenting some problems, having evolved from a situation of small communities, little industrial activities, and abundance of freshwater. The style is characterized by high water consumption and large treatment plants that employ sophisticated treatment systems with final effluent discharged to rivers. This paper focuses on analysis and development of an alternative strategy of decentralised wastewater management in Zimbabwe. Serious pollution problems related to inappropriate effluent discharges are prevalent necessitating an efficient and reliable strategy of controlling environmental pollution whilst obtaining optimal benefits from wastewater reuse. A conceptual plan for the decentralised strategy was developed taking into account capital and operational costs, wastewater generation patterns and quality, and urban agriculture. Maize cultivation was used to illustrate the implications of water and nutrient utilisation potential of the strategy. It was concluded that the strategy would suit high and medium density dwellings in Zimbabwe and that greywater separation can be used as part of the strategy.

  12. Prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Woelk, G; Mtisi, S; Vaughan, J P

    2001-09-01

    Using a historical and political economy perspective, this paper explores the prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe, the world's sixth largest producer and third largest tobacco exporter. Tobacco production, which first began in the former Rhodesia in the early 1900s, is closely associated with colonial history and land occupation by white settlers. The Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) Tobacco Association was formed in 1928 and soon became a powerful political force. Although land redistribution has always been a central issue, it was not adequately addressed after independence in 1980, largely due to the need for Zimbabwe to gain foreign currency and safeguard employment. However, by the mid-1990s political pressures forced the government to confront the mainly white, commercial farmers with a new land acquisition policy, but intense national and international lobbying prevented its implementation. With advent of global economic changes, and following the start of a structural adjustment programme in 1991, manufacturing began to decline and the government relied even more on the earnings from tobacco exports. Thus strengthening tobacco control policies has always had a low national and public health priority. Recent illegal occupation of predominantly white owned farms, under the guise of implementing the former land redistribution policy, was politically motivated as the government faced its first major challenge at the general elections in June 2000. It remains unclear whether this will lead to long term reductions in tobacco production, although future global declines in demand could weaken the tobacco lobby. However, since Zimbabwe is only a minor consumer of tobacco, a unique opportunity does exist to develop controls on domestic cigarette consumption. To achieve this the isolated ministry of health would need considerable support from international agencies, such as the World Health Organisation and World Bank.

  13. Zimbabwe: 2008 Elections and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    with an estimated 4 million people in need of food assistance in 2008. Several Southern African countries have suffered from chronic food insecurity in...The displacement of farm workers and vandalism that has followed the March elections also contributes to food insecurity . The 2008 maize harvest has...and the competition for international resources may severely affect the international community’s ability to address food insecurity in Zimbabwe. In

  14. Zimbabwe: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-21

    other cash crops small - scale farmers grow to sell at market to support their families, and even army brutality against farmers . Local civic groups...on illegal mining. Police arrested an estimated 20,000 illegal miners in late 2006, including several hundred reportedly legal small - scale miners...Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL32723 Zimbabwe: Current

  15. Gender Discrimination in Educational Personnel: A Case Study of Gweru Urban District Secondary Schools, Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matope, Nogget

    2012-01-01

    Gender discrimination in educational institutions persists, despite the vigorous pursuit of policies and programmes to reduce the varying degrees of gender inequity in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a signatory to international agreements and conventions which promote gender equity with a thrust towards increased access to education for girls and females.…

  16. Gramsci, Doke and the Marginalisation of the Ndebele Language in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndhlovu, Finex

    2006-01-01

    Clement M. Doke's 1929-1930 research on Zimbabwean languages has played a key role in shaping the tribalised and politicised linguistic terrain that characterises modern Zimbabwe. Doke, professor of linguistics at the University of Witwaters-rand, was commissioned in 1929 by the government of Southern Rhodesia (present-day Zimbabwe) to research…

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 3, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency...

  18. Abdominal surgical site infections: a prospective study of determinant factors in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchuweti, David; Jönsson, Kent U G

    2015-10-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are reported in lower frequencies in the developed countries than in the developing world. A prospective evaluation of risk factors in 285 patients undergoing abdominal surgery procedures in Zimbabwe was therefore undertaken. Overall infection rate was 26%. The age group 30-39 years had the highest number of dirty wounds and the highest rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Multivariate regression analysis showed a correlation between wound class and SSI (P < 0·05). This was also noted for American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (P < 0·05). HIV-infected patients had 52% SSIs and non-infected patients had 26% (P < 0·05). Patients receiving blood transfusion had 51% SSIs and those not transfused had 17% (P < 0·01). Patients receiving pre- and intra-operative prophylactic antibiotics had 18% SSIs and those receiving postoperative administration had 37% (P < 0·01). Treatment ranged from dressings only in 11% to surgical intervention in 30% resulting in prolongation of median hospital stay from 8 to 18 days (P < 0·001). Mortality was 7%. High wound class, high ASA score, blood transfusion, HIV infection and delayed use of prophylactic antibiotics were risk factors for SSIs, resulting in surgical interventions, prolonged hospital stay and mortality.

  19. Plants of Zimbabwe used as anti-fertility agents.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, Constance R

    2010-04-03

    Ethnomedicine has gained a lot of recognition in post-independence Zimbabwe and yet little research on anti-fertility medicines has been done. Information on plants used as anti-fertility medicines was obtained by interviewing women, men, traditional healers and traditional midwives in urban Harare and surrounding rural areas of Mvurwi, Seke and Chiweshe. The use of 31 species belonging to 17 families for antifertility purposes is described. This survey forms a basis to initiate a study into the efficacy and toxicology of plants used by Zimbabwean women as traditional anti-fertility medicines.

  20. Old skills and new knowledge: midwifery in contemporary Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Conway-Turner, K

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-one traditional birth attendants residing in the southern sector of Zimbabwe were interviewed concerning their midwifery practice. Traditional midwives were interviewed individually to gather information concerning: (a) the development of traditional midwifery skills, (b) the nature of traditional birthing patterns, (c) the features of the one-week midwifery training program provided to upgrade traditional midwives, and (d) traditional midwifery as practiced today, post the one-week training program. In describing past and present traditional midwifery, they reported a change in the use of sanitation practices, a heightened understanding of at-risk pregnancies and the need for formal medical intervention, and the adoption of mechanisms to record new births.

  1. Recovery of a Lassa-related arenavirus in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K M; Taylor, P; Elliott, L H; Tomori, O

    1981-11-01

    Immunofluorescent antibodies to "Mozambique" virus, a close relative of Lassa virus, were found in 11 of 55 Mastomys natalensis and 1 of 13 Aethomys chrysophilus rodents captured near Que Que and Chiredzi, Zimbabwe. Six strains of Mozambique virus, identified by use of specific monoclonal antibodies to the agent, were recovered from visceral tissues of M. natalensis rodents. All Mastomys having virus or antibodies to this agent were of the chromosomal form 2N = 32 (M. natalensis). These data extend the area of geographic occurrence of this virus, which was initially recognized in Mozambique and which may represent a naturally attenuated antigenic variant of human pathogenic West African Lassa virus.

  2. Enhancing Schistosomiasis Control Strategy for Zimbabwe: Building on Past Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Chimbari, Moses J.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata) are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized. PMID:22655171

  3. Migrant remittances and household wellbeing in urban Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bracking, Sarah; Sachikonye, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from household surveying in December 2005 in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, indicates that a wide network of international migrant remitters are ameliorating the economic crisis in Zimbabwe by sending monetary and in-kind transfers to over 50 per cent of urban households. The research combines quantitative measurement of scale and scope, with demographic and qualitative narrative to build a holistic picture of the typography of receiving and non-receiving households. A complex set of interrelated variables helps to explain why some households do and others do not receive income and goods from people who are away, and the economic and social extent of their subsequent benefit from them. Moreover, the mixed methods approach is designed to capture inter-household and likely macroeconomic effects of how households receive their goods and money; and of how they subsequently exchange (if applicable), store and spend it. Evidence emerges of a largely informal, international social welfare system, but one which is not without adverse inter-household effects for some. These include suffering exclusion from markets suffering from inflationary pressures, not least as a result of other people’s remittances. This paper explores the role of remittances, within this internationalised informal welfare system which we can map from our household survey, in reframing vulnerability and marginalization differentially among and between our subject households.

  4. Challenges of communicating integrated water resource management in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimbe, Simbiso; Manzungu, Emmanuel

    With the promulgation of the 1998 Water Act the Government of Zimbabwe took a decisive step to reform the country’s water sector, to bring it in line with contemporary socio-political realities obtaining in the country, and in tune with the philosophy of integrated water resources management. Researchers have reported a lack of awareness of the reforms, particularly among the black communities, who were considered not just as one of the target of the reforms, but the beneficiaries. This paper analyses why this has been the case. The paper makes a case for differentiating communication from information dissemination. Information refers to a set of data packaged for delivery to a receiver while communication involves a dialogue. This paper critiques communication strategies used to communicate water reforms in Zimbabwe, applying recent developments in communication theories. The argument in the paper is that there was a failure to communicate although there was some success in dissemination information about the reforms. If the situation is to be reversed then methods that involve audience analysis may have to be used. Such methods tend to be expensive and time consuming--however, there is no substitute to this if integrated water resources management is to be institutionalised among the various stakeholders.

  5. The Training of Industrial Physicists in Zimbabwe: a Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carelse, Xavier F.

    In 1992-93 the Department of Physics decided that there was a need for physicists to participate in the industrial development in Zimbabwe. The idea of a Master of Science in Applied Physics programme was conceived. Before designing the programme, a postal survey was conducted to discover the needs of industry particularly in relation to industrial processes. There was a 20% response to our survey with many indicating the area of specialisation required in Zimbabwe. Based on their response, the programme was drawn up and was launched in 1994. The programme has optional specialisations in Industrial Physics, Medical Physics, Laser and Plasma Physics and Environmental Physics. Most of the candidates choose the Industrial Physics option. The programme includes courses in Workshop Practice, Computer Applications Software, Theory of Devices, Computer Interfacing, Instrumentation Physics, Metrology (which includes Quality Control), Digital Signal Processing and Data Communications and Networks, Industrial Applications of Laser and Plasma Physics, Biomedical Instrumentation, and many others. Nearly 30 Zimbabweans and some foreign students have thus far graduated with this degree. On graduation, they have, with relative ease, found employment in indeustry. In two cases, graduates were appointed as Research Officers with firms who set up research divisions specially for them. Many are now teaching at universities and technical colleges throughout the country where they continue to promote an industrial approach to the teaching of physics.

  6. Cultural orientation and adolescents' alcohol use in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Eide, A H; Acuda, S W

    1996-06-01

    A classroom survey was conducted in June 1994 among 3061 secondary school students in four provinces in Zimbabwe, with the main objective of measuring health behaviours, school performance and environmental and cultural factors as predictors for drug use. This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between cultural orientation and alcohol use. The survey instrument was based on previous studies undertaken in Zimbabwe and in Europe and adapted to the local situation. A two-staged stratified random sampling strategy distinguished between four different socio-cultural groups. Standardized instructions were given in classrooms by a trained research team. Respondents' mean ages were 14.9 years for boys and 15.1 years for girls, and 51.4% were boys. For a number of core questions, test-retest reliability was shown to be satisfactory. A 14-item scale focusing on language, mass media and music preferences was constructed to measure cultural orientation. Principal component analysis revealed two distinct factors with low interfactor correlation and acceptable scale reliability (alpha), one representing Western orientation and the other Zimbabwean or traditional cultural orientation. Zimbabwean orientation was found to be associated with lower alcohol use, whereas western orientation was associated with higher probability for alcohol use.

  7. Effects of veterinary fences on Wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russell D.; Martin, Rowan B.

    1987-07-01

    In Zimbabwe, veterinary fences are used to control trypanosomiasis and foot- and-mouth disease, two important diseases that threaten cattle production and beef exports. Wildlife is implicated in both instances and the effects of fences on wildlife conservation and land use are discussed in relation to these two diseases. Advantages and disadvantages related to direct and indirect fence effects are outlined. Although the maintenance of fences for trypanosomiasis control is likely to become obsolete, control of foot- and-mouth disease will rely on fences for the foreseeable future. Most of Zimbabwe's protected wildlife areas are located in marginal agricultural land around the periphery of the country where cattle productivity is low. This land should be excluded from any involvement in the beef export industry rather than attempting its inclusion through cordoning and isolating individual protected areas. Within such land, the need for rigid veterinary restrictions should then disappear and allow more flexible strategies for disease control, including adaptive and imaginative approaches to land-use planning.

  8. Living with trees: Policies for forestry management in Zimbabwe. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P.N.; McNamara, K.

    1993-01-01

    Living with Trees, is an account of the results of a joint World Bank and Zimbabwe Forestry Commission study, in which the status, use and future of Zimbabwes forest, woodland and tree resources are reviewed. The first chapter is, in effect, an executive summary, capturing the major themes of the review and presenting them within a framework which targets the key policy issues affecting forestry in Zimbabwe. The second chapter is a national overview and deals with land, agriculture and economic structural adjustments, which are key policy concerns in Zimbabwe. Within the national context, chapter 2 also reflects on the form and role of the Forestry Commission. This provides a macroeconomic setting for the subsequent chapters which detail social and industrial forestry issues.

  9. The Women's Movement, Adult Education and Globalization: Women's Agencies in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Stanley T.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that in Zimbabwe, women's agencies pursue practical, strategic, and interagency gender interests consistent with adult education practice. However, they also manifest the globalizing tendencies of pluralism, cultural homogenization, and the coalescence of transnational and domestic processes and structures. (SK)

  10. Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities in Zimbabwe. The local people have a long history of traditional plant usage for medicinal purposes. Despite the increasing acceptance of traditional medicine in Zimbabwe, this rich indigenous knowledge is not adequately documented. Documentation of plants used as traditional medicines is needed so that the knowledge can be preserved and the utilized plants conserved and used sustainably. The primary objective of this paper is to summarize information on traditional uses of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe, identifying research gaps and suggesting perspectives for future research. Methods This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials. Results A total of 93 medicinal plant species representing 41 families and 77 genera are used in south-central Zimbabwe. These plant species are used to treat 18 diseases and disorder categories, with the highest number of species used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by sexually transmitted infections, cold, cough and sore throat and gynaecological problems. Shrubs and trees (38% each) were the primary sources of medicinal plants, followed by herbs (21%) and climbers (3%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants documented in south-central Zimbabwe are well supported by literature, with 82.8% of the plant species having similar applications in other regions of Zimbabwe as well as other parts of the world and 89.2% having documented biological and pharmacological properties. Conclusion This study illustrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments in south-central Zimbabwe. Traditional medicines still play an important

  11. Village victories: new motivational techniques in Kenya and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Miller, N N

    1983-01-01

    The Institute of Cultural Affairs (ICA) in Kenya and the Zimbabwe Project in Zimbabwe are organizations working to promote local level development in their respective countries and a major challenge to these organizations has been how to change the attitudes and perceptions of the poor in ways that help them help themselves. ICA efforts are carried out in Kenya by several hundred volunteer staff, including 30 expatriates. Most are assigned to 1 of the 21 projects spread across southern Kenya. Since 1975 the ICA has launched projects in over 200 villages. Village clean up, public health, school construction, water development, and agricultural improvement are some of the project categories. Tangible results include starting demonstration farms, field terracing projects, building pit latrines and compost pits, constructing new pathways, roads, and schoolrooms. Many of ICA's efforts are funded by local companies and through Kenyan offices of development organizations. In the field of health, ICA provides training courses at the village level that emphasize preventive care, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, family planning, first aid, and treatment of common illnesses. ICA's mobilization techniques are based on motivating villagers to help themselves, to "catalyze and energize" the resources at hand. The process begins with a "consult" in which 12 or more ICA staff conduct a 3- or 4-day meeting with villagers to reorient local thinking. A special effort is made to break old attitudes that have held traditional villagers back. The consult is also designed to confront traditional assumptions about what the longterm reality might be. For urban slum villages the focus is on the transient nature of community that serves as low cost housing for thousands of newly arrived migrants. Today the Zimbabwe Project (ZP) is working with former soldiers, although when established in 1978 in Britain its purpose was to assist refugees from the Rhodesian struggle who had fled to Botswana

  12. Setting priorities for the health care sector in Zimbabwe using cost-effectiveness analysis and estimates of the burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Chapman, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    Background This study aimed at providing information for priority setting in the health care sector of Zimbabwe as well as assessing the efficiency of resource use. A general approach proposed by the World Bank involving the estimation of the burden of disease measured in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and calculation of cost-effectiveness ratios for a large number of health interventions was followed. Methods Costs per DALY for a total of 65 health interventions were estimated. Costing data were collected through visits to health centres, hospitals and vertical programmes where a combination of step-down and micro-costing was applied. Effectiveness of health interventions was estimated based on published information on the efficacy adjusted for factors such as coverage and compliance. Results Very cost-effective interventions were available for the major health problems. Using estimates of the burden of disease, the present paper developed packages of health interventions using the estimated cost-effectiveness ratios. These packages could avert a quarter of the burden of disease at total costs corresponding to one tenth of the public health budget in the financial year 1997/98. In general, the analyses suggested that there was substantial potential for improving the efficiency of resource use in the public health care sector. Discussion The proposed World Bank approach applied to Zimbabwe was extremely data demanding and required extensive data collection in the field and substantial human resources. The most important limitation of the study was the scarcity of evidence on effectiveness of health interventions so that a range of important health interventions could not be included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. This and other limitations could in principle be overcome if more research resources were available. Conclusion The present study showed that it was feasible to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses for a large number of health interventions in

  13. Zimbabwe's educational miracle and the problems it has created

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Clayton G.

    1988-09-01

    When ZANU (PF) came to power in 1980, it had promised to establish free and compulsory primary and secondary education for all children in Zimbabwe. The Ministry of Education has achieved remarkable increases in school enrolments, particularly at secondary level. It has also undertaken to allow all pupils to sit the `O' Level examinations after four years of secondary schooling. But by so doing it has encouraged a belief in the importance of academic qualifications and a crisis of expectation among pupils. There are insufficient places for those who wish to continue to Sixth Form (higher secondary) studies, a lack of alternative vocational training, and an inadequate rate of creation of new jobs for school leavers. There seem but three ways out: to cut defence spending in favour of education, to send students abroad for higher training, or to develop new employment and training schemes, perhaps after an imported model.

  14. The 1993 Zimbabwe impact crater and meteorite expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimold, W. U.; Master, S.; Koeberl, C.; Robertson, D.

    1994-07-01

    In September 1993 our expedition visited four strucutres in Zimbabwe that had been selected because of circular outlines or because of unusual aeromagnetic anomalies. The first one, the 1.1-km-diameter Thuli structure was identified as a well-preserved volcanic caldera formed by a series of basaltic, gabbroic, and dioritic instrusions. Preliminary results of magnetic traverses are consistent with the model of a volcanic pipe. The 600- and 800-m-wide Save craters near the Mozambican border closely resemble young, well-preserved impact craters such as the Pretoria Saltpan crater in South Africa. However, detailed geological traverses revealed only volcanic rocks intruded into sandstone forming the sharp rim crests. The Mucheka region is the site of the most prominent aeromagnetic anomaly in Zimbabwe. In the absence of any exposures other than Archean basement, the cause of this anomaly is still unknown. None of the basement rock specimens obtained yielded any evidence for shock metamorphism. In 1985 German geologists reportedly noted a circular structure in the Highbury area on Landsat images. An approximately 25-km-wide circular structure is visible on a SPOT satellite image as well. The regional geological map revealed the presence of a slight elevation near the center of this otherwise flat area. The flat floor of this structure is formed by fertile soils overlying locally exposed Deweras arkose and metadolomites, in turn surrounded by hills of Lomagundi sandstones and slates. Near the geographical center a small hill of sandstone and quartzite was indeed detected. Reconnaissance sampling in 'rim' and 'central uplift' provided several specimens with significant numbers of quartz grains with single or multiple sets of planar deformation features (PDFs). A strongly hematized sample from the 'central uplift' contains shocked quartz and relics of glass.

  15. Use of weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most agricultural weeds are usually regarded as undesirable and targeted for eradication. However, weeds are useful to human beings as food and traditional medicines. Few studies have been done to document the uses of weeds as traditional vegetables. This study was therefore, done to document indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and use of agricultural weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe, emphasizing their role in food security and livelihoods of the local people. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 147 participants were employed between December 2011 and January 2012 to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of edible weeds as traditional vegetables. Based on ethnobotanical information provided by the participants, botanical specimens were collected, numbered, pressed and dried for identification. Results A total of 21 edible weeds belonging to 11 families and 15 genera, mostly from Amaranthaceae (19%), Asteraceae and Tiliaceae (14.3%), Capparaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (9.5% each) were identified. Of the documented edible weeds, 52.4% are indigenous while 47.6% are exotic to Zimbabwe; either semi-cultivated or growing naturally as agricultural weeds in farmlands, fallow land and home gardens. Among the main uses of edible weeds were leafy vegetables (81%), followed by edible fruits (19%), edible corms (9.5%), edible flowers and seeds (4.8% each). The most important edible weeds were Cleome gynandra, cited by 93.9% of the participants, Cucumis metuliferus (90.5%), Cucumis anguria (87.8%), Corchorus tridens (50.3%) and Amaranthus hybridus (39.5%). All edible weeds were available during rainy and harvest period with Cleome gynandra, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis anguria, Cucumis metuliferus and Moringa oleifera also available during the dry season, enabling households to obtain food outputs in different times of the year. The importance of edible weeds for local

  16. Two models for change in the health services in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bloom, G

    1985-01-01

    The health situation in pre-Independence Zimbabwe was much as elsewhere in the Third World. While the majority suffered excess mortality and morbidity, the affluent enjoyed a health status similar to that of the populations of developed countries. The health services also showed the familiar pattern, with expenditure concentrated on sophisticated facilities in the towns, leaving the rural majority with practically no services at all. With the coming of Majority Rule, the previous pattern of controlling access to facilities on the basis of race could not continue. Two broad routes forward were defined. On the one hand, the private doctors, the private insurance companies, and the settler state proposed a model based on improving urban facilities, depending on a trickle-down to eventually answer the needs of the rural people. On the other hand, the post-Independence Ministry of Health advocated a policy of concentrating on developing services in the rural areas. The pattern of the future health service will depend on the capacity of the senior health planners and on the enthusiasm of front-line health workers but, of overriding importance will be the political commitment to answer the needs of the majority and the outcome of the inevitable struggle for access to scarce health sector resources.

  17. Women and AIDS in Zimbabwe: the making of an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bassett, M T; Mhloyi, M

    1991-01-01

    As the AIDS epidemic in Africa assumes major proportions, the need to understand the social context in which heterosexual transmission occurs takes on urgent importance. In this article we explore how the intersection of traditional culture with the colonial legacy and present-day political economy has influenced family structure and sexual relations, and particularly the social position of women. Drawing on Zimbabwe's historical experience, we show how land expropriation, rural impoverishment, and the forcible introduction of male migrant labor fostered new patterns of sexual relations, characterized by multiple partners. Traditional patriarchal values reinterpreted in European law resulted in further subjugation of women as even limited rights to ownership were withdrawn. For many women, sexual relations with men, either within marriage (for the majority) or outside, become inextricably linked to economic and social survival. In this setting, all sexually transmitted diseases became rampant, including genital ulcer, which facilitates transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Intervention programs to halt the spread of AIDS need to take into the account the epidemic's historical roots and social nature. For example, efforts to reduce risk of HIV transmission should seek to expand women's limited options, both technically (e.g., by providing alternatives to condoms) and socially (e.g., by promoting employment).

  18. Beyond sugar daddies: intergenerational sex and AIDS in urban Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Wyrod, Robert; Fritz, Katherine; Woelk, Godfrey; Jain, Sheila; Kellogg, Timothy; Chirowodza, Admire; Makumbe, Knox; McFarland, Willi

    2011-08-01

    In a survey of 1,313 men reporting on 2,465 partnerships recruited at beer halls in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2.5% met a definition of "sugar daddy": men with a non-marital partner at least 10 years younger and under 20 years old, and exchanged cash or goods for sex. Men engaging in intergenerational sex with a teenage woman had similar HIV prevalence, incomes, and condom use as men in other partnerships. Most men (62.3%) had partners 5 or more years younger, with wider age gaps in longer-term relationships. Condom use was less common within married and steady partnerships compared to casual and more common with younger women. The most common form of intergenerational sex, with the widest age gap and lowest condom use, occurs within marriages and steady partnerships. Such "conventional" intergenerational sex may play the pivotal role in sustaining a generalized epidemic across generations and present the most difficult challenge to prevention.

  19. Changing men's attitudes and behavior: the Zimbabwe Male Motivation Project.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Kincaid, D L; Hindin, M J; Lettenmaier, C L; Kuseka, I; Silberman, T; Zinanga, A; Chikara, F; Adamchak, D J; Mbizvo, M T

    1992-01-01

    A multimedia communication campaign was conducted between 1988 and 1989 to promote family planning among men in Zimbabwe. The campaign consisted of a 52-episode semiweekly radio soap opera, about 60 motivational talks, and two pamphlets about contraceptive methods. Changes over time were measured by comparing a subset of a follow-up survey conducted from October to December 1989 to a baseline survey conducted from April to June 1988. Men exposed to the campaign were also compared to men who were not exposed. The follow-up survey revealed that the campaign reached 52 percent of men aged 18 to 55. Among married Shona-speaking men, use of modern contraceptive methods increased from about 56 percent to 59 percent during the campaign. Condom use increased from about 5 percent to 10 percent. Awareness and current use of modern contraceptives was also higher among men exposed to the campaign, primarily because of their greater awareness of condoms. Men exposed to the campaign were significantly more likely than other men to make the decision to use family planning and to say that both spouses should decide how many children to have.

  20. Children's role in the community response to HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, Morten; Magutshwa-Zitha, Sitholubuhle; Campbell, Catherine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent debates on how to achieve an optimal HIV response are dominated by intervention strategies that fail to recognize children's role in the community response to HIV. Whilst formal responses are key to the HIV response, they must recognize and build on indigenous community resources. This study examines adult's perspectives on the role of children in the HIV response in the Matobo District of southern Zimbabwe. Methods Through a mix of individual interviews (n=19) and focus group discussions (n=9), 90 community members who were active in social groups spoke about their community response to HIV. Transcripts were subjected to a thematic analysis and coding to generate key concepts and representations. Findings In the wake of the HIV epidemic, traditional views of children's social value as domestic “helpers” have evolved into them being regarded as capable and competent actors in the care and support of people living with HIV or AIDS, and as integral to household survival. Yet concurrent representations of children with excessive caregiving responsibilities as potentially vulnerable and at risk suggest that there is a limit to the role of children in the HIV response. Conclusion Community volunteers and health staff delivering HIV services need to recognize the “behind the scene” role of children in the HIV response and ensure that children are incorporated into their modus operandi – both as social actors and as individuals in need of support. PMID:23394900

  1. Closely associated theropod trackways from the Jurassic of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten; Broderick, Tim; Ait Kaci Ahmed, Ali

    2003-12-01

    Eighty-eight tracks of large theropod dinosaurs were found in the mid-Jurassic of Zimbabwe. Among the tracks, at least five adjacent trackways are recorded. The adjacent tracks were probably made by animals traveling as a group, given that they are in relatively close succession; that there are three overlapping tracks (among just 23) suggesting reasonably close associations of the animals; that all the tracks are apparently of the same ichnotaxon; that the preservational types of the tracks are similar; and that the tracks are all of animals traveling in one general direction closely associated in time (there are no returning tracks of the same animals or of those of other species; presence of such tracks would be highly probable if the tracks were made over a period of time of even several hours). Nearby, recently discovered giant sauropod tracks, the first in sub-Saharan Africa, indicate a realistic potential of predator/prey interactions between the two groups of dinosaurs.

  2. Fluoride levels and dental fluorosis in two districts in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Tobayiwa, C; Musiyambiri, M; Chironga, L; Mazorodze, O; Sapahla, S

    1991-11-01

    Water from two rural communities in Zimbabwe was analysed for fluoride content and school children in the two districts were examined for dental fluorosis. The survey for fluoride distribution in drinking water and the survey for the prevalence of fluorosis in the two districts were two complementary phases of the same project. In Gokwe District, water from artesian wells was found to contain between 5ppm and 10ppm fluoride ion concentration and as a result, fluorosis was found to be extremely severe in those communities solely dependent on artesian wells. In Chimanimani District, water from hot springs was found to contain five to six ppm fluoride ion concentration and in the catchment area of schools, drinking from hot springs fluorosis was also found to be very severe. In both cases, access to high fluoride water can be linked to administrative decisions taken some thirty years ago. Consideration for the long-term adverse effects of drinking water with excess fluoride had not been taken and now, corrective action will need to incorporate inter-disciplinary expertise.

  3. Effluent polishing via pasture irrigation in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nhapi, I; Mawere, M; Veenstra, S; Gijzen, H J

    2002-01-01

    Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe, is experiencing eutrophication-related problems in its downstream potable water supply source of Lake Chivero. This is due mainly to poorly treated sewage effluent encroachment into upstream rivers, especially Marimba River. Crowborough Pasture Irrigation farm is in the Marimba sub-catchment area and has 305 hectares of irrigated pastures. Studies started from July 2000 to August 2001 focusing on the pasture's management of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and their impact on Marimba River. Water and nutrient balances were developed. Reduction efficiencies for this pasture were found to be 84% for TN and 54% for TP. Both the Crowborough sewage treatment works and the pastures are overloaded. It was therefore concluded that the current system is no longer sustainable economically and environmentally. From the results of our study we recommend that additional treatment units be constructed at Crowborough sewage treatment works to meet current flows. Moreover, pasture management needs substantial improvement. Nutrient recovery should be enhanced by regular harvesting of pasture grass and converting cow dung into an economic commodity as manure for neighbouring residents. Maize cultivation is also recommended to replace pasture grass as it is a local staple crop and has high nutrient uptake rates.

  4. Characterisation of particulate matter emissions from the Zimbabwe Mining and Smelting Company (ZIMASCO) Kwekwe Division (Zimbabwe): a ferrochrome smelter.

    PubMed

    Pumure, I; Sithole, S D; Kahwai, S G T

    2003-09-01

    Particulate matter emissions from stack number 2 of a major ferrochrome smelter, Zimbabwe Mining and Smelting Company (ZIMASCO) were characterized and the rates at which the elements Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn and total ferrochrome dust are emitted into the atmosphere were determined. The extent of soil contamination by the dust deposited around the smelter in the generally prevailing southeasterly wind direction around the smelter was carried out. The highest concentrations of Cr and Fe occurred in the fine particulates of sizes less than 59 microm whilst that of Cu and Zn occurred in the coarse particulates of size range 70-100 microm. The emission rates from stack 2 were; total ferrochrome particulates 62.17 kg h(-1), Cr 6.217 kg h(-1), Fe 2.423 kg h(-1), Zn 42 mg h(-1) and 6 mg h(-1) for Cu. Particulate matter was emitted at a rate of 289 mg m(-3) from stack number 2. This value exceeds the legal limit of 200 mg m(-3). Chromium and iron are the metals in the largest amounts. The particles that constitute the largest proportion of the dust were in the range of 58-107.5 microm. This is a characteristic feature of the particulate matter emissions from ZIMASCO. Soils in the downwind direction from the smelter were polluted with Cr up to a distance of about 700 m outward from the perimeter of the boundary of the smelter.

  5. What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. Particles in Action. Teacher's Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  8. Beyond a Learning Society? It Is All to Be Done Again: Zambia and Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, David

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the ways in which educators and learning societies in Zambia and Zimbabwe have had to struggle to create independent, democratic and critical curricula in difficult circumstances over the last 50 years in the context of historical shifts in power, a declining British Empire and the re-emergence of reactionary forces at a…

  9. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  10. The Extent of Teacher Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadesango, Newman

    2010-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, there have been some debates on democratisation and decentralisation, which led to the development of policies meant to increase teacher participation in decision-making in schools. However, despite these developments, teacher participation in decision-making in Zimbabwean schools is regarded as insignificant. Teachers work closely…

  11. Determinants of Students' Academic Performance in Four Selected Accounting Courses at University of Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Taderera, Ever; Mandimika, Elinah

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to establish scientific evidence of the factors affecting academic performance for first year accounting students using four selected courses at the University of Zimbabwe. It uses Ordinary Least Squares method to analyse the influence of personal and family background on performance. The findings show that variables age gender,…

  12. The Relevance of Machine Shop Engineering Programs in Technical Colleges to Industry in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gweru, Sisco

    A study investigated the relationship between existing machine shop engineering programs in technical colleges and the requirements of industry in Zimbabwe. Data were collected from the principals, department headmasters, and a sample of lecturers and students at two colleges, and from personnel managers and workshop managers at nine companies…

  13. The Challenges of Revitalizing an Indigenous and Afrocentric Moral Theory in Postcolonial Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungwini, Pascah

    2011-01-01

    This work contributes to the philosophical debate on the normative dimension of postcolonial education in Zimbabwe. The work is a reaction to revelations made by the Commission of Inquiry into Education and Training of 1999 and its concomitant recommendations. Among its many observations, the Commission noted that there was a worrisome development…

  14. Progressive but Not Socialist: Political Education in the Zimbabwe Liberation War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff

    1993-01-01

    During the struggle for liberation in Zimbabwe in the 1970s, a form of cadre and mass political education developed that was nationalist rather than socialist. It focused on the need to elect a popular government rather than on Marxist class struggle. (SK)

  15. Department Involvement in Instructional Materials Development for ODL Study at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai; Mutambanengwe, Betty

    2015-01-01

    The teaching and designing of modules at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the principal responsibility of a single body of teaching staff, although some authors and content reviewers could be sourced from elsewhere if they are not available in ZOU. This survey, through a case study, examines the involvement of lecturers and staff in the…

  16. Teaching Fractions at Ordinary Level: A Case Study of Mathematics Secondary School Teachers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinyoka, Mirirai; Mutambara, Lillias H. N.; Chagwiza, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the teaching of fractions by Ordinary level mathematics teachers at Radcliff high school in Zimbabwe. The main objective of the study was to establish how teachers teach the concept of fraction and to find out why they teach in the manner they do. A case study research design was used and purposive sampling…

  17. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  18. Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

  19. Bandwidth Management in Universities in Zimbabwe: Towards a Responsible User Base through Effective Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitanana, Lockias

    2012-01-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the issue of how to maximise or make efficient use of bandwidth. In particular, the research sought to find out about what universities in Zimbabwe are doing to manage their bandwidth. It was, therefore, appropriate to survey a sample of five universities and to catalogue their experiences. Results show…

  20. Sexual Relationships among Students in Higher Education in Zimbabwe: Implications for HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapfumo, J.; Shumba, A.; Chireshe, R.

    2007-01-01

    The study sought to investigate male and female roles in intimate sexual relationships and their implications for HIV/AIDS among students in institutions of Higher Education in Zimbabwe. The sample (N = 118) voluntarily participated in this study. Fifty-eight participants came from a church related university while 60 were from a state owned.…

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). He took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy... motivated violence and intimidation in that country, and to political and economic instability in...

  2. 78 FR 41192 - Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general...

  3. A Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Pedagogy and Lifestyle Factors in Undergraduate Medical Students in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, R. G.; Chifamba, J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on health pedagogy in medical students in African universities are lacking. The aim of the current investigation was to assess the following pedagogy influences on second year Zimbabwean medical students' well-being. A group of 100 students studying Physiology and Anatomy in MBChB. II program at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health…

  4. Challenges of Virtual and Open Distance Science Teacher Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Vongai; Samukange, Tendai; Kusure, Lovemore M.; Zinyandu, Tinoidzwa M.; Denhere, Clever; Huggins, Nyakotyo; Wiseman, Chingombe; Ndlovu, Shakespear; Chiveya, Renias; Matavire, Monica; Mukavhi, Leckson; Gwizangwe, Isaac; Magombe, Elliot; Magomelo, Munyaradzi; Sithole, Fungai; Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE),

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the implementation of science teacher education through virtual and open distance learning in the Mashonaland Central Province, Zimbabwe. The study provides insight into challenges faced by students and lecturers on inception of the program at four centres. Data was collected from completed evaluation survey forms…

  5. The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J.; Little, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de…

  6. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  7. Managing the Quality of Cross-Border Higher Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2015-01-01

    A study on investigating the issues of quality associated with cross-border higher education was carried out using the case study approach focusing on Zimbabwe. The methodology involved document analysis of the cases of regulation and accreditation of cross-border higher education providers and assessment of qualifications acquired from foreign…

  8. Science Teacher Training Programme in Rural Schools: An ODL Lesson from Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhishi, Misheck; Bhukuvhani, Crispen Erinos; Sana, Abel Farikai

    2012-01-01

    This case study looked at 76 randomly selected preservice science teachers from Mbire and Guruve districts who were learning at the Mushumbi Centre in Zimbabwe and assessed their motivations for enrolling under the Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE)'s Virtual and Open Distance Learning (VODL) programme. It also looked at the challenges…

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  10. Citizenship and Citizenship Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Zimbabwe Presidential Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigauke, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political…

  11. What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  12. Zimbabwe's success story in education and health: will it weather economic structural adjustment?

    PubMed

    Tumwine, J K

    1992-12-01

    The beginning of the 1980s saw the birth of Zimbabwe as a result of a protracted liberation war. It coincided with global interest in primary health care, the concept of universal primary school education and, unfortunately, moves towards economic stabilization and structural adjustment programmes. Economic structural adjustment was adopted by several sub Saharan African countries with dire consequences for the poor and vulnerable. Zimbabwe's commitment to social justice and to equitable distribution of resources demonstrated a practical move away from the culture of rhetoric so characteristic of many governments and non-governmental organisations and agencies. This commitment has been translated into impressive improvements in health and education. Current evidence shows that education has had a positive impact on health and related areas like contraceptive use, child mortality and the nutrition status of children. Conversely nutrition and health conditions among school children are important determinants of educational outcomes. Hitherto Zimbabwe's economy has been sufficiently strong to avoid excessive dependence on the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and other foreign financial institutions. Unfortunately, however, the current economic recession together with economic structural adjustment programmes are beginning to have a negative impact on health and education. Will true synergism between health and education weather these structural problems? It seems that the people and government of Zimbabwe have the capacity and resolve to weather such a storm.

  13. College-School Dialogue and Mentoring in Teacher Training Programmes in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunganidze, Omega

    2015-01-01

    Globally, mentoring has been recognized as one of the effective approaches in professional training and development of teachers. Most importantly, in Zimbabwe, mentoring has been largely adopted as one of the Teaching Practice strategies by teacher training colleges and schools. Good quality mentoring in schools makes an important contribution to…

  14. A Critical Analysis of the Historical and Contemporary Status of Minority Languages in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree

    2011-01-01

    Although a voluminous amount of literature addresses language-in-education policy in Africa, one area in which the literature remains sparse is the role of minority languages in education. This article presents an overview of complex issues regarding the hegemony claims of different minority language groups in Zimbabwe. Given the relatively small…

  15. Curriculum Issues: Teaching and Learning for Sustainable Development in Developing Countries--Zimbabwe Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambudzo, Ignatius Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate curriculum issues, teaching and learning for sustainable development in secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at changing the approach to education by integrating principles, values, practices and needs in all forms of learning. Literature has documented the importance of…

  16. Quality Assurance Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Private Universities in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to provide an understanding of the quality assurance challenges and opportunities faced by private universities in Zimbabwe. The study analyzed the factors determining provision of quality higher education in private universities and the resultant effects of failing to achieve the minimum acceptable standards. The author employed…

  17. Why Do They Stay: Factors Influencing Teacher Retention in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomba, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    The attraction and retention of teachers in Zimbabwe is a problem not only unique to Zimbabwean schools, but all over the world. The problem is more pronounced in rural areas where resources are scarce, hence the tendency to repel teachers. Although the problem of teacher turnover is real, there are teachers who have remained in the profession for…

  18. From Bus Stop to Farm Village: The Farm Worker Programme in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auret, Diana

    This book documents the history, successes, and failures of Save the Children's farmworker program in Zimbabwe, 1981-98. The report explores workers' past and present living and working conditions on commercial farms and describes how the program promoted a progression from workers with a migrant mentality to the building of functional…

  19. Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the River Ranch kimberlite, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Maya G.; Gurney, John J.; Daniels, Leon R. M.

    More than 99% of mineral inclusions in diamonds from the River Ranch pipe in the Late Archean Limpopo Mobile Belt (Zimbabwe), are phases of harzburgitic paragenesis, namely olivine (Fo92-93), orthopyroxene (Mg#=93), G10 garnets and chromites. The diamond inclusion (DI) chemistry demonstrates a limited overlap with River Ranch kimberlite macrocrysts: the DI garnets are more Ca-undersaturated, and DI spinel and garnet are more Mg-rich. Most River Ranch diamond inclusions were equilibrated at T=1080-1320°C, P=47-61kbar, and fO2 between IW and WM buffers. The P/T profile beneath the Limpopo Mobile Belt (LMB) is consistent with a paleo-heat flow of 41-42mW/m2, similar to calculations for Roberts Victor, but hotter than for the Finsch, Kimberley, Koffiefontein and Premier Mines. This is ascribed to the younger tectonothermal age of the LMB and its proximity to Late Archean oceans. Like diamond inclusions from all other kimberlites studied, the River Ranch DI have a lithospheric affinity and therefore indicate that an ancient, chemically depleted, thick (at least 200km) mantle root existed beneath the Limpopo Mobile Belt 530-540Ma ago. The mantle root might have developed beneath the continental Central Zone of the LMB as early as the Archean, and could be alien to the overthrust allochthonous sheet of the Limpopo Belt. Oxygen fugacity estimates for diamond inclusions at River Ranch are similar to other diamondiferous harzburgites beneath the Kaapvaal craton, indicating that the Kaapvaal mantle as a whole was well buffered and homogeneous with respect to fO2 at the time of peridotitic diamond crystallization.

  20. Transition to Parenthood and HIV Infection in Rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Piccarreta, Raffaella; Gregson, Simon; Melegaro, Alessia

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and people’s choices about life course events describing the transition to parenthood–sexual debut, union (in the form of marriage, cohabitation, or long-term relationship), and parenthood–is still unclear. A crucial role in shaping this relationship may be played by the sequence of these events and by their timing. This suggests the opportunity to focus on the life courses in their entirety rather than on the specific events, thus adopting a holistic approach that regards each individual’s life course trajectory as a whole. Methods We summarise the individual life courses describing the transition to parenthood using ordered sequences of the three considered events. We aim to (i) investigate the association between the sequences and HIV infection, and (ii) understand how these sequences interact with known mechanisms for HIV transmission, such as the length of sexual exposure and the experience of non-regular sexual partnerships. For this purpose, we use data from a general population cohort study run in Manicaland (Zimbabwe), a Sub-Saharan African area characterised by high HIV prevalence. Results For both genders, individuals who experienced either premarital or delayed childbearing have higher HIV risk compared to individuals following more standard transitions. This can be explained by the interplay of the sequences with known HIV proximate determinants, e.g., a longer exposure to sexual activity and higher rates of premarital sex. Moreover, we found that people in the younger birth cohorts experience more normative and safer sequences. Conclusions The shift of younger generations towards more normative transitions to parenthood is a sign of behaviour change that might have contributed to the observed reduction in HIV prevalence in the area. On the other hand, for people with less normative transitions, targeted strategies are essential for HIV

  1. Assessing adult mortality in HIV-1-afflicted Zimbabwe (1998 -2003).

    PubMed Central

    Lopman, Ben A.; Barnabas, Ruanne; Hallett, Timothy B.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mundandi, Costa; Mushati, Phyllis; Garnett, Geoff P.; Gregson, Simon

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare alternative methods to vital registration systems for estimating adult mortality, and describe patterns of mortality in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, which has been severely affected by HIV. METHODS: We compared estimates of adult mortality from (1) a single question on household mortality, (2) repeated household censuses, and (3) an adult cohort study with linked HIV testing from Manicaland, with a mathematical model fitted to local age-specific HIV prevalence (1998 -2000). FINDINGS: The crude death rate from the single question (29 per 1000 person-years) was roughly consistent with that from the mathematical model (22 -25 per 1000 person-years), but much higher than that from the household censuses (12 per 1000 person-years). Adult mortality in the household censuses (males 0.65; females 0.51) was lower than in the cohort study (males 0.77; females 0.57), while mathematical models gave a much higher estimate, especially for females (males 0.80 -0.83; females 0.75 -0.80). The population attributable fraction of adult deaths due to HIV was 0.61 for men and 0.70 for women, with life expectancy estimated to be 34.3 years for males and 38.2 years for females. CONCLUSION: Each method for estimating adult mortality had limitations in terms of loss to follow-up (cohort study), under-ascertainment (household censuses), transparency of underlying processes (single question), and sensitivity to parameterization (mathematical model). However, these analyses make clear the advantages of longitudinal cohort data, which provide more complete ascertainment than household censuses, highlight possible inaccuracies in model assumptions, and allow direct quantification of the impact of HIV. PMID:16583077

  2. Changes in the burden of malaria following scale up of malaria control interventions in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To better understand trends in the burden of malaria and their temporal relationship to control activities, a survey was conducted to assess reported cases of malaria and malaria control activities in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe. Methods Data on reported malaria cases were abstracted from available records at all three district hospitals, three rural hospitals and 25 rural health clinics in Mutasa District from 2003 to 2011. Results Malaria control interventions were scaled up through the support of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and The President’s Malaria Initiative. The recommended first-line treatment regimen changed from chloroquine or a combination of chloroquine plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine to artemisinin-based combination therapy, the latter adopted by 70%, 95% and 100% of health clinics by 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Diagnostic capacity improved, with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available in all health clinics by 2008. Vector control consisted of indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets. The number of reported malaria cases initially increased from levels in 2003 to a peak in 2008 but then declined 39% from 2008 to 2010. The proportion of suspected cases of malaria in older children and adults remained high, ranging from 75% to 80%. From 2008 to 2010, the number of RDT positive cases of malaria decreased 35% but the decrease was greater for children younger than five years of age (60%) compared to older children and adults (26%). Conclusions The burden of malaria in Mutasa District decreased following the scale up of malaria control interventions. However, the persistent high number of cases in older children and adults highlights the need for strategies to identify locally effective control measures that target all age groups. PMID:23815862

  3. The impact of HIV on children's education in eastern Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Pufall, Erica L; Nyamukapa, Constance; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Campbell, Catherine; Skovdal, Morten; Munyati, Shungu; Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how HIV impacts directly and indirectly on receiving, or particularly succeeding in, education in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this gap, we used multivariable logistic regression to determine the correlation between education outcomes in youth (aged 15-24) (being in the correct grade-for-age, primary school completion and having at least five "O" level passes) and being HIV-positive; having an HIV-positive parent; being a young carer; or being a maternal, paternal or double orphan, in five rounds (1998-2011) of a general population survey from eastern Zimbabwe. The fifth survey round (2009-2011) included data on children aged 6-17, which were analysed for the impacts of the above risk factors on regular attendance in primary and secondary schools and being in the correct grade-for-age. For data pooled over all rounds, being HIV-positive had no association with primary school completion, "O" level passes, or being in the correct grade-for-age in adolescents aged 16-17 years. Additionally, HIV status had no significant association with any education outcomes in children aged 6-17 surveyed in 2009-2011. In 2009-2011, being a young carer was associated with lower attendance in secondary school (69% vs. 85%, AOR: 0.44; p=0.02), whilst being a maternal (75% vs. 83%, AOR: 0.67; p<0.01), paternal (76% vs. 83%, AOR: 0.67; p=0.02) or double (75% vs. 83%, AOR: 0.68; p=0.02) orphan was associated with decreased odds of being in the correct grade-for-age. All forms of orphanhood also significantly decreased the odds of primary school completion in youths surveyed from 1998 to 2011 (all p<0.01). We found no evidence that HIV status affects education but further evidence that orphans do experience worse education outcomes than other children. Combination approaches that provide incentives for children to attend school and equip schools with tools to support vulnerable children may be most effective in improving education outcomes and should be developed

  4. The African Pitocin - a midwife’s dilemma: the perception of women on the use of herbs in pregnancy and labour in Zimbabwe, Gweru

    PubMed Central

    Panganai, Tsitsi; Shumba, Precious

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of natural health products is gradually increasing all over the world with up to 50% of the general population having tried at least one herbal product. This becomes a dilemma to the midwife who has limited or no knowledge on their effects in pregnancy, hence the need to explore the perceptions of women on the use herbs in pregnancy and labour. Methods The research, which was a case study of a Claybank Private Hospital in Gweru, Zimbabwe, adopted a qualitative approach with a triangulation of data from interviews, observations and analysis of maternal records. A sample of 20 women, admitted to using herbs, was purposively selected from the labour and post natal wards. Results A variety of substances, but mainly the elephant's dung, was used. The family, (mother) prescribed the herbs. The women did not have knowledge on how the substances work but believed in them, as they have stood the test of time. Conclusion The African women in Zimbabwe cannot be stopped from taking herbs as it is engraved in their culture and have absolute faith in them. Whilst the herbs are assumed by the women to be effective, their safety is questionable, especially in women with underlying obstetric complications. It is therefore recommended to scientifically explore the safety and effectiveness of the most commonly used herbs if pregnancy is to be safe. Whilst the women can not be stopped from taking these herbs, it is important to build a trusting relationship between the midwife and the mother so that communication about the use of herbs can be done freely without fear or judgement. PMID:28203312

  5. Development of a rainfall sensitive tree-ring chronology in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Stahle, D.W.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Nicholson, S.E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper reports the discovery of annual tree ring formation in two species of trees in Zimbabwe and describes their paleoclimatic reconstruction potential. Due to the strong influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on the climate and crop yields of Zimbabwe and surrenting areas, and the rarity of annual tree ring chronologies in the tropics, the discovery of climatically sensitive growth rings is extremely significant. In particular, the Pterocarpus angolensis shows a strong correlation between the derived tree ring chronology and regional rainfall amounts. Based on sampling at the Sikumi Forest, it is speculated that P. angolensis may routinely achieve over 200 years in age. Four lines of evidence are identified which indicate that the semi-ring porous growth bands in P. angolensis are exactly annual growth rings. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  6. "Living from day to day": food insecurity, complexity, and coping in muTare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gwatirisa, Pauline; Manderson, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, unpredictable conditions associated with structural and institutional factors exacerbated the combined effects of structural violence, economic and political instability, and climate change in the mid 2000s, contributing to widespread food insecurity. Drought, food shortages, and government settlement policy affecting both rural and urban populations has yielded a national human rights crisis. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Mutare, southeast Zimbabwe, in 2005-2006, the authors illustrate the flow-on effects of drought and government policy on the livelihoods of households already suffering as a result of the social impacts of AIDS, and how people in a regional city responded to these factors, defining and meeting their basic food needs in diverse ways.

