Kulander, L; Nisbeth, U; Danielsson, B G; Eriksson, O
Endotoxin exposure during haemodialysis may cause acute and chronic adverse reactions. In order to estimate the risk to the patient, samples of dialysis fluid from 39 of the 45 dialysis units in Sweden were analysed by the chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Higher levels were obtained after the usual weekend shutdowns. The length of the tubing delivering the reverse osmosis water seemed to influence the extent of contamination. Fifty-nine percent of the units showed low mean endotoxin levels (i.e. mean concentration below the recommended limit in Sweden: < 25 ng l-1), while 18% of units had high levels (mean concentration > 100 ng l-1).
Coritsidis, George N; Maglinte, Gregory A; Acharya, Anjali; Saxena, Anjali; Chang, Chun-Lan; Hill, Jerrold; Gitlin, Matthew; Lafayette, Richard A
Few data have been reported on anemia management practices in hospital-based dialysis centers (HBDCs), which are uniquely different from other freestanding dialysis centers. Examining data from HBDCs would help determine if HBDCs and the general US dialysis population have similar trends related to how anemia is managed in dialysis patients. Given recent changes in the prescribing information of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and in end-stage renal disease-related health policy and reimbursement, this study describes trends in anemia management practices in HBDCs from January 2010 through March 2013. Electronic medical records of 5404 adult hemodialysis patients in 50 US-based HBDCs were analyzed retrospectively. Patients included in the study cohort were aged ≥18 years and had at least 1 hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and 1 dose of an ESA between January 2010 and March 2013. End points included Hb concentration, darbepoetin alfa dosing, epoetin alfa dosing, and iron biomarkers (transferrin saturation and ferritin) and dosing. From 2010 to 2013, mean monthly Hb levels declined from 11.4 to 10.7 g/dL; the percentage of patients with mean monthly Hb levels <10 g/dL increased from 11.3% to 24.4%; and the percentage of patients with mean monthly Hb levels >12 g/dL declined from 30.1% to 11.2%. The median darbepoetin alfa cumulative 4-week dose also declined 38.8%, and the weekly epoetin alfa dose declined 24%. From January 2010 to March 2013, the percentage of patients with transferrin saturation >30% increased from 35.8% to 43.6%, the percentage of patients with ferritin levels >500 ng/mL increased from 62.0% to 77.9%, the percentage of patients with ferritin levels ≥800 ng/mL increased from 28.9% to 47.3%, and the median cumulative 4-week intravenous iron dose increased 50%. These study results support growing evidence that meaningful changes have occurred over the last 3 years in how anemia is clinically managed in US hemodialysis patients. Study
Salman, Muhammad; Khan, Amer Hayat; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Hussain, Khalid; Shehzadi, Naureen; Islam, Muhammad; Jummaat, Fauziah
Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), is involved in significant cardiovascular morbidity. Therefore, the objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of anemia in pre-dialysis patients, as well as to determine the predictors of anti-anemic therapy. A retrospective, observational study was conducted on adult pre-dialysis patients receiving treatment at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2009 to December 2013. A total of 615 eligible cases were included. The mean age of patients was 64.1±12.0 years. The prevalence of anemia was 75.8%, and the severity of anemia was mild in 47.7% of the patients, moderate in 32.2%, and severe in 20%. Based on morphological classification of anemia, 76.9% of our patients had normochromic-normocytic anemia whereas 21.8 and 1.3% had hypochromic-microcytic anemia and macrocytic anemia, respectively. Oral iron supplements were prescribed to 38.0% of the patients and none of the patients was given erythropoietin stabilizing agents (ESA) or intravenous iron preparations. In logistic regression, significant predictors of anti-anemic preparation use were decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and advanced stages of CKD. The results of the present study suggest that the prevalence of anemia in pre-dialysis patients is higher than currently accepted and it is found to be correlated with renal function; prevalence increases with declined renal function. An earlier identification as well as appropriate management of anemia will not only have a positive impact on quality of life but also reduce hospitalizations of CKD patients due to cardiovascular events.
Bordenave, K; Tzamaloukas, A H; Conneen, S; Adler, K; Keller, L K; Murata, G H
To characterize the factors affecting the decision to withdraw from dialysis, the authors compared patients withdrawing from dialysis (n=62) with patients dying from all other causes (n=242) over 21 years (1976-1996) in a single dialysis unit. Compared with those who died from other causes, patients who withdrew were older (67+/-11 vs 61+/-11 years); were more likely to have severe physical impairment (87% vs 62%) and severe restriction of activities of daily living (77% vs 46%); and had higher frequencies of congestive heart failure (81 % vs 62%), myocardial infarction (60% vs 42%), peripheral vascular disease (71 % vs 40%), and diabetes mellitus (66% vs 36%) (p < or = 0.014). Dialysis modality; duration of dialysis; the degree of family support; index of disease severity; the use of tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drugs; and the frequency of ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmia, pericarditis, cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, hypertension, obstructive lung disease, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus did not differ between the two groups. Stepwise logistic regression showed that dialysis during 1990-1996, severe limitation of activities of daily living, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for withdrawal. During 1990-1996, 44% of the deaths were caused by withdrawal from treatment. In addition to other factors, dialysis in the 1990s is a strong predictor of withdrawal from dialysis. The reasons for the increased rate of withdrawal from dialysis in recent years, and the effect of this increased rate of withdrawal on mortality, need further evaluation.
Rivara, Matthew B; Mehrotra, Rajnish
To discuss the changing landscape of home dialysis in the United States over the past decade, including recent research on clinical outcomes in patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, and to describe the impact of recent payment reforms for patients with end-stage renal disease. Accumulating evidence supports the conclusion that clinical outcomes for patients treated with peritoneal dialysis or home hemodialysis are as good as or better than for patients treated with conventional in-center hemodialysis. The recent implementation of the Medicare-expanded prospective payment system for the care of end-stage renal disease patients has resulted in substantial growth in the utilization of peritoneal dialysis in the United States. Utilization of home hemodialysis has also grown, but the contribution of the expanded prospective payment system to this growth is less certain. Home dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, represents an important alternative to in-center hemodialysis that is effective and patient-centered. Over the coming decade, the growth in the number of end-stage renal disease patient treated with home dialysis modalities should prompt further comparative and cost-effectiveness research, increased attention to racial and ethnic disparities, and investments in home dialysis education for both patients and providers. http://links.lww.com/CONH/A13.
Rodriguez, Rudolph A
The United States offers near-universal coverage for treatment of ESRD. Undocumented immigrants with ESRD are the only subset of patients not covered under a national strategy. There are 2 divergent dialysis treatment strategies offered to undocumented immigrants in the United States, emergent dialysis and chronic outpatient dialysis. Emergent dialysis, offering dialysis only when urgent indications exist, is the treatment strategy in certain states. Differing interpretations of Emergency Medicaid statute by the courts and state and federal government have resulted in the geographic disparity in treatment strategies for undocumented immigrants with ESRD. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 ignored the health care of undocumented immigrants and will not provide relief to undocumented patients with catastrophic illness like ESRD, cancer, or traumatic brain injuries. The difficult patient and provider decisions are explored in this review. The Renal Physicians Association Position Statement on uncompensated renal-related care for noncitizens is an excellent starting point for a framework to address this ethical dilemma. The practice of "emergent dialysis" will hopefully be found unacceptable in the future because of the fact that it is not cost effective, ethical, or humane. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Albuquerque, W; Kemp, D T
Current hearing screening programmes in the United Kingdom are performing unacceptably poorly. Davies et al. (1997) suggested that universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) would be more effective and cheaper to run. However, there is concern that hospital-based UNHS would not be feasible because of early postnatal discharge, and thus babies not staying in hospital long enough to be screened. Two studies were designed to determine the viability of hospital-based UNHS in a district general hospital in the United Kingdom. Study 1 retrospectively determined the discharge age and time of discharge of all 3021 well babies born at St Helier hospital, Carshalton, and the number of babies born at home in the area, from 19 October 1997-18 October 1998. Most well babies were found to pass through hospital at a convenient time for predischarge hearing screening, and the optimal protocol was screening from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week. The predicted maximal screening coverage was 92.68%. Study 2 tested the calculated optimal protocol over 1 week. It was found that UNHS with otoacoustic emissions on the maternity ward from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week, achieved a coverage of 89.06%, with an acceptable false positive rate of 6.2%. It is likely that a similar protocol with slight modifications could be implemented successfully in other hospitals in the United Kingdom.
Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Lach, Krzysztof; Pasternack, Iris; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Cicchetti, Americo; Marchetti, Marco; Kidholm, Kristian; Arentz-Hansen, Helene; Rosenmöller, Magdalene; Wild, Claudia; Kahveci, Rabia; Ulst, Margus
Health technology assessment (HTA) carried out for policy decision making has well-established principles unlike hospital-based HTA (HB-HTA), which differs from the former in the context characteristics and ways of operation. This study proposes principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. A framework for good practice criteria was built inspired by the EFQM excellence business model and information from six literature reviews, 107 face-to-face interviews, forty case studies, large-scale survey, focus group, Delphi survey, as well as local and international validation. In total, 385 people from twenty countries have participated in defining the principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. Fifteen guiding principles for good practices in HB-HTA units are grouped in four dimensions. Dimension 1 deals with principles of the assessment process aimed at providing contextualized information for hospital decision makers. Dimension 2 describes leadership, strategy and partnerships of HB-HTA units which govern and facilitate the assessment process. Dimension 3 focuses on adequate resources that ensure the operation of HB-HTA units. Dimension 4 deals with measuring the short- and long-term impact of the overall performance of HB-HTA units. Finally, nine core guiding principles were selected as essential requirements for HB-HTA units based on the expertise of the HB-HTA units participating in the project. Guiding principles for good practices set up a benchmark for HB-HTA because they represent the ideal performance of HB-HTA units; nevertheless, when performing HTA at hospital level, context also matters; therefore, they should be adapted to ensure their applicability in the local context.
Letchmi, Santhna; Das, Srijit; Halim, Hasliza; Zakariah, Farid Azizul; Hassan, Hamidah; Mat, Samsiah; Packiavathy, Ruth
The fatigue that is observed in patients who are undergoing dialysis is usually associated with an impaired quality of life. The present cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2009 in three hemodialysis units in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Depression Anxiety and Stress Score 21 were used to determine the level of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress of patients who were undergoing dialysis. The data were obtained from a calculated sample of 116 and a total of 103 respondents participated in the study. A total of 56 (54.4%) and 47 (45.6%) respondents experienced a high level and a low level of fatigue, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the duration of treatment and the level of fatigue. The respondents who had been receiving treatment for > 2 years experienced more fatigue, compared to the respondents who had been undergoing hemodialysis for > 2 years. There was a significant difference in relation to the age of the participants regarding the level of fatigue. No significant relationship between the sex of the participants, anemia, depression, anxiety, stress, and the level of fatigue was observed. Special attention needs to be paid to both the younger and older adults who are receiving treatment. In addition, proper planning is needed for the patients regarding their daily activities in order to reduce fatigue. Nurses who work in hemodialysis units are recommended to provide exercise classes or group therapy in order to boost the energy levels among patients who are undergoing dialysis. Health professionals should provide appropriate treatment for patients who are experiencing fatigue in order to prevent any other complications that could arise.
Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Hsu, Chung-Ping C; Juan, Chi-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chen, Jih-Chang
The role of the leader of a medical unit has evolved over time to expand from simply a medical role to a more managerial one. This study aimed to explore how the behavior of a hospital-based emergency department's (ED's) leader might be related to ED unit performance and ED employees' work satisfaction. One hundred and twelve hospital-based EDs in Taiwan were studied: 10 in medical centers, 32 in regional hospitals, and 70 in district hospitals. Three instruments were designed to assess leader behaviors, unit performance and employee satisfaction in these hospital-based EDs. A mail survey revealed that task-oriented leader behavior was positively related to ED unit performance. Both task- and employee-oriented leader behaviors were found to be positively related to ED nurses' work satisfaction. However, leader behaviors were not shown to be related to ED physicians' work satisfaction at a statistically significant level. Some ED organizational characteristics, however, namely departmentalization and hospital accreditation level, were found to be related to ED physicians' work satisfaction. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eguare, E; Tierney, S; Maher, R; Creamer, M; Grace, P; Cronin, C J; Burke, P
The development of regional dialysis units and the expanding indications for dialysis has led to increased demand for vascular access surgery. Consequently, the provision and maintenance of access, and the management of related complications has created a considerable burden on vascular surgical units in hospitals providing renal replacement therapy (RRT). The objectives of our study were to review our experience with a variety of vascular access modalities for haemodialysis and to quantify the associated surgical workload. We reviewed our experience in a consecutive group of dialysis patients who had access surgery for RRT in a regional hospital setting. Between January 1995 and January 2000, 69 patients entered the long-term dialysis programme in the Mid-Western region (population = 320,000). Of the 158 procedures performed, 138 (87%) were for access creation, and 20 (13%) related to access revision procedures. Twenty patients (29%) developed a total of 30 access related complications. Vascular access procedures accounted for 10% of the vascular surgical workload (1598 procedures) in the five-year period. Vascular access is an important part of the haemodialysis services and surgical expertise should be available at local level to cope with likely demand.
Donia, Ahmed Farouk; Elhadedy, Mohamed Ahmed; El-Maghrabi, Hanzada Mohamed; Abbas, Mohamed Hamed; Foda, Mohamed Ashraf
Hemodialysis (HD) patients are subjected to a number of physical and mental stresses. Physicians might be unaware of some of these problems. We assessed our patients' opinion about the service provided at the dialysis unit. Our unit has 89 patients on HD. A questionnaire exploring our patients' opinion relative to the service provided was prepared. The patients were asked to fill-in the questionnaire in a confidential manner. Questionnaires were then collected and examined while unaware of patient identities. Sixty-nine patients (77.5%) responded to the questionnaire. Eight patients (11.6%) revealed their names on the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, the patients were asked to assess the service of each service by choosing one of the following grades: "excellent," "mediocre" or "bad." For the whole group of contributing patients, there were 563 "excellent," 85 "mediocre" and five "bad" choices in addition to 37 blank "no comment" choices. Food service had the least percentage (68%) of evaluation as "excellent," while doctor' performance got the highest excellent evaluation (85.5%). Thirty-five patients (50.7%) added further comment(s). An audit meeting was conducted to discuss these results. Exploring the opinion of patients on HD might uncover some areas of dissatisfaction and help in improving the provided service. We recommend widespread usage of questionnaires to assess patient satisfaction as well as to assess other health-care aspects.
Hsu, Raymond K; McCulloch, Charles E; Heung, Michael; Saran, Rajiv; Shahinian, Vahakn B; Pavkov, Meda E; Burrows, Nilka Ríos; Powe, Neil R; Hsu, Chi-yuan
The population incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI has risen substantially in the last decade in the United States, and factors associated with this temporal trend are not well known. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a United States nationally representative database of hospitalizations from 2007 to 2009. We used validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes to identify hospitalizations with dialysis-requiring AKI and then, selected the diagnostic and procedure codes most highly associated with dialysis-requiring AKI in 2009. We applied multivariable logistic regression adjusting for demographics and used a backward selection technique to identify a set of diagnoses or a set of procedures that may be a driver for this changing risk in dialysis-requiring AKI. From 2007 to 2009, the population incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI increased by 11% per year (95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.16; P<0.001). Using backward selection, we found that the temporal trend in the six diagnoses, septicemia, hypertension, respiratory failure, coagulation/hemorrhagic disorders, shock, and liver disease, sufficiently and fully accounted for the temporal trend in dialysis-requiring AKI. In contrast, temporal trends in 15 procedures most commonly associated with dialysis-requiring AKI did not account for the increasing dialysis-requiring AKI trend. The increasing risk of dialysis-requiring AKI among hospitalized patients in the United States was highly associated with the changing burden of six acute and chronic conditions but not with surgeries and procedures. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Wares, Joanna R; Lawson, Barry; Shemin, Douglas; D'Agata, Erika M C
Patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (CHD) are among the most vulnerable to infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines to reduce transmission of MDRO in the out-patient dialysis unit are targeted at patients considered to be high-risk for transmitting these organisms: those with infected skin wounds not contained by a dressing, or those with fecal incontinence or uncontrolled diarrhea. Here, we hypothesize that targeting patients receiving antimicrobial treatment would more effectively reduce transmission and acquisition of MDRO. We also hypothesize that environmental contamination plays a role in the dissemination of MDRO in the dialysis unit. To address our hypotheses, we built an agent-based model to simulate different treatment strategies in a dialysis unit. Our results suggest that reducing antimicrobial treatment, either by reducing the number of patients receiving treatment or by reducing the duration of the treatment, markedly reduces overall colonization rates and also the levels of environmental contamination in the dialysis unit. Our results also suggest that improving the environmental decontamination efficacy between patient dialysis treatments is an effective method for reducing colonization and contamination rates. These findings have important implications for the development and implementation of future infection prevention strategies.
Laine, Aaron; Pompos, Arnold; Story, Michael; Jiang, Steve; Timmerman, Robert; Choy, Hak
Investigation into the use of heavy ions for therapeutic purposes was initially pioneered at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1970s [1, 2]. More recently, however, significant advances in determining the safety and efficacy of using heavy ions in the hospital setting have been reported in Japan and Germany [3, 4]. These promising results have helped to resurrect interest in the establishment of hospital-based heavy ion therapy in the United States. In line with these efforts, world experts in the field of heavy ion therapy were invited to attend the first annual International Symposium on Ion Therapy, which was held at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, from November 12 to 14, 2014. A brief overview of the results and discussions that took place during the symposium are presented in this article. PMID:27110586
Scialla, Julia J.; Liu, Jiannong; Guo, Haifeng; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ephraim, Patti L.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Tangri, Navdeep; Shafi, Tariq; Meyer, Klemens B.; Wu, Albert W.; Powe, Neil R.; Boulware, L. Ebony
Studies of dialysis initiation timing have not accounted for predialysis clinical factors that could impact postdialysis outcomes. We examined the association of predialysis health with timing of dialysis initiation in older adult patients in the United States and contrasted morbidity and mortality outcomes among patients with early [estimated GFR (eGFR)≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m2] versus later (eGFR<10 ml/min per 1.73 m2) initiation. We included all patients from the US Renal Data System who initiated dialysis between 2006 and 2008, were ≥67 years old, and had ≥2 years of prior Medicare coverage (n=84,654). We calculated patients’ propensity to initiate dialysis early and matched patients by propensity scores. Cox models were used to compare risks of mortality and hospitalization among initiation groups. The majority (58%) of patients initiated dialysis early. Early initiators were more likely to have had AKI, multiple congestive heart failure admissions, and other hospitalizations preceding initiation. Among propensity-matched patients (n=61,930), early initiation associated with greater all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 1.14), cardiovascular (CV; HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.17), and infectious (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22) mortality and greater all-cause (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05) and infectious (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.13) hospitalizations. There was no difference in CV hospitalizations. Among these older adults, early dialysis initiation associates with greater mortality and hospitalizations, even after accounting for predialysis clinical factors. These findings do not support the common practice of early dialysis initiation in the United States. PMID:24158988
Crews, Deidra C; Scialla, Julia J; Liu, Jiannong; Guo, Haifeng; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ephraim, Patti L; Jaar, Bernard G; Sozio, Stephen M; Miskulin, Dana C; Tangri, Navdeep; Shafi, Tariq; Meyer, Klemens B; Wu, Albert W; Powe, Neil R; Boulware, L Ebony
Studies of dialysis initiation timing have not accounted for predialysis clinical factors that could impact postdialysis outcomes. We examined the association of predialysis health with timing of dialysis initiation in older adult patients in the United States and contrasted morbidity and mortality outcomes among patients with early [estimated GFR (eGFR)≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)] versus later (eGFR<10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) initiation. We included all patients from the US Renal Data System who initiated dialysis between 2006 and 2008, were ≥67 years old, and had ≥2 years of prior Medicare coverage (n=84,654). We calculated patients' propensity to initiate dialysis early and matched patients by propensity scores. Cox models were used to compare risks of mortality and hospitalization among initiation groups. The majority (58%) of patients initiated dialysis early. Early initiators were more likely to have had AKI, multiple congestive heart failure admissions, and other hospitalizations preceding initiation. Among propensity-matched patients (n=61,930), early initiation associated with greater all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 1.14), cardiovascular (CV; HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.17), and infectious (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22) mortality and greater all-cause (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05) and infectious (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.13) hospitalizations. There was no difference in CV hospitalizations. Among these older adults, early dialysis initiation associates with greater mortality and hospitalizations, even after accounting for predialysis clinical factors. These findings do not support the common practice of early dialysis initiation in the United States.
Ungar, Lea; And Others
Examined expressions of fear of personal death among physicians, nurses, and social workers working in hospital dialysis units. Results indicated no differences in fear of personal death between 71 dialysis personnel and 68 other hospital personnel serving as controls. Physicians had lowest scores of fear of personal death followed by nurses and…
Ungar, Lea; And Others
Examined expressions of fear of personal death among physicians, nurses, and social workers working in hospital dialysis units. Results indicated no differences in fear of personal death between 71 dialysis personnel and 68 other hospital personnel serving as controls. Physicians had lowest scores of fear of personal death followed by nurses and…
Franco, E; Olivadese, A; Valeri, M; Albertoni, F; Petrosillo, N
The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers was assessed in 1,841/2,178 (84.5%) dialysis patients (DP) cared for in 38/47 dialysis units (80.9%) in Latium. Among DP, 205 (11.1%) were HBsAg positive: 13.8% of males and 7.1% of females (p less than 0.001); the prevalence increased with the length of time on dialysis (p for trend less than 0.001). No differences in HBV (HBsAg and/or anti-HBc) distribution were seen related to age and sex. Of 664/1,539 vaccinated DP, 150 (22.6%) were anti-HBc positive and 239 (36.0%) positive for anti-HBs alone. Of 875/1,539 nonvaccinated patients, 146 (16.7%) had no HBV marker. Vaccination against HBV did not influence the diffusion of HBV in our dialysis units and must be coupled with the implementation of long-standing infection control strategies.
Howidi, Mohammad; Balhaj, Ghazala; Yaseen, Hakam; Gopala, Kusuma; Van Doorn, Leen Jan; DeAntonio, Rodrigo
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common etiological agent causing acute gastroenteritis (GE) in children aged <5 years. This cross-sectional, hospital-based surveillance study (NCT01201252) was designed to investigate RVGE disease burden. It was conducted from July 2009-July 2010 at 3 referral hospitals in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Children who had been hospitalized for acute GE were enrolled with informed consent. Stool samples were tested for RV using enzyme immunoassay and RV-positive samples were further typed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization to determine the G and P types. GE data were collected from medical charts and GE severity was assessed through clinical examination. Treatment and outcome were prospectively recorded. Among 6323 children hospitalized due to any reason, 771 (12.2%) presented acute GE and were enrolled, of whom 758 (98.3%) were included in the final analysis. Acute GE and RVGE accounted for 12.0% (758/6323) and 6.0% (381/6323) of all hospitalizations, respectively. RVGE accounted for 50.3% (381/758) of GE hospitalizations and predominantly affected, children younger than 2 years (66.1%; 252/381). The severity of GE before hospitalization was significantly associated with RV-positive status (P = 0.0031). The majority (>95%) of children received intravenous hydration during hospitalization. RVGE occurred throughout the year, with a subtle winter peak in February 2010 (63.6%; 56/88). G1WTPWT was the most commonly detected RV strain (56.3%) in 268 analyzed samples. RV was a major cause of GE-hospitalizations in children under 5 years in the UAE; the highest number of RVGE cases was observed in children younger than 2 years.
Al-Natour, Mohammed; Thompson, Dustin
Peritoneal dialysis is becoming more important in the management of patients with end-stage renal disease. Because of the efforts of the “Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative,” dialysis venous access in the United States has become focused on promoting arteriovenous fistula creation and reducing the number of patients who start dialysis with a tunneled catheter. This is important because tunneled catheters can lead to infection, endocarditis, and early loss of more long-term access. When planned for, peritoneal dialysis can offer patients the opportunity to start dialysis at home without jeopardizing central access or the possibilities of eventual arteriovenous fistula creation. The purpose of this review is to highlight the indications, contraindications, and procedural methods for implanting peritoneal dialysis catheters in the interventional radiology suite. PMID:27011420
Kaplan, Andre A
In 2013, 88.4% of all incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients began renal replacement therapy with hemodialysis (HD) while 9.0% began with peritoneal dialysis (PD). The remaining 2.6% received a preemptive kidney transplant. In the US, outpatient HD units are widely distributed and economy of scale has resulted in HD being the most common ESRD modality. Use of PD and preemptive kidney transplant were relatively more common in younger groups and relatively less common among Black and Hispanic patients. Of note is that the new Medicare reimbursement system, known as the 'bundle', provides substantial financial incentives to do PD as opposed to in-center HD. By the end of 2013, 63.9% of all prevalent ESRD cases were receiving HD, 6.9% were being treated with PD, and 29.3% had a functioning kidney transplant. Distributions of modality use by patient characteristics generally mirror those for incident patients. PD and kidney transplant were more commonly used among patients who were younger and were more likely to be non-Hispanic Whites. Differences in the use of home dialysis (PD and HD) are largely driven by differences among individual dialysis centers or groups of centers, rather than by large-scale regional effects. Thus, the future use of PD or home HD will be driven by the proclivities of the largest dialysis providers, which, in turn, are driven by financial reimbursement. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Schiavano, G F; Parlani, L; Sisti, M; Sebastianelli, G; Brandi, G
Fungal contamination of dialysis fluids may be a serious problem in therapy, particularly due to the debilitated immune system of haemodialysis patients. To investigate the occurrence, distribution, and diversity of fungi in dialysis water and dialysis solution of eight haemodialysis units in a region of central Italy. Samples were collected over a one-year period from different points of the haemodialysis circuits in accordance with the guidelines of the Italian Society of Nephrology. Isolation and identification of fungi was performed according to the ISTISAN method Reports (2007/05 and 2008/10). Of the 976 samples analysed, 96 grew filamentous fungi, 28 were positive for yeast, and six samples contained both mould and yeast. A wide variety of filamentous fungi (26 genera, of which 15 identified at species level, and 'mycelia sterilia') were recovered, many of which are known as opportunistic pathogens. Cladosporium spp. were most frequently found (39%), followed by Alternaria spp. and Tricophyton spp. Fungal counts in treated water and standard dialysate solution were always below the threshold (<10 cfu/mL), and thus are in agreement with the Italian guidelines for dialysis fluid quality, whereas 10.9% of the samples of ultrapure dialysate solution were contaminated by one or several fungi types, in contravention of the guidelines. The large variety of opportunistic fungi recovered in the haemodialysis circuits proves the importance of including an analysis of fungi to check the microbial quality of dialysis water and dialysate. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Asad, Rahimullah; Lee, Min Kyeong; Nalliah, Romesh P; Rampa, Sankeerth; Speicher, David G; Rotta, Alexandre T; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush
To describe nationally representative outcomes of physical abuse injuries in children necessitating Emergency Department (ED) visits in United States. The impact of various injuries on mortality is examined. We hypothesize that physical abuse resulting in intracranial injuries are associated with worse outcome. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all payer hospital based ED database, for the years 2008-2010. All ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations with a diagnosis of "Child physical abuse" (Battered baby or child syndrome) due to various injuries were identified using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. In addition, we also examined the prevalence of sexual abuse in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between mortality and types of injuries after adjusting for a multitude of patient and hospital level factors. Of the 16897 ED visits that were attributed to child physical abuse, 5182 (30.7%) required hospitalization. Hospitalized children were younger than those released treated and released from the ED (1.9 years vs. 6.4 years). Male or female partner of the child's parent/guardian accounted for >45% of perpetrators. Common injuries in hospitalized children include- any fractures (63.5%), intracranial injuries (32.3%) and crushing/internal injuries (9.1%). Death occurred in 246 patients (13 in ED and 233 following hospitalization). Amongst the 16897 ED visits, 1.3% also had sexual abuse. Multivariable analyses revealed each 1 year increase in age was associated with a lower odds of mortality (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.96, p < 0.0001). Females (OR = 2.39, 1.07-5.34, p = 0.03), those with intracranial injuries (OR = 65.24, 27.57-154.41, p<0.0001), or crushing/internal injury (OR = 4.98, 2.24-11.07, p<0.0001) had higher odds of mortality compared to their male counterparts. In this
Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Asad, Rahimullah; Lee, Min Kyeong; Nalliah, Romesh P.; Rampa, Sankeerth; Speicher, David G.; Rotta, Alexandre T.; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush
Objectives To describe nationally representative outcomes of physical abuse injuries in children necessitating Emergency Department (ED) visits in United States. The impact of various injuries on mortality is examined. We hypothesize that physical abuse resulting in intracranial injuries are associated with worse outcome. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all payer hospital based ED database, for the years 2008–2010. All ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations with a diagnosis of “Child physical abuse” (Battered baby or child syndrome) due to various injuries were identified using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. In addition, we also examined the prevalence of sexual abuse in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between mortality and types of injuries after adjusting for a multitude of patient and hospital level factors. Results Of the 16897 ED visits that were attributed to child physical abuse, 5182 (30.7%) required hospitalization. Hospitalized children were younger than those released treated and released from the ED (1.9 years vs. 6.4 years). Male or female partner of the child’s parent/guardian accounted for >45% of perpetrators. Common injuries in hospitalized children include- any fractures (63.5%), intracranial injuries (32.3%) and crushing/internal injuries (9.1%). Death occurred in 246 patients (13 in ED and 233 following hospitalization). Amongst the 16897 ED visits, 1.3% also had sexual abuse. Multivariable analyses revealed each 1 year increase in age was associated with a lower odds of mortality (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81–0.96, p<0.0001). Females (OR = 2.39, 1.07–5.34, p = 0.03), those with intracranial injuries (OR = 65.24, 27.57–154.41, p<0.0001), or crushing/internal injury (OR = 4.98, 2.24–11.07, p<0
Gesualdo, L; Alloatti, S; Cicchetti, T; Iannuzziello, F; Ktena, M; Roselli, D; Casino, F; Marino, C; Postorino, M
The Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) sponsored in 2004 a National Census of the Italian renal and dialysis units. This paper presents the main structural, technical, organizational features, as well as the human resources and the activities of three South-East regions of Italy: Basilicata (B), Calabria (C), and Puglia (P). incidence of dialysis patients was 149 per million population (pmp) in B, 134 pmp in C and 172 pmp in P; prevalence of dialysis patients 729, 694 and 886 pmp, respectively; prevalence of transplanted patients 188 in B, 264 in C and 249 pmp in P; gross mortality rate of dialysis patients was 12.7% (B), 12.2% (C) and 10.8% (P). arteriovenous fistula: 83.9% (B), 87.7% (C) and 86.5% (P); central venous catheter: 14.2% (B), 8.4% (C) and 11.2% (P); vascular graft 1.9% (B), 3.9% (C) and 2.3% (P). nephrological beds 37, 34 and 88 pmp, respectively; dialysis stations 265, 209 and 207 pmp. renal physicians 45 (B), 67 (C) and 64(P) pmp; renal nurses 189, 190 and 207 pmp; each nephrologist cares for 16 (B), 10 (C) and 14 (P) dialysis patients, whereas each renal nurse takes care of 3.8 (B), 3.7 (C) and 4.3 (P) dialysis patients. hospitalizations 1378, 1834 and 3439 pmp, respectively; renal biopsies 40 (B), 64 (C) and 107 (P) pmp. The main goal of this project was to create a reference for benchmarking studies. Therefore, data from the Puglia region were compared to data from other regions with similar population size (such as Piemonte and Emilia-Romagna). Moreover, a Census may became a useful qualitative tool for renal registries: this report compares data from the Census with data collected by the dialysis and transplantation registry of the Puglia region. Generally speaking, prevalence for Basilicata and Calabria is close to the Italian one, whereas incidence is inferior; things are opposite in Puglia. Furthermore, compared to Basilicata, Calabria and Italy on average, the Puglia region shows a significant higher number of in-patient beds and a lower
Abdulnassir, Lyndsey; Egas-Kitchener, Sara; Whibley, Daniel; Fynmore, Tom; Jones, Gareth D
Benefits of exercise on dialysis (EOD) are well established, however, uptake in our local satellite haemodialysis units is low. The implications of the status quo are risks to treatment efficiency, equity and patient centredness in managing personal health risks. The current study aimed to identify and address barriers to exercise participation while on dialysis by substantiating local EOD risks, assigning context, implementing changes and evaluating their impact. Our primary objective was to increase the uptake of EOD across our five dialysis units. Semi-structured interview and questionnaire data from patients and nursing staff were used to inform a root-cause analysis of barriers to exercise participation while on dialysis. Intervention was subsequently designed and implemented by a senior physiotherapist. It consisted of patient and nursing staff education, equipment modification and introduction of patient motivation schemes. Staff knowledge, patient motivation and equipment problems were the main barriers to EOD. A significant increase in the uptake of EOD from 23.3% pre-intervention to 74.3% post-intervention was achieved [χ(2) (1, N = 174) = 44.18, P < 0.001]. Barriers to EOD are challenging, but there is evidence that patients wish to participate and would benefit from doing so. The input of a physiotherapist in the dialysis units had a significant positive effect on the uptake of EOD. National guidelines should encourage dialysis units to include professional exercise provision in future service planning.
Chernin, Gil; Gal-Oz, Amir; Schwartz, Idit F; Shashar, Moshe; Schwartz, Doron; Weinstein, Talia
Medical, ethical and financial dilemmas may arise in treating undocumented-uninsured patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hereby we describe the 10-year experience of treating undocumented-uninsured ESRD patients in a large public dialysis-unit. We evaluated the medical files of all the chronic dialysis patients treated at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center between the years 2000-2010. Data for all immigrant patients without documentation and medical insurance were obtained. Clinical data were compared with an age-matched cohort of 77 insured dialysis patients. Fifteen undocumented-uninsured patients were treated with chronic scheduled dialysis therapy for a mean length of 2.3 years and a total of 4953 hemodialysis sessions, despite lack of reimbursement. All undocumented-uninsured patients presented initially with symptoms attributed to uremia and with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). In comparison, in the age-matched cohort, only 6 patients (8%) were initially evaluated by a nephrologist at stage 5 CKD. Levels of hemoglobin (8.5 ± 1.7 versus 10.8 ± 1.6 g/dL; p < 0.0001) and albumin (33.8 ± 4.8 versus 37.7 ± 3.9 g/L; p < 0.001) were lower in the undocumented-uninsured dialysis patients compared with the age-matched insured patients at initiation of hemodialysis therapy. These significant changes were persistent throughout the treatment period. Hemodialysis was performed in all the undocumented-uninsured patients via tunneled cuffed catheters (TCC) without higher rates of TCC-associated infections. The rate of skipped hemodialysis sessions was similar in the undocumented-uninsured and age-matched insured cohorts. Undocumented-uninsured dialysis patients presented initially in the advanced stages of CKD with lower levels of hemoglobin and worse nutritional status in comparison with age-matched insured patients. The type of vascular access for hemodialysis was less than optimal with regards to current guidelines. There is a need for
Butler, Catherine R; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Tonelli, Mark R; Lam, Daniel Y
Throughout the history of dialysis, four bioethical principles - beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice - have been weighted differently based upon changing forces of technologic innovation, resource limitation, and societal values. In the 1960s, a committee of lay people in Seattle attempted to fairly distribute a limited number of maintenance hemodialysis stations guided by considerations of justice. As technology advanced and dialysis was funded under an amendment to the Social Security Act in 1972, focus shifted to providing dialysis for all in need while balancing the burdens of treatment and quality of life, supported by the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. At the end of the last century, the importance of patient preferences and personal values became paramount in medical decisions, reflecting a focus on the principle of autonomy. More recently, greater recognition that health care financial resources are limited makes fair allocation more pressing, again highlighting the importance of distributive justice. The varying application and prioritization of these four principles to both policy and clinical decisions in the United States over the last 50 years makes the history of hemodialysis an instructive platform for understanding principlist bioethics. As medical technology evolves in a landscape of changing personal and societal values, a comprehensive understanding of an ethical framework for evaluating appropriate use of medical interventions enables the clinician to systematically negotiate and optimize difficult ethical situations.
Mehrotra, Rajnish; Tonelli, Mark R.; Lam, Daniel Y.
Throughout the history of dialysis, four bioethical principles — beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice — have been weighted differently based upon changing forces of technologic innovation, resource limitation, and societal values. In the 1960s, a committee of lay people in Seattle attempted to fairly distribute a limited number of maintenance hemodialysis stations guided by considerations of justice. As technology advanced and dialysis was funded under an amendment to the Social Security Act in 1972, focus shifted to providing dialysis for all in need while balancing the burdens of treatment and quality of life, supported by the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. At the end of the last century, the importance of patient preferences and personal values became paramount in medical decisions, reflecting a focus on the principle of autonomy. More recently, greater recognition that health care financial resources are limited makes fair allocation more pressing, again highlighting the importance of distributive justice. The varying application and prioritization of these four principles to both policy and clinical decisions in the United States over the last 50 years makes the history of hemodialysis an instructive platform for understanding principlist bioethics. As medical technology evolves in a landscape of changing personal and societal values, a comprehensive understanding of an ethical framework for evaluating appropriate use of medical interventions enables the clinician to systematically negotiate and optimize difficult ethical situations. PMID:26912540
Figel, Izabel Cristina; Marangoni, Paulo Roberto Dantas; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Vicente, Vânia Aparecida; Dalzoto, Patrícia do Rocio; do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval
Hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure promotes the removal of toxic substances, water, and minerals from the body and often takes place in specialized clinics. Microbial contamination of dialysis fluid is a serious problem in therapy. One of the sources of contamination is the water used to prepare the dialysate. In Brazil, legislation regulating the microbiological quality of water for dialysis does not cover waterborne microbes such as Pseudomonas, mycobacteria, and fungi. The aim of the present study was to quantify, isolate, and identify fungi present in water systems in six hemodialysis units in Curitiba, Paraná state, Brazil. Fungi were analyzed by surface plating and membrane filtration. Isolates were identified by morphology, while the dematiaceous fungi were identified by sequencing the rDNA ITS region. It was found that 66 % of the samples presented fungi, while black fungi were present in 46 % of all samples. Twenty-eight isolates from treated water for dialysis and dialysate were identified by sequencing and were found to be Exophiala pisciphila, E. cancerae, E. equina, and Rhinocladiella similis. The presence of dematiaceous fungi may pose a risk for debilitated hospitalized patients.
Scialla, Julia J.; Liu, Jiannong; Crews, Deidra C.; Guo, Haifeng; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ephraim, Patti L.; Tangri, Navdeep; Sozio, Stephen M.; Shafi, Tariq; Miskulin, Dana C.; Michels, Wieneke M.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Wu, Albert W.; Powe, Neil R.; Boulware, L. Ebony
The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at dialysis initiation has been rising. Observational studies suggest harm, but may be confounded by unmeasured factors. As instrumental variable methods may be less biased we performed a retrospective cohort study of 310,932 patients starting dialysis between 2006 to 2008 and registered in the United States Renal Data System in order to describe geographic variation in eGFR at dialysis initiation and determine its association with mortality. Patients were grouped into 804 health service areas by zip code. Individual eGFR at dialysis initiation averaged 10.8 ml/min/1.73m2 but varied geographically. Only 11% of the variation in mean health service areas-level eGFR at dialysis initiation was accounted for by patient characteristics. We calculated demographic-adjusted mean eGFR at dialysis initiation in the health service areas using the 2006 and 2007 incident cohort as our instrument and estimated the association between individual eGFR at dialysis initiation and mortality in the 2008 incident cohort using the 2 stage residual inclusion method. Among 89,547 patients starting dialysis in 2008 with eGFR 5 to 20 ml/min/1.73m2, eGFR at initiation was not associated with mortality over a median of 15.5 months [hazard ratio 1.025 per 1 ml/min/1.73m2 for eGFR 5 to 14 ml/min/1.73m2; and 0.973 per 1 ml/min/1.73m2 for eGFR 14 to 20 ml/min/1.73m2]. Thus, there was no associated harm or benefit from early dialysis initiation in the United States. PMID:24786707
Scialla, Julia J; Liu, Jiannong; Crews, Deidra C; Guo, Haifeng; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ephraim, Patti L; Tangri, Navdeep; Sozio, Stephen M; Shafi, Tariq; Miskulin, Dana C; Michels, Wieneke M; Jaar, Bernard G; Wu, Albert W; Powe, Neil R; Boulware, L Ebony
The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at dialysis initiation has been rising. Observational studies suggest harm, but may be confounded by unmeasured factors. As instrumental variable methods may be less biased, we performed a retrospective cohort study of 310,932 patients who started dialysis between 2006 and 2008 and were registered in the United States Renal Data System in order to describe geographic variation in eGFR at dialysis initiation and determine its association with mortality. Patients were grouped into 804 health service areas (HSAs) by zip code. Individual eGFR at dialysis initiation averaged 10.8 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) but varied geographically. Only 11% of the variation in mean HSA-level eGFR at dialysis initiation was accounted for by patient characteristics. We calculated demographic-adjusted mean eGFR at dialysis initiation in the HSAs using the 2006 and 2007 incident cohort as our instrument and estimated the association between individual eGFR at dialysis initiation and mortality in the 2008 incident cohort using the two-stage residual inclusion method. Among 89,547 patients starting dialysis in 2008 with eGFR 5-20 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), eGFR at initiation was not associated with mortality over a median of 15.5 months (hazard ratio, 1.025 per 1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) for eGFR 5-14 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); and 0.973 per 1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) for eGFR 14-20 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Thus, there was no associated harm or benefit with early dialysis initiation in the United States.
Walsh, Timothy S; Salisbury, Lisa G; Merriweather, Judith L; Boyd, Julia A; Griffith, David M; Huby, Guro; Kean, Susanne; Mackenzie, Simon J; Krishan, Ashma; Lewis, Stephanie C; Murray, Gordon D; Forbes, John F; Smith, Joel; Rattray, Janice E; Hull, Alastair M; Ramsay, Pamela
, -0.1 [95% CI, -3.3 to 3.1; P = .96]; and in the Mental Component Summary score, 0.2 [95% CI, -3.4 to 3.8; P = .91]). No differences were found for self-reported symptoms of fatigue, pain, appetite, joint stiffness, or breathlessness. Levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress were similar, as were hand grip strength and the timed Up & Go test. No differences were found at the 6- or 12-month follow-up for any outcome measures. However, patients in the intervention group reported greater satisfaction with physiotherapy, nutritional support, coordination of care, and information provision. Post-ICU hospital-based rehabilitation, including increased physical and nutritional therapy plus information provision, did not improve physical recovery or HRQOL, but improved patient satisfaction with many aspects of recovery. isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN09412438.
Oette, Mark; Reuter, Stefan; Kaiser, Rolf; Jensen, Björn; Lengauer, Thomas; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Knechten, Heribert; Hower, Martin; Sagir, Abdurrahman; Pfister, Herbert; Häussinger, Dieter
The efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of HIV infection is influenced by factors such as potency of applied drugs, adherence of the patient, and resistance-associated mutations. Up to now, there is insufficient data on the impact of the therapeutic setting. Since 2001, the prospective multicenter RESINA study has examined the epidemiology of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Nordrhein-Westfalen, the largest federal state of Germany by population. Characteristics of patients treated in hospital-based outpatient units were compared to those of patients treated in medical practices. Longitudinal data of all participants are being followed in a cohort study. Overall, 1,591 patients were enrolled between 2001 and 2009 with follow-up until the end of 2010. Of these, 1,099 cases were treated in hospital-based units and 492 in private practices. Significant differences were found with respect to baseline characteristics. A higher rate of patients with advanced disease and non-European nationality were cared for in hospital units. Patients in medical practices were predominantly Caucasian men who have sex with men (MSM) harboring HIV-1 subtype B, with lower CDC stage and higher CD4 cell count. Median viral load was 68,828 c/mL in hospital-based units and 100,000 c/mL in private practices (P = 0.041). Only median age and rate of transmitted drug resistance were not significantly different. After 48 weeks, 81.9% of patients in hospital units and 85.9% in private practices had a viral load below the limit of detection (P = 0.12). A similar result was seen after 96 weeks (P = 0.54). Although the baseline CD4 cell count was different (189.5/μL in hospital units and 246.5/μL in private practices, P <0.001), a consistent and almost identical increase was determined in both groups. The RESINA study covers a large HIV-infected patient cohort cared for in specialized facilities in Germany. Despite significant differences of
Background The efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of HIV infection is influenced by factors such as potency of applied drugs, adherence of the patient, and resistance-associated mutations. Up to now, there is insufficient data on the impact of the therapeutic setting. Methods Since 2001, the prospective multicenter RESINA study has examined the epidemiology of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Nordrhein-Westfalen, the largest federal state of Germany by population. Characteristics of patients treated in hospital-based outpatient units were compared to those of patients treated in medical practices. Longitudinal data of all participants are being followed in a cohort study. Results Overall, 1,591 patients were enrolled between 2001 and 2009 with follow-up until the end of 2010. Of these, 1,099 cases were treated in hospital-based units and 492 in private practices. Significant differences were found with respect to baseline characteristics. A higher rate of patients with advanced disease and non-European nationality were cared for in hospital units. Patients in medical practices were predominantly Caucasian men who have sex with men (MSM) harboring HIV-1 subtype B, with lower CDC stage and higher CD4 cell count. Median viral load was 68,828 c/mL in hospital-based units and 100,000 c/mL in private practices (P = 0.041). Only median age and rate of transmitted drug resistance were not significantly different. After 48 weeks, 81.9% of patients in hospital units and 85.9% in private practices had a viral load below the limit of detection (P = 0.12). A similar result was seen after 96 weeks (P = 0.54). Although the baseline CD4 cell count was different (189.5/μL in hospital units and 246.5/μL in private practices, P <0.001), a consistent and almost identical increase was determined in both groups. Conclusions The RESINA study covers a large HIV-infected patient cohort cared for in specialized facilities in Germany
Lehoux, Pascale; Daudelin, Geneviève; Poland, Blake; Andrews, Gavin J; Holmes, Dave
The professional claims and struggles involved in the design of non-traditional health care places are rarely problematized in applied health research, perhaps because they tend to fade away once the new design is implemented. This paper offers insights into such professional tensions and their impact on health care delivery by examining the design of two dialysis service delivery models in Quebec, Canada. The satellite units were hosted in two small hospitals and staffed by recently trained nurses. The mobile unit was a bus fitted to accommodate five dialysis stations. It was staffed by experienced nurses and travelled back and forth between a university teaching hospital and two sites. In both projects, nephrologists supervised from a distance via a videoconferencing system. In this paper, we draw mainly from interviews with managers (mostly nurses) and physicians (n=18), and from on-site observations. Nephrologists, medical internists, and managers all supported the goal of providing "closer-to-patient" services. However, they held varying opinions on how to best materialize this goal. By comparing two models involving different clinical and spatial logics, we underscore the ways in which the design of non-traditional health care places opens up space for the re-negotiation of clinical norms. Instead of relatively straightforward conflicts between professions, we observed subtle but inexorable tensions within and beyond professional groups, who sought to measure up to "ideal standards" while acknowledging the contingencies of health care places.
Vachharajani, Tushar J; Moossavi, Shahriar; Salman, Loay; Wu, Steven; Dwyer, Amy C; Ross, Jamie; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Maya, Ivan D; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Agarwal, Anil; Abreo, Kenneth D; Work, Jack; Asif, Arif
The development of interventional nephrology has undoubtedly led to an improvement in patient care at many facilities across the United States. However, these services have traditionally been offered by interventional nephrologists in the private practice arena. While interventional nephrology was born in the private practice setting, several academic medical centers across the United States have now developed interventional nephrology programs. University Medical Centers (UMCs) that offer interventional nephrology face challenges, such as smaller dialysis populations, limited financial resources, and real or perceived political "turf" issues." Despite these hurdles, several UMCs have successfully established interventional nephrology as an intricate part of a larger nephrology program. This has largely been accomplished by consolidating available resources and collaborating with other specialties irrespective of the size of the dialysis population. The collaboration with other specialties also offers an opportunity to perform advanced procedures, such as application of excimer laser and endovascular ultrasound. As more UMCs establish interventional nephrology programs, opportunities for developing standardized training centers will improve, resulting in better quality and availability of nephrology-related procedures, and providing an impetus for research activities.