  7. Cholera in Zimbabwe: Developing an Educational Response to a Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandikonza, Caleb; Musindo, Beatrice; Taylor, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In February 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe had claimed 3,300 lives and infected 66,000 people--greater than the toll of that disease in the whole of Africa in most years. How is it possible that a disease such as cholera can have such a devastating effect in modern times? How should one…

  8. Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, A E

    1988-01-01

    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems.

  9. Perceptions of misoprostol among providers and women seeking post-abortion care in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maternowska, M Catherine; Mashu, Alexio; Moyo, Precious; Withers, Mellissa; Chipato, Tsungai

    2015-02-01

    In Zimbabwe, abortions are legally restricted and complications from unsafe abortions are a major public health concern. This study in 2012 explored women's and providers' perspectives in Zimbabwe on the acceptability of the use of misoprostol as a form of treatment for complications of abortion in post-abortion care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 participants at seven post-abortion care facilities. Participants included 73 women of reproductive age who received services for incomplete abortion and 42 providers, including physicians, nurses, midwives, general practitioners and casualty staff. Only 29 providers had previously used misoprostol with their own patients, and only 21 had received any formal training in its use. Nearly all women and providers preferred misoprostol to surgical abortion methods because it was perceived as less invasive, safer and more affordable. Women also generally preferred the non-surgical method, when given the option, as fears around surgery and risk were high. Most providers favoured removing legal restrictions on abortion, particularly medical abortion. Approving use of misoprostol for post-abortion care in Zimbabwe is important in order to reduce unsafe abortion and its related sequelae. Legal, policy and practice reforms must be accompanied by effective reproductive health curricula updates in medical, nursing and midwifery schools, as well as through updated training for current and potential providers of post-abortion care services nationwide. Our findings support the use of misoprostol in national post-abortion care programmes, as it is an acceptable and potentially life-saving treatment option.

  10. Mainstreaming gender in integrated water resources management: the case of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manase, G.; Ndamba, J.; Makoni, F.

    Zimbabwe embarked on a water sector reform programme in 1995. Two goals of the water reform were to broaden women’s access to water and to enhance their participation in water management. This paper analyses how gender was addressed at the national and institutional levels and in the water reform process, paying particular attention on how strategic gender needs were addressed in the process and the resultant policies and Acts. The results show that although the government of Zimbabwe has made considerable progress in mainstreaming gender at the ministerial level, departments which are involved in the actual implementation of water programmes do not have clear gender policies. Therefore although gender equity was one of the main goals of the water reform, most poor women and men were not involved in the consultations. Consequently neither the new Water Act nor the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA) Act addresses gender in explicit terms. Strategic gender needs are not addressed at all. It is recommended that all institutions in the water sector, including NGOs, should have clear gender policies, include a gender perspective in their organisation culture and practices and address strategic gender needs through training, education and supporting productive use of water.

  11. Establishing strategic energy assessment indicators for Zimbabwe: A key to improving electrical energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Felix

    In Zimbabwe, there is still very little realization of the potential of demand side management (DSM) to increase industrial energy efficiency. Without clear guidelines that indicate the most economic energy efficiency strategies to implement, it is difficult for industry to easily evaluate the benefits of energy assessments. This research focused on establishing and evaluating indicators that guide correct implementation of energy assessments into Zimbabwean industry. This quantitative and qualitative study used a theoretic approach to develop indicators that identified industrial subsectors that should be targeted for DSM interventions. This may bring about reduction in energy demand in high power consuming Zimbabwean industrial companies, which were compared with energy utility performances of similar industrial companies in countries located in other parts of the world. This research used pattern-matching, categorical aggregation, and stochastic frontier regression analysis for data analysis. In maximizing electrical efficiency, the implications of this study may be used by individual companies in Zimbabwe to perform energy efficiency self-diagnoses, operational efficiency evaluations, and capital resource justifications. From a societal perspective, this study may benefit Zimbabwe because it provides opportunities for the alleviation of both shortages in power supply and the capital constraints of building new generating capacity. This study will also benefit ordinary Zimbabweans by lowering energy costs and providing reliable power. This promotes sustainable economic growth and lowers the need for foreign currency to import power.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from chickens with colibacillosis in and around Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Bamusi; Mafirakureva, Prettimore; Mbanga, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Colibacillosis, a disease caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), can lead to great economic losses in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns in APEC in Zimbabwe. From 503 chickens diagnosed with colibacillosis, 103 E. coli isolates were obtained. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using microscopy and biochemical tests. The disc diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to 8 commercial antibiotics. Many isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antibiotic. Antibiogram profiles indicated maximum resistance to tetracycline (100%), bacitracin (100%), and cloxacillin (100%) and a high prevalence of resistance to ampicillin (94.1%). However; there were high prevalences of sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (100%) and gentamycin (97.1%). The isolates showed moderate rates of sensitivity to chloramphenicol and neomycin. All isolates in this study showed multidrug resistance because they were all resistant to 3 or more antibiotics. Seven multidrug resistance patterns were observed. The most common pattern (resistance to ampicillin, bacitracin, cloxacillin, and tetracycline) was exhibited by 30 isolates. Our findings show that there is emerging drug resistance in APEC associated with colibacillosis in Zimbabwe. The observed high level of multidrug resistance could hamper the treatment of colibacillosis in Zimbabwe.

  13. Rabies in Zimbabwe: reservoir dogs and the implications for disease control.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, C J; Atkinson, R P; Anderson, R M; Macdonald, D W

    1998-01-01

    Using detailed field study observations of the side-striped jackal (Canis adustus) and a simple stochastic model of the transmission dynamics of the virus and host demography, we discuss the epidemiology of rabies virus infection in the jackal population of Zimbabwe. Of the two jackal species in Zimbabwe, the other being the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), the bulk of notified rabies cases are in side-striped jackals. Specifically, we show that the side-striped jackal population itself does not seem able to support rabies infection endemically, i.e. without frequent reintroduction from outside sources of infection. We argue that this is probably because the overall average jackal population density is too low to maintain the chain of infection. This study suggests that the disease is regularly introduced to jackals by rabid dogs from populations associated with human settlements. Given the rapidly rising dog population in Zimbabwe, estimates are derived of the future incidence of jackal rabies based on different dog-vaccination scenarios. PMID:9684293

  14. The Challenges of Using the Communicative Approach (CA) in the Teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) in Zimbabwe: Implications for ESL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutekwa, Anias

    2013-01-01

    This article examines studies done on the use of the CA locally, in addition to insights from studies done abroad, as well as critically examining the nature of the CA and the language situation in Zimbabwe, to identify and discuss the main challenges associated with the use of this approach to the teaching of ESL in Zimbabwe and its implications…

  15. The Uses and Consequences of Literacy in the Daily Lives of Ordinary People: From an Evaluation of Adult Literacy Organization of Zimbabwe (ALOZ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    To evaluate the Adult Literacy Organization of Zimbabwe (ALOZ), an organization whose aim is to achieve universal literacy in Zimbabwe, a study interviewed officials at ALOZ, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and other institutions involved in literacy development; reviewed relevant literature and documents;…

  16. We Are Your Children: The Kushanda Early Childhood Education and Care Dissemination Programme, Zimbabwe 1985-1993. Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Salih

    Part of the series "Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections," this report details the Kushanda Project, an early childhood education program in Zimbabwe. The Kushanda Project is a 16-person organization that has helped parents in rural Zimbabwe communities to understand the value of early childhood education and…

  17. Access and Quality in Education in Resettlement Schools: The Case Study of Zvivingwi Secondary School in Gutu District, Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenjekwa, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, the discourse on access and quality in education has been a raging one since the colonial days of bottlenecks and outright discrimination against black Zimbabweans in education. The doors to education were declared open to all at independence in 1980 with the new Zimbabwe government's enunciated policy of education for all. It is an…

  18. Extremely depleted lithospheric mantle and diamonds beneath the southern Zimbabwe Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Chris B.; Pearson, D. Graham; Bulanova, Galina P.; Beard, Andrew D.; Carlson, Richard W.; Wittig, Nadine; Sims, Keith; Chimuka, Lovemore; Muchemwa, Ellah

    2009-11-01

    Inclusion-bearing diamonds, mantle xenoliths, and kimberlite concentrates from the Cambrian-aged Murowa and Sese kimberlites have been studied to characterise the nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Zimbabwe Craton. The diamonds are mostly octahedral, moderately rich in nitrogen with moderate to high aggregation, and contain mainly dunite-harzburgite mineral inclusions. Similarly, dunite xenoliths predominate over harzburgite and lherzolite and carry olivines with Mg/Mg + Fe (Mg#) values of 0.92-0.95, spanning the average signatures for Kaapvaal Craton peridotites. Eclogitic xenoliths are extremely rare, in contrast to the Kaapvaal mantle lithosphere. The Zimbabwe mantle assemblage has been only slightly affected by later silicic metasomatism and re-fertilisation with re-introduction of pyroxenes in contrast to the Kaapvaal and many cratonic lithospheric blocks elsewhere where strong metasomatism and re-fertilisation is widespread. Pyroxene, garnet and spinel thermobarometry suggests an ambient 40 mW m - 2 geotherm, with the lithosphere extending down to 210 km at the time of kimberlite eruption. Whole rock peridotite Re-Os isotope analyses yield T RD model ages of 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, providing minimum estimates of the time of melt depletion, are slightly younger in age than the basement greenstone formation. These model ages coincide with the mean T RD age of > 200 analyses of Kaapvaal Craton peridotites, whereas the average Re-Os model age for the Zimbabwe peridotites is 3.2 Ga. The Os data and low Yb n/Lu n ratios suggest a model whereby thick lithospheric mantle was stabilised during the early stages of crustal development by shallow peridotite melting required for formation of residues with sufficiently high Cr/Al to stabilise chromite which then transforms to low Ca, high Cr garnet. Sulphide inclusions in diamond produce minimum T RD model ages of 3.4 Ga indicating that parts of the lithosphere were present at the earliest stages of crust

  19. Factors associated with severe occupational injuries at mining company in Zimbabwe, 2010: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chimamise, Chipo; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Chadambuka, Addmore; Shambira, Gerald; Chimusoro, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Injury rate among mining workers in Zimbabwe was 789/1000 workers in 2008. The proportion of severe occupational injuries increased from 18% in 2008 to 37% in 2009. We investigated factors associated with severe injuries at the mine. Methods An unmatched 1:1 case-control study was carried out at the mine, a case was any worker who suffered severe occupational injury at the mine and was treated at the mine or district hospital from January 2008 to April 2010, a control was any worker who did not suffer occupational injury during same period. We randomly selected 156 cases and 156 controls and used interviewer administered questionnaires to collect data from participants. Results Majority of cases, 155(99.4%) and of controls 142(91%) were male, 127(81.4%) of cases and 48(30.8%) of controls worked underground. Majority (73.1%) of severe occupational injuries occurred during night shift. Underground temperatures reached 500C. Factors independently associated with getting severe occupational injuries included working underground (AOR = 10.55; CI 5.97-18.65), having targets per shift (AOR = 12.60; CI 3.46-45.84), inadequate PPE (AOR= 3.65 CI 1.34-9.89) and working more than 8 hours per shift (AOR = 8.65 CI 2.99-25.02). Conclusion Having targets exerts pressure to perform on workers. Prolonged working periods decrease workers’ attention and concentration resulting in increased risk to severe injuries as workers become exhausted, lose focus and alertness. Underground work environment had environmental hazards so managers to install adequate ventilation and provide adequate PPE. Management agreed to standardize shifts to eight hours and workers in some departments have been supplied with adequate PPE. PMID:23504270

  20. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in Zimbabwe: Insights into Health Outcomes in the Pre-Antiretroviral Therapy Era

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ceri; Humphrey, Jean H.; Ntozini, Robert; Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14,110 mother–infant pairs to a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997 and 2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterized through 1–2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants (n = 3135), with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n = 9510). Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial. HEU infants had increased morbidity compared to HIV-unexposed infants, with 50% more hospitalizations in the neonatal period and 30% more sick clinic visits during infancy, particularly for skin infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and oral thrush. HEU children had 3.9-fold and 2.0-fold higher mortality than HIV-unexposed children during the first and second years of life, respectively, most commonly due to acute respiratory infections, diarrhea/dysentery, malnutrition, sepsis, and meningitis. Infant morbidity and mortality were strongly related to maternal HIV disease severity, and increased morbidity remained until maternal CD4 counts were >800 cells/μL. HEU infants were more likely to be premature and small-for-gestational age than HIV-unexposed infants, and had more postnatal growth failure. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explain the increased risk of infectious morbidity, mortality, and growth failure among HEU infants, hypothesizing that immune activation and inflammation are key drivers of both infection susceptibility and growth failure. Future studies should further dissect the causes of infection susceptibility and growth failure and determine the impact of ART and cotrimoxazole on outcomes of this vulnerable group of infants in the current era. PMID:27375613

  1. Norovirus - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... fluids ( dehydration ). Anyone can become infected with norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  2. DNA sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of Fasciola gigantica with F. hepatica in South Africa and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mucheka, Vimbai T; Lamb, Jennifer M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-11-30

    The aim of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of Fasciola species in cattle from Zimbabwe, the KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and selected wildlife hosts from Zimbabwe. This was based on analysis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) regions. The sample of 120 flukes was collected from livers of 57 cattle at 4 abattoirs in Zimbabwe and 47 cattle at 6 abattoirs in South Africa; it also included three alcohol-preserved duiker, antelope and eland samples from Zimbabwe. Aligned sequences (ITS 506 base pairs and CO1 381 base pairs) were analyzed by neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle from Zimbabwe and F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica in the samples from South Africa. F. hepatica was more prevalent (64%) in South Africa than F. gigantica. In Zimbabwe, F. gigantica was present in 99% of the samples; F. hepatica was found in only one cattle sample, an antelope (Hippotragus niger) and a duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia). This is the first molecular confirmation of the identity Fasciola species in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Knowledge on the identity and distribution of these liver flukes at molecular level will allow disease surveillance and control in the studied areas.

  3. “We Are Not Really Marketing Mental Health”: Mental Health Advocacy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Hendler, Reuben; Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Crooks, Megan; Mangezi, Walter; Abas, Melanie; Katz, Craig; Thornicroft, Graham; Semrau, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs. Methods We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country’s mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions. Results Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy’s importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate (“targets”), what they advocate for (“asks”), how advocates reach their targets (“access”), how they make their asks (“arguments”), and the results of their advocacy (“outcomes”). Discussion Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs. PMID:27607240

  4. Ethnic differences in sexual behaviour among unmarried adolescents and young adults in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sambisa, William; Curtis, Sian L; Stokes, C Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the social and cultural contextual determinants of sexual behaviour of adolescents and young adults is an essential step towards curtailing the spread of HIV. This study examined the effects of one cultural factor, ethnicity, on sexual abstinence, faithfulness, condom use at last sex, and risky sex among young people in Zimbabwe. Data from the cross-sectional, population-based 2005-06 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey were used. Net of the effect of sociodemographic and social-cognitive factors, and using multinomial logistic regression, ethnicity was found to have a strong and consistent effect on sexual behaviour among youth. In addition, the study found that there were ethnic-specific and within-gender differences in sexual behaviour, for both men and women. Shona youth were more likely to be abstinent than Ndebele youth. Compared with Shona youth, Ndebele youth were more likely to have engaged in risky sex. However, Ndebele men were more likely have used condoms at last sex, compared with Shona men. For both men and women, sexual behaviour was more socially controlled. School attendance and religion exerted protective effects on sexual abstinence. For men only, those living in rural areas were less likely to be faithful and more likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviour than those living in urban areas. The study attests to the fact that ethnic norms and ideologies of sexuality need to be identified and more thoroughly understood. In addition, the study provides evidence that in order to promote safe and healthy sexuality among young people in Zimbabwe, cultural, social and gender-specific approaches to the development of HIV prevention strategies should be seriously considered. Current success in the Abstinence, Being faithful and Condom use (ABC) approach could be strengthened by recognizing and responding to cultural forces that reproduce and perpetuate risky sexual behaviours.

  5. Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

    2013-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (P<0.05) with livestock species and nature of causative agent. Out of the 36 diseases mentioned by farmers, 50%, 22.2%, 19.4%, 5.5% and 2.8% were diseases of cattle, sheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years.

  6. Policy development in malaria vector management in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Woelk, Godfrey; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Sevene, Esperança; Daniels, Karen; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew; Lavis, John

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), two principal malaria control strategies, are similar in cost and efficacy. We aimed to describe recent policy development regarding their use in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Methods Using a qualitative case study methodology, we undertook semi-structured interviews of key informants from May 2004 to March 2005, carried out document reviews and developed timelines of key events. We used an analytical framework that distinguished three broad categories: interests, ideas and events. Results A disparate mix of interests and ideas slowed the uptake of ITNs in Mozambique and Zimbabwe and prevented uptake in South Africa. Most respondents strongly favoured one strategy over the other. In all three countries, national policy makers favoured IRS, and only in Mozambique did national researchers support ITNs. Outside interests in favour of IRS included manufacturers who supplied the insecticides and groups opposing environmental regulation. International research networks, multilateral organizations, bilateral donors and international NGOs supported ITNs. Research evidence, local conditions, logistic feasibility, past experience, reaction to outside ideas, community acceptability, the role of government and NGOs, and harm from insecticides used in spraying influenced the choice of strategy. The end of apartheid permitted a strongly pro-IRS South Africa to influence the region, and in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, floods provided conditions conducive to ITN distribution. Conclusions Both IRS and ITNs have a place in integrated malaria vector management, but pro-IRS interests and ideas slowed or prevented the uptake of ITNs. Policy makers needed more than evidence from trials to change from the time-honoured IRS strategy that they perceived was working. Those intending to promote new policies such as ITNs should examine the interests and ideas motivating key stakeholders and their own

  7. An improved maize marketing system for African countries: the case of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Child, B; Muir, K; Blackie, M

    1985-11-01

    This article proposes a system for Zimbabwe which retains government control of national stocks and enables the parastatal marketing system to stabilize prices, at the same time ensuring a more rational delivery system in rural areas with prices reflecting storage and transport costs. The local population is encouraged to fulfill local needs, thus avoiding the expense of directing all marketing and processing through the urban areas. A more localized system will also have greater multiplier effects. Zimbabwe's maize marketing system is used to show how this system could be modified with benefits to rural consumers, producers and government. Data suggest there is little market exploitation: price differentials between markts reflect transport costs, returns on storage are reasonable, and voluntary procurement operations are usually able to stabilize prices. Zoning, movement restrictions and compulsory procurement have been shown to destabilize food markets; prices between markets are higher in periods of strict control than when marketing is relatively free. Controlled marketing answers a real political and economic need in Zimbabwe. Existing public food marketing agencies are not inherently inefficient. While stabilizing maize supply, there are important advantages in announcing preplanting prices, but any trade in maize only takes place after price setting. It is unlikely that there would be both imports and exports in any 1 year, except when previous contracts are being fulfilled. 2 policy options are available to cover anticipated periods of insufficient national maize production: the maintenance of a strategic reserve; and importation of maize to cover supply shortfalls. Single-channel marketing should be replaced by an internal free market operating between floor and ceiling prices by supply manipulation to prevent excessive producer and consumer welfare fluctuations. This system would be more efficient and have beneficial effects on development. It is more

  8. An appraisal of policies and institutional frameworks impacting on smallholder agricultural water management in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyagumbo, I.; Rurinda, J.

    Policies and institutional frameworks associated with and / or impacting on agricultural water management (AWM) in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe were analyzed through literature reviews, feedback from stakeholder workshops, key informant interviews and evaluation of policy impacts on implemented case study projects/programmes. The study showed that Zimbabwe has gone a long way towards developing a water management policy addressing both equity and access, through the Water and ZINWA of 1998. However, lack of incentives for improving efficient management and utilization of water resources once water has reached the farm gate was apparent, apart from punitive economic instruments levied on usage of increased volumes of water. For example, the new water reforms of 1998 penalized water savers through loss of any unused water in their permits to other users. In addition, the ability of smallholder farmers to access water for irrigation or other purposes was influenced by macro and micro-economic policies such as Economic Structural and Adjustment Programme (ESAP), Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation (ZIMPREST), prevailing monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the Land and Agrarian Reform policies. For instance, the implementation of ESAP from 1991 to 95 resulted in a decline in government support to management of communal irrigation schemes, and as a result only gravity-fed schemes survived. Also AWM projects/programmes that were in progress were prematurely terminated. While considerable emphasis was placed on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure since the fast track land reform in 1998, the policies remained rather silent on strategies for water management in rainfed systems. The piecemeal nature and fragmentation of policies and institutional frameworks scattered across government ministries and sectors were complex and created difficulties for smallholder farmers to access water resources. Poor policy implementation

  9. High resolution seismic reflection, an exploration tool within an underground environment (example from Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutyorauta, J. J.

    Metallurgical grade chromite ore in Zimbabwe is mined from two underground mines, Peak Mine and Railway Block Mine, in Shurugwi. Peak Mine is at present just over 800 m deep. In the search for new chromite ore bodies, such a depth limits the application of the conventional geophysical exploration tools. Exploration diamond drilling is becoming more and more an expensive resort. Alternative and effective geophysical techniques are therefore being actively sought after. The high resolution seismic reflection technique, carried out right within Peak Mine, has the potential to become a useful exploration tool.

  10. The prevalence of myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome in a lower socio-economic group in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Khan, A A

    1990-06-01

    The prevalence of myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) was investigated in Zimbabwe. The study was carried out at Government dental centres, where most of the patients seen were local indigenous Zimbabweans belonging to the lower and lower middle socio-economic group which forms more than 80 per cent of the population of the country. There was a very low prevalence in this group unlike the results of similar studies in more developed countries. Nervous tensions, stress and strains associated with a faster pace of life and often cited in the aetiology of MPDS could be the attributing factor.

  11. Chemical Control of Nematodes on Flue-cured Tobacco in Brazil, Canada, United States, and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Rich, J. R.; Arnett, J. D.; Shepherd, J. A.; Watson, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    A survey was conducted in four major flue-cured tobacco producing countries to determine use of nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes on flue-cured tobacco. Included in the survey were scientists from Brazil, Canada, the United States, and Zimbabwe. Nematicides were used on 60-95% of the flue-cured tobacco crop in these regions. The choice of fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides, however, varied greatly as influenced by the edaphic factors, nematode species, and other pests present. The major nematicides, application methods, and efficacy evaluation systems used in these countries were addressed. PMID:19287656

  12. No joking matter: formal and informal sources of information about AIDS in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Pitts, M; Jackson, H

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and forty-two social work students in Harare, Zimbabwe, were questioned concerning their sources and memory of information concerning the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS. Newspapers were cited most frequently as the major source of information. Family and friends were not reported to be major sources of information. An analysis of the kinds of items most frequently recalled showed that articles concerning personal portrayals were the most powerful vehicles for AIDS information. Metaphors and similes for AIDS produced by the students mirrored those commonly reported elsewhere. Jokes were studied as indicators of informal opinions, and these showed negative views of American involvement in AIDS issues.

  13. Does the type of treatment supporter influence tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Zimbabwe?

    PubMed

    Mlilo, N; Sandy, C; Harries, A D; Kumar, A M V; Masuka, N; Nyathi, B; Edginton, M; Isaakidis, P; Manzi, M; Siziba, N

    2013-06-21

    Zimbabwe National Tuberculosis Guidelines advise that direct observation of anti-tuberculosis treatment (DOT) can be provided by a family member/relative as a last resort. In 2011, in Nkayi District, of 763 registered tuberculosis (TB) patients, 59 (8%) received health facility-based DOT, 392 (51%) received DOT from a trained community worker and 306 (40%) from a family member/relative. There were no differences in TB treatment outcomes between the three DOT groups, apart from a higher frequency rate of 'no reported outcomes' for those receiving family-based DOT. Family members should be trained to use a suitable DOT support package.

  14. Effectiveness of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion processes in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikwari, Emmanuel; Mhaka, Luke; Gwandu, Tariro; Chipangura, Tafadzwa; Misi Manyanga, Amos; Sabastian Matsenyengwa, Nyasha; Rabesiranana, Naivo; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) in soil erosion and redistribution studies has gained popularity since the late 1980s. In Zimbabwe, soil erosion research was mostly based on conventional methods which included the use of erosion plots for quantitative measurements and erosion models for predicting soil losses. Only limited investigation to explore the possibility of using Caesium-137 (Cs-137) has been reported in the early 1990s for undisturbed and cultivated lands in Zimbabwe. In this study, the Cs-137 technique was applied to assess the impact of soil conservation practices on soil losses and to develop strategies and support effective policies that help farmers in Zimbabwe for sustainable land management. The study was carried out at the Makoholi research station 30 km north of the Masvingo region which is located 260 km south of Harare. The area is semi-arid and the study site comprises coarse loamy sands, gleyic lixisols. The conservation agriculture (CA) practices used within the area since 1988 include (i) direct seeding (DS) with mulch, (ii) CA basins with mulch, and (iii) 18 years direct seeding, left fallow for seven years and turned into conventional tillage since 2012 (DS/F/C). The Cs-137 reference inventory was established at 214 ± 16 Bq/m2. The mean inventories for DS, CA basins and DS/F/C were 195, 190 and 214 Bq/m2 respectively. Using the conversion Mass Balance Model 2 on the Cs-137 data obtained along transects for each of the practices, gross erosion rates were found to be 7.5, 7.3 and 2.6 t/ha/yr for direct seeding, CA basins and the DS/F/C while the net erosion rates were found to be 3.8, 4.6 and 0 t/ha/yr respectively. Sediment delivery ratios were 50%, 63% and 2% in the respective order. These preliminary results showed the effectiveness of DS over CA basins in erosion control. The efficiency of fallowing in controlling excessive soil loss was significant in the plot that started as DS for 18 years but left fallow for 7

  15. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  16. School Supervision in Four African Countries. Volume II: National Diagnoses--Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. Trends in School Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grauwe, A., Ed.

    This publication forms the second volume of a report on a study of the school supervision system in four African countries. (The research is part of a larger series of studies sponsored by UNESCO and the International Institute for Educational Planning.) The countries studied were Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. The study examined the…

  17. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  18. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  19. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  20. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  1. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  2. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  3. An Analysis of Female Lecturers' Participation in Civil Engineering Research and Development Activities at One Polytechnic in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikuvadze, Pinias; Matswetu, Vimbai Sharon; Mugijima, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore female lecturers' participation in civil engineering research and development activities at one polytechnic in Zimbabwe. Case study design was chosen for this study to make predictions, narration of events, comparisons and drawing of conclusions. The female lecturers were purposively sampled to participate in the…

  4. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Kalahari Basin Province of Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-02-24

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 4.5 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Kalahari Basin Province of Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, Africa.

  5. The Presidential Scholarship Programme in Zimbabwe: A Living Case of the Political Will in Promoting Regionalisation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvavahera, Promise

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore the impact of the commitment and political will exhibited by the Government of Zimbabwe through the Presidential Scholarship Scheme in promoting regionalisation of higher education. The methodology employed document analysis, interviews and questionnaires to gather data from the stakeholders. The officials responsible…

  6. A Comparative Study of Entrepreneurship Curriculum Development and Review at the University of Zimbabwe and Botho University, Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Svotwa, Douglas; Rudhumbu, Norman; Mutsau, Morgen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make comparative study of the development and review process of the entrepreneurship curriculum at the University of Zimbabwe (UZ) Faculty of Commerce and Botho University, (BU) Faculty of Business and Accounting in Gaborone, Botswana. The study focused on the processes and influences of curriculum development…

  7. A Comparison of Zimbabwe's Rural and Urban Primary School Pupils' Views about Homework: A Case of Masvingo District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapako, Felix Petros; Mareva, Rugare; Chindedza, Winnet

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to establish and compare the views of rural and urban primary school pupils on homework in Zimbabwe, using six purposively sampled Masvingo rural and urban primary schools. The inquiry employed a qualitative methodology in which data were gathered through semi-structured personal interviews and document analysis. A sample of…

  8. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  9. What Do You Know about Water? Teacher's Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  11. An Assessment of the Policies and Programmes of Zimbabwe in Addressing the HIV/Aids Epidemic in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rembe, Symphorosa

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the policies, strategic plans and structures that have been put in place in Zimbabwe to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the education sector. It also examined the comprehensiveness of projects and programmes currently being implemented by the government in collaboration with partner organisations and NGOs. The findings show…

  12. Microcenoscelis n. gen. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Ulomini) from tropical Africa, with description of a blind species from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Schawaller, Wolfgang

    2015-10-05

    Microcenoscelis n. gen. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Ulomini) caeca n. sp. is described from Zimbabwe, a small and completely blind species. A second known species, however with completely developed eyes, and originally described as Uloma minuscula Ardoin, 1969, was also placed in the new genus. Microcenoscelis n. gen. seems to be mostly related to the genera Cenoscelis Wollaston, 1867, and Cneocnemis Gebien, 1914.

  13. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  14. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  15. Applied Climate Education and Training for Agricultural and Natural Resource Management in India, Indonesia, Zimbabwe and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, D. A.; Clewett, J. F.; Selvaraju, R.; Birch, C.

    2006-01-01

    In parts of the world, including many developing countries, climate variability impacts negatively on agricultural production and natural resource management. Workshops in applied climatology were held in Australia, India, Indonesia and Zimbabwe between 1999 and 2002 to provide farmers and agricultural and meteorological staff a better…

  16. Using Regression Analysis to Establish the Relationship between Home Environment and Reading Achievement: A Case of Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Certo, Janine; Launcelot, Brown I.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we report results of a study examining the relationship between home environment factors and reading achievement in Zimbabwe. The study utilised data collected by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ). The data were submitted to linear regression analysis through structural equation…

  17. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  18. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  19. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  20. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  1. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  2. To Bind Ties between the School and Tribal Life: Educational Policy for Africans under George Stark in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungazi, Dickson A.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that educational policy in Zimbabwe from 1934 to 1954 served the political purposes of the colonial government and neglected genuine educational development of the colonized Africans. During George Stark's tenure as Director of Native Education, Zimbabweans were consigned to "practical training" programs and were denied access…

  3. Examination Management as a Way of Achieving Quality Assurance in ODL Institutions: The Case of Zimbabwe Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mafa, Onias; Gudhlanga, Enna Sukutai

    2012-01-01

    An examination is an important component of any institution that educates people. It is a form of assessment used to measure the students' understanding of the concepts and principles they would have learnt. Zimbabwe Open University, an Open and Distance Learning institution has been setting its own examinations for the academic programmes…

  4. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  5. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  6. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  7. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  8. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  9. Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the Context of Economic Reform. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennell, Paul; Bendera, Shane; Kanyenze, Godfrey; Kimambo, Emrode; Kiwia, Sixtus; Mbiriyakura, Tichafa; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Munetsi, N.; Muzulu, Jo; Parsalaw, Willy; Temu, John

    Developments in vocational education and training (VET) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe since the 1980s were examined in the context of economic reform. Formal VET provision in each country's public and private sectors was reviewed, and case studies of one firm in each country's manufacturing and tourism industries were conducted. The research identified…

  10. Teachers' Perceptions and Students' Lived Experiences in Vocational-Technical Subjects in a Rural High School in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masinire, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of dominant models of gender among students in the Vocational-Technical. In the backdrop of dominant narratives that structure gender policies and practices in schooling in Zimbabwe, the paper elaborates upon how students' daily experiences in workrooms perpetuate the feminisation and masculinisation of fields…

  11. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  12. Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  13. Is religion the forgotten variable in maternal and child health? Evidence from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wei; Salama, Peter; Gwavuya, Stanley; Kanjala, Chifundo

    2014-10-01

    The Apostolic faith, a rapidly growing and increasingly influential force in Zimbabwe, has received attention in the literature due to its potential role in shaping its followers' attitudes and behaviours towards health. Existing literature, however, has only examined small cross-section samples from a few confined survey sites or has failed to adequately control for the many factors that may mediate the effects of religion. This paper examines the effects of the Apostolic faith on the usage of maternal health and child immunization services in Zimbabwe. It is based on a nationally representative sample from the 2009 Multi-Indicator Monitoring Survey and employs the established Andersen model on access to health services. Well controlled multivariate logit regression models derived from these data show that an affiliation with the Apostolic faith is a substantial and significant risk factor in reducing the utilization of both maternal and child health services. Moreover, even when the services were least costly and readily available and when gaps along other social and economic factors were limited, as in the case of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination and one visit to antenatal care, women and children from Apostolic faith families still fared significantly worse than others in accessing them.

  14. A survey of feline leukaemia virus infection of domestic cats from selected areas in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchaamba, Francis; Mutiringindi, Takudzwa H; Tivapasi, Musavenga T; Dhliwayo, Solomon; Matope, Gift

    2014-11-14

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) p27 antigen and to determine risk factors and the haematological changes associated with infection in domestic cats in Zimbabwe. Sera were collected for detection of the p27 antigen, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, whilst whole blood was collected for haematology. FeLV p27 antigen was detected using a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Data on risk factors were analysed using a logistic regression model. Of the 100 cats tested, 41% (95% CI: 31.19% - 50.81%) (41/100) were positive for the FeLV p27 antigen. Sex and health status of cats were not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with infection. Intact cats (OR = 9.73), those living in multicat housing (OR = 5.23) and cats that had access to outdoor life (OR = 35.5) were found to have higher odds of infection compared with neutered cats, those living in single-cat housing, and without access to outdoor life, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology revealed no specific changes. The results showed that FeLV infection was high in sampled cats, providing evidence of active infection. Thus, it would be prudent to introduce specific control measures for FeLV infection in Zimbabwe.

  15. Childhood sexual violence in Zimbabwe: evidence for the epidemic against girls.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Lauren; Mungate, Taizivei; Chigiji, Handrick; Salama, Peter; Nolan, Anthony; Sammon, Elayn; Muwoni, Leon

    2015-08-01

    Sexual abuse during childhood is a public health and human rights concern throughout the world, including Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2011, Zimbabwe initiated national prevalence data collection on violence against children to inform government policy and programs. We interviewed 567 females and 589 males, aged 18-24 years following standardized and previously tested survey methods from the region. Of females 32.5%, and of males 8.9%, reported experiencing sexual violence before age 18. Most female (62.7%) and male (47.9%) victims of sexual violence experienced more than one incident of sexual violence prior to age 18 years. Three in four females (77.7%) and one in four males (26.7%) of those who experienced sexual violence reported that the first incident was perpetrated by a boyfriend or girlfriend. Few victims received professional help (2.7% of females and 2.4% of males who had reported experiencing sexual violence). Violence against girls is at epidemic levels in Zimbabwe. Most sexual violence against girls occurs within the context of peer relationships. Child victims who seek potentially life-saving support tend not to receive it. This study is evidence of a national public health and child rights emergency in the country and a case for increased, longer-term investment by the government and its development partners in policy reform for enhancing adolescent girls' empowerment and protection.

  16. The rise and fall of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe: the social, political and economic context.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen; Broom, Alex

    2011-09-01

    For more than 10 years Zimbabwe has experienced social, political and economic instability, including the near collapse in 2008 of its health system. Paradoxically, this period has also seen a fall in estimated HIV prevalence, from 25.6% in 1996 to 13.7% in 2009. This article examines this development in a socio-political and historical context. We focus on the complex interplay of migration, mortality, individual behaviour change, and economic patterns in shaping the presumed epidemiological waning of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe and explore the evolution and management of the country's HIV/AIDS response. Our assessment of the role that the Zimbabwean state has played in this development leads to the conclusion that a decline in HIV prevalence has been as much an artefact of dire social, political and economic conditions as the outcome of deliberate interventions. Lastly, we propose the need to contextualise available epidemiological data through qualitative research into the social aspects of HIV and the everyday lives of individuals affected by it.

  17. The feasibility of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV using peer counselors in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Avinash K; Marangwanda, Caroline; Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda; Chandisarewa, Winfreda; Chirapa, Elizabeth; Mahomva, Agnes; Miller, Anna; Simoyi, Micah; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is a major public health challenge in Zimbabwe. Methods Using trained peer counselors, a nevirapine (NVP)-based PMTCT program was implemented as part of routine care in urban antenatal clinics. Results Between October 2002 and December 2004, a total of 19,279 women presented for antenatal care. Of these, 18,817 (98%) underwent pre-test counseling; 10,513 (56%) accepted HIV testing, of whom 1986 (19%) were HIV-infected. Overall, 9696 (92%) of women collected results and received individual post-test counseling. Only 288 men opted for HIV testing. Of the 1807 HIV-infected women who received posttest counseling, 1387 (77%) collected NVP tablet and 727 (40%) delivered at the clinics. Of the 1986 HIV-infected women, 691 (35%) received NVPsd at onset of labor, and 615 (31%) infants received NVPsd. Of the 727 HIV-infected women who delivered in the clinics, only 396 women returned to the clinic with their infants for the 6-week follow-up visit; of these mothers, 258 (59%) joined support groups and 234 (53%) opted for contraception. By the end of the study period, 209 (53%) of mother-infant pairs (n = 396) came to the clinic for at least 3 follow-up visits. Conclusion Despite considerable challenges and limited resources, it was feasible to implement a PMTCT program using peer counselors in urban clinics in Zimbabwe. PMID:18673571

  18. Deferral of blood donors with risk factors for HIV infection saves lives and money in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McFarland, W; Kahn, J G; Katzenstein, D A; Mvere, D; Shamu, R

    1995-06-01

    We compared the cost-effectiveness of three strategies to avert transfusion-associated HIV infection in Zimbabwe: HIV antibody testing, deferral of donors with HIV risk factors, and deferral of donors with risk factors followed by antibody testing ("Defer/Test"). The Defer/Test strategy averted the most HIV infections. Compared with antibody testing alone, the Defer/Test strategy, using history of genital ulcer or any sexually transmitted disease as a criterion for deferral, resulted in net savings. The cost per HIV-infected unit averted using history of paying for sex or having had multiple sex partners was $ 127 and $ 773, respectively. We discern four benefits of risk factor-based deferral before antibody testing. First, deferring donors at risk lessens collection of blood in the window period. Second, deferring donors likely to be HIV positive minimizes the number of units discarded. Third, ascertainment of donor risk provides an opportunity for AIDS education and prevention. Fourth, the number of false negatives is lower with a lower HIV prevalence among accepted donors. The Defer/Test strategy is cost-effective in Zimbabwe because additional recruitment costs are offset by discarding fewer HIV-positive units. We predict the Defer/Test strategy will be cost-effective in other sub-Saharan African donor populations.

  19. The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on kinship resources for orphans in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Zagheni, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    The extended family has been recognized as a major safety net for orphans in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the mortality crisis associated with HIV/AIDS may drastically reduce the availability of relatives and thus undermine traditional forms of mutual support. In this article, the microsimulator SOCSIM is used to estimate and project quantities such as the number of living uncles, aunts, siblings, and grandparents available to orphans. The model is calibrated to the setting of Zimbabwe, using data from demographic and Health Surveys and estimates and projections of demographic rates from the United Nations. The article shows that there is a lag of more than ten years between the peak in orphanhood prevalence and the peak in scarcity of grandparents for orphans. The results indicate that a generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic has a prolonged impact on children and orphans that extends well beyond the peak in mortality. A rapid increase in the number of orphans is followed by a steady reduction in the number of living grandparents for orphans. Consequently, the burden of double orphans (both of whose parents have died) is likely to shift to uncles and aunts. In Zimbabwe, the number of living uncles and aunts per double orphan decreased between 1980 and 2010, but it is expected to increase progressively during the next few decades. Changes in kinship structure have important social consequences that should be taken into account when seeking to address the lack of care for orphans.

  20. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Hove, T

    2009-09-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  1. Nationalism, race, and gender: the politics of family planning in Zimbabwe, 1957-1990.

    PubMed

    West, M O

    1994-12-01

    In line with a general tendency of nationalists to hold pro-natalist views, African nationalists in Zimbabwe took a hostile position to family planning upon its introduction in 1957, arguing that it was part of a conspiracy to control the black population. However, it was only after the unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 by the white settlers under Ian Smith that an official policy aimed at reducing African fertility emerged. The African nationalists waged a consistent propaganda campaign against this policy, and the facilities that were established under it, as well as their personnel, became military targets during the guerrilla war in the late 1970s. After independence in 1980, the triumphant nationalists tried to maintain their pro-natalist position. But, with a postwar 'baby boom' pushing the birth rate close to four per cent by the mid-1980s, the officials in charge of economic and social development concluded that society could not sustain such a high fertility rate. Consequently, there was a reversal of policy, and by 1990 Zimbabwe had become an internationally recognized leader of family planning among developing countries. For the most part, however, these changes have taken place without any real input by African women, who remained largely excluded from the male-dominated circles in which decisions about family planning were made.

  2. Building mental health workforce capacity through training and retention of psychiatrists in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Abas, Melanie A; Nhiwatiwa, Sekai M; Mangezi, Walter; Jack, Helen; Piette, Angharad; Cowan, Frances M; Barley, Elizabeth; Chingono, Alfred; Iversen, Amy; Chibanda, Dixon

    2014-08-01

    Despite the need to improve the quantity and quality of psychiatry training in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), very little is known about the experiences of psychiatric trainees in the region. This is the first study examining psychiatric trainees in a low-income country in SSA. It was carried out as part of the needs assessment for a unique Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) programme to find African solutions for medical shortages in Africa. We approached all doctors who had trained in post-graduate psychiatry in Zimbabwe in 2010 and conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with all except one (n = 6). We analysed the data using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Trainees described the apprenticeship model as the programme's primary strength, through providing clinical exposure and role models. Programme weaknesses included shortages in information sources, trainee salaries, trainers, public health education, and in the mental health service. Most respondents were, however, eager to continue practising psychiatry in Zimbabwe, motivated by family ties, national commitment and helping vulnerable, stigmatized individuals. Respondents called for sub-speciality training and for infrastructure and training to do research. Resources need to be made available for psychiatric trainees in more SSA settings to develop public health competencies. However, investment in psychiatry training programmes must balance service provision with trainees' educational needs. Directing investment towards needs identified by trainees may be a cost-effective, context-sensitive way to increase retention and learning outcomes.

  3. Declining tuberculosis case notification rates with the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Sandy, C.; Mutasa-Apollo, T.; Zishiri, C.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0.5% to 48%. TB CNRs, all types and categories, increased from 2000 to 2003, and declined thereafter from 2004 to 2013. The decreases in annual TB notifications between the highest rates (before 2004) and lowest rates (2013) were all forms of TB (56%), new TB (60%), previously treated TB (53%), new smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) (40%), new smear-negative/smear-unknown PTB (58%) and extra-pulmonary TB (58%). Conclusion: Significant declines in TB CNRs were observed during ART scale-up, especially for smear-negative PTB and extra-pulmonary TB. These encouraging national trends support the continued scale-up of ART for people living with HIV as a way of tackling the twin epidemics of HIV/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and TB in Zimbabwe. PMID:27695678

  4. Declining tuberculosis case notification rates with the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Takarinda, K C; Harries, A D; Sandy, C; Mutasa-Apollo, T; Zishiri, C

    2016-09-01

    Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0.5% to 48%. TB CNRs, all types and categories, increased from 2000 to 2003, and declined thereafter from 2004 to 2013. The decreases in annual TB notifications between the highest rates (before 2004) and lowest rates (2013) were all forms of TB (56%), new TB (60%), previously treated TB (53%), new smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) (40%), new smear-negative/smear-unknown PTB (58%) and extra-pulmonary TB (58%). Conclusion: Significant declines in TB CNRs were observed during ART scale-up, especially for smear-negative PTB and extra-pulmonary TB. These encouraging national trends support the continued scale-up of ART for people living with HIV as a way of tackling the twin epidemics of HIV/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and TB in Zimbabwe.

  5. Understanding hospitality.

    PubMed

    Patten, C S

    1994-03-01

    Bridging patient/"customer" issues and business aspects can be aided through developing a specific nursing basis for hospitality. The ancient practice of hospitality has evolved into three distinct levels: public, personal and therapeutic. Understanding these levels is helpful in integrating various dimensions of guest relations programs in hospitals into a more comprehensive vision. Hospitality issues must become a greater part of today's nursing management.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of community vegetable gardens for people living with HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little evidence to date of the potential impact of vegetable gardens on people living with HIV (PLHIV), who often suffer from social and economic losses due to the disease. From 2008 through 2011, Action Contre la Faim France (ACF) implemented a project in Chipinge District, eastern Zimbabwe, providing low-input vegetable gardens (LIGs) to households of PLHIV. Program partners included Médecins du Monde, which provided medical support, and Zimbabwe's Agricultural Extension Service, which supported vegetable cultivation. A survey conducted at the end of the program found LIG participants to have higher Food Consumption Scores (FCS) and Household Dietary Diversity Scores (HDDS) relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. This study assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness of LIGs to improve FCS and HDDS of PLHIV compared to other support programs. Methods This analysis used an activity-based cost model, and combined ACF accounting data with estimates of partner and beneficiary costs derived using an ingredients approach to build an estimate of total program resource use. A societal perspective was adopted to encompass costs to beneficiary households, including their opportunity costs and an estimate of their income earned from vegetable sales. Qualitative methods were used to assess program benefits to beneficiary households. Effectiveness data was taken from a previously-conducted survey. Results Providing LIGs to PLHIV cost an additional 8,299 EUR per household with adequate FCS and 12,456 EUR per household with HDDS in the upper tertile, relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. Beneficiaries cited multiple tangible and intangible benefits from LIGs, and over 80% of gardens observed were still functioning more than one year after the program had finished. Conclusions Cost outcomes were 20–30 times Zimbabwe's per capita GDP, and unlikely to be affordable within government

  7. Rainfall mechanisms for the dominant rainfall mode over Zimbabwe relative to ENSO and/or IODZM.

    PubMed

    Manatsa, Desmond; Mukwada, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Zimbabwe's homogeneous precipitation regions are investigated by means of principal component analysis (PCA) with regard to the underlying processes related to ENSO and/or Indian Ocean Dipole zonal mode (IODZM). Station standardized precipitation index rather than direct rainfall values represent the data matrix used in the PCA. The results indicate that the country's rainfall is highly homogeneous and is dominantly described by the first principal mode (PC1). This leading PC can be used to represent the major rainfall patterns affecting the country, both spatially and temporarily. The current practice of subdividing the country into the two seasonal rainfall forecast zones becomes irrelevant. Partial correlation analysis shows that PC1 is linked more to the IODZM than to the traditional ENSO which predominantly demonstrates insignificant association with PC1. The pure IODZM composite is linked to the most intense rainfall suppression mechanisms, while the pure El Niño composite is linked to rainfall enhancing mechanisms.

  8. A retrospective study of rabies in humans in Zimbabwe, between 1992 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Pfukenyi, D M; Pawandiwa, D; Makaya, P V; Ushewokunze-Obatolu, Unesu

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed at examining the epidemiological features of rabies in humans in Zimbabwe. The data were taken from internal reports of the department of veterinary technical services at Harare covering the period 1st January 1992-31st December 2003 inclusive. Positive cases were examined in relation to age and sex of the victim, animal vector involved, season, and land-use categories. The majority of the confirmed positive human cases (85.7%) were recorded in communal areas. The 5-19 year age group and males constituted a highly vulnerable group. Over 90% of the cases were due to dog bites with jackals (Canis adustus and C. mesomelas), and honey badgers (Mellivora capensis) also contributing to the positive cases. Rabid cats and rabid wild animals had a high relative risk (RR) of biting humans. Animal-to-human transmission was highest during the dry months of July to November.

  9. Report of isolations of unusual lyssaviruses (rabies and Mokola virus) identified retrospectively from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bingham, J; Javangwe, S; Sabeta, C T; Wandeler, A I; Nel, L H

    2001-06-01

    Rabies isolates that had been stored between 1983 and 1997 were examined with a panel of anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. Out of 56 isolates from cats and various wild carnivore species, 1 isolate of Mokola virus and 5 other non-typical rabies viruses were identified. The Mokola virus isolate was diagnosed as rabies in 1993 from a cat. Genetic analysis of this isolate suggests that it falls in a distinct subgroup of the Mokola virus genotype. The 5 non-typical rabies viruses were isolated from honey badgers (Mellivora capensis), African civets (Civettictis civetta) and an unidentified mongoose (Herpestidae). These isolates are representatives of rarely-reported wildlife-associated strains of rabies, probably maintained by the slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea). These findings indicate that both Mokola virus and the mongoose-associated variant may be more common in Zimbabwe than is apparent from routine surveillance.

  10. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species.

  11. Rainfall Mechanisms for the Dominant Rainfall Mode over Zimbabwe Relative to ENSO and/or IODZM

    PubMed Central

    Manatsa, Desmond; Mukwada, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Zimbabwe's homogeneous precipitation regions are investigated by means of principal component analysis (PCA) with regard to the underlying processes related to ENSO and/or Indian Ocean Dipole zonal mode (IODZM). Station standardized precipitation index rather than direct rainfall values represent the data matrix used in the PCA. The results indicate that the country's rainfall is highly homogeneous and is dominantly described by the first principal mode (PC1). This leading PC can be used to represent the major rainfall patterns affecting the country, both spatially and temporarily. The current practice of subdividing the country into the two seasonal rainfall forecast zones becomes irrelevant. Partial correlation analysis shows that PC1 is linked more to the IODZM than to the traditional ENSO which predominantly demonstrates insignificant association with PC1. The pure IODZM composite is linked to the most intense rainfall suppression mechanisms, while the pure El Niño composite is linked to rainfall enhancing mechanisms. PMID:22645470

  12. Practical Approach to Biobanking in Zimbabwe: Establishment of an Inclusive Stakeholder Framework.

    PubMed

    Matimba, Alice; Tybring, Gunnel; Chitereka, Jekoniya; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo; Dandara, Collet; Bürén, Eva; Dhoro, Milcah; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2016-10-01

    The growing need for biobanks in health research presents an opportunity for building capacity in developing countries. In Zimbabwe, there is limited knowledge and awareness about biobanking. As such we report the proceedings of a biobanking course, which included research scientists, healthcare professionals, and regulatory authorities as a start to developing a framework for biobanking practice. The aim was to educate stakeholders about biobanking and to understand the current and future regulatory and infrastructure requirements for biobanking. Using an inclusive stakeholder approach, we sought to articulate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This report highlights a practical method to providing basic education to stakeholders, building awareness and consensus about building capacity for biobanking in a developing country.

  13. Study of classroom practice and classroom contexts amongst senior high school biology teachers in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwimbi, Eric M.; Monk, Martin

    2003-03-01

    Thirty-three senior high-school biology teachers in Harare, Zimbabwe, participated in the study. Self-report data on school contexts was used to cluster the teachers according to their own perceptions of the contextual circumstances in their schools. The clustering differentiated self-perceived better and poorer resourced schools. In theory lessons, teachers from the self-perceived better resourced schools were observed to use less individual organization, less written exercises, more whole class organization, and more listening to the teacher than to the teachers in the poorer schools. In practical lessons teachers in the better self-perceived better resourced schools were observed to use less whole class organization, less small group organization, more individual organization, less listening to teacher, less teacher explanation, less teacher questioning, and to conduct more practical. An interpretation of these findings is made in terms of the fit between a teacher's classroom practice and their self-perceived classroom context.

  14. Household-based cash transfer targeting strategies in Zimbabwe: are we reaching the most vulnerable children?

    PubMed

    Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Sherr, Lorraine; Makoni, Jeremiah C; Skovdal, Morten; Crea, Tom; Mavise, Gideon; Dumba, Lovemore; Schumacher, Christina; Munyati, Shungu; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2012-12-01

    Census data, collected in July 2009, from 27,672 children were used to compare the effectiveness, coverage and efficacy of three household-based methods for targeting cash transfers to vulnerable children in eastern Zimbabwe: targeting the poorest households using a wealth index; targeting HIV-affected households using socio-demographic information (households caring for orphans, chronically-ill or disabled members; child-headed households); and targeting labour-constrained households using dependency ratios. All three methods failed to identify large numbers of children with poor social and educational outcomes. The wealth index approach was the most efficient at reaching children with poor outcomes whilst socio-demographic targeting reached more vulnerable children but was less efficient.

  15. Directory of socio-behavioural research on HIV infection and AIDS in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bijlmakers, L A

    1993-02-01

    In July-August 1992, a directory was made of research projects on socio-behavioural aspects of HIV infection and AIDS in Zimbabwe. A total of 92 research projects were identified, most of which were already completed. Whilst there was a wide variety of topics, populations and geographical areas covered, there was a strong bias towards AIDS awareness and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) studies. Many of these were not linked with any specific AIDS prevention programme or with policy making. Suggestions are given to make better use of existing scientific information. A call is made upon researchers to conduct action-oriented studies and to consult HIV/AIDS programme implementers when specifying 'researchable' problems, so as to increase the likelihood that the study results will indeed have an impact on policy making and programme implementation.

  16. Neurodevelopmental outcome in babies with a low Apgar score from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M J; Wolf, B; Bijleveld, C; Beunen, G; Casaer, P

    1997-12-01

    The early identification of neurological dysfunction in the neonatal period, the predictive value of single items of the neonatal neurological examination (NNE) adapted from Prechtl and the developmental outcome at 1 year of age in infants with a low Apgar score in Zimbabwe were studied. One hundred and sixty-five infants were examined with the NNE and 142 with the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (BSID) at 1 year of age. Twenty-three infants had cerebral palsy, ten had a motor delay or developmental delay, and four were mentally retarded. The NNE proved to be a sensitive instrument for detecting neurodevelopmental abnormality. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the BSID and nine selected predictors from the NNE. This resulted in a correct classification of 94%. However, the number of false negatives was high. By using only the variability of movements and fixation as predictors the number of false negatives was reduced to one.

  17. Integrated human rights and poverty eradication strategy: the case of civil registration rights in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Musarandega, Reuben

    2009-01-01

    High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty.

  18. The changing economic role of women in the urbanization process: a preliminary report from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Drakakis-smith, D W

    1984-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey, conducted to collect information on the present economic situation of women and the constraints they face in the choice of work in Zimbabwe, which has recently witnessed a steady growth in its urbanization. Questionnaires were administered to women in 3 district areas of the city of Harare--a middle class suburb within easy commuting distance to the main white collar employment in the city, a low income area of site-and-service housing in the semiperiphery of the city, and a densely populated, lower income, inner city district. There are clear contrasts among the economic activities of women in the 3 areas studied, but the factors which influence the activities seem to vary between and within the social groups, relating somewhat uneasily to the generalized concepts on the female labor market. The occupational analysis of Harare reveals not only the inadequacy of conventional dualistic theories on the labor market, but the somewhat limited utility of westernized concepts on the domestic role of women. The survey also showed strong spatial and geographic influence on women's work and the different opportunities that arise from particular residential locations in Harare. However, this was clearly tempered by social contacts and migrational histories, especially in the inner city areas, where proximity to potential employment was not exploited by many recent migrants. Political factors too were found to play an important role, in the particular circumstance of Zimbabwe, in affecting the residential and economic opportunities for households. In the middle class suburb and low income area studied, the allocation of site and service plots or mortgages was strongly influenced by one's previous combatant status during the struggle for independence. For instance, families with such a status which could be earned by men as well as women), and who are also members of the ruling ZANU-PF party have been favored since 1980.

  19. Factors contributing to the low uptake of medical male circumcision in Mutare Rural District, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Chiringa, Irene O.; Mashau, Ntsieni S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical male circumcision (MMC) has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model. Purpose The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC. Methods The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15–29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data. Results Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%), shameful (30%) and are tainted as promiscuous (20%), psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%), being ashamed and dehumanised (58%), stigmatised and discriminated (40.2%) and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7%) whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58%) and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%). Conclusion Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services. PMID:27380850

  20. The influence of conservation tillage methods on soil water regimes in semi-arid southern Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupangwa, W.; Twomlow, S.; Walker, S.

    Planting basins and ripper tillage practices are major components of the recently introduced conservation agriculture package that is being extensively promoted for smallholder farming in Zimbabwe. Besides preparing land for crop planting, these two technologies also help in collecting and using rainwater more efficiently in semi-arid areas. The basin tillage is being targeted for households with limited or no access to draught animals while ripping is meant for smallholder farmers with some draught animal power. Trials were established at four farms in Gwanda and Insiza in southern Zimbabwe to determine soil water contributions and runoff water losses from plots under four different tillage treatments. The tillage treatments were hand-dug planting basins, ripping, conventional spring and double ploughing using animal-drawn implements. The initial intention was to measure soil water changes and runoff losses from cropped plots under the four tillage practices. However, due to total crop failure, only soil water and runoff were measured from bare plots between December 2006 and April 2007. Runoff losses were highest under conventional ploughing. Planting basins retained most of the rainwater that fell during each rainfall event. The amount of rainfall received at each farm significantly influenced the volume of runoff water measured. Runoff water volume increased with increase in the amount of rainfall received at each farm. Soil water content was consistently higher under basin tillage than the other three tillage treatments. Significant differences in soil water content were observed across the farms according to soil types from sand to loamy sand. The basin tillage method gives a better control of water losses from the farmers’ fields. The planting basin tillage method has a greater potential for providing soil water to crops than ripper, double and single conventional ploughing practices.

  1. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Dhliwayo, Solomon; Matope, Gift; Marabini, Lisa; Dutlow, Keith; Pfukenyi, Davis M

    2012-12-06

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis in urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe and to assess public awareness of the disease. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to the serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona of Leptospira interrogans using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical chemistry was performed on all seropositive and selected seronegative sera to screen for hepatic and renal insufficiency. A questionnaire- based survey was conducted in Harare to assess dog owners' awareness of leptospirosis and other zoonoses. Overall, 15.6% of sera samples tested (39 out of 250; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.0% - 20.2%) were positive for leptospiral antibodies. A significantly higher (p < 0.05) seroprevalence was recorded in urban dogs than in rural dogs (25% vs. 11.2%). No significant difference in seroprevalence was observed amongst dogs from different rural communities or between sexes of dogs. There was a significant association between seropositivity and hepatic and/or renal insufficiency (p < 0.01), with dogs having hepatic and/or renal insufficiency being approximately twice as likely to be seropositive (relative risk = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.3-3.0). Of the dog owners, 78.8% (119/151) were aware of zoonoses. Except for rabies (92.4%), awareness of leptospirosis (5.0%) and other zoonoses amongst these owners was low. This study showed that leptospirosis was present and represented a risk to dogs from urban Harare and the selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Availing training programmes for dog owners would be beneficial in improving disease control and reducing the public health risk of pet zoonoses.

  2. How do countries regulate the health sector? Evidence from Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kumaranayake, L; Mujinja, P; Hongoro, C; Mpembeni, R

    2000-12-01

    The health sectors in many low- and middle-income countries have been characterized in recent years by extensive private sector activity. This has been complemented by increasing public-private linkages, such as the contracting-out of selected services or facilities, development of new purchasing arrangements, franchising and the introduction of vouchers. Increasingly, however, experience with the private sector has indicated a number of problems with the quality, price and distribution of private health services, and thus led to a growing focus on the role of government in regulation. This paper presents the existing network of regulations governing private activity in the health sectors of Tanzania and Zimbabwe, and their appropriateness in the context of emerging market realities. It draws on a comparative mapping exercise reviewing the complexity of the variables currently being regulated, the level of the health system at which they apply, and the specific instruments being used. Findings indicate that much of the existing regulation occurs through legislation. There is still very much a focus on the 'social' rather than 'economic' aspects of regulation within the health sector. Recent changes have attempted to address aspects of private health provision, but some very key gaps remain. In particular, current regulations in Tanzania and Zimbabwe: (1) focus on individual inputs rather than health system organizations; (2) aim to control entry and quality rather than explicitly quantity, price or distribution; and (3) fail to address the market-level problems of anti-competitive practices and lack of patient rights. This highlights the need for additional measures to promote consumer protection and address the development of new private markets such as for health insurance or laboratory and other ancillary services.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of School Support for Orphan Girls to Prevent HIV Infection in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted; Hallfors, Denise; Cho, Hyunsan; Luseno, Winnie; Waehrer, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    This cost-effectiveness study analyzes the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained in a randomized controlled trial that tested school support as a structural intervention to prevent HIV risk factors among Zimbabwe orphan girl adolescents. The intervention significantly reduced early marriage, increased years of schooling completed, and increased health-related quality of life. By reducing early marriage, the literature suggests the intervention reduced HIV infection. The intervention yielded an estimated US$1, 472 in societal benefits and an estimated gain of 0.36 QALYs per orphan supported. It cost an estimated US$6/QALY gained, about 1% of annual per capita income in Zimbabwe. That is well below the maximum price that the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health recommends paying for health gains in low and middle income countries. About half the girls in the intervention condition were boarded when they reached high school. For non-boarders, the intervention’s financial benefits exceeded its costs, yielding an estimated net cost savings of $502 per pupil. Without boarding, the intervention would yield net savings even if it were 34% less effective in replication. Boarding was not cost-effective. It cost an additional $1,234 per girl boarded (over the three years of the study, discounted to present value at a 3% discount rate) but had no effect on any of the outcome measures relative to girls in the treatment group who did not board. For girls who did not board, the average cost of approximately three years of school support was US$973. PMID:23334923

  4. Rising Levels of HIV Infection in Older Adults in Eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Negin, Joel; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Schur, Nadine; Takaruza, Albert; Mason, Peter; Nyamukapa, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Background With the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment across Africa, many people are living longer with HIV. Understanding the ageing of the HIV cohort and sexual behaviour among older adults are important for appropriately responding to the changing demographics of people living with HIV. Methods We used data from a large population-based open cohort in eastern Zimbabwe to examine HIV prevalence trends and incidence among those aged 45 years and older. Five survey rounds have been completed between 1998 and 2011. Incidence was analysed using midpoint between last negative and first positive HIV test. Results Across the survey rounds, 13,071 individuals were followed for 57,676 person years. While HIV prevalence among people aged 15–44 has fallen across the five rounds, HIV prevalence among those aged 45–54 has increased since the 2006–08 survey round. In the 2009–11 round, HIV prevalence among men aged 45–54 was 23.4% compared to 11.0% among those aged 15–44. HIV positive people aged 45–54 now represent more than 20% of all those living with HIV in Manicaland. Among those aged 45 years and older, there were 85 seroconversions in 11,999 person years for an HIV incidence of 0.708 per 100 person years. Analysis of cohort data and assessment of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection among older people shows significantly lower levels of condom use among older adults and a number of seroconversions past the age of 50. Conclusions The cohort of people living with HIV is ageing in Zimbabwe and the behaviour of older adults puts them at risk of HIV infection. Older adults must be included in both HIV prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27828979

  5. Factors associated with uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision, Mazowe District, Zimbabwe, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rupfutse, Maxwell; Tshuma, Cremence; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Gombe, Notion; Bangure, Donewell; Wellington, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is the surgical removal of the foreskin by a trained health worker. VMMC was introduced in Zimbabwe in 2009. It is of concern that the programme performance has been below expectations nationally and in Mazowe district. Zimbabwe is unlikely to meet its 2015 target of circumcising 1 200 000 men aged between 15 and 29 years and unlikely to enjoy maximum benefits of VMMC which include prevention of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer. We therefore broadly aimed at identifying factors influencing the level of VMMC uptake in Mazowe district. Methods An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out in Mazowe district. A multi-stage probability sampling strategy was used to select 300 men aged between 18 and 49 years. Pretested interviewer administered questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Quantitative data was analysed using Epi info where odds ratios and p-values were calculated. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results Being of Shona origin (AOR= 7.69 (95%CI 1.78-33.20)), fear of pain (AOR= 7.09 (95%CI 2.58-19.47)) and fear of poor wound healing (AOR= 2.68 (95%CI 1.01-7.08)) were independently associated with being uncircumcised while having a circumcised friend and encouragement by a friend or relative were independently associated with being circumcised. Conclusion Fear of pain, fear of poor wound healing and encouragement by a friend or relative were associated with circumcision status. Widening use of surgical devices and third part referrals may assist in scaling up the programme. PMID:25918577

  6. The Impact of the HIV/AIDS and Economic Crises on Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, George; Chitiyo, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Zimbabwe, like most of Sub-Saharan Africa, has been hard-hit by HIV/ AIDS. National estimates reported by the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare put the prevalence rates of HIV in the age group between 15 and 49 at 15.3% (World Health Organization [WHO], UNICEF, & UNAIDS, 2008). This is one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in the…

  7. Psychometric properties of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and two short-form measures of loneliness in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Cutts, J; Lees, I; Mapungwana, S; Maunganidze, L

    1992-08-01

    The cross-cultural reliability in Zimbabwe of the Revised University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale and two short forms of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale were investigated. Subjects comprised a sample of 1,354 adolescents and another sample of 754 adults. The reliability of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was acceptable. The internal consistency of an eight-item short form of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was adequate, but the reliability of a four-item short form was low. Factor analysis of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, which yielded two factors similar to those reported in North America by Zakahi and Duran (1982) supported the construct validity of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale in Zimbabwe. The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the eight-item short form were highly correlated, but this association was spuriously elevated by the fact the eight-item short form is part of the full scale. Factor analysis of the eight-item short form suggested that this scale does not consistently reflect the factor structure of the full scale. We concluded that the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale possesses acceptable reliability and factorial validity in Zimbabwe and that the eight-item version is superior to the four-item form of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale as a short loneliness measure. However, additional refinements may be needed to further improve the eight-item short version.

  8. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  9. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  10. Hospital philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean G; Clement, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    It remains an open question whether hospital spending on fundraising efforts to garner philanthropy is a good use of funds. Research and industry reports provide conflicting results. We describe the accounting and data challenges in analysis of hospital philanthropy, which include measurement of donations, measurement of fundraising expenses, and finding the relationships among organizations where these cash flows occur. With these challenges, finding conflicting results is not a surprise.

  11. Heat treatment of expressed breast milk is a feasible option for feeding HIV-exposed, uninfected children after 6 months of age in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Humphrey, Jean H; Majo, Florence; Chasekwa, Bernard; Jenkins, Alison; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Muti, Monica; Paul, Keriann H; Madzima, Rufaro C; Moulton, Lawrence H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2010-08-01

    In the context of a prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program promoting exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) to 6 mo and offering HIV-PCR testing at approximately 6 mo, we ascertained the feasibility of expressing and heat-treating (EHT) all breast milk fed to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants following 6 mo of EBF. Twenty mother-baby pairs were enrolled from a hospital in rural Zimbabwe. Research nurses provided lactation, EHT, and complementary feeding counseling through 21 home visits conducted over an 8-wk period and collected quantitative and qualitative data on the mothers' EHT experiences, children's diets, and anthropometric measurements. Mothers kept daily logs of EHT volumes and direct breast-feeding episodes. Mothers successfully initiated and sustained EHT for 4.5 mo (range, 1-11 mo), feeding 426 +/- 227 mL/d (mean +/- SD). By wk 2 of follow-up, children were receiving EHT and Nutributter-enriched complementary foods that satisfied 100% of their energy requirements. During the 8-wk follow-up period, no growth faltering was experienced [changes in weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age Z scores = +0.03 +/- 0.50; +0.77 +/- 1.59; and +0.02 +/- 0.85 (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Stigma was not a major deterrent, likely due to a social marketing campaign for EBF that promoted EHT as a practice to sustain breast-feeding for all women. This study provides evidence that resource-poor rural women can initiate and sustain EHT given family and health systems support. EHT provides a strategy for improving the diets of HIV-exposed but uninfected children after direct breast-feeding has ceased.

  12. Zimbabwe: Background

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-08

    We are not going to give up our country for a mere X on a ballot. How can a ballpoint pen fight with a gun?඘ Tsvangirai was detained by police...that teachers, who held many of the election officer positions, were specifically targeted by government supporters. The Power Sharing Agreement and...government obligated over $292 million in foreign aid in FY2009. The U.S. government provided over $7.3 million in FY2009 specifically to address the

  13. “All for some”: water inequity in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Peter B.

    In southern Africa, gross disparities in access to water are symptomatic of the overall uneven pattern of development. Despite post-independence egalitarian rhetoric, in countries such as Zambia and Zimbabwe inappropriate models (piped house connections in the urban areas, high technology irrigation schemes in the agricultural sector), combined with weak macro-economies and poorly formulated sectoral policies have actually exacerbated the disparities. Zero or very low tariffs have played a major role in this. Although justified as being consistent with water’s special status, inadequate tariffs in fact serve to undermine any programme of making water accessible to all. This has led to a narrowing of development options, resulting in exclusivist rather than inclusivist development, and stagnation rather than dynamism. A major part of the explanation for perpetuation of such unsatisfactory outcomes is the existence of political interest groups who benefit from the status quo. The first case study in the paper involves urban water consumers in Zambia, where those with piped water connections seek to continue the culture of low tariffs which is by now deeply embedded. The result is that the water supply authorities (in this case the newly formed, but still politically constrained ‘commercialised utilities’) are unable even to maintain adequate supplies to the piped customers, let alone extend service to the peri-urban dwellers, 56% of whom do not have access to safe water. The paper outlines some modest, workable principles to achieve universal, affordable access to water in the urban areas, albeit through a mix of service delivery mechanisms. In a second case study of rural productive water in Zimbabwe, the reasons for only 2% of the rural subsistence farming households being involved in formal small-scale irrigation schemes 20 years after independence are explored. Again, a major part of the explanation lies in government pursuing a water delivery model which

  14. The religious-spiritual self-image and behaviours among adolescent street children in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mhizha, Samson

    2015-02-01

    The present study sought to explore the relationship between street childhood and adolescent religious-spiritual self-image. In Zimbabwe, there has been a rise in street children population in the urban centres. The current study investigated whether adolescent street children live and work in an eco-developmentally risky context for the development of positive religious-spiritual self-image. This rise in street children population has been in the context of a socio-politico-economic crisis, which was marked by record inflation rates and the HIV and AIDS pandemic. The research objectives were to investigate the nature of religious-spiritual self-image for street-living adolescent children, and to determine the effects of self-image on the behaviour of street-living adolescent children. A psycho-ethnographic research design was employed in this study. This involved collection of data for a sustained period in the context within which the participants live. The participants were 16 street-living adolescent children aged between 12 and 18 years and six key informants all in Harare in Zimbabwe. A total of 22 participants took part in this study. Snowballing was used to recruit key informant interviewees, while purposive sampling was used to recruit participants for focus group discussions, in-depth interview, and participant and non-participant observations. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant and non-participant observations were the data collection methods. Thematic content analysis was used for analysing the data. This thematic content analytic method helped to identify themes on the religious-spiritual self-image that emerged from the data. Data analysis revealed that the adolescent street children's religious-spiritual self-image is largely negative. Most street-living adolescent children believed that they were controlled and influenced by evil spirits and that their relatives were casting bad spells on them

  15. Adult mortality in the cities of Bulawayo and Harare, Zimbabwe: 1979-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe has been severely affected by the HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis epidemics, with an estimated 80% of tuberculosis patients being HIV infected. We set out to use annual population-mortality records from the cities of Harare and Bulawayo to describe trends and possible causes of mortality from 1979 to 2008. The specific objectives were to document overall, sex and age-specific mortality, proportion of deaths attributed to AIDS and tuberculosis, and changes in death rates since the start of antiretroviral therapy in 2004. Methods This retrospective descriptive study used existing mortality records of the Health Services departments in Harare and Bulawayo. Data points included: estimated yearly total population; groupings by sex and age; deaths (total and by sex and age groups for each year of the study period); and most frequently reported causes of death (for age groups <15 years, 15-44 years and ≥45 years). Data on deaths were aggregated by year, and crude, sex- and age-specific death rates were calculated per 1000 population. Tuberculosis and HIV-related disease-specific death rates and proportion of deaths attributed to these conditions were computed. Results In both cities, crude death rates were lowest in the late 1980s, increased three- to five-fold by the early 2000s, and began a slow and, in the case of Bulawayo, intermittent decline from 2004. Sex-specific death rates followed a similar trend, being higher in males than in females. The death rates in the age groups <5 years, 15-44 years and ≥45 years showed significant increases, with a gradual levelling off and decline from 2002 onwards; death rates in those aged 5-14 years were relatively unaffected. Tuberculosis and HIV caused 70% of deaths in the age group of 15-44 years from the early 1990s. Conclusions This study used routinely collected population-mortality data that are rare in resource-limited settings, and it described, for the first time in Zimbabwe, the effects of the HIV

  16. Monitoring trends in HIV prevalence among young people, aged 15 to 24 years, in Manicaland, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In June 2001, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) set a target of reducing HIV prevalence among young women and men, aged 15 to 24 years, by 25% in the worst-affected countries by 2005, and by 25% globally by 2010. We assessed progress toward this target in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, using repeated household-based population serosurvey data. We also validated the representativeness of surveillance data from young pregnant women, aged 15 to 24 years, attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics, which UNAIDS recommends for monitoring population HIV prevalence trends in this age group. Changes in socio-demographic characteristics and reported sexual behaviour are investigated. Methods Progress towards the UNGASS target was measured by calculating the proportional change in HIV prevalence among youth and young ANC attendees over three survey periods (round 1: 1998-2000; round 2: 2001-2003; and round 3: 2003-2005). The Z-score test was used to compare differences in trends between the two data sources. Characteristics of participants and trends in sexual risk behaviour were analyzed using Student's and two-tailed Z-score tests. Results HIV prevalence among youth in the general population declined by 50.7% (from 12.2% to 6.0%) from round 1 to 3. Intermediary trends showed a large decline from round 1 to 2 of 60.9% (from 12.2% to 4.8%), offset by an increase from round 2 to 3 of 26.0% (from 4.8% to 6.0%). Among young ANC attendees, the proportional decline in prevalence of 43.5% (from 17.9% to 10.1%) was similar to that in the population (test for differences in trend: p value = 0.488) although ANC data significantly underestimated the population prevalence decline from round 1 to 2 (test for difference in trend: p value = 0.003) and underestimated the increase from round 2 to 3 (test for difference in trend: p value = 0.012). Reductions in risk behaviour between rounds 1 and 2 may have been responsible for general population prevalence declines

  17. Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south-central Zimbabwe Craton: (reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganai, Rubeni T.; Whaler, Kathryn A.; Ebinger, Cynthia J.

    2016-11-01

    Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures

  18. Patterns of domestic water use in rural areas of Zimbabwe, gender roles and realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makoni, Fungai S.; Manase, Gift; Ndamba, Jerry

    This paper presents practical experiences into the pattern of domestic water use, benefits and the gender realities. The study was undertaken in two districts of Zimbabwe, Mt Darwin and Bikita covering a total of 16 villages. The study aimed to assess the patterns of domestic water use, benefits derived from its use among the gender groups. Methodology for participatory assessment (MPA) was used for data collection and was done in a participatory manner. Traditionally most people in Zimbabwe are subsistence farmers who rely on rain fed agriculture. Where primary water sources are available such as shallow wells, family wells, deep wells and boreholes households use the water for household water and sanitation, irrigate small family gardens as well as their livestock. The survey established that women and men usually rank uses of water differently. In the two districts it was evident that women are playing more roles in water use and it is apparent that women are most often the users, managers and guardians of household water and hygiene. Women also demonstrated their involvement in commercial use of water, using water for livestock watering (20%) as well as brick moulding (21%). These involvement in commercial use were influenced by survival economics as well as the excess and reliability of the supply. The different roles and incentives in water use of women and men was demonstrated in how they ranked the benefits of water and sanitation. Men ranked clean drinking water among others as a top priority while women ranked improved health and hygiene and reduced distance as top priority. Overall the benefits highlighted by the communities and especially women were meeting the practical needs such as better access to water and reducing their work load. The assessment demonstrated the active role of women in water sources management highlighting quality, reliability and restrictions to their use. Though the communities gave the impression that decision making in the

  19. Urban agricultural activities and women's strategies in sustaining family livelihoods in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mudimu, G D

    1996-12-01

    This article examines the interplay of changes in urban environments, economic reforms and women's strategies in sustaining family livelihood through a case study based on the survey of off-plot urban cultivators in Harare, Zimbabwe. It also exemplifies the nature of gender-based conflicts arising from varying perceptions of the uses of open urban spaces. This article is organized into four sections. The first section briefly discusses some contemporary issues regarding urban agriculture in eastern and southern Africa. Specifically, it examines the role of women and the conflicts that arise over the use of urban spaces for agricultural activities from the perspective of women's struggle and strategies for sustaining family livelihood. The second section gives some background to urban agriculture in Harare, emphasizing the contribution of urban agriculture to women's strategies for maintaining household food and cash income security as a response to economic reforms and how this comes into conflict with Harare City Council's view. The third and fourth section discusses the results of the survey of urban agriculturists, illuminating how female participation in the activity has distinctive motivations and contributions to the household and the urban economy. Finally, the conclusion outlines the challenges to city planning in a tropical country faced with demand for agricultural use within the urban environment.

  20. AIDS orphans burden extended families. Zimbabwe survey finds that relatives struggle to care for surviving children.

    PubMed

    Mashumba, S

    1994-01-01

    The number of children in sub-Saharan Africa orphaned as a result of parental acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is currently estimated at 2 million and expected to reach 10 million by the year 2000. A survey conducted in Zimbabwe's Manicaland Province in 1991 indicated that 6.8% of children up to 14 years of age had lost one or both parents to the AIDS virus. A follow-up study conducted in 1992 in a random sample of 250 urban and 250 rural households in this province found that 11% contained orphaned children; 80% had lost their father and 20% their mother. These children were being cared for by widowed mothers, aunts, sisters, or grandmothers. A third of caretakers were under 20 years old, while 20% were over 50 years of age. Compared to households with no orphans in residence, these households had lower incomes, worse living conditions, less access to medical care and education, and poorer food consumption. On the basis of these findings, nongovernmental organizations are designing programs to help caretaker households and communities cope with the stresses of care of AIDS orphans.

  1. Fighting for human rights: women, war and social change in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Lueker, L L

    1998-01-01

    This article considers whether women's importance to the success of the Zimbabwean liberation struggle that took place from 1966-80 resulted in the fulfillment of the promises of the male resistance leadership to replace traditional patriarchal subjugation with equality. The introduction notes that the answer to this is complex because actions taken that were beneficial to women were taken for gender-neutral reasons and, therefore, left the patriarchy intact. Women have also gained because their participation in the struggle helped them learn to question assumptions and understand basic human rights, but the goals of the liberation struggle have not been realized for women. The article continues to apply a human rights perspective to an examination of Zimbabwean women's legal status, representation in government, empowerment through education, economic participation, and access to health and welfare. The conclusion of the article points out that not only have women not achieved full human rights in Zimbabwe, there have also been disturbing examples of a backlash against female emancipation including 1) the government-authorized arrests of women who happened to be walking around at night in September 1983, 2) calls for the repeal of laws beneficial to women, and 3) incidences when female university students were publicly stripped of their modern garb (this led to a 1998 protest by more than 100 women).

  2. Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients on TB Treatment in the Southern Region of Zimbabwe, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sandy, Charles; Masuka, Nyasha; Hazangwe, Patrick; Choto, Regis C.; Mutasa-Apollo, Tsitsi; Nkomo, Brilliant; Sibanda, Edwin; Mugurungi, Owen; Siziba, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46–282). Overall, 428 (22%) TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35–4.55)], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10–1.63)], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44–2.42)] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22–0.29)]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART. PMID:28352474

  3. Sustainability of donor-funded rural water supply and sanitation projects in Mbire district, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwangware, Johnson; Mayo, Aloyce; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    The sustainability of donor-funded rural water supply and sanitation projects was assessed in Mbire district, Zimbabwe in terms of level of community participation, quality of implementation and reliability of the systems. The study was carried out through questionnaires, focus group discussions, interviews and field observations. The results show that the quality of implementation of the projects was deemed to be good and participation of the communities in project ideas initiation and choice of technology was found to be very low. Reliability of the systems was found to be very high with 97% of the boreholes in all the three wards studied being functional. Financial management mechanisms were very poor because water consumers were not willing to pay for operation and maintenance. The projects were classified as potentially sustainable with sustainability index between 5.00 and 6.67. Poor financial management mechanisms for effective borehole maintenance, poor quality of construction and lack of community participation in project planning were found to be potential threats to the sustainability of the projects. Future projects should establish the need for the service and should thus be demand driven to ensure effective participation of the water consumers and enhance project's potential for sustainability.

  4. Microbial quality of frozen Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) meat samples from three selected farms in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Makanyanga, Tsitsi B; Mutema, Gideon; Mukarati, Norman L; Chikerema, Sylvester M; Makaya, Pious V; Musari, Shuvai; Matope, Gift

    2014-01-17

    Microbial quality of frozen Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) meat from three farms in Zimbabwe was assessed based on 2051 samples collected for pre-export testing during 2006 to 2011. Data were perused by season and year in terms of aerobic plate (APC), coliform (CC), Escherichia coli (ECC) and Listeria monocytogenes (LMC) counts and the presence of Salmonella spp. The log10-transformed data were compared among the farms and seasons using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Microbial quality of the samples was graded based on the EC No. 2073.2005 criteria for beef. The mean APC and CC for the crocodile meat differed significantly (P=0.000) among the farms with the highest APC (3.2±0.05 log10 cfu/g) and the lowest (2.7±0.05 log10 cfu/g) recorded from farms A and C, respectively. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in ECC and LMC among the farms, while Salmonella spp. were only isolated from one farm. Although the microbial quality of frozen crocodile meat from these farms was generally within acceptable limits, the isolation of E. coli and Salmonella spp. is of public health concern. Thus, implementing of measures to control the pasteurizing process and to minimize bacterial contamination of crocodile meat after pasteurization need to be carefully considered.

  5. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-02-22

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15-45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011-2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease.

  6. Variation in village chicken production systems among agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchadeyi, F C; Wollny, C B A; Eding, H; Weigend, S; Makuza, S M; Simianer, H

    2007-08-01

    The degree to which village chickens are integrated in the smallholder farming systems differs depending on the socio-economic, cultural and biological factors within each system. The objective of this study was to characterise the village chicken farming systems and identify possible threats to, and opportunities for, local chickens in the agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to households randomly selected from five districts, Risitu (n=97), Hurungwe (n=56), Gutu (n=77), Gokwe-South (n=104) and Beitbridge (n=37) in eco-zones I-V, respectively. Age of head of household averaged 47 years (SD = 14.3). Land holdings per household averaged 4.82 ha (SD = 3.6). Overall, 17.7 percent of the households ranked livestock as the major source of income compared to 70.8 percent who ranked crops as the main contributor. Chicken flock size averaged 16.7 (SD = 12.4), and the highest flock sizes were observed in eco-zones I and IV. Households owning cattle, goats and other livestock assigned less important ranks to chickens. Chickens were usedmainly for the provision of meat and eggs whilst the use of chicken feathers and investment were uncommon practises. Results indicate that more support is necessary for village chickens in the non-cropping regions of the country.

  7. It's harder for boys? Children's representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    LeRoux-Rutledge, Emily; Guerlain, Madeleine A.; Andersen, Louise B.; Madanhire, Claudius; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon; Campbell, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examines whether children in rural Zimbabwe have differing representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers based on the gender of those peers. A group of 128 children (58 boys, 70 girls) aged 10–14 participated in a draw-and-write exercise, in which they were asked to tell the story of either an HIV/AIDS-affected girl child, or an HIV/AIDS-affected boy child. Stories were inductively thematically coded, and then a post hoc statistical analysis was conducted to see if there were differences in the themes that emerged in stories about girls versus stories about boys. The results showed that boys were more often depicted as materially deprived, without adult and teacher support, and heavily burdened with household duties. Further research is needed to determine whether the perceptions of the children in this study point to a series of overlooked challenges facing HIV/AIDS-affected boys, or to a culture of gender inequality facing HIV/AIDS-affected girls – which pays more attention to male suffering than to female suffering. PMID:26615976

  8. Triple jeopardy: adolescent experiences of sex work and migration in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Busza, Joanna; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Chirawu, Petronella; Cowan, Frances

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence, migration and sex work are independent risk factors for HIV and other poor health outcomes. They are usually targeted separately with little consideration on how their intersection can enhance vulnerability. We interviewed ten women in Zimbabwe who experienced sex work and migration during adolescence, exploring implications for their health and for services to meet their needs. For most, mobility was routine throughout childhood due to family instability and political upheaval. The determinants of mobility, e.g. inability to pay school fees or desire for independence from difficult circumstances, also catalysed entry into sex work, which then led to further migration to maximise income. Respondents described their adolescence as a time of both vulnerability and opportunity, during which they developed survival skills. While these women did not fit neatly into separate risk profiles of "sex worker" "migrant" or "adolescent", the overlap of these experiences shaped their health and access to services. To address the needs of marginalised populations we must understand the intersection of multiple risks, avoiding simplified assumptions about each category.

  9. Xpert MTB/RIF detection of rifampin resistance and time to treatment initiation in Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, John Z.; Makumbirofa, Salome; Makamure, Beauty; Sandy, Charles; Bara, Wilbert; Mason, Peter; Hopewell, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients at elevated risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis are prioritized for testing with Xpert MTB/RIF® (“Xpert”), though clinical utility in this population is understudied. Design From November 2011 to June 2014, consecutive outpatients with history of prior tuberculosis in high-density suburbs of Harare, Zimbabwe were tested with Xpert, solid and liquid culture, and the microscopically-observed drug susceptibility assay. Diagnostic accuracy for rifampin-resistance and time to second-line regimens were ascertained. The rpoB gene was sequenced in cases of culture-confirmed rifampin resistance and genotypic sensitivity. Results Among 352 retreatment patients, 71 (20%) had rifampin-resistant, 98 (28%) rifampin-susceptible, 64 (18%) culture-negative/Xpert-positive, and 119 (34%) culture-negative/Xpert-negative TB. Xpert was 86% (95% CI 75-93%) sensitive and 98% (95% CI 92-100%) specific for rifampin-resistant TB. The positive predictive value of Xpert-determined rifampin resistance for MDR-TB was 82% (95% CI 70-91%). Fifty-nine of 71 (83%) participants initiated SLDs, with a median time to regimen initiation of 18 days (IQR, 10-44 days). Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for rifampin-resistance is high, though predictive value for MDR-TB is lower than anticipated. Xpert allows for faster SLD initiation under programmatic conditions, relative to culture-based drug susceptibility testing. PMID:27287639

  10. The need for innovative strategies to improve immunisation services in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chadambuka, Addmore; Chimusoro, Anderson; Apollo, Tsitsilina; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Namusisi, Olivia; Luman, Elizabeth T

    2012-01-01

    Gokwe South, a rural district in Midlands Province, Zimbabwe, reported the lowest rate of immunisation coverage in the country in 2005: 55 per cent of children vaccinated with three doses of diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus vaccine (DPT3) and 35 per cent dropout between the first and third dose of DPT. In January 2007, the authors assessed local barriers to immunisation and proposed strategies to improve immunisation rates in the district, in the face of nationwide economic and political challenges. A situational analysis was performed to assess barriers to immunisation using focus-group discussions with health workers, key informant interviews with health management and community leaders, and desk reviews of records. Responses were categorised and solutions proposed. Health workers and key informants reported that immunisation service delivery was hampered by insufficient availability of gas for cold-chain equipment, limited transport and fuel to conduct basic activities, and inadequate staff and supervision. Improving coverage will require prioritising gas for vaccine cold-chain equipment, identifying reliable transportation or alternative transportation solutions, and increased staff, training and supervision. Local assessment is critical to pinpointing site-specific barriers, and innovative strategies are needed to overcome existing contextual challenges.

  11. District health executives in Midlands province, Zimbabwe: are they performing as expected?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cornerstone of the health system in Zimbabwe, the district health system has been under the responsibility of the district health executive since 1984. Preliminary information obtained from some provincial health managers in Midlands Province suggested a poor performance by most district health executives. We therefore investigated the reasons for this poor performance. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from district health managers of five randomly selected districts in the province. Checklists were used to assess resource availability, staffing levels and proxy indicators to effective district health executive function. Data were analysed using Epi Info statistical package. Results Thirty district health managers were interviewed. Almost half of the participants could not list at least five functions of district health executives. Twenty nine managers reported having inadequate management skills requiring training. District health executives failed to meet their targets on expected activities in the year 2010 such as conducting monthly district health executive meetings, conducting quarterly supervision to health centres and submitting quarterly district health reports to the provincial level. Conclusion Poor knowledge on expected functions could have resulted in poor performance. Without adequate management training district health managers are likely to underperform their duties. DHE guidelines were therefore distributed to all districts. Management trainings were conducted to all district health executives throughout the country from November 2011. PMID:22998682

  12. Epidemiology of Hymenolepis nana infections in primary school children in urban and rural communities in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mason, P R; Patterson, B A

    1994-04-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained on 3 occasions at 10-12 wk intervals from 315 children in 3 rural villages in Zimbabwe and from 351 children in the high-density suburbs of an adjacent small town. Specimens were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for eggs of Hymenolepis nana, and these were found in 142 (21%) children. Infections occurred more frequently in younger children in the urban area but in older children in rural areas. The prevalence in urban areas (24%) was higher than in rural areas (18%), and in urban areas infection correlated with low "hygiene scores" (determined by observation) and with the presence in the household of an infected sibling. The prevalence of infection in the 3 rural communities did not correlate with availability of water, number of households per toilet, with low "hygiene scores," or with the presence of an infected sibling. Treatment with a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg praziquantel cured 84% of the infected children. New or reinfections occurred more frequently in households that had an infected sibling in an urban but not rural setting. The study demonstrates distinct differences in the transmission of H. nana infection in rural and urban communities. The data suggest intrafamily transmission in urban areas, particularly in households with poor hygiene behavior, leading to primary infection early in life. In rural areas, the prevalence of infection and the incidence of reinfection were highest in children of school age, and there was little evidence for intrafamily transmission of the parasite.

  13. Hydrocarbon implications of Karoo Supergroup turbidites and tectonics in northern Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Tromp, P.L. )

    1991-03-01

    Field research in the relatively unstudied Lower Zambezi trough of northernmost Zimbabwe and adjacent Zambia and Mozambique has revealed a sedimentary tectonic history unlike other Karoo basin (Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic) of the region. This presents a much better setting for petroleum deposits than has been found in those other areas. Aerial photo interpretation and reconnaissance geophysical data show strike-slip folds and faults at the surface and subbasins up to 10 km deep. This contrast with other Karoo basins, which are of a half-graben genesis, is further evident in the sedimentary sequences of the Lower Zambezi basin complex. Lacustrine turbidites occur in the Lower Karoo Kondo Pools Formation. Upper fan facies of a restricted active margin subaqueous fan system are found in limited outcrops in an accommodation zone uplift between the two subbasins. The overlying units are classical Karoo alluvial layers, but intercalated with a higher frequency of unconformities. Syndepositional and postdepositional deformation includes thrust faulting and detachment. Hydrocarbon potential is enhanced by three virtues that are lacking in other parts of southern Africa. Distal facies to those seen in exposures of the Kondo Pools Formation subaqueous fans should be rich in sapropelic mudstone, the source rock so elusive elsewhere. Second, basin depth is sufficient for thermal maturity. Finally, the tectonic regime was conducive to the formation of convex as well as unconformity traps. Mobil Oil is in the midst of an exploration program that may capitalize on these factors.

  14. The prevalence of condom use among university students in zimbabwe: implications for planning and policy.

    PubMed

    Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2013-09-01

    Young people, especially university students, are at high risk of HIV infections because of little or no parental or administrative prohibitions in campus environments. The aim of this study was to ascertain the level of condom use among university students in Zimbabwe; that is, condom use at last sex and consistent condom use among both regular and casual partners. The study draws on self-completed questionnaires administered to university students. The results reveal that, while 78.3% of sexually active respondents had used condoms in penetrative sexual encounters before, only 56.2% had used condoms at their last sexual encounter. As expected, consistent condom use was lower in regular sexual partnerships than it was in casual partnerships (30.6% versus 54.6%). Condom use at first sex and high personal HIV risk perception were found to be the most important factors in explaining condom use at last sex and consistent condom use with casual partners. Condom use intentions were high, as 75% of respondents indicated that they would use condoms at their next sexual encounters. Whilst this is commendable, use rates should ideally be higher still. Campus HIV/AIDS programmers should endeavour to ensure that condoms are available at all times in order to help translate these intentions into actual condom use. In addition, promotional programmes should encourage those who have not yet initiated sexual intercourse to use condoms at their first sex and also to improve personal HIV risk perceptions in order to trigger initiation of protective sexual behaviours.

  15. Reclaimed water as an alternative source of water for the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Ncube, Mthokozisi

    Perennial water problems, precipitated by increased water demand in Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, has prompted the consideration of a wide array of strategies from demand management and water conservation measures to exploitation of alternative water sources. One of such strategies in the latter category includes recycling of blue water for both potable and non-potable purposes. This paper examines the existing reclaimed water system with a view at revamping the existing infrastructure to maximise reclaimed water use for purposes that are amenable to water of lower quality. It is a generally accepted practice to avoid the use of water of high quality for purposes that can tolerate a lower grade, unless it is in excess in amount [ Okun, D.A., 1973. Planning for water reuse. Journal of AWWA 65(10)]. The reclaimed water is assessed in terms of its quality and quantity vis-à-vis possible uses. Perceptions and expectations of both current and identified prospective consumers are examined and discussed, in addition to the feasibility of accommodating these identified prospective consumers in an expanded network. Apart from enhancement of the existing infrastructure, the paper highlights the need for social marketing and education in order to realise the optimum benefits of this alternative water source. The cost implications of implementing the proposed project are evaluated, including suggestions on suitable tariff structure and an allocation distribution that achieves equity.

  16. New palynological data from Karoo sediments, Mana Pools basin, northern Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Engelbronner, E. R.

    1996-07-01

    The palynological associations of 16 Karoo samples, collected in the Mana Pools basin, Northern Zimbabwe, were studied, and four zonal assemblages can be recognized. Assemblage I (Kondo Pools Formation) is dominated by monosaccate pollen grains and diverse alete bisaccate pollen grains occur frequently. Important but rare marker genera include Limitisporites, Vittatina and Weylandites. These indicate a middle to late Early Permian age (e.g. Late Sakmarian to Early Artinskian). The palynological assemblage, derived from the Massive Sandstone Member, Angwa Sandstone Formation, is characterized by a small number of smooth and apiculate spores, but is lacking any age significant marker taxa. Assemblages II and III, both from the Alternations Member (Angwa Sandstone Formation), and Assemblage IV (Pebbly Arkose Formation) are dominated by alete bisaccate and multitaeniate pollen grains. The rare occurrence of Vittatina, Weylandites lucifer and Guttulapollenites hannonicus indicates a Late Permian to Early Triassic age for Assemblage II. Based on sedimentological data and literature, a preliminary age of Early Triassic (Induan) can be given. A range from latest Fassanian (Ladinian) to Lacian (Norian) for Assemblage III is indicated by the occurrence of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Eucommiidites, Infernopollenites, Minutosaccus crenulatus, Retisulcites perforatus and Samaropollenites speciosus. Small amounts of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Cycadopites, Microcachryidites and Minutosaccus crenulatus indicate a slightly larger age range for Assemblage IV (e.g. Carnien to Rhaetian).

  17. Tracing the emerald origin by oxygen isotope data: the case of Sandawana, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwaan, Johannes C.(Hanco); Cheilletz, Alain; Taylor, Bruce E.

    2004-01-01

    Given the wide range of oxygen isotopic composition of emerald from all over the world ( δ18O between +6.2 and +24.7‰), the δ18O V-SMOW values of emeralds from the Sandawana mines in Zimbabwe ( δ18O‰=+6.6 to +8.0), are relatively constant, among the lowest ever measured. These consistently low values can be explained by host-rock buffering in a very narrow emerald-bearing reaction zone between ultrabasic greenstones (metamorphosed komatiites) and albitised pegmatites. δ18O values of Sandawana emeralds overlap those of emeralds from Brazil, Austria, Australia and Madagascar, a fact indicating that, in these cases, oxygen isotope composition alone is not sufficient to determine the geographic origin of commercially available emeralds. However, stones with overlapping δ18O values may eventually be identified using a combination of physical properties, inclusion characteristics and chemical composition. To cite this article: J.C. Zwaan et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  18. Critical considerations for adopting the HIV 'treat all' approach in Zimbabwe: is the nation poised?