Chao, Chia-Ter; Lai, Chun-Fu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Sheng-Jen
Geographic remoteness has been found to influence health-related outcomes negatively. As reported in the literature, rural dialysis patients have a higher risk of mortality with increasing travel distance to dialysis units. However, few studies have focused on the impact of travel distances on the development of dialysis complications. We utilized a prospectively collected chronic hemodialysis patient cohort from a rural regional hospital for analysis. Data on demographics, comorbidities, and serum laboratory results were obtained. Correlation analyses between travel distance to dialysis units and dialysis complications were conducted, and significantly correlated parameters were entered into multivariate logistic regression models to determine their exact associations. A total of 46 rural chronic hemodialysis patients were enrolled, with an average age higher than others in the literature. Significant correlation was found between travel distance and serum hemoglobin levels (R(2) = -0.34, P value = 0.029). Multivariate logistic regression found that every 1 km increase in travel distance was associated with an increased risk of anemia (hemoglobin <9 g/dL) (odds ratio 1.46; P value = 0.01). Sensitivity analyses further showed that the associated risk was partially attenuated by serum albumin (odds ratio 1.83; P value = 0.07) and ferritin (odds ratio 1.39; P value = 0.08) levels. This is the first study to demonstrate the association between increased travel distance to dialysis units and the risk of anemia in chronic dialysis patients, especially elderly. Malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome could be partially responsible for the observed association. Further research is required to confirm our findings. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.
Eloot, Sunny; Van Biesen, Wim; Dhondt, Annemieke; Billiet, Erik; Verdonck, Pascal; Vanholder, Raymond
Since most intensive care units (ICUs) have no access to high-quality water, the Genius system, using ultrapure water and high-flux dialyzers, might be used during slow low efficient daily dialysis (SLEDD). To get an idea about convective removal, internal filtration (IF) was calculated and compared to other modalities. Validated with in vivo measurements, IF was calculated for 8 h Genius SLEDD and 4 h Genius standard dialysis with high-flux dialyzers, and for 8 h SLEDD and 4 h both with standard dialysis machines and low-flux as well as high-flux dialyzers. In Genius SLEDD (FX80), IF was 2.36 l (hematocrit [Hct] 30%) and 3.37 l (Hct 40%). About the same amount of IF was found for the different dialysis modalities, except when using low-flux dialyzers, where no IF occurred. The Genius system allows the implementation of high-flux dialysis with ultrapure dialysate, and can be run in a SLEDD mode in the ICU. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Clark, Thomas; Huhn, Gregory D; Conover, Craig; Cali, Salvatore; Arduino, Matthew J; Hajjeh, Rana; Brandt, Mary E; Fridkin, Scott K
Molds are a rare cause of disseminated infection among dialysis patients. We evaluated a cluster of intravascular infections with the mold Phialemonium among patients receiving hemodialysis at the same facility in order to identify possible environmental sources and prevent further infection. Environmental assessment and case-control study. A hemodialysis center affiliated with a tertiary care hospital. We reviewed surveillance and clinical microbiology records and performed a blood culture survey for all patients. The following data for case patients were compared with those for control patients: underlying illness, dialysis characteristics, medications, and other possible exposure for 120 days prior to infection. Environmental assessment of water treatment, dialysis facilities, and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of the current and previous locations of the dialysis center was performed. Samples were cultured for fungus; Phialemonium isolates were confirmed by sequencing of DNA. Investigators observed dialysis access site disinfection technique. Four patients were confirmed as case patients, defined as a patient having intravascular infection with Phialemonium species; 3 presented with fungemia, and 1 presented with an intravascular graft infection. All case patients used a fistula or graft for dialysis access, as did 12 (75%) of 16 of control patients (P=.54). Case and control patients did not differ in other dialysis characteristics, medications received, physiologic findings, or demographic factors. Phialemonium species were not recovered from samples of water or dialysis machines, but were recovered from the condensation drip pans under the blowers of the HVAC system that supplied air to the dialysis center. Observational study of 21 patients detected suboptimal contact time with antiseptic agents used to prepare dialysis access sites. The report of this outbreak adds to previous published reports of Phialemonium infection occurring
Siddiqui, Saima; Ogbeide, Danny O
This cross-sectional study was carried out in order to define the extent and nature of inappropriate use of the accident and emergency (ER) unit in our community. Data were collected for all children aged < or = 12 years who attended the ER from 1 January to 31 March 1999. A total of 3329 children (2010 boys and 1339 girls) attended the ER during the study period. Respiratory tract infection was the most common presenting complaint (33.5%), followed by trauma (15.3%), bronchial asthma (13.7%) and gastro-intestinal problems (6.6%). Using the triage criteria of Alkharj Military Hospital, most of the boys (57%) and 32.6% of the girls were considered to be simple, primary care cases. The rate of referral to specialist clinics was 9.5% and only 4.7% were actually admitted. Attendance at night (53.5% boys, 59.8% girls) was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) than during the morning (0700-1500) and afternoon shifts (1500-2300 hours). This study shows that a large number of children attend the ER with non-urgent complaints.
Walker, Andre; Probst, Janice C; Martin, Amy B; Bellinger, Jessica D; Merchant, Anwar
Using nationally representative data, we examined differences in dental care utilization in emergency departments (EDs) among working age adults associated with rural residence and lack of health insurance. We used data from the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, restricted to working age adults (ages 19-64; 16,928,424 observations). The dependent variable was a principal diagnosis of dental caries. The primary independent variable was patient's area of residence, rural versus urban. The control variables were payer, age, gender, median income, region, and admission timing. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association with residence, payer, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression models were estimated. In 2008, there were an estimated 74 million ED visits among working adults ages 19-64 in the United States. Dental caries accounted for between 0.2 percent and 1.0 percent of all visits, depending on patient characteristics. Rural patients were significantly more likely than urban patients to have dental visits. Dental visits were more prevalent among patient with government insurance or self -pay relative to the privately insured. The Affordable Care Act may reduce the proportion of self-pay visits for dental care. Medicaid expansion may not result in improved dental use among Medicaid patients unless dental services are covered and dental practitioners appropriately engaged. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Zhang, Yong-Biao; Cong, Wei; Li, Zhi-Tao; Bi, Xiao-Gang; Xian, Ying; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Kou-Xing
The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 394 patients of intensive care unit (ICU) in a hospital between April 2010 and March 2012 and analyze the association between T. gondii infection and ICU patients according to the species of disease. Toxoplasma serology was evaluated by ELISA method using a commercially available kit. Data of patients were obtained from the patients, informants, and medical examination records. Seventy-four (18.78%) of 394 patients were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies demonstrating latent infection. Of these, the highest T. gondii seroprevalence was found in the age group of 31–45 years (27.45%), and the lowest was found in the age group of <30 years (12.5%). In addition, females (21.6%) had a higher seroprevalence than males (18.36%). With respect to the species of disease, the patients with kidney diseases (57.14%), lung diseases (27.84%), and brain diseases (24%) had high T. gondii seroprevalence. The present study represents the first survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in ICU patients in China, revealing an 18.78% seropositivity. Considering the particularities of ICU patients, molecular identification, genetic characterization, and diagnosis of T. gondii should be considered in future study. PMID:25961046
Firanek, Catherine A; Sloand, James A; Todd, Lucy B
In the United States, the majority of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) use a cycler or automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). The aim of this study was the identification of common features in nurse-led APD training programs that were likely to contribute to successful home dialysis. This study collected data on nurse-led APD training programs in six high-performing PD centers. A 13-point survey, which focused on training tools, topics covered methods used, and level of support at home, was administered during group face-to-face interviews with the PD training nurses. Data were reviewed for trends between centers. Training programs in all six centers focused on essential information and skill sets to begin home dialysis using APD, with simple instructions and a hands-on approach. Every center initially trained patients on continuous ambulatory PD before APD. The clinics provided ongoing education, reinforcement, and retraining of concepts and skills through discussion, quizzes, and topic-specific monthly training sessions. All clinics provided 24-hour support for patients. Adopting the best practices identified in this study has the potential to improve APD training.
Amira, Christiana Oluwatoyin; Bello, Babawale Taslim; Braimoh, Rotimi Williams
Hemodialysis (HD) catheters are commonly used as temporary vascular access in patients with kidney failure who require immediate HD. The use of these catheters is limited by complications such as infections, thrombosis resulting in poor blood flow. We studied the complications and outcomes of nontunneled catheters used for vascular access in our dialysis unit. The records of all patients, with renal failure who were dialyzed over a two-year period and had a double lumen nontunneled catheter inserted, were retrieved. Catheter insertion was carried out under ultrasound guidance using the modified Seldinger technique. The demographic data of patients, etiology of chronic kidney disease, and complications and outcomes of these catheters were noted. Fifty-four patients with mean age 43.7 ± 15.8 years had 69 catheters inserted for a cumulative total of 4047 catheter-days. The mean catheter patency was 36.4 ± 37.2 days (range: 1-173 days). Thrombosis occluding the catheters was the most common complication and occurred in 58% of catheters leading to catheter malfunction, followed by infections in18.8% of catheters. During follow-up, 30 (43.5%) catheters were removed, 14 (20.3%) due to catheter malfunction, eight (11.6%) due to infection, five (7.2%) elective removal, and three (4.3%) due to damage. Thrombotic occlusion of catheters was a major limiting factor to the survival of HD catheters. Improvement in catheter patency can be achieved with more potent lock solutions.
Niedźwiecka, Agnieszka; Nowicki, Michał; Tkaczyk, Marcin
As a result of changes in the Polish healthcare system, healthcare institutions--including dialysis units--are expected to provide their patients with broad-spectrum and high-quality services. Nurses are the members of the therapeutic team who spend most time with the patient undergoing renal replacement therapy, and thus the image of the whole dialysis unit depends on their work. The aim of the study was to assess the dialysis patients' expectations towards their nurses. The study group consisted of 150 adult dialysis patients treated with hemodialysis in dialysis units in Lodz region. The participants were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire specially tailored for the study. We showed that dialysis patients were generally satisfied with the level of care provided by nurses and described them as reliable, professional and well-qualified. Patients especially valued kind attitude, smile and friendliness of the nurses. Fully professional care was noticed by 25.7% of patients. Patients dialyzed for a longer period of time (over 10 years) described nurses' knowledge, practical skills and independence with more criticism. A quarter of them stated that nurses always relied on the doctor's decision. The study revealed that dialysis nurses' work, practical skills and attitude were assessed very well by patients. Their level of satisfaction would be higher if nurses spent more time and initiated more discussion with the patients. The high merit that nurses received should be considered as a stimulus that ought to increase the professional independence and quality of dialysis nurses performance.
Systematic barriers to the effective delivery of home dialysis in the United States: a report from the Public Policy/Advocacy Committee of the North American Chapter of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Golper, Thomas A; Saxena, Anjali B; Piraino, Beth; Teitelbaum, Isaac; Burkart, John; Finkelstein, Fredric O; Abu-Alfa, Ali
Home dialysis, currently underused in the United States compared with other industrialized countries, likely will benefit from the newly implemented US prospective payment system. Not only is home dialysis less expensive from the standpoint of pure dialysis costs, but overall health system costs may be decreased by more subtle benefits, such as reduced transportation. However, many systematic barriers exist to the successful delivery of home dialysis. We organized these barriers into the categories of educational barriers (patient and providers), governmental/regulatory barriers (state and federal), and barriers specifically related to the philosophies and business practices of dialysis providers (eg, staffing, pharmacies, supplies, space, continuous quality improvement practices, and independence). All stakeholders share the goal of delivering home dialysis therapies in the most cost- and clinically effective and least problematic manner. Identification and recognition of such barriers is the first step. In addition, we have suggested action plans to stimulate the kidney community to find even better solutions so that collectively we may overcome these barriers.
These regulations change the reimbursement system by which Medicare pays for outpatient maintenance dialysis and related physician and laboratory services. These changes establish a prospective method of payment for maintenance dialysis, whether furnished at home or in a hospital-based or independent dialysis facility, and revise other aspects of the reimbursement system to encourage home dialysis and provide incentives for economy and efficiency in furnishing these services. These amendments implement section 2145 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981. We expect that these changes will improve our administration of the end-stage renal disease program and enable us to control the rapidly growing costs of furnishing dialysis. The controls on quality of care that have been in effect since the beginning of the program will continue to apply. These regulations will also ensure access to care by providing for adequate reimbursement to isolated, essential facilities, where patients have no alternative sources of dialysis care. These regulations also provide for time-limited approval for Medicare participation of special purpose renal dialysis facilities. As a general rule we have not approved facilities such as transient or mobile units set up for emergency purposes or to serve vacationing dialysis patients in State parks and children's camps. This change in regulations will remove this limitation.
Wang, Virginia; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Patel, Uptal D.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Ricketts, Thomas C.; Weinberger, Morris
Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred dialysis modality for many end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in the US. However, in sharp contrast to the high rates of PD use in other industrialized countries, utilization of PD in the US is low and declining. PD availability is a necessary condition for PD utilization; however, little is known about the availability and geographic distribution of PD services. This study describes trends in the regional supply of PD services among dialysis facilities between 1995 and 2003. Study design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting and participants Non-federal outpatient dialysis facilities treating ESRD patients in the US using data from the US Renal Data System. Predictors Annual ESRD patient and dialysis facility composition in hospital referral regions. Outcome Annual proportion of dialysis facilities offering PD treatment services in hospital referral regions. Results The average proportion of facilities offering PD services in hospital referral regions was 56% in 1996, which declined to 47% in 2003. There was geographic variation in PD services, with greater PD availability in metropolitan cities (compared to rural regions) and the Northeast (relative to the South and Midwest). Variation in PD availability was not explained by disease trends or patient characteristics believed to be important for PD use. An increasing regional presence of chain-affiliated facilities was associated with less PD supply. Limitations Accuracy of patient registry data, inability to account for consolidation of PD services among chain providers, sensitivity of results to definition of regional markets. Conclusions The small and declining availability of PD seems counterintuitive given its demonstrated appeal to patients and payers. Further research is needed to further investigate dialysis facilities’ role in the underutilization of a potentially useful therapy. PMID:20385435
Sethna, Christine B; Breen, Christine; Pradhan, Madhura; Green, Cynthia; Kaplan, Bernard S; Meyers, Kevin E C
We evaluated the feasibility of using universal serial bus (USB) drives for communicating medical information between parents of children receiving dialysis and medical personnel during clinical encounters. When surveyed, parents and pediatric resident physicians supported the use of USB drives and were willing to use the devices. The utilization rate of USB drives was 57%.
Yoon, In-Cheol; Choi, Hye-Min; Oh, Dong-Jin
We investigated which dialysis unit blood pressure (BP) is the most useful for predicting home BP in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Patients undergoing HD who had been treated > 3 months were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were hospitalized patients with acute illness and changes in dry weight and anti-hypertensive drugs 2 weeks before the study. We used the dialysis unit BP recording data, such as pre-HD, intra-HD, post-HD, mean pre-HD, and post-HD (pre-post-HD), mean pre-HD, intra-HD, and post-HD (pre-intra-post-HD) BP. Home BP (the same period of dialysis unit BP) was monitored as a reference method during 2 weeks using the same automatic oscillometric device. Patients were asked to record their BP three times daily (wake up, between noon and 6:00 PM, and at bedtime). Significant differences were detected between home systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pre-HD, post-HD, and intra-HD SBP (p = 0.003, p = 0.001, p = 0.016, respectively). In contrast, no differences were observed between home SBP and pre-intra-post-HD and pre-post-HD SBP (p = 0.235, p = 0.307, respectively). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for pre-intra-post-HD and prepost-HD SBP with 2-week home BP as the reference standard were 0.812 and 0.801, respectively. These results suggest that pre-intra-post-HD and pre-post-HD SBP had similar accuracy for predicting mean 2-week home SBP in HD patients. Therefore, pre-intra-post-HD and pre-post-HD SBP should be useful for predicting home SBP in HD patients if ambulatory or home BP measurements are unavailable.
Hanicki, Z; Sułowicz, W; Kuźniewski, M; Drozdz, M; Miłkowski, A; Ignacak, E; Mazanek, M; Sydor, A
The results of the treatment of patients with acute renal failure (ARF) in dialysis units of Kraków, Nowy Sacz and Tarnów were estimated on the basis of prepared questionnaire. The increased number of patients treated because of ARF was demonstrated in the successive years of the study. The mortality rate in the tested group of patients remained about 27%. It depended on the cause of ARF and equalled to 26.7% in medical, 36.7% in surgical, 8% in obstetrical and 6.7 in urological patients, respectively.
Carlos, Christopher A; McCulloch, Charles E; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Grimes, Barbara; Pavkov, Meda E; Burrows, Nilka R; Shahinian, Vahakn B; Saran, Rajiv; Powe, Neil R; Johansen, Kirsten L
The American Society of Nephrology recommends against routine cancer screening among asymptomatic patients receiving maintenance dialysis on the basis of limited survival benefit. To determine the frequency of colorectal cancer screening among patients on dialysis and the extent to which screening tests were targeted toward patients at lower risk of death and higher likelihood of receiving a kidney transplant, we performed a cohort study of 469,574 Medicare beneficiaries ages ≥50 years old who received dialysis between January 1, 2007 and September 30, 2012. We examined colorectal cancer screening tests according to quartiles of risk of mortality and kidney transplant on the basis of multivariable Cox modeling. Over a median follow-up of 1.5 years, 11.6% of patients received a colon cancer screening test (57.9 tests per 1000 person-years). Incidence rates of colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood test were 27.9, 0.6, and 29.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Patients in the lowest quartile of mortality risk were more likely to be screened than those in the highest quartile (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.49 to 1.57; 65.1 versus 46.4 tests per 1000 person-years, respectively), amounting to a 33% higher rate of testing. Additionally, compared with patients least likely to receive a transplant, patients most likely to receive a transplant were more likely to be screened (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.64 to 1.73). Colon cancer screening is being targeted toward patients on dialysis at lowest risk of mortality and highest likelihood of transplantation, but absolute rates are high, suggesting overscreening. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Stephens, J Mark; Brotherton, Samuel; Dunning, Stephan C; Emerson, Larry C; Gilbertson, David T; Harrison, David J; Kochevar, John J; McClellan, Ann C; McClellan, William M; Wan, Shaowei; Gitlin, Matthew
To estimate travel distance and time for US hemodialysis patients and to compare travel of rural versus urban patients. Dialysis patient residences were estimated from ZIP code-level patient counts as of February 2011 allocated within the ZIP code proportional to census tract-level population, obtained from the 2010 U.S. Census. Dialysis facility addresses were obtained from Medicare public-use files. Patients were assigned to an "original" and "replacement" facility, assuming patients used the facility closest to home and would select the next closest facility as a replacement, if a replacement facility was required. Driving distances and times were calculated between patient residences and facility locations using GIS software. The mean one-way driving distance to the original facility was 7.9 miles; for rural patients average distances were 2.5 times farther than for urban patients (15.9 vs. 6.2 miles). Mean driving distance to a replacement facility was 10.6 miles, with rural patients traveling on average 4 times farther than urban patients to a replacement facility (28.8 vs. 6.8 miles). Rural patients travel much longer distances for dialysis than urban patients. Accessing alternative facilities, if required, would greatly increase rural patient travel, while having little impact on urban patients. Increased travel could have clinical implications as longer travel is associated with increased mortality and decreased quality of life. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.
Ash, Stephen R
The Allient is a dialysis system that combines various technologies to allow dialysis to be performed at sites outside of dialysis units (intensive care unit [ICU] or home) with ease and safety. A sorbent column regenerates dialysate, removing toxins and providing ultrapure dialysate from only 6 liters of tap water. The use of the sorbent column eliminates the need for costly and complex water purification systems. The Pulsar Blood Movement System provides blood flow at constant negative or positive pressure through single-lumen or dual-lumen accesses, maximizing blood flow rate while eliminating bothersome pressure alarms. Ultrasonic flow monitors control the operation of the pump and ensure adequate blood flow during each dialysis treatment. A completely disposable blood tubing and dialysate circuit eliminates the need for sterilization of the machine. The Allient should make dialysis in the ICU or home setting much more practical, reducing training requirements and increasing safety.
Sen, D; Prakash, J
Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients.
Finelli, Lyn; Miller, Jeremy T; Tokars, Jerome I; Alter, Miriam J; Arduino, Matthew J
In December 2002, all U.S. chronic hemodialysis centers were surveyed regarding selected patient care practices and dialysis-associated diseases. The results were compared with similar surveys conducted in previous years. In 2002, 85% of hemodialysis centers were free-standing and 81% operated for profit; the proportion of centers operating for profit has increased each year since 1985. During 1995-2002, the percentage of patients who received dialysis through central catheters increased from 13% to 26%; this trend is worrisome, as infections and antimicrobial use are higher among patients receiving dialysis through catheters. However, during the same period, the percentage of patients receiving dialysis through fistulas increased from 22% to 33%. The percentage of centers reporting one or more patients infected or colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) increased from 12% in 1995 to 30% in 2002. During 1997-2002, the percentage of patients vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increased from 47% to 56% and the percentage of staff vaccinated increased from 87% to 90%. In 2002, routine testing for antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) was performed on patients at 64% of centers; anti-HCV was found in 7.8% of patients. In 2001, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) published Recommendations for Preventing Transmission of Infections among Chronic Hemodialysis Patients. Centers were surveyed regarding their awareness of the recommendations and about a variety of infection control practices. In general, the incidence of HBV and HCV was not substantially different for the infection control practices evaluated, including where staff obtain clean supplies for patient treatment, reuse of unused and unopened supplies, and practices for changing external transducer filters/protectors. However, in 2002, the incidence of HBV infection was higher among patients in centers where injectable medications were prepared on a medication cart or
Katsoufis, Chryso Pefkaros; Kertis, Myerly; McCullough, Judith; Pereira, Tanya; Seeherunvong, Wacharee; Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gaston; Abitbol, Carolyn
Pica is the compulsive consumption of non-nutritive substances, and this disorder may occur more frequently in dialysis patients. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of pica and the associated demographic and metabolic characteristics. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. Hospital-based, outpatient, pediatric hemodialysis unit. Eighty-seven pediatric patients on chronic dialysis therapy were interviewed. Sixty-seven patients were receiving hemodialysis, whereas the remaining 20 were maintained on peritoneal dialysis. The predominantly nonwhite (93%) patient population had a mean age of 17.2 ± 7.2 years. Dialysis efficiency, estimated by urea clearance per patient volume (Kt/V), averaged 1.5 ± 0.5. Standard patient interview and documentation of laboratory and dialytic parameters. Prevalence of pica and associated comorbid conditions. The survey indicated that 46% of patients experienced pica, further divided into simple "ice" pica (34.5%) versus "hard" pica (12.6%). Hard pica included the consumption of chalk, starch, sugar, soap, sand, clay, Ajax cleanser, sponge, wood, and potting soil. Patients on hemodialysis were 8.3 times more likely to have hard pica compared with those on peritoneal dialysis. Greater than 5 years on dialysis was associated with a 3.2 odds ratio of having pica (P = .02). Anemia was the most significant morbid association, occurring at an odds ratio of 4.4 (P = .001) for all pica and 10.6 (P = .004) for hard pica. Pica, therefore, is prevalent and potentially harmful, requiring further attention in the nutritional management of pediatric dialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hirth, R A; Held, P J; Orzol, S M; Dor, A
To evaluate the effects of case mix, practice patterns, features of the payment system, and facility characteristics on the cost of dialysis. The nationally representative sample of dialysis units in the 1991 U.S. Renal Data System's Case Mix Adequacy (CMA) Study. The CMA data were merged with data from Medicare Cost Reports, HCFA facility surveys, and HCFA's end-stage renal disease patient registry. We estimated a statistical cost function to examine the determinants of costs at the dialysis unit level. The relationship between case mix and costs was generally weak. However, dialysis practices (type of dialysis membrane, membrane reuse policy, and treatment duration) did have a significant effect on costs. Further, facilities whose payment was constrained by HCFA's ceiling on the adjustment for area wage rates incurred higher costs than unconstrained facilities. The costs of hospital-based units were considerably higher than those of freestanding units. Among chain units, only members of one of the largest national chains exhibited significant cost savings relative to independent facilities. Little evidence showed that adjusting dialysis payment to account for differences in case mix across facilities would be necessary to ensure access to care for high-cost patients or to reimburse facilities equitably for their costs. However, current efforts to increase dose of dialysis may require higher payments. Longer treatments appear to be the most economical method of increasing the dose of dialysis. Switching to more expensive types of dialysis membranes was a more costly means of increasing dose and hence must be justified by benefits beyond those of higher dose. Reusing membranes saved money, but the savings were insufficient to offset the costs associated with using more expensive membranes. Most, but not all, of the higher costs observed in hospital-based units appear to reflect overhead cost allocation rather than a difference in real resources devoted to treatment
Agar, John W M
Natural resources are under worldwide pressure, water and sustainable energy being the paramount issues. Haemodialysis, a water-voracious and energy-hungry healthcare procedure, thoughtlessly wastes water and leaves a heavy carbon footprint. In our service, 100 000 L/week of previously discarded reverse osmosis reject water--water which satisfies all World Health Organisation criteria for potable (drinking) water--no longer drains to waste but is captured for reuse. Reject water from the hospital-based dialysis unit provides autoclave steam for instrument sterilization, ward toilet flushing, janitor stations and garden maintenance. Satellite centre reject water is tanker-trucked to community sporting fields, schools and aged-care gardens. Home-based nocturnal dialysis patient reuse reject water for home domestic utilities, gardens and animal watering. Although these and other potential water reuse practices should be mandated through legislation for all dialysis services, this is yet to occur. In addition, we now are piloting the use of solar power for the reverse osmosis plant and the dialysis machines in our home dialysis training service. If previously attempted, these have yet to be reported. After measuring the power requirements of both dialytic processes and modelling the projected costs, a programme has begun to solar power all dialysis-related equipment in a three-station home haemodialysis training unit. Income-generation with the national electricity grid via a grid-share and reimbursement arrangement predicts a revenue stream back to the dialysis service. Dialysis services must no longer ignore the non-medical aspects of their programmes but plan, trial, implement and embrace 'green dialysis' resource management practices.
Kolko, A; Hannedouche, T; Couchoud, C
This chapter provides a set of indicators on patients treated by dialysis at December the 31th 2011. Even if ESRD is found in all classes of age, elders account for the great majority of the patients undergoing dialysis (median age: 70.4 years). These patients present a high rate of comorbidity especially diabetes (37% of patients) and cardiovascular comorbidities (59% of patients) that increases with the patient's age. Considering indicators of care, the main dialysis technique was hemodialysis (93.3% of patients). Even if an important inter-region variability remains considering the choices of treatment, more than 50% of the patients are undergoing hemodialysis in a hospital-based in-center unit, and we noticed an increase in hemodialysis in a medical satellite unit with time whereas the rate of self-care hemodialysis decreases. The rate of peritoneal dialysis remains stable. When comparing guidelines to real-life treatments, 77.5% of patients receive adequate dose of treatment (12H/week, KT/V>1.2), the rate of patients with a hemoglobin blood-level lower than 10 g/dl and without erythropoietin treatment is 1.3%, which confirmed a good management of anemia. On the contrary, 34% of patients have a BMI lower than 23 kg/m(2) and only 23% have an albumin blood-level over 40 g/l, which underlines that nutritional management of ESRD patients can be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bonfant, Giovanna; Belfanti, Pietro; Paternoster, Giuseppe; Gabrielli, Danila; Gaiter, Alberto M; Manes, Massimo; Molino, Andrea; Pellu, Valentina; Ponzetti, Clemente; Farina, Massimo; Nebiolo, Pier E
The aim of clinical risk management is to improve the quality of care provided by health care organizations and to assure patients' safety. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a tool employed for clinical risk reduction. We applied FMEA to chronic hemodialysis outpatients. FMEA steps: (i) process study: we recorded phases and activities. (ii) Hazard analysis: we listed activity-related failure modes and their effects; described control measures; assigned severity, occurrence and detection scores for each failure mode and calculated the risk priority numbers (RPNs) by multiplying the 3 scores. Total RPN is calculated by adding single failure mode RPN. (iii) Planning: we performed a RPNs prioritization on a priority matrix taking into account the 3 scores, and we analyzed failure modes causes, made recommendations and planned new control measures. (iv) Monitoring: after failure mode elimination or reduction, we compared the resulting RPN with the previous one. Our failure modes with the highest RPN came from communication and organization problems. Two tools have been created to ameliorate information flow: "dialysis agenda" software and nursing datasheets. We scheduled nephrological examinations, and we changed both medical and nursing organization. Total RPN value decreased from 892 to 815 (8.6%) after reorganization. Employing FMEA, we worked on a few critical activities, and we reduced patients' clinical risk. A priority matrix also takes into account the weight of the control measures: we believe this evaluation is quick, because of simple priority selection, and that it decreases action times.
Oren, Besey; Enç, Nuray
Turkey is the fifth country in Europe with regard to the number of patients receiving haemodialysis (HD). However, only a limited number of studies have comparatively investigated the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, as well as providing a comparison of quality of life between these groups. In this cross-sectional study, Quality of Life Scale and a data form was completed by 300 dialysis patients who received treatment at five hospital-based dialysis units in Istanbul, Turkey. The data were evaluated using arithmetic mean values, standard deviations, minimums, maximums, percentages, independent groups t-tests, Spearman correlation analyses and one-way variance analyses. The quality of life values in peritoneal dialysis patients were found to be higher than those of haemodialysis patients (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the quality of life in chronic dialysis patients was affected by various factors.
Borelli, Marisa; Paul, David P; Skiba, Michaeline
The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and its associated comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension continue to increase as the population ages. As most ESRD patients qualify for Medicare coverage, the U.S. government initiated reforms of the payment system for dialysis facilities in an effort to decrease expenditures associated with ESRD reimbursement. The effects of reduced reimbursement rates, bundled payment options, and quality incentives on the current dialysis system, including kidney dialysis units, physicians, and patients, are examined.
Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Ghaffari, Arshia; Dhatt, Harman; Kumar, Vijay; Balsera, Cristina; Wallace, Eric; Khairullah, Quresh; Lesher, Beth; Gao, Xin; Henderson, Heather; LaFleur, Paula; Delgado, Edna M; Alvarez, Melissa M; Hartley, Janett; McClernon, Marilyn; Walton, Surrey; Guest, Steven
Patients presenting late in the course of kidney disease who require urgent initiation of dialysis have traditionally received temporary vascular catheters followed by hemodialysis. Recent changes in Medicare payment policy for dialysis in the USA incentivized the use of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Consequently, the use of more expeditious PD for late-presenting patients (urgent-start PD) has received new attention. Urgent-start PD has been shown to be safe and effective, and offers a mechanism for increasing PD utilization. However, there has been no assessment of the dialysis-related costs over the first 90 days of care. The objective of this study was to characterize the costs associated with urgent-start PD, urgent-start hemodialysis (HD), or a dual approach (urgent-start HD followed by urgent-start PD) over the first 90 days of treatment from a provider perspective. A survey of practitioners from 5 clinics known to use urgent-start PD was conducted to provide inputs for a cost model representing typical patients. Model inputs were obtained from the survey, literature review, and available cost data. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. The estimated per patient cost over the first 90 days for urgent-start PD was $16,398. Dialysis access represented 15% of total costs, dialysis services 48%, and initial hospitalization 37%. For urgent-start HD, total per patient costs were $19,352, and dialysis access accounted for 27%, dialysis services 42%, and initial hospitalization 31%. The estimated cost for dual patients was $19,400. Urgent-start PD may offer a cost saving approach for the initiation of dialysis in eligible patients requiring an urgent-start to dialysis.
Artificial kidneys - hemodialysis; Dialysis; Renal replacement therapy - hemodialysis; End-stage renal disease - hemodialysis; Kidney failure - hemodialysis; Renal failure - hemodialysis; Chronic kidney disease - hemodialysis
Peritoneal dialysis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Peritoneal dialysis (per-ih-toe-NEE-ul die-AL-uh-sis) is a way to remove waste products from your blood when your kidneys can no longer do the job adequately. A cleansing fluid flows through a tube (catheter) into part of your abdomen and filters waste ...
Leake, R; Friend, R; Wadhwa, N
Laboratory studies show that strategic self-presentations strongly influence private self-evaluations. The present study experimentally manipulated self-presentations of dialysis patients' coping skills in order to influence their adjustment. In all, 42 renal dialysis patients matched for diabetes, gender, and dialysis years were randomly assigned to 3 conditions; adjustment was assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 1 month follow-up. Patients in a self-presentation condition selectively presented themselves as successful copers in a videotaped interview, ostensibly as part of a training program for new patients. Patients in a problem disclosure condition discussed problems with managing their illness. Control group patients viewed a medical videotape about adjusting to dialysis. Patients in the self-presentation condition reported better adjustment, fewer physical symptoms, and more coping skills 1 month later, compared with patients in the other 2 conditions. In addition, coping skills were shown to mediate the relationship between strategic self-presentation and adjustment.
García-Llana, Helena; Bajo, Maria-Auxiliadora; Barbero, Javier; Selgas, Rafael; Del Peso, Gloria
Healthcare professionals currently working in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (ACKD) units must cope with difficult situations regarding assisting patients with the dialysis decision-making process, and they are often untrained for these conversations. Although we have evidence from the literature that these skills can be learned, few professionals feel confident in this area. A Communication and Bioethical Training (CoBiT) Program for ACKD staff (physicians, nurses and allied health professionals) was developed to improve their ability and self-confidence in conducting these conversations. A four-stage study was conducted: (1) development of the CoBiT program, beginning with the creation of an interdisciplinary focus group (N = 10); (2) design of a questionnaire to assess self-confidence based on the areas identified by the focus group. The face validity of the instrument was tested using an inter-judge methodology (N = 6); (3) design of the format and contents of the program; (4) piloting the program. Thirty-six health professionals took an 8-h workshop based on role-playing methodology. Participants assessed their self-confidence in their communication skills before and after the program using self-report measures. The results show that after the program, participants reported significantly higher levels of self-confidence measured with a five-point Likert scale (p < 0.001). Participants felt that communication with colleagues of other professions significantly increased after the workshop (p = 0.004). The CoBiT program improves ACKD Unit healthcare professionals' self-confidence in their ability to perform a specific communication task.
... of your abdomen. PD involves putting a soft, hollow tube (catheter) into your abdominal cavity and filling it with a cleansing fluid (dialysis solution). The solution contains a type of sugar that draws out waste and extra fluid. The ...
Schmalz, Oliver; Strapatsas, Tobias; Alefelder, Christof; Grebe, Scott Oliver
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a common organism in hospitals worldwide and is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the prevalence in palliative care patients. Furthermore, there is no standardized screening protocol or treatment for patients for whom therapy concentrates on symptom control. Examining the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care patients as well as the level of morbidity and mortality. We performed a prospective study where methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening was undertaken in 296 consecutive patients within 48 h after admission to our palliative care unit. Medical history was taken, clinical examination was performed, and the Karnofsky Performance Scale and Palliative Prognostic Score were determined. Prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was compared to data of general hospital patients. In total, 281 patients were included in the study having a mean age of 69.7 years (standard deviation = 12.9 years) and an average Karnofsky Performance Scale between 30% and 40%. The mean length of stay was 9.7 days (standard deviation = 7.6 days). A total of 24 patients were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive on the first swab. Median number of swabs was 2. All patients with a negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus swab upon admission remained Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus negative in all subsequent swabs. Our study suggests that the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients in an in-hospital palliative care unit is much higher than in other patient populations. © The Author(s) 2016.
Conneen, S; Tzamaloukas, A H; Adler, K; Keller, L K; Bordenave, K; Murata, G H
Since 1991, death following withdrawal from dialysis has increased greatly in our dialysis unit. This report is based on our observations of those patients who followed that course. Four types of patients who withdrew from dialysis were identified: those with a terminal illness, demented patients, those with a progressive disability, and those who had no serious medical problem other than end-stage renal failure. We analyzed the risk factors for withdrawal and attempted to define the ethical principles involved in each patient category. The authors conclude that although the decision of a competent patient to stop dialysis must be honored, some of those deaths might be preventable if patients on chronic dialysis are prospectively followed and treated by those who are expert in the behavior of patients with chronic illness.
Babska, Katarzyna; Nowicki, Michał; Tkaczyk, Margin
Professional role of modern nurse requires from her in process of treatment this kind of procedure, which is expected by patient and it is implicated with direction of medical operation. Dependence place of doctor occupies then sense of cooperation. Insufficient independence, making oppositions before decision-making and fear before personal responsibility causes, that doctors and patients don't feel comfort of cooperation, what is effective lack of confidence. The aim of research was finding the answer for questions: How is formed nursing independence by taking care of patients in peritoneal dialysis? What is level of nurses preparation for independent work in dialyses stations? Has education of nurses really influence on quality of professional care? Presented work is based on questionnaire research, carried out from December 2006 to March 2007. It has included 82 nurses, who working in dialyses stations in Lodz province. Research has exerted, that over 3/5 respondents haven't been sufficiently prepared to work in dialysis station. About 30% of researched group didn't have enough knowledge to embrace patients entire care. The will of uplifting of professional qualifications have had 78% nurses. Respondents thought, that nursing group only partially (42%) should take independent operations. Only 50% nurses have conceded, that they have possibility to obtain the full information about health status of patients from doctors. Nursing independence in conduct of patients therapy in peritoneal dialysis isn't high. Systematic training and longest professional practice in dialysis station should help farthest development of nursing independence.
Leither, Maxwell D.; Shroff, Gautam R.; Ding, Shu; Gilbertson, David T.; Herzog, Charles A.
Background Bacterial endocarditis in dialysis patients is associated with high mortality rates. The literature is limited regarding long-term outcomes of valvular replacement surgery and choice of prosthesis in dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis. Methods and Results Dialysis patients hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis, 2004-2007, were studied retrospectively using data from the US Renal Data System. Long-term survival of patients undergoing valve replacement surgery with tissue or non-tissue valves was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valvular replacement surgery. During the study period, 11,156 dialysis patients were hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis and 1267 (11.4%) underwent valvular replacement surgery (tissue valve 44.3%, non-tissue valve 55.7%). In the valve replacement cohort, 60% were men, 50% white, 54% aged 45-64 years, and 36% diabetic. Estimated survival with tissue and non-tissue valves, respectively, at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 years was 59% and 60%, 48% and 50%, 35% and 37%, and 25% and 30% (log rank P = 0.42). Staphylococcus was the predominant organism (66% of identified organisms). Independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery included older age, diabetes as cause of end-stage renal disease, surgery during index hospitalization, staphylococcus as the causative organism, and dysrhythmias as a comorbid condition. Conclusions Valve replacement surgery is appropriate for well-selected dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis, but is associated with high mortality rates. Survival does not differ with tissue or non-tissue prosthesis. PMID:23785002
Bernard, Lisa; Mendelssohn, David; Dunn, Elizabeth; Hutchison, Colin; Grima, Daniel T
There is limited information regarding the cost-effectiveness of sevelamer for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on dialysis in the UK. Using a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective and final results of the Dialysis Clinical Outcomes Revisited (DCOR) study, an evaluation was performed to determine the cost-effectiveness of sevelamer compared to calcium-based phosphate binders for the first-line treatment of hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients on dialysis. A Markov model was developed to estimate life years, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs, incremental cost per life year (LY) gained, and QALY gained. Treatment-specific overall survival up to 44 months, hospitalizations, and resource utilization were derived from the DCOR study. Survival was extrapolated to a lifetime horizon using Weibull regression analysis. Unit costs and utility estimates specific to the UK were obtained from the published literature. Sub-group analyses were conducted based on data reported from the DCOR study for increasing age cut-points. Outcomes and costs were modeled for a lifetime horizon. In the base case analysis, the use of sevelamer resulted in a gain of ∼0.73 LYs and 0.44 QALYs per patient (discounted at 3.5% per year). Total per-patient costs were higher for sevelamer, resulting in an incremental cost of £22,157 per QALY gained and £13,427 per LY gained (in £2009). Increasingly favorable cost per QALY ratios were observed with increasing age cut-points, ranging from £15,864 for patients ≥45 to £13,296 for patients ≥65 years of age. Results were most sensitive to assumptions regarding overall survival and the inclusion of dialysis costs. Key limitations of the analysis included the use of non-UK trial data for survival and hospitalizations, and the exclusion of quality-of-life impacts associated with hospitalization. In CKD patients receiving dialysis, treatment of hyperphosphatemia with sevelamer offers good value
Sprenger-Mähr, Hannelore; Zitt, Emanuel; Lhotta, Karl
Introduction The number of patients suffering from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) is increasing. Whereas causes and outcome of AKI-D in the intensive care unit (ICU) are described extensively, few data exist about AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU. Aim of this study was to identify the causes of AKI-D, determine in-depth the comorbid conditions and outcome of this particular patient group and identify possibilities for its prevention. Methods We retrospectively studied all AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU in a single nephrology referral center between January 2010 and June 2015. Data on comorbid conditions, renal function and drug therapy prior to AKI-D, and possible causal events were collected. Patients were grouped into those with renal hypoperfusion as the predominant cause of AKI-D (hemodynamic group) and those with other causes (non-hemodynamic group). Results During 66 months 128 patients (57% male, mean age 69.3 years) were treated. AKI-D was community-acquired in 70.3%. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (62.5%), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (58.9%), coronary artery disease (CAD) (46.1%), diabetes (35.9%) and heart failure (34.1%). Most patients were prescribed diuretics (61.7%) and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RASI) (57.8%); 46.1% had a combination of both. In the 88 patients with hemodynamic AKI-D (68.8%) the most frequent initiating events were diarrhea (39.8%), infections (17.0%) and acute heart failure (13.6%). In the 40 patients with non-hemodynamic AKI-D (31.2%) interstitial nephritis (n = 15) was the prominent diagnosis. Patients with hemodynamic AKI-D were older (72.6 vs. 62.1 years, p = 0.001), suffered more often from CKD (68.2% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.003), CAD (54.5% vs. 27.5%, p = 0.004) and diabetes (42.0% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.033), and were more frequently on diuretics (75.0% vs. 32.5%, p<0.001), RASI (67.0% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.002) or their combination (58.0% vs. 20.0%, p<0
Di Benedetto, Attilio; Pelliccia, Francesco; Moretti, Manuela; d'Orsi, Wanda; Starace, Fernando; Scatizzi, Laura; Parisotto, Maria Teresa; Marcelli, Daniele
Clinical staff's safety perception is considered an important indicator of the implementation level of safety climate and safety culture. For this purpose, the Safety Climate Survey Questionnaire was submitted to the dialysis clinics staff of the Fresenius Medical Care (FME) network in Italy. Moreover, to explore how standard procedures implementation influences staff opinion of safety levels, the Universal Hygiene Precautions Questionnaire was also submitted. Safety Climate Survey and Universal Hygiene Precautions questionnaires were based on 19 and 14 statements, respectively. Staff members (n=346) of 33 dialysis units were involved: 21.4% physicians, 58.1% registered nurses and 20.5% health care assistants (HCAs). Safety Climate mean total score was 81.9%. Medical directors (91.5%) and quality-responsible head nurses (QHRNs) (87.4%) showed higher scores in comparison with staff physicians (82.4%), nurses responsible for hygiene (81.1%) and HCAs (78.8%). Staff nurses (78.9%) showed a significant difference (p<0.05) compared with medical directors. Universal Hygiene Precautions mean total score was 90.8%, not significantly different among medical directors (92%), staff physicians (91.4%), QHRNs (93.2%), nurses responsible for hygiene (91.7%) and staff nurses (91.4%). Only HCAs reported a significantly (p<0.05) lower score (83.6%) compared with medical directors. As the respondents were asked to complete both questionnaires anonymously, a direct correlation between the 2 questionnaires was not possible. A relatively high value for Safety Climate was evaluated within the FME network of Italian dialysis clinics. Management showed higher Safety Climate scores than frontline staff. Fostering communication and implementation of training programs are considered valid tools to improve safety.
Lee, Donald K K; Chertow, Glenn M; Zenios, Stefanos A
To determine whether profit status is associated with differences in hospital days per patient, an outcome that may also be influenced by provider financial goals. United States Renal Data System Standard Analysis Files and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services cost reports. We compared the number of hospital days per patient per year across for-profit and nonprofit dialysis facilities during 2003. To address possible referral bias in the assignment of patients to dialysis facilities, we used an instrumental variable regression method and adjusted for selected patient-specific factors, facility characteristics such as size and chain affiliation, as well as metrics of market competition. All patients who received in-center hemodialysis at any time in 2003 and for whom Medicare was the primary payer were included (N=170,130; roughly two-thirds of the U.S. hemodialysis population). Patients dialyzed at hospital-based facilities and patients with no dialysis facilities within 30 miles of their residence were excluded. Overall, adjusted hospital days per patient were 17+/-5 percent lower in nonprofit facilities. The difference between nonprofit and for-profit facilities persisted with the correction for referral bias. There was no association between hospital days per patient per year and chain affiliation, but larger facilities had inferior outcomes (facilities with 73 or more patients had a 14+/-1.7 percent increase in hospital days relative to facilities with 35 or fewer patients). Differences in outcomes among for-profit and nonprofit facilities translated to 1,600 patient-years in hospital that could be averted each year if the hospital utilization rates in for-profit facilities were to decrease to the level of their nonprofit counterparts. Hospital days per patient-year were statistically and clinically significantly lower among nonprofit dialysis providers. These findings suggest that the indirect incentives in Medicare's current payment system may provide
Stack, Austin G; Martin, David R
It is unclear whether patients with chronic kidney disease who are more autonomous in medical decision making have better outcomes than those who are not. We examined the contribution of patient autonomy to treatment selection (peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis) and subsequent association with transplantation and survival. Data were obtained from the Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 2, a national random sample of 4,025 new dialysis patients enrolled during 1996 and 1997 and followed up until October 31, 2001. Responders were asked to quantify their contribution to treatment selection and were grouped based on perceived degree of participation as patient led, team led, or patient and team led. Groups were compared and subsequent outcomes were evaluated by using Cox regression. Six hundred thirty-six patients (26.3%) reported a patient-led decision, 860 patients (35.6%) reported a team-led decision, and 922 patients (38.1%) reported a patient-and-team-led decision in treatment assignment. Unadjusted death rates were significantly lower (127 versus 159 versus 207 deaths/1,000 patient-years at risk; P < 0.0001), and transplantation rates were significantly higher (103 versus 88 versus 41 transplantations/1,000 patient-years at risk; P < 0.0001) for patients reporting the greatest contribution to modality selection. With adjustment for case mix, mortality risks were lowest (relative risk [RR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 0.99) and transplantation rates were highest (RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.93) for the patient-led group. Although the contribution of patient selection factors cannot be completely ignored, this analysis supports an association of patient autonomy with transplantation and survival. Greater efforts to empower patients with chronic kidney disease during the period before end-stage renal disease may improve clinical outcomes.
Stephens, J Mark; Emerson, Larry C; Spry, Leslie A; Caloyeras, John P; Anderson, Ernest R; Reitan, John F; Ashfaq, Akhtar
Previous research suggests that erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) administration in dialysis is a time-consuming task and switching to less frequently dosed ESAs may offer operational efficiencies. Our objective was to describe and measure the time spent on tasks in the ESA administration process in US dialysis centers, and to estimate potential efficiency gains of using weekly (QW) administration vs three-times-per-week (TIW) administration. We conducted a time and motion study of staff time required to prepare, administer and document ESA doses. Dialysis centers using intravenous administration of TIW epoetin alfa (EPO) or QW darbepoetin alfa (DPO) were selected in pairs (one EPO, one DPO) from the same organization to help control for differences in ESA protocols and staffing patterns across organizations. ESA-related tasks were timed by trained observers. Time savings of TIW vs QW administration were estimated. Staff were interviewed about alternate activities that could be accomplished if time were saved in the ESA process. A total of 200 administrations were observed (81 DPO, 119 EPO). A mean of 2.26 (95% CI: 2.1-2.5) minutes per dose were required for ESA administration. ESA process time per administration did not vary significantly between EPO and DPO (p = 0.83). Estimated potential monthly staff time savings for an average facility of 70 patients totaled 23 hours, due to fewer ESA administrations using QW DPO. Patient education and fulfillment of care plans were identified as opportunities for improved care processes that could be implemented if staff time was freed up from the ESA process. Results should not be generalized to other countries, ESAs and/or dosing frequencies. Switching from TIW EPO to QW DPO can result in time savings due to fewer administrations and provide opportunities to redirect nurse time towards activities aimed at improving patient care.
Hutchison, Colin A; Crowe, Alex V; Stevens, Paul E; Harrison, David A; Lipkin, Graham W
Introduction This report describes the case mix, outcome and activity for admissions to intensive care units (ICUs) of patients who require prior chronic renal dialysis for end-stage renal failure (ESRF), and investigates the effect of case mix factors on outcome. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a high-quality clinical database, namely the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme Database, which includes 276,731 admissions to 170 adult ICUs across England, Wales and Northern Ireland from 1995 to 2004. Results During the eight year study period, 1.3% (n = 3,420) of all patients admitted to ICU were receiving chronic renal dialysis before ICU admission. This represents an estimated ICU utilization of six admissions (32 bed-days) per 100 dialysis patient-years. The ESRF group was younger (mean age 57.3 years versus 59.5 years) and more likely to be male (60.2% versus 57.9%) than those without ESRF. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and Acute Physiology Score revealed greater severity of illness on admission in patients with ESRF (mean 24.7 versus 16.6 and 17.2 versus 12.6, respectively). Length of stay in ICU was comparable between groups (median 1.9 days versus 1.8 days) and ICU mortality was only slightly elevated in the ESRF group (26.3% versus 20.8%). However, the ESRF group had protracted overall hospital stay (median 25 days versus 17 days), and increased hospital mortality (45.3% versus 31.2%) and ICU readmission (9.0% vs. 4.7%). Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for case mix identified the increased hospital mortality to be associated with increasing age, emergency surgery and nonsurgical cases, cardiopulmonary resuscitation before ICU admission and extremes of physiological norms. The adjusted odds ratio for ultimate hospital mortality associated with chronic renal dialysis was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.37). Conclusion Patients with ESRF admitted to UK ICUs are more
Association of Alternative Approaches to Normalizing Peritoneal Dialysis Clearance with Mortality and Technique Failure: A Retrospective Analysis Using the United States Renal Data System-Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study, Wave 2.