    PubMed

    Takarinda, K C; Harries, A D; Mutasa-Apollo, T

    2016-03-21

    While the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased survival and reduced the number of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related deaths among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus (PLHIV), HIV/AIDS remains a global health problem and sub-Saharan Africa continues to bear the greatest burden of disease. There are also major challenges in the HIV response: as of December 2013, only 36% of PLHIV globally were on ART, and for every individual started on ART there were two new PLHIV diagnosed. This has led to considerable debate around adopting an HIV 'treat all' approach aimed at greatly escalating the number of PLHIV initiated and retained on ART, regardless of CD4 cell count or World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage, with the intended goal of achieving viral suppression which should in turn reduce HIV transmission, morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. This paper examines the issues being discussed in Zimbabwe, a low-income country with a high burden of HIV/AIDS, about the implications and opportunities of adopting an HIV 'treat all' approach, along with pertinent operational research questions that need to be answered to move the agenda forward. These discussions are timely, given the recent WHO recommendations advising ART for all PLHIV, regardless of CD4 cell count.

  19. It's harder for boys? Children's representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    LeRoux-Rutledge, Emily; Guerlain, Madeleine A; Andersen, Louise B; Madanhire, Claudius; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon; Campbell, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether children in rural Zimbabwe have differing representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers based on the gender of those peers. A group of 128 children (58 boys, 70 girls) aged 10-14 participated in a draw-and-write exercise, in which they were asked to tell the story of either an HIV/AIDS-affected girl child, or an HIV/AIDS-affected boy child. Stories were inductively thematically coded, and then a post hoc statistical analysis was conducted to see if there were differences in the themes that emerged in stories about girls versus stories about boys. The results showed that boys were more often depicted as materially deprived, without adult and teacher support, and heavily burdened with household duties. Further research is needed to determine whether the perceptions of the children in this study point to a series of overlooked challenges facing HIV/AIDS-affected boys, or to a culture of gender inequality facing HIV/AIDS-affected girls - which pays more attention to male suffering than to female suffering.

  20. The 2008 cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe: experience of the icddr,b team in the field.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sirajuddin; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Iqbal, Anwarul; Mazumder, Ramendra Nath; Khan, Azharul Islam; Islam, M Sirajul; Siddique, Abul Kasem; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    During August 2008-June 2009, an estimated 95,531 suspected cases of cholera and 4,282 deaths due to cholera were reported during the 2008 cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe. Despite the efforts by local and international organizations supported by the Zimbabwean Ministry of Health and Child Welfare in the establishment of cholera treatment centres throughout the country, the case-fatality rate (CFR) was much higher than expected. Over two-thirds of the deaths occurred in areas without access to treatment facilities, with the highest CFRs (>5%) reported from Masvingo, Manicaland, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Midland, and Matabeleland North provinces. Some factors attributing to this high CFR included inappropriate cholera case management with inadequate use of oral rehydration therapy, inappropriate use of antibiotics, and a shortage of experienced healthcare professionals. The breakdown of both potable water and sanitation systems and the widespread contamination of available drinking-water sources were also considered responsible for the rapid and widespread distribution of the epidemic throughout the country. Training of healthcare professionals on appropriate cholera case management and implementation of recommended strategies to reduce the environmental contamination of drinking-water sources could have contributed to the progressive reduction in number of cases and deaths as observed at the end of February 2009.

  1. Maternal body composition, HIV infection and other predictors of gestation length and birth size in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, Exnevia; Nyazema, Norman; Ndhlovu, Patricia; Krarup, Henrik; Kaestel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2004-11-01

    The role of maternal infections, nutritional status and obstetric history in low birth weight is not clear. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the effects of maternal HIV infection, nutritional status and obstetric history, and season of birth on gestation length and birth size. The study population was 1669 antenatal care attendees in Harare, Zimbabwe. A prospective cohort study was conducted as part of a randomised, controlled trial. Maternal anthropometry, age, gravidity, and HIV status and load were assessed in 22nd-35th weeks gestation. Outcomes were gestation length and birth size. Birth data were available from 1106 (66.3%) women, of which 360 (32.5%) had HIV infection. Mean gestation length was 39.1 weeks with 16.6% <37 weeks, mean birth weight was 3030 g with 10.5% <2500 g. Gestation length increased with age in primigravidae, but not multigravidae (interaction, P=0.005), and birth in the early dry season, low arm fat area, multiple pregnancies and maternal HIV load were negative predictors. Birth weight increased with maternal height, and birth in the late rainy and early dry season; primi-secundigravidity, low arm fat area, HIV load, multiple pregnancies and female sex were negative predictors. In conclusion, gestation length and birth weight decline with increasing maternal HIV load. In addition, season of birth, gravidity, maternal height and body fat mass, and infant sex are predictors of birth weight.

  2. Malaria and schistosomiasis risks associated with surface and sprinkler irrigation systems in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chimbari, M J; Chirebvu, E; Ndlela, B

    2004-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the malaria and schistosomiasis risks associated with surface and sprinkler irrigation systems in Zimbabwe was carried out. The risk assessment of the two diseases was done in accordance with the three standard components of health impact assessment, namely (i) community vulnerability, (ii) environmental receptivity, and (iii) capability of health services to respond to malaria and schistosomiasis. Records of the two diseases were obtained from four health centres serving two surface irrigation schemes and two sprinkler irrigation schemes. For comparison records were also obtained from health centres serving nearby dryland areas. Incidence of schistosomiasis as estimated from recorded new cases of the disease was much higher in surface irrigation schemes than in sprinkler irrigation schemes. For malaria it was the other way around. These findings were confirmed by rapid risk assessments. Malaria risk factors were more prominent in sprinkler irrigation schemes, whereas more schistosomiasis risk factors were identified in surface irrigation schemes. These observations were attributed to poorly maintained infrastructure and inadequate landscape-levelling, which created mosquito breeding sites within the fields in the case of sprinkler schemes, and to poor drainage structures, which created snail-breeding sites in the case of surface-irrigation schemes. Importantly, poor maintenance of sprinkler scheme infrastructure accounted for more disease promoting features than the engineering designs per se. This study demonstrated the value of complementing routinely collected health data with rapid assessment procedures for appraisal of commonly reported diseases.

  3. Carbohydrate biofuel I: Rootfuel studies in Mexico, Brazil, Zimbabwe and India

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Bragg, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    {open_quotes}Rootfuel,{close_quotes} made by drying the fast-growing starchy-cellulosic taproots of certain members of the family Cucurbitaceae, has been under investigation by us since 1985. Rootfuel can be quickly dried to a much lower level of moisture content than seasoned wood, and also unlike wood, it contains a very small amount of lignin. If it is dry and burned with good draft, it can be burned more slowly than wood with very little smoke production. We studied rootfuel made from Cucurbita foetidissima roots in dry, deforested and well-populated rural lands of Mexico, Brazil, Zimbabwe and India under sponsorship of the Biomass Users Network, with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation. Our purpose was to evaluate rootfuel as a replacement for wood, dung and crop residues to improve indoor air quality for health reasons, and to take pressure off of the remaining trees. Acceptability has been uniformly high. Small test plots have been planted, and new rootfuel species have been identified and tested.

  4. Rethinking education of deaf children in Zimbabwe: challenges and opportunities for teacher education.

    PubMed

    Musengi, Martin; Ndofirepi, Amasa; Shumba, Almon

    2013-01-01

    The study explores the communication challenges faced by teacher trainees in teaching deaf learners and the opportunities that they present. A critical disabilities study approach within the qualitative paradigm was employed to collect interview data from 14 trainee teachers (6 were men and 8 women) and 5 of their specialist mentors (all of them were women) at 3 special schools in Zimbabwe. The trainees were aged 28-45. Data were analyzed using theme identification methods. Results showed that all the mentors and trainees without deaf assistants tended to teach using spoken language and even though they had no prior experience with them, they were suspicious of the use of deaf assistants, whom they saw as synonymous with sign language. Scepticism about using sign language was based on the idea that it was inadequate, would interfere with spoken language development, and would not enable learners to be included in a nondeaf world. It was also established that most of the mentors and trainees with deaf assistants used spoken language to teach, although this tended to be in combination with signs. Based on these challenges, opportunities to develop the education of deaf learners are discussed and recommendations made.

  5. Help-seeking behaviour for sexual-health concerns: a qualitative study of men in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Stephen; Makadzange, Panganai

    2008-05-01

    Using data collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with adult men in Zimbabwe, this paper explores the decision-making process associated with help-seeking for sexual-health concerns. Help-seeking is located in the complex and dynamic socio-cultural contexts around men's sexualities, masculinities and reproductive health. Pathways to help-seeking include identifying symptoms and the condition, seeking information and advice, and seeking and accessing treatment. Health is grounded in the cultural, spiritual and religious context of Zimbabwean men's lives. Men interpreted sexual-health concerns as due to either natural (disease, psychological stress) or supernatural (displeased ancestral and religious spirits, witchcraft) causes. These interpretations influence their choice of treatment and health service provider. Dominant gender norms of resilience and self-reliance, together with shyness and embarrassment, can delay men's treatment-seeking. The HIV epidemic has made sexual health a more prominent issue in society. However, HIV-related stigma can hinder men's help-seeking for sexual-health concerns (particularly for sexually transmitted infections). Understanding and taking account of these issues in research, health promotion and healthcare services should benefit the sexual health of both men and women.

  6. Hybrid treatment systems--anaerobic ponds and trickling filters in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Broome, J M; Morris, P M; Nanthambwe, J G

    2003-01-01

    The most economic combination of unit treatment processes for a new sewage treatment works in Zimbabwe was found to be anaerobic ponds followed by trickling filters. The regulations governing irrigation with treated effluent permitted the omission of humus tanks or further treatment. Two stage anaerobic ponds are desludged by gravity through fixed sludge outlet pipework. Sludge is disposed of by irrigation of a Eucalyptus plantation. Novel features of the inlet works and pond outlets are also described. The works has functioned for eight years without major problems, but the assumption that humus tanks or settling ponds were not required may have been mistaken. The sludge removal system has worked well. Without the sludge pipework, it is estimated that desludging of the primary ponds would have been required after two years of operation, but they have now operated successfully for eight years. The combination of anaerobic ponds and trickling filters should be considered where land availability or site conditions make facultative ponds difficult or expensive to construct.

  7. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of the Midlands province, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families as ethno-veterinary remedies. Two plant families were particularly frequent in usage: Fabaceae and Solanaceae, while the most utilized plant species were Aloe chabaudii (UV = 0.69), Aloe greatheadii (UV = 0.65), Adenium multiflorum (UV = 0.63), Vernonia amygdalina (UV = 0.61), Nicotiana tabacum (UV = 56), Solanum lycopersicum (UV = 55), Capsicum annum (UV = 53) and Pouzolzia hypoleuca (UV = 51). Fourteen animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases were tick-borne diseases, eye problems, retained afterbirth, fleas, lice and diarrhoea. The majority of ethno-veterinary remedies (78%) were collected from the wild, with respondents mostly using herbs (11 species, 48%), followed by 6 trees (26%), 4 shrubs (17%), and 2 climbers (9%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (51%), followed by bark (16%), roots (13%) and fruits (10%). These remedies were mostly administered as decoctions or infusions of single plants. These plants were used not only as alternatives to conventional veterinary drugs but also because in certain diseases they were thought to be more efficacious. In view of many and widespread uses of wild plants as ethnoveterinary remedies, further research into their pharmacological activities may prove worthwhile.

  8. Decentralized domestic wastewater systems in developing countries: the case study of Harare (Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirisa, Innocent; Bandauko, Elmond; Matamanda, Abraham; Mandisvika, Gladys

    2016-02-01

    Until recently there has been little, if any, concern over revamping let alone improving wastewater management system in Zimbabwe's urban areas given the dominance and institutionalised water-borne system. Yet, the current constraints in this system and the immensity of urbanisation in the country begs and compels planners, engineers and systems thinkers to rethink what best can work as a sustainable wastewater system. With particular reference to the ever-expanding Harare metropolitan region, this article provides an evaluative analysis on the potentiality, risks and strategies that can be adopted by Harare and its satellites in addressing the problems of the conventional wastewater management system. The suggested framework of operation is a decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system which however has its own multifarious risks. Using systems dynamics conceptualisation of the potentiality, opportunities, risks and strategies, the paper seeks to model the path and outcomes of this decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system and also suggests a number of policy measures and strategies that the city of Harare and its satellites can adopt.

  9. Community-Level HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Prevalence among Women and Men in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Stewart, James; Voss, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on HIV risk in sub-Saharan Africa focus on individual-level socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of risk. Only recently have researchers and programmers considered the context within which individuals live. This study uses the 2005–6 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey to examine the correlation between the prevalence of HIV at the community level and the prevalence of HIV risk-taking behaviors. Results show that women and men living in communities with higher HIV prevalence in the opposite sex are at increased risk of HIV. In addition, rural women and men living in communities with greater premarital and non-marital sex are at greater risk of HIV. Finally, HIV prevalence is higher among women and men living in urban areas with higher intimate partner violence. Programs should address community-level social norms that make high-risk behaviors acceptable and thus increase all women and men’s risk of HIV, not just those engaged in high-risk behaviors. PMID:22010807

  10. Quality and labeling information of Moringa oleifera products marketed for HIV-infected people in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Monera-Penduka, Tsitsi Grace; Jani, Zvinji Tella; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Mudzengi, Josephine; Morse, Gene D; Nhachi, Charles Fungai Brian

    2016-12-31

    Labeling information and quality of marketed Moringa oleifera products were assessed. Personnel in 60 pharmacies and 11 herbal shops were interviewed about the sources, dosages, indications and counseling information of Moringa oleifera products. Content analysis of written information provided on Moringa oleifera products was also done. Three samples of Moringa from popular sources were acquired to determine heavy metal content and microbial contamination. The results were compared to specified limits in the European and Chinese pharmacopeia, World Health Organization guidelines and Bureau of Indian Standards. Moringa was available as capsules or powder in 73% of the premises. Moringa was recommended for seven different disease conditions. Four different dosage regimens were prescribed. The main references cited for the counseling information were unscientific literature (62%). The selected Moringa samples were contaminated with bacteria and fungi above the European Pharmacopeia specified limits. Escherichia coli and Salmonella species were present in all three samples. All three samples contained arsenic, nickel and cadmium above the permissible limits. Moringa oleifera with variable labeling information and poor microbial and heavy metal quality is widely available in Zimbabwe.

  11. Social capital and women's reduced vulnerability to HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Simon; Mushati, Phyllis; Grusin, Harry; Nhamo, Mercy; Schumacher, Christina; Skovdal, Morten; Nyamukapa, Constance; Campbell, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Social capital—especially through its “network” dimension (high levels of participation in local community groups)—is thought to be an important determinant of health in many contexts. We investigate its effect on HIV prevention, using prospective data from a general population cohort in eastern Zimbabwe spanning a period of extensive behavior change (1998–2003). Almost half of the initially uninfected women interviewed were members of at least one community group. In an analysis of 88 communities, individuals with higher levels of community group participation had lower incidence of new HIV infections and more of them had adopted safer behaviors, although these effects were largely accounted for by differences in socio-demographic composition. Individual women in community groups had lower HIV incidence and more extensive behavior change, even after controlling for confounding factors. Community group membership was not associated with lower HIV incidence in men, possibly refecting a propensity among men to participate in groups that allow them to develop and demonstrate their masculine identities—often at the expense of their health. Support for women's community groups could be an effective HIV prevention strategy in countries with large-scale HIV epidemics.

  12. Perceptions of children and community members concerning the circumstances of orphans in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Foster, G; Makufa, C; Drew, R; Mashumba, S; Kambeu, S

    1997-08-01

    Focus group discussions and interviews were held with 40 orphans, 25 caretakers and 33 other community workers from a rural area near Mutare, Zimbabwe. Orphan concerns included feeling different from other children, stress, stigmatization, exploitation, schooling, lack of visits and neglect of support responsibilities by relatives. Many community members, while recognizing their limitations due to poverty, were already actively helping orphans and caretakers. Extended family networks are the primary resource for orphans, though some relatives exploit orphans or fail to fulfil their responsibilities. Interventions are suggested which support community coping mechanisms by strengthening the capacities of families to care for orphans. Outside organizations can develop partnerships with community groups, helping them to respond to the impact of AIDS, by building upon existing concern for orphan families. They can help affected communities to develop orphan support activities which encourage caring responses by community leaders and relatives and which discourage property-grabbing and orphan neglect. Material support channelled through community groups to destitute families at critical times can strengthen family coping mechanisms. Income-generating activities should build upon communities' existing capabilities and benefit the most vulnerable orphan households. Some communities are responding to the AIDS disaster by adaptations to cope with devastating changes taking place in their communities.

  13. The epidemiology and population biology of Necator americanus infection in a rural community in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M; Chandiwana, S K; Bundy, D A; Medley, G F

    1992-01-01

    Baseline data from an epidemiological study of hookworm infection in a rural community in Zimbabwe are presented. The infection status of an age-stratified sample of the community was assessed using anthelmintic expulsion techniques. Necator americanus was the only helminth parasite found to be present. The age-prevalence and intensity profiles rose asymptotically to an adult prevalence of about 80% and adult mean burden of 7.7 worms per host. The overall mean burden was 4.8 worms per host. The frequency distribution of N. americanus was overdispersed and well described by the negative binomial distribution with a value for the aggregation parameter, k, of 0.346. Separate estimates of k were lower in males and older hosts. The distribution patterns were difficult to reconcile with any simple process of age-dependent acquisition of an effective immune response. A significant negative correlation was recorded between per caput fecundity and worm burden, providing evidence for a density-dependent regulation of female worm fecundity. The basic reproductive rate (R0 congruent to 2) was found to be similar to estimates from other geographical areas.

  14. Mapping structural influences on sex and HIV education in church and secular schools in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, Elias; Mutepfa, Magen Mhaka; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2012-09-01

    The authors used state-of-the-art concept mapping approaches to examine structural institutional effects of church and secular high schools on the types of sexual and HIV-prevention education messages transmitted to learners in Zimbabwe. Participants were school teachers (n = 26), school counselors (n = 28), and pastors involved in student pastoral care (n = 14; males = 27, females = 41). They reported on messages perceived to influence sexual decisions of learners in their school setting. The self-report data were clustered into message types using concept mapping and contrasted for consistency of content and structure both between and within type of school. The authors also engaged in curriculum document study with member checks in the participant schools to determine convergence of the evidence on school-type effects of the messages transmitted to students. Church schools prioritized faith-informed sexual and HIV-prevention messages, whereas both types of schools prioritized Life skills education and a future focus. Secular schools prioritized sex and HIV messages in the context of community norms. Facts about HIV and AIDS were relatively underemphasized by church schools. The implicit knowledge values that differentiate types of schools influence learner access to information important for their sexual decisions.

  15. Quality and Labelling Information Moringa Oleifera Products Marketed for HIV-infected People in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Zvinji Tella; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Mudzengi, Josephine; Morse, Gene D.; Nhachi, Charles Fungai Brian

    2016-01-01

    Labeling information and quality of marketed Moringa oleifera products were assessed. Personnel in 60 pharmacies and 11 herbal shops were interviewed about the sources, dosages, indications and counseling information of Moringa oleifera products. Content analysis of written information provided on Moringa oleifera products was also done. Three samples of Moringa from popular sources were acquired to determine heavy metal content and microbial contamination. The results were compared to specified limits in the European and Chinese pharmacopeia, World Health Organization guidelines and Bureau of Indian Standards. Moringa was available as capsules or powder in 73% of the premises. Moringa was recommended for seven different disease conditions. Four different dosage regimens were prescribed. The main references cited for the counseling information were unscientific literature (62%). The selected Moringa samples were contaminated with bacteria and fungi above the European Pharmacopeia specified limits. Escherichia coli and Salmonella species were present in all three samples. All three samples contained arsenic, nickel and cadmium above the permissible limits. Moringa oleifera with variable labeling information and poor microbial and heavy metal quality is widely available in Zimbabwe. PMID:28239441

  16. Hospitality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  17. Hospital finance.

    PubMed

    Herman, M J

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes key areas of focus for the analysis of risk in the hospital segment of the health care industry. The article is written from a commercial bank lending perspective. Both for-profit (C-corporations) and 501 (c)(3) not-for-profit segments are addressed.

  18. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  19. Susceptibility of 7 freshwater gastropod species in Zimbabwe to infection with Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (Cobbold, 1876) Looss, 1896.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Munjere, I F; Takawira, M; Chingwena, G

    2004-12-01

    Gastrodiscosis outbreaks due to Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus were recorded in horses in the vicinity of Harare, Zimbabwe, in the absence of Bulinus forskalii, B. senegalensis and Cleopatra sp. which are considered to be the only intermediate host snails. This suggested the possibility of other snail species acting as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the trematode. A study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of 7 freshwater snail species to infection with G. aegyptiacus. First generation (F-1) of 5 freshwater pulmonate snail species, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Helisoma dyuri and Physa acuta that were bred in the laboratory, and 2 prosobranch snail species, Melanoides tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. that were collected from the field were used in this study. Data pertaining to mortalities and cercariae shedding were recorded throughout the experimental period. The prosobranch snails, M. tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. were susceptible to G. aegyptiacus with a minimum prepatent period of 45 days and 54 days, respectively. Bulinus tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi were susceptible as evidenced by the presence of different generations of rediae and mature cercariae on dissection at 59 days post-infection although attempts to induce the snails to shed from 28 days post-infection did not produce cercariae. Bulinus globosus and Bio. pfeifferi were refractory to infection. The results revealed the ability of G. aegyptiacus to infect M. tuberculata, Cleopatara sp., B. tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi under experimental conditions and this may explain the recorded outbreaks of gastrodiscosis in equine populations in Zimbabwe in the absence of the known intermediate hosts. Bulinus tropicus is considered as the most likely major intermediate host of G. aegyptiacus because of its wide distribution in Zimbabwe and is well adapted to a wide variety of environments.

  20. Work Experience, Job-Fulfillment and Burnout among VMMC Providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Linnea; Rech, Dino; Mavhu, Webster; Frade, Sasha; Machaku, Michael D.; Onyango, Mathews; Aduda, Dickens S. Omondi.; Fimbo, Bennett; Cherutich, Peter; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Bertrand, Jane T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human resource capacity is vital to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services. VMMC providers are at risk of “burnout” from performing a single task repeatedly in a high volume work environment that produces long work hours and intense work effort. Methods and findings The Systematic Monitoring of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up (SYMMACS) surveyed VMMC providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe in 2011 (n = 357) and 2012 (n = 591). Providers self-reported on their training, work experience, levels of job-fulfillment and work fatigue/burnout. Data analysis included a descriptive analysis of VMMC provider characteristics, and both bivariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with provider work fatigue/burnout. In 2012, Kenyan providers had worked in VMMC for a median of 31 months compared to South Africa (10 months), Tanzania (15 months), and Zimbabwe (11 months). More than three-quarters (78 – 99%) of providers in all countries in 2012 reported that VMMC is a personally fulfilling job. However, 67% of Kenyan providers reported starting to experience work fatigue/burnout compared to South Africa (33%), Zimbabwe (17%), and Tanzania (15%). Despite the high level of work fatigue/burnout in Kenya, none of the measured factors (i.e., gender, age, full-time versus part-time status, length of service, number of operations performed, or cadre) were significantly associated with work fatigue/burnout in 2011. In 2012, logistic regression found increases in age (p<.05) and number of months working in VMMC (p<.01) were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing work fatigue/burnout, while higher career total VMMCs decreased the likelihood of experiencing burnout. Conclusion Given cross-country differences, further elucidation of cultural and other contextual factors that may influence provider burnout is required. Continuing to emphasize the contribution that providers

  1. Indigenous knowledge and languages in the teaching and learning of science: A focus on a rural primary school in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizha, Edward

    Teachers are known for their "gate-keeping" roles in schools, especially in the classroom setting. They process and decide what "knowledge" is "valid" and "appropriate" for students. They also decide when and how the knowledge should be mediated to students. Their gate-keeping role marginalizes some forms of knowledge while validating and legitimating others. This qualitative and constructivist-interpretive case study is an exploration and description of ten rural primary school teachers' experiences in teaching science using indigenous perspectives in Zimbabwe. The purpose of the study was to discover and describe, using qualitative inquiry, how teachers incorporate indigenous knowledge and languages in teaching science in a rural primary school in Zimbabwe. The study also sought to understand teachers' mediation techniques in the process of bridging the cultural gap between formal science and indigenous knowledge that students bring into the classroom from home. In this study, I elicited, from teachers, their understanding of the interconnectedness of indigenous knowledge and Western science. I employed qualitative inquiry to collect data from them in their natural working environment, the school and the classroom. Purposive sampling was utilized to select ten teachers who were observed teaching two science lessons each. All the lessons were captured using a video recorder, which facilitated the collection of as much information as possible from events occurring in the classroom. Later, semi-structured interviews/conversations were audio-recorded from the same teachers to elicit their insights and experiences in teaching science using indigenous perspectives and languages. Policy documents and science syllabuses were also perused for information on what teachers were expected to teach in science. Inductive analysis was employed to interpret findings that resulted in thick and in-depth narratives. The findings from these narratives revealed differences and

  2. Targeted Water Quality Assessment in Small Reservoirs in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water

  3. An Analysis of HIV and AIDS Spatial Awareness and Vulnerability Level with Specific Reference to Staff at One Polytechnic in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatsi, Caroline; Chikuvadze, Pinias; Mugijima, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    With the gravity of the HIV and AIDS situation in most African nations and its implications for the education sector, a study was undertaken to analyze the spatial awareness and vulnerability level to pandemic in tertiary institutions with specific reference to academic and support staff at one polytechnic in Zimbabwe. A sample comprised of…

  4. Provision of Research Support Services to ODL Learners by Tutors: A Focus on the Zimbabwe Open University's Bachelor of Education (Educational Management) Research Students' Supervision Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapolisa, Tichaona

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the ODL learners' perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University's (ZOU) Bachelor of Education (Educational Management) research students' experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the…

  5. Religion Education Teaching in Zimbabwe Secondary Schools: The Search for an Authentic Values-Oriented Multi-Faith Religion Education Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndlovu, Lovemore

    2014-01-01

    Religion Education teaching in post-independence Zimbabwe has remained bible-oriented and confessional at a time when most Religion Education stakeholders expect an "open", plural and authentic multi-faith Religion Education curriculum. Despite curriculum innovation initiatives aimed at introducing new approaches such as experiential…

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Strains of Ehrlichia ruminantium, a Tick-Borne Pathogen of Ruminants, Isolated from Zimbabwe, The Gambia, and Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Ryo; Jongejan, Frans

    2016-01-01

    The rickettsial bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative pathogen of heartwater in ruminants. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three strains of E. ruminantium, namely, the Crystal Springs strain from Zimbabwe, the Kerr Seringe strain from The Gambia, and the Sankat 430 strain from Ghana. PMID:27313287

  7. Neurodevelopmental Impairment among Infants Born to Mothers Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Uninfected Mothers from Three Peri-Urban Primary Care Clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandawasvika, Gwendoline Q.; Ogundipe, Enitan; Gumbo, Felicity Z.; Kurewa, Edith N.; Mapingure, Munyaradzi P.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to document the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among infants enrolled in a programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in Zimbabwe using the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS). Method: We prospectively followed up infants at three…

  8. Participatory Planning for Project Sustainability of Environmental Education Projects: A Case Study of the Secondary Teacher Training Environmental Education Project (St[superscript 2]eep) in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ongevalle, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter; Deprez, Steff; Chimbodza, Iris Jane-Mary

    2011-01-01

    Within the first year of the Secondary Teacher Training Environmental Education Project (St[superscript 2]eep) in Zimbabwe, project stakeholders, including lecturers, college administrators, local project coordinators, and donor representatives, expressed concern about the non-sustainability of the project due to its over-reliance on its…

  9. Barriers and Incentives to Orphan Care in a Time of AIDS and Economic Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Caregivers in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brian H.; Phillips, Carl V.; Matinhure, Nelia; Goodman, Karen J.; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Johnson, Cary A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Africa is in an orphan-care crisis. In Zimbabwe, where one-fourth of adults are HIV-positive and one-fifth of children are orphans, AIDS and economic decline are straining society's ability to care for orphans within their extended families. Lack of stable care is putting thousands of children at heightened risk of malnourishment,…

  10. Content Analysis of Research Projects Submitted by Undergraduate Students (2000-2009) at the Zimbabwe Open University: Implications for Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangai, Caleb; Bukaliya, Richard; Musika, Farirai; Babra, Mapuranga

    2011-01-01

    One of the issues that have continued to attract the attention of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) educators, scholars and researchers at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the question of quality in the assessment of students' research work. This study was part of a series of studies, into issues of quality, currently being conducted at the…

  11. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Summary Report and Conclusions, Eastern Hemisphere Seminar (2nd, Salisbury, Zimbabwe, February 24-March 7, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Participants in the Second Eastern Hemisphere Seminar (held at Salisbury, Zimbabwe in 1981) discussed topics related to the theme of integrated and early childhood education. The seminar was organized into plenary and small group discussions centered on four sub-topics of the broad theme: (1) Early Childhood Education: The Community Dimension; (2)…

  12. Children's Needs and Early Stimulation. A Report of a Workshop for Early Childhood Education Trainers (Harare, Zimbabwe, July 29--August 9, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Training and Resource Centre, Nairobi (Kenya).

    The Regional Training and Resource Centre (RTRC) is a 5-year program that began in 1989. A consultative group to the program consists of members from the countries of Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Zambia, Lesotho, Mozambique, and Kenya. The functions of the RTRC are to: (1) disseminate information concerning projects supported by the Bernard van…

  13. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Work Related Learning: A Case of the Industrial Attachment Program Offered by the Faculty of Commerce, University of Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matamande, Wilson; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Taderera, Ever

    2013-01-01

    Industrial attachment is a very important component in the learning system particularly for tertiary and higher education as it relates to those who are pursuing careers in commerce. This paper seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the industrial attachment programme undertaken by the University of Zimbabwe, faculty of commerce. A questionnaire…

  14. The Role of Urban Primary and Secondary Schools in Minimizing Disease Outbreak Caused by Environmental Contamination: A Case of Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutungwe, Edlight; Tsvere, Maria; Dondo, Beauty; Munikwa, Simbarashe

    2011-01-01

    Waste management is a major challenge facing urban councils in Zimbabwe and Chinhoyi Municipality is no exception. Lack of resources and technical and administrative know-how is hindering proper waste management. Raw sewage and industrial waste flow into streams and rivers and uncollected rubbish bins and strewn litter is a common feature in the…

  15. Strengthening Community and Sports Associations' Collaboration with Tertiary Institutions: Bachelor of Science Physical Education Students' Perceptions on Their Experiences of Industrial Attachment in Masvingo Region-Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondo, Thembelihle

    2015-01-01

    This research study undertook to find out the perceptions of Bachelor of Education in Physical Education students who are enrolled by the Zimbabwe Open University about their study programme in as far as it empowers them to become effective P.E. practitioners. Its intention was to investigate how these students viewed the ways in which these…

  16. Traditional African Dance Education as Curriculum Reimagination in Postcolonial Zimbabwe: A Rethink of Policy and Practice of Dance Education in the Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonye, Jairos; Moyo, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the teaching and learning of traditional dance at primary school level in Zimbabwe as a key aspect of postcolonial curriculum reimagination within the broader project of reclaiming a nation's heritage. The paper used the survey design to determine how a cohort of primary school teachers understood traditional dance and how they…

  17. Training Music Teachers through Distance Learning: The Case of Teaching Practice Mentoring at One Primary School Teacher Training College in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhebhe, Sithulisiwe; Runhare, Tawanda; Monobe, Ratau John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the quality of teaching practice (TP) mentoring in the teaching of music at primary school level through the distance mode of training at one college of education in Zimbabwe. The study examined the experiences and perceptions of lecturers and student teachers on TP mentoring in music within the context of a distance…

  18. The Impact of ICT in Learning through Distance Education Programmes at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU): Roles of ICT in Learning through Distance Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, John; Chimhenga, Sylod; Mafa, Onias

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabwe Distance Open University is enrols students from both urban and rural settings. The majority of students living and working in rural areas have limited or no access to computers and electricity as a result the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the learning process is very limited. Though government has realized the…

  19. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  20. Short-term Mobility and Increased Partnership Concurrency among Men in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Cassels, Susan; Manhart, Lisa; Jenness, Samuel M.; Morris, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration has long been understood as an underlying factor for HIV transmission, and sexual partner concurrency has been increasingly studied as an important component of HIV transmission dynamics. However, less work has examined the role of short-term mobility in sexual partner concurrency using a network approach. Short-term mobility may be a risk for HIV for the migrant’s partner as well either through the partner’s risk behaviors while the migrant is away, such as the partner having additional partners, or via exposure to the return migrant. Methods Using data from the 2010–11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, weighted generalized linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between short-term mobility and partnership concurrency at the individual and partnership levels. Results At the individual level, we find strong evidence of an association between short-term mobility and concurrency. Men who traveled were more likely to have concurrent partnerships compared to men who did not travel and the relationship was non-linear: each trip was associated with a 2% higher probability of concurrency, with a diminishing risk at 60 trips (p<0.001). At the partnership level, short-term mobility by the male only or both partners was associated with male concurrency. Couples in which the female only traveled exhibited less male concurrency. Conclusions Short-term mobility has the ability to impact population-level transmission dynamics by facilitating partnership concurrency and thus onward HIV transmission. Short-term migrants may be an important population to target for HIV testing, treatment, or social and behavioral interventions to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:23824635

  1. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production potential: a case of three industries in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Mlilo, Sipho; Broome, Jeff; Lumbroso, Darren

    The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. The biggest challenge for developing countries is how to retrofit the industrial processes, which at times are based on obsolete technology, within financial, institutional and legal constraints. Processes in closed circuits can reduce water intake substantially and minimise resource input and the subsequent waste thereby reducing pollution of finite fresh water resources. Three industries were studied in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe to identify potential opportunities for reducing water intake and material usage and minimising waste. The industries comprised of a wire galvanising company, soft drink manufacturing and sugar refining industry. The results show that the wire galvanising industry could save up to 17% of water by recycling hot quench water through a cooling system. The industry can eliminate by substitution the use of toxic materials, namely lead and ammonium chloride and reduce the use of hydrochloric acid by half through using an induction heating chamber instead of lead during the annealing step. For the soft drink manufacturing industry water intake could be reduced by 5% through recycling filter-backwash water via the water treatment plant. Use of the pig system could save approximately 12 m 3/month of syrup and help reduce trade effluent fees by Z30/m 3 of “soft drink”. Use of a heat exchanger system in the sugar refining industry can reduce water intake by approximately 57 m 3/100 t “raw sugar” effluent volume by about 28 m 3/100 t “raw sugar”. The water charges would effectively be reduced by 52% and trade effluent fees by Z3384/100 t “raw sugar” (57%). Proper equipment selection, equipment modification and good house-keeping procedures could further help industries reduce water intake and minimise waste.

  2. Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk profiles of patients attending an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Danai Tavonga; Kodogo, Vitaris; Chokuona, Kudzai Fortunate Vongai; Gomo, Exnevia; Oektedalen, Olav; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2015-01-01

    The chronic inflammation induced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in HIV-infected individuals. HIV-infected patients generally benefit from being treated with antiretroviral drugs, but some antiretroviral agents have side effects, such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. There is general consensus that antiretroviral drugs induce a long-term risk of CHD, although the levels of that risk are somewhat controversial. The intention of this cross-sectional study was to describe the lipid profile and the long-term risk of CHD among HIV-positive outpatients at an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. Two hundred and fifteen patients were investigated (females n=165, mean age 39.8 years; males n=50; mean age 42.0 years). Thirty of the individuals were antiretroviral-naïve and 185 had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a mean 3.9±3.4 years. All participants had average lipid and glucose values within normal ranges, but there was a small difference between the ART and ART-for total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Those on a combination of D4T or ZDV/NVP/3TC and PI-based ART were on average oldest and had the highest TC levels. Framingham risk showed 1.4% prevalence of high CHD risk within the next ten years. After univariate analysis age, sex, TC/HDL ratio, HDL, economic earnings and systolic BP were associated with medium to high risk of CHD. After multivariate regression analysis and adjusting for age or sex only age, sex and economic earnings were associated with medium to high risk of CHD. There is small risk of developing CHD, during the next decade in HIV infected patients at an HIV treatment clinic in Harare.

  3. Using epidemiologic tools to control an outbreak of diarrhoea in a textile factory, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Tshimanga, M; Peterson, D E; Dlodlo, R A

    1997-11-01

    Dysentery is endemic in Zimbabwe. More than 260,000 cases and a case fatality of four per thousand were reported in 1993. In late July 1994, the Health Services Department in Bulawayo was informed of two cases of Shigella dysenteriae type I at a textile factory that employs 138 workers. Workers were interviewed at the factory regarding the date of the onset of illness, symptoms, food consumed, and treatment received. Factory water supply, cooking, and sanitary facilities were inspected. Stool and water samples were obtained for analysis. A case was defined as an employee presenting with diarrhoea with onset from July 24 to August 25, 1994. Of the 99 workers on day and evening shifts, 75 (75%) were interviewed. Thirty eight workers met the case definition (Attack Rate 51%). Common symptoms were abdominal cramps (71%), and blood in stools (37%); median duration of diarrhoea was 11 days (range 5 to 32 days). Thirty seven (64%) of 58 workers who drank borehole water were ill compared to one (6%) of the 17 who did not (RR = 10.8, 95% CI = 1.6-73). No food items consumed were significantly associated with the illness. Two different shigella species (2 sonnei and 2 boydii) were isolated from five (13%) of 38 stool specimens. Water samples from the two boreholes yielded numerous faecal coliforms. Neither borehole was registered as required by the municipal bylaws, which also forbid use of borehole water for drinking. The epidemiologic and laboratory evidence implicate contaminated borehole water as the most likely cause of this outbreak. Enforcement of municipal bylaws on drilling, registration and use of boreholes is essential to avoid further outbreaks of waterborne diseases.

  4. Causes and consequences of psychological distress among orphans in eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Nyamukapa, C.A.; Gregson, S.; Wambe, M.; Mushore, P.; Lopman, B.; Mupambireyi, Z.; Nhongo, K.; Jukes, M.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial resources are invested in psychological support for children orphaned or otherwise made vulnerable in the context of HIV/AIDS (OVC). However, there is still only limited scientific evidence for greater psychological distress amongst orphans and even less evidence for the effectiveness of current support strategies. Furthermore, programmes that address established mechanisms through which orphanhood can lead to greater psychological distress should be more effective. We use quantitative and qualitative data from Eastern Zimbabwe to measure the effects of orphanhood on psychological distress and to test mechanisms for greater distress amongst orphans suggested in a recently published theoretical framework. Orphans were found to suffer greater psychological distress than non-orphans (sex- and age-adjusted co-efficient: 0.15; 95% CI 0.03–0.26; P = 0.013). Effects of orphanhood contributing to their increased levels of distress included trauma, being out-of-school, being cared for by a non-parent, inadequate care, child labour, physical abuse, and stigma and discrimination. Increased mobility and separation from siblings did not contribute to greater psychological distress in this study. Over 40% of orphaned children in the sample lived in households receiving external assistance. However, receipt of assistance was not associated with reduced psychological distress. These findings and the ideas put forward by children and caregivers in the focus group discussions suggest that community-based programmes that aim to improve caregiver selection, increase support for caregivers, and provide training in parenting responsibilities and skills might help to reduce psychological distress. These programmes should be under-pinned by further efforts to reduce poverty, increase school attendance and support out-of-school youth. PMID:20552465

  5. Social Contact Structures and Time Use Patterns in the Manicaland Province of Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Poletti, Piero; Merler, Stefano; Nyamukapa, Constance; Williams, John; Gregson, Simon; Manfredi, Piero

    2017-01-01

    Background Patterns of person-to-person contacts relevant for infectious diseases transmission are still poorly quantified in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where socio-demographic structures and behavioral attitudes are expected to be different from those of more developed countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a diary-based survey on daily contacts and time-use of individuals of different ages in one rural and one peri-urban site of Manicaland, Zimbabwe. A total of 2,490 diaries were collected and used to derive age-structured contact matrices, to analyze time spent by individuals in different settings, and to identify the key determinants of individuals’ mixing patterns. Overall 10.8 contacts per person/day were reported, with a significant difference between the peri-urban and the rural site (11.6 versus 10.2). A strong age-assortativeness characterized contacts of school-aged children, whereas the high proportion of extended families and the young population age-structure led to a significant intergenerational mixing at older ages. Individuals spent on average 67% of daytime at home, 2% at work, and 9% at school. Active participation in school and work resulted the key drivers of the number of contacts and, similarly, household size, class size, and time spent at work influenced the number of home, school, and work contacts, respectively. We found that the heterogeneous nature of home contacts is critical for an epidemic transmission chain. In particular, our results suggest that, during the initial phase of an epidemic, about 50% of infections are expected to occur among individuals younger than 12 years and less than 20% among individuals older than 35 years. Conclusions With the current work, we have gathered data and information on the ways through which individuals in SSA interact, and on the factors that mostly facilitate this interaction. Monitoring these processes is critical to realistically predict the effects of interventions on infectious

  6. HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence and associated risk factors among postnatal women in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J H; Nathoo, K J; Hargrove, J W; Iliff, P J; Mutasa, K E; Moulton, L H; Chidawanyika, H; Malaba, L C; Zijenah, L S; Zvandasara, P; Ntozini, R; Zunguza, C D; Ward, B J

    2007-08-01

    Studies of antenatal women form the predominant source of data on HIV-1 prevalence in Africa. Identifying factors associated with prevalent HIV is important in targeting diagnostic services and care. Between November 1997 and January 2000, 14,110 postnatal women from Harare, Zimbabwe were tested by ELISAs reactive to both HIV-1 and HIV-2; a subset of positive samples was confirmed with assays specific for HIV-1 and HIV-2. Baseline characteristics were elicited and modelled to identify risk factors for prevalent HIV infection. HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalences were 32.0% (95% CI 31.2-32.8) and 1.3% (95% CI 1.1-1.5), respectively; 4% of HIV-1-positive and 99% of HIV-2-positive women were co-infected. HIV-1 prevalence increased from 0% among 14-year-olds to >45% among women aged 29-31 years, then fell to <20% among those aged>40 years. In multivariate analyses, prevalence increased with parity, was lower in married women than in single women, divorcees and widows, and higher in women with the lowest incomes and those professing no religion. Adjusted HIV-1 prevalence increased during 1998 and decreased during 1999. Age modified the effects of parity, home ownership and parental education. Among older women, prevalence was greater for women who were not homeowners. Among younger women, prevalence increased with parity and low parental education. None of these factors distinguished women co-infected with HIV-2 from those infected with HIV-1 alone. Prevalent HIV-1 infection is associated with financial insecurity and weak psychosocial support. The ZVITAMBO study apparently spanned the peak of the HIV-1 epidemic among reproductive women in Harare.

  7. Social acceptability and perceived impact of a community-led cash transfer programme in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. Methods We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Results Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent – reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children’s health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children’s needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Conclusion Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness. PMID:23587136

  8. Ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens in the Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Permin, A; Esmann, J B; Hoj, C H; Hove, T; Mukaratirwa, S

    2002-07-25

    A cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens from the Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. Fifty young and 50 adult birds were selected randomly. All chickens harboured ecto- and endoparasites, and 32% were infected with haemoparasites. Eight different ectoparasites were identified; the more prevalent ones had the following prevalences (young, %; adult, %): Argas persicus (6; 14), Cnemidocoptes mutans (6; 32), Echidnophaga gallinacea (72; 74), Goniocotes gallinae (0; 22), Menacanthus stramenius (90; 88) and Menopon gallinea (24; 66). The prevalences of C. mutans, G. gallinae and M. gallinae were higher in adults compared to young chickens. The mean (+/-S.D.) number of helminth species per chicken was 6.7+/-2.0 for young chickens and 6.4+/-2.0 for adult chickens with a range of 1-10 for young chickens and a range of 1-11 for adult chickens. The most prevalent nematodes identified were (with prevalence in % for young/adult birds): Allodapa suctoria (76; 72), Ascaridia galli (48; 24), Gongylonema ingluvicola (28; 56), Heterakis gallinarum (64; 62) and Tetrameres americana (70; 62). For cestodes the prevalences were: Amoebotaenia cuneata (60; 68), Hymenolepis spp. (62; 80), Raillietina echinobothrida (66; 34), Raillietina tetragona (94; 100) and Skrjabinia cesticillus (50; 76). The young chickens had higher prevalences of A. galli and R. echinobothrida compared to adults, but lower prevalence of G. ingluvicola and S. cesticillus. Eimeria spp. oocysts were isolated in 36% of 47 investigated samples. The prevalence was 47% for young chickens and 18% for adult chickens. Prevalences (in %) of haemoparasites in young and adult chickens were: Aegyptinella pullorum (7; 6), Leucocytozoon sabrazesi (3; 1), Plasmodium gallinaceum (8; 6) and Trypanosoma avium (2; 3).

  9. Simultaneous modeling of habitat suitability, occupancy, and relative abundance: African elephants in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Nichols, James D; Fritz, Hervé; Hines, James E; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; MacKenzie, Darryl I; Bailey, Larissa L

    2010-06-01

    The recent development of statistical models such as dynamic site occupancy models provides the opportunity to address fairly complex management and conservation problems with relatively simple models. However, surprisingly few empirical studies have simultaneously modeled habitat suitability and occupancy status of organisms over large landscapes for management purposes. Joint modeling of these components is particularly important in the context of management of wild populations, as it provides a more coherent framework to investigate the population dynamics of organisms in space and time for the application of management decision tools. We applied such an approach to the study of water hole use by African elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Here we show how such methodology may be implemented and derive estimates of annual transition probabilities among three dry-season states for water holes: (1) unsuitable state (dry water holes with no elephants); (2) suitable state (water hole with water) with low abundance of elephants; and (3) suitable state with high abundance of elephants. We found that annual rainfall and the number of neighboring water holes influenced the transition probabilities among these three states. Because of an increase in elephant densities in the park during the study period, we also found that transition probabilities from low abundance to high abundance states increased over time. The application of the joint habitat-occupancy models provides a coherent framework to examine how habitat suitability and factors that affect habitat suitability influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. We discuss how these simple models can further be used to apply structured decision-making tools in order to derive decisions that are optimal relative to specified management objectives. The modeling framework presented in this paper should be applicable to a wide range of existing data sets and should help to address important ecological

  10. Underage and underserved: reaching young women who sell sex in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Busza, Joanna; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Mapfumo, Rumbidzo; Hanisch, Dagmar; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona; Cowan, Frances

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Young women who sell sex (YWSS) in Southern Africa are highly vulnerable to HIV, as the risks of being young and female in a high prevalence setting coalesce with those of commercial sex. YWSS are less able to negotiate safe sex, more likely to have higher risk partners, and less likely to use available health services compared to older sex workers. In Zimbabwe’s national HIV programme for sex workers, fewer than 1% of clients were 15–29. We developed monthly interactive workshops for YWSS based on an Activity Pack consisting of 21 sessions organised into six modules. The aim was to encourage YWSS’ interaction with each other, build their trust, confidence and skills, and encourage uptake of clinical services. We conducted a process evaluation to assess programme strengths, identify challenges, and recommend changes. This paper presents findings synthesising programme records with qualitative data and discusses feasibility, acceptability, and outputs during the pilot phase. In total, 143 YWSS attended meetings and most were from the target 15–19-year-old age group. Participants enjoyed the sessions and reported improved cooperation, willingness to negotiate with clients, and self-reflection about their futures. Staff found facilitating sessions easy and activities clear and appropriate. Challenges included identifying appropriate referrals, initial recruitment of women in some sites, and managing participants’ requests for financial compensation. The number of clients aged 15–19 increased at sex worker clinics in all sites. This programme is the first to target YWSS in Zimbabwe to address their disproportionately low service use. It proved feasible to staff and acceptable to participants over a one-year period. Given enhanced vulnerability of YWSS, this programme provides one workable model for reaching this underserved group. PMID:27391994

  11. Impact of irrigation based sugarcane cultivation on the Chiredzi and Runde Rivers quality, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Brendonck, Luc

    2017-02-23

    Agriculture is vital in sustaining human livelihoods. However, agriculture as it is currently practiced, is contributing to the degradation of freshwater ecosystems globally. We investigated impacts of irrigation return flows from sugarcane farming on water quality and health status of the Chiredzi and Runde Rivers, a biodiversity hotspot region in south-eastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe. The water quality at inlets from the crop field into the wetland system; wetland outlets into the river systems; and river sites upstream and downstream of wetland outlets were monitored during the dry and wet seasons. The wetland system formed naturally from excessive drainage from the cane fields but its purifying capacity was unknown to date. An assessment of the water physical-chemical variables (at all sites) and macroinvertebrate communities (at river sites only) was carried out. Results showed that the wetland was deficient in its purifying capacity as it was already saturated by salts and nutrients from high irrigation return flow loads. A significant seasonal variation was observed for conductivity, reactive phosphorus (RP), pH and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations among the inlets to the wetland whereas among the river sites significant seasonal differences were observed for ammonium, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, RP, pH, TP and turbidity concentrations during the dry season. From the macroinvertebrate community data the impact of the irrigation return flows on the river system was apparent, as the good water quality sites were characterised by a high diversity of pollution sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa, while the irrigation impacted sites were characterised and dominated by pollution tolerant taxa. High ion concentration (conductivity and salinity) and pH were found to be important in structuring macroinvertebrate communities as determined using multivariate analysis in the river system. In conclusion, the river water quality was significantly impacted by irrigation return

  12. The role of community conversations in facilitating local HIV competence: case study from rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper examines the potential for community conversations to strengthen positive responses to HIV in resource-poor environments. Community conversations are an intervention method through which local people work with a facilitator to collectively identify local strengths and challenges and brainstorm potential strategies for solving local problems. Methods We conducted 18 community conversations (with six groups at three points in time) with a total of 77 participants in rural Zimbabwe (20% HIV positive). Participants were invited to reflect on how they were responding to the challenges of HIV, both as individuals and in community groups, and to think of ways to better support openness about HIV, kindness towards people living with HIV and greater community uptake of HIV prevention and treatment. Results Community conversations contributed to local HIV competence through (1) enabling participants to brainstorm concrete action plans for responding to HIV, (2) providing a forum to develop a sense of common purpose in relation to implementing these, (3) encouraging and challenging participants to overcome fear, denial and passivity, (4) providing an opportunity for participants to move from seeing themselves as passive recipients of information to active problem solvers, and (5) reducing silence and stigma surrounding HIV. Conclusions Our discussion cautions that community conversations, while holding great potential to help communities recognize their potential strengths and capacities for responding more effectively to HIV, are not a magic bullet. Poverty, poor harvests and political instability frustrated and limited many participants’ efforts to put their plans into action. On the other hand, support from outside the community, in this case the increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment, played a vital role in enabling communities to challenge stigma and envision new, more positive, ways of responding to the epidemic. PMID:23590640

  13. Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

    2013-08-01

    Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife.