Boyle, Suzanne M; Li, Yimei; Wilson, F Perry; Glickman, Joel D; Feldman, Harold I
♦ BACKGROUND: Total body water (V) is an imprecise metric for normalization of dialytic urea clearance (Kt). This poses a risk of early mortality/technique failure (TF). We examined differences in the distribution of peritoneal Kt/V when V was calculated with actual weight (AW), ideal weight (IW), and adjusted weight (ADW). We also examined the associations of these Kt/V measurements, Kt/body surface area (BSA), and non-normalized Kt with mortality and TF. ♦ METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 534 incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from the Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 2 linked with United States Renal Data System through 2010. Using Cox-proportional hazard models, we examined the relationship of several normalization strategies for peritoneal urea clearance, including Kt/VAW, Kt/VIW, Kt/VADW, Kt/BSA, and non-normalized Kt, with the outcomes of mortality and TF. Harrell's c-statistics were used to assess the relative predictive ability of clearance metrics for mortality and TF. The distributions of Kt/VAW, KT/VIW, and KT/VADW were compared within and between body mass index (BMI) strata. ♦ RESULTS: Median patient age: 59 (54% male; 72% white; 91% continuous ambulatory PD [CAPD]). Median 24-hour urine volume: 700 mL; median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at initiation: 7.15 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Technique failure and transplant-censored mortality at 5 years: 37%. Death and transplant-censored TF at 5 years: 60%. There were no significant differences in initial eGFR and 24-hour urine volume across BMI strata. There were statistically significant differences in each Kt/V calculation within the underweight, overweight, and obese strata. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in the hazard ratios (HRs) for TF/mortality for each clearance calculation. Harrell's c-statistics for mortality for each clearance calculation were 0.78, and for TF, 0.60 - 0.61. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Peritoneal urea clearances are
Zee, Jarcy; Morgenstern, Hal; Nolen, Jacqueline G.; Hakim, Raymond; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Zager, Philip; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Port, Friedrich K.; Robinson, Bruce M.
Background and objectives Anemia management changed substantially among dialysis patients in the United States around the time of implementation of the new Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services bundled payment system and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) label change in 2011. Among these, average ferritin levels increased dramatically and have remained high since; this study sought to gain understanding of this sustained rise in ferritin levels. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Trends in mean ferritin, hemoglobin, IV iron dose, and ESA dose from 2009 to 2013 were examined in 9735 patients from 91 United States Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study facilities. Linear mixed models were used to assess the extent to which intravenous (IV) iron and ESA dose accounted for patients’ changes in ferritin over time. Results Mean ESA dose and hemoglobin levels declined throughout the study. Mean IV iron dose increased from 210 mg/mo in 2009–2010 to a peak of 280 mg/mo in 2011, then declined back to 200 mg/mo and remained stable from 2012 to 2013. Mean ferritin increased from 601 ng/ml in the third quarter of 2009 to 887 ng/ml in the first quarter of 2012; models suggest that higher IV iron dosing was a primary determinant during 2011, but lower ESA doses contributed to the sustained high ferritin levels thereafter. In a subset of 17 facilities that decreased IV iron dose in 2011, mean ferritin rose by 120 ng/ml to 764 ng/ml, which appeared to be primarily due to ESA reduction. Together, changes in IV iron and ESA doses accounted for 46% of the increase in ferritin over the study period. Conclusions In contrast to expectations, the rise in average IV iron dose did not persist beyond 2011. The sustained rise in ferritin levels in United States dialysis patients after policy changes in 2011, to average levels well in excess of 800 ng/ml, appeared to be partly due to reductions in ESA dosing and not solely IV iron dosing practices. The effect of
Bennett, Paul N
This paper is a report of an exploration of nurses' perceptions of the quality of satellite dialysis care and how aspects of power that influenced quality nursing care. In Australia, the majority of people living with established kidney failure undertake haemodialysis in nurse-run satellite dialysis units. Haemodialysis nurses provide the majority of care, and their perceptions of what constitutes quality nursing care may influence their care of the person receiving haemodialysis. A critical ethnographic study was conducted where data were collected from one metropolitan satellite dialysis unit in Australia over a 12-month period throughout 2005. The methods included non-participant observation, interviews, document analysis, reflective field notes and participant feedback. Three theoretical constructs were identified: 'What is quality?', 'What is not quality?' and What influences quality?' Nurses considered technical knowledge, technical skills and personal respect as characteristics of quality. Long-term blood pressure management and arranging transport for people receiving dialysis treatment were not seen to be priorities for quality care. The person receiving dialysis treatment, management, nurse and environment were considered major factors determining quality dialysis nursing care. Aspects of power and oppression operated for nurses and people receiving dialysis treatment within the satellite dialysis context, and this environment was perceived by the nurses as very different from hospital dialysis units. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Monica, Ratti Maria; Delli Zotti, Giulia Bruna; Spotti, Donatella; Sarno, Lucio
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and the dialytic treatment cause a significant psychological impact on patients, their families and on the medical-nursing staff too. The psychological aspects linked to the chronic condition of Kidney Disease generate the need to integrated a psychologist into the healthcare team of the Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension Operative Unit, in order to offer a specific and professional support to the patient during the different stages of the disease, to their caregivers and to the medical team. The aim of this collaboration project between Nephrology and Psychology is to create a global and integrated healthcare model. It does not give attention simply to the physical dimension of patients affected by CKD, but also to the emotional-affective, cognitive and social dimensions and to the health environment.
Jose, Matthew D; Marshall, Mark R; Read, Gail; Lioufas, Nicole; Ling, Jon; Snelling, Paul; Polkinghorne, Kevan R
Bleeding from dialysis vascular access (arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous grafts, and vascular catheters) is uncommon. Death from these bleeds is rare and likely to be under-reported, with incident rates of fewer than 1 episode for every 1,000 patient-years on dialysis, meaning that dialysis units may experience this catastrophic event only once a decade. There is an opportunity to learn from (and therefore prevent) these bleeding deaths. We reviewed all reported episodes of death due to vascular access bleeding in Australia and New Zealand over a 14-year period together with individual dialysis units' root cause analyses on each event. In this perspective, we provide a clinically useful summary of the evidence and knowledge gained from these rare events. Our conclusion is that death due to dialysis vascular access hemorrhage is an uncommon, catastrophic, but potentially preventable event if the right policies and procedures are put in place. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lok, Charmaine E
Worldwide, there is a steady incident rate of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who require renal replacement therapy. Of these patients, approximately one-third have an "unplanned" or "urgent" start to dialysis. This can be a very challenging situation where patients have either not had adequate time for education and decision making regarding dialysis modality and appropriate dialysis access, or a decision was made and plans were altered due to unforeseen circumstances. Despite such unplanned starts, clinicians must still consider the patient's ESKD "life-plan", which includes the best initial dialysis modality and access to suit the patient's individual goals and their medical, social, logistic, and facility circumstances. This paper will discuss the considerations of peritoneal dialysis and a peritoneal dialysis catheter access and hemodialysis and central venous catheter access in patients who require an urgent start to dialysis.
Béchade, Clémence; Goovaerts, Tony; Cougnet, Philippe; Labriola, Laura; Jadoul, Michel; Goffin, Eric
Buttonhole cannulation (BHC) has been associated with a greater risk of arteriovenous fistula (AVF)-related infections and septicemia than the rope ladder cannulation (RLC) in in-center hemodialysis (HD). Such infections have never been studied in satellite HD units. Retrospective single center study. All patients in our satellite HD unit using a native AVF from 1 January, 1990, to 31 December, 2012. Two different kinds of cannulation have been used during the study period: From 1 January, 1990 to 1, January, 1998 RLC was used in the unit (period 1). After 1 January, 1998 onwards, all the patients were switched within 3 months to BHC (period 2). Three different infectious events were observed during the two periods: local AVF infection, bacteremia, and combined infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of AVF-related infections in our low-care HD unit and to determine whether BHC is associated with an increased risk of infection in this population. 162 patients were analyzed; 68 patients participated to period 1 and 115 to period 2. Sixteen infectious events occurred. Incidences of AVF-related infectious events were 0.05 [95% CI, 0.02-0.16] and 0.13/1000 AVF-days [95% CI, 0.0.8-0.23], for period 1 and 2 (p = 0.44) respectively. Recurrence of AVF-related infection was observed only during period 2. Unadjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of all infections was 0.39 (95%CI 0.12-1.37). Two complicated infections occurred during the study period: one in period 1 and one in period 2. Observational retrospective single centre study. BHC is not associated with an increased infectious incidence in our HD population from a satellite dialysis unit. In the rare patients with AVF-related infection it seems necessary to change cannulation sites as recurrence of infection might be an event more frequent with BHC.
Background The aim of the study was to determine whether distance between residence and peritoneal dialysis (PD) unit influenced peritonitis occurrence, microbiology, treatment and outcomes. Methods The study included all patients receiving PD between 1/10/2003 and 31/12/2008, using ANZDATA Registry data. Results 365 (6%) patients lived ≥100 km from their nearest PD unit (distant group), while 6183 (94%) lived <100 km (local group). Median time to first peritonitis in distant patients (1.34 years, 95% CI 1.07-1.61) was significantly shorter than in local patients (1.68 years, 95% CI 1.59-1.77, p = 0.001), whilst overall peritonitis rates were higher in distant patients (incidence rate ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.20-1.46). Living ≥100 km away from a PD unit was independently associated with a higher risk of S. aureus peritonitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.09-2.47). Distant patients with first peritonitis episodes were less likely to be hospitalised (64% vs 73%, p = 0.008) and receive antifungal prophylaxis (4% vs 10%, p = 0.01), but more likely to receive vancomycin-based antibiotic regimens (52% vs 42%, p < 0.001). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis of peritonitis outcomes, distant patients were more likely to be cured with antibiotics alone (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.24). All other outcomes were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions Living ≥100 km away from a PD unit was associated with increased risk of S. aureus peritonitis, modified approaches to peritonitis treatment and peritonitis outcomes that were comparable to, or better than patients living closer to a PD unit. Staphylococcal decolonisation should receive particular consideration in remote living patients. PMID:22702659
Mancini, Andrea; Angelini, Pernina; Bozzi, Michele; Cuzzola, Cristoforo; Giancaspro, Vincenzo; Laraia, Elvira; Nisi, Maria Teresa; Proscia, Anna Rita; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Vitale, Ottavia; Petrarulo, Francesco
Currently, English scientific literature is lacking in studies showing that medical assistance may be delivered without errors. Since two years ago, the department of nephrology and urology of ASL BA has been establishing a process of clinical risk management.Starting with the reporting of a single error, a related database was subsequently developed, in order to validate technical and organizational procedures that would be of common use in the daily clinical practice.With regard to error reporting, the system of incident reporting was adopted: that is a structured collection of significant events for the safety of patients with a specific form for reporting to be filled out by health professionals. Reports have been collected, coded and analysed. Finally measures were adopted to reduce the recurrence of the error.This first phase consisted on writing the procedures in order to create structured diagnostic-therapeutic protocols. In 18 months of observation adopting the incident reporting form, 48 errors have been reported: 52% due to adverse events; 12.5% to adverse reactions; 31.2% near misses and 2% to sentinel events. In 35.4 % of cases the error occurred in the administration or prescription of drug therapies, in 18.7% of cases it occurred in the organizational stage, in 12.5% it was a surgical error, in 18.7% of cases the error was due to incorrect asepsis, in 8.3% of cases it occurred during the medical examination and finally in 8.3% during dialysis. An analysis of the error database resulted in the choice of more urgent procedures. It is our view that only the observation of procedures can ensure the achievement of a high quality with improved clinical outcomes, reduction of complications, elimination of inappropriate interventions and increased patient satisfaction.
Briones-Garduño, Jesús Carlos; Díaz de León-Ponce, Manuel Antonio; Rodríguez-Roldán, Martín; Briones-Vega, Carlos Gabriel; Torres-Pérez, Juan
The prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF) in obstetric patients in our country is estimated to be between 3 and 42.8%. The most important causes are preeclampsia, especially when associated with thrombotic microangiopathy and hemolysis and less frequently to hemorrhagic shock. Early peritoneal dialysis (EPD) is the temporary treatment. For these patients, 100 % recovery in renal function was observed. When ARF is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF), the reported mortality ranges between 0 and 20 %. To describe clinical features and medical outcomes of patients treated with early peritoneal dialysis in pregnancy complicated by ARF. A case series was conducted at the Research Unit of the Instituto Materno Infantil del Estado de México. We reviewed the cases of patients admitted to the ICU matching the criteria for ARF. They were divided into two groups: those who received EPD vs. those who did not require EPD. The most important national series were included describing the association with preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolysis. In a 5-year period, 1272 patients were admitted to the ICU; in 38 patients ARF was documented requiring peritoneal dialysis. In nine cases ARF was associated with thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolysis, two cases of stillbirth, and one case of mortality with MOF. A 100% recovery in renal function was observed in all cases, using 1.5% solution with an average of 34 dialysis treatments. The early use of peritoneal dialysis in obstetric patients with ARF has a good prognosis.
Sharif, Adnan; Baboolal, Keshwar
The burgeoning population of patients requiring renal replacement therapy contributes a disproportionate strain on National Health Service resources. Although renal transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for patients with established renal failure, achieving both clinical and financial advantages, limitations to organ donation and clinical comorbidities will leave a significant proportion of patients with established renal failure requiring expensive dialysis therapy in the form of either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. An understanding of dialysis economics is essential for both healthcare providers and clinical leaders to establish clinically efficient and cost-effective treatment modalities that maximize service provision. In light of changes to the provision of healthcare funds in the form of "Payment by Results," it is imperative for UK renal units to adopt clinically effective and financially accountable dialysis programs. This article explores the role of dialysis economics and implications for UK renal replacement therapy programs.
Shelton, D M
Peritonitis is the most common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epi), a common skin organism, is the microorganism that is identified is the majority of episodes of peritonitis. The PD catheter breaks the natural skin barrier and allows a periluminal migration of bacteria from the skin surface into the sterile peritoneal cavity. Exit site care is routinely performed to decrease the colony counts of microorganisms on the skin surrounding the PD catheter. Research data is limited to support any of the currently used protocols for exit site care. This study compared the effect of two antiseptic agents, povidone-iodine (P-I) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG), on S. epi colony forming units (cfu) at the PD catheter exit site over a 24 hour period. Because the distribution of the research data was markedly non-normal, a descriptive approach was used to interpret the data. Results showed that there was no difference between P-I and CG immediately after exit site care. All patients had zero growth at Time I. One trend that emerged was that at 24 hours after exit site care with P-I, more patients (54%) had S. epi cfu than did patients (15%) cleaned with CG.
Organon Teknika Corporation's REDY 2000 dialysis machine employs technology originally developed under NASA contract by Marquardt Corporation. The chemical process developed during the project could be applied to removing toxic waste from used dialysis fluid. This discovery led to the development of a kidney dialysis machine using "sorbent" dialysis, a method of removing urea from human blood by treating a dialysate solution. The process saves electricity and, because the need for a continuous water supply is eliminated, the patient has greater freedom.
Lee, Donald K K; Chertow, Glenn M; Zenios, Stefanos A
Objective To determine whether profit status is associated with differences in hospital days per patient, an outcome that may also be influenced by provider financial goals. Data Sources United States Renal Data System Standard Analysis Files and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services cost reports. Design We compared the number of hospital days per patient per year across for-profit and nonprofit dialysis facilities during 2003. To address possible referral bias in the assignment of patients to dialysis facilities, we used an instrumental variable regression method and adjusted for selected patient-specific factors, facility characteristics such as size and chain affiliation, as well as metrics of market competition. Data Extraction Methods All patients who received in-center hemodialysis at any time in 2003 and for whom Medicare was the primary payer were included (N=170,130; roughly two-thirds of the U.S. hemodialysis population). Patients dialyzed at hospital-based facilities and patients with no dialysis facilities within 30 miles of their residence were excluded. Results Overall, adjusted hospital days per patient were 17±5 percent lower in nonprofit facilities. The difference between nonprofit and for-profit facilities persisted with the correction for referral bias. There was no association between hospital days per patient per year and chain affiliation, but larger facilities had inferior outcomes (facilities with 73 or more patients had a 14±1.7 percent increase in hospital days relative to facilities with 35 or fewer patients). Differences in outcomes among for-profit and nonprofit facilities translated to 1,600 patient-years in hospital that could be averted each year if the hospital utilization rates in for-profit facilities were to decrease to the level of their nonprofit counterparts. Conclusions Hospital days per patient-year were statistically and clinically significantly lower among nonprofit dialysis providers. These findings suggest that
The denominated Plan "DIALYSIS FRIEND" organized in the region March in the 1998, has seen involved almost all the centers of Dialysis of the region. He has the purpose of furnish the sanitary operators the tools for face the varied strife-torn situations in first person and emotional that they present themselves in an U.O. to "high tension" like result be the Dialysis and the "particularity" personality of whom affection from chronic uraemia comes subjected to dialysis. Besides through the identification of a "profile of fitness" furnishes data on the compliance of the person dialyzed or in pre-dialysis to the different techniques of dialysis. The share of the doctor, of a chief ward, and of any nurses of the U.O. of Nefro/Dialysis of Fano to such plan has resulted to be a very significance experience. The participants to the course tell their experience.
Marichal, J F
Among the dialysis method, Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) is considered as simple, efficient, economical and giving autonomy to the patient. After more than ten year using Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis, results are evaluated. The method remains simple, but the obvious simplicity demands a strict medical control. It is efficient, but the hope in anemia and osteodystrophy correction is not confirmed. It offers more freedom but with a lot of restraints: the dietary restriction must be followed and there is only relative moving autonomia. It is economical, but the costs with the use of disconnectable systems which reduce morbidity, bring it near to the home hemodialysis.
Mathew, Anna; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Rhee, Connie M; Chen, Joline L T; Shah, Gaurang; Lau, Wei-Ling; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
Most patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States are initiated on thrice-weekly hemodialysis (HD) regimens. However, an incremental approach to HD may provide several patient benefits. We tested whether initiation of incremental HD does or does not compromise survival compared with a conventional HD regimen. The survival of 434 incremental, 50,162 conventional, and 160 frequent HD patients were compared using Cox regression analysis after matching for demographic and comorbid factors in a longitudinal national cohort of adult incident HD patients enrolled between January 2007 and December 2011. Sensitivity analysis included adjustment for residual kidney function. After adjustment for residual kidney function, all-cause mortality was not significantly different in the incremental compared with conventional HD group (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.72-1.08), but was higher in the frequent compared with the conventional HD group (hazard ratio, 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.03). The comorbidity burden modified the association of treatment frequency and mortality, with higher comorbidity associated with higher mortality in the incremental HD group (hazard ratio, 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.20-2.62) for a Charlson Comorbidity Index of ≥5. Thus, among incident HD patients with low or moderate comorbid disease, survival was similar for patients initiated on an incremental or conventional HD regimen. Clinical trials are needed to examine the safety and effectiveness of incremental HD and the selected patient populations who may benefit from an incremental approach to HDs initiation. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bekele, Delayehu; Ahmed, Momina; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Kedir, Seman; Chan, Grace
To describe the clinical profile and outcomes of women with pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (AKI) undergoing dialysis at Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, where the first publicly funded large-scale dialysis service in Ethiopia was established. In a hospital-based retrospective study, clinical records were reviewed for all women with pregnancy-related AKI attending the hemodialysis unit at the study center between August 2013 and July 2015. In total, 42 pregnant women with pregnancy-related AKI underwent dialysis. Their mean age was 28.9 ± 5.9 years. The most common cause of pregnancy-related AKI was pre-eclampsia or eclampsia (31/42, 74%), followed by puerperal sepsis (6/42, 14%). The mean number of dialysis sessions was 4.8 ± 4.6; the most common indication for dialysis was refractory fluid overload (35/42, 83%). Overall, 35 (83%) women were discharged with improvement, 5 (12%) died, and 2 (5%) absconded. Of the five maternal deaths, three women had pre-eclampsia-related AKI and two had puerperal sepsis-related AKI. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the leading cause of pregnancy-related AKI, which can be easily prevented with early diagnosis and timely intervention. Improving the quality of prenatal care to recognize hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, coupled with prompt management, might help to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality related to AKI. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Walker, David R.; Inglese, Gary W.; Sloand, James A.
Background and objectives: Nonmedical factors influencing utilization of home dialysis at the facility level are poorly quantified. Home dialysis is comparably effective and safe but less expensive to society and Medicare than in-center hemodialysis. Elimination of modifiable practice variation unrelated to medical factors could contribute to improvements in patient outcomes and use of scarce resources. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Prevalent dialysis patient data by facility were collected from the 2007 ESRD Network’s annual reports. Facility characteristic data were collected from Medicare’s Dialysis Facility Compare file. A multivariate regression model was used to evaluate associations between the use of home dialysis and facility characteristics. Results: The utilization of home dialysis was positively associated with facility size, percent patients employed full- or part-time, younger population, and years a facility was Medicare certified. Variables negatively associated include an increased number of hemodialysis patients per hemodialysis station, chain association, rural location, more densely populated zip code, a late dialysis work shift, and greater percent of black patients within a zip code. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors affecting the frequency of use of home dialysis may help explain practice variations across the United States that result in an imbalanced use of medical resources within the ESRD population. In turn, this may improve the delivery of healthcare and extend the ability of an increasingly overburdened medical financing system to survive. PMID:20634324
Prevalence of hepatitis C infection and its risk factors in hemodialysis patients in tehran: preliminary report from "the effect of dialysis unit isolation on the incidence of hepatitis C in dialysis patients" project.
Broumand, Behrooz; Shamshirsaz, Alireza Abdollah; Kamgar, Mohammad; Hashemi, Reza; Aiazi, Farzam; Bekheirnia, Mirreza; Boozary, Navid; Komeilian, Zahra; Shamshirsaz, Amir Hooshang Abdollah; Tabatabaiee, Mehdi Rohani; Broumand, Varshasb
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in patients with end-stage renal disease. It is more prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients than the general population but the exact routes of transmission are not clear. In this study, the current situation of HCV infection was assessed in eleven dialysis centers in Tehran, Iran. A total of 548 patients on maintenance HD with a mean age of 45.4 +/- 16.8 years were studied. Most of the patients were dialysed 3 times/week, each session lasting 4 to 4.5 hours. About 15% of patients had a history of having received peritoneal dialysis prior to maintenance HD and 23.6 of patients had received blood transfusion(s). The most common cause of renal failure was hypertension in 29.7% followed by diabetes mellitus in 23.2%, failed renal transplant in 19.4% and glomerulonephritis in 9.7%. HCV antibodies were measured by ELISA-III. All positive sera were tested for HCV RNA by RT-PCR. Positive HCV antibody tests were present in 19.6% of patients. In these seropositive patients, 48.6% had detectable HCV RNA. Prevalence of HCV antibody seropositivity was not different in patients with or without history of blood transfusion. The prevalence of positive HCV antibody in this study was higher than reports from Europe but lower than other countries in the region. Only 48.6% of seropositive cases were confirmed by PCR, which is lower than expected values. It seems that nosocomial transmission is the main route of infection in Iran.
Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y; Dutta, Satyajit
Legislative regulations, decreasing reimbursements for office procedures, and malpractice premiums have transformed plastic surgery from an office-based specialty into a hospital-based one. Simultaneously, hospital economics has altered, wherein the "business model" has all but subsumed the old "medical care" model. Integration between plastic surgeons and the new hospital structure has been difficult for both. Limited understanding of the financial dynamics of hospital-based practices, unfamiliarity with the administrative processes, and resistance to accept and assimilate changes by both sides pose hurdles, in some situations even forcing plastic surgeons out of hospital settings. Using well-defined financial terminology, changing national development in health care policy, and hospital-based administrative strategies as a backdrop, this study finds common ground for the plastic surgery specialty to coapt with the hospital. Key missing elements in the interaction between plastic surgeons and hospital administrations and ways of integrating these components are identified. To do so effectively, plastic surgeons must first understand the basic tenets of management that drive hospital administrators, participate at every level they can in guiding these processes, and assume leadership roles that will ultimately dictate the way they work and conduct their professional lives. It is critical that plastic surgeons engage in important processes that govern the economics of hospital-based health care delivery. This commitment will also ensure that all three groups (the patients, physicians, and hospital administrators) achieve a degree of satisfaction. The message to plastic surgeons is clear: be proactive and lead a campaign of change.
John, G; Darbellay, P; Drepper, M; Spechbach, H; Fosenbauer, M Becerra; Perrier, A; Carballo, S
In an era in which primary and secondary prevention have important implications for public health and health care costs, a series of publications and guidelines give added weight or precision to current medical practice in the fields of hospital based internal medicine. This article presents a selective review of new guidelines and therapeutic options for areas of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, gastroenterology and oncology.
Clark, Edward; Kumar, Anand; Langote, Amit; Lapinsky, Stephen; Dodek, Peter; Kramer, Andreas; Wood, Gordon; Bagshaw, Sean M; Wood, Ken; Gurka, Dave; Sood, Manish M
To describe the clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality of chronic dialysis-dependent end-stage kidney disease patients with septic shock in comparison to septic shock patients not receiving chronic dialysis. Using an international, multicenter database, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 10,414 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with septic shock from 1989 to 2013, of which 800 (7.7 %) were chronic dialysis patients. Data on demographic characteristics, sites of infection, microbial pathogens, antimicrobial usage patterns, and in-hospital mortality were aggregated and compared for chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients. Multivariate time-varying Cox models with and without propensity score matching were constructed to determine the association between dialysis and in-hospital death. Septic shock secondary to central venous catheter infection, peritonitis, ischemic bowel, and cellulitis was more frequent in chronic dialysis patients. The isolation of resistant organisms (10.7 vs. 7.1 %; p = 0.005) and delays in receiving antimicrobials (6.0 vs. 5.0 h) were more common in chronic dialysis patients than in non-dialysis patients. Delayed appropriate antimicrobial therapy was associated with an increased risk of death in chronic dialysis patients (p < 0.0001). In-hospital death occurred in 54.8 and 49.0 % of chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients, respectively. After propensity score matching, there was no difference in overall survival between chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients, but survival in chronic dialysis patients decreased over time compared to non-dialysis patients. The demographic and clinical characteristics of chronic dialysis patients with septic shock differ from those of similar non-dialysis patients. However, there was no significant difference in mortality between the chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients with septic shock enrolled in this analysis.
There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...
Gerhardt, Philipp; Gallup, D. M.
Gerhardt, Philipp (The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), and D. M. Gallup. Dialysis flask for concentrated culture of microorganisms. J. Bacteriol 86:919–929. 1963.—A twin-chambered dialysis flask was designed with a supported membrane clamped between a reservoir of medium in the bottom and a small volume of culture above, the unit being mounted on a shaking machine to provide aeration and agitation. The performance of different dialysis membranes and membrane filters was compared in glucose-diffusion and bacterial-culture tests. Some of the variables in dialysis culture were assessed and the growth response was characterized, with Serratia marcescens as the test organism. The general usefulness and concentrating effect of dialysis culture were demonstrated in trials with 16 representative types of microorganisms. Dialysis culture was shown to be especially suitable for producing dense populations of cells or their macromolecular products in an environment free from complex medium constituents, for removing toxic products that limit growth or fermentation, and for supplying oxygen by diffusion without the damage from usual aeration procedures. Images PMID:14080802
Pérez Díaz, Vicente; Sanz Ballesteros, Sandra; Hernández García, Esther; Descalzo Casado, Elena; Herguedas Callejo, Irene; Ferrer Perales, Cristina
The measure of intraperitoneal pressure in peritoneal dialysis is easy and provides clear therapeutic benefits. However it is measured only rarely in adult peritoneal dialysis units. This review aims to disseminate the usefulness of measuring intraperitoneal pressure. This measurement is performed in supine before initiating the drain of a manual exchange with "Y" system, by raising the drain bag and measuring from the mid-axillary line the height of the liquid column that rises from the patient. With typical values of 10-16 cmH2O, intraperitoneal pressure should never exceed 18 cmH2O. With basal values that depend on body mass index, it increases 1-3 cmH2O/L of intraperitoneal volume, and varies with posture and physical activity. Its increase causes discomfort, sleep and breathing disturbances, and has been linked to the occurrence of leaks, hernias, hydrothorax, gastro-esophageal reflux and enteric peritonitis. Less known and valued is its ability to decrease the effectiveness of dialysis significantly counteracting ultrafiltration and decreasing solute clearance to a smaller degree. Because of its easy measurement and potential utility, should be monitored in case of ultrafiltration failure to rule out its eventual contribution in some patients. Although not yet mentioned in the clinical practice guidelines for PD, its clear benefits justify its inclusion among the periodic measurements to consider for prescribing and monitoring peritoneal dialysis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
There is an ongoing increase in the number of elderly or frail patients requiring renal replacement therapy. Assisted automated peritoneal dialysis (aAPD) is one treatment option for this patient group and is becoming increasingly recognized as a distinct dialysis modality. In this article, we review the current status of aAPD and its evolution across Europe, describing the differences in service provision. We also report our experience locally of outcomes on our aAPD population over the last 4 years. We found that aAPD is a viable dialysis modality in the frail and elderly with limited lifespan, and complications of peritoneal dialysis are perhaps lower than would be expected in this population. This form of therapy also avoids the disruption to life which results from hospital-based dialysis. PMID:25949510
De, Diana; Xiang Ai, Anna Tian
A number of relevant issues are considered which show that it is essential to address the issue of in-centre meals during dialysis. This discussion paper critically explores the potential complications posed to patients who consume a large calorific intake during their dialysis treatment. The mission is to appeal to more dialysis units and outpatient departments to gradually implement a 'no food' policy during regular scheduled dialysis treatment sessions. The authors aim to put forward the significances and challenges and offer some possible solutions when introducing a 'no eating policy' like this into dialysis units. Nutritional supplements could, however, be offered on an as required basis.
Shinaberger, J H
contribution! The National Cooperative Dialysis Study reported in Kidney International, 1983, was either misunderstood or ignored by most practitioners. The mechanistic analysis of the study by Gotch and Sargent appeared in 1985 and indicated that at adequate protein intake a Kt/V >0.8 yielded better patient survival. In 1982 Malchesky reported the Direct Dialysis Quantification (DDQ) based on calculations from the total mass removed in the dialysate. Although cumbersome, it avoids many errors including the effect of hematocrit and other factors on dialyzer clearance and many consider it to be "the gold standard." The 1990s were characterized by the development of many simple logarithmic equations to estimate Kt/V and eKt/V suitable for spreadsheets which could be used for CQI by individual units. These are primarily by J. T. Daugirdas and coworkers, Smye and Tattersall. In 1991 the Urea Reduction Ratio (URR) was introduced by Lowrie, who in 1999 suggested that Kt and V (as indicator of lean body mass) were independent predictors of survival. Peritoneal dialysis: Although performed before and immediately after World War II, almost all of the basic quantification mechanistics and data are found in the publications of S. T. Boen (1964). New quantifiers, the Mass Transport Area Coefficient (MTAC) or Pyle-Popovich model, the Henderson-Nolph, and Garred models, were compared by Waniewski. Gotch announced a PD modeling program which suggested that a weekly PKt/V at 2.1 was needed to supply the same urea removal as a Kt/V of 3.6, but warned that both were sensitive to decreased time.
Jahnsen, V. J.
Chromatographic-sample pretreatment by dialysis detects traces of organic contaminants in water samples analyzed in field with minimal analysis equipment and minimal quantities of solvent. Technique also of value wherever aqueous sample and solvent must not make direct contact.
Hutchison, Alastair J; Courthold, Jonathan J
Pre-emptive living donor transplantation should always be promoted as the first-line treatment for kidney failure. Where that is not possible, patients must receive timely information and advice regarding all dialysis options available, including home-based peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis. Where a dialysis unit enables and actively encourages self-management, patients will tend to select themselves, and if well motivated may overcome significant difficulties to exceed the expectations or predictions of dialysis staff. Patients then become advocates themselves and can provide other patients with the necessary motivation to consider a home treatment, such that they approach staff, rather than vice versa. For staff to be able to talk to patients with confidence requires direct experience of home dialysis, but in units which do not have a full range of home therapies, this may initially be difficult. Visiting patients in their home environment is an essential part of training for both medical and nursing staff. Before a patient is able to begin to engage in discussion about any dialysis therapy, they must have reached a point of acceptance that dialysis is necessary. If they are not at this point, then any attempt at 'education' will be largely futile. Once a patient has arrived at the point of choosing a home therapy, the pathway to their first dialysis at home must be as smooth and problem-free as possible.
Chisholm, Latarsha; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Landry, Amy Yarbrough; Epané, Josué Patien
The presence of hospital-based palliative care programs has risen over time in the United States. Nevertheless, organizational and environmental factors that contribute to the presence of hospital-based palliative care programs are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of organizational and environmental factors associated with the presence of hospital-based palliative care programs using resource dependence theory. Panel data from 2000 to 2009 American Hospital Association Annual Survey and the Area Resource File were used in this study. A random-effect logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between organizational and environmental factors and the presence of hospital-based palliative care programs. Hospitals with higher Medicare inpatient days, located in counties with higher Medicare managed penetration, and larger hospitals had greater odds of having a hospital-based palliative care program. Although hospitals in counties that have a higher percentage of individuals 65 years and older, for-profit and government hospitals were less likely to have a hospital-based palliative care program. Hospitals will vary in the organizational resources available to them, as such, administrators' awareness of the relationship between resources and palliative care programs can help determine the relevance of a program in their hospital.
Hakim, R M; Lazarus, J M
The decision to initiate dialysis in a patient with progressive renal disease often depends on the physician's assessment of the patient's subjective symptoms of uremia. There is an increasing need to identify objective criteria for such a decision. Recent evidence suggests that malnutrition at the initiation of dialysis is a strong predictor of subsequent increased relative risk of death on dialysis. In this context, the role of prescribed protein restriction as well as the influence of the progression of renal disease on spontaneous dietary protein intake is examined. It is proposed that the indices of malnutrition such as progressive weight loss, serum albumin levels below 4.0 g/dL, serum transferrin levels below 200 mg/dL, and spontaneous dietary protein intake (using 24-hr urinary nitrogen measurement) below 0.8 to 0.7 g/kg per day be considered as objective criteria for the initiation of dialysis. Studies that have examined the role of "early" versus "late" dialysis have consistently shown a better outcome in the patients starting dialysis early. Other studies also suggest that early referral to nephrologists results in improved morbidity and mortality as well as hospitalization costs. An adequate vascular access, as well as social and psychological preparation of the patient, is an important early step in the process.
Kelly, Thomas D
With the recent focus on the benefits of more frequent dialysis, the Baxter Aurora dialysis system provides maximum flexibility for therapy prescription, including short daily treatments, long nocturnal treatments, hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and online hemodiafiltration, all in a compact, reliable, easy to use system. A self-prompting touch screen user interface mounted on a movable arm provides for comfortable operation, whether sitting and standing. An automatic treatment setup mode facilitates easy treatment setup. Complex menus are eliminated by the use of a hardware key that automatically selects only the prescribed options during power up, eliminating all menus associated with nonprescribed functions and modalities. This prevents the user from becoming confused or accidentally altering the dialysis treatment. Prior to dialysis the instrument goes through an automatic self-test that confirms the operation of internal systems. The screen will dim when there is no action that the patient needs to attend to on the instrument. After dialysis, press the disinfect button and the instrument disinfects itself and shuts off. For patient safety, the "disinfect" menus are not available during dialysis. The instrument can also be programmed to automatically start and rinse at a set time. For remote treatment monitoring, the instrument connects to the Internet. The Aurora records information about the machine's technical status, providing a record of instrument history for easy servicing. The Aurora is a flexible platform that provides the desired renal therapy with ease of use and proper support for the hemodialysis patient when combined with Baxter's 24-hour infrastructure and support.
Peters, K; Ryan, H
In August 1995, the Ontario Ministry of Health (MOH) issued a request for proposal (RFP) for the establishment of new and expanded dialysis services. London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) was successful in expanding its integrated dialysis delivery network with satellites in Stratford, Woodstock and Owen Sound. This achievement required collaboration of LHSC and host hospital staff to meet the challenging RFP requirements. With final approval received in January 1997, efforts were required to establish an operational model supporting self-care and full-care patients, to train satellite staff and patients, and to manage the resulting clinical impact. A balanced scorecard (Kaplan & Norton, 1992) evaluation model was developed. Initial outcome data indicate that full-care patients in satellites require more fallback support to London units, experience more hypotensive episodes during dialysis and, in some cases, demonstrate lower levels of dialysis adequacy and nutritional status when compared to satellite self-care patients. Findings from these data will assist in revising patient inclusion criteria and processes to optimize community-based dialysis.
Stringer, Stephanie; Baharani, Jyoti
It is now common for elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease to be offered treatment by dialysis. However, what these patients expect from dialysis is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the expectations of elderly patients starting dialysis and to investigate whether their views change after 6 months on this treatment. This was a prospective observational qualitative study of patients commencing haemodialysis in our centre from 2006 to 2007. Data were collected by interview and review of case notes at the time of starting dialysis and after 6 months of treatment. Patients were asked about their expectations from dialysis, symptoms, and views on advance care planning. Data were collected from 22 patients (mean age 69.1 years) within a month from starting dialysis. Seventy per cent of these patients had attended a pre-dialysis clinic for at least 4 months previously; despite this, many of the patients complained about having had little choice in starting dialysis and seemed uncertain about what dialysis would involve. Even so, over 90% of those interviewed were optimistic about dialysis, had high expectations from treatment and were not keen to discuss advance care planning at first interview. Sixteen patients were re-interviewed at 6 months (four patients had died meanwhile and two had been transferred to other centres). After 6 months, there was a change in patients' attitude, with only 45% of them still finding dialysis acceptable and more patients now keen to discuss advance care planning. Symptom burden was higher at 6 months than at initiation of dialysis treatment. Most elderly patients have unrealistic expectations from dialysis at the start of treatment. There is a need for more specific counselling of these patients to ensure that they make informed decisions about treatment modality and have realistic expectations if they chose to receive RRT.
Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun
Dialysis, particularly haemodialysis, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A new study confirms that hypokalaemia confers an excess cardiovascular risk and contributes disproportionately to the high risk of death in patients on peritoneal dialysis, which may partially account for the fact that observed cardiac risk is similar for patients on peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis.
Bird, Scott; Petley, Graham W; Deakin, Charles D; Clewlow, Frank
Defibrillation of patients connected to medical equipment that is not defibrillation proof risks ineffective defibrillation and harm to the operator as a result of aberrant electrical pathways taken by the defibrillation current. Many renal dialysis systems are not currently defibrillation proof. Although national and international safety standards caution against defibrillating under this circumstance, it appears to be an area of confusion that we have investigated in more detail. Thirty renal dialysis units across the UK were invited to participate in a telephone survey of current practice from 1 October 2004 to 1 October 2005. The Medical Healthcare Regulatory Agency and renal dialysis machine manufacturers were contacted for advice, and current safety standards were reviewed. Twenty-eight renal dialysis units completed the survey. Seven (25%) units would not disconnect patients from dialysis equipment during defibrillation, collectively reporting 14 patients who had required defibrillation during dialysis. Eighteen (64.3%) units would disconnect patients from dialysis equipment during defibrillation, collectively reporting 29 patients who had required defibrillation during dialysis. No complications were identified by this survey, through the MHRA or through a literature search. Defibrillation of patients while undergoing renal dialysis is common practice in the UK. Although no adverse events have been reported, this practice risks injury to the patient and clinical staff, and equipment damage if the dialysis equipment is not defibrillation proof. It is in breach of national and international safety standards and should not be practiced.
Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio
Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374
Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio
Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive-convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200-300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients.
Piccoli, G B; Calderini, M; Bechis, F; Iadarola, A M; Iacuzzo, C; Mezza, E; Vischi, M; Trione, L; Poltronieri, E; Gai, M; Anania, P; Pacitti, A; Jeantet, A; Segoloni, G P
Limited care dialysis is an interesting option, which has gained attention in several settings because of the aging of the uremic cohort. The aim of this study was to assess its potential in the Piedmont region in northern Italy, evaluating patients' and care-givers' preferences and testing them in a mathematical model of organisation. The study was conducted in the satellite unit of a university hospital (200-210 dialysis patients), following 35 patients (15 at home, 20 in the center, 10 on daily dialysis). Opinions were collected with a questionnaire and features identified were empirically tested through a simulation model. Most patients (34/35) preferred a small unit, with a stable caring team. Further options were flexibility of dialysis schedule, multiple treatment options, integrated center/home care. These needs could be met by a flexible organization including conventional dialysis (3/week) and daily dialysis (6/week). We employed a simulation model (ARENA software) to calculate the nurses required for each shift and the opening hours and best schedule for the unit. Addition of daily dialysis (2-3 hours) to two conventional 4-5 hour sessions to increased the number of patients followed or "spared" beds, ensuring flexibility. According to patients' best choice (7 dialysis stations), and to the recorded calls, the needs are for two nurses per shift, two shifts per day and six nurses for up to 30 patients in limited care. In conclusion, small centers with flexible schedules can tailor dialysis to patients' needs. A managerial approach is valuable for testing cost/benefit ratios in specific contexts.
Chen, Kuan-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Shao, Jung-Hua; Shyu, Yea-Ing
The hospital-based scholarship is a relatively recent incentive used by hospitals to recruit new nursing graduates. Few studies have explored the impact of these scholarship programs on hospital recruitment. To explore the perspectives and expectations of new nursing graduates on the application of a hospital-based scholarship for nursing students. This study used a qualitative research approach. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 20 new nursing graduates from one university in northern Taiwan in 2013. Content analysis was applied to analyze the data. Two themes were identified by participants who had applied for a hospital-based scholarship: "aspire to be a nursing-scholarship recipient and work towards this aspiration" and "look forward to receiving a nursing-scholarship and imagine possible features of the future life." One theme was identified by participants who had not applied for a hospital-based scholarship: "agree with the policy of hospital-based scholarship but resist the restrictions on their life." Although both groups agreed that the scholarship program helped relieve financial stresses, participants who had applied for the scholarship tended to hold positive and aggressive attitudes towards the nursing scholarship. Conversely, participants who had not applied for the scholarship did so due to the perceived conflicts between the scholarship and their career plans. It is recommended to consider providing career-planning assistance to new graduates and to arrange that students who sign a scholarship contract have their clinical practice in their working unit in order to improve adaptation.
Mounting regional and national evidence suggests a decline in primary in-hospital stroke diagnoses. However, these data do not include secondary diagnoses of stroke, and little is known about whether this decline varies significantly by sex. Compared with men, women are less likely to have optimal control of stroke risk factors, which may be leading to less impressive declines in stroke incidence in women. This study evaluated sex trends in hospital-based stroke diagnoses in the United States. The study was a time-trend analysis by sex of national age-adjusted rates of primary or secondary hospital-based stroke diagnosis per 100,000 persons (identified by ICD-9 procedure codes) among patients for 1997-2006 using data from all US states contributing to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Adjustments were made to correct for some inaccuracies in diagnostic codes. Between 1997 and 2006, total hospital-based stroke diagnoses decreased from 680,607 to 609,359. The age-adjusted hospital-based stroke diagnosis rate per 100,000 persons decreased in a roughly linear pattern from 282.7 to 210.4 in men (26%; P < .001) and from 240.5 to 184.7 in women (23%; P < .05). The average rate of decrease (slope) in hospital-based stroke diagnosis rates was greater in men than in women (-8.7 vs -7.5 per 100,000 persons; P = .003). Age-adjusted rates of hospital-based stroke diagnoses have decreased substantially in the United States during the last decade, but slightly less so in women. These results are generally encouraging, but nonetheless indicate that more intensive preventive efforts are warranted to completely eliminate sex disparities in stroke occurrence.
Gorrin, Maite Rivera; Teruel-Briones, José Luis; Vion, Victor Burguera; Rexach, Lourdes; Quereda, Carlos
Terminal-stage patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are often transferred to haemodialysis as they are unable to perform the dialysis technique themselves since their functional capacities are reduced. We present our experience with five patients on PD with a shortterm life-threatening condition, whose treatment was shared by primary care units and who were treated with a PD modality adapted to their circumstances, which we call Palliative Peritoneal Dialysis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Walker, Rachael; Marshall, Roger; Howard, Kirsten; Morton, Rachael L; Marshall, Mark R
There is little research exploring the association between clinicians' behaviours and home dialysis uptake. This paper aims to better understand the influence of clinicians on home dialysis modality recommendations and uptake. On-line survey of all NZ renal units to determine the influence of individuals within pre-dialysis teams. We used the self-declaration scale of influence to rate the identified member's perceived influence on decision-making. We used this measure of 'decisional power' to compare the perceived influence of pre-dialysis nurses with nephrologists using both parametric and non-parametric methods. We developed a generalized linear model to investigate the relationship between the influence of nephrologists and pre-dialysis nurses with home dialysis uptake by individual centre using additional data from Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA). Finally, respondents rated the importance of a list of patient and service-level factors in recommendations for home dialysis. Data suggest the nephrologists are the most influential member of the pre-dialysis team. This contrasts with perceptions of survey respondents who view pre-dialysis nurses as most influential. Nephrologists' recommendations are likely to be a successful way of increasing home dialysis. A single point increase in nephrologist decisional power is associated with a 6.1% increase in the prevalence of home dialysis. The decisional power around home dialysis in NZ sits with nephrologists. It is therefore critical that nephrologists exercise their decisional power in advocating home dialysis and address reasons why they may not recommend home dialysis to well-suited and appropriate patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Desmartis, Marie; Poder, Thomas; Witteman, William
Health technology assessment (HTA) is increasingly performed at the local or hospital level where the costs, impacts, and benefits of health technologies can be directly assessed. Although local/hospital-based HTA has been implemented for more than two decades in some jurisdictions, little is known about its effects and impact on hospital budget, clinical practices, and patient outcomes. We conducted a mixed-methods systematic review that aimed to synthesize current evidence regarding the effects and impact of local/hospital-based HTA. We identified articles through PubMed and Embase and by citation tracking of included studies. We selected qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods studies with empirical data about the effects or impact of local/hospital-based HTA on decision-making, budget, or perceptions of stakeholders. We extracted the following information from included studies: country, methodological approach, and use of conceptual framework; local/hospital HTA approach and activities described; reported effects and impacts of local/hospital-based HTA; factors facilitating/hampering the use of hospital-based HTA recommendations; and perceptions of stakeholders concerning local/hospital HTA. Due to the great heterogeneity among studies, we conducted a narrative synthesis of their results. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. We reported the results according to the four approaches for performing HTA proposed by the Hospital Based HTA Interest Sub-Group: ambassador model, mini-HTA, internal committee, and HTA unit. Results showed that each of these approaches for performing HTA corresponds to specific needs and structures and has its strengths and limitations. Overall, studies showed positive impacts related to local/hospital-based HTA on hospital decisions and budgets, as well as positive perceptions from managers and clinicians. Local/hospital-based HTA could influence decision-making on several aspects. It is difficult to evaluate the real
Background Health technology assessment (HTA) is increasingly performed at the local or hospital level where the costs, impacts, and benefits of health technologies can be directly assessed. Although local/hospital-based HTA has been implemented for more than two decades in some jurisdictions, little is known about its effects and impact on hospital budget, clinical practices, and patient outcomes. We conducted a mixed-methods systematic review that aimed to synthesize current evidence regarding the effects and impact of local/hospital-based HTA. Methods We identified articles through PubMed and Embase and by citation tracking of included studies. We selected qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods studies with empirical data about the effects or impact of local/hospital-based HTA on decision-making, budget, or perceptions of stakeholders. We extracted the following information from included studies: country, methodological approach, and use of conceptual framework; local/hospital HTA approach and activities described; reported effects and impacts of local/hospital-based HTA; factors facilitating/hampering the use of hospital-based HTA recommendations; and perceptions of stakeholders concerning local/hospital HTA. Due to the great heterogeneity among studies, we conducted a narrative synthesis of their results. Results A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. We reported the results according to the four approaches for performing HTA proposed by the Hospital Based HTA Interest Sub-Group: ambassador model, mini-HTA, internal committee, and HTA unit. Results showed that each of these approaches for performing HTA corresponds to specific needs and structures and has its strengths and limitations. Overall, studies showed positive impacts related to local/hospital-based HTA on hospital decisions and budgets, as well as positive perceptions from managers and clinicians. Conclusions Local/hospital-based HTA could influence decision-making on several aspects
Kim, Hyunwook; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol
The number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has rapidly increased, as has the cost of dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an established treatment for ESRD patients worldwide; it has a variety of advantages, including autonomy and flexibility, as well as economic benefits in many countries compared to hemodialysis (HD). However, the long-term survival rate of PD remains poor. Although direct comparison of survival rate between the dialysis modalities by randomized controlled trials is difficult due to the ethical issues, it has always been a crucial point when deciding which dialysis modality should be recommended to patients. Recently, in many countries, including the United States, Brazil, Spain, Australia, and New Zealand, the survival rate in PD patients has significantly improved. PD patient survival in Korea has also improved, but Korean PD patients are known to have higher risk of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular events than HD patients. Herein, we further evaluate why Korean PD patients had worse outcomes; we suggest that special attention should be paid to patients with diabetes, coronary artery disease, or congestive heart failure when they choose PD as the first dialysis modality in order to reduce mortality risk.
Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki
The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters.
Boschetti-de-Fierro, Adriana; Beck, Werner; Hildwein, Helmut; Krause, Bernd; Storr, Markus; Zweigart, Carina
Despite advances in renal replacement therapy, the adequate removal of uremic toxins over a broad molecular weight range remains one of the unmet needs in hemodialysis. Therefore, membrane innovation is currently directed towards enhanced removal of uremic toxins and increased membrane permeability. This chapter presents a variety of opportunities where innovation is brought into dialysis membranes. It covers the membrane formation from solution, describing different approaches to control the phase inversion process through additives that either swell in the polymer solution or influence the pore shrinkage during the membrane drying process. Additionally, large-scale manufacturing is described, and the influence of raw materials, spinning, and drying processes on membrane selectivity are presented. Finally, new characterization methods developed for the latest innovations around the application of membranes in dialysis are discussed, which allow the membrane performance for removal of a broad range of uremic toxins and the expected albumin loss in clinical use. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Disney, A P
Facilities for provision of treatment of end-stage renal failure with hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are available in many centers, most of which are government-funded. Medicare provides free treatment for all patients. There are no specific criteria for determining a patient's acceptance for dialysis treatment: age, quality of life, and capacity for independent living are important factors. The usual HD prescription is three dialysis periods weekly, hollow-fiber dialyzer, 1.0-1.2 m2 surface area, for 4 to 5 hours, with blood flow rate 250 mL/min and acetate-based dialysate flow rate 500 mL/min. Reuse of the dialyzer is common, but many units practice single use to reduce the expense and time necessary for processing the dialyzer and the risks of formalin exposure. There is only limited use of hemofiltration, or highly efficient dialyzers for shortened hours at higher blood flow rates. The choice of dialysis prescription is influenced by the physician's preference for the patient to be treated at home or in a self-care center with limited assistance. CAPD is preferred for home dialysis, especially for elderly or diabetic patients. There is no personal financial incentive to the physician to favor any particular form of dialysis. The costs of dialysis do influence the provision and prescription of treatment, causing the reuse of dialyzers and the limited use of bicarbonate-based HD and highly permeable dialyzers. Nevertheless, adequate dialysis should be available to all patients, and noncompliance with prescribed dialysis is infrequent. Quality-assurance programs have been developed both for nursing and medical care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Bonfant, G; Belfanti, P; Cappelli, G; Alloatti, S
The importance of high quality water for dialysis is well established. This study aimed to obtain a picture of the Italian situation to develop national guidelines. Questionnaire analysis was used to assess water quality control protocols and types of chemical and microbiological parameters monitored. Regions with responses from at least half the units were considered for the study. Eighteen out of 20 regions fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 297/469 dialysis units answered the questionnaire (5208 dialysis beds, 18213 patients). Eighty-one percent of Italian units follow a regular water quality control program. The reverse osmosis outlet is the sampling point used most for assessing chemical and microbiological parameters. The most common frequency in monitoring is < or =6 months. Fifteen chemical items, suggested by the Italian Farmacopea Ufficiale (FU), are periodically controlled by at least half the units. Aluminum is measured in about 70% of units, chloramines and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons, respectively, in 42 and 30% of units. According to the FU, bacterial counts at 22 degrees C (84%) and endotoxin determinations (60%) are the most common microbiological analyzes. The survey demonstrated protocol differences among the units, confirming the need for Italian guidelines to ameliorate and standardize dialysis water monitoring. More than half the units are following the FU, but we cannot rule out less strict monitoring only in non-participating units.
Filler, Guido; Felder, Sarah
In end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), pediatric nephrologists must consider the homeostasis of the multiple water-soluble ions that are influenced by renal replacement therapy (RRT). While certain ions such as potassium and calcium are closely monitored, little is known about the handling of trace elements in pediatric dialysis. RRT may lead to accumulation of toxic trace elements, either due to insufficient elimination or due to contamination, or to excessive removal of essential trace elements. However, trace elements are not routinely monitored in dialysis patients and no mechanism for these deficits or toxicities has been established. This review summarizes the handling of trace elements, with particular attention to pediatric data. The best data describe lead and indicate that there is a higher prevalence of elevated lead (Pb, atomic number 82) levels in children on RRT when compared to adults. Lead is particularly toxic in neurodevelopment and lead levels should therefore be monitored. Monitoring of zinc (Zn, atomic number 30) and selenium (Se, atomic number 34) may be indicated in the monitoring of all pediatric dialysis patients to reduce morbidity from deficiency. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of abnormal trace elements and the possible therapeutic value of intervention are required.
Kaysen, George A.; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Grimes, Barbara A.; Glidden, David V.; Anand, Shuchi; Chertow, Glenn M.
Summary Background and objectives Despite high mortality and low levels of physical activity (PA) among patients starting dialysis, the link between low PA and mortality has not been carefully evaluated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Comprehensive Dialysis Study was a prospective cohort study that enrolled patients who started dialysis between June 2005 and June 2007 in a random sample of dialysis facilities in the United States. The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was administered to estimate PA among 1554 ambulatory enrolled patients in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study. Patients were followed until death or September 30, 2009, and the major outcome was all-cause mortality. Results The average age was 59.8 (14.2) years; 55% of participants were male, 28% were black, and 56% had diabetes mellitus. The majority (57.3%) had low fitness estimated from the HAP score. The median follow-up was 2.6 (interquartile range, 2.2–3.1) years. The association between PA and mortality was linear across the range of scores (1–94). After multivariable adjustment, lower adjusted activity score on the HAP was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–1.39 per 10 points). Patients in the lowest level of fitness experienced a 3.5-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.54–4.89) increase in risk of death compared with those with average or above fitness. Conclusions Low levels of PA are strongly associated with mortality among patients new to dialysis. Interventions aimed to preserve or enhance PA should be prospectively tested. PMID:23124787
Klarenbach, Scott W; Tonelli, Marcello; Chui, Betty; Manns, Braden J
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis therapy continues to increase worldwide, and despite technological advances, treatment remains resource intensive. Thus, the increasing burden of dialysis therapy on finite health-care budgets is an important consideration. The principles of allocative efficiency and the concept of 'opportunity cost' can be used to assess whether dialysis is economically justified; if dialysis is to be provided, cost-minimization and cost-utility analyses can be used to identify the most efficient dialysis modality. Existing studies have examined the cost, and where relevant the effectiveness, of the various currently available peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis modalities. In this Review, we discuss variations in the intrinsic costs of the available dialysis modalities as well as other factors, such as variation by country, available health-care infrastructures, the timing of dialysis initiation and renal transplantation. We draw on data from robust micro-costing studies of the various dialysis modalities in Canada to highlight key issues.
... transplant. Therefore, dialysis patients who have a limited life expectancy and no signs or symptoms of colon cancer ... weren't on dialysis but had similarly limited life expectancies, the dialysis patients had an 8 times higher ...
Churchill, D N
The objective was to review evidence addressing the optimal time to initiate dialysis treatment. The database was derived from an evidence-based review of the medical literature and from the Canada-United States peritoneal dialysis study. The publications were divided into (1) those addressing the clinical impact of early versus late referral to a dialysis program; (2) those evaluating the association between residual renal function at initiation of dialysis and the concurrent nutritional status; (3) those evaluating the association between residual renal function at initiation of dialysis and subsequent clinical outcomes, including patient survival. There were five studies evaluating early versus late referral, three cohort design and two case-control design. Late referrals had worse outcomes than early referrals. The former had more serious comorbidity and many had been noncompliant with follow-up. The latter were more likely to have hereditary renal disease. Renal function was slightly worse at initiation among those referred late. Three studies addressed the association between renal function at initiation of dialysis and concurrent nutritional status. Two showed decreased protein intake with diminished glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Poor nutritional status is associated with decreased patient survival among both incident and prevalent dialysis patients. The third study reported excellent patient survival among patients with late initiation of dialysis. These patients had received a supplemented low-protein diet and were not malnourished at initiation of dialysis. Three groups have studied the association between GFR at initiation of dialysis and clinical outcomes. Decreased GFR at initiation of dialysis is associated with a increased probability of hospitalization and death. None of these studies has used the rigorous randomized clinical trial design, and they are therefore subject to bias. Referral time bias, comorbidity, patient compliance, and starting
Erickson, Kevin F; Zheng, Yuanchao; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Ho, Vivian; Bhattacharya, Jay; Chertow, Glenn M
The Medicare program insures >80% of patients with ESRD in the United States. An emphasis on reducing outpatient dialysis costs has motivated consolidation among dialysis providers, with two for-profit corporations now providing dialysis for >70% of patients. It is unknown whether industry consolidation has affected patients' ability to choose among competing dialysis providers. We identified patients receiving in-center hemodialysis at the start of 2001 and 2011 from the national ESRD registry and ascertained dialysis facility ownership. For each hospital service area, we determined the maximum distance within which 90% of patients traveled to receive dialysis in 2001. We compared the numbers of competing dialysis providers within that same distance between 2001 and 2011. Additionally, we examined the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, a metric of market concentration ranging from near zero (perfect competition) to one (monopoly) for each hospital service area. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of different uniquely owned competing providers decreased 8%. However, increased facility entry into markets to meet rising demand for care offset the effect of provider consolidation on the number of choices available to patients. The number of dialysis facilities in the United States increased by 54%, and patients experienced an average 10% increase in the number of competing proximate facilities from which they could choose to receive dialysis (P<0.001). Local markets were highly concentrated in both 2001 and 2011 (mean Herfindahl-Hirschman Index =0.46; SD=0.2 for both years), but overall market concentration did not materially change. In summary, a decade of consolidation in the United States dialysis industry did not (on average) limit patient choice or result in more concentrated local markets. However, because dialysis markets remained highly concentrated, it will be important to understand whether market competition affects prices paid by private insurers, access to
Masover, Gerald K.; Hayflick, Leonard
Using dialyzing cultures of T-strain mycoplasmas, it was possible to make some observations relevant to the growth and metabolism of these organisms which would not be possible in nondialyzing cultures due to growth inhibition of the organisms by elevated pH and increased ammonium ion concentration in media containing urea. The rate of ammonia accumulation was found to be related to the initial urea concentration in the medium and could not be accounted for by any change in the multiplication rate of the organisms. More ammonia was generated than could be accounted for by the added urea alone, suggesting that an ammonia-producing activity other than urease may be present in T-strain mycoplasmas. Titers above 107 color change units per ml were achieved in dialysis cultures of a T-strain mycoplasma in the presence of urea, and such titers were maintained for approximately 60 h during dialysis culture in the absence of added urea. PMID:4595203
Martelli, Nicolas; Lelong, Anne-Sophie; Prognon, Patrice; Pineau, Judith
Several models of hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA) have been developed worldwide, for the introduction of innovative medical devices and support evidence-based decision making in hospitals. Two such models, the HTA unit and mini-HTA models, are widespread in university hospitals and involve various stakeholders. The purpose of this work was to highlight the potential role of hospital pharmacists in hospital-based HTA activities. We searched for articles, reviews, and letters relating to hospital-based HTA, as defined by the Hospital-Based Health Technology Assessment Worldwide Survey published by the Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Society, in the Health Technology Assessment database, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and hospital pharmacy journals. The number of university hospitals performing hospital-based HTA has increased since the 2008 Hospital-Based Health Technology Assessment Worldwide Survey. Our own experience and international findings show that hospital pharmacists already contribute to hospital-based HTA activities and have developed study interpretation skills and a knowledge of medical devices. Promoting multidisciplinary approaches is one of the key success factors in hospital-based HTA. Hospital pharmacists occupy a position between hospital managers, clinicians, health economists, biomedical engineers, and patients and can provide a new perspective. In the future, hospital pharmacists are likely to become increasingly involved in hospital-based HTA activities.
Mushi, Lawrencia; Krohn, Markus; Flessa, Steffen
Although End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is a disease of increasing epidemiological relevance very little is known about the cost of providing the respective dialysis services in Tanzania. This paper estimates the costs of dialysis for ESRD patients at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Tanzania in the year 2014. Cost calculations are based on the provider perspective and include only the direct cost of dialysis treatment. Cost of drugs and consumables were obtained from the price list issued by the Medical Stores Department (MSD) in Tanzania. Additional data were collected through face-to-face interview with experts at the dialysis unit. MNH performs on average 442 hemodialysis per month (34 patients, with three sessions per week) with a personnel placement of 20 nurses, four nephrologists, eight registrars, one nutritionist, two biomedical engineers, four health attendants and nine dialysis machines. The respective average unit cost per hemodialysis is 176 US$. Consequently, an average patient requiring three dialyses per week (i.e. 156 dialyses per year) will cause annual costs of 27,440 US$. The cost of dialysis is enormous for a least developed country like Tanzania where resources and technology are rather limited. Thus, from the economic point of view, it seems rational to allocate health care budgets towards diseases that are curable, have a higher cost-effectiveness and cater for the majority of the population. However, before a final decision on allocation of budgets towards dialysis is made all effort must be invested to improve technical efficiency by cutting the enormous unit cost.
Knudsen, P K
Personal experience shows that subjective and objective improvements can be achieved in chronic renal failure treated with dialysis. These aims were achieved by limiting energy intake to 8 MJ a day and by substituting cassava for bread and potatoes, thereby reducing the intake of protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Water soluble vitamins were added to the diet. With this regimen blood urea concentrations vary between 2.5 and 12 mmol/l for most of the week and the packed cell volume between 0.30 and 0.37. PMID:3119029
Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Dombros, Nicholas V
A number of attempts to create a commonly accepted terminology regarding definitions and terms used for clinical entities, methods, problems, and materials encountered by health professionals involved in peritoneal dialysis (PD) were undertaken in the past, the last one in 1990. Later on, some relevant sporadic attempts in a number of textbooks have been made, but they did not include the whole spectrum of PD. This glossary is an attempt to address the need for a universally accepted PD terminology including the latest advances in PD connection systems and fluids.
Swartz, Richard D.; Perry, Erica; Brown, Stephanie; Swartz, June; Vinokur, Amiram
Chronic dialysis imposes ongoing stress on patients and staff and engenders recurring contact and long-term relationships. Thus, chronic dialysis units are opportune settings in which to investigate the impact of patients' relationships with staff on patient well-being. The authors designed the present study to examine the degree to which…
Swartz, Richard D.; Perry, Erica; Brown, Stephanie; Swartz, June; Vinokur, Amiram
Chronic dialysis imposes ongoing stress on patients and staff and engenders recurring contact and long-term relationships. Thus, chronic dialysis units are opportune settings in which to investigate the impact of patients' relationships with staff on patient well-being. The authors designed the present study to examine the degree to which…
Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte; Fox, Rosemary; Moran, John
Performing clinical research in the outpatient dialysis facility can be very challenging. Research protocols define time-specific and detailed procedures to be performed. In dialysis units where staff members are responsible for the delivery of life-sustaining therapy to an aging end stage renal disease patient population with multiple co-morbidities, these requirements can easily be considered too burdensome to be implemented successfully. In the authors'facility, clinical research has been successfully implemented with a close team approach supported by a dedicated research group and unit staff
Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn
Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P < 0.01, periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P < 0.01). After completion of periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Galland, Roula; Hallonet, Patrick; Pachot, Monique; Combe, Corinne; Schoenfelder, Isabelle; Caillette Beaudoin, Agnès
In order to rationalize the cost of care for dialysis patients in Centre, regulatory authorities urge establishments to favor the orientation of the patients in Medical Dialysis Unit where the medical presence is not permanent. This involves clinical skills for nurses in the conduct of the dialysis session. Faced with this changing work patterns, we present two security tools of the dialysis session. The first is a "check-list", simple, quick and easy to use, it enables secure connection phase of the patient. It was quickly integrated practice of all professionals. The second tool developed is a combination of indicators "DEAUP" for Pain, Purification, Blood access, Ultrafiltration and other Problems for assessing the quality of the course of the dialysis session. The aim is to reduce the occurrence of adverse events, the DEAUP rating certain criteria depending on the occurrence of incidents, from 0 to 2, 2 corresponding to the appearance of an incident having required the call of the doctor and constitute a precious tool of evaluation of the session for all the professionals. All nurses have joined the practice of evaluation, 98% of the realized sessions are informed and quoted; 8.4% of sessions required call nephrologists before or at the connection. The evaluation at the end of dialysis session found 15% of the sessions listed 2. Calls have resulted in an adjustment to the prescription of the sessions. Copyright © 2013 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Cheng, V C; Lo, W K; Woo, P C; Chan, S B; Cheng, S W; Ho, M; Yuen, K Y
To investigate an outbreak of peritonitis in intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) patients. An outbreak investigation was performed to identify the etiology of the polymicrobial outbreak, and a retrospective case-control study was conducted to assess the risk factors for development of peritonitis. Renal dialysis center. Ten episodes of peritonitis occurred in 8 of 61 patients over a 6-month period in which 669 IPD procedures were analyzed. Field visit to renal dialysis center to examine the entire IPD procedure, inspect the hospital environment, and perform air bacterial count. The environmental factors and risk factors contributing to the polymicrobial peritonitis outbreak in IPD patients. The incidence of IPD peritonitis was determined before and after interventions. The causative organisms included Acinetobacter baumanii (6), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1), Candida albicans (1), C. tropicalis (1), Enterococcus (3), and Enterobacteriaceae (2). Four episodes of peritonitis involved infection by more than one organism. Air sampling of the environment detected a median of 110 colony forming units of bacteria per cubic meter of air, 10% of which were found to be Acinetobacter baumanii. The source of this polymicrobial outbreak was attributed to the bamboo scaffolding structure covering the external wall of the hospital during renovation. A retrospective case-control study indicated that the absence of the flush-before-fill step was a risk factor for development of peritonitis. In addition to invasive aspergillosis in transplant or oncology patients, Acinetobacter peritonitis in dialysis patients should be considered another microbial cause of outbreak associated with hospital renovation.
Cigarrán, Secundino; Coronel, Francisco; Florit, Enrique; Calviño, Jesús; Villa, Juan; Gonzalez Tabares, Lourdes; Herrero, José Antonio; Carrero, Juan Jesús
Testosterone deficiency is a prevalent condition in male patients with chronic kidney disease. However, it is not known whether the type of renal replacement therapy has an impact on testosterone deficiency that accompanies loss of renal function. The cross-sectional study enrolled 79 prevalent male patients on dialysis; 43 on haemodialysis (HD) and 36 on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The median age was 69 years and 31.6% were diabetics. Endogenous testosterone levels were measured by immunoluminescence assay (normal range 3-10.5ng/ml), while nutritional/inflammatory markers, bone and mineral metabolism markers, anaemia, type of dialysis technique and time on dialysis were also assessed. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance vector analysis and bioimpedance spectroscopy. Testosterone deficiency was defined as levels below 3ng/ml. Mean testosterone levels were 8.81±6.61ng/ml. Testosterone deficiency affected 39.5% of HD patients and only 5.6% of PD patients. In the univariate analysis, testosterone levels were directly correlated with type of dialysis technique (HD) (Rho Spearman 0.366; P<.001) and time on dialysis (Rho -0.412; P=.036) and only with the HD technique in the multivariate analysis. No other significant correlations were found. Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor -namely the dialysis technique- may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ozar, David T; Kristensen, Cynthia; Fadem, Stephen Z; Blaser, Robert; Singer, Dale; Moss, Alvin H
Although the number of incidents is unknown, professional quality-oriented renal organizations have become aware of an increased number of complaints regarding nephrologists who approach patients with the purpose of influencing patients to change nephrologists or dialysis facilities (hereinafter referred to as patient solicitation). This development prompted the Forum of ESRD Networks and the Renal Physicians Association to publish a policy statement on professionalism and ethics in medical practice as these concepts relate to patient solicitation. Also common but not new is the practice of nephrologists trying to recruit their own patients to a new dialysis unit in which they have a financial interest. This paper presents two illustrative cases and provides an ethical framework for analyzing patient solicitation and physician conflict of interest. This work concludes that, in the absence of objective data that medical treatment is better elsewhere, nephrologists who attempt to influence patients to change nephrologists or dialysis facilities fall short of accepted ethical standards pertaining to professional conduct, particularly with regard to the physician-patient relationship, informed consent, continuity of care, and conflict of interest.
Agar, John W M
The US Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation website begins: "Natural resource and energy conservation is achieved by managing materials more efficiently--reduce, reuse, recycle," yet healthcare agencies have been slow to heed and practice this simple message. In dialysis practice, notable for a recurrent, per capita resource consumption and waste generation profile second to none in healthcare, efforts to: (1) minimize water use and wastage; (2) consider strategies to reduce power consumption and/or use alternative power options; (3) develop optimal waste management and reusable material recycling programs; (4) design smart buildings that work with and for their environment; (5) establish research programs that explore environmental practice; all have been largely ignored by mainstream nephrology. Some countries are doing far better than others. In the United Kingdom and some European jurisdictions, exceptional recent progress has been made to develop, adopt, and coordinate eco-practice within dialysis programs. These programs set an example for others to follow. Elsewhere, progress has been piecemeal, at best. This review explores the current extent of "green" or eco-dialysis practices. While noting where progress has been made, it also suggests potential new research avenues to develop and follow. One thing seems certain: as global efforts to combat climate change and carbon generation accelerate, the environmental impact of dialysis practice will come under increasing regulatory focus. It is far preferable for the sector to take proactive steps, rather than to await the heavy hand of government or administration to force reluctant and costly compliance on the un-prepared.
Kleinpeter, Myra A
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita resulted in massive devastation of the Gulf Coast at Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas during 2005. Because of those disasters, dialysis providers, nephrologists, and dialysis patients used disaster planning activities to work to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the 2005 hurricane season for future events affecting dialysis patients. As Hurricane Gustav approached, anniversary events for Hurricane Katrina were postponed because of evacuation orders for nearly the entire Louisiana Gulf Coast. As part of the hurricane preparation, dialysis units reviewed the disaster plans of patients, and patients made preparation for evacuation. Upon evacuation, many patients returned to the dialysis units that had provided services during their exile from Hurricane Katrina; other patients went to other locations as part of their evacuation plan. Patients uniformly reported positive experiences with dialysis providers in their temporary evacuation communities, provided that those communities did not experience the effects of Hurricane Gustav. With the exception of evacuees to Baton Rouge, patients continued to receive their treatments uninterrupted. Because of extensive damage in the Baton Rouge area, resulting in widespread power losses and delayed restoration of power to hospitals and other health care facilities, some patients missed one treatment. However, as a result of compliance with disaster fluid and dietary recommendations, no adverse outcomes occurred. In most instances, patients were able to return to their home dialysis unit or a nearby unit to continue dialysis treatments within 4 - 5 days of Hurricane Gustav. Hurricane Ike struck the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston, resulting in devastation of that area similar to the devastation seen in New Orleans after Katrina. The storm surge along the Louisiana Gulf Coast resulted in flooding that temporarily closed coastal dialysis units. Patients were prepared and experienced
The number of patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis has increased markedly over the last decade and continues to grow at an alarming rate in the United States. Of the currently available dialysis options for end-stage renal disease (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis), peritoneal dialysis (PD) is underutilized in the United States for nonmedical reasons. In fact, PD is the less expensive dialysis modality and may provide a survival advantage over hemodialysis in first 2 to 4 years of treatment, but that advantage is not as robust with increasing age and with the presence of diabetes. Moreover, the initial survival advantage is lost in long-term PD, mainly owing to changes in the peritoneal membrane from the use of conventional bio-incompatible PD solutions. Current data suggest that not many patients continue on PD beyond 10 years. The recent development of a more biocompatible PD solution should help to preserve membrane function, promote ultrafiltration, improve nutritional status, and, it is hoped, prolong the survival advantage of PD. Identification of molecular mechanisms involved in cellular responses leading to peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis evokes new therapeutic strategies that might protect the peritoneal membrane against the consequences of long-term PD.
O'Toole, Sam M; Fan, Stanley L; Yaqoob, M Magdi; Chowdhury, Tahseen A
Burgeoning levels of diabetes are a major concern for dialysis services, as diabetes is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in most developed nations. With the rapid rise in diabetes prevalence in developing countries, the burden of end stage renal failure due to diabetes is also expected to rise in such countries. Diabetic patients on dialysis have a high burden of morbidity and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease, and a higher societal and economic cost compared to non-diabetic subjects on dialysis. Tight glycaemic and blood pressure control in diabetic patients has an important impact in reducing risk of progression to end stage renal disease. The evidence for improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis having an impact on mortality or morbidity is sparse. Indeed, many factors make improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis very challenging, including therapeutic difficulties with hypoglycaemic agents, monitoring difficulties, dialysis strategies that exacerbate hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and possibly a degree of therapeutic nihilism or inertia on the part of clinical diabetologists and nephrologists. Standard drug therapy for hyperglycaemia (eg, metformin) is clearly not possible in patients on dialysis. Thus, sulphonylureas and insulin have been the mainstay of treatment. Newer therapies for hyperglycaemia, such as gliptins and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues have become available, but until recently, renal failure has precluded their use. Newer gliptins, however, are now licensed for use in 'severe renal failure', although they have yet to be trialled in dialysis patients. Diabetic patients on dialysis have special needs, as they have a much greater burden of complications (cardiac, retinal and foot). They may be best managed in a multidisciplinary diabetic-renal clinic setting, using the skills of diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical nurse specialists in nephrology and diabetes, along with
Zhang, Chuan; Chung, Jae Woo; Priestley, Rodney D
Using a facile dialysis nanoprecipitation method, nanoparticles of several hundred nanometers have been successfully generated from a "traditional," non-biodegradable polymer, that is, polystyrene. The effect of initial polymer concentration inside the dialysis membrane, as well as the polymer/solvent system and the ionic strength (electrolyte concentration) of the dialysis solution, on nanoparticle size is examined. A nucleation-aggregation mechanism has been provided to explain the observed trends. Furthermore, we determine the zeta potential as a function of ionic strength for the generated nanoparticles and show that anionic charging may be present in the system. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Gallieni, Maurizio; Giordano, Antonino; Rossi, Umberto; Cariati, Maurizio
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are essential in the management of hemodialysis patients, but they also carry unintended negative consequences and in particular thrombosis and infection, adversely affecting patient morbidity and mortality. This review will focus on the etiology, prevention, and management of CVC-related dysfunction, which is mainly associated with inadequate blood flow. CVC dysfunction is a major cause of inadequate depuration. Thrombus, intraluminal and extrinsic, as well as fibrous connective tissue sheath (traditionally indicated as fibrin sheath) formation play a central role in establishing CVC dysfunction. Thrombolysis with urokinase or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) can be undertaken in the dialysis unit, restoring adequate blood flow in most patients, preserving the existing catheter, and avoiding an interventional procedure. If thrombolytics fail, mainly because of the presence of fibrous connective tissue sheath, catheter exchange with fibrin sheath disruption may be successful and preserve the venous access site. Prevention of CVC dysfunction is important for containing costly pharmacologic and interventional treatments, which also affect patients' quality of life. Prevention is based on the use of anticoagulant and/or thrombolytic CVC locks, which are only partially effective. Chronic oral anticoagulation with warfarin has also been proposed, but its use for this indication is controversial and its overall risk-benefit profile has not been clearly established.
Roemheld-Hamm, Beatrix; Dahl, Naomi V
Women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for menstrual disorders, early menopause, and osteoporosis, and rarely discuss gynecologic and reproductive issues with their nephrologist. Various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products are of interest to women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who have these disorders. However, very little is known about the specifics of using herbal medicines in patients on chronic dialysis, resulting in numerous problems when patients and providers try to ascertain the safety and efficacy of these products. This article reviews evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of black cohosh, ginseng, chastetree, dong quai, evening primrose oil, soy products, and the so-called natural hormones. Pharmacologic parameters important to evaluating the quality of botanical products are discussed, along with recommendations and information resources.
Cheng, I K
The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last
Gault, M. H.
Certain preventable complications in the treatment of renal failure, in part related to the composition of commercially prepared peritoneal dialysis solutions, continue to occur. Solutions are advocated which would contain sodium 132, calcium 3.5, magnesium 1.5, chloride 102 and lactate or acetate 35 mEq./1., and dextrose 1.5% or about 4.25%. Elimination of 7% dextrose solutions and a reduction of the sodium and lactate concentrations should reduce complications due to hypovolemia, hyperglycemia, hypernatremia and alkalosis. Reduction in the number of solutions should simplify the procedure and perhaps reduce costs. It is anticipated that some of the changes discussed will soon be introduced by industry. PMID:4691094
Gajdos, Csaba; Hawn, Mary T; Kile, Deidre; Robinson, Thomas N; Henderson, William G
Patients on long-term dialysis undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures are thought to have high rates of postoperative complications and death. Retrospective cohort study. Academic and private hospitals. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to select dialysis and nondialysis patients who had undergone nonemergent major general surgical procedures between 2005 and 2008. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of dialysis on 30-day surgical outcomes adjusted for age, race, sex, work relative value units, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and recent operations (within the past 30 days). Patient morbidity, mortality, and failure-to-rescue rates. Dialysis patients undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia, unplanned intubation, ventilator dependence, and need for a reoperation within 30 days from the index procedure. Dialysis patients also had a higher risk of vascular complications and postoperative death. Older dialysis patients (aged ≥ 65 years) had a significantly higher postoperative mortality rate compared with their younger counterparts. Dialysis patients were significantly more likely to die after any complication occurred, and mortality rates were especially high following stroke, myocardial infarction, and reintubation. Abnormalities in potentially modifiable preoperative variables (blood urea nitrogen level, albumin level, and hematocrit) did not increase the risk of postoperative complications or death in dialysis patients compared with nondialysis patients. Dialysis patients undergoing nonemergent general surgery have significantly elevated risks of postoperative complications and death, particularly if they are aged 65 years or older.
Vidal, Enrico; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Holmberg, Christer; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Trivelli, Antonella; Da Silva, José Eduardo Esteves; Herthelius, Maria; Adams, Brigitte; Bjerre, Anna; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Miteva, Polina; Emirova, Khadizha; Bayazit, Aysun K; Mache, Christoph J; Sánchez-Moreno, Ana; Harambat, Jérôme; Groothoff, Jaap W; Jager, Kitty J; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico
The impact of different dialysis modalities on clinical outcomes has not been explored in young infants with chronic kidney failure. Cohort study. Data were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. This analysis included 1,063 infants 12 months or younger who initiated dialysis therapy in 1991 to 2013. Type of dialysis modality. Differences between infants treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) in patient survival, technique survival, and access to kidney transplantation were examined using Cox regression analysis while adjusting for age at dialysis therapy initiation, sex, underlying kidney disease, and country of residence. 917 infants initiated dialysis therapy on PD, and 146, on HD. Median age at dialysis therapy initiation was 4.5 (IQR, 0.7-7.9) months, and median body weight was 5.7 (IQR, 3.7-7.5) kg. Although the groups were homogeneous regarding age and sex, infants treated with PD more often had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; 48% vs 27%), whereas those on HD therapy more frequently had metabolic disorders (12% vs 4%). Risk factors for death were younger age at dialysis therapy initiation (HR per each 1-month later initiation, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97) and non-CAKUT cause of chronic kidney failure (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-2.04). Mortality risk and likelihood of transplantation were equal in PD and HD patients, whereas HD patients had a higher risk for changing dialysis treatment (adjusted HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.17-2.31). Inability to control for unmeasured confounders not included in the Registry database and missing data (ie, comorbid conditions). Low statistical power because of relatively small number of participants. Despite a widespread preconception that HD should be reserved for cases in which PD is not feasible, in Europe, we found 1 in 8 infants in need of maintenance dialysis to be initiated on HD therapy. Patient characteristics at dialysis therapy initiation, prospective survival, and time to
Alloatti, S; Bolasco, P; Canavese, C; Cappelli, G; Pedrini, L; Pizzarelli, F; Pontoriero, G; Santoro, A; Anastasio, P; Teatini, U; Fuiano, G
The National Society of Nephrology has promoted the development of specific Italian Guidelines for dialysis fluids. Two previous national inquiries showed a wide variety in the type and frequency of both microbiological and chemical controls concerning dialysis water, reinforcing the need for specific standards and recommendations. An optimal water treatment system should include tap water pre-treatment and a double reverse osmosis process. Every component of the system, including the delivery of the treated water to the dialysis machines, should prevent microbiological contamination of the fluid. Regular chemical and microbiological tests and regular disinfection of the system are necessary. 1. Chemical quality (Table: see text). Treated tap water used to prepare dialysis fluid should be within European Pharmacopoeia limits at the water treatment system inlet and at the reverse osmosis outlet. In addition dialysate, concentrate and infusion fluids must comply with specific Pharmacopoeia limits. The physician in charge of the dialysis unit is advised to institute a multidisciplinary team to evaluate the requirement for added chemical controls in the presence of local hazards. 2. Microbiological quality (Table: see text). High microbiological purity of dialysis fluid--regularly verified--is a fundamental prerequisite for dialysis quality and every dialysis unit should aim as a matter of course to obtain "ultra-pure" dialysate (microbial count <0.1 UFC/mL, endotoxins <0.03 U/mL). On-line dialysate ultrafiltration and regular disinfection of dialysis machines greatly enhance microbiological purity. On-line dialysate reinfusion requires specific devices used according to corresponding instructions and to more frequent microbiological tests. Dialysis fluids for home dialysis should comply with the same chemical and bacteriological quality. The appendix reports the water treatment system's technical characteristics, sampling and analytical methods, monitoring time
Anand, Shuchi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Grimes, Barbara; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Kaysen, George A.; Tamura, Manjula Kurella
Objective Although several studies have shown poorer survival among individuals with 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D deficiency, data on patients receiving dialysis are limited. Using data from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS), we tested the hypothesis that patients new to dialysis with low serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D would experience higher mortality and hospitalizations. Design The CDS is a prospective cohort study. We recruited participants from 56 dialysis units located throughout the United States. Subjects and Intervention We obtained data on demographics, comorbidites, and laboratory values from the CDS Patient Questionnaire as well as the Medical Evidence Form (CMS form 2728). Participants provided baseline serum samples for 25-OH vitamin D measurements. Main Outcome Measure We ascertained time to death and first hospitalization as well as number of first-year hospitalizations via the U.S. Renal Data System standard analysis files. We used Cox proportional hazards to determine the association between 25-OH vitamin D tertiles and survival and hospitalization. For number of hospitalizations in the first year, we used negative binomial regression. Results The analytic cohort was composed of 256 patients with Patient Questionnaire data and 25-OH vitamin D concentrations. The mean age of participants was 62 (±14.0) years, and mean follow-up was 3.8 years. Patients with 25-OH vitamin D concentrations in the lowest tertile (<10.6 ng/mL) at the start of dialysis experienced higher mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–2.97) as well as hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.24–2.49). Patients in the lower 2 tertiles (<15.5 ng/mL) experienced a higher rate of hospitalizations in the first year (incidence rate ratio 1.70 [95% CI 1.06–2.72] for middle tertile, 1.66 [95% CI 1.10–2.51] for lowest tertile). Conclusion We found a sizeable increase in mortality and hospitalization for patients on
Cox, J.A.; Slonawska, K.; Gatchell, D.K.; Hiebert, A.G.
In Donnan dialysis aqueous samples are separated from receiver electrolytes by an ion exchange membrane. The present work demonstrates that the dialysis of metals into salt solutions occurs in proportion to the sum of the concentrations of the free metal and the metal held in the form of labile complexes; however, with strongly acidic or chelating receivers, the dialysis occurs in proportion to the total soluble metal. Hence, Donnan dialysis provides the basis for a rapid estimation of the total soluble (i.e., free plus labile complexed) metal and nonlabile-complexed metal. The method is demonstrated with Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd complexes of glycine, humic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid and is applied to a lake water sample. The results are compared to values obtained from an established approach that utilizes stripping voltammetry and separations with a chelating ion exchange resin.
Suliman, S M; Beliela, M H; Hamza, H
In this report we present the current status of the renal replacement therapy in Sudan. Sudan is a large country with 30 million inhabitants. Peritoneal Dialysis was started in 1968, while hemodialysis was started in 1973. At present, there are only 16 hemodialysis machines serving 56 patients in two centers in Sudan. There are also 15 peritoneal dialysis beds for 70 intermittent peritoneal dialysis patients in three centers. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is not being practiced in Sudan. The first renal transplant was in 1974, and till now more than 30 transplants have been performed in two transplant centers. All the transplants have been from living donors. The scholars of Islam in Sudan oppose to donation from cadavers. There are 200 renal transplant patients being followed up in Sudan and the majority had their renal transplants abroad. We conclude that there is a tremendous shortage of renal services in Sudan. There are more efforts being made to improve these services.
Increased cardio-vascular morbidity-mortality in dialysed patients is particularly due to an insufficiency of blood pressure control. Previous epidemiological surveys show that prevalence of dialysis hypertension is high, from 55 to 85% according to period and mean age of the studied population, despite an improvement of dialysis strategies during the last decade. Control of hypertension is not better in peritoneal dialysis than in haemodialysis. Antihypertensive drugs are administered to 3/4 of dialysed patients. Dialysis strategies which increase the number of sessions per week or the duration of each session in conventional haemodialysis improve the volume control and consequently the blood pressure. Atherosclerosis, cause or consequence of hypertension in dialysed elderly patients, more and more old, lead to adapt treatment strategies in order to prevent hypotension, which is also, a major risk factor of morbidity-mortality in dialysed patients (reverse epidemiology).
... time if you are late. During dialysis, your blood will flow through a special filter that removes waste and excess fluid. The filter is sometimes called an artificial kidney. Once you arrive at the center, trained ...
Smyth, Brendan; Jones, Ceridwen; Saunders, John
SUMMARY The pharmacokinetics of a drug may be altered in patients with renal impairment who require dialysis. Some drugs are contraindicated. The drug’s clearance and therapeutic index determine if a dose adjustment is needed. A lower dose or less frequent dosing may be required. Consult a reference source or the patient’s nephrologist before prescribing. Start at a low dose and increase gradually. If possible give once-daily drugs after dialysis. PMID:27041803
Background In-centre haemodialysis (ICHD) is the most common dialysis method used by patients worldwide. However, quality of life and clinical outcomes in patients treated via ICHD have not improved for some time. ‘High-dose’ haemodialysis (HD) regimens – which are longer and/or more frequent than conventional regimens and are particularly suitable to delivery in the home – may offer a route to improved outcomes and quality of life. This survey aimed to determine nephrologists’ views on the validity of alternatives to ICHD, particularly home HD and high-dose HD. Methods A total of 1,500 nephrologists from Europe, Canada and the United States were asked to respond to an online questionnaire that was designed following previous qualitative research. Certified nephrologists in practice for 2–35 years who managed >25 adult dialysis patients were eligible to take part. Results A total of 324 nephrologists completed the survey. ICHD was the most common type of dialysis used by respondents’ current patients (90%), followed by peritoneal dialysis (8%) and home HD (2%). The majority of respondents believed that: home HD provides better quality of life; increasing the frequency of dialysis beyond three times per week significantly improves clinical outcomes; and longer dialysis sessions performed nocturnally would result in significantly better clinical outcomes than traditional ICHD. Conclusions Survey results indicated that many nephrologists believe that home HD and high-dose HD are better for the patient. However, the majority of their patients were using ICHD. Education, training and support on alternative dialysis regimens are needed. PMID:24428875
All of the artificial membranes in industrial use, such as a reverse-osmosis membrane, dialysis membrane, ultrafiltration membrane, microfiltration membrane and gas separation membrane, also have therapeutic applications. The most commonly used artificial organ is the artificial kidney, a machine that performs treatment known as hemodialysis. This process cleanses the body of a patient with renal failure by dialysis and filtration, simple physicochemical processes. Hemodialysis membranes are used to remove accumulated uremic toxins, excess ions and water from the patient via the dialysate, and to supply (deficit) insufficient ions from the dialysate. Dialysis membranes used clinically in the treatment of patients with renal failure account for by far the largest volume of membranes used worldwide; more than 70 million square meters are used a year. Almost all dialyzers now in use are of the hollow-fiber type. A hollow-fiber dialyzer contains a bundle of approximately 10000 hollow fibers, each with an inner diameter of about 200 microm when wet. The membrane thickness is about 20-45 microm, and the length is 160-250 mm. The walls of the hollow fibers function as the dialysis membrane. Various materials, including cellulose-based materials and synthetic polymers, are used for dialysis membranes. This paper reviews blood purification, hemodialysis and dialysis membranes.
Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Robert; Sorrell, Jeanne
Hospitals often promote healthy lifestyles, but little is known about nurses' actual diet and physical activity. Greater understanding about these lifestyle choices for clinical nurses may improve existing hospital-based programs and/or create desirable services. This article discusses a study that considered diet and physical activity of clinical nurses, using elements of Pender's self-care theory as a conceptual framework. Study methods included a cross-sectional, correlational design and a convenience sample of 278 nurses who worked on units with 24 hours/day and seven days-per-week responsibilities. Participants completed diet and exercise questionnaires about perceptions of attitudes and opinions, barriers, diet benefits/exercise motivators, self-efficacy, and locus of control, and personal and work characteristics. Diet and activity categories were created. Study results demonstrated that over 50% of nurses had moderately healthy diets but were insufficiently active. Healthy diet and physical activity levels were associated with higher self-efficacy, more diet benefits and physical activity motivators, fewer perceived barriers, and confidence in body image. The article discussion and conclusion sections note areas for future research and suggest that focused interventions that address benefits, motivators, and self-efficacy may increase participation in hospital-based programs and enhance healthy lifestyle for hospital-based clinical nurses.
Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha
Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India.
Góes, Cassiana R de; Vogt, Barbara Perez; Sanches, Ana Claudia S; Balbi, André L; Ponce, Daniela
Currently, the execution of indirect calorimetry, which is considered the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure, is not indicate during dialysis, and it may interfere on nutritional therapy of these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) in patients with severe acute kidney injury treated by different modalities of dialysis and to identify whether dialysis influences on REE. This was a prospective cohort study that evaluated patients admitted in intensive care units with diagnosis of acute kidney injury AKIN-3, mechanically ventilated, and submitted to conventional hemodialysis (CHD), extended hemodialysis (EHD) or high volume peritoneal dialysis (HVPD). Indirect calorimetry was performed at pre dialysis time and during the dialysis procedure. Parameters that could change REE were also evaluated. One-hundred patients undergoing 290 dialysis sessions were evaluated, with mean age 60.3 ± 17 years, 69% were male and 74% have died. There was no significant difference between REE of predialysis time and during dialysis time (2156 ± 659 kcal vs. 2100 ± 634 kcal, respectively, p = 0.15). No difference was observed in the REE before and during dialysis of different modalities. There were no differences between parameters pre and during dialysis of each modality. There was only a difference in norepinephrine dose, which was higher in pre dialysis time in HVPD and EHD modalities, compared with CHD modality. Moreover, during dialysis time, EHD modality had significantly higher VAD compared to other dialysis modalities. The three evaluated modalities did not change REE. Indirect calorimetry can be performed during dialysis procedures and there was no difference between ventilation parameters, sedatives use, body temperature and VAD in both moments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Rieck, B; Reinschke, P
In some dialysis centers of the GDR personal computers are introduced step by step. There are two main areas in the use of computers in dialysis centers: data management systems and computer-assisted individualization of dialysis. Type and size of data processing are the result of the specific information process in a dialysis center and the presence of a long-term constantly group of patients along with a stereotypical amount of data. In the mathematical modelling of dialysis it is possible to adapt the standard dialysis to each patient.
Heung, Michael; Faubel, Sarah; Watnick, Suzanne; Cruz, Dinna N; Koyner, Jay L; Mour, Girish; Liu, Kathleen D; Cerda, Jorge; Okusa, Mark D; Lukaszewski, Mark; Vijayan, Anitha
The rate of AKI requiring dialysis has increased significantly over the past decade in the United States. At the same time, survival from AKI seems to be improving, and thus, more patients with AKI are surviving to discharge while still requiring dialysis. Currently, the options for providing outpatient dialysis in patients with AKI are limited, particularly after a 2012 revised interpretation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines, which prohibited Medicare reimbursement for acute dialysis at ESRD facilities. This article provides a historical perspective on outpatient dialysis management of patients with AKI, reviews the current clinical landscape of care for these patients, and highlights key areas of knowledge deficit. Lastly, policy changes that have the opportunity to significantly improve the care of this at-risk population are suggested.
Brunori, Francesco; Dozio, Beatrice; Colzani, Sara; Pozzi, Marco; Pisano, Lucia; Galassi, Andrea; Santorelli, Gennaro; Auricchio, Sara; Busnelli, Luisa; Di Carlo, Angela; Viganò, Monica; Calabrese, Valentina; Mariani, Laura; Mossa, Monica; Longoni, Stefania; Scanziani, Renzo
This study has been performed in the Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, in Desio Hospital, Italy. The aim of this study is to evaluate, starting from research questions, which information is given to patient in the pre-dialysis colloquia for his/her chosen dialysis methods. Moreover, the study evaluated feelings, emotions and fears since the announcement of the necessity of dialysis treatment. The objective of the study was reached through the interview with patients on dialysis. The fact-finding survey was based on the tools of social research, as the semi-structured interview. Instead of using the questionnaire, even though it make it easier to collect larger set of data, the Authors decided to interview patients in person, since the interview allows direct patient contact and to build a relationship of trust with the interviewer, in order to allow patient explain better his/her feeling.
Wang, Virginia; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Patel, Uptal D; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Ricketts, Thomas C
Despite the appeal of peritoneal dialysis (PD) among patients, payers, and providers, its use in the United States has been limited and declining. Prior research has found that patient factors explain little variation in PD utilization, and little is known about the contribution of dialysis facility factors. The authors examined market factors associated with the provision of PD services in dialysis facilities between 1995 and 2003. Less than half of dialysis facilities offered PD. PD provision was not explained by disease trends or patient characteristics commonly associated with PD use. Facilities were more likely to offer PD in less competitive and less spatially concentrated markets. PD services may not be available to all patients who would benefit from it and there may be insufficient demand, economics of scale, or incentives for facilities to provide PD. These findings warrant further investigation on dialysis facilities' provision of a preferred, potentially beneficial, and cost-effective therapy.
Flanigan, M J; Doyle, C; Lim, V S; Ullrich, G
To determine the feasibility of home tidal peritoneal dialysis (TPD) and to assess whether eight hours of TPD can achieve uremia control and urea removal equal to that of continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). An open enrollment pilot study. The Home Dialysis Training Center of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, a tertiary care teaching hospital. Nine patients experienced with CCPD and living 80 km to 280 km from the dialysis center began TPD, because they wished to decrease their dialysis time. Following baseline measurements, each patient was taught to perform TPD. TPD consisted of an initial fill volume of 40 mL/kg, a residual volume approximately 20 mL/kg, and tidal exchanges of 10 to 20 mL/kg to achieve the desired hourly flow rate. Clinic assessments took place every four to six weeks, and prescriptions were subsequently altered to attain urea removal equal to that of CCPD. Patient interviews were used to determine TPD acceptance. Prior to each clinic visit, dialysate effluent volume and dialysis duration were recorded, and a sterile sample of the effluent was obtained for urea, creatinine, and total nitrogen measurement. Urea and creatinine clearances increased with dialysate flow. Dialysate nonurea nitrogen was 3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/kg/D and changed minimally with increasing dialysate volumes. Eight hours of TPD (initial fill: 40 mL/kg; residual volume: 20 mL/kg; tidal inflow: 20 mL/kg) with hourly tidal flow exceeding 40 mL/kg/hr and no daytime volume achieved urea removal equal to that of the patient's prior CCPD prescription. TPD can provide dialysis equal to that of CCPD within a shorter amount of time (eight vs ten hours), but uses a greater volume of dialysate (16.0 L for TPD vs 9.5 L for CCPD).
Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Okamoto, Ikumi; Leydon, Geraldine M; Murtagh, Fliss E M; Farrington, Ken; Caskey, Fergus; Rayner, Hugh; Roderick, Paul
Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 may be offered a choice between dialysis and conservative management. Few studies have explored patients' reasons for choosing conservative management and none have compared the views of those who have chosen different treatments across renal units. Qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Patients 75 years or older recruited from 9 renal units. Units were chosen to reflect variation in the scale of delivery of conservative management. Semistructured interviews audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. 42 interviews were completed, 4 to 6 per renal unit. Patients were sampled from those receiving dialysis, those preparing for dialysis, and those choosing conservative management. 14 patients in each group were interviewed. Patients who had chosen different treatments held varying beliefs about what dialysis could offer. The information that patients reported receiving from clinical staff differed between units. Patients from units with a more established conservative management pathway were more aware of conservative management, less often believed that dialysis would guarantee longevity, and more often had discussed the future with staff. Some patients receiving conservative management reported that they would have dialysis if they became unwell in the future, indicating the conditional nature of their decision. Recruitment of older adults with frailty and comorbid conditions was difficult and therefore transferability of findings to this population is limited. Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 who have chosen different treatment options have contrasting beliefs about the likely outcomes of dialysis for those who are influenced by information provided by renal units. Supporting renal staff in discussing conservative management as a valid alternative to dialysis for a subset of patients will aid informed decision making. There is a need for better
Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Okamoto, Ikumi; Leydon, Geraldine M.; Murtagh, Fliss E.M.; Farrington, Ken; Caskey, Fergus; Rayner, Hugh; Roderick, Paul
Background Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 may be offered a choice between dialysis and conservative management. Few studies have explored patients’ reasons for choosing conservative management and none have compared the views of those who have chosen different treatments across renal units. Study Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Settings & Participants Patients 75 years or older recruited from 9 renal units. Units were chosen to reflect variation in the scale of delivery of conservative management. Methodology Semistructured interviews audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Analytical Approach Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results 42 interviews were completed, 4 to 6 per renal unit. Patients were sampled from those receiving dialysis, those preparing for dialysis, and those choosing conservative management. 14 patients in each group were interviewed. Patients who had chosen different treatments held varying beliefs about what dialysis could offer. The information that patients reported receiving from clinical staff differed between units. Patients from units with a more established conservative management pathway were more aware of conservative management, less often believed that dialysis would guarantee longevity, and more often had discussed the future with staff. Some patients receiving conservative management reported that they would have dialysis if they became unwell in the future, indicating the conditional nature of their decision. Limitations Recruitment of older adults with frailty and comorbid conditions was difficult and therefore transferability of findings to this population is limited. Conclusions Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 who have chosen different treatment options have contrasting beliefs about the likely outcomes of dialysis for those who are influenced by information provided by renal units. Supporting renal staff in discussing conservative management as a valid
Lausević, Mirjana; Nesić, Vidosava; Jovanović, Natasa; Stojimirović, Biljana
A normocytic normochromic anemia is one of the first signs of renal failure. Since anemia increases morbidity and mortality, its elimination is one of the essential objectives of the treatment. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has changed the therapeutical approach to anemia. The aim of the present study was to compare efficacy of anemia correction in peritoneal dialysis patients depending on treatment and dialysis modality. The study is the retrospective analysis of 64 patients who presented to our Clinic in 2003. Eighteen (28.13%) patients were treated with rHuEPO, 14 (28%) underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 2 (100%)--automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and 2 (33.3%)--intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD). Mean hemoglobin level was 98.6 +/- 17.82 g/l in patients treated with rHuEPO versus 98.81 +/- 15.14 g/l in patients without rHuEPO treatment. Erythropoietin requirements were 3392.85 +/- 1211.77 IU/week All patients received iron supplementation during rHuEPO therapy. Mean serum ferritin levels were 463.41 +/- 360 ug/l. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) was 0.35 +/- 0.16%. No difference of serum iron and TSAT levels was found between CAPD and IPD patients. The degree of anemia significantly differed between CAPD and IPD patients. A total of 17.11% of PD patients were given blood transfusions, most frequently during the first three months after the onset of dialysis. Our conclusion is that the number of patients receiving rHuEPO should be increased, as 50% of our patients should be substituted, while only 28% are being treated. As 50% of patients receiving rHuEPO failed to reach target Hgb levels, higher EPO doses should be considered. Iron stores should be continuously monitored, particularly in patients receiving rHuEPO, since iron deficiency is an important problem for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, especially during erythropoietin therapy. Oral iron supplementation is satisfactory in the majority of patients, and iron
Uribarri, J; Prabhakar, S; Kahn, T
Low serum sodium is uncommon in peritoneal dialysis (PD), which is surprising in view of the important role of normal kidney function to regulate water and sodium balance. We report 2 cases of persistent hyponatremia with balance studies in Case 1. We performed measurements of dialysate sodium and volume output over 24 hours in a group of chronic PD patients. The low serum sodium concentration did not vary too much with overall fluid removal via dialysis in patient 1, mainly because large quantities of sodium were removed in the dialysate. In the 24-hour studies, a significant relationship was found between net daily PD sodium removal and net daily dialysate volume removed (r = 0.65). There was no relationship between net daily PD sodium removal and serum sodium concentration. There was a linear direct correlation between serum and dialysate sodium concentration (r = 0.8) as shown by others previously. These results suggest that the main determinant of PD sodium loss is net dialysate ultrafiltration volume. Water loss via dialysis is necessarily associated with sodium loss. In order to maintain a normal serum sodium concentration salt intake must be proportional to the water loss induced by dialysis. The stimuli that allow dialysis patients to maintain this delicate balance between water and salt intake are of considerable interest but remain undetermined.
Griva, Konstadina; Li, Zhi Hui; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Choong, Meng Chan; Foo, Marjorie Wai Yin
♦ Objectives: This study explored the factors influencing decision-making about dialysis modality, integrating the perspectives of patients, their families, and health care professionals within an Asian population. The study further sought to understand the low penetration rate of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Singapore. ♦ Methods: A sample of 59 participants comprising pre-dialysis patients, dialysis patients, caregivers, and health care professionals (HCPs) participated in semi-structured interviews to explore the decision-making process and their views about various dialysis modalities. Data were thematically analyzed using NVivo9 (QSR International, Doncaster, Australia) to explore barriers to and facilitators of various dialysis modalities and decisional support needs. ♦ Results: Fear of infection, daily commitment to PD, and misperceptions of PD emerged as barriers to PD. Side effects, distance to dialysis centers, and fear of needling and pain were barriers to hemodialysis (HD). The experiences of other patients, communicated informally or opportunistically, influenced the preferences and choices of patients and family members for a dialysis modality. Patients and families value input from HCPs and yet express strong needs to discuss subjective experiences of life on dialysis (PD or HD) with other patients before making a decision about dialysis modality. ♦ Conclusions: Pre-dialysis education should expand its focus on the family as the unit of care and should provide opportunities for interaction with dialysis patients and for peer-led learning. Barriers to PD, especially misperceptions and misunderstandings, can be targeted to improve PD uptake. PMID:23123668
Hospital-based physicians (HBPs) have been the recipients of considerable attention in health policy debates in recent years. This paper discusses issues and trends concerning HBPs and presents evidence on practice characteristics, compensation methods, and incomes of anesthesiologists, pathologists, and radiologists. Some comparisons with office-based MDs are included. The primary data source is composed of physician surveys sponsored by the Health Care Financing Administration and conducted by the National Opinion Research Center in 1977 and 1978. Findings generated from these surveys support past research showing that radiology is the most lucrative HBP specialty, followed by pathology and anesthesiology; hospital-based practice tends to be considerably more lucrative than office-based practice, taken as a whole. Survey findings are discussed in light of current policy developments in the health services sector. PMID:10309258
Panzer, Sarah E; Teitelbaum, Isaac
Proper volume management continues to be a major challenge in patients requiring renal replacement therapy. In patients performing peritoneal dialysis the introduction of icodextrin represented a major advance in this effort. Recent studies have demonstrated a potential role for the use of novel dialysis strategies employing icodextrin to further enhance ultrafiltration and to improve cardiac indices in patients with ultrafiltration failure. These alternative strategies include the use of icodextrin in non-traditional patient populations (low transporters), the simultaneous use of glucose-based and icodextrin solutions in combination, and the use of icodextrin twice daily rather than for just a single dwell. This paper will briefly review the current status of these alternative dialysis strategies with icodextrin. In addition, the potential role for icodextrin to decrease postoperative adhesions will be discussed as well. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each... for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (b) CMS determines the amount on the basis of program experience...
... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each... for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (b) CMS determines the amount on the basis of program experience...
Rice, Danielle; Janzen, Shannon; McIntyre, Amanda; Vermeer, Julianne; Britt, Eileen; Teasell, Robert
Few studies have considered the effectiveness of outpatient rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a hospital-based interdisciplinary outpatient stroke rehabilitation program with respect to physical functioning, mobility, and balance. The Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Program provides a hospital-based interdisciplinary approach to stroke rehabilitation in Southwestern Ontario. Outcome measures from physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions were available at intake and discharge from the program. A series of paired sample t-tests were performed to assess patient changes between time points for each outcome measure. A total of 271 patients met the inclusion criteria for analysis (56.1% male; mean age = 62.9 ± 13.9 years). Significant improvements were found between admission and discharge for the Functional Independence Measure, grip strength, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment, two-minute walk test, maximum walk test, Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, and one-legged stance (P < .003 for all). The findings indicate that an interdisciplinary rehabilitation program was effective at improving the physical functioning, mobility, and balance of individuals after a stroke. A hospital-based, stroke-specific rehabilitation program should be considered when patients continue to experience deficits after inpatient rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dy Bunpin, Jose J; Chapman, Susan; Blegen, Mary; Spetz, Joanne
The 2010 Institute of Medicine report, 'The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health', advocated for nurses to innovate in their practice, research, and education. However, little is known about the innovative behavior of registered nurses or whether there are differences in innovative behavior among registered nurses. The purpose of this article is to describe the innovative behavior of hospital-based registered nurses and understand the differences in innovative behavior when registered nurses are categorized into various demographic groups. A survey of 251 hospital-based registered nurses from 9 hospitals in California was administered to assess demographic characteristics and innovative behavior, measured through Scott and Bruce's Individual Innovative Behavior Scale. Hospital-based registered nurses, on average, reported moderate levels of innovative behavior. There were statistically significant differences in innovative behavior when registered nurses were categorized according to specialty certification, role, level of education, hospital size, and hospital innovativeness. To support innovative behavior, organizations should provide opportunities for specialty certification and increasing levels of education.
Howard, David; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian; Kutner, Nancy
Dialysis centers struggled to maintain continuity of care for dialysis patients during and immediately following Hurricane Katrina's landfall on the US Gulf Coast in August 2005. However, the impact on patient health and service use is unclear. The impact of Hurricane Katrina on hospitalization rates among dialysis patients was estimated. Data from the United States Renal Data System were used to identify patients receiving dialysis from January 1, 2001 through August 29, 2005 at clinics that experienced service disruptions during Hurricane Katrina. A repeated events duration model was used with a time-varying Hurricane Katrina indicator to estimate trends in hospitalization rates. Trends were estimated separately by cause: surgical hospitalizations, medical, non-renal-related hospitalizations, and renal-related hospitalizations. The rate ratio for all-cause hospitalization associated with the time-varying Hurricane Katrina indicator was 1.16 (95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P = .004). The ratios for cause-specific hospitalization were: surgery, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68-1.04; P = .11); renal-related admissions, 2.53 (95% CI, 2.09-3.06); P < .001), and medical non-renal related, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.89-1.20; P = .63). The estimated number of excess renal-related hospital admissions attributable to Katrina was 140, representing approximately three percent of dialysis patients at the affected clinics. Hospitalization rates among dialysis patients increased in the month following the Hurricane Katrina landfall, suggesting that providers and patients were not adequately prepared for large-scale disasters.
Sakuma, Koji; Uchiumi, Nobuko; Sato, Sumihiko; Aida, Nobuhiko; Ishimatsu, Taketo; Igoshi, Tadaaki; Kodama, Yoshihiro; Hotta, Hiroyuki
We applied the heat citric acid disinfection method in the main part of the central dialysis fluid delivery system (MPCDDS), which consists of a multiple-patient dialysis fluid supply unit, dialysis console units, and dialysis fluid piping. This disinfection method has been used for single-patient dialysis machines, but this is the first trial in the MPCDDS. We examined, by points of safety and disinfection effect, whether this disinfection method is comparable to conventional disinfection methods in Japan. The conventional disinfection method is a combination of two disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid, used separately for protein removal and decalcification. Consequently, total microbial counts and endotoxin concentrations fully satisfied the microbiological requirements for standard dialysis fluid of ISO 11663. From our results and discussion, this heat citric acid disinfection method is proved to be safe and reliable for MPCDDS. However, to satisfy the microbiological requirements for ultrapure dialysis fluid, further consideration for this method in MPCDDS including the reverse osmosis device composition and piping is necessary.
Lindsay, Robert M; Suri, Rita S; Moist, Louise M; Garg, Amit X; Cuerden, Meaghan; Langford, Sarah; Hakim, Raymond; Ofsthun, Norma J; McDonald, Stephen P; Hawley, Carmel; Caskey, Ferqus J; Couchoud, Cecile; Awaraji, Christian; Nesrallah, Gihad E
The International Quotidian Dialysis Registry (IQDR) is a global initiative designed to study practices and outcomes associated with the use of hemodialysis (HD) regimens of increased frequency and/or duration. The IQDR grew out of the initiative that lead to the randomized prospective studies of nocturnal HD and short hours daily dialysis vs. conventional thrice weekly HD that are conducted by the Frequent Hemodialysis Network sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. These 2 separate studies are drawing to a close and the first results are expected to be reported later this year. These studies use surrogate outcomes for their primary endpoints as they are not powered to look at outcomes of mortality and hospitalization. The IQDR attempts to aggregate long-term follow-up data from centers utilizing alternative HD regimens worldwide and will have adequate statistical power to examine those important outcomes. To date, the IQDR has enrolled patients from Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and France and has linked with commercial databases and national registries. This sixth annual report of the IQDR describes: (1) An update on the governance structure; (2) The recommendations made at the first general meetings of the IQDR Scientific Committee and Advisory Board; (3) The status of those recommendations; (4) A summary of current data sources and participating registries; (5) The status of recruitment to date; (6) The creation of a specific Canadian IQDR data set and; (7) The current research agenda.
Jacobs, B; Mercer, A
The demand for blood transfusion is high in sub-Saharan Africa because of the high prevalence of anaemia and pregnancy related complications, but the practice is estimated to account for 10% of HIV infections in some regions. The main response to this problem by the international donor community is to establish vertically implemented blood transfusion services producing suitable (safe) blood at a cost of US$25-40 per unit. However, the economic sustainability of such interventions is questionable and it is argued here that hospital-based blood transfusion services operating at a basic adequate level are sufficient for low-income African countries. The results of a project aimed at improving such services in Tanzania are presented. The main findings are: (1) the cost per suitable blood unit produced was US$12.4; (2) at an HIV test sensitivity of 93.5% during the study period, discounted financial benefits of the interventions exceeded costs by a factor of between 17.2 and 37.1; (3) the cost per undiscounted year of life saved by use of these interventions was US$2.7-2.8; and (4) safe blood transfusion practices can be assured at an annual cost of US$0.07 per capita. Recommendations are made to ensure safe blood transfusion practices at hospital-based blood banks in Tanzania.
Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Takeda, Kazuo; Mori, Youichi; Muto, Takashi; Higashi, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki
The present study was initiated to examine the activities of private clinic- or hospital-based occupational physicians (OPs) and to identify difficulties the OPs encountered in their occupational health service (OHS). A questionnaire was sent by mail to 557 OPs in Kyoto prefecture, Japan. Effective answers were obtained from 86 OPs who were private practitioners or physicians in hospitals and served as OPs on a part-time basis. Considering 3 h as a unit, a majority (92%) served <1 to 2 units/month. The leading fields of OHS provided by the OPs were general health examination and its follow-up, prevention of overwork, and mental health care, as well as support of workers on sick leave to return to work. OPs wished to allocate more time for maintenance and management of work and the work environment, mental health care, work area rounding, and attendance at the safety and health committee meetings. Difficulties were encountered most often in the management of mental ill health and overwork, and support of employees' return to work. Many OPs also reported difficulties with industrial hygiene-related issues such as risk assessment, and maintenance and management of work and the work environment. The present survey identified difficulties that were frequently encountered by private clinic- and hospital-based OPs in their practice of OHS; these include issues on mental health, overwork and industrial hygiene. The needs to offering OPs specific opportunities to gain information and skills in these areas are stressed.
... dialysis service drugs and biologicals as defined in § 413.171, furnished to ESRD patients on or after... facility for renal dialysis service drugs and biologicals with only an oral form furnished to ESRD patients...
..., payment to an ESRD facility for renal dialysis service drugs and biologicals as defined in § 413.171... to an ESRD facility for renal dialysis service drugs and biologicals with only an oral form furnished...
... dialysis service drugs and biologicals as defined in § 413.171, furnished to ESRD patients on or after... facility for renal dialysis service drugs and biologicals with only an oral form furnished to ESRD patients...
Baillie, Jessica; Lankshear, Annette
To discuss findings from an ethnographic study, considering the experiences of patients and families, using peritoneal dialysis at home in the United Kingdom. Peritoneal dialysis is a daily, life-preserving treatment for end-stage renal disease, undertaken in the patient's home. With ever-growing numbers of patients requiring treatment for this condition, the increased use of peritoneal dialysis is being promoted. While it is known that quality of life is reduced when using dialysis, few studies have sought to explore experiences of peritoneal dialysis specifically. No previous studies were identified that adopted an ethnographic approach. A qualitative design was employed, utilising ethnographic methodology. Ethical and governance approvals were gained in November 2010 and data were generated in 2011. Patients (n = 16) and their relatives (n = 9) were interviewed and observed using peritoneal dialysis in their homes. Thematic analysis was undertaken using Wolcott's (1994) three stage process: Description, Analysis and Interpretation. This article describes four themes: initiating peritoneal dialysis; the constraints of peritoneal dialysis due to medicalisation of the home environment and the imposition of rigid timetables; the uncertainty of managing crises and inevitable deterioration; and seeking freedom through creativity and hope of a kidney transplant. This study highlights the culture of patients and their families living with peritoneal dialysis. Despite the challenges posed by the treatment, participants were grateful they were able to self-manage at home. Furthermore, ethnographic methods offer an appropriate and meaningful way of considering how patients live with home technologies. Participants reported confusion about kidney transplantation and also how to identify peritonitis, and ongoing education from nurses and other healthcare professionals is thus vital. Opportunities for sharing experiences of peritoneal dialysis were valued by participants and
Yu, Margaret K; O'Hare, Ann M; Batten, Adam; Sulc, Christine A; Neely, Emily L; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Hebert, Paul L
The secular trend toward dialysis initiation at progressively higher levels of eGFR is not well understood. This study compared temporal trends in eGFR at dialysis initiation within versus outside the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)-the largest non-fee-for-service health system in the United States. The study used linked data from the US Renal Data System, VA, and Medicare to compare temporal trends in eGFR at dialysis initiation between 2000 and 2009 (n=971,543). Veterans who initiated dialysis within the VA were compared with three groups who initiated dialysis outside the VA: (1) veterans whose dialysis was paid for by the VA, (2) veterans whose dialysis was not paid for by the VA, and (3) nonveterans. Logistic regression was used to estimate average predicted probabilities of dialysis initiation at an eGFR≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The adjusted probability of starting dialysis at an eGFR≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) increased over time for all groups but was lower for veterans who started dialysis within the VA (0.31; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.30 to 0.32) than for those starting outside the VA, including veterans whose dialysis was (0.36; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.38) and was not (0.40; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.40) paid for by the VA and nonveterans (0.39; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.39). Differences in eGFR at initiation within versus outside the VA were most pronounced among older patients (P for interaction <0.001) and those with a higher risk of 1-year mortality (P for interaction <0.001). Temporal trends in eGFR at dialysis initiation within the VA mirrored those in the wider United States dialysis population, but eGFR at initiation was consistently lowest among those who initiated within the VA. Differences in eGFR at initiation within versus outside the VA were especially pronounced in older patients and those with higher 1-year mortality risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
O’Hare, Ann M.; Batten, Adam; Sulc, Christine A.; Neely, Emily L.; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Hebert, Paul L.
Background and objectives The secular trend toward dialysis initiation at progressively higher levels of eGFR is not well understood. This study compared temporal trends in eGFR at dialysis initiation within versus outside the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)—the largest non–fee-for-service health system in the United States. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The study used linked data from the US Renal Data System, VA, and Medicare to compare temporal trends in eGFR at dialysis initiation between 2000 and 2009 (n=971,543). Veterans who initiated dialysis within the VA were compared with three groups who initiated dialysis outside the VA: (1) veterans whose dialysis was paid for by the VA, (2) veterans whose dialysis was not paid for by the VA, and (3) nonveterans. Logistic regression was used to estimate average predicted probabilities of dialysis initiation at an eGFR≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Results The adjusted probability of starting dialysis at an eGFR≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 increased over time for all groups but was lower for veterans who started dialysis within the VA (0.31; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.30 to 0.32) than for those starting outside the VA, including veterans whose dialysis was (0.36; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.38) and was not (0.40; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.40) paid for by the VA and nonveterans (0.39; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.39). Differences in eGFR at initiation within versus outside the VA were most pronounced among older patients (P for interaction <0.001) and those with a higher risk of 1-year mortality (P for interaction <0.001). Conclusions Temporal trends in eGFR at dialysis initiation within the VA mirrored those in the wider United States dialysis population, but eGFR at initiation was consistently lowest among those who initiated within the VA. Differences in eGFR at initiation within versus outside the VA were especially pronounced in older patients and those with higher 1-year mortality risk. PMID:26206891
Talaat, Khaled Mohamed
In a preliminary experiment, 38% of the spent dialysis fluid water was reclaimed by a forward osmosis process through a cellulose triacetate membrane. The simplicity of forward osmosis and its minimal external energy requirements may allow the construction of a small bulk device that can reclaim a considerable portion of the water used in the patient's dialysis process. For developing an acceptable ambulatory dialysis system, decreasing the bulk of the fluid and equipment carried on the patient is essential. Forward osmosis may feasibly be used for dialysis fluid regeneration in ambulatory dialysis systems.
Sousa Melo, Eduardo; Carrilho Aguiar, Filipe; Sampaio Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto
Patients with chronic kidney disease who need dialysis often have poor quality of life. Dialysis headache is a frequent complication of hemodialysis and is often a challenge for nephrologists, neurologists, and headache specialists. This was a narrative review. The prevalence of dialysis headache varies between 27% and 73%. Among the characteristics of this headache are the pulsatile pattern, frontal location, moderate to severe intensity, and onset a few hours after the beginning of dialysis. The headache may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The physiopathology of hemodialysis headache is still not completely understood. Some factors that seem to be associated with it are variations in urea, sodium, magnesium, blood pressure, and weight levels. The hematoencephalic barrier has an important role. Variations in electrolyte and urea levels occur in the systemic circulation during hemodialysis, but the cerebral concentrations of these substances are stable over the first few hours of the procedure. The flow of free water through the hematoencephalic barrier may lead to cerebral edema. Other potential pathophysiological factors include nitric oxide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P. There are recommendations for maintenance of volume and control over electrolytes and blood pressure and avoidance of caffeine for prevention of hemodialysis headache. However, there are no controlled studies of prophylactic or abortive hemodialysis headache treatment. Despite its prevalence, hemodialysis headache has been poorly studied, thus making it difficult to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its genesis. Current clinical management practices are therefore necessarily empiric with minimal to no evidence base. © 2016 American Headache Society.
Hyperphosphatemia is an almost universal finding in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and vascular calcification. These associations have raised the question of whether reducing phosphorus levels could result in improved survival. In light of the recent findings that increased per-session dialysis dose, as assessed by urea kinetics, did not result in improved survival, the definition of adequacy of dialysis should be re-evaluated and consideration given to alternative markers. Two alternatives to conventional thrice weekly dialysis (CHD) are nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) and short daily hemodialysis (SDHD). The elimination kinetics of phosphorus as they relate to these alternative daily dialysis schedules and the clinical implications of overall phosphorus balance are discussed here. The total weekly phosphorus removal with NHD is more than twice that removed by CHD (4985 mg/week +/- 1827 mg vs. 2347 mg/week +/- 697 mg) and this is associated with a significantly lower average serum phosphorous (4.0 mg/dl vs. 6.5 mg/dl). In spite of the observed increase in protein and phosphorus intake seen in patients on SDHD, phosphate binder requirements and serum phosphorus levels are generally stable to decrease although this effect is strongly dependent on the frequency and overall treatment time.
Kosmadakis, George; Aguilera, Didier; Carceles, Odette; Da Costa Correia, Enrique; Boletis, Ioannis
Pulmonary hypertension in end-stage renal disease patients is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in dialysis patients is relatively high and varies in different studies from 17% to 49.53% depending on the mode of dialysis and other selection factors, such as the presence of other cardiovascular comorbidities. The etiopathogenic mechanisms that have been studied in relatively small studies mainly include arteriovenous fistula-induced increased cardiac output, which cannot be accomodated by, the spacious under normal conditions pulmonary circulation. Additionally, pulmonary vessels show signs of endothelial dysfunction, dysregulation of vascular tone due to an imbalance in vasoactive substances, and local as well as systemic inflammation. It is also believed that microbubbles escaping from the dialysis circuit can trigger vasoconstriction and vascular sclerosis. The non-specific therapeutic options that proved to be beneficial in pulmonary artery pressure reduction are endothelin inhibitors, phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil, and vasodilatory prostaglandins in various forms. The specific modes of treatment are renal transplantation, size reduction or closure of high-flow arteriovenous fistulas, and transfer from hemodialysis to peritoneal dialysis-a modality that is associated with a lesser prevalence of pulmonary hypertension.
Lameire, N; Vanholder, R; De Smet, R
Uremic toxicity is related in part to the accumulation of toxic substances, the nature of which has only partly been characterized. Because of the use of a highly permeable membrane and better preservation of the residual renal function, it could be anticipated that some of these uremic toxins are more efficiently cleared across the peritoneal membrane, and that the plasma and tissue levels of these compounds are lower than in hemodialysis patients. This article analyzes the generation and removal of several uremic toxins in peritoneal dialysis patients. The following uremic toxins are discussed: beta2-microglobulin, advanced glycation end products, advanced oxidation protein products, granulocyte inhibitory proteins, p-Cresol, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Some recent studies are reviewed suggesting that uremic toxins are involved in the progression of renal failure and are at least partially removed by peritoneal dialysis. We conclude that, although the plasma levels of some of these compounds are lower in peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis patients, it does not mean that the peritoneal dialysis patient is "better" protected against the numerous disturbances caused by these toxins.
Kuo, James C; Craft, Paul S
The prevalence of patients on dialysis has increased and these patients present a challenge for chemotherapy administration when diagnosed with cancer. A consensus on the dosage and timing of different chemotherapeutic agents in relation to dialysis has not been established. We describe the pattern of care and treatment outcome for cancer patients on dialysis in our institution. The dataset from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry of patients on dialysis who had a diagnosis of cancer was obtained and matched to the pharmacy records in our institution to identify patients who had received chemotherapy while on dialysis. Relevant clinical information including details of the dialysis regimen, chemotherapy administration and adverse events was extracted for analysis. Between July 1999 and July 2014, 21 patients on dialysis were included for analysis. Five (23.8%) received chemotherapy, most of which was administered before dialysis sessions. As a result of adverse events, one patient discontinued treatment; two other patients required dose reduction or treatment delay. Chemotherapy administration was feasible in cancer patients on dialysis, but chemotherapy usage was low. Better understanding of the altered pharmacokinetics in patients on dialysis may improve chemotherapy access and practice.
Shilane, D; Hlatky, M A; Winkelmayer, W C; Chang, T I
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis have a high burden of coronary disease. Prior studies in non-dialysis patients show better outcomes in coronary artery bypass surgery using the internal mammary artery (IMA) compared with the saphenous vein graft (SVG), but less is known about outcomes in ESRD. We sought to compare the effectiveness of multivessel bypass grafting using IMA versus SVG in patients on maintenance dialysis in the United States. Cohort study using data from the United States Renal Data System to examine IMA versus SVG in patients on maintenance dialysis undergoing multivessel coronary revascularization. We used Cox proportional hazards regression with multivariable adjustment in the full cohort and in a propensity-score matched cohort. The primary outcome was death from any cause; the secondary outcome was a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction or death. Overall survival rates were low in this patient population (5-year survival in the matched cohort 25.3%). Use of the IMA compared to SVG was associated with lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.92) and lower risk of the composite outcome (adjusted HR 0.89; CI 0.85-0.93). Results did not materially change in analyses using the propensity-score matched cohort. We found similar results irrespective of patient sex, age, race, or the presence of diabetes, peripheral vascular disease or heart failure. Although overall survival rates were low, IMA was associated with lower risk of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity compared to SVG in patients on dialysis.
Shilane, D.; Hlatky, M.A.; Winkelmayer, W.C.; Chang, T.I.
Aim Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis have a high burden of coronary disease. Prior studies in non-dialysis patients show better outcomes in coronary artery bypass surgery using the internal mammary artery (IMA) compared with the saphenous vein graft (SVG), but less is known about outcomes in ESRD. We sought to compare the effectiveness of multivessel bypass grafting using IMA versus SVG in patients on maintenance dialysis in the United States. Methods Cohort study using data from the United States Renal Data System to examine IMA versus SVG in patients on maintenance dialysis undergoing multivessel coronary revascularization. We used Cox proportional hazards regression with multivariable adjustment in the full cohort and in a propensity-score matched cohort. The primary outcome was death from any cause; the secondary outcome was a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction or death. Results Overall survival rates were low in this patient population (5-year survival in the matched cohort 25.3%). Use of the IMA compared to SVG was associated with lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.92) and lower risk of the composite outcome (adjusted HR 0.89; CI 0.85-0.93). Results did not materially change in analyses using the propensity-score matched cohort. We found similar results irrespective of patient sex, age, race, or the presence of diabetes, peripheral vascular disease or heart failure. Conclusion Although overall survival rates were low, IMA was associated with lower risk of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity compared to SVG in patients on dialysis. PMID:24343371
Martelli, N; van den Brink, H; Denies, F; Dervaux, B; Germe, A F; Prognon, P; Pineau, J
Innovative medical devices offer solutions to medical problems and greatly improve patients' outcomes. Like National Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies, hospitals face numerous requests for innovative and costly medical devices. To help local decision-makers, different approaches of hospital-based HTA (HB-HTA) have been adopted worldwide. The objective of the present paper is to explore HB-HTA models for adopting innovative medical devices in France and elsewhere. Four different models have been conceptualized: "ambassador" model, "mini-HTA" model, "HTA unit" model and "internal committee". Apparently, "HTA unit" and "internal committee" (or a mixture of both models) are the prevailing HB-HTA models in France. Nevertheless, some weaknesses of these models have been pointed out in previous works. Only few examples involving hospital pharmacists have been found abroad, except in France and in Italy. Finally, the harmonization of the assessment of innovative medical devices in France needs a better understanding of HB-HTA practices.
Dion, Liza J.; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Rodgers, Nancy J.; Hauschulz, Jennifer L.; Dreyer, Nikol E.; Thomley, Barbara S.; Bauer, Brent
Background: Massage therapy is offered increasingly in US medical facilities. Although the United States has many massage schools, their education differs, along with licensure and standards. As massage therapy in hospitals expands and proves its value, massage therapists need increased training and skills in working with patients who have various complex medical concerns, to provide safe and effective treatment. These services for hospitalized patients can impact patient experience substantially and provide additional treatment options for pain and anxiety, among other symptoms. The present article summarizes the initial development and description of a hospital-based massage therapy course at a Midwest medical center. Methods: A hospital-based massage therapy course was developed on the basis of clinical experience and knowledge from massage therapists working in the complex medical environment. This massage therapy course had three components in its educational experience: online learning, classroom study, and a 25-hr shadowing experience. The in-classroom study portion included an entire day in the simulation center. Results: The hospital-based massage therapy course addressed the educational needs of therapists transitioning to work with interdisciplinary medical teams and with patients who have complicated medical conditions. Feedback from students in the course indicated key learning opportunities and additional content that are needed to address the knowledge and skills necessary when providing massage therapy in a complex medical environment. Conclusions: The complexity of care in medical settings is increasing while the length of hospital stay is decreasing. For this reason, massage provided in the hospital requires more specialized training to work in these environments. This course provides an example initial step in how to address some of the educational needs of therapists who are transitioning to working in the complex medical environment. PMID
Thomas, Bernadette; Wulf, Sarah; Bikbov, Boris; Perico, Norberto; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville de Vaccaro, Karen; Flaxman, Abraham; Peterson, Hannah; Delossantos, Allyne; Haring, Diana; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Murray, Christopher; Naghavi, Mohsen
Rapidly rising global rates of chronic diseases portend a consequent rise in ESRD. Despite this, kidney disease is not included in the list of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) targeted by the United Nations for 25% reduction by year 2025. In an effort to accurately report the trajectory and pattern of global growth of maintenance dialysis, we present the change in prevalence and incidence from 1990 to 2010. Data were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 epidemiologic database. The results are on the basis of an analysis of data from worldwide national and regional renal disease registries and detailed systematic literature review for years 1980-2010. Incidence and prevalence estimates of provision of maintenance dialysis from this database were updated using a negative binomial Bayesian meta-regression tool for 187 countries. Results indicate substantial growth in utilization of maintenance dialysis in almost all world regions. Changes in population structure, changes in aging, and the worldwide increase in diabetes mellitus and hypertension explain a significant portion, but not all, of the increase because increased dialysis provision also accounts for a portion of the rise. These findings argue for the importance of inclusion of kidney disease among NCD targets for reducing premature death throughout the world.
Baillie, Jessica; Lankshear, Annette
Internationally, increasing numbers of patients are requiring treatment for end-stage kidney disease and greater use of peritoneal dialysis is thus being promoted. However, peritonitis can be a significant problem in this population. It is the leading cause of technique failure in patients using peritoneal dialysis and results in considerable morbidity and mortality. There is a dearth of research exploring patients' and their families' experiences of peritonitis. The aim of this paper is to explore patients' and their families' perspectives and experiences of peritonitis. An ethnographic study was conducted in 2011 in the United Kingdom. Sixteen patients and nine of their relatives were recruited through purposive and convenience sampling. In-depth interviews were undertaken with patients and their families, who were also observed using peritoneal dialysis in their homes. The data were analysed thematically using Wolcott's (1994) three-stage approach. This article describes four themes: learning about the risk of peritonitis; measures taken to prevent the infection; how participants monitored continuously for signs and symptoms of the infection; how they then identified and intervened once peritonitis was suspected. Overall, peritonitis was associated with fear and uncertainty, pain and learning from episodes of the infection. Overall, peritonitis was a distressing experience that participants sought to prevent. However, there was some confusion amongst participants about the signs and symptoms of the infection and further education for patients and their families is thus crucial. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Wulf, Sarah; Bikbov, Boris; Perico, Norberto; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville de Vaccaro, Karen; Flaxman, Abraham; Peterson, Hannah; Delossantos, Allyne; Haring, Diana; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Murray, Christopher; Naghavi, Mohsen
Rapidly rising global rates of chronic diseases portend a consequent rise in ESRD. Despite this, kidney disease is not included in the list of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) targeted by the United Nations for 25% reduction by year 2025. In an effort to accurately report the trajectory and pattern of global growth of maintenance dialysis, we present the change in prevalence and incidence from 1990 to 2010. Data were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 epidemiologic database. The results are on the basis of an analysis of data from worldwide national and regional renal disease registries and detailed systematic literature review for years 1980–2010. Incidence and prevalence estimates of provision of maintenance dialysis from this database were updated using a negative binomial Bayesian meta-regression tool for 187 countries. Results indicate substantial growth in utilization of maintenance dialysis in almost all world regions. Changes in population structure, changes in aging, and the worldwide increase in diabetes mellitus and hypertension explain a significant portion, but not all, of the increase because increased dialysis provision also accounts for a portion of the rise. These findings argue for the importance of inclusion of kidney disease among NCD targets for reducing premature death throughout the world. PMID:26209712
Burnier, Michel; Douchamps, Jacques A; Tanghe, Ann; Demey, Jan; Perrault, Louise; Foster, Claire E; Robbins, Sean
To calculate the variable costs involved with the process of delivering erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) in European dialysis practices. A conceptual model was developed to classify the processes and sub-processes followed in the pharmacy (ordering from supplier, receiving/storing/delivering ESA to the dialysis unit), dialysis unit (dose determination, ordering, receipt, registration, storage, administration, registration) and waste disposal unit. Time and material costs were recorded. Labour costs were derived from actual local wages while material costs came from the facilities' accounting records. Activities associated with ESA administration were listed and each activity evaluated to determine if dosing frequency affected the amount of resources required. A total of 21 centres in 8 European countries supplied data for 142 patients (mean) per hospital (range 42-648). Patients received various ESA regimens (thrice-weekly, twice-weekly, once-weekly, once every 2 weeks and once-monthly). Administering ESA every 2 weeks, the mean costs per patient per year for each process and the estimates of the percentage reduction in costs obtainable, respectively, were: pharmacy labour (10.1 euro, 39%); dialysis unit labour (66.0 euro, 65%); dialysis unit materials (4.11 euro, 61%) and waste unit materials (0.43 euro, 49%). Impact on financial costs was not measured. ESA administration has quantifiable labour and material costs which are affected by dosing frequency.
Haskins, Ivy N; Schreiber, Martin; Prabhu, Ajita S; Krpata, David M; Perez, Arielle J; Tastaldi, Luciano; Tu, Chao; Rosen, Michael J; Rosenblatt, Steven
Peritoneal dialysis as a mode of renal replacement therapy still has not been embraced widely as an alternative to hemodialysis. Furthermore, there is marked variability in peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion techniques and perioperative management within the United States. After the publication of best-demonstrated practices for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement, the utilization of peritoneal dialysis has increased significantly at our institution. We detail the long-term success of peritoneal dialysis catheter placement after the adoption of best-demonstrated practices. Retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent laparoscopic peritoneal dialysis catheter placement using the best-demonstrated practice technique from January 2005 through December 2015. Preoperative patient demographic information, intraoperative variables, 30-day morbidity and mortality, and long-term catheter durability outcomes were investigated. A total of 457 patients met inclusion criteria. Four (0.9%) patients experienced an immediate postoperative complication requiring return to the operating room. There were no perioperative mortalities. A total of 298 (65.2%) patients were available for long-term follow-up; 221 (74.2%) patients are still alive, 76 (25.6%) patients are still undergoing peritoneal dialysis, 63 (21.1%) patients transitioned from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis, and 88 (29.5%) patients have undergone kidney transplantation. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival plots, 30% of patients will transition from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis after 5.5 years of peritoneal dialysis and the median time from commencing peritoneal dialysis to kidney transplantation is 5.6 years. Based on our institutional data, the adoption of best-demonstrated practices should provide long-term and reliable access to the peritoneal cavity. We recommend the adoption of these techniques to facilitate long-term peritoneal dialysis catheter survival. Copyright © 2017
Griffiths, Robert I.; Newsome, Britt B.; Leung, Grace; Block, Geoffrey A.; Herbert, Robert J.; Danese, Mark D.
Practice guidelines define hemodialysis catheter dysfunction as blood flow rate (BFR) <300 mL/min. We conducted a study using data from DaVita and the United States Renal Data System to evaluate the impact of catheter dysfunction on dialysis and other medical services. Patients were included if they had ≥8 consecutive weeks of catheter dialysis between 8/2004 and 12/2006. Actual BFR <300 mL/min despite planned BFR ≥300 mL/min was used to define catheter dysfunction during each dialysis session. Among 9,707 patients, the average age was 62,53% were female, and 40% were black. The median duration of catheter dialysis was 190 days, and the cohort accounted for 1,075,701 catheter dialysis sessions. There were 70,361 sessions with catheter dysfunction, and 6,33 1 (65.2%) patients had at least one session with catheter dysfunction. In multivariate repeated measures analysis, catheter dysfunction was associated with increased odds of missing a dialysis session due to access problems (Odds ratio [OR] 2.50; P < 0.001), having an access-related procedure (OR 2.10; P < 0.001), and being hospitalized (OR 1.10; P = 0.001). Catheter dysfunction defined according to NKF vascular access guidelines results in disruptions of dialysis treatment and increased use of other medical services. PMID:22518313
Russ, Ann J.; Shim, Janet K.; Kaufman, Sharon R.
With the trend toward an older, sicker dialysis population in the USA, discussions of ethical issues surrounding dialysis have shifted from concerns about access to and availability of the therapy, to growing unease about non-initiation and treatment discontinuation. Recent studies report treatment withdrawal as the leading cause of death among elderly dialysis patients. Yet, the actual activities that move patients toward stopping treatment often remain obscure, even to clinicians and patients themselves. This paper explores that paradox, drawing on anthropological research among patients over age 70, their families, and clinicians in two California renal dialysis units. It concludes that many older patients sacrifice a sense of choice about dialysis in the present to maintain “choice” as both value and possibility for the future. Yet, patients desire more information and communication, provided earlier in their illness, about prognosis, how long they can expect to be on dialysis, and what the impact of the treatment will be on their daily lives. That, with time, there is a transition to be made from dialysis as “treatment” to end of life care could be better explained and managed to alleviate patients’ confusion and unneeded isolation. PMID:17418924
The completed dialysis unit demonstrates that building green means creating and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout a building's life cycle. The common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the environment on human health and the natural environment by: using energy, water and other resources more efficiently; protecting patient health while improving staff productivity; reducing waste.
Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Landefeld, C. Seth; McCulloch, Charles E.
BACKGROUND It is unclear whether functional status before dialysis is maintained after the initiation of this therapy in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS Using a national registry of patients undergoing dialysis, which was linked to a national registry of nursing home residents, we identified all 3702 nursing home residents in the United States who were starting treatment with dialysis between June 1998 and October 2000 and for whom at least one measurement of functional status was available before the initiation of dialysis. Functional status was measured by assessing the degree of dependence in seven activities of daily living (on the Minimum Data Set–Activities of Daily Living [MDS–ADL] scale of 0 to 28 points, with higher scores indicating greater functional difficulty). RESULTS The median MDS–ADL score increased from 12 during the 3 months before the initiation of dialysis to 16 during the 3 months after the initiation of dialysis. Three months after the initiation of dialysis, functional status had been maintained in 39% of nursing home residents, but by 12 months after the initiation of dialysis, 58% had died and predialysis functional status had been maintained in only 13%. In a random-effects model, the initiation of dialysis was associated with a sharp decline in functional status, indicated by an increase of 2.8 points in the MDS–ADL score (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.0); this decline was independent of age, sex, race, and functional-status trajectory before the initiation of dialysis. The decline in functional status associated with the initiation of dialysis remained substantial (1.7 points; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.1), even after adjustment for the presence or absence of an accelerated functional decline during the 3-month period before the initiation of dialysis. CONCLUSIONS Among nursing home residents with ESRD, the initiation of dialysis is associated with a substantial and sustained decline in functional
...) Differentiates between hospital-based providers of services and independent ESRD facilities for items and services furnished prior to January 1, 2009; (2) Does not differentiate between hospital-based providers of... facilities when applying the geographic index to hospital-based ESRD providers of services, on or...
Gist, Ramon; Daniel, Pia; Grock, Andrew; Lin, Chou-Jui; Bryant, Clarence; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Roblin, Patricia; Arquilla, Bonnie
Introduction The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) is a national network of community-based volunteer groups created in 2002 by the Office of the United States Surgeon General (Rockville, Maryland USA) to augment the nation's ability to respond to medical and public health emergencies. However, there is little evidence-based literature available to guide hospitals on the optimal use of medical volunteers and hesitancy on the part of hospitals to use them. Hypothesis/Problem This study sought to determine how MRC volunteers can be used in hospital-based disasters through their participation in a full-scale exercise. A full-scale exercise was designed as a "Disaster Olympics," in which the Emergency Medicine residents were divided into teams tasked with completing one of the following five challenges: victim decontamination, mass casualty/decontamination tent assembly, patient triage and registration during a disaster, point of distribution (POD) site set-up and operation, and infection control management. A surge of patients potentially exposed to avian influenza was the scenario created for the latter three challenges. Some MRC volunteers were assigned clinical roles. These roles included serving as members of the suit support team for victim decontamination, distributing medications at the POD, and managing infection control. Other MRC volunteers functioned as "victim evaluators," who portrayed the potential avian influenza victims while simultaneously evaluating various aspects of the disaster response. The MRC volunteers provided feedback on their experience and evaluators provided feedback on the performance of the MRC volunteers using evaluation tools. Twenty-eight (90%) MRC volunteers reported that they worked well with the residents and hospital staff, felt the exercise was useful, and were assigned clearly defined roles. However, only 21 (67%) reported that their qualifications were assessed prior to role assignment. For those MRC members who functioned as
Colletti, R B
The ability of hospital-based car seat rental programs to provide car seats inexpensively throughout an entire state and the effect of these rental programs on car seat usage by newborns were evaluated. In July 1979 individuals and groups committed to child passenger safety formed a coalition called Vermont SEAT (Seatbelts Eliminate Automobile Tragedies). During the next 3 years SEAT asked the major hospitals in the state to allow volunteers to operate car seat rental programs on their premises. The number of rental programs increased from 0 to 13; the percentage of newborns born in a hospital with a rental program increased from 0% to 99%. The estimated statewide rate of car seat usage by newborns, based on observations at discharge at five hospitals, increased from 15% to 70%. These findings suggest that a network of hospital-based car seat rental programs operated by volunteers can make car seats readily available throughout a state or region, and can significantly increase car seat usage by newborns. It is recommended that such programs be a part of comprehensive strategies to improve child passenger safety.
Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is important for ecological and engineering researches. Quantification of low DON concentrations in waters with elevated dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) using existing methods is inaccurate. In this study, a dialysis-based pretreatment technique was optimized and adopted to reduce the interference from DIN to the quantification of DON in natural water. A cellulose ester dialysis tube (nominal molecular weight cutoff = 100 Da) was used in batch and continuous-flow dialysis steps with model compounds, natural organic matter isolates, and bulk waters to develop a dialysis pretreatment approach that selectively reduces DIN from solutions containing DON. By reducing DIN concentrations, propagation of analytical variance in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and DIN species concentrations allows more accurate determination of DON (DON = TDN - NO3 - NO2- - NH3/NH4+). Dialysis for 24 h against continuously flowing distilled water reduced DIN species by 70%. With dialysis pretreatment, DON recoveries of more than 95% were obtained for surface water and finished drinking water, but wastewater experienced a slight loss (approximately 10%) of DON possibly due to the adsorption of organics onto the dialysis membrane, permeation of low molecular weight fractions, or biodegradation. Dialysis experiments using surface water spiked with different DIN/TDN ratios concluded that dialysis pretreatment leads to more accurate DON determination than no dialysis when DIN/TDN ratios exceed 0.6 mg of N/mg of N.
Slater, James M
From October 18 to 20, 2006, a symposium, Developing and Understanding a Hospital-based Proton Facility: Bringing Physics Into Medicine, was held at the Renaissance Esmeralda Resort and Spa, Indian Wells, California. The event was offered by the Department of Radiation Medicine at Loma Linda University (LLU), supported by the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) and the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC). The meeting was intended to discuss factors involved in planning, developing, and operating a hospital-based proton treatment center. It brought together some of the most distinguished physicists, radiation biologists, and radiation oncologists in the world, and more than 100 individuals participated in the three-day educational offering. This overview reports on the event and introduces several papers written by many of the speakers from their presentations, for publication in this issue of Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment. Both the symposium and the papers are appropriate for this journal: exploitation of technology was one of the underlying themes of the symposium.
Martelli, Nicolas; Billaux, Mathilde; Borget, Isabelle; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; van den Brink, Helene
Local health technology assessment (HTA) to determine whether new health technologies should be adopted is now a common practice in many healthcare organizations worldwide. However, little is known about hospital-based HTA activities in France. The objective of this study was to explore hospital-based HTA activities in French university hospitals and to provide a picture of organizational approaches to the assessment of new and innovative medical devices. Eighteen semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists were conducted from October 2012 to April 2013. Six topics were discussed in depth: (i) the nature of the institution concerned; (ii) activities relating to innovative medical devices; (iii) the technology assessment and decision-making process; (iv) the methodology for technology assessment; (v) factors likely to influence decisions and (vi) suggestions for improving the current process. The interview data were coded, collated and analyzed statistically. Three major types of hospital-based HTA processes were identified: medical device committees, innovation committees, and "pharmacy & management" processes. HTA units had been set up to support medical device and innovation committees for technology assessment. Slow decision making was the main limitation to both these committee-based approaches. As an alternative, "pharmacy & management" processes emerged as a means of rapidly obtaining a formal assessment. This study provides an overview of hospital-based HTA initiatives in France. We hope that it will help to promote hospital-based HTA activities in France and discussions about ways to improve and harmonize practices, through the development of national guidelines and/or a French mini-HTA tool, for example.