  14. Comparative Cost of Early Infant Male Circumcision by Nurse-Midwives and Doctors in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mangenah, Collin; Mavhu, Webster; Hatzold, Karin; Biddle, Andrea K; Ncube, Getrude; Mugurungi, Owen; Ticklay, Ismail; Cowan, Frances M; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The 14 countries that are scaling up voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention are also considering early infant male circumcision (EIMC) to ensure longer-term reductions in HIV incidence. The cost of implementing EIMC is an important factor in scale-up decisions. We conducted a comparative cost analysis of EIMC performed by nurse-midwives and doctors using the AccuCirc device in Zimbabwe. Methods: Between August 2013 and July 2014, nurse-midwives performed EIMC on 500 male infants using AccuCirc in a field trial. We analyzed the overall unit cost and identified key cost drivers of EIMC performed by nurse-midwives and compared these with costing data previously collected during a randomized noninferiority comparison trial of 2 devices (AccuCirc and the Mogen clamp) in which doctors performed EIMC. We assessed direct costs (consumable and nonconsumable supplies, device, personnel, associated staff training, and waste management costs) and indirect costs (capital and support personnel costs). We performed one-way sensitivity analyses to assess cost changes when we varied key component costs. Results: The unit costs of EIMC performed by nurse-midwives and doctors in vertical programs were US$38.87 and US$49.77, respectively. Key cost drivers of EIMC were consumable supplies, personnel costs, and the device price. In this cost analysis, major cost drivers that explained the differences between EIMC performed by nurse-midwives and doctors were personnel and training costs, both of which were lower for nurse-midwives. Conclusions: EIMC unit costs were lower when performed by nurse-midwives compared with doctors. To minimize costs, countries planning to scale up EIMC should consider using nurse-midwives, who are in greater supply than doctors and are the main providers at the primary health care level, where most infants are born. PMID:27413085

  15. Reversible anaesthesia of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, A; Loveridge, A; Wenham, C; Foggin, C; Arnemo, J M; Nyman, G

    2005-12-01

    The combination of medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine with subsequent antagonism by atipamezole was evaluated for reversible anaesthesia of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo). Twenty-one anaesthetic events of 17 free-ranging lions (5 males and 12 females, body weight 105-211 kg) were studied in Zimbabwe. Medetomidine at 0.027-0.055 mg/kg (total dose 4-11 mg) and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.38-1.32 mg/kg (total dose 50-275 mg) were administered i.m. by dart injection. The doses were gradually decreased to improve recovery. Respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature and relative haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded every 15 min. Arterial blood samples were collected from 5 lions for analysis of blood gases and acid-base status. For anaesthetic reversal, atipamezole was administered i.m. at 2.5 or 5 times the medetomidine dose. Induction was smooth and all lions were anaesthetised with good muscle relaxation within 3.4-9.5 min after darting. The predictable working time was a minimum of 1 h and no additional drug doses were needed. Respiratory and heart rates and SpO2 were stable throughout anaesthesia, whereas rectal temperature changed significantly over time. Atipamezole at 2.5 times the medetomidine dose was sufficient for reversal and recoveries were smooth and calm in all lions independent of the atipamezole dose. First sign of recovery was observed 3-27 min after reversal. The animals were up walking 8-26 min after reversal when zolazepam-tiletamine doses < 1 mg/kg were used. In practice, a total dose of 6 mg medetomidine and 80 mg zolazepam-tiletamine and reversal with 15 mg atipamezole can be used for either sex of an adult or subadult lion. The drugs and doses used in this study provided a reliable, safe and reversible anaesthesia protocol for free-ranging lions.

  16. Genetic diversity in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) landraces from Zimbabwe revealed by RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Mujaju, C; Sehic, J; Werlemark, G; Garkava-Gustavsson, L; Fatih, M; Nybom, H

    2010-08-01

    Low polymorphism in cultivated watermelon has been reported in previous studies, based mainly on US Plant Introductions and watermelon cultivars, most of which were linked to breeding programmes associated with disease resistance. Since germplasm sampled in a putative centre of origin in southern Africa may harbour considerably higher variability, DNA marker-based diversity was estimated among 81 seedlings from eight accessions of watermelon collected in Zimbabwe; five accessions of cow-melons (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) and three of sweet watermelons (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Two molecular marker methods were used, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) also known as microsatellite DNA. Ten RAPD primers produced 138 markers of which 122 were polymorphic. Nine SSR primer pairs detected a total of 43 alleles with an average of 4.8 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 for the RAPD primers and from 0.39 to 0.97 for the SSR loci. Similarity matrices obtained with SSR and RAPD, respectively, were highly correlated but only RAPD was able to provide each sample with an individual-specific DNA profile. Dendrograms and multidimensional scaling (MDS) produced two major clusters; one with the five cow-melon accessions and the other with the three sweet watermelon accessions. One of the most variable cow-melon accessions took an intermediate position in the MDS analysis, indicating the occurrence of gene flow between the two subspecies. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) attributed most of the variability to within-accessions, and contrary to previous reports, sweet watermelon accessions apparently contain diversity of the same magnitude as the cow-melons.

  17. Causes and consequences of psychological distress among orphans in eastern Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyamukapa, C A; Gregson, S; Wambe, M; Mushore, P; Lopman, B; Mupambireyi, Z; Nhongo, K; Jukes, M C H

    2010-08-01

    Substantial resources are invested in psychological support for children orphaned or otherwise made vulnerable in the context of HIV/AIDS (OVC). However, there is still only limited scientific evidence for greater psychological distress amongst orphans and even less evidence for the effectiveness of current support strategies. Furthermore, programmes that address established mechanisms through which orphanhood can lead to greater psychological distress should be more effective. We use quantitative and qualitative data from Eastern Zimbabwe to measure the effects of orphanhood on psychological distress and to test mechanisms for greater distress amongst orphans suggested in a recently published theoretical framework. Orphans were found to suffer greater psychological distress than non-orphans (sex- and age-adjusted co-efficient: 0.15; 95% CI 0.03-0.26; P=0.013). Effects of orphanhood contributing to their increased levels of distress included trauma, being out-of-school, being cared for by a non-parent, inadequate care, child labour, physical abuse, and stigma and discrimination. Increased mobility and separation from siblings did not contribute to greater psychological distress in this study. Over 40% of orphaned children in the sample lived in households receiving external assistance. However, receipt of assistance was not associated with reduced psychological distress. These findings and the ideas put forward by children and caregivers in the focus group discussions suggest that community-based programmes that aim to improve caregiver selection, increase support for caregivers, and provide training in parenting responsibilities and skills might help to reduce psychological distress. These programmes should be under-pinned by further efforts to reduce poverty, increase school attendance and support out-of-school youth.

  18. The impact of land reform on the status of large carnivores in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Williams, Samual T; Williams, Kathryn S; Joubert, Christoffel J; Hill, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores are decreasing in number due to growing pressure from an expanding human population. It is increasingly recognised that state-protected conservation areas are unlikely to be sufficient to protect viable populations of large carnivores, and that private land will be central to conservation efforts. In 2000, a fast-track land reform programme (FTLRP) was initiated in Zimbabwe, ostensibly to redress the racial imbalance in land ownership, but which also had the potential to break up large areas of carnivore habitat on private land. To date, research has focused on the impact of the FTLRP process on the different human communities, while impacts on wildlife have been overlooked. Here we provide the first systematic assessment of the impact of the FTLRP on the status of large carnivores. Spoor counts were conducted across private, resettled and communal land use types in order to estimate the abundance of large carnivores, and to determine how this had been affected by land reform. The density of carnivore spoor differed significantly between land use types, and was lower on resettlement land than on private land, suggesting that the resettlement process has resulted in a substantial decline in carnivore abundance. Habitat loss and high levels of poaching in and around resettlement areas are the most likely causes. The FTLRP resulted in the large-scale conversion of land that was used sustainably and productively for wildlife into unsustainable, unproductive agricultural land uses. We recommended that models of land reform should consider the type of land available, that existing expertise in land management should be retained where possible, and that resettlement programmes should be carefully planned in order to minimise the impacts on wildlife and on people.

  19. Climate Change Adaptation and Climate Related Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Zimbabwe and Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubaya, C. P.; Ngepah, N.; Seyama, W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) have similar aims and mutual benefits, and there is a very strong rationale for adopting a more integrated approach to these issues rather than analysing each of them as distinct from the other. One of the gaps that have been noted in this context is the lack of evidence in systematic integration of CCA and DRR in Southern Africa. In this regard, this study builds on understanding CCA and DRR policies from the perspectives of vulnerable groups- women and smallholder farmers, and conducts institutional and policy analysis of CCA and DRR in southern Africa, with specific focus on Malawi and Zimbabwe. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed to collect data for this study in the two countries. The analysis is centred on the conceptualization of DRR in the context of recovery time and CCA on livelihood changes. Findings of the study show that drought is no longer viewed as a hazard as it is a perennial and chronic occurrence in selected climate hotspots, with heightened intensity in certain identified years. Households are able to quickly recover from slow onset hazards such as droughts and dry spells more than they are able to recover from sudden onset floods, implying more capacity towards CCA than DRR. Government programmes and policies are also focused more on CCA than on DRR efforts that appear not to be a priority. Findings point towards female vulnerability from perceptions and practice where males tend to dominate where they are set to benefit from external assistance. We need to strengthen government capacity in implementation of DRR programmes, which is currently limited and development initiatives must deliberately target building the resilience of women.

  20. The impact of land reform on the status of large carnivores in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kathryn S.; Joubert, Christoffel J.

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores are decreasing in number due to growing pressure from an expanding human population. It is increasingly recognised that state-protected conservation areas are unlikely to be sufficient to protect viable populations of large carnivores, and that private land will be central to conservation efforts. In 2000, a fast-track land reform programme (FTLRP) was initiated in Zimbabwe, ostensibly to redress the racial imbalance in land ownership, but which also had the potential to break up large areas of carnivore habitat on private land. To date, research has focused on the impact of the FTLRP process on the different human communities, while impacts on wildlife have been overlooked. Here we provide the first systematic assessment of the impact of the FTLRP on the status of large carnivores. Spoor counts were conducted across private, resettled and communal land use types in order to estimate the abundance of large carnivores, and to determine how this had been affected by land reform. The density of carnivore spoor differed significantly between land use types, and was lower on resettlement land than on private land, suggesting that the resettlement process has resulted in a substantial decline in carnivore abundance. Habitat loss and high levels of poaching in and around resettlement areas are the most likely causes. The FTLRP resulted in the large-scale conversion of land that was used sustainably and productively for wildlife into unsustainable, unproductive agricultural land uses. We recommended that models of land reform should consider the type of land available, that existing expertise in land management should be retained where possible, and that resettlement programmes should be carefully planned in order to minimise the impacts on wildlife and on people. PMID:26819838

  1. Comparison of geoelectric and seismic reflection models of the Zambezi Valley basins, northern Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, David; Whaler, Kathy; Zengeni, Teddy

    2000-09-01

    The Mana Pools and Lower Zambezi Karoo sedimentary basins lie within the Zambezi mobile belt in northern Zimbabwe. The subsurface apparent resistivities measured at both locations are extremely low. Magnetotelluric (MT) data along a profile across part of the Lower Zambezi basin have been inverted using Rapid Relaxation Inversion (Smith & Booker 1991) to find the minimum structure needed to fit the data and compare with an earlier forward model. The resistivity models of both the Mana Pools and the Lower Zambezi basins are then compared with their structure revealed from seismic reflection data. The resistivity structure of the Mana Pools basin is well modelled as a series of different resistivity layers whose boundaries are defined by the seismic data. However, the resistivity structure of the Lower Zambezi basin cannot be matched easily to the seismic structure; additional structure with no seismic expression is required. There is a conductive feature in the two basins in the Upper Karoo sandstone layer that extends below the seismic basement beneath the Lower Zambezi basin. This indicates that the conductors may represent different types of features in the two basins, consistent with their proposed different tectonic origins. A resistive unit is present within the sediments in the Lower Zambezi basin that may represent intercalated basalt dykes, giving an anisotropic MT response. It has been suggested that there might be similar thin basalt layers within the sediments of the Mana Pools basin, but these could not be resolved by MT methods. The low resistivity of the basement, particularly beneath the Lower Zambezi basin, is remarkable and may result from a high degree of either chemical or tectonic alteration to the underlying rocks due to metamorphic processes and tectonic disruption during rift formation. The presence of the Lower Zambezi basin conductor at depths greater than the seismic basement is consistent with observations to the west, in the adjacent

  2. Simultaneous modeling of habitat suitability, occupancy, and relative abundance: African elephants in Zimbabwe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Chamaille-Jammes, Simon; Nichols, James D.; Fritz, Herve; Hines, James E.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of statistical models such as dynamic site occupancy models provides the opportunity to address fairly complex management and conservation problems with relatively simple models. However, surprisingly few empirical studies have simultaneously modeled habitat suitability and occupancy status of organisms over large landscapes for management purposes. Joint modeling of these components is particularly important in the context of management of wild populations, as it provides a more coherent framework to investigate the population dynamics of organisms in space and time for the application of management decision tools. We applied such an approach to the study of water hole use by African elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Here we show how such methodology may be implemented and derive estimates of annual transition probabilities among three dry-season states for water holes: (1) unsuitable state (dry water holes with no elephants); (2) suitable state (water hole with water) with low abundance of elephants; and (3) suitable state with high abundance of elephants. We found that annual rainfall and the number of neighboring water holes influenced the transition probabilities among these three states. Because of an increase in elephant densities in the park during the study period, we also found that transition probabilities from low abundance to high abundance states increased over time. The application of the joint habitat–occupancy models provides a coherent framework to examine how habitat suitability and factors that affect habitat suitability influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. We discuss how these simple models can further be used to apply structured decision-making tools in order to derive decisions that are optimal relative to specified management objectives. The modeling framework presented in this paper should be applicable to a wide range of existing data sets and should help to address important ecological

  3. Quality of life, psychosocial health, and antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive women in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rena; Kassaye, Seble; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Wyshak, Grace; Kadzirange, Gerard; Woelk, Godfrey; Katzenstein, David

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe to assess the impact of ART on HIV-positive women's health-related quality of life, using the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Quality of Life (QOL) questionnaire. Additionally, we assessed socio-demographics, reproductive and sexual health, HIV-related history, disclosure, social stigma, self-esteem, and depression. Structured interviews were conducted with 200 HIV-positive women and categorized into three groups by treatment: (1) Group 1 (n=31) did not meet clinical or laboratory criteria to begin treatment; (2) Group 2 (n=73) was eligible to begin treatment but awaiting initiation of treatment; and (3) Group 3 (n=96) was on ART for a median of 13 months. The women had similar socio-demographic characteristics but varied significantly in clinical characteristics. Women on ART reported fewer AIDS-related symptoms in the last week and year and had higher current and lower baseline CD4 counts compared to women not on ART. On most QOL domains women on ART reported higher mean scores as compared to women not on ART (p<0.01). Additionally, women on ART reported less depression compared to women not on ART (p<0.001). Between the two groups of women not on ART, unexpectedly, there were no significant differences in their scores for QOL or depression. Thus, Zimbabwean women living with HIV experience better overall QOL and lower depression on ART. Altogether, our findings suggest that ART delivery in resource-poor communities can enhance overall QOL as well as psychosocial functioning, which has wide-ranging public health implications.

  4. Predicting maize yield in Zimbabwe using dry dekads derived from remotely sensed Vegetation Condition Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuri, Farai; Murwira, Amon; Murwira, Karin S.; Masocha, Mhosisi

    2014-12-01

    Maize is a key crop contributing to food security in Southern Africa yet accurate estimates of maize yield prior to harvesting are scarce. Timely and accurate estimates of maize production are essential for ensuring food security by enabling actionable mitigation strategies and policies for prevention of food shortages. In this study, we regressed the number of dry dekads derived from VCI against official ground-based maize yield estimates to generate simple linear regression models for predicting maize yield throughout Zimbabwe over four seasons (2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13). The VCI was computed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series dataset from the SPOT VEGETATION sensor for the period 1998-2013. A significant negative linear relationship between number of dry dekads and maize yield was observed in each season. The variation in yield explained by the models ranged from 75% to 90%. The models were evaluated with official ground-based yield data that was not used to generate the models. There is a close match between the predicted yield and the official yield statistics with an error of 33%. The observed consistency in the negative relationship between number of dry dekads and ground-based estimates of maize yield as well as the high explanatory power of the regression models suggest that VCI-derived dry dekads could be used to predict maize yield before the end of the season thereby making it possible to plan strategies for dealing with food deficits or surpluses on time.

  5. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma haematobium infection among primary school children in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Midzi, N; Sangweme, D; Zinyowera, S; Mapingure, M P; Brouwer, K C; Kumar, N; Mutapi, F; Woelk, G; Mduluza, T

    2008-08-01

    We examined the efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium among primary school children during a school-based deworming programme in the Burma Valley commercial farming area and the Nyamaropa rural areas in Zimbabwe, where the disease is highly endemic. Among 767 individuals infected with S. haematobium, 675 (88.0%) received treatment. Two single oral doses of 40mg/kg praziquantel were given 6 weeks apart. Of the 675 participants, heavy infection intensity was more common in males than females (chi(2)=6.61, P=0.010). Six weeks later, 624 participants (92.4%) were successfully followed up. The overall cure rate was 88.5% and the egg reduction rate was 98.2%. The highest cure rate was among those individuals with light infection. Seventy-two individuals remained infected at 6 weeks post treatment, among which 3 and 69 individuals had heavy and light infection, respectively. Forty-six of these children resolved following a second round of treatment at 6 weeks follow-up. Of the remaining children successfully followed-up, 22 resolved after a third round of treatment 6 months later. A wide range of observed mild and transient side effects were not associated with egg intensity. The parasitological cure rate was not associated with gender or age. Our study demonstrates that praziquantel is efficacious against S. haematobium in Zimbabwe, although low levels of persistent infection warrant further investigation.

  6. Diversity and phylogeny of bacteria on Zimbabwe tobacco leaves estimated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Can; Gu, Wen; Zhe, Wei; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Duan, Yanqing; Yang, Jinkui

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms play important roles in the tobacco aging process. However, microbial communities on flue-cured tobacco leaves (FCTL) remain largely unknown. In this study, the total microbial genomic DNA of unaged and aging FCTL from Zimbabwe were isolated using a culture-independent method, and the bacterial communities were investigated through analyzing two 16S rRNA gene libraries. Eighty-four and 65 operational taxonomic units were obtained from the libraries of the unaged and aging FCTL, respectively. The following genera were represented more than 4% in both libraries (aging and unaged library): Sphingomonas (4.84%, 4.18%), Stenotrophomonas (4.84%, 5.23%), Erwinia (5.81%, 4.88%), Pantoea (19.35%, 18.47%), and Pseudomonas (21.29%, 24.04%). The dominant species varied between the two libraries. Specifically, several dominant species in unaged FCTL including Pseudomonas fulva, Pseudomonas sp. (AM909658), Klebsiella sp. (HM584796), and Pantoea sp. (AY501386) were not identified in aging FCTL, while several dominant species in aging FCTL such as Pantoea sp. (GU566350), Pseudomonas sp. (EF157292), and Buttiauxella izardii were not found in unaged FCTL. The phylogenetic analysis showed that bacteria from unaged and aging FCTL were divided into two clades, and two unique subclades were identified in aging FCTL. Our results revealed for the first time the bacterial diversities on Zimbabwe tobacco, and provided a basis for clarifying the roles of bacteria in aging process of FCTL.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients with rifampicin resistance detected using Xpert® MTB/RIF in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Ade, S.; Harries, A. D.; Ncube, R. T.; Zishiri, C.; Sandy, C.; Mutunzi, H.; Takarinda, K.; Owiti, P.; Mafaune, P.; Chonzi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: In Zimbabwe, there are concerns about the management of tuberculosis (TB) patients with rifampicin (RMP) resistance diagnosed using Xpert® MTB/RIF. Objective: To assess linkages between diagnosis and treatment for these patients in Harare and Manicaland provinces in 2014. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Results: Of 20 329 Xpert assays conducted, 90% were successful, 11% detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4.5% showed RMP resistance. Of 77 patients with RMP-resistant TB diagnosed by Xpert, 70% had samples sent to the reference laboratory for culture and drug susceptibility testing (CDST); 53% of the samples arrived. In 21% the samples showed M. tuberculosis growth, and in 17% the DST results were recorded, all of which confirmed RMP resistance. Of the 77 patients, 34 (44%) never started treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, with documented reasons being death, loss to follow-up and incorrect treatment. Of the 43 patients who started MDR-TB treatment, 12 (71%) in Harare and 17 (65%) in Manicaland started within 2 weeks of diagnosis. Conclusion: Xpert has been rolled out successfully in two Zimbabwe provinces. However, the process of confirming CDST for Xpert-diagnosed RMP-resistant TB works poorly, and many patients are either delayed or never initiate MDR-TB treatment. These shortfalls must be addressed at the programmatic level. PMID:27358806

  8. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    PubMed

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives.

  9. Innovations to Enhance the Quality of Health Professions Education at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences -NECTAR Program

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo E; Nathoo, Kusum; Borok, Margaret; Chidzonga, Midion; Aagaard, Eva M.; Connors, Susan C.; Barry, Michele; Campbell, Thomas; Hakim, James

    2014-01-01

    The University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZCHS) is Zimbabwe's premier health professions training institution. However, several concerns were raised during the past decade over the quality of health education at UZCHS. The number of faculty and students declined markedly until 2010, when there was a medical student intake of 147 while the faculty comprised only 122 (39%) of a possible 314 positions. The economic and political crises that the country experienced from 1999 to 2009 compounded the difficulties faced by the institution by limiting the availability of resources. The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) funding opportunity has given UZCHS the stimulus to embark on reforms to improve the quality of health education it offers. UZCHS, in partnership with the University of Colorado School of Medicine (UCSOM), the University of Colorado Denver Evaluation Center (UCDEC), and Stanford University designed the Novel Education Clinical Trainees and Researchers (NECTAR) program to implement a series of health education innovations to meet this challenge. Between 2010 and 2013, innovations that have positively affected the quality of health professions education at UZCHS include the launch of comprehensive faculty development programs and mentored clinical and research programs for postgraduate students. A competency-based curriculum reform process has been initiated; a health professions department has been established; and the Research Support Center has been strengthened, providing critical resources to institutionalize health education and research implementation at the college. A core group of faculty trained in medical education has been assembled, helping to ensure the sustainability of these NECTAR activities. PMID:25072588

  10. Genetic trends production and somatic cell count for Jersey cattle in Zimbabwe born from 1994 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Missanjo, Edward Mtunduwatha; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio Edward; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward

    2012-12-01

    Genetic trends for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe were estimated. A total of 10,986 lactation records were obtained from Zimbabwe Livestock Identification Trust, with cows calving in the period 1996 to 2008. An ASReml program fitting an animal model was used for the analyses. The animal model that was used included overall mean, herd-year-season, previous calving interval, and days dry as fixed effects while linear and quadratic regression coefficients of age at calving as covariates. Random effects were cow, permanent environmental effects, and residual error. The pedigree file included 1,228 animals born from 1994 to 2005. The traits studied were milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percent, protein percent, and Log(10)SCC. Results indicated that milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield increased genetically (P < 0.0001) on average by 1.420, 0.160, and 0.164 kg per year, respectively. Fat percent, protein percent, and Log(10)SCC declined over the past 12 years (P < 0.0001) at the rate of -0.021, -0.015, and -0.0002 per year, respectively. This was due to the negative correlation between milk composition and milk yield. The results implies that the selection applied in the last decade has achieved genetic progress and that there is genetic variance for continued improvement and for setting up an effective dairy breeding program in Zimbabwean Jersey herds for milk, fat, and protein production.

  11. Species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from cichlids from Zambezi and Limpopo river basins in Zimbabwe and South Africa: evidence for unexplored species richness.

    PubMed

    Zahradníčková, Petra; Barson, Maxwell; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Přikrylová, Iva

    2016-09-01

    New findings on Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising African cichlids in southern Africa are presented, comprising data from Zimbabwe and South Africa. Morphometry of opisthaptoral hard parts in combination with nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the presence of six species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832. Three new species are described from fishes in Zimbabwe: Gyrodactylus chitandiri n. sp. from the gill arches of Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger) and Pseudocrenilabrus philander (Weber); Gyrodactylus occupatus n. sp. from the fins of Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Pharyngochromis acuticeps (Steindachner) and P. philander; and Gyrodactylus parisellei n. sp. from the fins of O. niloticus, P. philander and Tilapia sp. Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973 was also identified from the gills of O. niloticus and C. rendalli collected from two localities in Zimbabwe; these findings represent new host and locality records for this parasite. Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri Vanhove, Snoeks, Volckaert & Huyse, 2011 was identified from P. philander collected in South Africa and Zimbabwe thereby providing new host and locality records for this parasite. Finally, Gyrodactylus yacatli García-Vásquez, Hansen, Christison, Bron & Shinn, 2011 was collected from the fins of O. niloticus and P. philander studied in Zimbabwe; this represents the first record of this species from the continent of Africa. Notably, this study improves upon the knowledge of Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising cichlids from these southern African regions. All species studied were recorded from at least two different cichlid host species indicating trend for a wide range of Gyrodactylus hosts in Africa. Accordingly, this supports the idea of intensive host switching in the course of their evolution.

  12. “I don't want financial support but verbal support.” How do caregivers manage children's access to and retention in HIV care in urban Zimbabwe?

    PubMed Central

    Busza, Joanna; Dauya, Ethel; Bandason, Tsitsi; Mujuru, Hilda; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Children living with HIV experience particular challenges in accessing HIV care. Children usually rely on adult caregivers for access to care, including timely diagnosis, initiation of treatment and sustained engagement with HIV services. The aim of this study was to inform the design of a community-based intervention to support caregivers of HIV-positive children to increase children's retention in care as part of a programme introducing decentralized HIV care in primary health facilities. Methods Using an existing conceptual framework, we conducted formative research to identify key local contextual factors affecting children's linkages to HIV care in Harare, Zimbabwe. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 primary caregivers of HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years enrolled at a hospital clinic for at least six months, followed by interviews with nine key informants from five community-based organizations providing adherence support or related services. Results We identified a range of facilitators and barriers that caregivers experience. Distance to the hospital, cost of transportation, fear of disclosing HIV status to the child or others, unstable family structure and institutional factors such as drug stock-outs, healthcare worker absenteeism and unsympathetic school environments proved the most salient limiting factors. Facilitators included openness within the family, availability of practical assistance and psychosocial support from community members. Conclusions The proposed decentralization of HIV care will mitigate concerns about distance and transport costs but is likely to be insufficient to ensure children's sustained retention. Following this study, we developed a package of structured home visits by voluntary lay workers to proactively address other determinants such as disclosure within families, access to available services and support through caregivers’ social networks. A randomized controlled trial is underway to

  13. High prevalence of affective disorders among adolescents living in Rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Langhaug, Lisa F; Pascoe, Sophie J; Mavhu, Webster; Woelk, Godfrey; Sherr, Lorraine; Hayes, Richard J; Cowan, Frances M

    2010-08-01

    Poor mental health accounts for considerable disease burden among young people globally. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of affective disorders among rural Zimbabwean youth in 2006. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among 1495 Zimbabwean youth aged 15-23 (median 18) from 12 rural communities in three provinces in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous screening tool for affective disorders, notably depression and anxiety disorders. Participants scoring >or=8/14 were considered at risk of being affected and >or=11 as at risk of being severely affected. Most participants (93.1%) completed the SSQ. Of these, 51.7% (95%CI:49.0-54.3%) scored >or=8/14 and 23.8% (95%CI:21.5-26.0%) scored >or=11. Affective disorders were independently associated with household poverty (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.9, 95%CI:1.4-2.7), living in a female-headed household (AOR 1.3, 95%CI:1.0-1.7), having moved home within last 5 years (AOR 1.4, 95%CI:1.0-1.9) and feeling stigmatized (AOR being shunned by others 3.7, 95%CI:2.5-5.7). There was a strong linear association between risk of affective disorders and sexual risk taking (ever sex AOR 1.5, 95%CI:1.0-2.4, and 2.8, 95%CI:1.9-4.2 for affected and severely affected, respectively, test for trend P < 0.001; >or=2 lifetime partners AOR 2.3, 95%CI:1.1-4.8 and 5.4, 95%CI:2.7-10.7, test for trend P < 0.001). This study indicates high levels of psychological morbidity among rural Zimbabwean youth which was associated with sexual risk taking. Interventions to prevent, identify and treat mental health disorders in this vulnerable population are urgently required. In HIV-endemic countries, such interventions may also help reduce HIV transmission.

  14. Are HIV-positive presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis getting the care they need in Zimbabwe?

    PubMed

    Dlodlo, R A; Hwalima, Z E; Sithole, S; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : Le centre de santé Emakhandeni, qui offre une prise en charge de la tuberculose (TB) et du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) décentralisée et intégrée à Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.Objectifs : Comparer la prise en charge du VIH pour les patients présumés tuberculeux, avec et sans TB, enregistrés en 2013.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte basée sur les données de routine du programme.Résultats: Sur 422 patients présumés tuberculeux enregistrés, 26% étaient connus comme VIH positifs. Parmi les 315 patients restants, 255 (81%) ont eu un test VIH, dont 190 (75%) se sont avérés positifs. Parmi eux, 26% ont eu un diagnostic de TB et 71% n'ont pas été confirmés tuberculeux (les 3% restants n'ont eu aucun résultat de TB enregistré). Pour les 134 patients sans TB, les données d'éligibilité au traitement antirétroviral (ART) ont été notées chez 42 (31%) patients et 95% ont été éligibles à l'ART. La mise en œuvre du traitement préventif par cotrimoxazole (CPT) et l'ART a été notée pour respectivement 88% et 90% des patients VIH positifs avec TB, comparés à respectivement 40% et 38% des patients VIH positifs sans TB (P < 0,001).Conclusion : Les patients présumés TB mais non confirmés avaient un taux élevé de positivité au VIH et pour ceux dont les données étaient disponibles, la majorité était éligible à l'ART. Par contre, pour les patients VIH positifs sans une TB confirmée, le taux de mise en œuvre du traitement préventif par CPT et de l'ART a été médiocre. Une approche « tester et traiter » et de meilleurs liens entre les services pourraient sauver la vie de ces patients, surtout en Afrique australe où les taux de VIH et de TB sont très élevés.

  15. HIV in Children in a General Population Sample in East Zimbabwe: Prevalence, Causes and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Mutsindiri, Reggie; Chawira, Godwin; Munyati, Shungu; Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2–14 years) in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%). Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort. Results HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6–2.8%) and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03) or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04) but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0%) were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is

  16. Children’s representations of school support for HIV-affected peers in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV has left many African children caring for sick relatives, orphaned or themselves HIV-positive, often facing immense challenges in the absence of significant support from adults. With reductions in development funding, public sector budgetary constraints, and a growing emphasis on the importance of indigenous resources in the HIV response, international policy allocates schools a key role in ‘substituting for families’ (Ansell, 2008) in supporting child health and well-being. We explore children’s own accounts of the challenges facing their HIV-affected peers and the role of schools in providing such support. Methods Contextualised within a multi-method study of school support for HIV-affected children in rural Zimbabwe, and regarding children’s views as a key resource for child-relevant intervention and policy, 128 school children (10–14) wrote a story about an HIV-affected peer and how school assisted them in tackling their problems. Results Children presented harrowing accounts of negative impacts of HIV on the social, physical and mental well-being of peers, and how these manifested in the school setting. Whilst relationships with fellow learners and teachers were said to provide a degree of support, this was patchy and minimal, generally limited to small-scale and often one-off acts of material help or kindness (e.g. teachers giving children pens and exercise books or peers sharing school lunches), with little potential to impact significantly on the wider social drivers of children’s daily challenges. Despite having respect for the enormity of the challenges many HIV-affected peers were coping with, children tended to keep a distance from them. School was depicted as a source of the very bullying, stigma and social exclusion that undermined children’s opportunities for well-being in their lives more generally. Conclusions Our findings challenge glib assumptions that schools can serve as a significant ‘indigenous’ supports of

  17. Access to CD4 Testing for Rural HIV Patients: Findings from a Cohort Study in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Florian; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Bernasconi, Andrea; Makondo, Eliphas; Taziwa, Fabian; Moyo, Buhlebenkosi; Havazvidi, Liberty; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Manzi, Marcel; Khogali, Mohammed; Reid, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background CD4 cell count measurement remains an important diagnostic tool for HIV care in developing countries. Insufficient laboratory capacity in rural Sub-Saharan Africa is frequently mentioned but data on the impact at an individual patient level are lacking. Urban-rural discrepancies in CD4 testing have not been quantified to date. Such evidence is crucial for public health planning and to justify new yet more expensive diagnostic procedures that could circumvent access constraints in rural areas. Objective To compare CD4 testing among rural and urban HIV patients during the first year of treatment. Methods Records from 2,145 HIV positive adult patients from a Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders) HIV project in Beitbridge, Zimbabwe, during 2011 and 2012 were used for a retrospective cohort analysis. Covariate-adjusted risk ratios were calculated to estimate the effects of area of residence on CD4 testing at treatment initiation, six and 12 months among rural and urban patients. Findings While the proportion of HIV patients returning for medical consultations at six and 12 months decreased at a similar rate in both patient groups, CD4 testing during consultations dropped to 21% and 8% for urban, and 2% and 1% for rural patients at six and 12 months, respectively. Risk ratios for missing CD4 testing were 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9), 9.2 (95% CI 5.5-15.3), and 7.6 (95% 3.7-17.1) comparing rural versus urban patients at treatment initiation, six and 12 months, respectively. Conclusions CD4 testing was low overall, and particularly poor in rural patients. Difficulties with specimen transportation were probably a major factor underlying this difference and requires new diagnostic approaches. Our findings point to severe health system constraints in providing CD4 testing overall that need to be addressed if effective monitoring of HIV patients is to be achieved, whether by alternative CD4 diagnostics or newly-recommended routine viral load testing. PMID

  18. Analysing land cover and land use change in the Matobo National Park and surroundings in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharsich, Valeska; Mtata, Kupakwashe; Hauhs, Michael; Lange, Holger; Bogner, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Natural forests are threatened worldwide, therefore their protection in National Parks is essential. Here, we investigate how this protection status affects the land cover. To answer this question, we analyse the surface reflectance of three Landsat images of Matobo National Park and surrounding in Zimbabwe from 1989, 1998 and 2014 to detect changes in land cover in this region. To account for the rolling countryside and the resulting prominent shadows, a topographical correction of the surface reflectance was required. To infer land cover changes it is not only necessary to have some ground data for the current satellite images but also for the old ones. In particular for the older images no recent field study could help to reconstruct these data reliably. In our study we follow the idea that land cover classes of pixels in current images can be transferred to the equivalent pixels of older ones if no changes occurred meanwhile. Therefore we combine unsupervised clustering with supervised classification as follows. At first, we produce a land cover map for 2014. Secondly, we cluster the images with clara, which is similar to k-means, but suitable for large data sets. Whereby the best number of classes were determined to be 4. Thirdly, we locate unchanged pixels with change vector analysis in the images of 1989 and 1998. For these pixels we transfer the corresponding cluster label from 2014 to 1989 and 1998. Subsequently, the classified pixels serve as training data for supervised classification with random forest, which is carried out for each image separately. Finally, we derive land cover classes from the Landsat image in 2014, photographs and Google Earth and transfer them to the other two images. The resulting classes are shrub land; forest/shallow waters; bare soils/fields with some trees/shrubs; and bare light soils/rocks, fields and settlements. Subsequently the three different classifications are compared and land changes are mapped. The main changes are

  19. Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas - A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Chipato, P. T.; Mangore, E.

    Lack of basic sanitation systems threaten environmental and human health in low income urban communities. In 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out a cleanup exercise in urban areas involving the destruction of illegal structures which left many people homeless. As a solution to this problem, the government embarked on an extensive housing construction exercise on unserviced land; the ‘Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle’ development programme. The objective of this paper was to investigate the sanitation status in one such area (Cowdray Park Extension, Bulawayo) and determine a sustainable sanitation system for the improved collection of wastewater from the unserviced low income urban area. The study was carried out between October 2010 and February 2011. The sanitation status as well as the residents’ preferences for improved sanitation and the economic set up of the community for the study area was determined through use of questionnaires to the residents. The local authority was then consulted to recommend sanitation facilities and system for the area that met regulatory requirements. A literature study identified sanitation options that were applicable to low income and high density urban areas. The baseline survey found that 61% of the people in the study area lacked sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. The majority of the residents (70%) preferred ‘flush and discharge’ system sanitation facilities, which was in line with the local council’s requirements. On-site sanitation options were found not to be feasible as per the council regulations and the findings of the literature study, for areas with a high density of houses. Therefore a sewerage system was designed using the conventional sewerage design approach as well as the simplified sewerage design approach in order to determine the collection system that would best meet the needs of the community. In conclusion, the community was in dire need of a sanitation system and a waterborne

  20. The human resource implications of improving financial risk protection for mothers and newborns in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A paradigm shift in global health policy on user fees has been evident in the last decade with a growing consensus that user fees undermine equitable access to essential health care in many low and middle income countries. Changes to fees have major implications for human resources for health (HRH), though the linkages are rarely explicitly examined. This study aimed to examine the inter-linkages in Zimbabwe in order to generate lessons for HRH and fee policies, with particular respect to reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH). Methods The study used secondary data and small-scale qualitative fieldwork (key informant interview and focus group discussions) at national level and in one district in 2011. Results The past decades have seen a shift in the burden of payments onto households. Implementation of the complex rules on exemptions is patchy and confused. RMNH services are seen as hard for families to afford, even in the absence of complications. Human resources are constrained in managing current demand and any growth in demand by high external and internal migration, and low remuneration, amongst other factors. We find that nurses and midwives are evenly distributed across the country (at least in the public sector), though doctors are not. This means that for four provinces, there are not enough doctors to provide more complex care, and only three provinces could provide cover in the event of all deliveries taking place in facilities. Conclusions This analysis suggests that there is a strong case for reducing the financial burden on clients of RMNH services and also a pressing need to improve the terms and conditions of key health staff. Numbers need to grow, and distribution is also a challenge, suggesting the need for differentiated policies in relation to rural areas, especially for doctors and specialists. The management of user fees should also be reviewed, particularly for non-Ministry facilities, which do not retain their revenues

  1. High Prevalence of Affective Disorders among Adolescents Living in Rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Sophie J.; Mavhu, Webster; Woelk, Godfrey; Sherr, Lorraine; Hayes, Richard J.; Cowan, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    Poor mental health accounts for considerable disease burden among young people globally. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of affective disorders among rural Zimbabwean youth in 2006. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among 1495 Zimbabwean youth aged 15–23 (median 18) from 12 rural communities in three provinces in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous screening tool for affective disorders, notably depression and anxiety disorders. Participants scoring ≥8/14 were considered at risk of being affected and ≥11 as at risk of being severely affected. Most participants (93.1%) completed the SSQ. Of these, 51.7% (95%CI:49.0–54.3%) scored ≥8/14 and 23.8% (95%CI:21.5–26.0%) scored ≥11. Affective disorders were independently associated with household poverty (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.9, 95%CI:1.4–2.7), living in a female-headed household (AOR 1.3, 95%CI:1.0–1.7), having moved home within last 5 years (AOR 1.4, 95%CI:1.0–1.9) and feeling stigmatized (AOR being shunned by others 3.7, 95%CI:2.5–5.7). There was a strong linear association between risk of affective disorders and sexual risk taking (ever sex AOR 1.5, 95%CI:1.0–2.4, and 2.8, 95%CI:1.9–4.2 for affected and severely affected, respectively, test for trend P < 0.001; ≥2 lifetime partners AOR 2.3, 95%CI:1.1–4.8 and 5.4, 95%CI:2.7–10.7, test for trend P < 0.001). This study indicates high levels of psychological morbidity among rural Zimbabwean youth which was associated with sexual risk taking. Interventions to prevent, identify and treat mental health disorders in this vulnerable population are urgently required. In HIV-endemic countries, such interventions may also help reduce HIV transmission. PMID:20571897

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Religion as a Determinant of HIV Infection in East Zimbabwe: A Serial Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manzou, Rumbidzai; Schumacher, Christina; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Religion is an important underlying determinant of HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about how religion influences changes in HIV prevalence and associated sexual behaviours over time. Objectives To compare changes in HIV prevalence between major religious groups in eastern Zimbabwe during a period of substantial HIV risk reduction (1998–2005) and to investigate whether variations observed can be explained by differences in behaviour change. Methods We analysed serial cross-sectional data from two rounds of a longitudinal population survey in eastern Zimbabwe. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were developed to compare differences in sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence between religious groups and to investigate changes over time controlling for potential confounders. Results Christian churches were the most popular religious grouping. Over time, Spiritualist churches increased in popularity and, for men, Traditional religion and no religion became less and more common, respectively. At baseline (1998–2000), HIV prevalence was higher in Traditionalists and in those with no religion than in people in Christian churches (men 26.7% and 23.8% vs. 17.5%, women: 35.4% and 37.5% vs. 24.1%). These effects were explained by differences in socio-demographic characteristics (for Traditional and men with no religion) or sexual behaviour (women with no religion). Spiritualist men (but not women) had lower HIV prevalence than Christians, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics (14.4% vs. 17.5%, aOR = 0.8), due to safer behaviour. HIV prevalence had fallen in all religious groups at follow-up (2003–2005). Odds of infection in Christians reduced relative to those in other religious groups for both sexes, effects that were mediated largely by greater reductions in sexual-risk behaviour and, possibly, for women, by patterns of conversion between churches. Conclusion Variation in behavioural responses to

  3. Factors Associated With Community Health Worker Performance Differ by Task in a Multi-Tasked Setting in Rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Kambarami, Rukundo A; Mbuya, Mduduzi NN; Pelletier, David; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Zimbabwe, like most low-income countries, faces health worker shortages. Community health workers (CHWs) bridge this gap by delivering essential health services and nutrition interventions to communities. However, as workloads increase, CHWs’ ability to provide quality services may be compromised. We studied influences upon CHWs’ performance related to pregnancy surveillance and nutrition and hygiene education in rural Zimbabwe. Methods: In the context of a cluster-randomized trial conducted in 2 rural districts between November 2012 and March 2015, 342 government-employed CHWs identified and referred pregnant women for early antenatal care and delivered household-level behavior change lessons about infant feeding and hygiene to more than 5,000 women. In 2013, we conducted a survey among 322 of the CHWs to assess the association between demographic and work characteristics and task performance. Exploratory factor analyses of the Likert-type survey questions produced 8 distinct and reliable constructs of job satisfaction and motivation, supervision, peer support, and feedback (Cronbach α range, 0.68 to 0.92). Pregnancy surveillance performance was assessed from pregnancy referrals, and nutrition and hygiene education performance was assessed by taking the average summative score (range, 5 to 30) of lesson delivery observations completed by a nurse supervisor using a 6-item Likert-type checklist. Poisson and multiple linear regressions were used to test associations between CHW demographic and work characteristics and performance. Results: CHWs who referred more pregnant women were female, unmarried, under 40 years old, from larger households, and of longer tenure. They also perceived work resources to be adequate and received positive feedback from supervisors and the community, but they were less satisfied with remuneration. CHWs with high scores on behavior change lesson delivery were from smaller households, and they received more

  4. Involvement of stakeholders in the water quality monitoring and surveillance system: The case of Mzingwane Catchment, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nare, Lerato; Love, David; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    Stakeholder participation is viewed as critical in the current water sector reforms taking place in the Southern African region. In Zimbabwe, policies and legislation encourage stakeholder participation. A study was undertaken to determine the extent of stakeholder participation in water quality monitoring and surveillance at the operational level, and also to assess indigenous knowledge and practices in water quality monitoring. Two hundred and forty one questionnaires were administered in Mzingwane Catchment, the portion of the Limpopo Basin that falls within Zimbabwe. The focus was on small users in rural communities, whose experiences were captured using a questionnaire and focus group discussions. Extension workers, farmers and NGOs and relevant sector government ministries and departments were also interviewed and a number of workshops held. Results indicate that there is very limited stakeholder participation despite the presence of adequate supportive structures and organisations. For the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA), stakeholders are the paying permit holders to whom feedback is given following analysis of samples. However, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare generally only releases information to rural communities when it is deemed necessary for their welfare. There are no guidelines on how a dissatisfied member of the public can raise a complaint - although some stakeholders carry such complaints to Catchment Council meetings. With regard to water quality, the study revealed widespread use of indigenous knowledge and practice by communities. Such knowledge is based on smell, taste, colour and odour perceptions. Residents are generally more concerned about the physical parameters than the bacteriological quality of water. They are aware of what causes water pollution and the effects of pollution on human health, crops, animals and aquatic ecology. They have ways of preventing pollution and appropriate interventions to take when a source

  5. Grassroots community organizations’ contribution to the scale-up of HIV testing and counselling services in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Simon; Nyamukapa, Constance A.; Sherr, Lorraine; Mugurungi, Owen; Campbell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether community engagement (participation in grassroots organizations) contributed to increases in HIV testing in Zimbabwe. Methods: Prospective data on membership of local community organizations (e.g. women's groups and burial societies) and uptake of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services were collected from 5260 adults interviewed in two consecutive rounds of a general-population cohort survey in eastern Zimbabwe between 2003 and 2008. The effects of community engagement on uptake of services during the follow-up period were measured using logistic regression to adjust for observed confounding factors. Results: Sixteen percent of men and 47% of women were consistent members of community organizations; 58 and 35% of these people discussed HIV in their meetings and were members of externally sponsored organizations, respectively. Fewer men (10.1%) than women (32.4%) took up HTC during follow-up [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–4.86, P < 0.001]. HTC uptake was higher for members of community organizations than for nonmembers: men, 15.0 versus 9.2% (1.67, 1.15–2.43, P = 0.007); women, 35.6 versus 29.6% (1.26, 1.06–1.49, P = 0.008). Membership of community organizations showed a nonsignificant association with PMTCT uptake amongst recently pregnant women (42.3 versus 34.2%; 1.30, 0.94–1.78, P = 0.1). The most consistent positive associations between community participation and HTC and PMTCT uptake were found in organizations that discussed HIV and when external sponsorship was absent. Conclusion: Grassroots organizations contributed to increased uptake of HTC services in eastern Zimbabwe in the mid-2000s. Partnerships with these organizations could harness community support for the further increases in HIV testing needed in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24047764

  6. New U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Choma-Kalomo Block (Zambia) and the Dete-Kamativi Inlier (Zimbabwe), with implications for the extent of the Zimbabwe Craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Sarah; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Master, Sharad; Frei, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The Choma-Kalomo Block is a north-east trending, Mesoproterozoic terrane located in southern Zambia. It is composed of as yet undated gneissic basement with a high-grade metamorphosed supracrustal metasedimentary sequence, which is intruded by hornblende granites and gneisses of the Choma-Kalomo Batholith, that is dated between ca. 1.37 and 1.18 Ga. Our new zircon U-Pb age data on metasedimentary rocks of the Choma-Kalomo Block identifies samples of different ages, with slightly different provenances. The oldest metasedimentary rock is a muscovite-biotite schist, which has only Palaeoproterozoic detrital zircons, the two age clusters around 2.03-2.02 Ga and 1.8-1.9 Ga, correspond to the ages of granitic intrusion, and metamorphism, in the Magondi Mobile Belt on the western side of the Archaean Zimbabwe Craton. The second sample is a garnetiferous paragneiss, which contains both Palaeoproterozoic (2.04 Ga), and Mesoproterozoic zircons, ca. 1.36 Ga, derived from the granites of the Choma-Kalomo Batholith. The third sample is a biotite-muscovite schist, in which the detrital zircon ages fall into four separate clusters: ca. 3.39 Ga, ca. 2.7-2.6 Ga, ca. 2.1-1.7 Ga (with a peak at ca. 1.18 Ga), and 1.55 - 1.28 Ga. The Archaean zircons in this sample are derived from the Zimbabwe Craton, while the Palaeoproterozoic samples come from the Magondi belt, and the youngest zircons come from both phases of the Choma-Kalomo Batholith. A possible connection between the Choma-Kalomo Block and the Dete-Kamativi Inlier - some 150 km to the south-east in western Zimbabwe - has been proposed on the basis of similarities in the nature of their Sn-Ta-muscovite pegmatite mineralisation. The Dete-Kamativi Inlier, which is part of the Magondi Mobile Belt, is a window into Palaeoproterozoic north-east trending belts of deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal rocks. By dating localities which we suspect form the basement to the surrounding younger sediments, along with selected pegmatites

  7. The 2008/2009 cholera outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe: case of failure in urban environmental health and planning.