Shao, Yeqing; Ma, Sha; Tian, Xiangyin; Wang, Tao; Xu, Jiayun
We aimed in this study to explore how lower-protein diet would affect dialysis adequacy in anuric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Patients' demographic features were collected, namely age, gender, weight, height, underlying renal disease, and time on PD. Urea kinetic model was used to assess solute clearance. A consecutive 3-day dietary record was collected to evaluate dietary protein intake (DPI), and normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA) was also calculated to reflect protein intake. Blood samples were collected to measure hemoglobin and biochemistry. Patient's nutritional status was assessed by biochemistry, handgrip strength, and subjective global assessment (SGA). Body fluid distribution was measured by body composition monitor. Patients were 60.8 ± 14.92 years old, and the time on PD was 40.15 ± 22.90 months. Daily prescribed dialysis dose was 7,178 ± 1,326 mL. Kt/V was 1.6 ± 0.32. DPI was 0.8 ± 0.25 g/kg/day. nPNA was 0.9 ± 0.21 g/kg/day. Serum albumin was 39.42 ± 4.83 g/L. Prevalence of malnutrition (assessed by SGA) was 20.2 %. Serum phosphate and serum bicarbonate were 1.68 ± 0.47 and 27.16 ± 3.49 mmol/L, respectively. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were 123.4 ± 20.0 and 74.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, respectively. Patients with nPNA less than 0.6 had significantly lower serum albumin concentrations than the average, and patients with nPNA more than 1.2 g/kg/day had significantly higher levels of serum phosphate and serum urea than the average. Our study suggested that anuric PD patients could achieve adequate dialysis even under lower solute clearance. And lower-protein diet contributed largely to adequate dialysis in these patients.
Choudhry, N K; Naylor, C D
The population-based dialysis rate in Ontario more than doubled between 1981 and 1992; yet there is concern about over-loaded facilities, delayed treatment and denial of dialysis through nonreferral and implicit rationing. A working party involving several stakeholders has been established in Ontario to address these issues. However, clinical policy making concerning dialysis services is impeded in all provinces by a lack of information. The causes of the moderately large variations in dialysis rates from province to province remain unclear. The exact extent and risks of delayed therapy have not been well defined. Dialysis protocols vary inexplicably among centres, and cost data on different methods of providing dialysis are limited. Many steps could be taken in Ontario and other provinces to generate a better information base for planning and managing dialysis services. Predialysis clinics with outreach programs could help to ensure equitable access to this life-saving therapy. Criteria for choosing modes and intensities of renal-replacement therapy must be reviewed. In areas of clear disagreement and uncertainty, patients could be randomly assigned to different protocols and outcomes studied. In areas of agreement, the criteria should be standardized. Advance directives may help ascertain patients' wishes concerning the initiation or continuation of dialysis, and more accurate data on prognosis of different patient subgroups would aid in early identification of patients in a hopelessly deteriorating situation. Last, studies comparing the "output" (e.g., hours on hemodialysis) per dollar of different dialysis units and modalities are also needed to ensure that all facilities are opening efficiently without compromising patient outcomes. PMID:7641156
Choudhry, N K; Naylor, C D
The population-based dialysis rate in Ontario more than doubled between 1981 and 1992; yet there is concern about over-loaded facilities, delayed treatment and denial of dialysis through nonreferral and implicit rationing. A working party involving several stakeholders has been established in Ontario to address these issues. However, clinical policy making concerning dialysis services is impeded in all provinces by a lack of information. The causes of the moderately large variations in dialysis rates from province to province remain unclear. The exact extent and risks of delayed therapy have not been well defined. Dialysis protocols vary inexplicably among centres, and cost data on different methods of providing dialysis are limited. Many steps could be taken in Ontario and other provinces to generate a better information base for planning and managing dialysis services. Predialysis clinics with outreach programs could help to ensure equitable access to this life-saving therapy. Criteria for choosing modes and intensities of renal-replacement therapy must be reviewed. In areas of clear disagreement and uncertainty, patients could be randomly assigned to different protocols and outcomes studied. In areas of agreement, the criteria should be standardized. Advance directives may help ascertain patients' wishes concerning the initiation or continuation of dialysis, and more accurate data on prognosis of different patient subgroups would aid in early identification of patients in a hopelessly deteriorating situation. Last, studies comparing the "output" (e.g., hours on hemodialysis) per dollar of different dialysis units and modalities are also needed to ensure that all facilities are opening efficiently without compromising patient outcomes.
Karakoc, Ayten; Yilmaz, Murvet; Alcalar, Nilufer; Esen, Bennur; Kayabasi, Hasan; Sit, Dede
Burnout, a syndrome with 3 dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduction of personal accomplishment, is very common among hemodialysis nurses, while data are scarce regarding the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BS) among peritoneal dialysis (PD) nurses. This study aimed to assess and compare demographic and professional characteristics and burnout levels in hemodialysis and PD nurses, and to investigate factors that increase the level of burnout in dialysis nurses. A total of 171 nurses from 44 dialysis centers in Turkey were included in a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected using a questionnaire defining the social and demographic characteristics and working conditions of the nurses as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory for assessment of burnout level. There was no significant difference in the level of burnout between the hemodialysis and PD nurses groups. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores were higher among the shift workers, nurses who had problems in interactions with the other team members, and those who wanted to leave the unit, as well as the nurses who would not attend training programs. In addition, male sex, younger age, limited working experience, more than 50 hours of working per week, and working in dialysis not by choice were associated with higher depersonalization scores. Personal accomplishment score was lower among the younger nurses who had problems in their interactions with the doctors, who would not regularly attend training programs, and who felt being medically inadequate. Improving working conditions and relations among colleagues, and also providing further dialysis education are necessary for minimizing burnout syndrome. Burnout reduction programs should mainly focus on younger professionals.
Cirera Segura, F; Martín Espejo, J L; Reina Neyra, M
The objective of the present study is to obtain information about the training programme for patients undergoing Domiciliary Peritoneal Dialysis (DPD) in Spain. For the purposes of the study we designed a questionnaire comprising 50 closed-ended items and one open response item. The questionnaire was sent to 104 hospitals and was completed by 78.84% of them (n > or = 82). The average of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the hospitals under study was 27.6: 15.8 of them receiving Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and 11.8 Automatic Peritoneal Dialysis (APD). The questionnaire also served to investigate into the training methodology used in the different units, the involvement of the family in the programme, the basic knowledge patients received about Chronic Renal Insufficiency, the procedures associated with the therapy and the preparation they obtained to solve small-scale contingencies and emergency situations as well as the improvement of their quality of life. We also evaluated the training programme of autonomous patients on DPD and at the end of the questionnaire a blank space was left for facilities to add any comments or suggestions they considered relevant. From the results obtained we may conclude that most Spanish hospitals have devised a training planning for patients undergoing PD which helps them or caregivers to perform domiciliary treatment safely, provides them with basic knowledge about the disease and the routine procedures associated with the treatment, enables them to cope with contingencies and emergency situations and improves their quality of life during the dialysis period.
Rasgon, S; James-Rogers, A; Chemleski, B; Ledezma, M; Mercado, L; Besario, M; Trivedi, J; Miller, M; Dee, L; Pryor, L; Yeoh, H
This article describes the components of a multidisciplinary effort focused on promoting, among other goals, continued employment during end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment. The education and guidance of the patient begin during the pre-ESRD period, intensify through dialysis treatment, and continue even through posttransplantation follow-up. Such focused programs support patients in retaining their usual lifestyle, staying in their current jobs where possible, and maximizing self-esteem and quality of life.
Popa, M; Nicoară, S
The study analyzes the ocular aspects in patients receiving hemodialysis, in order to define the importance of the ophthalmological exam as prognosis and follow-up parameter. The prospective study includes 84 patients with renal insufficiency who received hemodialysis between 1994-1998. The ocular aspects and their connection with the dialysis and the basic disease are described and analyzed. The most important were the retinal vascular complications: hypertensive retinopathy, anterior optic ischaemic neuropathy, central retinal artery occlusion, diabetic retinopathy.
Conflict is common in healthcare settings and can affect the functioning of a dialysis clinic. Unresolved conflict can decrease staff productivity and teamwork, and potentially decrease the quality of patient care. This article discusses the causes and effects of conflict, describes the five basic conflict-handling styles that can be useful when dealing with conflict (avoidance, accommodation, competing, compromise, and collaboration), and provides resources for resolving patient-provider conflict.
Dialysis unphysiology was first discussed by Carl Kjellstrand in 1975 for the possible negative effects of the unphysiology of intermittent dialysis treatment. Current hemodialysis practices are still unphysiologic because they cannot keep blood chemistries within normal limits, both before and after dialysis. In addition, the discontinuous nature of hemodialysis causes saw-tooth volume fluctuations, and the extracellular fluid volume expansion during the interdialytic period may lead to hypertension and adverse cardiovascular consequences. Sodium, which is accumulated over the interdialytic period, may be divided into two fractions. The one is the fraction of osmotically active sodium which is mainly confined to the extracellular space, and the other is that of water-free (osmotically inactive) sodium which diffuses into the intracellular space. Both contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension because the former may act to expand extracellular fluid volume and the latter may cause vasoconstriction in the long run by increasing cytosolic concentration of calcium in the vascular smooth muscle cells. Even in intensive hemodialysis, it may take several weeks to months for water-free sodium storage in the vascular smooth muscle cells to be relieved. This may be an explanation for the lag phenomenon, i.e., the delay of blood pressure decrease after normalization of extracellular fluid volume shown in the Tassin experience. Modest restriction of dietary sodium intake, the dialytic session length long enough to maintain a high ultrafiltration volume, and the reasonably low dialysate sodium concentration are required to avoid unphysiology of positive sodium balance in current hemodialysis practice.
The influence of radiochemical impurities in dialysis experiments with high-affinity ligands is investigated. Albumin binding of labeled decanoate (97% pure) is studied by two dialysis techniques. It is shown that equilibrium dialysis is very sensitive to the presence of impurities resulting in erroneously low estimates of the binding affinity and in inconsistent results at varying albumin concentrations. Dialysis rate determination is less sensitive to impurities.
Fabrizi, F; Martin, P; Lunghi, G; Ponticelli, C
Dialysis patients remain at risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The issue of the natural history of HBV among patients undergoing long-term dialysis remains unclear. Assessing the natural history of hepatitis B in patients on maintenance dialysis is problematic because of the unique characteristics of this population: serum aminotransferase activity is lower in dialysis patients compared with patients without renal disease; also, chronic hepatitis B has an insidious and prolonged natural history, and the competing mortality from complications of end-stage renal disease may obscure the long-term consequences of hepatitis B. HBV-related liver disease frequently runs an asymptomatic course in dialysis patients and the liver-related mortality in this population is very low; thus, the prognosis for chronic HBV infection in dialysis patients has been reported as benign. However, the frequency of liver cancer in dialysis patients appears higher than that observed in the general population, this has been related to a greater exposure to HBV/HCV. Cirrhosis is not a frequent comorbid condition in the dialysis population of industrialised countries, but the death rate for dialysis patients with cirrhosis is 35% higher than for those without it. In addition, it has been observed that liver disease remains a significant cause of mortality among HbsAg-positive carriers on dialysis in developing countries. The low viral load measured in dialysis patients with persistent HBsAg carriage could be accounted for by the relatively benign course of HBV-related liver disease in this population. Prospective clinical trials are under way to better define the virological features of HBV in the dialysis population.
five years, but there is little data to support such a claim. This claim is made based on the use of ion exchange membranes in electrodialysis ...E - Calculation Methods for Estimating the Spent Acid and Deionized Water Flow Rates to the Diffusion Dialysis Membrane Stacks, Specific Acid...4 Figure 2-2 Simplified Schematic of a Diffusion Dialysis Membrane Stack...…………. 5 Figure 2-3 Commercial Diffusion Dialysis System
Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Goldstein, Mary K; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J
Rates of dialysis withdrawal are higher among the elderly and lower among Blacks, yet it is unknown whether preferences for withdrawal and engagement in advance care planning also vary by age and race or ethnicity. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We recruited 61 participants from two dialysis clinics to complete questionnaires regarding dialysis withdrawal preferences in five different health states. Engagement in advance care planning (end-of-life discussions), completion of advance directives and 'do not resuscitate' or 'do not intubate' (DNR/DNI) orders were ascertained by a questionnaire and from dialysis unit records. The mean age was 62 +/- 15 years; 38% were Black, 11% were Latino, 34% were White and 16% of participants were Asian. Blacks were less likely to prefer dialysis withdrawal as compared with Whites (odds ratio 0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.88) and other race/ethnicity groups, and this difference was not explained by age, education, comorbidity and other confounders. In contrast, older age was not associated with preferences for withdrawal. Rates of engagement in end-of-life discussions were higher than for documentation of advance care planning for all age and most race/ethnicity groups. Although younger participants and minorities were generally less likely to document treatment preferences as compared with older patients and Whites, they were not less likely to engage in end-of-life discussions. Preferences for withdrawal vary by race/ ethnicity, whereas the pattern of engagement in advance care planning varies by age and race/ethnicity. Knowledge of these differences may be useful for improving communication about end-of-life preferences and in implementing effective advance care planning strategies among diverse haemodialysis patients.
Bronzino, J D
Clinical engineering has been defined as that branch of applied science that is concerned with solving problems associated with the clinical aspects of health care delivery and patient care using principles, methods and approaches drawn from engineering science and technology. To prepare individuals for this type of activity requires that they be exposed to the clinical environment during their academic programs. Such an experience permits the student to observe not only the operation of specific medical instruments, but also the environment in which they are used and the people who use them. The nature of this clinical experience may vary in terms of its duration and specificity, but it must occur. Consequently, all clinical engineering programs must contain, as an integral part of their activity, a significant internship experience. This article presents the activities of a regional, hospital-based clinical engineering internship program that has been in operation during the past decade, and highlights the major arguments for the internship approach.
Mohtasham, Farideh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh
Hospitals with health technology assessment (HTA) programs have reported its positive effects on the management of resources and costs. This study aimed to identify the barriers faced by hospital-based HTA (HBHTA) in Iran by inductive content analysis of stakeholders' and decision-makers' points of view. The key individuals and organizations that could provide rich, relevant, and diverse data in response to the research question were purposively selected for the interviews and focus group discussion. Twelve stakeholders from seven public hospitals participated in the interviews. Another eighteen stakeholders from twelve HBHTA-related organizations took part in the focus group discussion. Most of the hospitals' senior management team did not feel the need for HBHTA and believed that in Iran a systematic process like HTA faces many challenges. The stakeholders participating in this study highlighted the significance of certain points that needed to be addressed before establishing HBHTA in Iran.
Hoffman, S F
In view of these serious consequences and the IRS' renewed interest in hospital-based physicians, it is imperative that all hospitals examine their contractual relationships with physicians under the foregoing standards to ascertain whether any physicians are improperly being characterized as independent contractors. Of particular concern are arrangements with aspects similar to those in TAM 9443002. Hospitals operating in states that still prohibit the employment of physicians are not necessarily protected, as the IRS does not accept the corporate practice of medicine doctrine as a defense to characterization of physicians as employees for tax purposes. In those states, it is probably best to handle problematic situations through the use of professional corporations, as discussed above.
Lassche, Madeline; Wilson, Barbara
Simulation is a frequently used method for training students in health care professions and has recently gained acceptance in acute care hospital settings for use in educational programs and competency testing. Although hospital-based simulation is currently limited primarily to use in skills acquisition, expansion of the use of simulation via a modified Quality Health Outcomes Model to address systems factors such as the physical environment and human factors such as fatigue, reliance on memory, and reliance on vigilance could drive system-wide changes. Simulation is an expensive resource and should not be limited to use for education and competency testing. Well-developed, peer-reviewed simulations can be used for environmental factors, human factors, and interprofessional education to improve patients' outcomes and drive system-wide change for quality improvement initiatives.
The value of palliative care in pediatrics has received significant attention over the past 10 years. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Institute of Medicine published recommendations involving children who have a life-limiting diagnosis in a palliative care program early in their disease process. Palliative care is intended to assure an emphasis on quality of life in addition to the current medical treatment, which may be focused on cure, symptom management, and/or end-of-life care. This article describes one hospital's experience in planning, implementing, and managing a pediatric palliative care program. Implementing a hospital-based palliative care program in a children's hospital can be accomplished through careful planning and analysis of need. Writing an official business plan formalized the request for organizational support for this program, including the mission and vision, plans for how services would be provided, expected financial implications, and initial plans for evaluation of success.
Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Reddy Vanga, Satyanarayana; Koch, Michael; Aarup, Michael; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lindholm, Bengt; Rutherford, Peter A
Objectives Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) leads to worse clinical outcomes than planned start, and only a minority of patients ever receive education on this topic and are able to make a modality choice, particularly for home dialysis. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for patients receiving education, making a decision, and receiving their preferred modality choice in UPS patients following a UPS educational program (UPS-EP). Methods The Offering Patients Therapy Options in Unplanned Start (OPTiONS) study examined the impact of the implementation of a specific UPS-EP, including decision support tools and pathway improvement on dialysis modality choice. Linear regression models were used to examine the factors predicting three key steps: referral and receipt of UPS-EP, modality decision making, and actual delivery of preferred modality choice. A simple economic assessment was performed to examine the potential benefit of implementing UPS-EP in terms of dialysis costs. Results The majority of UPS patients could receive UPS-EP (214/270 patients) and were able to make a decision (177/214), although not all patients received their preferred choice (159/177). Regression analysis demonstrated that the initial dialysis modality was a predictive factor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP and modality decision making. In contrast, age was a predictor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP only, and comorbidity was not a predictor for any step, except for myocardial infarction, which was a weak predictor for lower likelihood of receiving preferred modality. Country practices predicted UPS-EP receipt and decision making. Economic analysis demonstrated the potential benefit of UPS-EP implementation because dialysis modality costs were associated with modality distribution driven by patient preference. Conclusion Education and decision support can allow UPS patients to understand their options and choose dialysis modality, and attention needs to be focused on
Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Reddy Vanga, Satyanarayana; Koch, Michael; Aarup, Michael; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lindholm, Bengt; Rutherford, Peter A
Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) leads to worse clinical outcomes than planned start, and only a minority of patients ever receive education on this topic and are able to make a modality choice, particularly for home dialysis. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for patients receiving education, making a decision, and receiving their preferred modality choice in UPS patients following a UPS educational program (UPS-EP). The Offering Patients Therapy Options in Unplanned Start (OPTiONS) study examined the impact of the implementation of a specific UPS-EP, including decision support tools and pathway improvement on dialysis modality choice. Linear regression models were used to examine the factors predicting three key steps: referral and receipt of UPS-EP, modality decision making, and actual delivery of preferred modality choice. A simple economic assessment was performed to examine the potential benefit of implementing UPS-EP in terms of dialysis costs. The majority of UPS patients could receive UPS-EP (214/270 patients) and were able to make a decision (177/214), although not all patients received their preferred choice (159/177). Regression analysis demonstrated that the initial dialysis modality was a predictive factor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP and modality decision making. In contrast, age was a predictor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP only, and comorbidity was not a predictor for any step, except for myocardial infarction, which was a weak predictor for lower likelihood of receiving preferred modality. Country practices predicted UPS-EP receipt and decision making. Economic analysis demonstrated the potential benefit of UPS-EP implementation because dialysis modality costs were associated with modality distribution driven by patient preference. Education and decision support can allow UPS patients to understand their options and choose dialysis modality, and attention needs to be focused on ensuring equity of access to educational
Castrale, Cindy; Azar, Raymond; Piquet, Marie-Astrid; Lobbedez, Thierry
Protein energy wasting is a major complication in peritoneal dialysis. It is leading to a poor quality of life and increasing mortality. Diagnosis must be early, according to criteria defined by the International society of renal nutrition and metabolism. It is necessary to appropriate the diagnostic tools with dialysis method. The nutritional care is difficult in peritoneal dialysis. Indeed, studies are limited and practical nutrition is complex. In this point of view, we propose to treat guidelines for protein energy wasting, in peritoneal dialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Peritoneal dialysis is troubled with declining utilisation as a form of renal replacement therapy in developed countries. We review key aspects of therapy evidenced to have a potential to increase its utilisation. The best evidence to repopulate PD programmes is provided for the positive impact of timely referral and systematic and motivational predialysis education: average odds ratio for instituting peritoneal dialysis versus haemodialysis was 2.6 across several retrospective studies on the impact of predialysis education. Utilisation of PD for unplanned acute dialysis starts facilitated by implantation of peritoneal catheters by interventional nephrologists may diminish the vast predominance of haemodialysis done by central venous catheters for unplanned dialysis start. Assisted peritoneal dialysis can improve accessibility of home based dialysis to elderly, frail, and dependant patients, whose quality of life on replacement therapy may benefit most from dialysis performed at home. Peritoneal dialysis providers should perform close monitoring, preventing measures, and timely prophylactic therapy in patients judged to be prone to EPS development. Each peritoneal dialysis programme should regularly monitor, report, and act on key quality indicators to manifest its ability of constant quality improvement and elevate the confidence of interested patients and financing bodies in the programme. PMID:26640787
Weaver, Lindell K
associated with wound care centers and may be hospital based or nonhospital based. We review some of the disorders treated with HBO2 that hospital-based clinicians may be asked to evaluate.
Heaf, James Goya; Axelsen, Mette; Pedersen, Robert Smith
Most home haemodialysis (HD) modalities are limited to home use since they are based on a single-pass (SP) technique, which requires preparation of large amounts of dialysate. We present a new dialysis method, which requires minimal dialysate volumes, continuously recycled during treatment [multipass HD (MPHD)]. Theoretical calculations suggest that MPHD performed six times weekly for 8 h/night, using a dialysate bath containing 50% of the calculated body water, will achieve urea clearances equivalent to conventional HD 4 h thrice weekly, and a substantial clearance of higher middle molecules. Ten stable HD patients were dialyzed for 4 h using standard SPHD (dialysate flow 500 mL/min). Used dialysate was collected. One week later, an 8-h MPHD was performed. The dialysate volume was 50% of the calculated water volume, the dialysate inflow 500 mL/min-0.5 × ultrafiltration/min and the outflow 500 mL/min + 0.5 × ultrafiltration/min. Elimination rates of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and β2-microglobulin (B2M) and dialysate saturation were determined hourly. Three hours of MPHD removed 49, 54, 50, 51 and 57%, respectively, of the amounts of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and B2M that were removed by 4 h conventional HD. The corresponding figures after 8 h MPHD were 63, 78, 74, 78 and 111%. Clearance of small molecules using MPHD 6 × 8 h/week will exceed traditional HD 3 × 4 h/week. Similarly, clearance of large molecules will significantly exceed traditional HD and HD 5 × 2.5 h/week. This modality will increase patients' freedom of movement compared with traditional home HD. The new method can also be used in the intensive care unit and for automated peritoneal dialysis.
Smith, Kerri J; Brandon, Debbie
Although the number of women who relinquish their infants is declining, it is estimated that over 52,000 young women pursue an adoption plan every year. Perinatal nurses practicing in any facet of perinatal care may provide care for a woman implementing an adoption plan for her infant. The provision of care may include interaction with the birthfather, prospective adoptive parents, hospital social worker, and adoption agency or adoption attorney as part of the hospital-based adoption experience. Understanding infant adoption, including the history of adoption in the United States, birthfathers' rights, and knowledge of adoption resources provides nurses with essential information that will allow them to provide appropriate, sensitive, nonjudgmental care to all persons involved in the adoption process.
Gonzalez, Dani O; Deans, Katherine J
Over 700,000 children are victims of abuse and neglect each year in the United States. Effective screening programs that entail broad capture of suspected non-accidental trauma (NAT) may help to identify sentinel injuries. This can facilitate earlier detection and psychosocial interventions in hopes of decreasing recurrent NAT, which confers a higher mortality rate. The purpose of this article is to outline essential components of hospital-based NAT screening tools and highlight existing programs. In general, these tools should include several components: education sessions for healthcare providers on how to identify signs of NAT, automated notes or checklists within the electronic medical record to prompt specialty referrals, and a multidisciplinary team of experts that can address the needs of these children in the acute care setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perri, Jennifer L; Zwolak, Robert M; Goodney, Philip P; Rutherford, Gretchen A; Powell, Richard J
The purpose of this study was to determine change in value of a vascular surgery division to the health care system during 6 years at a hospital-based academic practice and to compare physician vs hospital revenue earned during this period. Total revenue generated by the vascular surgery service line at an academic medical center from 2010 through 2015 was evaluated. Total revenue was measured as the sum of physician (professional) and hospital (technical) net revenue for all vascular-related patient care. Adjustments were made for work performed, case complexity, and inflation. To reflect the effect of these variables, net revenue was indexed to work relative value units (wRVUs), case mix index, and consumer price index, which adjusted for work, case complexity, and inflation, respectively. Differences in physician and hospital net revenue were compared over time. Physician work, measured in RVUs per year, increased by 4%; case complexity, assessed with case mix index, increased by 10% for the 6-year measurement period. Despite stability in payer mix at 64% to 69% Medicare, both physician and hospital vascular-related revenue/wRVU decreased during this period. Unadjusted professional revenue/wRVU declined by 14.1% (P = .09); when considering case complexity, physician revenue/wRVU declined by 20.6% (P = .09). Taking into account both case complexity and inflation, physician revenue declined by 27.0% (P = .04). Comparatively, hospital revenue for vascular surgery services decreased by 13.8% (P = .07) when adjusting for unit work, complexity, and inflation. At medical centers where vascular surgeons are hospital based, vascular care reimbursement decreased substantially from 2010 to 2015 when case complexity and inflation were considered. Physician reimbursement (professional fees) decreased at a significantly greater rate than hospital reimbursement for vascular care. This trend has significant implications for salaried vascular surgeons in hospital-based
Kurella Tamura, Manjula; O’Hare, Ann M.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Johansen, Kirsten L.
Background Factors driving the trend of earlier dialysis initiation for persons with end-stage renal disease are unknown. We wished to determine the association of the number and type of signs and symptoms with timing of initiation of dialysis among US nursing home residents. Study design Observational study Setting and participants We used data from the United States Renal Data System linked with the Minimum Data Set, a national registry of nursing home residents. The cohort consisted of 2402 nursing home residents who initiated dialysis between 1998 and 2000 and had at least two recorded clinical assessments in the year prior to dialysis initiation. Predictors We evaluated seven clinical signs and symptoms: dependence in activities of daily living, cognitive function, edema, dyspnea, nutritional problems, vomiting and body size. Outcomes Earlier dialysis initiation was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥15 ml/min/1.73m2 at the start of dialysis. Results The median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) eGFR at the start of dialysis was 9.8 (7.4, 13.4) ml/min/1.73m2 [ND1]. After adjustment for age, sex, race and comorbid conditions, each additional sign or symptom was associated with a higher odds for earlier dialysis initiation (OR, 1.16 per symptom; 95% CI, 1.06-1.28), as was each adversely changing sign or symptom (OR, 1.26 per symptom; 95% CI, 1.16-1.38). The population attributable risk for earlier dialysis initiation associated with having one or more signs and symptoms of volume overload, cognitive decline, increasing activities of daily living dependence and weight loss was 31%; volume overload had the largest aggregate population attributable risk. Limitations We lacked information about metabolic indications for dialysis initiation. Conclusions Volume overload, cognitive decline, increasing activities of daily living dependence and weight loss were associated with earlier dialysis initiation; however, these factors explained less than one
Kumar, Amandeep; Suri, Ashish; Sharma, Bhawani S
Valproic acid (VPA) is a commonly used drug for epilepsy, psychiatric disorders and migraine and is frequently used in neurosurgical intensive care units. Though most of its side-effects are mild and transient, certain idiosyncratic side-effects have been attributed to VPA. Valproate induced hyperammonemia (VIH) is one such side-effect. VIH can produce symptoms of encephalopathy known as valproate induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VHE). VIH and VHE usually respond to withdrawal of VPA. However, in some cases VHE can be unresponsive to supportive measures and severe enough to be life-threatening. In such cases, dialysis can be used to rapidly reverse hyperammonemia and VHE and can prove to be a lifesaving measure. We report such a case of VIH and life-threatening VHE in a postoperative neurosurgical patient that was managed successfully with peritoneal dialysis.
Nine nurses were interviewed to determine nurses' experiences of teaching patients to use continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The material was analyzed using content analysis. Data were sorted into four themes and ten subthemes. The themes were presented as follows: Importance of language, individualized teaching, teaching needs and structure of care in teaching. The findings highlighted important insights into how nurses experience teaching patients to perform CAPD. The study revealed some barriers for the nurses during teaching. The major barrier was shortage of Arabic speaking nursing staff. Incidental findings involved two factors that played an important role in teaching, retraining and a special team to perform pre-assessments, including home visits. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed several factors that are considered as barriers for the nurses during teaching the CAPD patients and the need to improve the communication and teaching in the peritoneal dialysis units, including the importance of individualized teaching.
Kawanishi, Hideki; Moriishi, Misaki; Sato, Takashi; Taoka, Masahiro
The fully automated dialysis system (FADS) was developed as an improvement over previous patient monitors used in the treatment of hemodialysis, with the aim of standardizing and promoting labor-saving in such treatment. This system uses backfiltration dialysis fluid to perform priming, blood rinse back and rapid fluid replenishment, and causes guiding of blood into the dialyzer by the drainage pump for ultrafiltration. This requires that the dialysis fluid used be purified to a high level. The central dialysis fluid delivery system (CDDS) combines the process of the creation and supply of dialysis water and dialysis fluid to achieve a level of purity equivalent with ultrapure dialysis fluid. FADS has the further advantages of greater efficiency and streamlined operation, reducing human error and the risk of infection without requiring the storage or disposal of normal saline solution. The simplification of hemodialysis allows for greater frequency of dialysis or extended dialysis, enabling treatment to be provided in line with the patient's particular situation. FADS thus markedly improves the reliability, safety and standardization of dialysis procedures while ensuring labor-saving in these procedures, making it of particular utility for institutions dealing with dialysis on a large scale.
Agar, John W M
Although maintenance haemodialysis once had the benefit of two distinctly different dialysate preparation and delivery systems - (1) a pre-filtration and reverse osmosis water preparation plant linked to a single pass proportioning system and (2) a sorbent column dependent dialysate regeneration and recirculation system known as the REDY system - the first came to dominate the market and the second waned. By the early 1990s, the REDY had disappeared from clinical use. The REDY system had strengths. It was a small, mobile, portable and water-efficient, only 6 L of untreated water being required for each dialysis. In comparison, single pass systems are bulky, immobile and water (and power) voracious, typically needing 400-600 L/treatment of expensively pretreated water. A resurgence of interest in home haemodialysis - short and long, intermittent and daily - has provided impetus to redirect technological research into cost-competitive systems. Miniaturization, portability, flexibility, water-use efficiency and 'wearability' are ultimate goals. Sorbent systems are proving an integral component of this effort. In sorbent dialysate regeneration, rather than draining solute-rich dialyser effluent to waste - as do current systems - the effluent repetitively recirculates across a sorbent column capable of adsorption, ion exchange or catalytic conversion of all solute such that, at exit from the column, an ultra-pure water solution emerges. This then remixes with a known electrolyte concentrate for representation to the dialyser. As the same small water volume can recirculate, at least until column exhaustion, water source independence is assured. Many current technological developments in dialysis equipment are now focusing on sorbent-based dialysate circuitry. Although possibly déjà vu for some, it is timely for a brief review of sorbent chemistry and its application to dialysis systems.
Stojimirovic, Biljana; Milinkovic, Marija; Zidverc-Trajkovic, Jasna; Trbojevic-Stankovic, Jasna; Maric, Ivko; Milic, Miodrag; Andric, Branislav; Nikic, Petar
Headache is among most frequently encountered neurological symptom during hemodialysis (HD), but still under investigated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and clinical characteristics of dialysis headache (DH) in HD and PD patients. A total of 409 patients (91 on PD and 318 on HD) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, designed according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Classification of Headache Disorders from 2004. Patients with DH underwent a thorough neurological examination. DH was reported by 21 (6.6%) HD patients and 0 PD patients. PD patients had significantly lower serum sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, urea and creatinine, calcium-phosphate product, and diastolic blood pressure than HD patients. HD patients had significantly lower hemoglobin compared to PD patients. Primary renal disease was mostly parenchymal in HD patients, and vascular in PD patients. DH appeared more frequently in men, mostly during the third hour of HD. It lasted less than four hours, was bilateral, non-pulsating and without associated symptoms. Biochemical alterations may be implicated in the pathophysiology of DH. Specific features of DH might contribute to better understanding of this secondary headache disorder.
Fraser, Nia; Hussain, Farida K; Connell, Roy; Shenoy, Manoj U
The incidence of end-stage renal disease in children is increasing. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the modality of choice in many European countries and is increasingly applied worldwide. PD enables children of all ages to be successfully treated while awaiting the ultimate goal of renal transplantation. The advantages of PD over other forms of renal replacement therapy are numerous, in particular the potential for the child to lead a relatively normal life. Indications for commencing PD, the rationale, preparation of family, technical aspects, and management of complications are discussed. PMID:26504404
Abdel-Aal, Ahmed K; Dybbro, Paul; Hathaway, Peter; Guest, Steven; Neuwirth, Michael; Krishnamurthy, Venkat
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters can be placed by interventional radiologists, an approach that might offer scheduling efficiencies, cost-effectiveness, and a minimally invasive procedure. In the United States, changes in the dialysis reimbursement structure by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are expected to result in the increased use of PD, a less costly dialysis modality that offers patients the opportunity to receive dialysis in the home setting and to have more independence for travel and work schedules, and that preserves vascular access for future dialysis options. Placement of PD catheters by interventional radiologists might therefore be increasingly requested by nephrology practices, given that recent publications have demonstrated the favorable impact on PD practices of an interventional radiology PD placement capability. Earlier reports of interventional radiology PD catheter placement came from single-center practices with smaller reported experiences. The need for a larger consensus document that attempts to establish best demonstrated practices for radiologists is evident. The radiologists submitting this consensus document represent a combined experience of more than 1000 PD catheter placements. The authors submit these consensus-proposed best demonstrated practices for placement of PD catheters by interventional radiologists under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. This technique might allow for expeditious placement of permanent PD catheters in late-referred patients with end-stage renal disease, thus facilitating urgent-start PD and avoiding the need for temporary vascular access catheters. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Wang, Virginia; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Maciejewski, Matthew L
Change is difficult for health care organizations where adoption of new practices is notoriously slow. Inertial behavior may reflect organizations' rational, strategic nonresponse to its environment or latent, institutionalizing preservation of dominant organizational routines and norms. Such strategic and selective influences of organizational inertia have different implications on the efficacy of policy to induce intended change. The aim of this study was to examine whether strategic and selective factors were associated with the provision of peritoneal dialysis (PD) services in outpatient dialysis facilities in the United States between 1995 and 2003. We conducted a longitudinal retrospective study of all outpatient end-stage renal disease dialysis facilities, using 1995-2003 administrative data from the U.S. Renal Data System. Less than half of U.S. dialysis facilities offered PD, and this pattern was stable despite substantial growth of dialysis facilities entering the market. We found little support for strategic influences and some evidence that selective factors were predictive of dialysis facilities' PD provision. Although the design of many policy and health care reform efforts widely accepts the strategic perspective of altering incentives and the environment to induce change, the presence of selective inertial influences raises concerns about the efficacy of policy intervention in the face of institutionalized organizational behavior that may be less amenable to policy intervention. Incentives recently introduced by Medicare to increase facility provision of PD may be less effective than might be expected.
Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea
Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections. PMID:23066395
Sajadi, Mahbobeh; Gholami, Zohreh; Hekmatpou, Davood; Soltani, Parvin; Haghverdi, Farshid
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of cold dialysis on fatigue in hemodialysis patients. In a double-blinded cross-over clinical trial, 46 participants were recruited from a hemodialysis unit in Iran. The participants were allocated into 2 groups through simple random sampling method. Each group received 3 sessions of hemodialysis with a dialysis solution temperature of either 37°C 3 or 35.5°C during the first week and then with for another week with the other temperature. The self-report Piper Fatigue Scale questionnaire was filled out by the participants. The Piper Fatigue Scale scores in the cold dialysis groups were significantly lower than those in the conventional dialysis solution temperature (P < .001). Reducing the temperature of hemodialysis solution brought a 31.3% reduction in the fatigue score. Cold dialysis can be used for all hemodialysis patients as a routine intervention, and in particular, it is recommended dialysis patients who have severe fatigue as a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic option.
Background Residing remotely from health care resources appears to impact quality of care delivery. It remains unclear if there are differences in vascular access based on distance of one’s residence to dialysis centre at time of dialysis initiation, and whether region or duration of pre-dialysis care are important effect modifiers. Methods We studied the association of distance from a patients’ residence to the nearest dialysis centre and central venous catheter (CVC) use in an observational study of 26,449 incident adult dialysis patients registered in the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry between 2000–2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between distance in tertiles and CVC use, adjusted for patient demographics and comorbidities. Geographic region and duration of pre-dialysis care were examined as potential effect modifiers. Results Eighty percent of patients commenced dialysis with a CVC. Incident CVC use was highest among those living > 20 km from the dialysis centre (OR 1.29 (1.24-1.34)) compared to those living < 5 km from centre. The length of pre-dialysis care and geographic region were significant effect modifiers; among patients residing in the furthest tertile (>20 km) from the nearest dialysis centre, incident CVC use was more common with shorter length of pre-dialysis care (< 1 year) and residence in central regions of the country. Conclusion Residing further from a dialysis centre is associated with increased CVC use, an effect modified by shorter pre-dialysis care and the geographic region of the country. Efforts to reduce geographical disparities in pre dialysis care may decrease CVC use. PMID:24576140
Wong, Susan P. Y.; Vig, Elizabeth K.; Taylor, Janelle S.; Burrows, Nilka R.; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Williams, Desmond E.; Hebert, Paul L.; O’Hare, Ann M.
IMPORTANCE There is often considerable uncertainty about the optimal time to initiate maintenance dialysis in individual patients and little medical evidence to guide this decision. OBJECTIVE To gain a better understanding of the factors influencing the timing of initiation of dialysis in clinical practice. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A qualitative analysis was conducted using the electronic medical records from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) of a national random sample of 1691 patients for whom the decision to initiate maintenance dialysis occurred in the VA between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2009. Data analysis took place from June 1 to November 30, 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Central themes related to the timing of initiation of dialysis as documented in patients’ electronic medical records. RESULTS Of the 1691 patients, 1264 (74.7%) initiated dialysis as inpatients and 1228 (72.6%) initiated dialysis with a hemodialysis catheter. Cohort members met with a nephrologist during an outpatient clinic visit a median of 3 times (interquartile range, 0–6) in the year prior to initiation of dialysis. The mean (SD) estimated glomerular filtration rate at the time of initiation for cohort members was 10.4 (5.7) mL/min/1.73m2. The timing of initiation of dialysis reflected the complex interplay of at least 3 interrelated and dynamic processes. The first was physician practices, which ranged from practices intended to prepare patients for dialysis to those intended to forestall the need for dialysis by managing the signs and symptoms of uremia with medical interventions. The second process was sources of momentum. Initiation of dialysis was often precipitated by clinical events involving acute illness or medical procedures. In these settings, the imperative to treat often seemed to override patient choice. The third process was patient-physician dynamics. Interactions between patients and physicians were sometimes adversarial, and physician
Alhosaini, Mohamad; Leehey, David J
Disorders of magnesium homeostasis are very common in dialysis patients but have received scant attention. In this review, we address measurement of plasma magnesium, magnesium balance and the factors that affect magnesium flux during dialysis, the prevalence of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients, and the potential clinical significance of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients. Many factors can affect plasma magnesium concentration, including diet, nutritional status (including plasma albumin level), medications (such as proton pump inhibitors), and dialysis prescription. Further interventional studies to determine the effect of normalization of plasma magnesium concentration on clinical outcomes are needed. At the present time, we recommend that predialysis plasma magnesium be measured on a regular basis, with the dialysate magnesium concentration adjusted to maintain plasma magnesium concentration within the normal range.
Curtis, Jim; Schatell, Dori
Overall, we believe that bundling of payments to dialysis facilities is positive for home dialysis. The incentive for higher utilization of home therapies comes down to the fact that, with treatments for all modalities being paid at the same rate, providers will see that home modalities cost less than facility-based treatments. The adjustment for home training treatments is certainly helpful, but it is not incentive enough on its own. From our perspective, one of the biggest financial incentives for home dialysis and more frequent dialysis therapies is that these patients are statistically known to spend less time in the hospital, over time costing taxpayers and the ESRD Program less money. We will continue to encourage CMS to consider the overall cost implications of more frequent dialysis. We are hopeful that when hospitalization costs are accounted for, CMS will do even more to encourage the use of these modalities.
Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Hall, Yoshio N; Katz, Ronit; O'Hare, Ann M
Little is known about the relation between the content of advance directives and downstream treatment decisions among patients receiving maintenance dialysis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of advance directives specifying treatment limitations and/or surrogate decision-makers in the last year of life and their association with end-of-life care among nursing home residents. Using national data from 2006 to 2007, we compared the content of advance directives among 30,716 nursing home residents receiving dialysis to 30,825 nursing home residents with other serious illnesses during the year before death. Among patients receiving dialysis, we linked the content of advance directives to Medicare claims to ascertain site of death and treatment intensity in the last month of life. In the last year of life, 36% of nursing home residents receiving dialysis had a treatment-limiting directive, 22% had a surrogate decision-maker, and 13% had both in adjusted analyses. These estimates were 13%-27%, 5%-11%, and 6%-13% lower, respectively, than for decedents with other serious illnesses. For patients receiving dialysis who had both a treatment-limiting directive and surrogate decision-maker, the adjusted frequency of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, intensive procedures, and inpatient death were lower by 13%, 17%, 13%, and 14%, respectively, and hospice use and dialysis discontinuation were 5% and 7% higher compared with patients receiving dialysis lacking both components. Among nursing home residents receiving dialysis, treatment-limiting directives and surrogates were associated with fewer intensive interventions and inpatient deaths, but were in place much less often than for nursing home residents with other serious illnesses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Beathard, Gerald A; Urbanes, Aris; Litchfield, Terry
Marked changes occurred in the vascular access profile of patients receiving hemodialysis in the United States over the 15-year period of 2001-2015. This study was undertaken to evaluate how these changes have affected dialysis access maintenance and salvage procedures performed in freestanding dialysis access centers and to examine the effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of these procedures in this setting. Data were collected from freestanding, dedicated dialysis access centers operating under a common system of management. Data were available on 689,676 dialysis access procedures. Data relating to case mix, procedure outcome, procedural time, and intraprocedural and immediate postprocedural complications were analyzed. The arteriovenous procedure profile changed from one characterized by approximately equal numbers of angioplasties and thrombectomies performed on arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) to one characterized primarily by angioplasties performed on arteriovenous fistulas. The percentage of angioplasties performed throughout the study was significantly greater than thrombectomies, with a mean of 67.9% versus 32.1% (P<0.001). Interventional procedures did not decrease with increasing arteriovenous fistula utilization in prevalent patients receiving dialysis. The incidence roughly paralleled the increasing prevalence of this type of access. A decreasing percentage of AVG utilization resulted in a progressive, roughly parallel, but disproportionately higher, decrease in the percentage of AVG procedures (P<0.001). A progressive improvement in procedure outcomes and a decrease in complication rates and procedure times were observed (P<0.001 for each). A progressive decrease in tunneled dialysis catheter placement was also observed. The procedure profile treated in freestanding, dedicated dialysis access centers changed significantly over 15 years, reflecting the changes that have occurred in the vascular access profile of the dialysis population. Copyright © 2017
Marrón, Belén; Ortiz, Alberto; de Sequera, Patricia; Martín-Reyes, Guillermo; de Arriba, Gabriel; Lamas, José M; Martínez Ocaña, Juan Carlos; Arrieta, Javier; Martínez, Francisco
Timely referral, preparation and initiation of dialysis remain problematic issues. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of chronic renal disease care and education on the mode of dialysis start (planned vs non-planned) and on the modality of renal replacement therapy (RRT). A total of 1504 patients from 35 hospitals started RRT in 2003. Out-patient, scheduled initiation of dialysis with a permanent vascular or peritoneal access was considered planned. About 46% of the patients started non-planned dialysis. Of all the patients, 75% had > or =3 months of nephrological follow-up, but nearly half were never educated on dialysis options. Haemodialysis (HD) occurred in 82% and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in 18%. Planned starts were associated (all P < 0.001) with many factors: younger age, longer renal and pre-dialysis follow-up, more education on RRT and general care, more medical visits, more PD (27 vs 8%), more follow-up by specific end-stage renal disease (ESRD) units, more permanent access and better biochemical status at the start of dialysis. Some global differences were found between patients: planned vs non-planned with > or =3 months of follow-up, vs non-planned <3 months follow-up or acute non-planned and <3 months of follow-up or acute patients. HD occurred in a similar rate (92%) in patients with non-planned start, no previous follow-up or who were never educated in dialysis modality options. Although a high prevalence of nephrologic care and follow-up was provided among incident patients in dialysis, nearly half the patients did not have a planned dialysis start nor dialysis modality education. Planned start was associated with better analytical and multidisciplinary status. PD was more prevalent in planned starts and when education was given. Specific ESRD units were more likely to provide an optimal care.
Compared with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a cost-effective and patient-centered option with an early survival advantage, yet only 7% of patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States receive PD. PD underutilization is due in part to nephrologists' unfamiliarity with directly starting PD in patients who present with kidney failure requiring urgent initiation of dialysis. Quality improvement report. Single-center study whereby 18 patients who presented urgently with chronic kidney disease stage 5 without a plan for dialysis modality were offered PD as the initial modality of dialysis. Concurrently, 9 patients started on PD therapy nonurgently were included as the comparative group. An urgent-start PD program was developed to support and standardize the process by which patients without a plan for dialysis modality were started on PD. This included rapid PD access placement, PD nursing education, and administrative support. Standardized protocols were created for modality selection, initial prescription, and prevention and management of complications. Short-term (90-day) clinical outcomes (Kt/V, hemoglobin, iron saturation, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, calcium, and albumin) and complications (peritonitis, exit-site infections, leaks, and catheter malfunction) were compared between the urgent-start and non-urgent-start PD groups. Short-term clinical outcomes were similar between the 2 groups for all parameters except uncorrected serum calcium level, which was lower in the urgent-start group (P = 0.02). Peritonitis, exit-site infection, catheter-related complications, and other complications were similar between the 2 groups, although the number of minor leaks was higher in the urgent-start group. This is a single-center nonrandomized study with a small sample size. Our structured program shows safety and feasibility in starting PD in patients with kidney failure who present without a plan for dialysis modality. The steps laid out in this
Phillips, D J; Smith, J E
A hospital-based training program for pharmaceutical manufacturers' representatives is described. The pharmacy department of a large teaching institution established a training program for new sales representatives of a major pharmaceutical company. Goals were outlined by the sales training manager and the pharmacy department. The sales training personnel, department of pharmacy, and the cooperating departments of medicine, surgery, and nursing worked together to formulate objectives for the sessions, and teaching responsibilities were delegated to members of all these departments. The program length varied from one to five days. A formal contract was developed specifying content, program dates, and reimbursement. The institution is reimbursed for the use of the facility, materials, and administrative overhead. The program's success has led to the development of similar programs with several other companies. The extra income has enabled the pharmacy to create a new division within the department. Evaluations from more than 500 sales representatives who have participated in the programs have been consistently positive. The pharmacy department in a teaching institution has the resources to provide a training program for sales representatives that can be an additional source of income.
Optimization of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) prescription includes attempts to normalize the patient's blood pressure and extracellular volume. To do so, one must utilize crystalloid or colloid osmotic agents to achieve ultrafiltration. These osmotic agents are systemically absorbed and thus have both potential benefits and adverse effects. With glucose-based dialysate solutions, the average patient absorbs 300-450 kcal of glucose per day on either continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or the cycler. The amount of glucose absorbed varies based on peritoneal transport characteristics, prescription, and tonicity of fluids used. Alternative osmotic agents such as amino acids and macromolecular solutions, including polypeptides and polyglucose (icodextrin) solutions, have a different rate of systemic absorption and thus a different caloric load profile. In addition, there are protein losses that average about 10 g/day with glucose-based solutions and glucose losses with either amino acid or icodextrin dialysate solutions. There are also potential advantages of these alternative solutions with regard to ultrafiltration. Glucose-based solutions require the development of significant crystalloid osmotic forces, which are dissipated as glucose is absorbed systemically. In contrast, macromolecular solutions achieve ultrafiltration via differences in colloid osmotic pressure, and the absorption of these agents is of a lesser magnitude than glucose-based solutions. Further research is needed to determine other potential risks and benefits of these alternative dialysate solutions.