    PubMed

    Chirisa, Innocent; Nyamadzawo, Lisa; Bandauko, Elmond; Mutsindikwa, Nyasha

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews and reflects on the cholera outbreak that rocked Harare, Zimbabwe, in 2008/2009. We give special attention to the root causes, impacts and debates made by key stakeholders, indicating the political and geographical responses. Based on a desktop study and documentary review, the paper highlights the inadequacy of safe and clean water in most of the suburbs, the collapse of the waste management, water supply and sanitation systems of the city as the major explanations for the scourge. Despite this, Harare remains troubled with the shortage of purification chemicals, making it quite impossible to supply clean and adequate water. The national economic crisis also had a strong bearing against the performance of the public health sector. The paper concludes that sustainable urban health initiatives involving both central and local government will provide a long-term solution to the problems highlighted.

  8. Household water treatment uptake during a public health response to a large typhoid fever outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Maho; Kweza, Patience F; Slayton, Rachel B; Urayai, Tanaka; Ziro, Odrie; Mushayi, Wellington; Francis-Chizororo, Monica; Kuonza, Lazarus R; Ayers, Tracy; Freeman, Molly M; Govore, Emmaculate; Duri, Clemence; Chonzi, Prosper; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Manangazira, Portia; Kilmarx, Peter H; Mintz, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    Locally manufactured sodium hypochlorite (chlorine) solution has been sold in Zimbabwe since 2010. During October 1, 2011-April 30, 2012, 4,181 suspected and 52 confirmed cases of typhoid fever were identified in Harare. In response to this outbreak, chlorine tablets were distributed. To evaluate household water treatment uptake, we conducted a survey and water quality testing in 458 randomly selected households in two suburbs most affected by the outbreak. Although 75% of households were aware of chlorine solution and 85% received chlorine tablets, only 18% had reportedly treated stored water and had the recommended protective level of free chlorine residuals. Water treatment was more common among households that reported water treatment before the outbreak, and those that received free tablets during the outbreak (P < 0.01), but was not associated with chlorine solution awareness or use before the outbreak (P > 0.05). Outbreak response did not build on pre-existing prevention programs.

  9. Black skin, 'cowboy' masculinity: a genealogy of homophobia in the African nationalist movement in Zimbabwe to 1983.

    PubMed

    Epprecht, Marc

    2005-05-01

    This paper examines the intellectual and social origins of racialist homophobia in contemporary Zimbabwean political discourse, exemplified by President Robert Mugabe's anti-homosexual speeches since the mid-1990s. It challenges the notions that such homophobia is either essential to African patriarchy or simple political opportunism. Tracing overt expressions of intolerance towards male-male sexuality back to the colonial period, it focuses on ways in which notions of appropriate, respectable, exclusive heterosexuality within the 'cowboy' culture of White Southern Rhodesia trickled into, or were interpreted in, the African nationalist movement. It concludes that understanding this history could improve efforts to address concerns around sexual health in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region, particularly silences around same-sex sexuality in HIV/AIDS education and prevention.

  10. Trends in Concurrency, Polygyny, and Multiple Sex Partnerships During a Decade of Declining HIV Prevalence in Eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Takavarasha, Felicia R.; Schumacher, Christina M.; Mugurungi, Owen; Garnett, Geoffrey P.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background. Observed declines in the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Zimbabwe have been attributed to population-level reductions in sexual partnership numbers. However, it remains unknown whether certain types of sex partnerships were more important to this decline. Particular debate surrounds the epidemiologic importance of polygyny (the practice of having multiple wives). Methods. We analyze changes in reported multiple partnerships, nonmarital concurrency, and polygyny in eastern Zimbabwe during a period of declining HIV prevalence, from 1998 to 2011. Trends are reported for adult men (age, 17–54 years) and women (age, 15–49 years) from 5 survey rounds of the Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Project, a general-population open cohort study. Results. At baseline, 34.2% of men reported multiple partnerships, 11.9% reported nonmarital concurrency, and 4.6% reported polygyny. Among women, 4.6% and 1.8% reported multiple partnerships and concurrency, respectively. All 3 partnership indicators declined by similar relative amounts (around 60%–70%) over the period. Polygyny accounted for around 25% of male concurrency. Compared with monogamously married men, polygynous men reported higher levels of subsequent divorce/separation (adjusted relative risk [RR], 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87–4.55) and casual sex partnerships (adjusted RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.41–1.88). Conclusions. No indicator clearly dominated declines in partnerships. Polygyny was surprisingly unstable and, in this population, should not be considered a safe form of concurrency. PMID:25381376

  11. Reproductive biology knowledge, and behaviour of teenagers in East, Central and Southern Africa: the Zimbabwe case study.

    PubMed

    Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Rusakaniko, S; Gumbo, J; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W; Sebina-Zziwa; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J

    1995-11-01

    Sexuality in the teenager is often complicated by unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, abortion and the risks of STDs including AIDS. There is therefore a need for improved understanding of factors affecting adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, risk awareness and subsequent behavioural outcomes. A multicentre study of reproductive health knowledge and behaviour followed by a health education intervention was undertaken amongst teenagers in selected countries of East, Central and Southern Africa. Reported here are findings at baseline derived from the Zimbabwe component on reproductive biology knowledge and behavior. A self-administered questionnaire was used among 1 689 adolescent pupils drawn from rural, urban, co-education, single sex, boarding and day secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Correct knowledge on reproductive biology as measured by the meaning and interpretation of menstruation and wet dreams varied by school from 68 pc to 86 pc, with a significant trend (p < 0,01) based on level of education at baseline. The reported mean age at which menarche took place was 13,5 years +/- 1,3 (mean +/- SD). First coitus was reported to have taken place at the mean age of 12 years for boys and 13,6 years for girls. Seventeen pc of the adolescent pupils reported that they were sexually experienced and 33,2 had relationships. There were misconceptions reported on menstruation with 23 pc reporting that it was an illness. Peers, followed by magazines were the first sources of information on various aspects of reproductive biology, both of which might not provide the correct first information. Among pupils reporting that they were sexually experienced, the largest proportion (56 pc) had unprotected sex. The findings point to the need for targeting the adolescent pupils for information on reproductive biology and increased awareness on the risks of pregnancy, STDs and HIV.

  12. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  13. The potential of solar water disinfection as a household water treatment method in peri-urban Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murinda, Sharon; Kraemer, Silvie

    The potential for reducing diarrhoea morbidity and improving the health status of children in developing countries using solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been demonstrated in past research. A baseline survey was conducted to explore the feasibility and necessity of introducing SODIS in peri-urban communities of Zimbabwe. The survey sought to establish drinking water quality in these areas and to determine the health and hygiene beliefs as well as practices related to water handling in the household. Microbiological water quality tests and personal interviews were carried out in Epworth township and Hopley farm, two peri-urban areas near the capital of Zimbabwe, Harare. These two areas are among the poorest settlements around Harare with 80% of inhabitants being informal settlers. Community meetings were held to introduce solar water disinfection prior to the survey. This was followed by administration of questionnaires, which aimed to investigate whether the community had ever heard about SODIS, whether they were practicing it, other means that were being used to treat drinking water as well as health and hygiene beliefs and practices. It was found out that most households cannot afford basic water treatment like boiling as firewood is expensive. People generally reported that the water was not palatable due to objectionable odour and taste. Microbiological water quality tests proved that drinking water was contaminated in both areas, which makes the water unsafe for drinking and shows the necessity of treatment. Although the majority of people interviewed had not heard of SODIS prior to the interview, attitudes towards its introduction were very positive and the intention to do SODIS in the future was high. Amongst the ones who had heard about SODIS before the study, usage was high. Plastic PET bottles, which were used for the SODIS experiments are currently unavailable and this has been identified as a potential hindrance to the successful implementation of

  14. Problematising and conceptualising local participation in transboundary water resources management: The case of Limpopo river basin in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatch, Joanna J.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Mabiza, Collin

    IWRM-led water reforms in southern Africa have emphasised the creation of new stakeholder institutions with little explanation of how they will operate at different levels, especially at the local level. A case in point is the subsidiarity principle, which advocates for water management to be undertaken at the lowest appropriate level. The main objective of the study was to investigate the conceptualisation and application of the subsidiarity principle in the Limpopo river basin in Zimbabwe. This was done by analysing how state-led frameworks at the regional, basin, national and local level provided for local participation. These frameworks were compared to a bottom-up approach based on action research in three second tier local government administrative units (wards) in Shashe subcatchment of Mzingwane catchment. The catchment represents the entirety of the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe. Data collection was based on document reviews, key informants, focus group discussions and participatory observations. In general the top-down efforts were found to express intent but lacked appropriately conceptualised implementation guidelines. Views of local people regarding how they could meaningfully participate in transboundary water resource management were based on practical considerations rather than theoretical abstractions. This was shown by a different conceptualisation of stakeholder identification and representation, demarcation of boundaries, role of intermediate institutions, and direct participation of local people at the basin level. The paper concludes that a bottom-up institutional model can enhance the conceptualisation and application of the subsidiarity principle. It also provides evidence that prescriptive approaches may not be the best way to achieve participatory governance in transboundary water resource management.

  15. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV.

  16. An assessment of the understanding of the offer of routine HIV testing among pregnant women in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mugore, L; Engelsmann, B; Ndoro, T; Dabis, F; Perez, F

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the understanding of routine offer of HIV testing among women using antenatal care (ANC) services in a rural African district. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in Murewa district, Zimbabwe, among women consecutively enrolled during their first ANC visit in 10 health centres offering prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services including routine offer of HIV testing. Ninety-three (64%) of the 146 respondents had received some form of education on the importance of HIV testing before visiting the health centre on the day of their interview. Almost all respondents (n=139; 95%) felt that the information provided during the group education was sufficient to make a decision on whether or not they should have an HIV test. HIV testing uptake was high with 136 (93%) women being tested for HIV on the day of the interview. Of these, 128 (94%) were aware that they had been tested for HIV when interviewed before the time of receiving results. Fifty percent (n=67) of the women who accepted HIV testing directly after group education as part of their routine ANC blood tests were not aware, however, of the possibility of opting for individual pre-test counseling. The study found that in Zimbabwe, implementation of routine offer of HIV testing allowed women using ANC services to make an informed conscious decision to undertake an HIV test as part of the PMTCT package of services. There is a need to emphasize the availability of further individual pre-test counseling if necessary since a selected subgroup of women may still benefit from it.

  17. Can hospitals compete on quality? Hospital competition.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Somayeh; Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Carter, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider two hospitals with different perceived quality of care competing to capture a fraction of the total market demand. Patients select the hospital that provides the highest utility, which is a function of price and the patient's perceived quality of life during their life expectancy. We consider a market with a single class of patients and show that depending on the market demand and perceived quality of care of the hospitals, patients may enjoy a positive utility. Moreover, hospitals share the market demand based on their perceived quality of care and capacity. We also show that in a monopoly market (a market with a single hospital) the optimal demand captured by the hospital is independent of the perceived quality of care. We investigate the effects of different parameters including the market demand, hospitals' capacities, and perceived quality of care on the fraction of the demand that each hospital captures using some numerical examples.

  18. Changing hospital payments: implications for teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J D

    1983-09-01

    Hospitals cannot continue to view themselves only as social institutions whose performance will be assessed on the good they do. Teaching hospitals, in particular, cannot view themselves simply as distinctive combinations of social and educational institutions. Under Medicare's prospective pricing system, the hospital's role as production system is enhanced, and all hospitals must learn to balance the new economic realities as they work with their medical staff to adapt to a changed future.

  19. Going to the Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Going to the Hospital KidsHealth > For Kids > Going to the Hospital Print ... you flowers, balloons, or other treats! previous continue Hospital People You'll meet lots of people in ...

  20. Modeling Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Increased Efforts to Attract Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Clients Ages 20–29 in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Hatzold, Karin; Mugurungi, Owen; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Gold, Elizabeth; Ahanda, Kim Seifert; Kruse-Levy, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20–29 was examined. Methods Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future. The projection informed a base scenario in which, by 2018, the country achieves 80% circumcision coverage among males ages 10–19 and lower levels of coverage among men above age 20. The Zimbabwe DMPPT 2.0 model was used to project costs and impacts, assuming a US$109 VMMC unit cost in the base scenario and a 3% discount rate. Two other scenarios assumed that the program could increase coverage among clients ages 20–29 with a corresponding increase in unit cost for these age groups. Results When circumcision coverage among men ages 20–29 is increased compared with a base scenario reflecting current implementation trends, fewer VMMCs are required to avert one infection. If more than 50% additional effort (reflected as multiplying the unit cost by >1.5) is required to double the increase in coverage among this age group compared with the base scenario, the cost per HIV infection averted is higher than in the base scenario. Conclusions Although increased investment in recruiting VMMC clients ages 20–29 may lead to greater overall impact if recruitment efforts are successful, it may also lead to lower cost-effectiveness, depending on the cost of increasing recruitment. Programs should measure the relationship between increased effort and increased ability to attract this age group. PMID:27783637

  1. Impact of a critical health workforce shortage on child health in Zimbabwe: a country case study on progress in child survival, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Haley, Connie A; Vermund, Sten H; Moyo, Precious; Kipp, Aaron M; Madzima, Bernard; Kanyowa, Trevor; Desta, Teshome; Mwinga, Kasonde; Brault, Marie A

    2017-01-07

    Despite notable progress reducing global under-five mortality rates, insufficient progress in most sub-Saharan African nations has prevented the achievement of Millennium Development Goal four (MDG#4) to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Country-level assessments of factors underlying why some African countries have not been able to achieve MDG#4 have not been published. Zimbabwe was included in a four-country study examining barriers and facilitators of under-five survival between 2000 and 2013 due to its comparatively slow progress towards MDG#4. A review of national health policy and strategy documents and analysis of qualitative data identified Zimbabwe's critical shortage of health workers and diminished opportunities for professional training and education as an overarching challenge. Moreover, this insufficient health workforce severely limited the availability, quality, and utilization of life-saving health services for pregnant women and children during the study period. The impact of these challenges was most evident in Zimbabwe's persistently high neonatal mortality rate, and was likely compounded by policy gaps failing to authorize midwives to deliver life-saving interventions and to ensure health staff make home post-natal care visits soon after birth. Similarly, the lack of a national policy authorizing lower-level cadres of health workers to provide community-based treatment of pneumonia contributed to low coverage of this effective intervention and high child mortality. Zimbabwe has recently begun to address these challenges through comprehensive policies and strategies targeting improved recruitment and retention of experienced senior providers and by shifting responsibility of basic maternal, neonatal and child health services to lower-level cadres and community health workers that require less training, are geographically broadly distributed, and are more cost-effective, however the impact of these interventions

  2. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  3. An assessment of quality of water from boreholes in Bindura District, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoko, Zvikomborero

    This study assessed the water quality of 144 boreholes in Bindura District in Mashonaland Province of Zimbabwe as part of a borehole rehabilitation project implemented by a local NGO. In previous studies it has been observed that some boreholes are not used for domestic purposes because of consumer perceived poor water quality. Consequently, communities have resorted to unsafe alternative water sources thus creating health risks. The study was carried out in June 2005. The objectives of the study were to assess the levels of parameters associated with the aesthetics of the water and to compare them with guideline values for drinking water. The study also investigated the relationship between some of the measured water quality and the consumer perceived water quality. Measured water quality parameters included pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe). All parameters were measured in the field except Ca, Mg and Fe, which were measured in a laboratory using a spectrophotometer. Consumer perceptions on water quality were investigated through interviews with the consumer community. Turbidity was found to be 0.75-428(20.8 ± 59.2; n = 144) NTU, pH 5.7-9.3 (6.88 ± 0.46; n = 144), temperature 18-26.8 (22.6 ± 2.1; n = 144) °C. EC 26-546 (199 ± 116; n = 144) μS/cm, Ca 6-71.6 (26.9 ± 14.1; n = 81) mg/l, Mg 1.2-49.6 (12.3 ± 10.0; n = 81) mg/l and Fe 0.08-9.60 (0.56 ± 1.15; n = 81) mg/l. Some 23% of the samples had pH outside the recommended range of 6.5-8.5, whilst 59% of the samples had turbidity values exceeding the 5NTU WHO limit. For EC, all samples had values less than the WHO derived limit of 1380 μS/cm. All Ca and magnesium values were within the common and recommended levels of 100 mg/l and 70 mg/l respectively. Iron had values greater than the WHO and SAZ limit of 0.3 mg/l in 36% of the samples. Water quality was deemed satisfactory for taste and soap consumption by 95% and 72% of the respondents

  4. Archaean microbial consortia of the 2.7-2.6 Ga Ngesi Gp. (Belingwe) sediments, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassineau, N. V.; Nisbet, E. G.; Thomazo, C.

    2011-12-01

    Isotopic evidence from 2.7-2.65 Ga old sediments in the Belingwe belt, Zimbabwe, shows that a complex microbial community existed. Two major sequences have been studied, the 2.7 Ga Manjeri Fm. and, separated from it by thick komatiitic and basaltic lavas, the overlying 2.65 Ga Cheshire Fm. Both sedimentary formations contain a wide range of facies including stromatolites, silts and shales. In 2.7 Ga Manjeri stromatolites, δ13C(reduced) is around -23% in material with 1-2wt% reduced carbon content, ranging to -35%. δ13C in stromatolitic carbonate is around 0% and in carbonates from black shales δ13C(carbonate) is around -8%, indicating crystallisation in sediment after methanotrophy. In shallow-water shales δ13C(reduced) varies from -30 to -23%,, suggesting carbon capture by aerobic bacteria. A large sulphide population has δ34S from -20 to -12%, suggesting available sulphate. δ34S in sulphides show a 40% range in total , from -23.7% to +16.7%. Manjeri black shales show small and mostly negative MIF-S, with Δ33S varying from -0.6 to 0.9% (average around 0.0%). In deeper water samples, with proximal volcanism, carbon-sulphide sapropel-like deposits have δ13C(reduced) around -34%, and accompanying carbonate blebs have δ13C around -12 to -10%. In these samples, δ34S is markedly heavy, ranging from + 7 up to +14%. In the overlying ~2.65 Ga Cheshire Fm., carbonate in stromatolitic rocks has a narrow range in δ13C around +0.2 ±0.3%, while δ13C(reduced) within these samples is typically -28.8% ± 2.6%, consistent with capture of carbon by oxygenic photosynthesis. In associated Cheshire shales, δ13C(reduced) values range as light as -43.8% with the average at -40.0±3.0%, and some carbonate has δ13C -9 to -8%, implying methanogenesis and methanotrophy in the microbial consortia of the sedimentary column. δ34S values range from -2.1 to +2.4%. Δ33S anomalies are near zero but consistently positive between 0.1 and 1.2 % (average 0.7 ± 0.3%). A diverse

  5. Impacts of alum residues from Morton Jaffray Water Works on water quality and fish, Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muisa, Norah; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Chifamba, Portia

    Metal pollution of freshwater due to human activities is a major problem confronting most urban centres in developing countries. This study determined the extent to which aluminium in the residues from Morton Jaffray Water Works in Harare were affecting the water quality of Manyame River and Lake Manyame. The study also measured aluminium bioaccumulation in Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) which is of importance to the commercial fisheries industry in Zimbabwe. Depth integrated water, and sediment grab samples and adult fish were collected per site in January and March, 2010. A total of six sites were selected on the Manyame River and in Lake Manyame. The levels of Total Aluminium (Al) were determined in sediments, water and fish tissues (liver, kidney, gill and muscle). Total solids, total dissolved solids, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature were also determined in water and residues. The texture of the sediments was also assessed. Aluminium concentration in water ranged from 2.19 mg/L to 68.93 mg/L during both sampling campaigns surpassing permissible maximum concentration limits of 0.087 to 0.75 mg/L suggested by the Environmental Protection Agency and African Union. The site upstream of the discharge point of the residues always had the lowest levels though it was higher than acceptable levels indicated above, thus suggesting the existence of other sources of aluminium in the catchment besides Morton Jaffray Water Works. However, there was a 10-fold and 100-fold increase in levels of aluminium in water and sediments, respectively, at the site 100 m downstream of the discharge point on the Manyame River. Mean aluminium concentrations in water and sediments at this site averaged 68.93 ± 61.74 mg/L and 38.18 ± 21.54 mg/L in water and 103.79 ± 55.96 mg/L and 131.84 ± 16.48 mg/L in sediments in sampling campaigns 1 and 2, respectively. These levels were significantly higher than levels obtained from all the other sites during both sampling

  6. Comparative analysis of hatching rates and clutch sizes of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) eggs collected on- and off-farm in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Khosa, Patricia; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio Edward; Hamandishe, Vimbai

    2012-04-01

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is a large aquatic reptile predominant in the tropics in Africa and Zimbabwe in particular. Clutch sizes and hatching rates of Nile crocodile eggs collected from the wild and on-farm in Lowveld, Highveld and Kariba regions of Zimbabwe were evaluated. A total of 274 egg records for the period 2000 to 2008 from 39 farms were collected from the Crocodile Farmers Association of Zimbabwe. The effect of source of eggs was analysed using the non-parametric one way analysis of variance procedure of SAS Version 9.1.3. Wilcoxon signed rank test for independent samples was used to compare the mean hatching rates and clutch sizes for eggs collected from the different sources by region. The degree of association between clutch sizes and the hatching rates by source and region was determined using the Spearman's rank correlation test. Source of eggs had no effect (P > 0.05) on hatching rates in all the regions but significantly influenced (P < 0.05) clutch sizes in Lowveld and Kariba. In these regions, clutch sizes in the wild were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those on-farm. Correlation estimates between clutch size and hatching rates were weak and non-significant (P > 0.05) for the different sources of eggs in all regions. Full utilization of the wild resource would reduce challenges relating to shortage of captive breeders and high cost of rearing breeders and hence increase productivity.

  7. Men's attitudes: A hindrance to the demand for voluntary medical male circumcision--a qualitative study in rural Mhondoro-Ngezi, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Stanzia; Mhloyi, Marvellous; Chevo, Tafadzwa; Rusinga, Oswell

    2015-01-01

    Male circumcision has witnessed a paradigm shift from being regarded as a religious and cultural practice to a global intervention strategy meant to curb transmission of HIV. This is particularly evident in sub-Saharan African countries where the HIV prevalence is greater than 15%. Zimbabwe adopted the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) strategy in 2009; however, since then the uptake of the intervention has only 10% of the adult male population has reported having been circumcised. To better understand this limited uptake of VMMC, we conducted a qualitative study with uncircumcised men aged 15-79 years in Mhondoro-Ngezi, Zimbabwe. Through assessing men's attitudes towards VMMC in seven focus group discussions, conducted between July and August 2012, this article seeks to provide improved strategies for delivering this intervention in Zimbabwe. These data reveal that, in general, men have a negative attitude towards VMMC. Specific barriers to the uptake of VMMC included the perceived challenge to masculinity, post-circumcision stigma, lack of reliable and adequate information and perceptions about the appropriateness of VMMC. These results suggest that structural interventions aimed at reducing stigma related to circumcision, in addition to increased efforts to disseminate accurate information about VMMC, are required in order to dispel men's attitudes that hinder demand for VMMC.

  8. Specialty hospitals: can general hospitals compete?

    PubMed

    Dummit, Laura A

    2005-07-13

    The rapid increase in specialty cardiac, surgical, and orthopedic hospitals has captured the attention of general hospitals and policymakers. Although the number of specialty hospitals remains small in absolute terms, their entry into certain health care markets has fueled arguments about the rules of "fair" competition among health care providers. To allow the smoke to clear, Congress effectively stalled the growth in new specialty hospitals by temporarily prohibiting physicians from referring Medicare or Medicaid patients to specialty hospitals in which they had an ownership interest. During this 18-month moratorium, which expired June 8, 2005, two mandated studies of specialty hospitals provided information to help assess their potential effect on health care delivery. This issue brief discusses the research on specialty hospitals, including their payments under Medicare's hospital inpatient payment system, the quality and cost of care they deliver, their effect on general hospitals and on overall health care delivery, and the regulatory and legal environment in which they have proliferated. It concludes with open issues concerning physician self-referral and the role of general hospitals in providing a range of health care services.

  9. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  10. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  11. Competition among hospitals.

    PubMed

    Noether, M

    1988-09-01

    The traditional view of hospital competition has posited that hospitals compete primarily along 'quality' dimensions, in the form of fancy equipment to attract admitting physicians and pleasant surroundings to entice patients. Price competition among hospitals is thought to be non-existent. This paper estimates the effects of various hospital market characteristics on hospital prices and expenses in an attempt to determine the form of hospital competition. The results suggest that both price and quality competition are greater in markets that are less concentrated, although the net effect of the two on prices is insignificant. It appears, therefore, that, despite important distortions, hospital markets are not immune to standard competitive forces.

  12. Guide to Choosing a Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition? Should you consider a specialty hospital, teaching hospital (usually part of a university), community hospital, ... been approved by Medicare. Hospitals may choose either method of evaluation. You can check with a hospital ...

  13. δ18O and δ13C Analysis in Tree Rings of Pterocarpus angolensis Growing in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeran, K.; Schoof, J. T.; Lefticariu, L.; Therrell, M.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental weather records in southern Africa are largely limited to the last 100 years and documentary weather-related data are rare prior to the 1800s, hindering our understanding of the natural and/or anthropogenic factors that influence climate variability over this region. Measuring stable isotopes ratios (commonly 13C/12C and 18O/16O) in tree rings can provide a good proxy for extending climate data beyond the instrumental record. The objective of this study is to characterize historical variations in the climatology underlying extreme climatic events in Zimbabwe using instrumental climate records (precipitation and temperature) and a multi-proxy approach (ring width, δ18O, and δ13C) for dendroclimatic proxy reconstructions. A 90-year (1900-1990) δ18O and δ13C tree ring record using four Pterocarpus angolensis samples is being developed and compared to tree ring width, monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation totals, meteoric water δ18O values, and mean monthly and seasonal temperature. Preliminary results indicate significant correlations between the average δ18O record and the previous year December precipitation totals (r=0.41, p<0.0001), current year January precipitation totals (r=0.45, p<0.0001), and combined total precipitation for the previous year November and December and current year January (r=0.57, p<0.0001). Furthermore, we find that the δ18O values are strongly influenced by maximum temperature during the previous year December (r=0.39, p=0.0001) and current year January (r=0.40, p=0.0001), and average maximum temperature during the months of the previous year December and current year January and February (r=0.47, p<0.001). We thus present one of the first studies to integrate a multi-proxy approach to investigate historical climate variability in southern Africa using ring widths, and tree ring δ18O and δ13C values of trees growing in Zimbabwe.

  14. The contribution of schools to supporting the well being of children affected by HIV in eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Masoka, Tidings; Mpandaguta, Edith; Andersen, Louise; Skovdal, Morten; Nyamukapa, Constance; Campbell, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Schools are often cited as a source of support for orphans and children affected by HIV/AIDS in populations experiencing generalized HIV epidemics and severe poverty. Here we investigate the success of schools at including and supporting the well being of vulnerable children in rural Zimbabwe. Design Data from a cross-sectional household survey of 4577 children (aged 6–17 years), conducted between 2009 and 2011, were linked to data on the characteristics of 28 primary schools and 18 secondary schools from a parallel monitoring and evaluation facility survey. Methods We construct two measures of school quality (one general and one HIV-specific) and use multivariable regression to test whether these were associated with improved educational outcomes and well being for vulnerable children. Results School quality was not associated with primary or secondary school attendance, but was associated with children’s being in the correct grade for age [adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–3.5, P = 0.01]. General and HIV-specific school quality had significant positive effects on well being in the primary school-age children (coefficient 5.1, 95% CI 2.4–7.7, P < 0.01 and coefficient 3.0, 95% CI 0.4–5.6, P = 0.02, respectively), but not in the secondary school-age children (P > 0.2). There was no evidence that school quality provided an additional benefit to the well being of vulnerable children. Community HIV prevalence was negatively associated with well being in the secondary school-age children (coefficient −0.7, 95% CI −1.3 to −0.1, P = 0.03). Conclusions General and HIV-specific school quality may enhance the well being of primary school-age children in eastern Zimbabwe. Local community context also plays an important role in child well being. PMID:24991911

  15. Effects of a semi-formal urban settlement on groundwater quality. Epworth (Zimbabwe): Case study and groundwater quality zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingoni, Emmanuel; Love, David; Magadza, Chris; Moyce, William; Musiwa, Kudzai

    Rapid urbanisation and lack of low cost accommodation in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe, led to a lot of people settling (formally or otherwise) on previously cultivated land in Epworth, south-east of the city. Groundwater quality in different parts of Epworth, a semi-formal settlement in Zimbabwe, was investigated. Water samples for water quality analysis were collected from 10 shallow boreholes and 20 shallow wells across the settlement. Results showed significantly elevated levels of nitrates and coliform bacteria in most parts of the settlement. Levels of coliforms were highest in the old parts of the settlement (>10,000 cfu). High nitrate levels (20-30 mg/l) can be related to more densely settled areas, with a higher density of pit latrines. The groundwater quality generally decreased downflow (to the south-east). Na, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, PO 4 were also determined, of which only iron showed substantially high levels. Groundwater quality results were used to delineate parts of the settlement into water use zones. Three broad zones were defined: Zone 1 (water drinkable after boiling), Zone 2 (water for agricultural use only), and Zone 3 (water unsuitable for domestic or agricultural purposes). The results also showed that most parts of the settlement have no safe groundwater for human consumption and Zone 1 could be faced with high nitrate levels in future. It is too late to prevent contamination of groundwater in this settlement. As a cost-effective measure to reduce health risk, the local authority could consider the provision of a limited water supply, via communal taps, starting in those areas in Zones 2 and 3 except for the south-east where there area already communal taps. A health education campaign on the risks of drinking polluted groundwater in this settlement is also necessary. The development of a sewage system is an alternative although it is expensive with the current situation. Furthermore, although a proper sewage reticulation system would prevent

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients with rifampicin resistance detected using Xpert(®) MTB/RIF in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Charambira, K; Ade, S; Harries, A D; Ncube, R T; Zishiri, C; Sandy, C; Mutunzi, H; Takarinda, K; Owiti, P; Mafaune, P; Chonzi, P

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Au Zimbabwe, la prise en charge des patients tuberculeux ayant une résistance à la rifampicine (RMP) diagnostiqués par Xpert(®) MTB/RIF est préoccupante.Objectif : Evaluer les liens entre le diagnostic et le traitement de ces patients dans les provinces de Harare et de Manicaland en 2014.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte.Résultats : Sur 20 329 tests Xpert, 90% ont été réussis, 11% ont détecté Mycobacterium tuberculosis et 4,5% ont mis en évidence une résistance à la RMP. Il y a eu 77 patients atteints d'une tuberculose (TB) résistante à la RMP diagnostiqués par Xpert. Parmi eux, 70% ont bénéficié d'un envoi d'échantillon au laboratoire de référence pour une culture et un test de pharmacosensibilité (CDST) ; pour 53% d'entre eux, les échantillons sont arrivés à bon port ; pour 21%, les échantillons ont mis en évidence une croissance de M. tuberculosis ; et chez 17%, les résultats du CDST ont été enregistrés et tous ont confirmé la résistance à la RMP. Sur 77 patients, 34 (44%) n'ont jamais mis en route un traitement pour le TB multirésistante (TB-MDR) ; les motifs documentés étaient le décès, la perte de vue ou un traitement incorrect. Des 43 patients qui ont débuté le traitement de TB-MDR, 12 (71%) à Harare et 17 (65%) au Manicaland ont commencé dans les 2 semaines suivant le diagnostic.Conclusion : L'Xpert a été lancé avec succès dans deux provinces du Zimbabwe. Cependant, le processus de confirmation du CDST pour une TB résistante à la RMP diagnostiquée par Xpert ne fonctionne pas bien, et de nombreux patients sont soit traités avec retard, soit ne démarrent jamais le traitement de TB-MDR. Ces problèmes doivent être examinés par le programme.

  17. Zimbabwe: The Power Sharing Agreement and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-13

    water and sewage systems contributed to an outbreak of cholera that had, since August 2008, resulted in several thousand deaths and infected over... healthcare professionals that remained, hospitals and clinics lacked basic medicines, supplies, and functioning equipment. The country’s public...education system had likewise almost ceased to function; teachers who had not been paid salaries had been on strike for months and many public schools

  18. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority.

  19. In vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of Cryptococcus species isolated from HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis patients in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyazika, Tinashe K; Herkert, Patricia F; Hagen, Ferry; Mateveke, Kudzanai; Robertson, Valerie J; Meis, Jacques F

    2016-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the leading cause of cryptococcosis in HIV-infected subjects worldwide. Treatment of cryptococcosis is based on amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole. In Zimbabwe, little is known about antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus. Sixty-eight genotyped Cryptococcus isolates were tested for antifungal profiles. Amphotericin B, isavuconazole, and voriconazole showed higher activity than other triazoles. Fluconazole and flucytosine were less effective, with geometric mean MICs of 2.24 and 2.67mg/L for C. neoformans AFLP1/VNI, 1.38 and 1.53mg/L for C. neoformans AFLP1A/VNB/VNII and AFLP1B/VNII, and 1.85 and 0.68mg/L for Cryptococcus tetragattii, respectively. A significant difference between flucytosine geometric mean MICs of C. neoformans and C. tetragattii was observed (P=0.0002). The majority of isolates (n=66/68; 97.1%) had a wild-type MIC phenotype of all antifungal agents. This study demonstrates a favorable situation with respect to the tested antifungals agents. Continued surveillance of antifungal susceptibility profiles is important due to the high burden of cryptococcosis in Africa.

  20. An investigation of the sexist application of the morality concept of Tsika in the Shona culture of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chisango, Tadios; Mayekiso, Thokozile

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the sexist application of a morality concept of Tsika, characterized by communal traits, in the Shona culture of Zimbabwe. Tsika has been defined as "politeness, civility and circumlocution" (Samkange & Samkange, 1980, p. 74), thus generally falling under communal traits. Theoretical literature suggests that although Tsika is a cultural ideal for all Shona people, it is especially expected of women and children, and that women can be punished like children if they lack Tsika. This research tested whether Tsika would be expected more of women (and children) than men. In line with ambivalent sexism theory, it was predicted that, because Tsika is constituted of communal traits, a bias in its expectation of women over men would be predicted by benevolent sexism. Furthermore, the research tested whether women (and children) would be judged more negatively than men if they defaulted on Tsika. It was hypothesized that a more negative evaluation of women than men if they defaulted on Tsika would be predicted by hostile sexism. Results confirmed that Tsika is expected more of women than of men. Benevolent sexism and its interaction with hostile sexism predicted the bias in expectation of Tsika of women over men. Results also confirmed that women who default on Tsika are evaluated more negatively than men. Hostile sexism predicted the bias in negative evaluations of women over men who default on Tsika.

  1. Taxonomy, distribution and prevalence of parasites of tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus (Castelnau, 1861) in the Sanyati basin, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mabika, Nyasha; Barson, Maxwell; Van Dyk, Cobus; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2016-09-01

    Parasites of the tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) were investigated in the period October 2014 to July 2015 in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba. The fish were collected using seine netting and also during the annual Kariba International Tiger Fishing Tournament. A total of 80 fish specimens (24 males and 56 females) were collected and were infected with the following seven parasite taxa: Monogenea (Annulotrema sp.1 from the gills and Annulotrema sp.2 from the skin), Nematoda (Contracaecum larvae), Cestoda (bothriocephalid, larval cyclophyllid), Copepoda (Lamproglena hemprichii), pentastomid, Myxosporea (Myxobolus sp.,) and unicellular ciliate parasites (Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp., and unidentified). Annulotrema sp. 1 was observed in all fish and had the highest prevalence, mean intensity and abundance. The fish organs infected were gills, skin, fin, body cavity, stomach, intestines, mesentery, liver, kidney, brain cavity and swim bladder. No parasites were observed in the muscle, eyes and blood. The distribution of the parasites was highest in the gills and lowest in the brain cavity and swimbladder. Bothriocephalids, pentastomes and Trichodina sp. were not observed in male fish. Sex was not related to the intensity of parasites. The results of the study showed that H. vittatus has a richer parasite community than other previous investigated alestids. Pentastomes, Myxobolus sp., Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp. and bothriocephalid cestodes are new records for H. vittatus in Zimbabwe.

  2. A report on the Zimbabwe Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) programme progress towards achieving MGD6 target 6B: achievement and challenges.

    PubMed

    Apollo, T; Takarinda, K; Mugurungi, O; Chakanyuka, C; Simbini, T; Harries, A D

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwe's target to achieve Universal Access to treatment for HIV and AIDS, was severely affected by a decade long economic recession that threatened to reverse all the country's social and economic indicators. Despite these challenges, by September 2010, 282,916 adults and children (47.7% of those in need of treatment) were on treatment at 509 sites countrywide since national scale up started. ART services are predominantly offered through the public sector, with the private sector being an untapped potential resource for ART services for the future. Challenges of skilled and adequately trained human resources have hindered progress towards service availability. Providing access to children in particular has been constrained by lack of clinical mentorship for health workers, weak systems for support supervision, and inadequate HIV diagnostic services especially for children under 18 months and challenges with follow up of the HIV-exposed infants. Though the country has not met its target of Universal Access by 2010, significant progress has been made with over a 30-fold increase in service availability.

  3. Challenges faced by elderly guardians in sustaining the adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, M; Campbell, C; Madanhire, C; Nyamukapa, C; Gregson, S

    2011-08-01

    Grandparents throughout sub-Saharan Africa have shown immense courage and fortitude in providing care and support for AIDS-affected children. However, growing old comes with a number of challenges which can compromise the quality of care and support they are able to provide, particularly for children infected by HIV and enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. For ART to be effective, and for infected children not to develop drug-resistance, a complex treatment regimen must be followed. Drawing on the perspectives of 25 nurses and eight grandparents of HIV-infected children in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe, we explore some of the challenges faced by grandparents in sustaining children's adherence to ART. These challenges, serving as barriers to paediatric ART, are poverty, immobility, deteriorating memory and poor comprehension of complex treatments. Although older HIV-infected children were found to play an active role in sustaining the adherence to their programme of treatment by contributing to income and food generating activities and reminding their guardians about check-ups and drug administration, such contribution was not available from younger children. There is therefore an urgent need to develop ART services that both take into consideration the needs of elderly guardians and acknowledge and enhance the agency of older children as active and responsible contributors to ART adherence.

  4. Choice of breeding stock, preference of production traits and culling criteria of village chickens among Zimbabwe agro-ecological zones.

    PubMed

    Muchadeyi, F C; Wollny, C B A; Eding, H; Weigend, S; Simianer, H

    2009-03-01

    Free ranging chickens reared by smallholder farmers represent genetic diversity suited for particular environments and shaped by the socio-economic and cultural values of the farming systems. This study sought to investigate the existence of chicken strains and evaluate the breeding goals and strategies used by village chicken farmers in Zimbabwe. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 97, 56, 70, 104 and 37 households randomly selected from five agro-ecological-zones I-V, respectively. Fifteen chicken strains mostly defined by morphological traits were reported in the five eco-zones. Production criteria such as body size, and fertility were highly ranked (ranging from 1.3-2.6) by farmers across all the eco-zones, while cultural traits were the least preferred production traits. As a common breeding practice, farmers chose the type of hens and cocks to retain for breeding purposes and these randomly mixed and mated with others from community flocks. Chicken body size was ranked the major determinant in choosing breeding animals followed by mothering ability, and fertility. More households culled chickens associated with poor reproductive performance, poor growth rates and those intolerant to disease pathogens. The focus on many negatively correlated production traits and the absence of farmer records compromises breeding strategies in these production systems.

  5. Is Socio-Economic Status a Determinant of HIV-Related Stigma Attitudes in Zimbabwe? Findings from Project Accept

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Basant; Chingono, Alfred; Sibanda, E.; Machingura, Ian

    2016-01-01

    HIV related stigma and discrimination is a known barrier for HIV prevention and care. We aimed to assess the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV related stigma in Zimbabwe. This paper uses data from Project Accept, which examined the impact of community-based voluntary counseling and testing intervention on HIV incidence and stigma. Total of 2522 eligible participants responded to a psychometric assessment tool, which assessed HIV related stigma and discrimination attitudes on 4 point Likert scale. The tool measured three components of HIV-related stigma: shame, blame and social isolation, perceived discrimination, and equity. Participants’ ownership of basic assets was used to assess the socio-economic status. Shame, blame and social isolation component of HIV related stigma was found to be significantly associated with medium [odds ratio (OR)=1.73, P<0.01] and low SES (OR=1.97, P<0.01), indicating more stigmatizing attitudes by participants belonging to medium and low SES in comparison to high SES. For HIV related stigma and discrimination programs to be effective, they should take into account the socio-economic context of target population. PMID:28299151

  6. Local perceptions of the forms, timing and causes of behavior change in response to the AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchini, Backson; Benedikt, Clemens; Gregson, Simon; Gomo, Exnevia; Mate, Rekopantswe; Mugurungi, Owen; Magure, Tapuwa; Campbell, Bruce; Dehne, Karl; Halperin, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Quantitative studies indicate that HIV incidence in Zimbabwe declined since the late 1990s, due in part to behavior change. This qualitative study, involving focus group discussions with 200 women and men, two dozen key informant interviews, and historical mapping of HIV prevention programs, found that exposure to relatives and close friends dying of AIDS, leading to increased perceived HIV risk, was the principal explanation for behavior change. Growing poverty, which reduced men's ability to afford multiple partners, was also commonly cited as contributing to reductions in casual, commercial and extra-marital sex. HIV prevention programs and services were secondarily mentioned as having contributed but no specific activities were consistently indicated, although some popular culture influences appear pivotal. This qualitative study found that behavior change resulted primarily from increased interpersonal communication about HIV due to high personal exposure to AIDS mortality and a correct understanding of sexual HIV transmission, due to relatively high education levels and probably also to information provided by HIV programs.

  7. The status of selected minerals in soil, forage and beef cattle tissues in a semi-arid region of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndebele, N; Mtimuni, J P; Mpofu, I D T; Makuza, S; Mumba, P

    2005-07-01

    Five districts in the Matabeleland region, an arid western area of Zimbabwe, were investigated for the status of Ca, P, Na, Cu and Zn in soil, forage and cattle during the wet and dry seasons over a period of one year. The cattle came from the natural grazing lands and were not supplemented at the time of sampling. Some deficiencies in soil Zn and P were found in the districts of Lupane and Bulilimamangwe, respectively. Dry season soil Ca, Cu and P concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than rainy season values owing to leaching in all five districts. Most forage samples had mineral concentrations below the critical levels known to be adequate for animal requirements. Forage levels of Ca, Na. Cu and Zn significantly increased (p < 0.05) with advancing maturity, while P significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in almost all the districts. Marked deficiencies of minerals were found in cattle tissues and these levels followed the seasonal trend seen in the forage. These results indicate that cattle in Matebeleland are deficient in P, Ca, Cu and Zn and that grazing areas in the region cannot provide adequate levels of the five minerals studied.

  8. Critical considerations for adopting the HIV ‘treat all’ approach in Zimbabwe: is the nation poised?

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Mutasa-Apollo, T.

    2016-01-01

    While the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased survival and reduced the number of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related deaths among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus (PLHIV), HIV/AIDS remains a global health problem and sub-Saharan Africa continues to bear the greatest burden of disease. There are also major challenges in the HIV response: as of December 2013, only 36% of PLHIV globally were on ART, and for every individual started on ART there were two new PLHIV diagnosed. This has led to considerable debate around adopting an HIV ‘treat all’ approach aimed at greatly escalating the number of PLHIV initiated and retained on ART, regardless of CD4 cell count or World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage, with the intended goal of achieving viral suppression which should in turn reduce HIV transmission, morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. This paper examines the issues being discussed in Zimbabwe, a low-income country with a high burden of HIV/AIDS, about the implications and opportunities of adopting an HIV ‘treat all’ approach, along with pertinent operational research questions that need to be answered to move the agenda forward. These discussions are timely, given the recent WHO recommendations advising ART for all PLHIV, regardless of CD4 cell count. PMID:27051603

  9. Genome organization of Tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus, a new, distinct monopartite begomovirus associated with subgenomic defective DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Paximadis, M; Rey, M E

    2001-12-01

    The complete DNA A of the begomovirus Tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus (TbLCZWV) was sequenced: it comprises 2767 nucleotides with six major open reading frames encoding proteins with molecular masses greater than 9 kDa. Full-length TbLCZWV DNA A tandem dimers, cloned in binary vectors (pBin19 and pBI121) and transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens, were systemically infectious upon agroinoculation of tobacco and tomato. Efforts to identify a DNA B component were unsuccessful. These findings suggest that TbLCZWV is a new member of the monopartite group of begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis identified TbLCZWV as a distinct begomovirus with its closest relative being Chayote mosaic virus. Abutting primer PCR amplified ca. 1300 bp molecules, and cloning and sequencing of two of these molecules revealed them to be subgenomic defective DNA molecules originating from TbLCZWV DNA A. Variable symptom severity associated with tobacco leaf curl disease and TbLCZWV is discussed.

  10. Milk producers' awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mosalagae, Diphetogo; Pfukenyi, Davies Mubika; Matope, Gift

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess milk producers' awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on dairy breeds, milk production, dairy farmers' knowledge and awareness of zoonoses with particular emphasis on milk-borne zoonoses and farmers' behavioural practices that may lead to increased risk of milk-borne zoonoses transmission. A total of 119 dairy farmers were interviewed, and 41.5% were aware of milk-borne zoonoses with a significantly (P<0.01) higher percentage of commercial dairy farmers (65.0%) being aware compared to smallholder dairy farmers (36.7%). The behavioural practices of dairy farmers observed to increase the risk of milk-borne zoonoses transmission were; consumption of raw milk (68.1%), sale of raw milk to the local public (25.2%), lack of cooling facilities by smallholder farmers (98%), and no routine testing (84.9%) and medical check-ups (89.1%) for milk-borne zoonoses. General hygienic and disease control practices need to be integrated in the milk production process particularly at the smallholder level. Awareness, teaching and training programmes for smallholder dairy farmers can improve disease control in animals and reduce the public health risk of milk-borne zoonoses.