A progressive chronic kidney disease results in retention of various substances that more or less contribute to dysfunction of various metabolic systems. The accumulated substances are denominated uremic toxins. Although many toxins remain undetected, numerous newly defined toxins participate in the disturbance of food breakdown. In addition, toxic effects may downregulate other pathways, resulting in a reduced ability of free fatty acid breakdown by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL). Dialysis may even worsen metabolic functions. For LPL and HL, the use of heparin and low molecular weight heparin as anticoagulation during hemodialysis (HD) initiate a loss of these enzymes from their binding sites and degradation, causing a temporary dysregulation in triglyceride breakdown. This lack of function will cause retention of the triglyceride containing lipids for at least 8 h. In parallel, the breakdown into free fatty acids is limited, as is the energy supply by them. This is repeated thrice a week for a normal HD patient. In addition, dialysis will cause a loss of amino acids and disturb glucose metabolism depending on the dialysates used. The addition of glucose in the dialysate may support oxidation of carbohydrate and the retention of Amadori products and subsequent tissue alterations. To avoid these effects, it seems necessary to further study the effects of anticoagulation in HD, the extent of use of glucose in the dialysate, and the supplementation of amino acids. PMID:28554992
When self-insured health plans and their third-party administrators pay an artificially low out-of-network rate for dialysis services, they could be liable for the difference between that rate and the reimbursement level provided for by their health plan. Paying a rate that the repricers advised them to pay does not relieve self-insured health plans and third-party administrators of that obligation; only where the repricer has legitimately secured a negotiated contract rate is a lower payment justified. [Editor's note: The term "repricer" has no universally-accepted or formal definition, but it will be used here to describe those companies formed to act as middlemen between health care payers-like self-insured employer plans and TPAs working on behalf of such plans-and health care providers.] Failing to adhere to this will result in lawsuits against self-insured health plans and third-party administrators where they will be forced to defend the repricers' recommended payment amounts, while the repricers try to get themselves dismissed. A better option for plan holders and third-party administrators would be to negotiate directly with the dialysis providers and agree upon a mutually acceptable rate.
Ronco, Claudio; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Garzotto, Francesco; Clark, William R
Hemodialysis is a process of mass separation by a semipermeable membrane, utilized to cleanse blood from waste products retained in case of kidney failure. Traditionally, dialysis membranes have been classified based on composition and hydraulic conductance, creating the net differentiation between cellulosic versus non-cellulosic on one hand and low-flux versus high-flux on the other. With the evolution of biomaterials and improved spinning technology, new membranes have been introduced in the market with specific characteristics and refined individual properties. Therefore, we should consider new parameters to classify dialysis membranes including polymer blending, surface functionalization, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties, thickness and architecture, adsorption capacity, and electric potential. All these parameters may be utilized to characterize a membrane alone or in combination. Recently, a new parameter has been identified as an important element to characterize a new class of membranes. Beyond the classic MWCO describing the molecular weight at which the sieving value in pure convection = 0.1, the molecular weight retention onset (MWRO) is a new parameter that defines membrane sieving properties. The retention onset value is the molecular weight at which the sieving value = 0.9. The relationship between MWCO and MWRO describes the steepness of the sieving curve and the membrane pore size distribution with important consequences on the final mass separation process and solute removal. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Weiswasser, Jonathan M; Kellicut, Dwight; Arora, Subodh; Sidawy, Anton N
Surgical management of the patient who requires hemodialysis access, while continuing to demand more attention from the vascular surgeon, suffers from discrepancies of approach and strategy. With the increase in incidence of dialysis dependent renal failure among our population, many have attempted to present a uniform, logical strategy with which the vascular surgeon can most effectively treat the hemodialysis patient in the long term. Most notably, the multidisciplinary Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (DOQI) guidelines present the surgeon with a rough outline of hemodialysis access insertion strategy, and it has become nationally recognized as an acceptable summary of treatment strategy and goals. The decision as to the most appropriate surgical access to offer a patient depends on immediate need for hemodialysis, history and physical examination findings, and suitability of available veins in the extremity. While percutaneous, catheter based access affords the luxury of immediate access, these devices suffer from several complicating factors, such as infection, and damage to large, proximal veins. For long-term access, the autogenous access, while perhaps less successful in the immediate short term, is always the preferred access type given its favorable longevity. The surgeons should focus on sites distally on the extremity, reserving proximal sites for potential future access insertions should the primary access fail. In the absence of suitable vein, prosthetic access may be considered. When both the upper and lower aspects of both upper extremities have been exhausted, the surgeon should consider access insertion elsewhere, such as the lower extremity.
Bao, Yeran; Dalrymple, Lorien; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kaysen, George A.; Johansen, Kirsten L.
Background In light of the recent trend toward earlier dialysis initiation and its association with mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease, we hypothesized that frailty is associated with higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at dialysis start and may confound the relation between earlier dialysis initiation and mortality. Methods We examined frailty among participants of the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS), a special study of the US Renal Data System, which enrolled incident patients from September 1, 2005, through June 1, 2007. Patients were followed for vital status through September 30, 2009, and for time to first hospitalization through December 31, 2008. We used multivariate logistic regression to model the association of frailty with eGFR at dialysis start and proportional hazards regression to assess the outcomes of death or hospitalization. Results Among 1576 CDS participants included, the prevalence of frailty was 73%. In multivariate analysis, higher eGFR at dialysis initiation was associated with higher odds of frailty (odds ratio [OR], 1.44 [95% CI, 1.23–1.68] per 5 mL/min/1.73 m2; P<.001). Frailty was independently associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57 [95% CI, 1.25–1.97]; P<.001) and time to first hospitalization (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.09–1.45]; P<.001). While higher eGFR at dialysis initiation was associated with mortality (HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02–1.23] per 5 mL/min/1.73 m2; P=.02), the association was no longer statistically significant after frailty was accounted for (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.98–1.19] per 5 mL/min/1.73 m2; P=.11). Conclusions Frailty is extremely common among patients starting dialysis in the United States and is associated with higher eGFR at dialysis initiation. Recognition of signs and symptoms of frailty by clinicians may prompt earlier initiation of dialysis and may explain, at least in part, the well-described association between eGFR at dialysis initiation and mortality. PMID
Dozier, Kristopher C; Yeung, Louise Y; Miranda, Marvin A; Miraflor, Emily J; Strumwasser, Aaron M; Victorino, Gregory P
Although renal trauma is increasingly managed nonoperatively, severe renovascular injuries occasionally require nephrectomy. Long-term outcomes after trauma nephrectomy are unknown. We hypothesized that the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is minimal after trauma nephrectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the following: 1) our university-based, urban trauma center database; 2) the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB); 3) the National Inpatient Sample (NIS); and 4) the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS). Data were compiled to estimate the risk of ESRD after trauma nephrectomy in the United States. Of the 232 patients who sustained traumatic renal injuries at our institution from 1998 to 2007, 36 (16%) underwent a nephrectomy an average of approximately four nephrectomies per year. The NTDB reported 1780 trauma nephrectomies from 2002 to 2006, an average of 356 per year. The 2005 NIS data estimated that in the United States, over 20,000 nephrectomies are performed annually for renal cell carcinoma. The USRDS annual incidence of ESRD requiring hemodialysis is over 90,000, of which 0.1 per cent (100 per year) of renal failure is the result of traumatic or surgical loss of a kidney. Considering the large number of nephrectomies performed for cancer, we estimated the risk of trauma nephrectomy causing renal failure that requires dialysis to be 0.5 per cent. National data regarding the etiology of renal failure among patients with ESRD reveal a very low incidence of trauma nephrectomy (0.5%) as a cause; therefore, nephrectomy for trauma can be performed with little concern for long-term dialysis dependence.
Blanchette, Christopher M; Craver, Christopher; Belk, Kathy W; Lubeck, Deborah P; Rossetti, Sandro; Gutierrez, Benjamin
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous class of genetic disorders characterized by development of renal cysts leading to renal failure and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) accounts for the majority of PKD cases and is the predominant monogenic cause of ESRD. Limited information on patient characteristics and healthcare resource utilization is available in this population. This study assessed hospital-based inpatient utilization of patients with ADPKD in the US to help further understand the disease, which may lead to treatments that delay progression and reduce healthcare resource utilization. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using MedAssets Health System Data to investigate inpatient resource utilization for a total of 1876 patients hospitalized with ADPKD or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patient characteristics and inpatient resource utilization were compared between hospitalized patients with ADPKD and CKD, including demographic and clinical characteristics, overall health, rates of complications and surgical interventions, and average length of hospital and intensive care unit stay. Compared with patients with CKD, patients with ADPKD were more likely to have commercial insurance as their primary payer (36.1 vs 17.8%) and were significantly younger (mean age 57.9 vs 69.5 years) and generally healthier (Charlson Comorbidity Score of 2.0 vs 3.3). Patients with ADPKD also had a substantially shorter average length of hospital stay (6.3 vs 10.3 days). However, patients with ADPKD experienced more kidney-related complications and a higher surgical procedure rate (mainly for transplant and complete nephrectomy). Although patients with ADPKD were generally healthier than patients with CKD, specific kidney function complications were more frequent. Patients with ADPKD had a higher rate of major kidney procedures, which may contribute to the high burden of ADPKD
Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A.; Zaritsky, Joshua; Suarez, Angela; Wong, William; Ranchin, Bruno; Qi, Cao; Szabo, Attila J.; Coccia, Paula A.; Harambat, Jérôme; Mitu, Florin; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz
Summary Background and objectives Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important end point of dialysis-associated cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different pediatric reference systems on the estimated prevalence of LVH in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Echocardiographic studies in 507 pediatric CPD patients from neonatal age to 19 years were collected in 55 pediatric dialysis units around the globe. We compared the prevalence of LVH on the basis of the traditional cutoff of left ventricular mass (LVM) index (>38.5 g/m2.7) with three novel definitions of LVH that were recently established in healthy pediatric cohorts. Results Application of the new reference systems eliminated the apparently increased prevalence of LVH in young children obtained by the traditional fixed LVM index cutoff currently still recommended by consensus guidelines. However, substantial differences of LVM distribution between the new reference charts resulted in a marked discrepancy in estimated LVH prevalence ranging between 27.4% and 51.7%. Conclusions Although our understanding of the anthropometric determinants of heart size during childhood is improving, more consistent normative echocardiographic data from large populations of healthy children are required for cardiovascular diagnostics and research. PMID:21737857
Treit, Kathryn; Lam, Daniel; O'Hare, Ann M
Over the last 10-15 years, the incidence of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among older adults has increased and dialysis is being initiated at progressively higher levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Average life expectancy after dialysis initiation among older adults is quite limited, and many experience an escalation of care and loss of independence after starting dialysis. Available data suggest that treatment decisions about dialysis initiation in older adults in the United States are guided more by system- than by patient-level factors. Stronger efforts are thus needed to ensure that treatment decisions for older adults with advanced kidney disease are optimally aligned with their goals and preferences. There is growing interest in more conservative approaches to the management of advanced kidney disease in older patients who prefer not to initiate dialysis and those for whom the harms of dialysis are expected to outweigh the benefits. A number of small single center studies, mostly from the United Kingdom report similar survival among the subset of older adults with a high burden of comorbidity treated with dialysis vs. those managed conservatively. However, the incidence of treated ESRD in older US adults is several-fold higher than in the United Kingdom, despite a similar prevalence of chronic kidney disease, suggesting large differences in the social, cultural, and economic context in which dialysis treatment decisions unfold. Thus, efforts may be needed to adapt conservative care models developed outside the United States to optimally meet the needs of US patients. More flexible approaches toward dialysis prescription and better integration of treatment decisions about conservative care with those related to modality selection will likely be helpful in meeting the needs of individual patients. Regardless of the chosen treatment strategy, time can often be a critical ally in centering care on what matters most to the patient, and
Allon, Michael; Brouwer-Maier, Deborah J; Abreo, Kenneth; Baskin, Kevin M; Bregel, Kay; Chand, Deepa H; Easom, Andrea M; Mermel, Leonard; Mokrzycki, Michele H; Patel, Priti R; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Shenoy, Surendra; Valentini, Rudolph P; Wasse, Haimanot
Central venous catheters are used frequently in patients on hemodialysis as a bridge to a permanent vascular access. They are prone to frequent complications, including catheter-related bloodstream infection, catheter dysfunction, and central vein obstruction. There is a compelling need to develop new drugs or devices to prevent central venous catheter complications. We convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts to propose standardized definitions of catheter end points to guide the design of future clinical trials seeking approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Our workgroup suggests diagnosing catheter-related bloodstream infection in catheter-dependent patients on hemodialysis with a clinical suspicion of infection (fever, rigors, altered mental status, or unexplained hypotension), blood cultures growing the same organism from the catheter hub and a peripheral vein (or the dialysis bloodline), and absence of evidence for an alternative source of infection. Catheter dysfunction is defined as the inability of a central venous catheter to (1) complete a single dialysis session without triggering recurrent pressure alarms or (2) reproducibly deliver a mean dialysis blood flow of >300 ml/min (with arterial and venous pressures being within the hemodialysis unit parameters) on two consecutive dialysis sessions or provide a Kt/V≥1.2 in 4 hours or less. Catheter dysfunction is defined only if it persists, despite attempts to reposition the patient, reverse the arterial and venous lines, or forcefully flush the catheter. Central vein obstruction is suspected in patients with >70% stenosis of a central vein by contrast venography or the equivalent, ipsilateral upper extremity edema, and an existing or prior history of a central venous catheter. There is some uncertainty about the specific criteria for these diagnoses, and the workgroup has also proposed future high-priority studies to resolve these questions. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of
Agar, John W M; Mahadevan, Kumar; Knight, Richard; Antonis, Michelle L; Somerville, Christine A
Despite the advent of two new dialysis options, nocturnal home haemodialysis and short daily haemodialysis, many units are yet to build them into the modalities on offer to end-stage renal failure patients. The reasons behind this inertia are complex but primarily include anxieties about workload, budgetary implications and outcome data. The Geelong dialysis programme, where both nocturnal home haemodialysis and short daily haemodialysis are offered, is compared with Australian and New Zealand national profiles. Significant profile differences emerge when comparing sessions/week and h/week between the three groups. Most Australian (92.93%) and New Zealand (95.07%) haemodialysis patients dialyse for three sessions/week. This contrasts to Geelong where only 73.6% dialyse for three sessions/week. 18.8% of Geelong haemodialysis patients versus 1.8% (Australia) and 0.9% (New Zealand) dialyse for five or more sessions/week. Australia and New Zealand follow similar h/session patterns although more Australians (44.2%) dialyse for 4 h and fewer (24.2%) for 5 h than their New Zealand counterparts (39.6% and 29.8%, respectively), and few dialyse outside the 3.5-5 h window. In contrast, 6.7% of Geelong patients dialyse for 2-2.5 h/session versus Australia (0.9%) and New Zealand (0.2%). This represents the Geelong short daily dialysis programme. More Geelong patients (>15%) dialyse >/=8 h/week and represent the Geelong nocturnal home haemodialysis programme. The flexible Geelong programme has been supported without exceeding the budget applied to a conventional dialysis programme with the same patient numbers.
Djemal, Serpil; Rumjon, Adam; Macdougall, Iain C; Singh, Parmjit; Warnakulasuriya, Saman
To compare the oral health status of renal patients attending a dialysis unit at a London teaching hospital with an age- and sex-matched sample from the Adult Dental Health Survey UK (ADHS) 2009. Questions adapted from the ADHS 2009 national survey were used to interview renal dialysis patients about their oral health, oral hygiene and dental visits. Any significant differences between the two groups were statistically analysed using the chi-squared (χ2) test. Two hundred renal dialysis patients participated. More renal dialysis patients were edentulous (p < 0.0001) and those who were dentate had fewer teeth (p < 0.0001) compared to the ADHS 2009 participants. Although 12% of the renal dialysis patients had difficulty in finding a dentist, 77% were linked to a dental practice, but fewer reported that they had previously been shown how to brush their teeth compared to the dentate ADHS group (p < 0.0001). The frequency of brushing (twice daily) was similar in the dialysis and ADHS groups. Awareness for good oral health needs to be raised in this group of medically compromised patients regularly attending a hospital unit. The responsibility for achieving this goal needs to be shared by both dialysis teams and oral health care professionals. We suggest an 'oral health toolkit' be made available in dialysis units for both professionals and patients.
Merighi, Joseph R; Schatell, Dorian R; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Witten, Beth; Mehrotra, Rajnish
There is variable emphasis on dialysis-specific training among US nephrology fellowship programs. Our study objective was to determine the association between nephrology training experience and subsequent clinical practice. We conducted a national survey of clinical nephrologists using a fax-back survey distributed between March 8, 2010 and April 30, 2010 (N = 629). The survey assessed the time distribution of clinical practice, self-assessment of preparedness to provide care for dialysis patients at the time of certification examination, distribution of dialysis modality among patients, and nephrologists' choice of dialysis modality for themselves if their kidneys failed. While respondents spent 28% of their time caring for dialysis patients, 38% recalled not feeling very well prepared to care for dialysis patients when taking the nephrology certification examination. Sixteen percent obtained additional dialysis training after fellowship completion. Only 8% of US dialysis patients use home dialysis; physicians very well prepared to care for dialysis patients at the time of certification or who obtained additional dialysis training were significantly more likely to provide care to home peritoneal dialysis patients. Even though 92% of US dialysis patients receive thrice weekly in-center hemodialysis, only 6% of nephrologists selected this for themselves; selection of therapy for self was associated with dialysis modalities used by their patients. Nephrology training programs need to ensure that all trainees are very well prepared to care for dialysis patients, as this is central to nephrology practice. Utilization of dialysis therapies other than standard hemodialysis is dependent, in part, on training experience.
Cheung, Cindy A; Rogers-Martel, Melanie; Golas, Liliya; Chepurny, Anna; Martel, James B; Martel, Joseph R
Ocular trauma is recognized as the leading cause of unilateral blindness. However, few studies to date have focused on the clinical features of hospital-based ocular emergencies. Effectiveness of trauma centers in treating ocular emergencies was compared with treatment in traditional community hospital emergency departments. Demographics, causes, and nature of ocular emergencies, as well as visual outcome in community hospitals emergency departments and trauma centers, were also examined. Records of 1027 patients with ocular emergencies seen between July 2007 and November 2010 at 3 community hospitals emergency departments and 2 hospitals with level II trauma centers were retrospectively examined. Unpaired t test and Pearson χ(2) test were used to determine statistical significance. The incidence of patients requiring ophthalmic intervention was 77.2 per 100 000 in the community hospitals and 208.9 per 100 000 in the trauma centers. Rates of ocular emergencies were higher in middle-aged, white men. Orbital fractures were found in 86% of all orbital contusion cases in trauma centers, whereas 66.7% of patients with fall injuries and open globe diagnoses resulted in legal blindness. The middle-aged, white men are more vulnerable to ocular injuries caused mainly by motor vehicle accidents. The ability of trauma centers to provide comparable increases in vision outcomes, despite treating more severe ocular emergencies, demonstrates the effectiveness of trauma centers. Patients diagnosed as having orbital contusions or who have fall injuries deserve careful evaluation because they are more likely to have more severe sight-threatening injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Melsakkare, Suresh Ramappa; Manipur, Sahana R.; Acharya, Pavana; Ramamurthy, Lakshmi Bomalapura
Context In developing countries, corneal diseases are the second leading cause of blindness. This corneal blindness can be treated through corneal transplantation. Though the present infrastructure is strong enough to increase keratoplasty numbers at a required rate, India has largest corneal blind population in the world. So a constant supply of high quality donor corneal tissue is the key factor for reduction of prevalence of corneal blindness. Considering the magnitude of corneal blindness and shortage of donor cornea, there is a huge gap in the demand and supply. Aim To study the potential for hospital based retrieval of donor corneal tissue in Hassan district hospital after analysing the indicated and contraindicated causes of deaths, so that hospital corneal retrieval program in Hassan district hospital can be planned. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional, retrospective and record-based study included all hospital deaths with age group more than two years occurred during one year period (January 2014 to December 2014). Data regarding demographic profile, cause of death, treatment given and presence of any systemic diseases were collected. The causes of deaths which are contraindicated for the retrieval of corneas were analysed and noted. The contraindications were based on the NPCB guidelines for standard of eye banking in India 2009. Results Out of 855 deaths, number of deaths in males (565) was greater than females (290). Numbers of deaths were highest between 41-60 years age group (343). Deaths due to HIV, septicaemia, meningitis, encephalitis, disseminated malignancies were contraindicated for corneal retrieval. Corneas could be retrieved from 736 deaths out of 855. Potential for corneal retrieval in a period of one year in Hassan District hospital was 86%. Conclusion Hospital corneal retrieval program has got a great potential to bridge the gap between the need for the cornea and actually collected corneas which will contribute enormously in
Rosansky, Steven; Glassock, Richard J; Clark, William F
In the US, patients who initiate dialysis "early" (at Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimated GFR [eGFR]> 10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) account for over 50 percent of new dialysis starts. This trend to an early start is based on conventional wisdoms regarding benefits of dialytic clearance, that albumin levels are nutritional markers, and early dialytic therapy is justified to improve nutrition especially in diabetics and that waiting until low levels of eGFR (i.e., <6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) may be dangerous. In order to justify early dialysis treatment, the therapy must provide a morbidity, mortality, or quality of life benefit. The current review examines whether early dialysis initiation provides any of these benefits and whether the conventional wisdoms that have promoted this early dialysis trend are valid. Utilizing this information and the results of recent large observational studies and the randomized controlled Initiating Dialysis Early and Late (IDEAL) study, we suggest that dialysis initiation is justified at GFR levels of 5-9 ml/min/1.73 m(2), if accompanied by uremia symptoms or fluid management issues. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology
Trivedi, Disha D
Dialysis patients are often denied hospice benefits unless they forego dialysis treatments. However, many of those patients might benefit from as-needed dialysis treatments to palliate symptoms of uremia, fluid overload, etc. The current Medicare payment system precludes this "palliative dialysis" except in those few cases where the terminal diagnosis is unrelated to renal failure. As approximately three quarters of all US patients on dialysis have Medicare as their primary insurance, a of review of Medicare policy is suggested, with a goal of creating a new "palliative dialysis" category that would allow patients to receive treatments on a less regular schedule without affecting the quality statistics of the dialysis center.( 1 ).
Multifacility dialysis groups are frequently interested in improving overall quality and find that there are major differences between individual units. Upper management must consider what strategy is needed for the whole company and what strategy must be formulated by individual facilities. To make substantive changes, management must decide to adopt a new culture of true teamwork, drive out fear, and emphasize leadership and education both at the management level and in the individual unit. Both at the corporate and unit levels, leaders must be chosen who are able to recognize people who have the ability, the educational background, the enthusiasm, and the time to direct change. Empowering the individual units and individual employees to make changes and be enthusiastic about improvement is the key to success.
Kovacs, Bernadett; Sullivan, Katrina J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Patel, Rakesh V
Critically ill adults with acute kidney injury (AKI) experience considerable morbidity and mortality. Controversy remains regarding the optimal renal replacement intervention for these patients. Our systematic review aimed to determine the effect(s) of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) compared with continuous renal replacement (CRRT) therapy on relevant patient outcomes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Identified citations were screened independently in duplicate for relevance, and the methodological quality of included studies was evaluated. Data were extracted on study, patient and intervention characteristics and relevant clinical outcomes. Results were pooled using inverse variance fixed and random effects meta-analysis. A total of 1564 patients from 18 studies were included. Meta-analysis results indicated no statistically significant difference in our primary outcome, overall proportion of renal recovery (risk ratio (RR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.20, I2 = 66%). No significant difference was observed for the secondary outcome of time to renal recovery (mean difference 1.33, 95% CI 0.23-2.88, I2 = 0%). Statistically, SLED was marginally favoured over CRRT for the secondary outcome of mortality (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.43, I2 = 47%); however, this diminished when sensitivity analysis of only randomized controlled trials was conducted (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.57, I2 = 0%). There appears to be no clear for advantage continuous renal replacement in the hemodynamically unstable patient. Currently, both modalities are safe and effective means of treating AKI in the critically ill adult. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
New Zealand leads the world in rates of home dialysis use, yet little is known about the experience of home dialysis from the patient's perspective. This article contributes to the literature on the self-care of dialysis patients by examining the relevance of the concept of the machine-body and cyborg embodiment for the lived experience of people with end-stage renal failure. The article, which presents a discussion of 24 in-depth interviews undertaken between 2009 and 2012, shows that although dialysis therapy is disruptive of being and time, study participants experience home dialysis in terms of flexibility, control and independence. While they do not use the term machine-body as a descriptor, the concept resonates with felt experience. Data also indicate that positive experience of home dialysis is relative to socio-economic positioning and the lived relation of patients to others, necessitating further research to examine these factors. © The Author(s) 2014.
... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.316 Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each patient, the carrier pays a flat amount that covers all physician services required...
... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.316 Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each patient, the carrier pays a flat amount that covers all physician services required...
... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.316 Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each patient, the carrier pays a flat amount that covers all physician services required...
Diaz-Buxo, Jose A; Crawford-Bonadio, Terri L; St Pierre, Donna; Ingram, Katherine M
The renewed interest in home dialysis therapies makes it pertinent to address the essentials of establishing and running a successful home dialysis program. The success of a home program depends on a clear understanding of the structure of the home program team, the physical plant, educational tool requirements, reimbursement sources and a business plan. A good command of the technical and economic aspects is important, but the primary drivers for the creation and growth of a home dialysis program are the confidence and commitment of the nephrological team.
Sen, Indrani; Tripathi, Ramesh K
Symptomatic hand ischemia has been reported in occur in up to 20% of patients undergoing upper-extremity dialysis access procedures, and is a common cause of postoperative steal in the patient with end-stage renal disease. The majority of dialysis access steal syndromes do not require operative intervention, but severe ischemia associated with muscle paralysis can progress to limb amputation if left untreated. In this review, patient risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, and management options for patients with dialysis access steal syndromes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hyperuricemia is common. Evidence that hyperuricemia might also play a causal role in vascular disease, hypertension and progression of CKD is accumulating. Therefore, we studied the association between baseline uric acid (UA) levels and the rate of decline in renal function and time until start of dialysis in pre-dialysis patients. Methods Data from the PREPARE-2 study were used. The PREPARE-2 study is an observational prospective cohort study including incident pre-dialysis patients with CKD stages IV-V in the years between 2004 and 2011. Patients were followed for a median of 14.9 months until start of dialysis, kidney transplantation, death, or censoring. Main outcomes were the change in the rate of decline in renal function (measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) estimated using linear mixed models, and time until start of dialysis estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In this analysis 131 patients were included with a baseline UA level (mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 8.0 (1.79) mg/dl) and a mean decline in renal function of -1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), -2.01; -1.22) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. The change in decline in GFR associated with a unit increase in UA at baseline was -0.14 (95% CI -0.61;0.33, p = 0.55) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. Adjusted for demography, comorbidities, diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, proteinuria, diuretic and/or allopurinol usage the change in decline in eGFR did not change. The hazard ratio (HR) for starting dialysis for each mg/dl increase in UA at baseline was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.94;1.24, p = 0.27). After adjustment for the same confounders the HR became significant at 1.26 (95% CI, 1.06;1.49, p = 0.01), indicating an earlier start of dialysis with higher levels of UA. Conclusion Although high UA levels are not associated with an accelerated decline in renal function, a high serum UA level in incident pre-dialysis
Nacak, Hakan; van Diepen, Merel; de Goeij, Moniek C M; Rotmans, Joris I; Dekker, Friedo W
In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hyperuricemia is common. Evidence that hyperuricemia might also play a causal role in vascular disease, hypertension and progression of CKD is accumulating. Therefore, we studied the association between baseline uric acid (UA) levels and the rate of decline in renal function and time until start of dialysis in pre-dialysis patients. Data from the PREPARE-2 study were used. The PREPARE-2 study is an observational prospective cohort study including incident pre-dialysis patients with CKD stages IV-V in the years between 2004 and 2011. Patients were followed for a median of 14.9 months until start of dialysis, kidney transplantation, death, or censoring. Main outcomes were the change in the rate of decline in renal function (measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) estimated using linear mixed models, and time until start of dialysis estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. In this analysis 131 patients were included with a baseline UA level (mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 8.0 (1.79) mg/dl) and a mean decline in renal function of -1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), -2.01; -1.22) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. The change in decline in GFR associated with a unit increase in UA at baseline was -0.14 (95% CI -0.61;0.33, p=0.55) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. Adjusted for demography, comorbidities, diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, proteinuria, diuretic and/or allopurinol usage the change in decline in eGFR did not change. The hazard ratio (HR) for starting dialysis for each mg/dl increase in UA at baseline was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.94;1.24, p=0.27). After adjustment for the same confounders the HR became significant at 1.26 (95% CI, 1.06;1.49, p=0.01), indicating an earlier start of dialysis with higher levels of UA. Although high UA levels are not associated with an accelerated decline in renal function, a high serum UA level in incident pre-dialysis patient is a risk factor for an earlier start of
Wilkie, Martin E; Jenkins, Sarah B
The Stoke Renal Unit has been at the forefront of peritoneal dialysis (PD) research for much of the past two decades. Central to this work is the PD cohort study, which was started in 1990 and is based on regular outpatient measurements of peritoneal and clinical function, correlating these with long-term outcomes. It has provided a wealth of information on risk factors for morbidity and mortality in patients on PD, the most significant being demonstration of the effects of time and dialysate glucose exposure on changes to the peritoneal membrane, as evidenced by increases in small solute transport. Early on, the study confirmed the adverse relationship between high small-solute transport status and outcome but more recently suggested that this relationship no longer held with modern techniques for managing patients on PD. Central themes of the PD research in Stoke have included evaluation of euvolemia, the importance of ultrafiltration and how best to achieve it, and detailed assessments of transmembrane water movement. The work has included the study of sodium removal and the use of novel low sodium dialysates. More recently, attention has turned to the significance of impaired ultrafiltration capacity in patients on PD as a sign of structural membrane damage. It is hoped that further work in this area will identify preventive strategies.
Kornreich, Micha; Heymann, Michael; Fraden, Seth; Beck, Roy
We visualize birefringence in microliter sample volumes using a microfluidic dialysis chip optimized for cross polarization microscopy. The chip is composed of two overlapping polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channels separated by a commercial cellulose ester membrane. Buffer exchange in the sample chamber is achieved within minutes by dialyzing under continuous reservoir flow. Using fd virus as a birefringent model system, we monitor the fd virus isotropic to liquid crystal phase transition as a function of ionic strength. We show that the reorientation of the fd virus spans a few tens of seconds, indicative of fast ion exchange across the membrane. Complete phase separation reorganization takes minutes to hours as it involves diffusive virus mass transport within the storage chamber.
Mehrotra, Rajnish; Agarwal, Anil; Bargman, Joanne M; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Johansen, Kirsten L; Watnick, Suzanne; Work, Jack; McBryde, Kevin; Flessner, Michael; Kimmel, Paul L
The National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases-supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives that would improve our understanding of kidney function and disease. Kidney Research National Dialogue participants identified the need to improve outcomes in ESRD by decreasing mortality and morbidity and enhancing quality of life as high priority areas in kidney research. To reach these goals, we must identify retained toxins in kidney disease, accelerate technologic advances in dialysate composition and devices to remove these toxins, advance vascular access, and identify measures that decrease the burden of disease in maintenance dialysis patients. Together, these research objectives provide a path forward for improving patient-centered outcomes in ESRD.
Cherubini, C; Barbera, G; Petrosillo, N; Di Giulio, S
During the last years, prevention of hospital infections assumed the role of primary objective for active interventions and dedicated laws for safety in work areas and for facilities accreditation defined responsibilities and preventive measures to reduce the biological risk. Dialysis centers are areas where the infective risk is high but the strict application of the Universal Measures and of specific recommendations are sufficient to reduce the risk of diffusion and transmission of pathogens. The late referral of the ESRD patient, with or without infectious comorbidity, shows an intervention field, in which a local epidemiological survey gives useful data and stimulates the data management at hospital level (Epidemiologists and nefrologists) and family doctors, to improve the disease management of very complex and high cost patients.
Williams, Helen F; Garbin, Margery
The Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission initiated this research project to study the viewpoint of dialysis technicians regarding the value of certification. A national convenience sample was obtained using both paper-and-pencil and online forms of the survey instrument. Demographic characteristics were obtained concerning age, race, ethnicity, education, and future employment planning. Technicians' primary work settings, the roles they fill, and the types of certification they hold are described. Incentives offered by employers are considered to explore how they contribute to job satisfaction. Understanding the perceptions of technicians regarding the benefits of certification and the limitations of workplace incentives should enable employers to improve their recruitment and retention programs. Information obtained may offer a baseline for future observations of the characteristics of these significant and essential contributors to the nephrology workforce.
Tan, Zhijun; Ye, Zengchun; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Yanru; Cheng, Cailian; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xun; Lou, Tanqi; Peng, Hui
Irisin is a recently discovered myokine thought to be involved in multiple metabolism abnormalities in most dialysis patients. However, the myokine has not been thoroughly studied in peritoneal dialysis. This study aimed to evaluate serum irisin levels and establish their relation to dialysis adequacy, insulin resistance, and bone metabolism status in patients on peritoneal dialysis. A total of 59 nondiabetic prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum irisin concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlations between serum irisin and dialysis adequacy, clinical, and metabolic variables were investigated. Serum irisin levels were lower in nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients (17.02ng/ml) compared with healthy controls (22.17ng/ml, P<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that fasting glucose levels were correlated inversely with serum irisin levels in peritoneal dialysis patients. Serum irisin levels were associated with neither insulin resistance nor bone metabolism in our patients. Serum irisin levels were positively associated with peritoneal Kt/Vurea (β = 4.933, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.536-9.331, P = 0.029) and peritoneal CCr (β = 0.259, 95% CI = 0.053-0.465, P = 0.015) among peritoneal dialysis patients. The study demonstrated that non-diabetic peritoneal dialysis patients have lower serum irisin levels, and the levels were correlated with peritoneal dialysis adequacy, indicating adequate dialysis may improve irisin secretion. Additional studies are needed to provide a confirmation.
Zhang, Jun; Chen, Yanru; Cheng, Cailian; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xun; Lou, Tanqi; Peng, Hui
Background Irisin is a recently discovered myokine thought to be involved in multiple metabolism abnormalities in most dialysis patients. However, the myokine has not been thoroughly studied in peritoneal dialysis. This study aimed to evaluate serum irisin levels and establish their relation to dialysis adequacy, insulin resistance, and bone metabolism status in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Methods A total of 59 nondiabetic prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum irisin concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlations between serum irisin and dialysis adequacy, clinical, and metabolic variables were investigated. Results Serum irisin levels were lower in nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients (17.02ng/ml) compared with healthy controls (22.17ng/ml, P<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that fasting glucose levels were correlated inversely with serum irisin levels in peritoneal dialysis patients. Serum irisin levels were associated with neither insulin resistance nor bone metabolism in our patients. Serum irisin levels were positively associated with peritoneal Kt/Vurea (β = 4.933, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.536–9.331, P = 0.029) and peritoneal CCr (β = 0.259, 95% CI = 0.053–0.465, P = 0.015) among peritoneal dialysis patients. Conclusions The study demonstrated that non-diabetic peritoneal dialysis patients have lower serum irisin levels, and the levels were correlated with peritoneal dialysis adequacy, indicating adequate dialysis may improve irisin secretion. Additional studies are needed to provide a confirmation. PMID:28445520
Hall, Gayle; Bogan, Amy; Dreis, Sandra; Duffy, AnnMarie; Greene, Suzanne; Kelley, Karen; Lizak, Holly; Nabut, Jose; Schinker, Vicky; Schwartz, Netta
To study the effect of training methods on selected patient outcomes in peritoneal dialysis patients. Multi-center, longitudinal prospective quasi-experimental design study conducted over a 2-year period. Thirty-two Gambro Healthcare peritoneal dialysis (PD) home training programs in the United States. New patients starting PD were trained on PD technique and diet using either an adult learning theory-based curriculum in the experimental group (PG) or non-standardized conventional training programs in the control group (CG). Excluded were patients who were non-English speaking, legally blind without sighted caregiver, nursing home residents, and those with previous exposure to PD training. Information was collected by means of manual data collection tools and though the use of Gambro Healthcare computer system and was analyzed for statistical significance by Gambro Healthcare biostatistician. Compared with the CG, initial training took longer in the PG (PG = 29 hrs; CG = 22.6 hrs; p < .0001), and time required for retraining was less but not statistically significant (PG = 8.7 hrs; CG = 12.5 hrs; p = .1324). The peritonitis rate was less in the PG (28.2 per 1000 patient months) than in the CG (36.7 per 1000 patient months), but did not achieve statistical significance (p = .09783). Exit site infections (ESIs) were less in the PG than the CG (PG = 18.5; CG = 31.8; p = .00349). Dropout from PD to hemodialysis secondary to infection was less in the PG (1.6%) than in the CG (5.6%) (p = .0069). Measured on a scale with 4 being the best score, mean fluid balance scores in the PG were 3.41 compared to 3.25 in the CG (p < .0001), and mean compliance scores for the PG versus the CG were 3.62 and 3.52, respectively (p < .0001). Laboratory parameters between the two groups were significantly different only for Kt/V (PG = 2.4; CG = 2.3; p = 0.0107). Use of the adult learning theory-based training method curriculum was positively associated with improved patient outcomes in the
Casino, Francesco Gaetano
Acute kidney injury affects about 35% of intensive care unit patients. Renal replacement therapy is required in about 5% of such patients and is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50% to 80%. The latter is likely more related to the failure of extrarenal organs than to an insufficient dialysis dose. This could explain, at least in part, the findings of 2 recent trials (VA/ NIH and RENAL) where the expected dose-outcome relationship was not confirmed. These results cannot be taken to infer that assessing the dialysis dose is no longer required. The contrary is true, in that the common finding of large differences between prescribed and delivered doses calls for accurate dose assessment, at least to avoid underdialysis. The minimum adequate levels are now a Kt/V urea of 1.2 to 1.4 three times a week (3x/wk) on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), and an effluent of 20 mL/kg/h for 85% of the time on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRTT). Both these parameters can be easily measured but are far from ideal indices because they account neither for residual renal function nor for irregular dose delivery. The equivalent renal urea clearance (EKRjc), by expressing the averaged renal+dialytic urea clearance over the whole treatment period, is able to account for the above factors. Although assessing EKRjc is quite complex, for regular 3x/wk IHD one could use the formula EKRjc=10 Kt/V+1 to compute that a Kt/V of 1.2 and 1.4 corresponds to an EKRjc of 13 and 15 mL/min, respectively. On the other hand, the hourly effluent per kg is numerically similar to EKRjc. On this basis it can be calculated that in non-prediluted really continuous treatment, the recommended CRRT dose (EKRjc=20 mL/min) is 33% higher than the EKRjc of 15 mL/min, corresponding to the recommended Kt/V of 1.4 on 3x/wk IHD.
Hothi, Daljit K; Harvey, Elizabeth; Goia, Cristina M; Geary, Denis
The uremic state impairs compensatory responses to ultrafiltration (UF). Intradialytic symptoms and hypotension can result and lead to premature discontinuation of treatment and sub-optimal dialysis. We report the benefits of mannitol, sequential dialysis and midodrine in reducing dialysis failures in those children prone to intradialytic hypotension. Prophylactic mannitol halved the odds of intradialytic symptoms and hypotension and increased UF volumes. Sequential dialysis halved the odds of symptoms but hypotension persisted. In one patient with refractory hypotension, only intradialytic midodrine consistently maintained acceptable intradialytic blood pressures, reduced intradialytic symptoms and increased the UF potential.
De Vos, E; Stone, D A; Goetz, M A; Dahlberg, L L
beaten with or without a blunt instrument. The majority of incidents involved only one attacker who was known to the victim. Nearly half the injuries were precipitated by an argument or fight. No statistically significant differences between intervention subjects and nonintervention controls in terms of baseline variables have been observed. For inner-city adolescent victims of violent assaults, a hospital-based intervention offers a unique opportunity for reduction of the incidence of reinjury. We describe the elements of the intervention, including the theoretical basis and implementation; detail the overall evaluation design including modifications; and present preliminary analyses of baseline data.
Herini, Elisabeth Siti; Gunadi; Triono, Agung; Mulyadi, Asal Wahyuni Erlin; Mardin, Niprida; Rusipah; Soenarto, Yati; Reef, Susan E
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and severe birth defects in infants, resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. However, rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in Indonesia. This study aimed (1) to estimate the incidence of CRS in Indonesia, (2) describe the clinical features of CRS at our referral hospital, and (3) pilot a CRS surveillance system to be extended to other hospitals. We conducted a 4-month prospective surveillance study of infants aged <1 year with suspected CRS in 2013 at an Indonesian hospital. Infants with suspected CRS were examined for rubella-specific IgM antibody or rubella IgG antibody levels. Of 47 suspected cases of CRS, 11/47 (23.4%), 9/47 (19.1%), and 27/47 (57.5%) were diagnosed as laboratory-confirmed, clinically compatible, and discarded CRS, respectively. The most common defects among laboratory-confirmed CRS cases were hearing impairment (100%), congenital cataracts (72.7%), microcephaly (72.7%), and congenital heart defects (45.5%). The number of laboratory-confirmed CRS cases among Indonesian infants is high. Furthermore, hearing impairment is the most common clinical feature of CRS in infants. Our findings indicate the importance of implementation of rubella vaccine in Indonesia. Conducting hospital-based surveillance of CRS in other hospitals in Indonesia may be appropriate. What is Known: •Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences in infants resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. •The incidence of CRS in most developed countries has greatly decreased since implementation of rubella vaccination. •Rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in many developing countries. What is New: •The number of laboratory-confirmed CRS cases among Indonesian infants was high. •Implementation of rubella vaccine into immunization programs in Indonesia is important because of the high number of CRS cases. •Our study
Crews, Deidra C; Scialla, Julia J; Boulware, L Ebony; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Nally, Joseph V; Liu, Xiaobo; Arrigain, Susana; Schold, Jesse D; Ephraim, Patti L; Jolly, Stacey E; Sozio, Stephen M; Michels, Wieneke M; Miskulin, Dana C; Tangri, Navdeep; Shafi, Tariq; Wu, Albert W; Bandeen-Roche, Karen
Previous observational studies examining outcomes associated with the timing of dialysis therapy initiation in the United States have often been limited by lead time and survivor bias. Retrospective cohort study comparing the effectiveness of early versus later (conventional) dialysis therapy initiation in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The analysis used inverse probability weighting to account for an individual's contribution to different exposure groups over time in a pooled logistic regression model. Patients contributed risk to both exposure categories (early and later initiation) until there was a clear treatment strategy (ie, dialysis therapy was initiated early or estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] decreased to <10mL/min/1.73m(2)). Patients with CKD who had at least one face-to-face outpatient encounter with a Cleveland Clinic health care provider as of January 1, 2005, and at least 3 eGFRs in the range of 20-30mL/min/1.73m(2) measured at least 180 days apart. Timing of dialysis therapy initiation as determined using model-based interpolation of eGFR trajectories over time. Timing was defined as early (interpolated eGFR at dialysis therapy initiation≥10mL/min/1.73m(2)) or later (eGFR < 10mL/min/1.73m(2)) and was time-varying. Death from any cause occurring from the time that eGFR was equal to 20mL/min/1.73m(2) through September 15, 2009. The study population consisted of 652 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Most (71.3%) of the study population did not initiate dialysis therapy during follow-up. Patients who did not initiate dialysis therapy (n=465) were older, more likely to be white, and had more favorable laboratory profiles than those who started dialysis therapy. Overall, 146 initiated dialysis early and 80 had eGFRs decrease to <10mL/min/1.73m(2). Many participants (n=426) were censored prior to attaining a clear treatment strategy and were considered undeclared. There was no statistically significant survival difference for the
Background Survivors of acute kidney injury are at an increased risk of developing irreversible deterioration in kidney function and in some cases, the need for chronic dialysis. We aimed to determine predictors of chronic dialysis and death among survivors of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury. Methods We used linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, to identify patients who were discharged from hospital after an episode of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and remained free of further dialysis for at least 90 days after discharge between 1996 and 2009. Follow-up extended until March 31, 2011. The primary outcome was progression to chronic dialysis. Predictors for this outcome were evaluated using cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models, and a competing risk approach was used to calculate absolute risk. Results We identified 4 383 patients with acute kidney injury requiring temporary in-hospital dialysis who survived to discharge. After a mean follow-up of 2.4 years, 356 (8%) patients initiated chronic dialysis and 1475 (34%) died. The cumulative risk of chronic dialysis was 13.5% by the Kaplan-Meier method, and 10.3% using a competing risk approach. After accounting for the competing risk of death, previous nephrology consultation (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-2.58), a history of chronic kidney disease (sHR3.86; 95% CI 2.99-4.98), a higher Charlson comorbidity index score (sHR 1.10; 95% CI 1.05-1.15/per unit) and pre-existing hypertension (sHR 1.82; 95% CI 1.28-2.58) were significantly associated with an increased risk of progression to chronic dialysis. Conclusions Among survivors of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury who initially become dialysis independent, the subsequent need for chronic dialysis is predicted by pre-existing kidney disease, hypertension and global comorbidity. This information can identify patients at high risk of progressive kidney disease who may benefit from
Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison
Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.
Bandyk, Dennis F
Conditions producing dialysis access dysfunction include failure of access maturation, cannulation injury to the conduit wall, thrombosis, low-volume flow, and aneurysmal degeneration. Duplex ultrasound is an accurate diagnostic technique to assess dialysis access anatomy and function, including the obligatory criteria for maturation, eg, volume flow >800 mL/min, conduit depth 0.6 cm from skin surface, and adequate (>5 mm) conduit diameter for cannulation. Measurement of access volume flow from the brachial artery or access conduit is prognostic for effective dialysis and conduit patency; including the determination of whether access maturation has occurred or when to intervene for a duplex-identified access stenosis. The application of duplex surveillance after autogenous vein or prosthetic bridge dialysis access construction has the potential to improve patency and function in the patient whose life is dependent on effective hemodialysis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Disney, A P
The incidence of new dialysis-dependent patients in Australia increased rapidly from 1982, due mainly to acceptance for treatment of more elderly patients. In 1988, 21% of patients beginning dialysis were 65 to 74 years old, and a further 26% were 55 to 64 years. Consequently, the prevalence of dialysis-dependent patients increased considerably during the same period, particularly in the age range 55 to 74 years. Diabetes-induced renal failure accounted for a constant low proportion of new patients, approximately 10%, which contrasted with the experience in some other countries. Hemodialysis (HD) was the more common method of treatment compared with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in 1988 (70% v 30%, respectively). Home dialysis treatment, HD or CAPD, supported 50% of all dialysis-dependent patients. Patient survival at 1, 2, and 5 years after initiating treatment was 89%, 78%, and 48%, respectively. Age and method of dialysis significantly influenced survival; the elderly and diabetic had a lower expectation of survival. The difference in survival of HD compared with CAPD increased with the duration of treatment, reaching 20% at 5 years (5-year survival, 59% HD; 39% CAPD). There was no evidence of increasing mortality among patients beginning treatment recently. Withdrawal from treatment represented 16% of deaths during 1988; 19% of the deaths were in the age group 65 to 74 years. The influence of the morbidity and mortality of dialysis on provision of such treatment for end-stage renal failure in the elderly population warrants an objective review of both the benefits to the individual and the availability of health care to the whole society.
Chary-Valckenaere, I; Kessler, M; Mainard, D; Schertz, L; Chanliau, J; Champigneulle, J; Pourel, J; Gaucher, A; Netter, P
To determine the prevalence of amyloid deposits among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) receiving dialysis, and to investigate the factors associated with amyloid and non-amyloid CTS. Subjects for this prospective study were dialysis patients who underwent surgery for CTS in the same surgical unit between 1989 and 1997. CTS was diagnosed from clinical and electromyographic (EMG) findings. Systematic standard radiographs and laboratory data were also obtained. Surgical investigations included systematic macroscopic examination and biopsy of the epineurium, flexor retinaculum, synovium, and flexor tendon sheaths. Samples were stained for amyloid and examined by plain and polarized light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Forty-one samples from 30 patients (11 bilateral cases) were examined. Amyloid deposits were found in 26 samples from 18 patients (7 M, 11 F). Fifteen samples from 12 patients (3 M, 9 F) showed no amyloid deposits. Amyloid CTS was statistically significantly associated with arthralgia and longterm dialysis [mean 13.3 (range 5.5-23) vs 7.5 yrs (range 3 mo-14 yrs)] in non-amyloid CTS. Flexor tenosynovitis and carpal bone erosion occurred more frequently in amyloid CTS. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in clinical, laboratory or EMG findings, type of dialysis membrane, or frequency of ipsilateral fistula. Only amyloid CTS was recurrent. Amyloid deposits were confirmed microscopically in 63.4% of patients. The relatively large number of cases of non-amyloid CTS without signs of dialysis associated arthropathy suggests that CTS is not a satisfactory criterion for diagnosis of dialysis arthropathy or beta2-microglobulin amyloidosis unless the presence of amyloid has been confirmed or duration of dialysis treatment has been at least 15 years.