  11. Process Evaluation of a Sport-Based Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Demand-Creation Intervention in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Hershow, Rebecca B.; Kaufman, Zachary A.; Gannett, Katherine R.; Kombandeya, Thandanani; Chaibva, Cynthia; Ross, David A.; Harrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Grassroot Soccer (GRS) developed 2 brief and scalable voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) promotion interventions for males in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, consisting of a 60-minute interactive, soccer-themed educational session with follow-up behavioral and logistical reinforcement. Both interventions were led by circumcised male community leaders (“coaches”) ages 18–30. “Make The Cut” (MTC) targeted adult males on soccer teams and “Make The Cut+” targeted boys in secondary schools. We conducted a process evaluation of MTC and Make The Cut+ to investigate perceptions of program impact, intervention components, and program delivery; participants' understandings of intervention content; and factors related to uptake. Methods: We conducted 17 interviews and 2 focus group discussions with coaches and 29 interviews with circumcised (n = 13) and uncircumcised participants (n = 16). Results: Findings demonstrate high program acceptability, highlighting the coach–participant relationship as a key factor associated with uptake. Specifically, participants valued the coaches' openness to discuss their personal experiences with VMMC and the accompaniment by their coaches to the VMMC clinic. Conclusions: Should the coach quality remain consistent at scale, MTC offers an effective approach toward generating VMMC demand among males. PMID:27749598

  12. Local Perceptions of the Forms, Timing and Causes of Behavior Change in Response to the AIDS Epidemic in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Muchini, Backson; Benedikt, Clemens; Gregson, Simon; Gomo, Exnevia; Mate, Rekopantswe; Mugurungi, Owen; Magure, Tapuwa; Campbell, Bruce; Dehne, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative studies indicate that HIV incidence in Zimbabwe declined since the late 1990s, due in part to behavior change. This qualitative study, involving focus group discussions with 200 women and men, two dozen key informant interviews, and historical mapping of HIV prevention programs, found that exposure to relatives and close friends dying of AIDS, leading to increased perceived HIV risk, was the principal explanation for behavior change. Growing poverty, which reduced men’s ability to afford multiple partners, was also commonly cited as contributing to reductions in casual, commercial and extra-marital sex. HIV prevention programs and services were secondarily mentioned as having contributed but no specific activities were consistently indicated, although some popular culture influences appear pivotal. This qualitative study found that behavior change resulted primarily from increased interpersonal communication about HIV due to high personal exposure to AIDS mortality and a correct understanding of sexual HIV transmission, due to relatively high education levels and probably also to information provided by HIV programs. PMID:20803064

  13. Is Socio-Economic Status a Determinant of HIV-Related Stigma Attitudes in Zimbabwe? Findings from Project Accept.

    PubMed

    Mateveke, Kudzanai; Singh, Basant; Chingono, Alfred; Sibanda, E; Machingura, Ian

    2016-08-17

    HIV related stigma and discrimination is a known barrier for HIV prevention and care. We aimed to assess the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV related stigma in Zimbabwe. This paper uses data from Project Accept, which examined the impact of community-based voluntary counseling and testing intervention on HIV incidence and stigma. Total of 2522 eligible participants responded to a psychometric assessment tool, which assessed HIV related stigma and discrimination attitudes on 4 point Likert scale. The tool measured three components of HIV-related stigma: shame, blame and social isolation, perceived discrimination, and equity. Participants' ownership of basic assets was used to assess the socio-economic status. Shame, blame and social isolation component of HIV related stigma was found to be significantly associated with medium [odds ratio (OR)=1.73, P<0.01] and low SES (OR=1.97, P<0.01), indicating more stigmatizing attitudes by participants belonging to medium and low SES in comparison to high SES. For HIV related stigma and discrimination programs to be effective, they should take into account the socio-economic context of target population.

  14. A survey on auditing, quality assurance systems and legal frameworks in five selected slaughterhouses in Bulawayo, south-western Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Masanganise, Kaurai E; Matope, Gift; Pfukenyi, Davies M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the audits, quality assurance (QA) programmes and legal frameworks used in selected abattoirs in Zimbabwe and slaughterhouse workers' perceptions on their effectiveness. Data on slaughterhouse workers was gathered through a self-completed questionnaire and additional information was obtained from slaughterhouse and government records. External auditing was conducted mainly by the Department of Veterinary Public Health with little contribution from third parties. Internal auditing was restricted to export abattoirs. The checklist used on auditing lacked objective assessment criteria and respondents cited several faults in the current audit system. Most respondents (> 50.0%) knew the purposes and benefits of audit and QA inspections. All export abattoirs had QA programmes such as hazard analysis critical control point and ISO 9001 (a standard used to certify businesses' quality management systems) but their implementation varied from minimal to nil. The main regulatory defect observed was lack of requirements for a QA programme. Audit and quality assurance communications to the selected abattoirs revealed a variety of non-compliances with most respondents revealing that corrective actions to audit (84.3%) and quality assurance (92.3%) shortfalls were not done. A high percentage of respondents indicated that training on quality (76.8%) and regulations (69.8%) was critical. Thus, it is imperative that these abattoirs develop a food safety management system comprising of QA programmes, a microbial assessment scheme, regulatory compliance, standard operating procedures, internal and external auditing and training of workers.

  15. Production and economic performance of F1-crossbred dairy cattle fed non-conventional protein supplements in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Manyuchi, Clive Rolex; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio Edward; Hamandishe, Vimbayi Rangaridzo; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-01-01

    The effects of supplementing crossbred cows with non-conventional protein sources on dry matter intake, milk yield parameters and economic returns were investigated. Twenty-five lactating F1 Holstein-Mashona crossbreds averaging 115 ± 24 days in milk were used. Five treatments, total mixed ration (TMR), urea-treated maize stover, untreated maize stover, Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro) hay and veld hay, were randomly assigned to cows and replicated five times in a completely randomised design. Nutrient composition, intake, milk yield and economic returns were determined. M. atropurpureum hay, urea-treated maize stover and TMR had equal crude protein content. Daily dry matter intake and yield differed significantly among the treatment diets (P < 0.05). Cows on TMR, urea-treated maize stover and M. atropurpureum consumed more (P < 0.05) than cows on untreated maize stover and veld hay. Supplementing with TMR, urea-treated maize stover and M. atropurpureum hay increased (P < 0.05) milk yields. Mean daily milk yield was highest for cows supplemented with urea-treated maize stover. Percent fat, protein and total solids in milk from cows fed urea-treated stover compared favourably to that of milk for cows supplemented with TMR. Income over supplement cost was highest for cows supplemented with M. atropurpureum hay and urea-treated maize stover. Urea-treated maize stover and M. atropurpureum can therefore be used as a replacer protein supplements for dairy cattle in Zimbabwe.

  16. Climate variability and change or multiple stressors? Farmer perceptions regarding threats to livelihoods in Zimbabwe and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mubaya, Chipo Plaxedes; Njuki, Jemimah; Mutsvangwa, Eness Paidamoyo; Mugabe, Francis Temba; Nanja, Durton

    2012-07-15

    Climate variability is set to increase, characterised by extreme conditions in Africa. Southern Africa will likely get drier and experience more extreme weather conditions, particularly droughts and floods. However, while climate risks are acknowledged to be a serious threat to smallholder farmers' livelihoods, these risks do not exist in isolation, but rather, compound a multiplicity of stressors. It was important for this study to understand farmer perceptions regarding the role of climate risks within a complex and multifarious set of risks to farmers' livelihoods. This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate farmers' perceptions regarding threats to livelihoods in southern Zambia and south-western Zimbabwe. While farmers report changes in local climatic conditions consistent with climate variability, there is a problem in assigning contribution of climate variability and other factors to observed negative impacts on the agricultural and socio-economic system. Furthermore, while there is a multiplicity of stressors that confront farmers, climate variability remains the most critical and exacerbate livelihood insecurity for those farmers with higher levels of vulnerability to these stressors.

  17. Community engagement practices in Southern Africa: Review and thematic synthesis of studies done in Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Musesengwa, Rosemary; Chimbari, Moses J

    2016-03-19

    Community Engagement (CE) is intended to enhance the participation of community stakeholders in research. CE is usually mentioned in publications as researchers discuss how they carried out community entry, consent and retained study participants but the actual CE activities are not always well documented. This paper reviews CE strategies employed in health research in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe with reference to the development of a CE strategy for a multi-centre study to be conducted in these countries. The search was conducted using JANE (Journal/Author Name Estimator), Google Scholar and PubMed with known institutions and researchers providing context-specific material. The final synthesis includes 35 publications, 2 reports and 2 abstracts. There is evidence of CE being practiced in health research and eight closely related CE strategies were revealed. We conclude that since communities are heterogeneous and unique, CE activities will not have similar results in different settings. Even though there was insufficient evidence to determine which CE strategy is most effective, the review provides sufficient information to develop a CE strategy for a multi-centre study using the various strategies and activities described.

  18. Help prevent hospital errors

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23330698 . The Joint Commission. Hospital: 2014 National Patient Safety Goals. www.jointcommission. ... October 24, 2014. Accessed October 27, 2016. The Joint Commission. Hospital: 2016 National Patient Safety Goals. Updated January ...

  19. Hospitals as health educators

    MedlinePlus

    ... than your local hospital. From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals offer information families need to ... care and breastfeeding Parenting Baby sign language Baby yoga or massage Babysitting courses for teens Exercise classes ...

  20. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  1. Hospital Dermatology, Introduction.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lindy P

    2017-03-01

    Inpatient dermatology is emerging as a distinct dermatology subspecialty where dermatologists specialize in caring for patients hospitalized with skin disease. While the main focus of inpatient dermatology is the delivery of top-quality and timely dermatologic care to patients in the hospital setting, the practice of hospital-based dermatology has many additional components that are critical to its success.

  2. The impact of climate change on the potential distribution of agricultural pests: the case of the coffee white stem borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

    2013-01-01

    The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms.

  3. Cluster randomized trial on the effect of mother support groups on retention-in-care and PMTCT outcomes in Zimbabwe: study design, challenges, and national relevance.

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoff; Kangwende, Abigail; Magezi, Vhumani; Maphosa, Talent; Mashapa, Richard; Mukora-Mutseyekwa, Fadzai; Mushavi, Angela; Rusakaniko, Simba; Shumba, Bridget; Zambezi, Pemberai

    2014-11-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) elimination goals are hampered by low rates of retention and antiretroviral treatment adherence. The Eliminating Pediatric AIDS in Zimbabwe (EPAZ) project is assessing whether mother support groups (MSGs) increase rates of retention-in-care of HIV-positive mothers and their exposed infants, increase male participation, and improve other maternal and infant health outcomes. EPAZ is a cluster randomized study involving 30 rural facilities in 2 health districts in Mutare province in eastern Zimbabwe. Facilities were randomly assigned to either the standard-of-care or intervention arms. We established MSGs for HIV-positive mothers at the 15 health facilities in the intervention arm. MSGs met every 2 weeks and were led by an HIV-positive mother who was appointed as MSG coordinator (MSG-C). MSG-Cs contacted nonattending patient-members of support groups by cell phone. If members still do not attend, MSG-Cs inform a health worker who initiates further outreach actions that are standard within the health system. At least 10 HIV-positive mothers are enrolled per facility. Enrollment started in July 2014. The primary outcome measure is retention-in-care of HIV-exposed infants at 12 months of age. Secondary outcome measures are: retention-in-care of HIV-positive mothers at 12 months postpartum, male participation, and other maternal and child health indicators. The study relies on routine health system data supplemented by additional data using tools created for the study. If shown to improve PMTCT retention outcomes, facility-based MSGs have the potential to be scaled up throughout the Zimbabwe National PMTCT program and could be considered in other country programs.

  4. Vaccine receipt and vaccine card availability among children of the apostolic faith: analysis from the 2010-2011 Zimbabwe demographic and health survey

    PubMed Central

    Kriss, Jennifer Lara; Goodson, James; Machekanyanga, Zorodzai; Shibeshi, Messeret Eshetu; Daniel, Fussum; Masresha, Balcha; Kaiser, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vaccine hesitancy and refusal continue to be a global challenge to reaching immunization targets, especially among those in traditional or fundamentalist religions. The apostolic faith in Zimbabwe has been historically associated with objection to most medical interventions, including immunization. Methods We conducted a descriptive analysis of socio-demographic characteristics and vaccine coverage among apostolic and non-apostolic adults aged 15-49 years and children aged 12-23 months using the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Zimbabwe during 2010-2011. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between the apostolic religion and receipt of all four basic childhood vaccinations in the Expanded Program on Immunization, receipt of no vaccinations, and availability of child vaccination card. Results Among children aged 12-23 months, 64% had received all doses of the four basic vaccinations, and 12% had received none of the recommended vaccines. A vaccination card was available for 68% of children. There was no significant association between Apostolic faith and completion of all basic vaccinations (aOR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.69-1.17), but apostolic children were almost twice as likely to have received no basic vaccinations (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.22-2.77) than non-Apostolic children, and they were 32% less likely to have a vaccination card that was available and seen by the interviewer (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89). Conclusion Disparities in childhood vaccination coverage and availability of vaccination cards persist for apostolic in Zimbabwe. Continued collaboration with apostolic leaders and additional research to better understand vaccine hesitancy and refine interventions and messaging strategies are needed. PMID:27642388

  5. The Impact of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Agricultural Pests: The Case of the Coffee White Stem Borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

    2013-01-01

    The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms. PMID:24014222

  6. Evaluating Opportunities for Achieving Cost Efficiencies Through the Introduction of PrePex Device Male Circumcision in Adult VMMC Programs in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Chintu, Naminga; Yano, Nanako; Mugurungi, Owen; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mpasela, Felton; Muguza, Edward; Mangono, Tichakunda; Madidi, Ngonidzashe; Samona, Alick; Tagar, Elva; Hatzold, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Results from recent costing studies have put into question potential Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) cost savings with the introduction of the PrePex device. Methods: We evaluated the cost drivers and the overall unit cost of VMMC for a variety of service delivery models providing either surgical VMMC or both PrePex and surgery using current program data in Zimbabwe and Zambia. In Zimbabwe, 3 hypothetical PrePex only models were also included. For all models, clients aged 18 years and older were assumed to be medically eligible for PrePex and uptake was based on current program data from sites providing both methods. Direct costs included costs for consumables, including surgical VMMC kits for the forceps-guided method, device (US $12), human resources, demand creation, supply chain, waste management, training, and transport. Results: Results for both countries suggest limited potential for PrePex to generate cost savings when adding the device to current surgical service delivery models. However, results for the hypothetical rural Integrated PrePex model in Zimbabwe suggest the potential for material unit cost savings (US $35 per VMMC vs. US $65–69 for existing surgical models). Conclusions: This analysis illustrates that models designed to leverage PrePex's advantages, namely the potential for integrating services in rural clinics and less stringent infrastructure requirements, may present opportunities for improved cost efficiency and service integration. Countries seeking to scale up VMMC in rural settings might consider integrating PrePex only MC services at the primary health care level to reduce costs while also increasing VMMC access and coverage. PMID:27331598

  7. Migration as a risk factor for school dropout amongst children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS: a prospective study in eastern Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Pufall, Erica L; Nyamukapa, Constance; Robertson, Laura; Mushore, Paradzai George; Takaruza, Albert; Gregson, Simon

    2015-07-03

    Orphans and other children made vulnerable by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of moving household and of dropping out of school. However, the relationship between child migration and school enrolment has not been established. Multivariable regression models and prospective data from a cohort of children in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, were used to investigate the effect of migration on school enrolment. Children who had moved household were at increased risk of dropping out of school after adjusting for orphan status, relationship to primary caregiver, and household wealth. Interventions are needed to ensure that children who migrate are re-enrolled in school.

  8. Positioning hospitals: a model for regional hospitals.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A C; Campbell, D P

    1993-01-01

    In an age of marketing warfare in the health care industry, hospitals need creative strategies to compete successfully. Lately, positioning concepts have been added to the health care marketer's arsenal of strategies. To blend theory with practice, the authors review basic positioning theory and present a framework for developing positioning strategies. They also evaluate the marketing strategies of a regional hospital to provide a case example.

  9. Analysis of institutional mechanisms that support community response to impacts of floods in the middle-zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhonda, P.; Mabiza, C.; Makurira, H.; Kujinga, K.; Nhapi, I.; Goldin, J.; Mashauri, D. A.

    In recent years, the frequency of occurrence of floods has increased in Southern Africa. An increase in the frequency of extreme events is partly attributed to climate change. Floods negatively impact on livelihoods, especially those classified as poor, mainly by reducing livelihood options and also contributing to reduced crop yields. In response to these climatic events, governments within Southern Africa have formulated policies which try to mitigate the impacts of floods. Floods can be deadly, often occurring at short notice, lasting for short periods, and causing widespread damage to infrastructure. This study analysed institutional mechanisms in Mbire District of Zimbabwe which aim at mitigating the impact of floods. The study used both quantitative (i.e. questionnaires) and qualitative (i.e. key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observations) data collection methods. Secondary data such as policy and legislation documents and operational manuals of organisations that support communities affected by disasters were reviewed. Qualitative data was analysed using the thematic approach and social network analysis using UCINET 6. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The study found out that there exists institutional framework that has been developed at the national and local level to support communities in the study area in response to the impacts of floods. This is supported by various pieces of legislation that are housed in different government departments. However, the existing institutional framework does not effectively strengthen disaster management mechanisms at the local level. Lack of financial resources and appropriate training and skills to undertake flood management activities reduce the capacity of communities and disaster management organisations to effectively mitigate the impacts of floods. The study also found that there are inadequate hydro-meteorological stations to enable accurate forecasts. Even in those cases

  10. Relationship Between Time to Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy and Treatment Outcomes: A Cohort Analysis of ART Eligible Adolescents in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Andrea M.; Kranzer, Katharina; Nyathi, Mary; Van Griensven, Johan; Dixon, Mark; Ndebele, Wedu; Gunguwo, Hilary; Colebunders, Robert; Ndlovu, Mbongeni; Apollo, Tsitsi; Ferrand, Rashida A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Age-specific retention challenges make antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in adolescents difficult, often requiring a lengthy preparation process. This needs to be balanced against the benefits of starting treatment quickly. The optimal time to initiation duration in adolescents is currently unknown. Objective: To assess the effect of time to ART initiation on mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU) among treatment eligible adolescents. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis among 1499 ART eligible adolescents aged ≥10 to <19 years registered in a public sector HIV program in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between 2004 and 2011. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality and LTFU were calculated for different time to ART durations using multivariate Cox regression models. Results: Median follow-up duration was 1.6 years. Mortality HRs of patients who initiated at 0 to ≤7 days, >14 days to ≤1 month, >1 to ≤2 months, >2 months, and before initiation were 1.59, 1.19, 1.56, 1.08, and 0.94, respectively, compared with the reference group of >7 to ≤14 days. LTFU HRs were 1.02, 1.07, 0.85, 0.97, and 3.96, respectively. Among patients not on ART, 88% of deaths and 85% of LTFU occurred during the first 3 months after becoming ART eligible, but only 37% and 29% among adolescents on ART, respectively. Conclusions: Neither mortality or LTFU was associated with varying time to ART. The initiation process can be tailored to the adolescents' needs and individual life situations without risking to increase poor treatment outcomes. Early mortality was high despite rapid ART initiation, calling for earlier rather than faster initiation through HIV testing scale-up. PMID:28002183

  11. Holistic self-management education and support: a proposed public health model for improving women's health in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kanchense, Jane Handina Murigwa

    2006-08-01

    The primary health care model of public health has been implemented in many countries around the globe since the Declaration of Alma Ata in 1978, without pilot testing the primary health care model. Therefore, many public health researchers have sought methods of improving primary health care by creating evidence-based models. Many of these researchers recognize the role of behavioral models in public health. These offshoots of primary health care include the ecological, care, central human capabilities, and the SPECIES models. Holistic self-management education and support is a capacity-building philosophy that ensures active involvement of consumers of health care in the planning and implementation and evaluation of health care services. It helps consumers of health care to achieve the desired improved quality of health and life in managing and sustaining their health at the grassroots level. The care model addresses disease management ideals of the in the original primary health care model. The SPECIES model addresses those aspects of the primary health care model that include the cultural and social factors, as well as individual health education and support in the original primary health care model. The ecological model offers an improvement of the socioeconomic ideal in the original primary health care model. Improving the health of individuals will prevent illness, thereby reducing health care costs and lessening the current strain on an overburdened health care system in Zimbabwe. Holistic self-management education and support links health care delivery systems with social processes. It is a best practices model that could better serve Zimbabwean girls and women by contributing positively to the national challenges in health care, thereby meeting the Zimbabwean primary health care and safe motherhood goals. It is here recommended that holistic self-management education and support must be pilot tested before being adopted as the most appropriate model for

  12. Is education the link between orphanhood and HIV/HSV-2 risk among female adolescents in urban Zimbabwe?

    PubMed

    Birdthistle, Isolde; Floyd, Sian; Nyagadza, Auxillia; Mudziwapasi, Netsai; Gregson, Simon; Glynn, Judith R

    2009-05-01

    As the population of orphans grows in AIDS-affected settings, recent studies describe a heightened risk of HIV and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent orphans compared to their non-orphaned peers. This study explores the role of education in explaining the excess sexual risk previously documented among unmarried female orphans in urban Zimbabwe. School attendance and attainment were assessed by type of orphanhood, and for their association with markers of sexual risk (HIV and/or HSV-2 infection) among 743 participants drawn from a random sample of 15-19-year-old girls identified in a cross-sectional survey in Highfield, Harare, in 2004. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the role of educational status in explaining the higher prevalence of adverse sexual outcomes among unmarried orphans compared to non-orphans, adjusting for possible confounders. Double orphans had significantly lower educational attendance and attainment than non-orphans. Maternal orphans had higher odds of school drop-out, although this association disappeared when adjusted for recent mobility. Educational status was strongly associated with HIV/HSV-2 risk, but explained only a small part of double orphans' sexual risk and did not explain the HIV/HSV-2 risk of maternal and paternal orphans. High overall levels of secondary school participation and school fee assistance provided to vulnerable families may have reduced the schooling disparities between orphans and non-orphans in Highfield. However, further efforts are needed to rectify the schooling inequities that persist, while additional research is needed to identify other socio-economic and emotional factors driving orphans' sexual risk so that prevention and support programmes can meet the needs of this growing population.

  13. Traditional Oral Remedies and Perceived Breast Milk Insufficiency Are Major Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding in Rural Zimbabwe123

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N.N.; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants <6 mo of age who were recruited from rural immunization clinics and outreach sites in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. We explored infant feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants <1 mo, 1 to <2 mo, and 2–6 mo of age, 54%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, were practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, “protection feedings” using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, “nutrition feedings,” mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions. PMID:24828026

  14. Perspectives of Parents and Health Care Workers on Early Infant Male Circumcision Conducted Using Devices: Qualitative Findings From Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mavhu, Webster; Hatzold, Karin; Ncube, Getrude; Fernando, Shamiso; Mangenah, Collin; Chatora, Kumbirai; Mugurungi, Owen; Ticklay, Ismail; Cowan, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) recommend early infant male circumcision (EIMC) for prevention of HIV. Here, we present findings from a qualitative study in Zimbabwe that assessed parental and health care workers' perspectives of EIMC conducted using devices. Methods: This qualitative study was nested within a trial of EIMC devices. Between January and May 2013, we held 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 12 in-depth interviews with parents and 12 in-depth interviews with clinicians (7 trial clinicians and 5 non-trial clinicians). We also conducted 95 short telephone interviews with parents who had arranged to bring their sons for EIMC but then defaulted. Results: Parents who had adopted EIMC spoke of their initial anxieties about the procedure. Additionally, they commented on both the procedure and outcome. Parents who decided against EIMC cited fear of harm, specifically the infant's death, penile injury, and excessive pain. Misperceptions about male circumcision in general and EIMC specifically were a significant barrier to EIMC adoption and were prevalent among health care workers as well as parents. In particular, the findings suggest strong parental concerns about the fate of the discarded foreskin. Parents who chose EIMC for their newborn sons felt that the procedure was safe and expressed satisfaction with the outcome. For their part, health care workers largely thought that EIMC was safe and that the outcome was aesthetically pleasing. They also felt that it would be feasible to offer wide-scale EIMC for HIV prevention in the public sector; they recommended strategies to increase EIMC uptake, in addition to highlighting a few concerns. Conclusions: The qualitative study enables us to better understand parental and health care workers' perspectives of EIMC conducted using devices, especially their perspectives on EIMC safety, feasibility, acceptability, and barriers. These findings

  15. Acceptability of conditions in a community-led cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, Morten; Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Dumba, Lovemore; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy-in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed to 5167 households assessed community members’ acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics’ view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not. PMID

  16. Psychosocial Results from a Phase I Trial of a Nonsurgical Circumcision Device for Adult Men in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Montaño, Daniel E.; Hamilton, Deven T.; Down, Kayla L.; Marrett, Karl D.; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mugurungi, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Male circumcision (MC), an effective HIV prevention tool, has been added to Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care HIV/AIDS Prevention Program. A Phase I safety trial of a nonsurgical male circumcision device was conducted and extensive psychosocial variables were assessed. Fifty-three men (18 and older) were recruited for the device procedure; 13 follow-up clinical visits were completed. Interviews conducted three times (before the procedure, at 2 weeks and 90 days post-procedure) assessed: Satisfaction; expectations; actual experience; activities of daily living; sexual behavior; and HIV risk perception. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model, attitudes towards MC, sex, and condoms, and sources of social influence and support were also assessed. Men (mean age 32.5, range 18–50; mean years of education = 13.6; 55% employed) were satisfied with device circumcision results. Men understand that MC is only partially protective against HIV acquisition. Most (94.7%) agreed that they will continue to use condoms to protect themselves from HIV. Pain ratings were surprisingly negative for a procedure billed as painless. Men talked to many social networks members about their MC experience; post-procedure (mean of 14 individuals). Minimal impact on activities of daily living and absenteeism indicate possible cost savings of device circumcisions. Spontaneous erections occurred frequently post-procedure. The results had important implications for changes in the pre-procedure clinical counseling protocol. Clear-cut counseling to manage pain and erection expectations should result in improved psychosocial outcomes in future roll-out of device circumcisions. Men's expectations must be managed through evidence-based counseling, as they share their experiences broadly among their social networks. PMID:26745142

  17. Awareness and attitude toward zoonoses with particular reference to anthrax among cattle owners in selected rural communities of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chikerema, S M; Matope, G; Pfukenyi, D M

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess cattle owners' awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward zoonoses, with particular emphasis regarding anthrax. Data on awareness of zoonoses, clinical signs of anthrax in animals and human, its routes of transmission and methods of prevention, the families' consumption habits of anthrax-infected carcasses, and other family activities that increase exposure to anthrax were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 41.4% (135/326) of the farmers were from high-anthrax-risk districts, whereas 28.5% and 30.1% were from medium- and low-risk districts, respectively. Overall, the level of awareness amongst the farmers for the named zoonoses were rabies (88.7%), anthrax (71.5%), and brucellosis (20.9%). Except for anthrax, awareness of other zoonoses did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the district categories. Farmers from anthrax high-risk districts were significantly more aware of anthrax compared to those from moderate- (p=0.000) and low- (p=0.000) risk districts. All of the farmers were aware that anthrax occurs in cattle, and 73% indicated the presence of unclotting blood oozing from natural orifices as a consistent finding in cattle that died of anthrax, whereas 86.7% of them indicated the presence of skin lesions as the most common sign of the disease in humans. The good efficacy of human anthrax treatment (58.3%), slaughter of moribund cattle and selling of meat from cattle found dead to unsuspecting consumers (59.8%), reluctance to lose animals (47.9%), and forgetting about anthrax (41.1%) were cited as the major reasons for consuming anthrax-infected carcasses. Given that 75.2% of cattle owners indicated that they would not consume meat from cattle found dead, because they were discouraged by veterinary authorities, introducing meat inspection services is likely to have a positive impact in preventing human anthrax outbreaks in Zimbabwe.

  18. Social capital and HIV Competent Communities: The role of community groups in managing HIV/AIDS in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Nhamo, Mercy; Nyamukapa, Constance; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Sherr, Lorraine; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Community involvement is increasingly identified as a “critical enabler” of an effective HIV/AIDS response. We explore pathways between community participation and HIV prevention, treatment and impact mitigation in Zimbabwe, reviewing six qualitative studies in Manicaland. These find that community group membership is often (not always) associated with decreased HIV incidence, reduced stigma and improved access to some services, particularly amongst women. Participation in formal community groups (e.g., church or women's groups) and informal local networks (e.g., neighbours, families) provides opportunities for critical dialogue about HIV/AIDS, often facilitating renegotiation of harmful social norms, sharing of previously hidden personal experiences of HIV/AIDS, formulation of positive action plans and solidarity to action them. However, implementation of new plans and insights is constrained by poverty, social uncertainty and poor service delivery. Furthermore, dialogue may have negative effects, spreading false information and entrenching negative norms. The extent that formal groups and informal networks facilitate externally imposed HIV/AIDS interventions varies. They potentially provide vital practical and emotional support, facilitating service access, treatment adherence and AIDS care. However, they may sometimes play a negative role in prevention activities, challenging stereotypes about sexuality or gender. There is an urgent need for greater recognition of the role of indigenous community groups and networks, and the inclusion of “strengthening local responses” as a key element of interventions and policy. Such efforts require great sensitivity. Heavy-handed external interference in complex indigenous relationships risks undermining the localism and bottom-up initiative and activism that might be central to their effectiveness. Cautious efforts might seek to enhance the potentially beneficial effects of groups, especially for women, and limit

  19. The hydrology of sand rivers in Zimbabwe and the use of remote sensing to assess their level of saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mpala, S. C.; Gagnon, A. S.; Mansell, M. G.; Hussey, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    Sand rivers are ephemeral watercourses containing sand that are occasionally flooded with rainwater runoff during the rainy season. Although the riverbed appears dry for most of the year, there is perennial groundwater flow within the sand. This water flowing beneath the surface is a valuable resource for local communities; nonetheless our understanding of such river systems is limited. Hence, this paper aims to improve our understanding of the hydrology of sand rivers and to examine the potential use of remote sensing to detect the presence of water in the sand. The relationship between rainfall events and changes in the water level of two sand rivers in the Matabeleland South Province of Zimbabwe was investigated. A lagged relationship was observed for the Manzamnyama River but for the Shashani River the relationship was seen only when considering cumulative rainfall events. The comparison of the modelled flow as simulated by a water balance model with observations revealed the important influence of the effective sediment depth on the recharge and recession of the alluvial channels in addition to the length of the channel. The possibility of detecting water in the alluvial sands was investigated using remote sensing. During the wet season, optical images showed that the presence of water on the riverbed was associated with a smooth signal, as it tends to reflect the incident radiation. A chronological analysis of radar images for different months of the year demonstrates that it is possible to detect the presence of water in the sand rivers. These results are a first step towards the development of a methodology that would aim to use remote sensing to help reducing survey costs by guiding exploratory activities to areas showing signs of water abstraction potential.

  20. Acceptability of conditions in a community-led cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, Morten; Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Dumba, Lovemore; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy-in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed to 5167 households assessed community members' acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics' view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not.

  1. Ecological Assessment of Two Species of Potamonautid Freshwater Crabs from the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, with Implications for Their Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Dalu, Tatenda; Sachikonye, Mwazvita T. B.; Froneman, William P.; Manungo, Kwanele I.; Bepe, Onias; Wasserman, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial ecology of freshwater crabs and their conservation status is largely understudied in Africa. An ecological assessment was conducted at 104 localities in 51 rivers and/or streams in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe whereby the distribution and abundances of freshwater crab species were mapped and the possible drivers of the observed trends in population structure explored. In addition, information on crab utilisation as a food resource by local communities was assessed via face to face interviews across the region. Finally, the conservation status of each species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria. Only two crab species Potamonautes mutareensis and Potamonautes unispinus were recorded within the region of study. Potamonautes mutareensis was largely restricted to less impacted environments in the high mountainous river system, whereas P. unispinus was found in low laying areas. In stretches of river where both species were found to co-occur, the species were never sampled from the same site, with P. mutareensis occurring in shallower, faster flowing environments and P. unispinus in deeper, slow flowing sites. Interview results revealed that the local communities, particularly in the southern part of the Eastern Highlands around the Chipinge area, had a considerable level of utilisation (55% of households) on the harvesting of crabs for household consumption during the non-agricultural season (May to September). Results from the IUCN Red List assessment indicate that both species should be considered as “Least Concern”. Threats to freshwater crabs in the Eastern Highlands, however, include widespread anthropogenic impacts such as habitat destruction associated with gold and diamond mining, inorganic and organic pollution and possibly exploitation for human consumption. The current study provides important information and insight towards the possible development of a freshwater crab conservation action plan within the region. PMID:26751064

  2. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Nephropathy in Diabetic Patients Attending an Outpatient Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Machingura, Pasipanodya Ian; Chikwasha, Vasco; Okwanga, Parmenas Nelson; Gomo, Exnevia

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on the burden of diabetic nephropathy in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with nephropathy among diabetic patients attending an outpatient clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. In an analytical cross-sectional study, diabetic patients were consecutively enrolled and a questionnaire administered, clinical assessment conducted, and blood samples collected for human immunodeficiency virus testing and measurement of lipids, creatinine, fructosamine, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Urine samples were collected for determination of albumin and creatinine levels, which were used to categorize albuminuria. A total of 344 diabetic patients were enrolled. Overall, just over a third (35.8%) of patients had moderately increased albuminuria and 9.0% had severely increased albuminuria giving an overall prevalence of nephropathy of 44.8%. Prevalence of moderately increased albuminuria was slightly higher (36.5% versus 33.3%) and severely increased albuminuria slightly lower (8.8% versus 9.5%) in type 2 than type 1 diabetes patients, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.866). Higher fructosamine and retinopathy were associated with nephropathy in both univariate and multivariate analysis {higher fructosamine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.00, confidence interval [CI] = 1.00–1.01), and retinopathy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.64–4.97)}. We report a higher prevalence of moderately increased albuminuria and a lower prevalence of severely increased albuminuria compared with findings reported a decade ago among type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending the same clinic. High fructosamine and retinopathy were independent predictors of nephropathy. PMID:27994108

  3. Cost-effectiveness of World Health Organization 2010 Guidelines for Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Perez, Freddy; Engelsmann, Barbara; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Mushavi, Angela; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Keatinge, Jo; Park, Ji-Eun; Maruva, Matthews; Cerda, Rodrigo; Wood, Robin; Dabis, Francois; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) released revised guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (PMTCT). We projected clinical impacts, costs, and cost-effectiveness of WHO-recommended PMTCT strategies in Zimbabwe. Methods. We used Zimbabwean data in a validated computer model to simulate a cohort of pregnant, HIV-infected women (mean age, 24 years; mean CD4 count, 451 cells/µL; subsequent 18 months of breastfeeding). We simulated guideline-concordant care for 4 PMTCT regimens: single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP); WHO-recommended Option A, WHO-recommended Option B, and Option B+ (lifelong maternal 3-drug antiretroviral therapy regardless of CD4). Outcomes included maternal and infant life expectancy (LE) and lifetime healthcare costs (2008 US dollars [USD]). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, in USD per year of life saved [YLS]) were calculated from combined (maternal + infant) discounted costs and LE. Results. Replacing sdNVP with Option A increased combined maternal and infant LE from 36.97 to 37.89 years and would reduce lifetime costs from $5760 to $5710 per mother–infant pair. Compared with Option A, Option B further improved LE (38.32 years), and saved money within 4 years after delivery ($5630 per mother–infant pair). Option B+ (LE, 39.04 years; lifetime cost, $6620 per mother–infant pair) improved maternal and infant health, with an ICER of $1370 per YLS compared with Option B. Conclusions. Replacing sdNVP with Option A or Option B will improve maternal and infant outcomes and save money; Option B increases health benefits and decreases costs compared with Option A. Option B+ further improves maternal outcomes, with an ICER (compared with Option B) similar to many current HIV-related healthcare interventions. PMID:23204035

  4. Bells, bomas and beefsteak: complex patterns of human-predator conflict at the wildlife-agropastoral interface in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Timothy; Parry, Roger H.; Sibanda, Lovemore; Hunt, Jane Hunt; Stapelkamp, Brent; Sebele, Lovelater; Macdonald, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Reports of livestock depredation by large predators were systematically collected at three study sites in northwestern Zimbabwe from 2008–2013. We recorded 1,527 incidents (2,039 animals killed and 306 injured). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) were mostly responsible, and cattle and donkeys most frequently attacked. Patterns of predation were variable among study sites. Nevertheless, some overall patterns were apparent. Predators selected livestock close to the size of their preferred wild prey, suggesting behaviours evolved to optimise foraging success may determine the domestic species primarily preyed upon. Most attacks occurred when livestock were roaming outside and away from their ‘home’ protective enclosures at night. Hyaena attacks were largely nocturnal; lions and leopards (Panthera pardus) were more flexible, with attacks occurring by day and at night. Livestock fitted with bells suffered a disproportionate number of attacks; the sound of bells appears to have conditioned predators to associate the sound with foraging opportunities. Lion and hyaena attacks on cattle were more frequent in the wet season suggesting that seasonal herding practices may result in cattle vulnerability. Only a small proportion of conflict incidents were reported to wildlife management officials with a bias towards lion predation events, potentially prejudicing conflict management policies. Predation on domestic stock involves an intricate interplay between predator behaviour and ecology on the one hand and human behaviour and husbandry practices on the other. Our data suggest that improved livestock husbandry (supervision of grazing animals, protection at night in strong enclosures) would greatly reduce livestock depredation. PMID:28149682

  5. Changes in coronary heart disease risk profiles of HIV patients in Zimbabwe over 9 months: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Danai Tavonga; Oektedalen, Olav; Shawarira-Bote, Sandra; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammation, and coronary heart disease (CHD) are adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients even if they are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Yet, data on CHD risk induced by HIV or ART in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe changes in CHD risk profiles measured by lipids, inflammatory markers, and Framingham scores among HIV-positive patients previously reported from Harare, Zimbabwe. Patients were grouped into ART-experienced patients (n=147) and ART-naïve patients (n=23) and followed up for 9 months. Generalized least squares random-effects modeling was applied to explain changes in total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein, TC/HDL ratio, myeloperoxidase, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, and Framingham scores over the 9-month period. Independent variables included age, sex, monthly earning, body mass index, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, duration of HIV diagnosis, duration of ART, viral load, and CD4 count. In ART-experienced patients, there was a substantial decrease in TC over time, ART-negative patients showed a significant increase in TC and HDL over time, and the increase in TC was associated with high viral load and low duration of HIV diagnosis, while increase in HDL was associated with young age, low body mass index, and low SBP. Framingham risk scores increased with time in ART-positive patients, and the change was positively correlated with age, sex, high SBP, and low HDL. There was no association between calculated CHD risk (TC/HDL ratio or Framingham score) and changes in levels of inflammatory markers (myeloperoxidase and highly sensitive C-reactive protein) in any of the patient groups. In conclusion, ART-experienced HIV-positive patients show changes in lipid values over time that makes it necessary to include lipid monitoring in order to reduce any risk of long

  6. Where, When and Why Do Tsetse Contact Humans? Answers from Studies in a National Park of Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Torr, Stephen J.; Chamisa, Andrew; Mangwiro, T. N. Clement; Vale, Glyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleeping sickness, also called human African trypanosomiasis, is transmitted by the tsetse, a blood-sucking fly confined to sub-Saharan Africa. The form of the disease in West and Central Africa is carried mainly by species of tsetse that inhabit riverine woodland and feed avidly on humans. In contrast, the vectors for the East and Southern African form of the disease are usually savannah species that feed mostly on wild and domestic animals and bite humans infrequently, mainly because the odours produced by humans can be repellent. Hence, it takes a long time to catch many savannah tsetse from people, which in turn means that studies of the nature of contact between savannah tsetse and humans, and the ways of minimizing it, have been largely neglected. Methodology/Principal Findings The savannah tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes, were caught from men in the Mana Pools National park of Zimbabwe. Mostly the catch consisted of young G. m. morsitans, with little food reserve. Catches were increased by 4–8 times if the men were walking, not stationary, and increased about ten times more if they rode on a truck at 10 km/h. Catches were unaffected if the men used deodorant or were baited with artificial ox odour, but declined by about 95% if the men were with an ox. Surprisingly, men pursuing their normal daily activities were bitten about as much when in or near buildings as when in woodland. Catches from oxen and a standard ox-like trap were poor indices of the number and physiological state of tsetse attacking men. Conclusion/Significance The search for new strategies to minimize the contact between humans and savannah tsetse should focus on that occurring in buildings and vehicles. There is a need to design a man-like trap to help to provide an index of sleeping sickness risk. PMID:22953013

  7. Traditional oral remedies and perceived breast milk insufficiency are major barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H; Moulton, Lawrence H; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-07-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants <6 mo of age who were recruited from rural immunization clinics and outreach sites in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. We explored infant feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants <1 mo, 1 to <2 mo, and 2-6 mo of age, 54%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, were practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, "protection feedings" using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, "nutrition feedings," mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions.

  8. Is the Pungwe water supply project a solution to water accessibility and sanitation problems for the households of Sakubva, Zimbabwe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukheli, Azwidowi; Mosupye, Gilbert; Swatuk, Larry A.

    Following the severe drought of 1991-92, the City of Mutare embarked upon a concerted search for a secure water supply. This search culminated in the decision to transfer water from the Pungwe River via pipeline to the City of Mutare. This project was heralded as bringing ‘purity, security, and prosperity’ to the people of Mutare. Once again, and as is typical of Southern Africa today, a new ‘supply’ was presented as the ‘solution’ to the city’s water problems. In this paper, we challenge this claim by presenting the case of Sakubva, a low income, and high-density suburb of Mutare, Zimbabwe. Residents of Sakubva face many problems relating to water supply and sanitation. Has the Pungwe-Mutare Water Project ‘solved’ these problems? In short, we argue that while the Pungwe project has ensured a steady supply of clean water to Sakubva, this water inadvertently worsens many of Sakubva’s extant water and sanitation problems. In the absence of appropriate water demand management measures, supply alone is as much burden as it is blessing. In terms of methodology, between July 2000 and July 2001, members of the research team made several visits to the study area. This included a two-week home stay for two of the researchers--one in a private home in New Dangare, one in a shack in Muchena. Aside from direct participation and informal observation, a variety of methods were used: formal, semi-/structured interviews with key informants; informal, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with a cross-section of residents in Sakubva; transect walks where interviews were carried out both on formal and informal bases. Two peer educators from the Voices of Concerned Youth, City Health Department, Mutare assisted researchers. In addition, primary and secondary data were consulted.

  9. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. Conclusion There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula. PMID:23819006

  10. The impact of prenatal care quality on neonatal, infant and child mortality in Zimbabwe: evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    PubMed

    Makate, Marshall; Makate, Clifton

    2016-12-19

    The impact of the quality of prenatal care on child mortality outcomes has received less attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This study endeavoured to explore the effect of the quality of prenatal care and its individual components on neonatal, infant and under-five mortality. The empirical analysis uses data from the three most recent waves of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 1999, 2005/06 and 2010/11. The results indicate that a one-unit increase in the quality of prenatal care lowers the prospect of neonatal, infant and under-five mortality by approximately 42.33, 30.86 and 28.65%, respectively. These findings remained roughly the same even after adjusting for potential mediating factors. Examining the effect of individual prenatal care components on child mortality revealed that women who receive information on possible complications arising during pregnancy are less liable to experience a neonatal death. Similarly, women who had blood pressure checks and tetanus immunizations were less likely to experience an infant or under-five death. We did not find any statistically meaningful impact on child mortality outcomes of blood and urine sample checks, iron tablet consumption, and the receipt of malarial tablets. Overall, our results suggest the need for public health policymakers to focus on ensuring high-quality prenatal care to enhance the survival prospects of Zimbabwe's infants.

  11. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  12. Measuring hospital competition.

    PubMed

    White, S L; Chirikos, T N

    1988-03-01

    This paper appraises the use of the Herfindahl market share index as an exogenous competition variable in empirical studies of the hospital sector. An analysis of cross-sectional Florida data shows that this index itself is significantly influenced by the demand and supply factors commonly included in econometric models of hospital performance. The analysis then illustrates that biased inferences about the effects of market competition on the costs of hospital care may result unless the values of the Herfindahl Index are treated endogenously in hospital cost models.

  13. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  14. Hospitality, Tourism, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novachek, James

    The Northern Arizona Hospitality Education Program is an exemplary three-year project designed to help students, mainly Indian, obtain job skills and attitudes necessary for successful employment in the hospitality industry. Nine high schools from Apache, Coconino, and Navajo Counties participated in the project. Objectives included providing an…

  15. Handbook on Hospital Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prynne, T. A.

    Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

  16. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  17. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  18. Virtual Pediatric Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thoracopaedia - An Imaging Encyclopedia of Pediatric Thoracic Disease Virtual Pediatric Hospital is the Apprentice's Assistant™ Last revised ... pediatric resources: GeneralPediatrics.com | PediatricEducation.org | SearchingPediatrics.com Virtual Pediatric Hospital is curated by Donna M. D' ...

  19. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  20. Leading a hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Paula A

    2002-01-01

    Hospital closures have become more common. The challenges facing a nursing leader in this situation are complex and difficult. This author suggests that looking for new beginnings rather than focusing on endings created an approach to closing a public hospital. The article includes approaches to employee morale, staffing, and patient care.

  1. Competition among hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Martin; Vogt, William B

    2003-01-01

    We examine competition in the hospital industry, in particular the effect of ownership type (for-profit, not-for-profit, government). We estimate a structural model of demand and pricing in the hospital industry in California, then use the estimates to simulate the effect of a merger. California hospitals in 1995 face an average price elasticity of demand of -4.85. Not-for-profit hospitals face less elastic demand and act as if they have lower marginal costs. Their prices are lower than those of for-profits, but markups are higher. We simulate the effects of the 1997 merger of two hospital chains. In San Luis Obispo County, where the merger creates a near monopoly, prices rise by up to 53%, and the predicted price increase would not be substantially smaller were the chains not-for-profit.

  2. Assessing crop yield benefits from in situ rainwater harvesting through contour ridges in semi-arid Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhizha, A.; Ndiritu, J. G.

    Rainwater harvesting through modified contour ridges known as dead level contours has been practiced in Zimbabwe in the last two decades. Studies have shown marginal soil moisture retention benefits for using this technique while results on crop yield benefits are lacking. This paper presents results from a field study for assessing the impact of dead level contours on soil moisture and crop yield carried out from 2009 to 2011 within the Limpopo River Basin. The experiments were carried out on two study sites; one containing silt loam soil and another containing sandy soil. Three treatments constituting dead level contoured plots, non-contoured plots and plots with the traditional graded contours were used on each site. All the three treatments were planted with a maize crop and managed using conventional farming methods. Planting, weeding and fertiliser application in the three treatments were done at the same time. Crop monitoring was carried out on sub plots measuring 4 m by 4 m established in every treatment. The development of the crop was monitored until harvesting time with data on plant height, leaf moisture and crop yield being collected. An analysis of the data shows that in the site with silt loam soil more soil moisture accumulated after heavy rainfall in dead level contour plots compared to the control (no contours) and graded contour plots (P < 0.05). However the maize crop experienced an insignificantly (P > 0.05) higher yield in the dead level contoured treatment compared to the non-contoured treatment while a significantly (P < 0.05) higher yield was obtained in the dead level contoured treatment when compared with a graded contoured treatment. Different results were obtained from the site with sandy soil where there was no significant difference in soil moisture after a high rainfall event of 60 mm/day between dead level contour plots compared to the control and graded contour plots. The yield from the dead level contoured treatment and that from

  3. Indigenous language use and primary science teaching in a post-colonial society: The case of Shona in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horcajo, Susan Lori

    The historical legacy of colonialism in Zimbabwe is revealed in the continued use of the colonial language, English, in education. However, many teachers use the local language along with particular techniques to address this language gap so that children learn the content of the lessons, especially in the rural areas where access to modern conveniences and the school language outside of class is limited. This research examines the use of an indigenous language in an educational system in which content area curricula are administered in a second language. Three third grade classes in a rural Zimbabwean village were video recorded for three weeks each during the teaching of science. Lessons were transcribed and questions devised for the teachers and a small number of students in order to explore issues related to language use and scientific concept development. The lessons and interviews were reviewed in order to determine particular language usage in the indigenous Shona language and its local dialect, Ndau. The questions addressed were: (1) When and how does the teacher use Shona to explain scientific concepts? (2) When and how do children use Shona to discuss these concepts? (3) What is the relationship among cognition, the use of Shona in the classroom and the learning of science? Analysis of Shona language use in these lessons revealed that while Shona was most commonly used in single words for affection, to facilitate instruction, and to support the lesson, large segments of four sentences or more allowed for more culturally relevant teaching and the development of concepts which served the purpose of science learning through identification, description, explanation and the reaching of conclusions. Metalinguistic awareness and literacy were seen to be salient elements in the lessons, especially given the fact that only English is allowed to be written; that is, while the teacher often explained elements of the lessons orally, all writing on the board, in

  4. Syngenetic inclusions of yimengite in diamond from Sese kimberlite (Zimbabwe) — evidence for metasomatic conditions of growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanova, G. P.; Muchemwa, E.; Pearson, D. G.; Griffin, B. J.; Kelley, S. P.; Klemme, S.; Smith, C. B.

    2004-09-01

    Syngenetic inclusions of yimengite K (Cr, Ti, Mg, Fe, Al) 12O 19, a potassium member of the magnetoplumbite mineral group, have been recorded in an octahedral macrodiamond from the Sese kimberlite (50 km south of Masvingo, Zimbabwe). One yimengite inclusion carries lamellae of chromite suggesting peridotitic diamond paragenesis. The diamond and inclusions were studied in situ in a plate polished parallel to (011). Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging has shown blue colour and octahedral zonation of the diamond, lack of cracks and the location of five yimengites in different growth zones. Nitrogen (N) contents (at. ppm) in the diamond determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) steadily decrease from 576 (core) to 146 (rim). N aggregation (%1aB) is correspondingly 40% in the core and 30% in the rim. Hydrogen (H) content is high in the core, moderate in the intermediate and very high in the rim zones. Four yimengites were dated using the laser 40Ar/ 39Ar method. Three inclusions yielded total gas ages that agree with, or are younger than, or within error of, the Sese kimberlite eruption age (538±11 Ma) but may be compromised by gas loss. One inclusion, with the highest tapped interface gas yield, gave a total gas age of 892±21 Ma that is a likely minimum yimengite age. Time-T °C constraints from N aggregation systematics give a range of possible ages from kimberlite eruption date back to Archean and do not resolve the variable results of the 40Ar/ 39Ar dating. Compared with the published chemistry of yimengite from kimberlites, inclusions from the Sese diamond contain higher Al, Mg, and Sr and have lower concentration of Fe 3+. The chondrite-normalised REE pattern of the yimengite shows enrichment in LREE and depletion in HREE, but LREE/HREE fractionations are lower than for lindsleyite-mathiasite series mantle titanates and rather similar to the REE concentrations in kimberlite and lamproite rocks. It is suggested that Sese yimengite formed in the

  5. Assessment of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in rural areas: A case study from Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzwairo, Bloodless; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Love, David; Guzha, Edward

    In resource-poor and low-population-density areas, on-site sanitation is preferred to off-site sanitation and groundwater is the main source of water for domestic uses. Groundwater pollution potential from on-site sanitation in such areas conflicts with Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles that advocate for sustainable use of water resources. Given the widespread use of groundwater for domestic purposes in rural areas, maintaining groundwater quality is a critical livelihood intervention. This study assessed impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in Kamangira village, Marondera district, Zimbabwe. Groundwater samples from 14 monitoring boreholes and 3 shallow wells were analysed during 6 sampling campaigns, from February 2005 to May 2005. Parameters analysed were total and faecal coliforms, NH4+-N, NO3--N, conductivity, turbidity and pH, both for boreholes and shallow wells. Total and faecal coliforms both ranged 0-TNTC (too-numerous-to-count), 78% of results meeting the 0 CFU/100 ml WHO guidelines value. NH4+-N range was 0-2.0 mg/l, with 99% of results falling below the 1.5 mg/l WHO recommended value. NO3--N range was 0.0-6.7 mg/l, within 10 mg/l WHO guidelines value. The range for conductivity values was 46-370 μS/cm while the pH range was 6.8-7.9. There are no WHO guideline values for these two parameters. Turbidity ranged from 1 NTU to 45 NTU, 59% of results meeting the 5 NTU WHO guidelines limit. Depth from the ground surface to the water table for the period February 2005 to May 2005 was determined for all sampling points using a tape measure. The drop in water table averaged from 1.1 m to 1.9 m and these values were obtained by subtracting water table elevations from absolute ground surface elevation. Soil from the monitoring boreholes was classified as sandy. The soil infiltration layer was taken as the layer between the pit latrine bottom and the water table. It averaged from 1.3 m to 1.7 m above the water table for two latrines

  6. An evaluation of rural communities’ water use patterns and preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machingambi, Memory; Manzungu, Emmanuel

    This paper makes an evaluation of rural communities’ preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe, as a way of assessing rural people’s willingness to contribute in cash and kind to safe and clean domestic water. A questionnaire was administered to respondents in two areas that have different rainfall regimes, as water availability was hypothesised to affect its management. This was complemented by interviews with personnel from government and semi-government institutions involved in provision of domestic water in rural areas. Information gathered included respondents’ awareness of the water resource ownership and supply structure at the community and national level, roles played by various institutions in domestic water provision, water sources ownership, number and distribution of water points, water use patterns, water based socio-economic activities and respondents’ willingness to contribute towards establishment, operation and maintenance of water points. Respondents attributed water ownership to God, the government, the community, ancestors, chiefs, ZINWA, RDCS and no one. Boreholes, shallow and deep wells, rivers, dams, canals and taps were mainly used for primary water uses like drinking, cooking, bathing, livestock watering, gardening and laundry. Brick making, gardening and irrigating plots were classified as commercial water uses because they were used to generate income. Views on water ownership affected perceptions towards establishment, maintenance and management of water points. There was a higher preference for community than individual participation except for canals and taps. The responsibility for water point establishment and repairs were regarded as the responsibility of the government, community and donors. Respondents without piped water had higher WTP amounts for the repair and desiltation of water points than those with piped water. This showed a willingness to ensure that the working order of water points was assured

  7. Evaluation of seepage and acid generation potential from evaporation ponds, Iron Duke Pyrite Mine, Mazowe Valley, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravengai, Seedwel; Owen, Richard; Love, David

    Iron Duke Pyrite Mine lies in the Mazowe Valley of northern Zimbabwe. Several urban areas and commercial farmers are major water users in the catchment. Accordingly, managing the impact of mining operations on water quality in the Mazowe Valley must be a major priority for sustainable development in this area. The mine disposes of its waste water via evaporation ponds. Some of the water in the ponds evaporates and some is lost through seepage to groundwater. Results of a water budget analysis of the ponds showed that 160.5 m 3 per day of acidic effluent with a pH of 2 and elevated levels of iron and sulphate was being lost through seepage. As the wastewater evaporates, the secondary minerals melanterite and hexahydrite precipitate. The solid material in the pond was found to contain 20% iron and 14% sulphate, which is far more than was found dissolved within the pond water. Despite this, the pond water is undersaturated with respect to both iron and sulphate. Acid generation tests on the solid material in the pond indicate a minimum of 540,000 mol and a maximum of 1,610,309 mol of acid are generated. The variation can be related to exposure to oxygen: material near the edges of the pond is more exposed to oxygen and has already reacted further than material from the centre of the pond; accordingly less acid can be generated. The acidity generated by the pond is due to the unreacted pyrite that is found in fine particles suspended in mine waters. Based on these results, between 20 and 60 metric tonnes of lime are required for complete neutralisation of the sediments in the pond. Although the ponds were decommissioned after the conclusion of this study, it is necessary to prevent formation of further acid mine drainage from existing sediments in the evaporation pond. This could be done by the use of reactive covers, whose compositions affect the chemistry of infiltrating water. A good reactive cover could be constructed from lime, overlain by topsoil rich in organic

  8. Aspects of the water resources management practice with emphasis on nutrients control in the Chivero Basin, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hranova, R.; Gumbo, B.; Klein, J.; van der Zaag, P.

    This paper summarises the results of a study on qualitative, quantitative and environmental aspects of water resources management in the Lake Chivero basin, which is the main source of water supply of the City of Harare, Zimbabwe and is in advanced stage of eutrophication. In terms of water quality, an integrated database has been developed, combining existing monitoring data about natural water quality, effluent discharges and urban storm drainage, and data from research investigations during the period 1995-2000. Background pollution in the basin varied from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/l and from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/l for nitrates and phosphates (as total P), respectively. Spatial variations along the major rivers showed a steady trend of increase in nutrient levels with a peak in 1998. At Marimba River confluence the annual median values recorded were 3.5 and 4.4 mg/l for ammonia and phosphates, respectively, thus exceeding the effluent discharge regulations 7-9 times. The major nutrient sources contributing to this status are associated with operational problems of the treatment facilities and diffuse sources of pollution from pastures irrigated with effluent, as well as from urban storm water. In environmental terms a first step was undertaken towards the development of a biological water quality monitoring system, by evaluating the habitat and a-biotic characteristics of the pristine regions of the basin. As to water quantity, it was found that the existing infrastructure is capable to satisfy present water demand, but the abstraction amounts to 77% of the water generated in the basin, which could be considered as an upper limit. It is not yet clear how some provisions of the new Water Act, such as the recognition of the environment as a legitimate water user, will be implemented. With regard to urban water management, the research focused on the development of a rainfall runoff model for the composite catchment area of the Marimba river basin, a sub-urban micro catchment of the

  9. Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota smallholder farming area, Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuta, M.; Nyamadzawo, G.; Mlambo, J.; Nyamugafata, P.

    2016-04-01

    In many smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa dambos are used for grazing and crop production especially horticultural crops. Increased use of dambos especially for crop production can result in ground and surface water pollution. Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota, Zimbabwe, was investigated between October 2013 and February 2014. The transect was divided into; upland (control), dambo gardens (mid-slope) and the river (valley bottom). Water samples for quality assessment were collected in October 2013 (peak of dry season) and February 2014 (peak of rainy season). The collected water samples were analysed for pH, faecal coliforms, total nitrogen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and some selected nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, and Cu). Water pH was 7.0, 6.4 and 6.1 for river water, garden and upland wells respectively. During the wet season total nitrogen (TN) concentrations were 233 mg/L for uplands, 242 mg/L for gardens and 141 mg/L for the river. During the dry season, TN concentrations were all below 20 mg/L, and were not significantly different among sampling stations along the dambo transect. Dry season faecal coliform units (fcu) were significantly different and were 37.2, 30.0 and 5.0 for upland wells, garden wells and river respectively. Wet season faecal coliforms were also significantly different and were 428.5, 258.0 and 479.4 fcu for upland wells, garden wells and river respectively. The other measured physico-chemical parameters also varied with sampling position along the transect. It was concluded that TN and fcu in sampled water varied with season and that wet season concentrations were significantly higher than dry season concentrations. High concentrations of faecal coliforms and total N during the wet season was attributed to increased water movement. Water from upland wells, garden wells and river was not suitable for human consumption according to WHO standards during both the dry and

  10. Platinum-group element concentrations in pyrite from the Main Sulfide Zone of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Barnes, S.-J.; Oberthür, T.; Lunar, R.

    2016-10-01

    The Main Sulfide Zone (MSZ) of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe hosts the world's second largest resource of platinum-group elements (PGE) after the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The sulfide assemblage of the MSZ comprises pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and minor pyrite. Recently, several studies have observed in a number of Ni-Cu-PGE ore deposits that pyrite may host significant amounts of PGE, particularly Pt and Rh. In this study, we have determined PGE and other trace element contents in pyrite from the Hartley, Ngezi, Unki, and Mimosa mines of the Great Dyke by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Based on the textures and PGE contents, two types of pyrite can be differentiated. Py1 occurs as individual euhedral or subhedral grains or clusters of crystals mostly within chalcopyrite and pentlandite, in some cases in the form of symplectitic intergrowths, and is PGE rich (up to 99 ppm Pt and 61 ppm Rh; 1.7 to 47.1 ppm Ru, 0.1 to 7.8 ppm Os, and 1.2 to 20.2 ppm Ir). Py2 occurs as small individual euhedral or subhedral crystals within pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and less frequently within chalcopyrite and silicates and has low PGE contents (<0.11 ppm Pt, <0.34 ppm Rh, <2.5 ppm Ru, <0.37 ppm Ir, and <0.40 ppm Os). Py1 contains higher Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt contents than the associated pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, whereas Py2 has similar PGE contents as coexisting pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Based on the textural relationships, two different origins are attributed for each pyrite type. Py1 intergrowth with pentlandite and chalcopyrite is inferred to have formed by late, low temperature (<300 °C) decomposition of residual Ni-rich monosulfide solid solution, whereas Py2 is suggested to have formed by replacement of pyrrhotite and pentlandite caused by late magmatic/hydrothermal fluids.

  11. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum transmission reducing immunity among primary school children in a malaria moderate transmission region in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Paul, Noah H; Vengesai, Arthur; Mduluza, Takafira; Chipeta, James; Midzi, Nicholas; Bansal, Geetha P; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2016-11-01

    Malaria continues to cause alarming morbidity and mortality in more than 100 countries worldwide. Antigens in the various life cycle stages of malaria parasites are presented to the immune system during natural infection and it is widely recognized that after repeated malaria exposure, adults develop partially protective immunity. Specific antigens of natural immunity represent among the most important targets for the development of malaria vaccines. Immunity against the transmission stages of the malaria parasite represents an important approach to reduce malaria transmission and is believed to become an important tool for gradual elimination of malaria. Development of immunity against Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages was evaluated in primary school children aged 6-16 years in Makoni district of Zimbabwe, an area of low to modest malaria transmission. Malaria infection was screened by microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests and finally using nested PCR. Plasma samples were tested for antibodies against recombinant Pfs48/45 and Pfs47 by ELISA. Corresponding serum samples were used to test for P. falciparum transmission reducing activity in Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae mosquitoes using the membrane feeding assay. The prevalence of malaria diagnosed by rapid diagnostic test kit (Paracheck)™ was 1.7%. However, of the randomly tested blood samples, 66% were positive by nested PCR. ELISA revealed prevalence (64% positivity at 1:500 dilution, in randomly selected 66 plasma samples) of antibodies against recombinant Pfs48/45 (mean A 405nm=0.53, CI=0.46-0.60) and Pfs47 (mean A405nm=0.91, CI=0.80-1.02); antigens specific to the sexual stages. The mosquito membrane feeding assay demonstrated measurable transmission reducing ability of the samples that were positive for Pfs48/45 antibodies by ELISA. Interestingly, 3 plasma samples revealed enhancement of infectivity of P. falciparum in An. stephensi mosquitoes. These studies revealed the presence of antibodies with

  12. Climate changes and suitability for the ticks Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma variegatum (Ixodidae) in Zimbabwe (1974-1999).

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Horak, Ivan G; Petney, Trevor

    2008-02-14

    The spread of Amblyomma hebraeum has been reported in Zimbabwe. At the same time there was little or no spread in the distribution of Amblyomma variegatum. This paper examines the climatic cycles and their trends in the period 1974-1999 with a view to explaining the abiotic causes of this spread, and of forecasting the likely tendency in climate suitability for both tick species. An annual data-set of rainfall and air temperature was used as a source for climate, together with a habitat-modeling algorithm to estimate climate suitability for both ticks. Long-term suitable habitat for A. hebraeum exists mainly in the south and southeast of the country. Areas of adequate habitat for A. variegatum exist across the country, between approximately 17 degrees S and 18.5 degrees S, and are most suitable in regions of the northwest. The climate niches of the two species differ, and account for their almost allopatric distributions, as observed in the duration and intensity of the dry period and in total annual rainfall. Cyclic changes in both temperature and rainfall drive the periodic modifications in the distributions of the ticks. More intense periods of drought in the highveld, drive the expansion of A. hebraeum in this region. Temperature does not have any effect on the tendency in this area. Areas in south and southeast show a trend towards an increase in climatic suitability because of an increase in temperature. Zones in which habitat suitability is increasing for A. variegatum are restricted to the northwestern parts of the country, because warmer temperatures and a slight decrease in the intensity of the dry season. The progressive increase in temperatures seems to be forcing the dispersion of A. variegatum towards areas outside of zones that have a prolonged dry period. On the other hand A. hebraeum is compelled to spread northwards, following areas with adequate rainfall patterns, but halted by temperature limits and perhaps competition with A. variegatum

  13. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  14. A reconfiguration of the sex trade: How social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Elmes, Jocelyn; Skovdal, Morten; Nhongo, Kundai; Ward, Helen; Campbell, Catherine; Hallett, Timothy B; Nyamukapa, Constance; White, Peter J; Gregson, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers, married women, and men who frequented bars. The focus groups elicited discussion around changes (comparing contemporaneous circumstances in 2009 to their memories of circumstances in 2000) in the demand for, and supply of, paid sex, and how sex workers and clients adapted to these changes, and with what implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV-changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work-had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty-driven increase in transactional sex. The economic upheaval in Zimbabwe effectively reorganized the market for sex by reducing previously dominant forms of commercial sex

  15. Assessment of community awareness and risk perceptions of zoonotic causes of abortion in cattle at three selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndengu, M; DE Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Pfukenyi, D M; Tivapasi, M; Mukamuri, B; Matope, G

    2017-02-06

    A study was conducted to assess the awareness of cattle abortions due to brucellosis, Rift Valley fever (RVF) and leptospirosis, and to compare frequencies of reported abortions in communities living at the periphery of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in southeastern Zimbabwe. Three study sites were selected based on the type of livestock-wildlife interface: porous livestock-wildlife interface (unrestricted); non-porous livestock-wildlife interface (restricted by fencing); and livestock-wildlife non-interface (totally absent or control). Respondents randomly selected from a list of potential cattle farmers (N = 379) distributed at porous (40·1%), non-interface (35·5%) and non-porous (26·4%), were interviewed using a combined close- and open-ended questionnaire. Focus group discussions were conducted with 10-12 members of each community. More abortions in the last 5 years were reported from the porous interface (52%) and a significantly higher per cent of respondents from the porous interface (P < 0·05) perceived wildlife as playing a role in livestock abortions compared with the other interface types. The odds of reporting abortions in cattle were higher in large herd sizes (odds ratio (OR) = 2·6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·5-4·3), porous (OR = 1·9; 95% CI 1·0-3·5) and non-porous interface (OR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·1-4·3) compared with livestock-wildlife non-interface areas. About 21·6% of the respondents knew brucellosis as a cause of abortion, compared with RVF (9·8%) and leptospirosis (3·7%). These results explain to some extent, the existence of human/wildlife conflict in the studied livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zimbabwe, which militates against biodiversity conservation efforts. The low awareness of zoonoses means the public is at risk of contracting some of these infections. Thus, further studies should focus on livestock-wildlife interface areas to assess if the increased rates of abortions reported in cattle may be

  16. Hospital service recovery.

    PubMed

    Gutbezahl, Cary; Haan, Perry

    2006-01-01

    An organization's ability to correct service errors is an important factor in achieving success in today's service economy. This paper examines service recovery in hospitals in the U.S. First is a general review of service recovery theories. Next is a discussion of specific service issues related to the hospital environment. The literature on service recovery is used to make specific recommendations to hospitals for ways to improve their ability to remedy service errors when they occur. Suggestions for future research in the field of service recovery are also made.

  17. Predicting hospital accounting costs

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Cretin, Shan; Witsberger, Christina J.

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative methods to Medicare Cost Reports that provide information about hospital costs more promptly but less accurately are investigated. Both employ utilization data from current-year bills. The first attaches costs to utilization data using cost-charge ratios from the previous year's cost report; the second uses charges from current year's bills. The first method is the more accurate of the two, but even using it, only 40 percent of hospitals had predicted costs within plus or minus 5 percent of actual costs. The feasibility and cost of obtaining cost reports from a small, fast-track sample of hospitals should be investigated. PMID:10313352

  18. Hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Christine M; Cuker, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The development of thrombocytopenia is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with increased mortality. Frequent and important causes of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients include etiologies related to the underlying illness for which the patient is admitted, such as infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and iatrogenic etiologies such as drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, hemodilution, major surgery, and extracorporeal circuitry. This review presents a brief discussion of the pathophysiology, distinguishing clinical features, and management of these etiologies, and provides a diagnostic approach to hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia that considers the timing and severity of the platelet count fall, the presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis, the clinical context, and the peripheral blood smear. This approach may offer guidance to clinicians in distinguishing among the various causes of hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia and providing management appropriate to the etiology.

  19. Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... products that are not commonly stocked in hospital pharmacies. Examples include: Salagen ® , Evoxac ® , and Restasis ® Eye drops, ... prescription and OTC medications/products in their labeled pharmacy container or packaging. This is important in case ...

  20. Home versus hospital confinement

    PubMed Central

    Barry, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    The case for hospital rather than home delivery has been powerfully argued, especially in and since the Report of the Peel Committee. Nevertheless, evidence of comparison with other countries, notably the Netherlands, suggests the choice is not necessarily simple. Some general practitioner units are now reporting perinatal mortality rates which are consistently lower than those of specialist units, and recent statistical analyses suggest that the presence of more high risk cases in consultant units does not explain this. The only big controlled home-versus-hospital trial did not lead to a significantly lower perinatal mortality rate in the hospital group. The onus of proof now seems to lie with those who advocate 100 per cent hospital confinement. PMID:7373581

  1. Objections to hospital philosophers.

    PubMed Central

    Ruddick, W; Finn, W

    1985-01-01

    Like morally sensitive hospital staff, philosophers resist routine simplification of morally complex cases. Like hospital clergy, they favour reflective and principled decision-making. Like hospital lawyers, they refine and extend the language we use to formulate and defend our complex decisions. But hospital philosophers are not redundant: they have a wider range of principles and categories and a sharper eye for self-serving presuppositions and implicit contradictions within our practices. As semi-outsiders, they are often best able to take an 'external point of view,' unburdened by routine, details, and departmental loyalties. Their clarifications can temporarily disrupt routine, but can eventually improve staff morale, hence team practice and patient welfare. PMID:3981573

  2. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms.

  3. American Hospital Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitals & Health Networks H & HN Daily Trustee Research & Trends AHA Policy Research Health Research & Educational Trust AHA ... Associations unless otherwise indicated. AHA does not claim ownership of any content, including content incorporated by permission ...

  4. Hospital Ship Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    designed to operate primarily when anchored to reduce the effects of roll. Quantum markets two separate zero speed active roll fin models for small ...ships. Feasibility of scaling fins to the size of the hospital ship requires validation. 3.12 Lifeboats and Liferafts The safety appliances designated ...for Innovation in Ship Design Technical Report Hospital Ship Replacement By Hannah Allison, Christopher Mehrvarzi, Rebecca Piks, Beau Lovdahl

  5. Fast tracking hospital construction.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made.

  6. "Because I was in pain, I just wanted to be treated": competing therapeutic goals in the performance of healing HIV/AIDS in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tonya N

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwe is experiencing one of the most severe AIDS epidemics in the world, with an estimated one out of seven people infected with HIV. For both palliative care and pragmatic treatment of HIV-related opportunistic infections, people turn to Un'anga (the traditional system of health and healing), not as a substitute for Western therapeutics but as an alternative explanatory model for the diagnosis and management of illness. Through the use of highly charged symbols and ritualized communication, n'angas (traditional healers) seek to transform patients' understandings and experiences of HIV-related illness. Using performance theory and discourse analysis, this article seeks to expand our understanding of how competing therapeutic goals in the performance of healing affect the structure and content of performance, its subsequent meaning, and the therapeutic effect on those afflicted with HIV.

  7. Antiquity of the biological sulphur cycle: evidence from sulphur and carbon isotopes in 2700 million-year-old rocks of the Belingwe Belt, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Grassineau, N V; Nisbet, E G; Bickle, M J; Fowler, C M; Lowry, D; Mattey, D P; Abell, P; Martin, A

    2001-01-01

    Sulphur and carbon isotopic analyses on small samples of kerogens and sulphide minerals from biogenic and non-biogenic sediments of the 2.7 x 10(9) years(Ga)-old Belingwe Greenstone Belt (Zimbabwe) imply that a complex biological sulphur cycle was in operation. Sulphur isotopic compositions display a wider range of biological fractionation than hitherto reported from the Archaean. Carbon isotopic values in kerogen record fractionations characteristic of rubisco activity methanogenesis and methylotrophy and possibly anoxygenic photosynthesis. Carbon and sulphur isotopic fractionations have been interpreted in terms of metabolic processes in 2.7 Ga prokaryote mat communities, and indicate the operation of a diverse array of metabolic processes. The results are consistent with models of early molecular evolution derived from ribosomal RNA. PMID:11209879

  8. Patterns of self-reported behaviour change associated with receiving voluntary counselling and testing in a longitudinal study from Manicaland, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Cremin, Ide; Nyamukapa, Constance; Sherr, Lorraine; Hallett, Timothy B; Chawira, Godwin; Cauchemez, Simon; Lopman, Ben; Garnett, Geoffrey P; Gregson, Simon

    2010-06-01

    Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is promoted as a potential HIV prevention measure. We describe trends in uptake of VCT for HIV, and patterns of subsequent behaviour change associated with receiving VCT in a population-based open cohort in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. The relationship between receipt of VCT and subsequent reported behaviour was analysed using generalized linear models with random effects. At the third survey, 8.6% of participants (1,079/12,533), had previously received VCT. Women who received VCT, both those positive and negative, reduced their reported number of new partners. Among those testing positive, this risk reduction was enhanced with time since testing. Among men, no behavioural risk reduction associated with VCT was observed. Significant increases in consistent condom use, with regular or non-regular partners, following VCT, were not observed. This study suggests that, among women, particularly those who are infected, behavioural risk reduction does occur following VCT.

  9. Is the Ventersdorp rift system of southern Africa related to a continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at 2.64 Ga AGO?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Kusky, T.

    1985-01-01

    Rocks of the Ventersdorp Supergroup were deposited in a system of northeast trending grabens on the Kaapvaal Craton approximately 2.64 Ga ago contemporary with a continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons. It is suggested that it was this collision that initiated the Ventersdorp rifting. Individual grabens strike at high angles toward the continental collision zone now exposed in the Limpopo Province where late orogenic left-lateral strike-slip faulting and anatectic granites are recognized. The Ventersdorp rift province is related to extension in the Kaapvaal Craton associated with the collision, and some analogy is seen with such rifts as the Shansi and Baikal Systems associated with the current India-Asia continental collision.

  10. Antiquity of the biological sulphur cycle: evidence from sulphur and carbon isotopes in 2700 million-year-old rocks of the Belingwe Belt, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Grassineau, N V; Nisbet, E G; Bickle, M J; Fowler, C M; Lowry, D; Mattey, D P; Abell, P; Martin, A

    2001-01-22

    Sulphur and carbon isotopic analyses on small samples of kerogens and sulphide minerals from biogenic and non-biogenic sediments of the 2.7 x 10(9) years(Ga)-old Belingwe Greenstone Belt (Zimbabwe) imply that a complex biological sulphur cycle was in operation. Sulphur isotopic compositions display a wider range of biological fractionation than hitherto reported from the Archaean. Carbon isotopic values in kerogen record fractionations characteristic of rubisco activity methanogenesis and methylotrophy and possibly anoxygenic photosynthesis. Carbon and sulphur isotopic fractionations have been interpreted in terms of metabolic processes in 2.7 Ga prokaryote mat communities, and indicate the operation of a diverse array of metabolic processes. The results are consistent with models of early molecular evolution derived from ribosomal RNA.

  11. Mapping changes in agricultural cropping frequency across Zimbabwe using cross-scale time-series remote sensing data and a novel signal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, A.; Van Den Hoek, J.; Sedano, F.; Kumar, V.; Tucker, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    A central challenge in agricultural remote sensing is the detection of changes in intra-annual cropping frequency, often necessary in monitoring crop productivity, agricultural management practices, or policy implementation. Though remote sensing imagery offers synoptic and systematic measurements relevant to monitoring crop phenology across spatial scales, broad-scale (i.e., country-wide) changes in cropping frequency have seldom been quantified due to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in phenological and climatic cycles, signal noise, and missing data resulting from cloud cover. For example, in Zimbabwe, once the breadbasket of southern Africa, large-scale changes to agricultural production followed land distribution policies introduced in the early 2000s. The diverse impacts of land reform on the agricultural economy continue to be debated yet the underlying changes in cropping frequency and pattern have never been systematically assessed. Using Zimbabwean agriculture as a case study and MODIS 16-day composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and complementary Landsat imagery collected since 2000 across Zimbabwe, this presentation introduces a novel time-series signal decomposition and spatiotemporal clustering approach to map intra-annual cropping frequency and changes therein. MODIS-derived results indicate a massive decline in double-cropped acreage since 2000, a complete overhaul of cropping pattern with the disaggregation of large-scale commercial farms into multiple smallholder plots, and a spatial contraction of double-cropped fields to peri-urban lands, while Landsat trends capture the recent emergence of small-scale double-cropping systems unseen in MODIS data. These findings provide an independent and objective assessment of field-level changes in agricultural productivity, spatiotemporally explicit land reform effects on large-scale as well as smallholder agriculture and potential for food production, and have importance for regional water

  12. Challenges in data quality: the influence of data quality assessments on data availability and completeness in a voluntary medical male circumcision programme in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Y; Bochner, A F; Makunike, B; Holec, M; Xaba, S; Tshimanga, M; Chitimbire, V; Barnhart, S; Feldacker, C

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess availability and completeness of data collected before and after a data quality audit (DQA) in voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) sites in Zimbabwe to determine the effect of this process on data quality. Setting 4 of 10 VMMC sites in Zimbabwe that received a DQA in February, 2015 selected by convenience sampling. Participants Retrospective reviews of all client intake forms (CIFs) from November, 2014 and May, 2015. A total of 1400 CIFs were included from those 2 months across four sites. Primary and secondary outcomes Data availability was measured as the percentage of VMMC clients whose CIF was on file at each site. A data evaluation tool measured the completeness of 34 key CIF variables. A comparison of pre-DQA and post-DQA results was conducted using χ2 and t-tests. Results After the DQA, high record availability of over 98% was maintained by sites 3 and 4. For sites 1 and 2, record availability increased by 8.0% (p=0.001) and 9.7% (p=0.02), respectively. After the DQA, sites 1, 2 and 3 improved significantly in data completeness across 34 key indicators, increasing by 8.6% (p<0.001), 2.7% (p=0.003) and 3.8% (p<0.001), respectively. For site 4, CIF data completeness decreased by 1.7% (p<0.01) after the DQA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that CIF data availability and completeness generally improved after the DQA. However, gaps in documentation of vital signs and adverse events signal areas for improvement. Additional emphasis on data completeness would help support high-quality programme implementation and availability of reliable data for decision-making. PMID:28132009

  13. Motivation and sustainability of care facilitators engaged in a community home-based HIV/AIDS program in Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Eri; Kodama, Tomoko; Kundishora, Emma

    2010-07-01

    Community home-based HIV/AIDS programs with care facilitators (CFs) are key interventions for dealing with both the shortage of health professionals (e.g., physicians, nurses, midwives, etc.) and the current HIV/AIDS epidemic in many parts of Africa. Zimbabwe, one of the sub-Saharan countries is not an exception. The Zimbabwe Red Cross Society started a community home-based HIV/AIDS program with CFs in 1992. This paper describes the results of a cross-sectional study conducted to examine the factors influencing the motivational outcome and self-assessed performance of CFs from one province involved in this program. Self-administered questionnaires provided to CFs were analyzed by chi-square test and multiple liner regression. The response rate was 71.7% (15 male, 104 female). Results showed that 46.8% of CFs in rural area had worked more than five years whilst only 18.5% of CFs in urban area did (p<0.05). The motivational outcome and self-assessed performance of CFs were significantly associated with perception toward family and community environment (beta=0.462, SE=0.092, p<0.001 and beta=0.496, SE=0.173, p<0.001, respectively) and perception toward organizational characteristics, specially managerial support, like attention from a manager, clear instruction, and goals, had an impact to CFs motivational outcome. These findings suggest that organization need to create the policy consistent with community need and provide clear goal and instruction to improve to motivation and performance of CFs.

  14. “That Pregnancy Can Bring Noise into the Family”: Exploring Intimate Partner Sexual Violence during Pregnancy in the Context of HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Shefer, Tamara; Zarowsky, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. Methods This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and HIV in pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and focus group discussions were held with 64 pregnant or nursing mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care clinics in low-income neighbourhoods of Harare, covering the major thematic areas of validated sexual violence research instruments. Thematic content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed data was conducted. Results While women reported some positive experiences of sex in pregnancy, most participants commonly experienced coercive sexual practices. They reported that men failed to understand, or refused to accept, pregnancy and its associated emotional changes, and often forced painful and degrading sexual acts on them, usually while the men were under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs. Men often refused or delayed HIV testing, and participants reported accounts of HIV-positive men not disclosing their status to their partners and deliberately infecting or attempting to infect them. Women's passive acceptance of sexual violence was influenced by advice they received from other females to subordinate to their partners and to not deprive men of their conjugal sexual rights. Conclusions Cultural and societal factors, unequal gender norms and practices, women's economic vulnerability, and men's failure to understand pregnancy and emotional changes, influence men to perpetrate IPSV, leading to high risk of HIV infection. PMID:22937018

  15. Overlapping HIV and sex-work stigma among female sex workers recruited to 14 respondent-driven sampling surveys across Zimbabwe, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, J R; Busza, J; Mushati, P; Fearon, E; Cowan, F M

    2017-06-01

    HIV stigma can inhibit uptake of HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy as well as negatively affect mental health. Efforts to reduce discrimination against people living with HIV (LWH) have contributed to greater acceptance of the infection. Female sex workers (FSW) LWH may experience overlapping stigma due to both their work and HIV status, although this is poorly understood. We examined HIV and sex-work stigma experienced by FSW LWH in Zimbabwe. Using the SAPPH-IRe cluster-randomised trial baseline survey, we analysed the data from 1039 FSW self-reporting HIV. The women were recruited in 14 sites using respondent-driven sampling. We asked five questions to assess internalised and experienced stigma related to working as a sex worker, and the same questions were asked in reference to HIV. Among all FSW, 91% reported some form of sex-work stigma. This was not associated with sociodemographic or sex-work characteristics. Rates of sex-work stigma were higher than those of HIV-related stigma. For example, 38% reported being "talked badly about" for LWH compared with 77% for their involvement in sex work. Those who reported any sex-work stigma also reported experiencing more HIV stigma compared to those who did not report sex-work stigma, suggesting a layering effect. FSW in Zimbabwe experience stigma for their role as "immoral" women and this appears more prevalent than HIV stigma. As HIV stigma attenuates, other forms of social stigma associated with the disease may persist and continue to pose barriers to effective care.

  16. WHO 2010 Guidelines for Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Zimbabwe: Modeling Clinical Outcomes in Infants and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Perez, Freddy; Maruva, Matthews; Chu, Jennifer; Engelsmann, Barbara; Keatinge, Jo; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Mushavi, Angela; Mugwagwa, Rumbidzai; Dabis, Francois; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Zimbabwean national prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) program provided primarily single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) from 2002–2009 and is currently replacing sdNVP with more effective antiretroviral (ARV) regimens. Methods Published HIV and PMTCT models, with local trial and programmatic data, were used to simulate a cohort of HIV-infected, pregnant/breastfeeding women in Zimbabwe (mean age 24.0 years, mean CD4 451 cells/µL). We compared five PMTCT regimens at a fixed level of PMTCT medication uptake: 1) no antenatal ARVs (comparator); 2) sdNVP; 3) WHO 2010 guidelines using “Option A” (zidovudine during pregnancy/infant NVP during breastfeeding for women without advanced HIV disease; lifelong 3-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) for women with advanced disease); 4) WHO “Option B” (ART during pregnancy/breastfeeding without advanced disease; lifelong ART with advanced disease); and 5) “Option B+:” lifelong ART for all pregnant/breastfeeding, HIV-infected women. Pediatric (4–6 week and 18-month infection risk, 2-year survival) and maternal (2- and 5-year survival, life expectancy from delivery) outcomes were projected. Results Eighteen-month pediatric infection risks ranged from 25.8% (no antenatal ARVs) to 10.9% (Options B/B+). Although maternal short-term outcomes (2- and 5-year survival) varied only slightly by regimen, maternal life expectancy was reduced after receipt of sdNVP (13.8 years) or Option B (13.9 years) compared to no antenatal ARVs (14.0 years), Option A (14.0 years), or Option B+ (14.5 years). Conclusions Replacement of sdNVP with currently recommended regimens for PMTCT (WHO Options A, B, or B+) is necessary to reduce infant HIV infection risk in Zimbabwe. The planned transition to Option A may also improve both pediatric and maternal outcomes. PMID:21655097

  17. Hospitals look to hospitality service firms to meet TQM goals.

    PubMed

    Hard, R

    1992-05-20

    Hospitals that hire contract service firms to manage one or all aspects of their hospitality service departments increasingly expect those firms to help meet total quality management goals as well as offer the more traditional cost reduction, quality improvement and specialized expertise, finds the 1992 Hospital Contract Services Survey conducted by Hospitals.

  18. 3. Hospital Point, general view toward Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Hospital Point, general view toward Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building showing cannon (at left) and Saunders Monument (at right in distance), view to southwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  19. The impact of hospital discharge on inappropriate hospital stay.

    PubMed

    Panis, Lambert J G G; Verheggen, Frank W S M; Pop, Peter; Prins, Martin H

    2004-01-01

    Appropriate hospital stay should be effective, efficient and tailored to patient needs. Previous studies have found that on average 20 per cent of hospital stay is inappropriate. Within obstetrics, inappropriate hospital stay consists mostly of delays in hospital discharge. The specific goals of this study were to reduce inappropriate hospital stay by fine-tuning patient logistics, increasing efficiency and providing more comfortable surroundings. New policies using strict discharge criteria were implemented. Total inappropriate hospital stay decreased from 13.3 to 7.2 per cent. The delay in discharge procedures halved. P-charts showed a decrease in inappropriate hospital stay, indicating the current process to be stable. Concludes that a significant reduction in inappropriate hospital stay was found following the implementation of innovative hospital discharge policies, indicating greater efficiency and accessibility of hospital services.

  20. Assessing the relationship between water quality parameters and changes in landuse patterns in the Upper Manyame River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibena, J.; Nhapi, I.; Gumindoga, W.

    For the past 30 years, the increases in population pressure and external influences, such as economic growth, have accelerated the demand for land within the Upper Manyame River catchment in Zimbabwe which has caused substantial changes in landuse. The general objective of this research was to assess the impacts of landuse activities on the water quality of the Upper Manyame River which drains the rural and urbanised part of the catchment up to flow gauging station C21. Landcover data for the month of April in years of 1984, 1995, 2003 and 2011 were acquired from available Landsat TM and ETM images and were classified through the maximum likelihood digital image classification using the supervised classification approach. The status of water quality of the Upper Manyame River was also assessed through analyses of historical concentrations and pollution loads for TP, DO, COD, NH3-N, SS, Pb, NO3, BOD5, EC, PO4-P and TN at the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) gauging station CR21 sampling point for 1996, 2000/1 and 2008/9. Water quality of 15 monitoring sites comprising 25 water quality parameters were monitored monthly from January to June 2012. These locations were selected to reflect a wide array of landuse for both the dry and wet seasons. The results indicated that there was an increase in pollution load from 1995 to 2012; for TP from 130 kg/day to 376 kg/d, and for TN from 290 kg/day to 494 kg/d. This indicates high pollution levels which have severe impacts on downstream users and also severe sewage contamination. Significant deviations occurred in DO (0.1-6.8) mg/L, COD (11-569) mg/L, BOD5 (5-341) mg/L, PO4-P (0.01-4.45) mg/L, NH3-N (0.001-6.800) mg/L and EC (38-642) μS/cm. Hydrologic Response Unit and buffer analysis were used to determine the dominant landuse which contributes to a certain water quality. Results of digital image classification indicate that woodland/forest, grassland and bareland decreased between years 1984 to 2011 by 24.0%, 22.6% and

  1. Marketing the hospital library.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many librarians do not see themselves as marketers, but marketing is an essential role for hospital librarians. Library work involves education, and there are parallels between marketing and education as described in this article. It is incumbent upon hospital librarians actively to pursue ways of reminding their customers about library services. This article reinforces the idea that marketing is an element in many of the things that librarians already do, and includes a list of suggested marketing strategies intended to remind administrators, physicians, and other customers that they have libraries in their organizations.

  2. Tiered hospital networks.

    PubMed

    Yegian, Jill M

    2003-01-01

    As a result of rising health care costs, health plans are experimenting with insurance products that shift greater financial responsibility for medical care to consumers and create incentives for consumers to consider cost differences when choosing among providers. Based on an October 2002 roundtable discussion, this paper discusses insurance product trends, particularly tiered hospital networks. Issues addressed include these product features' potential to reduce system costs, the effect on the hospital-health plan relationship, consumers' ability to consider cost and quality in decision making, and financial barriers to care for the chronically ill.

  3. Toilet privacy in hospital.

    PubMed

    Logan, Karen

    Good practice in toilet management and continence promotion can help hospital patients to maintain their dignity. This article reports on an audit that highlighted the issues important to patients and nurses in terms of improving privacy and dignity for inpatients using the toilet.

  4. Drama Therapies in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Judith; Prosperi, Mario

    1976-01-01

    Explores the use of drama as a therapeutic tool at various hospitals and records specific therapy groups dialogues. Available from: The Drama Review, 51 West 4th Street, Room 300, New York, N.Y. 10012. Subscription Rates: $12.50 per year. (MH)

  5. Mechanical engineering in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wallington, J W

    1980-10-01

    The design of a modern hospital owes more to engineering than the layman may realize. In this context, many engineers are in the position of laymen, being unfamiliar with the multitude of services that lies behind the impressive facade of a modern hospital. In recent years medicine and surgery themselves have taken on many of the characteristics of a technology. This has required a matching development of the services both mechanical and electrical that are required in modern health care buildings. In medical terms, if the architectural features provide the 'skin' of the hospital, the mechanical and electrical engineering services provide the nerves and sinews. If we take as an example the recently completed Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, (Fig. 1), which cost 10 million pounds at current cost, the service network was responsible for about half the total cost. About 400 miles (643 km) of electrical wiring and more than 40 mile (64.5 km) of copper and steel piping were used to service 3000 separate rooms. This compares with percentages of between 18 and 25 per cent for other large buildings such as office blocks, hotels and sports complexes.

  6. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  7. Innovations in Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzhandzhugazova, Elena A.; Blinova, Ekaterina A.; Orlova, Liubov N.; Romanova, Marianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the study of the role and importance of innovation, its classification, the problems of its application in the hotel industry with emphasis on the application of sensory marketing tools in the development of the innovative marketing mix within the hospitality industry. The article provides an analysis of the "seven…

  8. Going to the Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking care of you — to explain. continue Your Room Once you're in the hospital, you may have a room all to yourself or you might share one with another kid. Your room will have a bed, usually with buttons to ...

  9. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  10. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  11. Cost characteristics of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smet, Mike

    2002-09-01

    Modern hospitals are complex multi-product organisations. The analysis of a hospital's production and/or cost structure should therefore use the appropriate techniques. Flexible functional forms based on the neo-classical theory of the firm seem to be most suitable. Using neo-classical cost functions implicitly assumes minimisation of (variable) costs given that input prices and outputs are exogenous. Local and global properties of flexible functional forms and short-run versus long-run equilibrium are further issues that require thorough investigation. In order to put the results based on econometric estimations of cost functions in the right perspective, it is important to keep these considerations in mind when using flexible functional forms. The more recent studies seem to agree that hospitals generally do not operate in their long-run equilibrium (they tend to over-invest in capital (capacity and equipment)) and that it is therefore appropriate to estimate a short-run variable cost function. However, few studies explicitly take into account the implicit assumptions and restrictions embedded in the models they use. An alternative method to explain differences in costs uses management accounting techniques to identify the cost drivers of overhead costs. Related issues such as cost-shifting and cost-adjusting behaviour of hospitals and the influence of market structure on competition, prices and costs are also discussed shortly.

  12. Reengineering hospital materiel management.

    PubMed

    Giunipero, L C

    1995-08-01

    Reengineering involves significant change and dramatic rethinking of the business process. The expected result of these changed processes is dramatic improvement. Hospital cost pressures and technological change necessitate review or reengineering the process to enhance customer service at a lower cost. Three areas that yield significant results include reducing the cost of purchasing, implementing new technologies, and empowering teams to accomplish customer driven goals.

  13. Economic Sanctions and Zimbabwe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    continuing oppression and repressive authoritarian practices. Despite hope for improved economic activity and success, President Mugabe’s presence...experiencing “a nascent economic recovery”. 82 Human rights however, have been repressed or openly and wholly disregarded by the ruling ZANU-PF...intangible effect of advertising external disgust with Mugabe’s actions. However, the accompanying or resultant international withdrawal of regime

  14. Improving Hospital Discharge Time

    PubMed Central

    El-Eid, Ghada R.; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of patients left their room before noon in the postintervention period (P < 0.001), though there was no statistical difference in before noon discharge. Hospital LOS dropped from 3.4 to 3.1 days postintervention (P < 0.001). ED mean LOS of patients admitted to the hospital was significantly lower in the postintervention period (6.9 ± 7.8 vs 5.9 ± 7.7 hours; P < 0.001). Six Sigma methodology can be an effective change management tool to improve discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific. PMID:25816029

  15. [Leadership in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Current concepts in leadership and governance on the level of supervisory board, management and departments are often considered as insufficient to cope with the profound structural change which actually takes place in the German health care system. While vertical and horizontal disconnecting is typical of the professional bureaucracy of hospitals, transition from functional to divisional structure further increases this risk. Accordingly, medical experts are oriented towards their professional peers and patient care on the one side; on the other side the management gets isolated and looses operative and strategic control. Several studies provide evidence for the relevance of role models to serve as agents of change, which are now developed into the concept of "Clinical Governance": evidence-based medicine, guidelines, continuous quality improvement, safety culture, resource accountability and organisational learning. The present situation makes it necessary to extend this conception, which focuses on the departmental level in an organisation with divisional features, to one of "Clinical Corporate Governance". This term, which also includes supervisory structures and the management board and is relevant for the total hospital and company, respectively, is based on the corporate governance concept. Inside the hospital, the management and the heads of the departments have to agree that (1) experts really need to be integrated into the decision process, and that (2) the outcomes of the entire hospital have to be regarded as equal or superior to the aims of a single department. The public image of the hospital should be one of a strong and reliable partner in health care and health care business on a local, regional and national level. Members of the supervisory board should clearly put corporate aspects above political and other implications and pay attention to personal independence from the leaders of the medical departments.

  16. The frontline hospital.

    PubMed

    Mein, P

    1983-01-01

    This brief description of the planning process for a frontline hospital is intended as a guide only: there will be a variety of approaches depending on local conditions. However, certain of the principles raised have universal relevance for the construction of health facilities where resources are limited. In brief, these: - The changing role of the frontline hospital should not be allowed to obscure the fact that the small hospital still has a significant role to play and that future, as yet undefined, functional changes will take place necessitating generalized designs that can accommodate those changes. - The erection of new buildings is not always the appropriate solution to apparent problems with facilities. Often a more relevant course is to adapt existing buildings or to provide community-level primary health care services not based on facilities. - The development of standardized, though flexible, briefs for hospitals of different sizes is essential, since ther will, for some years to come, be a shortage of the professional manpower needed to enable completely individual designs to be produced for each facility. Standardized briefs are infinitely preferable to standard or type plans, which tend to be inflexible and lead to overbuilding. - Local involvement in the planning process is essential, not only because it provides useful knowledge but primarily because local commitment is the only way of avoiding the construction of inappropriate facilities. - Architectural expertise must be available within the health system, since very often outside consultants are unable or unwilling, because of the system of payment, to design suitable hospital buildings. - The type of construction used should be the simplest and most economical that will provide an effective environment for the health tasks to be carried out so that the limited resources available can be stretched to serve as many people as possible. - Local building materials should always be preferred- to

  17. How consumers view hospital advertising.

    PubMed

    Johns, H E; Moser, H R

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine: (a) consumers' attitudes toward advertising by hospitals; (b) which media consumers feel are appropriate for hospital advertising; and (c) whether consumers are seeing hospital advertisements, and if so, through which media. It was found that consumers indeed have a favorable attitude toward hospitals that advertise. It was also found that consumers feel that most media are appropriate for hospital advertising. Finally, it was found that most consumers have seen hospitals advertise their services, especially on television and radio and in the newspaper.

  18. The politics of hospital payment.

    PubMed

    Feder, J; Spitz, B

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of hospital payment over the last decade. The authors explain how provider interests and judgments became a standard for appropriate hospital payment: the impact of that standard on hospital costs; and the political obstacles to imposing an alternative standard and controlling hospital costs. The authors draw lessons from this experience, here and in other countries, to propose an alternative approach to hospital payment that would allow policymakers, accountable to the public, to make explicit choices about the level and nature of hospital expenditures.

  19. Hospital-acquired infections - when are hospitals legally liable?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, David

    2012-04-12

    Hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial infections) are acquired in healthcare settings by patients admitted for reasons unrelated to the infection or not previously infected when admitted to the facility. Liability for hospital-acquired infections depends on whether the hospital: (i) has introduced best practice infection control measures; (ii) has implemented best practice infection control measures; or (iii) will be vicariously liable for negligent or intentional failures by staff to comply with the infection control measures implemented. A hospital and hospital administrators may be held directly liable for not introducing or implementing best practice infection control measures, resulting in harm to patients. The hospital may also be held vicariously liable where patients have been harmed because hospital staff negligently or intentionally failed to comply with the infection control measures that have been implemented by the hospital, during the course and scope of their employment.

  20. Hospital malnutrition: a 33-hospital screening study.

    PubMed

    Kamath, S K; Lawler, M; Smith, A E; Kalat, T; Olson, R

    1986-02-01

    A collaborative study involving nutrition screening of 3,047 patients (excluding 125 pregnant women) at admission to 33 hospitals in and around the greater Chicago area was carried out to identify patients at nutritional risk. Information on sex, age, admitting diagnosis, serum albumin, hemoglobin, total lymphocyte count, and height and weight was collected from the medical chart within 48 hours of admission. Nutrition screening could not be completed for a larger number of patients (60%) because data at admission were not available. Of the remaining 40% of patients, more than 50% had below normal values for one or more of the variables studied: serum albumin, hemoglobin, and total lymphocyte count. A large number of the patients (40%) also were considered at nutritional risk as judged by the criteria of weight/height (measured only). Early nutrition intervention for high-risk patients cannot be implemented, nor can the efficacy of nutrition services be evaluated, unless nutrition screening is carried out on patients at admission.