Dubin, Ruth F; Teerlink, John R; Schiller, Nelson B; Alokozai, Dean; Peralta, Carmen A; Johansen, Kirsten L
Post-dialysis fatigue (PDF) is a common, debilitating symptom that remains poorly understood. Cardiac wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) may worsen during dialysis, but it is unknown whether WMA are associated with PDF. Forty patients were recruited from University of California San Francisco-affiliated dialysis units between January 2010 and February 2011. Participants underwent echocardiograms before and during the last hour of 79 dialysis sessions. Myocardial segments were graded 1-4 by a blinded reviewer, with four representing the worst WMA, and the segmental scores were summed for each echocardiogram. Patients completed questionnaires about their symptoms. Severe PDF (defined as lasting >2 h after dialysis) was analysed using a generalized linear model with candidate predictors including anemia, intradialytic hemodynamics and cardiac function. Forty-four percent of patients with worsened WMA (n=9) had severe PDF, compared with 13% of patients with improved or unchanged WMA (P = 0.04). A one-point increase in the WMA score during dialysis was associated with a 10% higher RR of severe PDF [RR: 1.1, 95% CI (1.1, 1.2), P < 0.001]. After multivariable adjustment, every point increase in the WMA score was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of severe PDF [RR: 1.9, 95% CI (1.4, 2.6), P < 0.001]. History of depression was associated with severe PDF after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities [RR: 3.4, 95% CI (1.3, 9), P = 0.01], but anemia, hemodynamics and other parameters of cardiac function were not. Although cross-sectional, these results suggest that some patients may experience severe PDF as a symptom of cardiac ischemia occurring during dialysis.
Plantinga, Laura; Pastan, Stephen; Kramer, Michael; McClellan, Ann; Krisher, Jenna; Patzer, Rachel E
Improving access to optimal healthcare may depend on the attributes of neighborhoods where patients receive healthcare services. We investigated whether the characteristics of dialysis facility neighborhoods--where most patients with end-stage renal disease are treated--were associated with facility-level kidney transplantation. We examined the association between census tract (neighborhood)-level sociodemographic factors and facility-level kidney transplantation rate in 3,983 U.S. dialysis facilities where kidney transplantation rates were high. Number of kidney transplants and total person-years contributed at the facility level in 2007-2010 were obtained from the Dialysis Facility Report and linked to the census tract data on sociodemographic characteristics from the American Community Survey 2006-2010 by dialysis facility location. We used multivariable Poisson models with generalized estimating equations to estimate the link between the neighborhood characteristics and transplant incidence. Dialysis facilities in the United States were located in neighborhoods with substantially greater proportions of black and poor residents, relative to the national average. Most facility neighborhood characteristics were associated with transplant, with incidence rate ratios (95% CI) for standardized increments (in percentage) of neighborhood exposures of: living in poverty, 0.88 (0.84-0.92), black race, 0.83 (0.78-0.89); high school graduates, 1.22 (1.17-1.26); and unemployed, 0.90 (0.85-0.95). Dialysis facility neighborhood characteristics may be modestly associated with facility rates of kidney transplantation. The success of dialysis facility interventions to improve access to kidney transplantation may partially depend on reducing neighborhood-level barriers. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dubin, Ruth F.; Teerlink, John R.; Schiller, Nelson B.; Alokozai, Dean; Peralta, Carmen A.; Johansen, Kirsten L.
Background Post-dialysis fatigue (PDF) is a common, debilitating symptom that remains poorly understood. Cardiac wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) may worsen during dialysis, but it is unknown whether WMA are associated with PDF. Methods Forty patients were recruited from University of California San Francisco-affiliated dialysis units between January 2010 and February 2011. Participants underwent echocardiograms before and during the last hour of 79 dialysis sessions. Myocardial segments were graded 1–4 by a blinded reviewer, with four representing the worst WMA, and the segmental scores were summed for each echocardiogram. Patients completed questionnaires about their symptoms. Severe PDF (defined as lasting >2 h after dialysis) was analysed using a generalized linear model with candidate predictors including anemia, intradialytic hemodynamics and cardiac function. Results Forty-four percent of patients with worsened WMA (n=9) had severe PDF, compared with 13% of patients with improved or unchanged WMA (P = 0.04). A one-point increase in the WMA score during dialysis was associated with a 10% higher RR of severe PDF [RR: 1.1, 95% CI (1.1, 1.2), P < 0.001]. After multivariable adjustment, every point increase in the WMA score was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of severe PDF [RR: 1.9, 95% CI (1.4, 2.6), P < 0.001]. History of depression was associated with severe PDF after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities [RR: 3.4, 95% CI (1.3, 9), P = 0.01], but anemia, hemodynamics and other parameters of cardiac function were not. Conclusions Although cross-sectional, these results suggest that some patients may experience severe PDF as a symptom of cardiac ischemia occurring during dialysis. PMID:23743019
Russ, Ann J.; Shim, Janet K.; Kaufman, Sharon R.
Increasingly, in the United States, lives are being extended at ever-older ages through the implementation of routine medical procedures such as renal dialysis. This paper discusses the lives and experiences of a number of individuals 70 years of age and older at two dialysis units in California. It considers what kind of life it is that is being sustained and prolonged in these units, the meanings of the time gained through (and lost to) dialysis for older people, and the relationship of “normal” life outside the units to an exceptional state on the inside that some patients see as not-quite-life. Highlighting the unique dimensions of gerontological time on chronic life support, the article PMID:16249136
Wang, I-Kuan; Chang, Yi-Chih; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chuang, Feng-Rong; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Chung-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Po-Chang; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chen, Jin-Hua
To analyze the incidence rates and risk factors for bacteremia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). The records of 898 consecutive patients undergoing dialysis from January 2003 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Episodes of bacteremia were recorded. China Medical University (Taichung, Taiwan). The overall incidence rate of bacteremia was 7.63 per 100 patient-years in HD patients and 3.56 per 100 patient-years in PD patients and it was higher in HD patients each year from 2003 to 2008. S. aureus (27.53%) was the most common pathogen in HD patients, whereas Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (21.3%) was the most common pathogen in PD patients. Vascular access infection was the most common etiology in HD patients, whereas peritonitis was the most common etiology in PD patients. Older age, shorter dialysis vintage, use of HD rather than PD, current smoker, use of a venous dialysis catheter, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher comorbidity score, and lower serum albumin were significant risk factors for bacteremia. Diabetes mellitus and lower serum albumin were significant risk factors for bacteremia-associated mortality. Placement of a permanent access (fistula, graft, or PD catheter) prior to initiation of dialysis, smoking cessation, and better nutritional status (i.e. higher serum albumin) were associated with a reduced risk of bacteremia in dialysis patients. Higher serum albumin was also associated with a reduced bacteremia-associated mortality.
Struijk, Dirk G.
Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of end-stage renal failure was introduced in the 1960s. Nowadays it has evolved to an established therapy that is complementary to hemodialysis (HD), representing 11% of all patients treated worldwide with dialysis. Despite good clinical outcomes and similar results in patient survival between PD and HD, the penetration of PD is decreasing in the Western world. Summary First the major events in the history of the development of PD are described. Then important insights into the physiology of peritoneal transport are discussed and linked to the changes in time observed in biopsies of the peritoneal membrane. Furthermore, the developments in peritoneal access, more biocompatible dialysate solutions, automated PD at home, the establishment of parameters for dialysis adequacy and strategies to prevent infectious complications are mentioned. Finally non-medical issues responsible for the declining penetration in the Western world are analyzed. Key Messages Only after introduction of the concept of continuous ambulatory PD by Moncrief and Popovich has this treatment evolved in time to a renal replacement therapy. Of all structures present in the peritoneal membrane, the capillary endothelium offers the rate-limiting hindrance for solute and water transport for the diffusive and convective transport of solutes and osmosis. The functional and anatomical changes in the peritoneal membrane in time can be monitored by the peritoneal equilibrium test. Peritonitis incidence decreased by introduction of the Y-set and prophylaxis using mupirocin on the exit site. The decrease in the proportion of patients treated with PD in the Western world can be explained by non-medical issues such as inadequate predialysis patient education, physician experience and training, ease of HD initiation, overcapacity of in-center HD, lack of adequate infrastructure for PD treatment, costs and reimbursement issues of the treatment. Facts from
Abdel-Aal, Ahmed K.; Dybbro, Paul; Hathaway, Peter; Guest, Steven; Neuwirth, Michael; Krishnamurthy, Venkat
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters can be placed by interventional radiologists, an approach that might offer scheduling efficiencies, cost-effectiveness, and a minimally invasive procedure. In the United States, changes in the dialysis reimbursement structure by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are expected to result in the increased use of PD, a less costly dialysis modality that offers patients the opportunity to receive dialysis in the home setting and to have more independence for travel and work schedules, and that preserves vascular access for future dialysis options. Placement of PD catheters by interventional radiologists might therefore be increasingly requested by nephrology practices, given that recent publications have demonstrated the favorable impact on PD practices of an interventional radiology PD placement capability. Earlier reports of interventional radiology PD catheter placement came from single-center practices with smaller reported experiences. The need for a larger consensus document that attempts to establish best demonstrated practices for radiologists is evident. The radiologists submitting this consensus document represent a combined experience of more than 1000 PD catheter placements. The authors submit these consensus-proposed best demonstrated practices for placement of PD catheters by interventional radiologists under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. This technique might allow for expeditious placement of permanent PD catheters in late-referred patients with end-stage renal disease, thus facilitating urgent-start PD and avoiding the need for temporary vascular access catheters. PMID:24584622
Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Al-Qadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; Al-Hejaili, Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 +/- 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 +/- 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and
Tunsäter, Alf; Moutakis, Mikael; Borg, Sixten; Persson, Ulf; Strömberg, Leif; Nielsen, Anders Lassen
This paper reports on a retrospective analysis of hospital-based healthcare costs associated with the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During the second half of 2001, Simrishamn Hospital, Sweden, implemented a structured Disease Management Programme (DMP) for COPD and a total of 784 patients with COPD, enrolled in the DMP, were included in the analysis. The goal was to reduce the number of clinical events, such as severe exacerbations by early intervention, aggressive drug treatment, specialists easy available for advice, improved support for smoking cessation, increased number of scheduled follow-ups and closer tracking of high-risk COPD patients. The hospital administrative system provided data on resource consumption, such as outpatient care, inpatient care and drugs and unit cost, used in the economic analysis. The total cost of COPD drugs doubled (from euro 14,133 to euro 30,855 per year) as did the total number of outpatient visits (from 580 to 996 visits per year). The number of hospitalizations for acute COPD exacerbations and COPD with acute lower respiratory infection decreased from 67 to 25 per year. Total COPD-related healthcare costs decreased. The results presented here support the hypothesis that a COPD DMP can offer substantial overall direct cost savings.
Frush, Karen S; Alton, Michael; Frush, Donald P
Evidence from numerous studies indicates that large numbers of patients are harmed by medical errors while receiving health-care services in the United States today. The 1999 Institute of Medicine report on medical errors recommended that hospitals and health-care agencies "establish safety programs to act as a catalyst for the development of a culture of safety" . In this article, we describe one approach to successful implementation of a hospital-based patient safety program. Although our experience at Duke University Health System will be used as an example, the needs, principles, and solutions can apply to a variety of other health-care practices. Key components include the development of safety teams, provision of tools that teams can use to support an environment of safety, and ongoing program modification to meet patient and staff needs and respond to changing priorities. By moving patient safety to the forefront of all that we do as health-care providers, we can continue to improve our delivery of health care to children and adults alike. This improvement is fostered when we enhance the culture of safety, develop a constant awareness of the possibility of human and system errors in the delivery of care, and establish additional safeguards to intercept medical errors in order to prevent harm to patients.
Stager, D F; Krasner, M I; Goodwin, E J
The development of a comprehensive data base for hospital-based ambulatory care has made possible the accurate determination of each community's use of hospitals in New York City and permits a reliable estimation of all ambulatory care received by residents of Health Manpower Shortage Areas (HMSAs). In spite of the city's abundant supply of private practitioners and widespread Medicaid coverage, residents of HMSAs in New York City are heavily dependent on hospital-based ambulatory care. Contrary to commonly held notions, however, HMSA residents do not appear to overuse hospital-based ambulatory care. Rather, that use appears to be quite modest, given their poorer health status. PMID:3101118
Wetmore, James B.; Rigler, Sally K.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Shireman, Theresa I.
Background. Type of health insurance is an important mediator of medical outcomes in the United States. Medicaid, a jointly sponsored Federal/State programme, is designed to serve medically needy individuals. How these patients differ from non-Medicaid-enrolled incident dialysis patients and how these differences have changed over time have not been systematically examined. Methods. Using data from the United States Renal Data System, we identified individuals initiating dialysis from 1995 to 2004 and categorized their health insurance status. Longitudinal trends in demographic, risk behaviour, functional, comorbidity, laboratory and dialysis modality factors, as reported on the Medical Evidence Form (CMS-2728), were examined in all insurance groups. Polychotomous logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted generalized ratios (AGRs) for these factors by insurance status, with Medicaid as the referent insurance group. Results. Overall, males constitute a growing percentage of both Medicaid and non-Medicaid patients, but in contrast to other insurance groups, Medicaid has a higher proportion of females. Non-Caucasians also constitute a higher proportion of Medicaid patients than non-Medicaid patients. Body mass index increased in all groups over time, and all groups witnessed a significant decrease in initiation on peritoneal dialysis. Polychotomous regression showed generally lower AGRs for minorities, risk behaviours and functional status, and higher AGRs for males, employment and self-care dialysis, for non-Medicaid insurance relative to Medicaid. Conclusions. While many broad parallel trends are evident in both Medicaid and non-Medicaid incident dialysis patients, many important differences between these groups exist. These findings could have important implications for policy planners, providers and payers. PMID:19736241
Cleemput, Irina; De Laet, Chris
Treatment costs of end-stage renal disease with dialysis are high and vary between dialysis modalities. Public healthcare payers aim at stimulating the use of less expensive dialysis modalities, with maintenance of healthcare quality. This study examines the effects of Belgian financial incentive mechanisms for the use of low-cost dialysis treatments. First, the costs of different dialysis modalities were calculated from the hospital's perspective. Data were obtained through a hospital survey. The balance between costs and revenues was simulated for an average Belgian dialysis programme. Incremental profits were calculated in function of the proportion of patients on alternative dialysis modalities. Hospital haemodialysis is the most expensive modality per patient year, followed by peritoneal dialysis and finally satellite haemodialysis. Under current reimbursement rules mean profits of a dialysis programme are maximal if about 28% of patients are treated with a low-cost dialysis modality. This is only slightly lower than the observed percentage in Belgian dialysis centres in the same period. In Belgium, the financial incentives for the use of low-cost dialysis modalities only had a modest impact due to the continuing profits that could be generated by high-cost dialysis. Profit neutrality is crucial for the success of any financial incentive mechanism for low-cost dialysis modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fissell, William H; Roy, Shuvo; Davenport, Andrew
The long-term survival for many chronic kidney failure patients who remain treated by dialysis in economically advanced countries remains similar to that of those with solid-organ malignancy, despite a disproportionate amount of health-care expenditure. As such, the current paradigm of three times weekly in-center hemodialysis for 4 h or shorter sessions needs to change to improve patient outcomes. Although more frequent and longer dialysis sessions have been reported to improve cardiovascular risk surrogates and short-term outcomes, these options are only practically available to a very small fraction of the total dialysis population. As such, radically new approaches are required to improve patient outcomes and quality of life for the majority of dialysis patients. Currently, two different approaches are being developed, wearable devices based on current dialysis techniques and more futuristic implantable devices modeled on the natural nephron.
Wuerth, D B; Finkelstein, S H; Kliger, A S; Finkelstein, F O
The percentage of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) maintained on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) in the United States remains well less than the percentage in several other countries. Furthermore, there has recently been a decline in the percentage of patients with ESRD in the United States undergoing CPD. The reasons for this decline are uncertain, and investigators have implicated problems with the kinetics of peritoneal dialysis, peritonitis and exit-site infections, and psychosocial stresses imposed by the therapy. Few studies, however, have considered the role of the dialysis facility itself and patient perceptions of the facility as contributing to problems with the long-term acceptance of CPD. This study is designed to examine patients' perceptions of the organization and structure of the peritoneal dialysis facility and their interactions with the facility, focusing attention on areas of patient satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the facility. The study was conducted in a large, freestanding peritoneal dialysis program in an urban area that currently treats 140 patients undergoing CPD. Thirty patients were randomly selected to participate in the present study. A structured interview that included open-ended questions was administered and tape-recorded by a trained interviewer not affiliated with the dialysis unit. Patient responses were then reviewed by two investigators, and a taxonomy of patient satisfaction and dissatisfaction was developed, using a modification of the classification proposed by Concato and Feinstein. Patient responses were then categorized according to the taxonomy. The most frequently cited areas of patient satisfaction included the amount of information and instruction provided by the staff (n = 30), personal atmosphere of the facility (n = 30), efficiency of delivery of the dialysis supplies (n = 23), and availability of the primary nurse (n = 18). The importance of the nurse-patient interaction was emphasized by all
Schweiger, Alexander; Trevino, Sergio; Marschall, Jonas
Nosocomial infections in patients requiring renal replacement therapy have a high impact on morbidity and mortality. The most dangerous complication is bloodstream infection (BSI) associated with the vascular access, with a low BSI risk in arteriovenous fistulas or grafts and a comparatively high risk in central venous catheters. The single most important measure for preventing BSI is therefore the reduction of catheter use by means of early fistula formation. As this is not always feasible, prevention should focus on educational efforts, hand hygiene, surveillance of dialysis-associated events, and specific measures at and after the insertion of catheters. Core measures at the time of insertion include choosing the optimal site of insertion, the use of maximum sterile barrier precautions, adequate skin antisepsis, and the choice of catheter type; after insertion, access care needs to ensure hub disinfection and regular dressing changes. The application of antimicrobial locks is reserved for special situations. Evidence suggests that bundling a selection of the aforementioned measures can significantly reduce infection rates. The diagnosis of central line-associated BSI (CLABSI) is based on clinical signs and microbiological findings in blood cultures ideally drawn both peripherally and from the catheter. The prompt installation of empiric antibiotic treatment covering the most commonly encountered organisms is key regarding CLABSI treatment. Catheter removal is recommended in complicated cases or if cultures yield Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Pseudomonas or fungi. In other cases, guide wire exchange or catheter salvage strategies with antibiotic lock solutions may be acceptable alternatives. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hooi, L S
A retrospective review of 246 patients with established acute renal failure (ARF) needing dialysis from 1990-1994 is reported from Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru. Peritoneal dialysis was more commonly used than haemodialysis or haemofiltration. Patients on mechanical ventilation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) who were hypercatabolic and fluid overloaded were treated with haemofiltration. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 1.5:1. The majority were Malays (61.4%). Most patients were from the district of Johor Bahru, but 41.5% were from other districts in the Johor state. The mean age was 47.1 years (SD 18.2). The ARF was caused by acute tubular necrosis in 55.3%, post-renal obstruction in 22.8%, nephrotoxins in 5.7% and other causes in 16.2%. The proportions of patients referred from the medical, surgical and obstetric and gynaecology units were 50.8%, 45.5% and 3.7% respectively. The mortality rate was 48%. Patients with established ARF should be dialysed early as they tolerate uraemia poorly. Prevention is by prompt treatment of patients with sepsis, avoidance of hypovolaemia and nephrotoxic drugs.
Liu, Fanna; Bennett, Stacy; Arrigain, Susana; Schold, Jesse; Heyka, Robert; McLennan, Gordon; Navaneethan, Sankar D.
Background Translumbar tunneled dialysis catheter (TLDC) is a temporary dialysis access for patients exhausted traditional access for dialysis. While few small studies reported successes with TLDC, additional studies are warranted to understand the short and long-term patency and safety of TLDC. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult patients who received TLDC for hemodialysis access from June 2006 to June 2013. Patient demographics, comorbid conditions, dialysis details, catheter insertion procedures and associated complications, catheter patency, and patient survival data were collected. Catheter patency was studied using Kaplan-Meier curve; catheter functionality was assessed with catheter intervals and catheter related complications were used to estimate catheter safety. Results There were 84 TLDCs inserted in 28 patients with 28 primary insertions and 56 exchanges. All TLDC insertions were technically successful with good blood flow during dialysis (>300 ml/min) and no immediate complications (major bleeding or clotting) were noted. The median number of days in place for initial catheter, secondary catheter and total catheter were 65, 84 and 244 respectively. The catheter patency rate at 3, 6 and 12 months were 43%, 25% and 7% respectively. The main complications were poor blood flow (40%) and catheter related infection (36%), which led to 30.8% and 35.9% catheter removal respectively. After translumbar catheter, 42.8% of the patients were successfully converted to another vascular access or peritoneal dialysis. Conclusion This study data suggests that TLDC might serve as a safe, alternate access for dialysis patients in short-term who have exhausted conventional vascular access. PMID:25800550
Michina, Youlia; Carriere, David; Mariet, Clarisse; Moskura, Melanie; Berthault, Patrick; Belloni, Luc; Zemb, Thomas
We have studied the dialysis of surfactant mixtures of two oppositely charged surfactants (catanionic mixture) by combining HPLC, neutron activation, confocal microscopy, and NMR. In mixtures of n-alkyl trimethylammonium halides and n-fatty acids, we have demonstrated the existence of a specific ratio between both surfactant contents (anionic/cationic almost equal to 2:1) that determines the morphology, the elimination of ions, and the elimination of the soluble cationic surfactant upon dialysis. In mixtures prepared with lower anionic surfactant contents, ill-defined aggregates are formed, and dialysis quickly eliminates the ion pairs (H+X-) formed upon surfactant association and also the cationic surfactant until a limiting 2:1 ratio is reached. By contrast, mixtures prepared above the anionic/cationic 2:1 ratio form micrometer-sized vesicles resistant to dialysis. These closed aggregates retain a significant number of ions (30%) over 1000 hours, and dialysis is unable to eliminate the soluble surfactant. The interactions between surfactants have been estimated by measuring the partitioning of the CTA molecules between the catanionic bilayer, the bulk solution, and mixed micelles when they exist. The mean extraction free energy per CTA in the membrane has been found to increase by 1 kBT to 2 kBT as the soluble surfactant is depleted from the bilayer, which is enough to stop the dialysis. The vesicles produced above the anionic/cationic 2:1 ratio are formed by frozen bilayers and are resistant to extensive dialysis and therefore show an interesting potential for encapsulation as far as durability is concerned.
Liu, Fanna; Bennett, Stacy; Arrigain, Susana; Schold, Jesse; Heyka, Robert; McLennan, Gordon; Navaneethan, Sankar D
Translumbar tunneled dialysis catheter (TLDC) is a temporary dialysis access for patients exhausted traditional access for dialysis. While few small studies reported successes with TLDC, additional studies are warranted to understand the short- and long-term patency and safety of TLDC. We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult patients who received TLDC for hemodialysis access from June 2006 to June 2013. Patient demographics, comorbid conditions, dialysis details, catheter insertion procedures and associated complications, catheter patency, and patient survival data were collected. Catheter patency was studied using Kaplan-Meier curve; catheter functionality was assessed with catheter intervals and catheter-related complications were used to estimate catheter safety. There were 84 TLDCs inserted in 28 patients with 28 primary insertions and 56 exchanges. All TLDC insertions were technically successful with good blood flow during dialysis (>300 ml/minute) and no immediate complications (major bleeding or clotting) were noted. The median number of days in place for initial catheter, secondary catheter, and total catheter were 65, 84, and 244 respectively. The catheter patency rate at 3, 6, and 12 months were 43%, 25%, and 7% respectively. The main complications were poor blood flow (40%) and catheter-related infection (36%), which led to 30.8% and 35.9% catheter removal, respectively. After translumbar catheter, 42.8% of the patients were successfully converted to another vascular access or peritoneal dialysis. This study data suggest that TLDC might serve as a safe, alternate access for dialysis patients in short-term who have exhausted conventional vascular access. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Desland, M; Batey, R
The rates of criminality of two groups of heroin users presenting to Westmead Hospital were studied. Forty-seven heroin users referred by a structured court diversion scheme (DACAP) were compared with 45 self-referred heroin users. Demographic data, heroin use measures, non-narcotic drug use, and alcohol use were collected by semi-structured interview. Official records were used for measures of criminality. This provided a comprehensive profile of conviction and incarceration rates. Each sample was compared on the age at presentation, intensity and duration of heroin use, and presenting rates of criminality. Results demonstrated the DACAP sample was significantly less heroin involved at presentation with a marginally shorter history of use. Comparisons on criminality demonstrated no difference between samples on six measures. The DACAP group recorded significantly higher levels on two criminality measures, the reverse of what was hypothesized. It is suggested that the DACAP diversion scheme generates a distinct subpopulation of heroin users, characterized by younger age, lower education, less marital attachment, poorer employment history, earlier onset of antisocial behaviour and comparable criminality. Identifiable subpopulations of heroin users appear to be generated by the different referral sources: legal or health oriented. The utility of diverting a more criminally and socially dysfunctional group to treatment agencies is discussed.
Closa, Conxita; Mas, Miquel À; Santaeugènia, Sebastià J; Inzitari, Marco; Ribera, Aida; Gallofré, Miquel
To compare outcomes and costs for patients with orthogeriatric conditions in a home-based integrated care program versus conventional hospital-based care. Quasi-experimental longitudinal study. An acute care hospital, an intermediate care hospital, and the community of an urban area in the North of Barcelona, in Southern Europe. In a 2-year period, we recruited 367 older patients attended at an orthopedic/traumatology unit in an acute hospital for fractures and/or arthroplasty. Patients were referred to a hospital-at-home integrated care unit or to standard hospital-based postacute orthogeriatric unit, based on their social support and availability of the resource. We compared home-based care versus hospital-based care for Relative Functional Gain (gain/loss of function measured by the Barthel Index), mean direct costs, and potential savings in terms of reduction of stay in the acute care hospital. No differences were found in Relative Functional Gain, median (Q25-Q75) = 0.92 (0.64-1.09) in the home-based group versus 0.93 (0.59-1) in the hospital-based group, P =.333. Total health service direct cost [mean (standard deviation)] was significantly lower for patients receiving home-based care: €7120 (3381) versus €12,149 (6322), P < .001. Length of acute hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients discharged to home-based care [10.1 (7)] than in patients discharged to the postacute orthogeriatric hospital-based unit [15.3 (12) days, P < .001]. The hospital-at-home integrated care program was suitable for managing older patients with orthopedic conditions who have good social support for home care. It provided clinical care comparable to the hospital-based model, and it seems to enable earlier acute hospital discharge and lower direct costs. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koren, Ronit; Zafrir Danieli, Hadas; Doenyas-Barak, Keren; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Golik, Ahuva
Context • The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been on the rise in the last decade. Subpopulations of patients with chronic diseases are at risk for adverse events and potential drug-herb interactions, among them dialysis patients. Objective • The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CAM consumption among dialysis patients and to search for potential interactions. Design • The study was cross-sectional, based on questionnaires. Setting • The study occurred in the hemodialysis unit at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (Zeriffin, Israel). Participants • Participants were patients of the hemodialysis unit. Outcome Measures • The questionnaires obtained demographic data, information about a patient's medical history and use of prescription medication, and all relevant history of CAM use, including the interest of the medical team in the patient's use of supplements. Results • Eighty-four patients participated in the study. Eight patients (9.5%) had used CAM, 5 of whom were women (62.5%). Of the CAM consumers, 4 (50%) had more than 12 y of education vs 14 (8.4%) in the nonconsumer group (P = .061). Six of the consumers were professionals (75%) in comparison with 30 (39.5%) of the nonconsumers, although that difference was not statistically significant (P = .22). The CAM users' monthly incomes were significantly better than that of the nonconsumers (P = .01). No differences were found regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity. The study found potential drug-herb interactions in 4 (50%) of the CAM consumers. Moderate potential interactions were found between Aloe vera and diuretics; Aloe vera and insulin; pyridoxine and calcium-channel blockers and diuretics; and niacin and statins. Those interactions had the potential to result in hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and lower blood pressure. Conclusions • The study found a lower prevalence of CAM consumption in dialysis patients than had been found in other
Liu, Frank X; Walton, Surrey M; Leipold, Robert; Isbell, Deborah; Golper, Thomas A
The economic burden of treating end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continues to grow. As one response, effective January 1, 2011, Medicare implemented a bundled prospective payment system (PPS, including injectable drugs) for dialysis patients. This study investigated the 5-year budget impact on Medicare under the new PPS of changes in the distribution of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), in-center hemodialysis (ICHD), and home hemodialysis (HHD). An Excel-based budget impact model was created to assess dialysis-associated Medicare costs. The model accounted for dialysis access establishment, the current monthly capitation physician payment for ESRD, Medicare dialysis payments (including start-up costs), training, oral drug costs, and the costs and probabilities of adverse events including access failure, hospitalization for access infection, pneumonia, septicemia, and cardiovascular events. United States Renal Data System (USRDS) data were used to project the US Medicare dialysis patient population across time. The baseline scenario assumed a stable distribution of PD (7.7%), HHD (1.3%) and ICHD (91.0%) over 5 years. Three comparison scenarios raised the proportions of PD and HHD by (1) 1% and 0.5%, (2) 2% and 0.75%, and (3) 3% and 1% each year; a fourth scenario held HHD constant and lowered PD by 1% per year. Under the bundled PPS, scenarios that increased PD and HHD from 7.7% and 1.3% over 5 years resulted in cumulative savings to Medicare of $114.8M (Scenario 1, 11.7% PD and 3.3% HHD at year 5), $232.9M (Scenario 2, 15.7% PD and 4.3% HHD at year 5), and $350.9M (Scenario 3, 19.7% PD and 5.3% HHD at year 5). When the PD population was decreased from 7.7% in 2013 to 3.7% by 2017 with a constant HHD population, the total Medicare payment for dialysis patients increased by over $121.2M. Under Medicare bundled PPS, increasing the proportion of patients on PD and HHD vs ICHD could generate substantial savings in dialysis-associated costs to Medicare
Bakkaloğlu, S A; Ekim, M; Koçak, G; Atalay, S; Tümer, N
Left ventricular hypertrophy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic renal failure. Uremia-related risk factors play a fundamental role in its occurrence, thus better prognosis and prolonged survival can be attained by successful dialytic therapies. To investigate whether dialysis adequacy has a beneficial effect on cardiac structure and function in children receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Cross-sectional study in the Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Unit of a university hospital. Eighteen children, aged 13.3 +/- 2.8 years, being treated with CAPD, and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in this study. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in all subjects. Dialysis adequacy indices [weekly urea (Kt/V) and creatinine clearance (TCCr)] were calculated in the dialysis group. Interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, LV mass index (LVMI), and LV end systolic and diastolic dimensions were all found to be significantly higher in the CAPD group compared to the control subjects (p < 0.01). Ejection fraction and fractional shortening of the LV were not significantly different between the two groups. Mean Kt/V was 2.02 +/- 0.71 and mean TCCr was 58 +/- 33 L/wk/1.73 m2. There were significant negative correlations between dialysis adequacy indices and LV end systolic and diastolic dimensions (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). Ejection fraction and fractional shortening were positively correlated with Kt/V (p < 0.01). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were positively correlated with LVMI (r= 0.501 and r = 0.523). Significant inverse correlations between mean arterial pressure and both Kt/V and TCCr (r = -0.555 and r = -0.520) were detected. These data clearly document that cardiac structure and function are remarkably influenced by the uremic state and dialysis therapy in pediatric CAPD patients. The close relationships between echocardiographic
Quinn, Robert R; Hux, Janet E; Oliver, Matthew J; Austin, Peter C; Tonelli, Marcello; Laupacis, Andreas
The relative risk of death for patients treated with peritoneal dialysis compared with those treated with hemodialysis appears to change with duration of dialysis therapy. Patients who start dialysis urgently are at high risk for mortality and are treated almost exclusively with hemodialysis, introducing bias to such mortality comparisons. To better isolate the association between dialysis treatment modality and patient mortality, we examined the relative risk for mortality for peritoneal dialysis compared with hemodialysis among individuals who received ≥4 months of predialysis care and who started dialysis electively as outpatients. From a total of 32,285 individuals who received dialysis in Ontario, Canada during a nearly 8-year period, 6,573 patients met criteria for elective, outpatient initiation. We detected no difference in survival between peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis after adjusting for relevant baseline characteristics. The relative risk of death did not change with duration of dialysis therapy in our primary analysis, but it did change with time when we defined our patient population using the more inclusive criteria typical of previous studies. These results suggest that peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis associate with similar survival among incident dialysis patients who initiate dialysis electively, as outpatients, after at least 4 months of predialysis care. Selection bias, rather than an effect of the treatment itself, likely explains the previously described change in the relative risk of death over time between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
Weddig, Jennifer; Baker, Susan S; Auld, Garry
To assess the variation in breastfeeding knowledge and practices of registered nurses in hospital women and family-care units and the informal and formal hospital policies related to the initiation and support of breastfeeding. This qualitative study employed a focus group approach to solicit perceptions of hospital-based nurses regarding breastfeeding best practices. Eight state hospitals stratified by socioeconomic status (SES) and size served as settings to recruit participants for this study. Forty female registered nurses from labor and delivery (n=9), postpartum (n=13), labor and delivery/recovery/postpartum care (LDRP) (n=12) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (n=6) constituted eight focus groups. The majority of nurses reported being knowledgeable of evidence-based best practices related to breastfeeding initiation. However, in non-Baby Friendly/Baby Friendly Intent (non-BF/BFI) settings, nurses' knowledge often was not in accordance with current best practices in breastfeeding initiation, and reported hospital policies were not based upon evidence-based practices. Barriers to best practices in breastfeeding initiation included hospital lactation policies (formal and informal), nurses' limited education in breastfeeding initiation best practices, high rates of surgical delivery, and lack of continuity of care with the transition of responsibility from one nurse to another from labor and delivery to transition care to postpartum care. A significant disparity between nurses' intention to support breastfeeding and their knowledge suggests a need for education based on the World Health Organization Baby Friendly standards for nurses at non-BF/BFI hospitals. A significant barrier to supporting breastfeeding is lack of hospital policy and inappropriate or outdated policy. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Goldstein, Larry B
Statewide assessments of stroke prevention and treatment services were performed in North Carolina in 1998 and 2003. The 2003 survey found certain technologies, but not stroke-related programs, were more widely available. The survey was repeated in 2008 to determine whether there was an interval change in accessibility. A 2-page questionnaire was sent to each North Carolina hospital. Results were compared with the 1998 and 2003 surveys. Complete responses were obtained from each of the state's emergent stroke care hospitals. The proportions providing CT angiography and diffusion-weighted MRI increased between each period (each P<0.05); the use of care maps and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator protocols increased between 2003 and 2008 but not between 1998 and 2003. There were no changes in availability of MRI, MR angiography, catheter angiography, carotid ultrasound, transcranial Doppler, transthoracic echocardiography, or in the proportions of hospitals having a stroke unit, having a neurologist or neurointerventionalist readily available, or providing stroke-related public education (each P>0.05). The proportions of hospitals having a group of "basic" stroke capabilities did not change (18%, 21%, and 20%, respectively, P>0.05). In 2008, 41% of North Carolina's population resided in a county with at least 1 Primary Stroke Center and an additional 40% in a county using telemedicine or having a transfer plan for patients with acute stroke. The availability of certain diagnostic tests, but not specialty staff or stroke units, increased in North Carolina hospitals between 1998 and 2008. Although there was no change in stroke-related hospital-based organizational features between 1998 and 2003, there were improvements between 2003 and 2008, possibly reflecting programs aimed at developing stroke care systems.
Parker, R David; Regier, Michael; Brown, Zachary; Davis, Stephen
Homelessness is a primary concern for community health. Scientific literature on homelessness is wide ranging and diverse. One opportunity to add to existing literature is the development and testing of affordable, easily implemented methods for measuring the impact of homeless on the healthcare system. Such methodological approaches rely on the strengths in a multidisciplinary approach, including providers, both healthcare and homeless services and applied clinical researchers. This paper is a proof of concept for a methodology which is easily adaptable nationwide, given the mandated implementation of homeless management information systems in the United States and other countries; medical billing systems by hospitals; and research methods of researchers. Adaptation is independent of geographic region, budget restraints, specific agency skill sets, and many other factors that impact the application of a consistent methodological science based approach to assess and address homelessness. We conducted a secondary data analysis merging data from homeless utilization and hospital case based data. These data detailed care utilization among homeless persons in a small, Appalachian city in the United States. In our sample of 269 persons who received at least one hospital based service and one homeless service between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013, the total billed costs were $5,979,463 with 10 people costing more than one-third ($1,957,469) of the total. Those persons were primarily men, living in an emergency shelter, with pre-existing disabling conditions. We theorize that targeted services, including Housing First, would be an effective intervention. This is proposed in a future study.
Mendelssohn, D C; Chery, A
OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in the demand for and supply of dialysis in the Toronto region and to determine whether planned dialysis expansion will be sufficient to provide for the projected growth of the dialysis population. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of data reported to the Toronto Region Dialysis Registry between 1981 and 1992, compared with provincial and national equivalents. SETTING: All secondary and tertiary care dialysis programs in the Toronto region participating in the registry. PATIENTS: All 504 existing patients enrolled in dialysis programs in 1981 and all 3794 new patients entering programs from 1982 to 1992. Patients with acute renal failure were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demand for dialysis: dialysis population at year end, age distribution, crude mortality rate and transplant rate. Supply of resources: distribution of modality (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), number of patients treated per hemodialysis station, number of hemodialysis stations per million population and hemodialysis utilization index (actual/budgeted treatments). RESULTS: During the study period the number of dialysis patients in the Toronto region went from 504 to 1422, for an increase of 182.1%. The average rate of growth was 9.8% per year. Of the total increment of 918 patients from 1981 to 1992, 390 (42.5%) were 65 years of age or more; none the less, the average annual crude mortality rate remained relatively constant, at 13.8% to 17.3%. The transplantation rate declined from a peak of 20.2% in 1982 to 7.8% in 1992. During the study period the Toronto region had much higher numbers of dialysis patients, and hemodialysis patients, per hemodialysis station than the rest of Ontario or Canada. The region's hemodialysis utilization index was 101% in 1991 and 102% in 1992; the index in individual hospitals varied from 98% to 124% (85% was considered optimal). CONCLUSIONS: The growth of the dialysis population in the Toronto region has caused a critical shortage of
Teixeira, J. Pedro; Combs, Sara A.; Teitelbaum, Isaac
Due to ongoing limitations in the availability and timeliness of kidney transplantation, most patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) require some form of dialysis during their lifetime. Worldwide, ESRD patients most commonly receive hemodialysis (HD) or one of two forms of peritoneal dialysis (PD), continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) or automated PD (APD). In this review, we analyze the data available from the last several decades on overall survival associated with HD as compared to PD as well as with CAPD compared to APD. Because of the inherent difficulty in randomly assigning patients to different dialysis modalities, the survival data available are virtually all observational and fraught with many confounding factors and limitations. However, over the last 10 – 15 years as overall survival of dialysis patients has steadily improved and statistical methods to analyze observational data have evolved, a pattern of virtual equivalence in survival among patients on HD vs. PD and on CAPD vs. APD has emerged. As such, impact upon lifestyle and upon quality of life likely should remain the predominant factors in guiding nephrologists and their patients in their choice of dialysis modality. PMID:25345384
As we begin a new decade, hospital-based home health agencies have been waning over the last one, and for a number of reasons. An examination of hospital-based home health since its beginnings in this country yields some answers, but also reveals the importance of many of these home health programs in the communities they serve. There are often more components to consider when weighing the value of these programs than financial statements alone can illuminate.
The results of a nationwide statistical survey of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Japan (PD registry) were reported at the end of 2012. There were 9,514 PD patients at the end of 2012 (3.1%), indicating 128 fewer than in the 2011 survey (9,642 patients). There were 347 non-PD+catheter patients, and 175 patients were started on PD in 2012 but were switched to another therapy in the same year. The sum of these 522 patients and the total number of PD patients (i.e. the total number of PD-therapy-related patients) was 10,036 (522 + 9,514). The PD-only patients numbered 7,323 (80.4%), and the PD+hemodialysis (HD) patients numbered 1,788 (19.6%). Of these 9,111 PD patients, 1,428 patients (15.7%) underwent HD once per week; 219 patients (2.4%), twice per week; and 55 patients (0.6%), three times per week. The PD+HD patients (1,788) accounted for 19.6% of all PD patients. In addition, 39.8% of PD patients were using the poly-glucose dialysis solution icodextrin (Extraneal). Around 40% of PD patients were using icodextrin, a much higher percentage than in other countries. What is the likelihood that the number of PD patients in Japan will gradually decrease (or increase) in the future? Regarding the dialysis trend in Japan, it is unlikely that the number of PD patients will increase. I think that if the government greatly increases the medical insurance coverage of PD treatment, the number of PD patients in Japan will increase as much as it recently has in the United States. If not, it is extremely unlikely that there will be a large increase in the number of PD patients in Japan.
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Abe, Takaya; Onoda, Mistutaka; Matsuura, Tomohiko; Sugimura, Jun; Obara, Wataru; Sato, Toshiya; Takahashi, Mihoko; Chiba, Kenta; Abe, Tomiya
An electrical or water supply and a blood purification machine are required for renal replacement therapy. There is a possibility that acute kidney injury can occur in large numbers and on a wide scale in the case of a massive earthquake, and there is the potential risk that the current supply will be unable to cope with acute kidney injury cases. However, non-machinery dialysis requires exclusive circuits and has the characteristic of not requiring the full-scale dialysis machines. We performed perfusion experiments that used non-machinery dialysis and recent blood purification machines in 30-min intervals, and the effectiveness of non-machinery dialysis was evaluated by the assessing the removal efficiency of potassium, which causes lethal arrhythmia during acute kidney injury. The non-machinery dialysis potassium removal rate was at the same level as continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 5 L/h after 15 min and continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 3 L/h after 30 min. Non-machinery dialysis required an exclusive dialysate circuit, the frequent need to replace bags, and new dialysate exchanged once every 30 min. However, it can be seen as an effective renal replacement therapy for crush-related acute kidney injury patients, even in locations or facilities not having the full-scale dialysis machines.
Hogan, Andrew N; Fox, William R; Roppolo, Lynn P; Suter, Robert E
This study aimed to define the ethnographic composition and assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a large population of undocumented patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) seeking emergent dialysis in the emergency department (ED) of a large public hospital in the United States. All ESRD patients presenting to the hospital's main ED were identified during a 4-week consecutive enrollment period. Consenting patients completed two surveys-an ethnographic questionnaire and the validated kidney disease quality of life-36 (KDQOL-36) instrument. The study was conducted at a large county hospital in Dallas, Texas. In 2013, the hospital recorded >50,000 ED visits and administered approximately 6,000 dialysis treatments to ED patients. 88 of 101 unfunded patients presenting to the ED during the study period consented to participate, resulting in an 87.1% response rate. 65 of these patients were undocumented immigrants. Quantitative scores for the 5 subscales of the KDQOL-36 were calculated for the study population. Measures of physical and mental health in our study population were lower than those published for scheduled dialysis patients. 79.5% of our patients lost employment due to their dialysis requirements. At least 71.4% of the study patients were unaware that they required dialysis before immigrating to the United States. Quality of life scores were found to be low among our population of undocumented emergent dialysis patients. Our data also provide some evidence that availability of dialysis at no cost is not a primary driver of illegal immigration of ESRD patients to the United States.
Gustafsson, Louise; Nugent, Nicole; Biros, Lenka
Occupational therapy after stroke represents a complex intervention. The aim of this observational study was to document the content of occupational therapy stroke rehabilitation in an Australian general rehabilitation ward. A behavioural mapping tool recorded 22 occupational therapy sessions at five-minute intervals for nine participants with stroke (mean age 70.6 years, 88.9% female). The mean session length was 41 minutes. The focus of therapy was predominantly at body functions (mean 16.5 minutes) and motor and perceptual impairments were addressed most often. The overall amount of occupational therapy provided was consistent with session lengths reported from effective stroke units and recommended by stroke guidelines. However, the results highlight the difficulties for occupational therapists working within the hospital environment, including practice that was largely restricted to the level of impairment and basic activities of daily living.
Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Grimes, Barbara; Anand, Shuchi; McCulloch, Charles E.; Kaysen, George A.
Objective Serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations are strongly associated with the risk of death in patients on dialysis. Our study examined the association among demographic characteristics, body composition, co-morbidities, dialysis modality and access, inflammation and longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin in incident dialysis patients. Design, Setting, Subjects and Outcome Measures The Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) is a prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients; in this report we examined data from 266 Nutrition sub-study participants who donated serum. The independent variables of interest were baseline age, sex, race, Quetélet's (body mass) index, dialysis modality and access, diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerotic vascular disease, serum creatinine, and longitudinal measures of C-reactive protein. The outcomes of interest (dependent variables) were longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations, measured at study entry and every 3 months for one year. Results In multivariable mixed linear models, female sex, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis with a catheter, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower serum albumin concentrations, and serum albumin concentrations increased slightly over the year. In comparison, prealbumin concentrations did not significantly change over time; female sex, lower body mass index, diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower prealbumin concentrations. Serum creatinine had a curvilinear relation with serum albumin and prealbumin. Conclusions Serum albumin increases early in the course of dialysis whereas prealbumin does not, and the predictors of serum concentrations differ at any given time. Further understanding of mechanisms underlying differences between albumin and prealbumin kinetics in persons on dialysis may lead to an improved approach to the management of protein energy
Dalrymple, Lorien S; Johansen, Kirsten L; Chertow, Glenn M; Grimes, Barbara; Anand, Shuchi; McCulloch, Charles E; Kaysen, George A
Serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations are strongly associated with the risk of death in dialysis patients. Our study examined the association among demographic characteristics, body composition, comorbidities, dialysis modality and access, inflammation, and longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations in incident dialysis patients. DESIGN, SETTING, SUBJECTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study is a prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients; in this report, we examined the data from 266 Nutrition substudy participants who donated serum. The independent variables of interest were baseline age, sex, race, Quetélet's (body mass) index, dialysis modality and access, diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerotic vascular disease, serum creatinine level, and longitudinal measures of C-reactive protein. The outcomes of interest (dependent variables) were longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations, recorded at study entry and thereafter every 3 months for 1 year. In multivariable mixed linear models, female sex, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis with a catheter, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower serum albumin concentrations, and serum albumin concentrations increased slightly over the year. In comparison, prealbumin concentrations did not significantly change over time; female sex, lower body mass index, diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower prealbumin concentrations. Serum creatinine had a curvilinear relation with serum albumin and prealbumin. Serum albumin level increases early in the course of dialysis, whereas prealbumin level does not, and the predictors of serum concentrations differ at any given time. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying differences between albumin and prealbumin kinetics in dialysis patients may lead to an improved approach to the management of
Remuzzi, A; Boccardo, P; Benigni, A
This work describes an in vitro system developed to quantitate platelet deposition on different dialysis membranes. The system is based on the use of small dialysis filters and reproduces the haemodynamic pattern of blood flowing through hollow fibres during in vivo dialysis. We have determined the in vitro platelet adhesion to cuprophan and to a non-cellulosic membrane, polymethylmethacrylate. When albumin concentration in the platelet suspension was low (0.35%) platelet deposition to cuprophan and to polymethylmethacrylate was comparable. When albumin concentration was increased to a physiological value (3.5%) platelet adhesion to both cuprophan and to polymethylmethacrylate membranes significantly decreased. This effect of albumin was greatest for the high-permeable polymethylmethacrylate membrane (BK). These data suggest that platelet membrane interaction is significantly influenced by circulating albumin.
Diaz-Buxo, José A
Continuous flow peritoneal dialysis (CFPD) can be considered a special form of hemodialysis, during which peritoneal effluent, rather than blood, is being dialyzed using standard hemodialysis technology. Preliminary clinical data have identified poor mixing of the dialysis solution, streaming and recirculation as a significant limitation in achieving maximal solute removal and ultrafiltration. Better catheter designs remain a research priority in this field. Although the clinical experience is limited to short-lasting experiments with CFPD, the preliminary data strongly support the superiority of CFPD as the most effective peritoneal dialysis modality in removing small solutes and providing high ultrafiltration rates. The levels of clearance attained are similar to quotidian hemodialysis. In addition, it is expected that the current methodology will provide a new standard of solution biocompatibility.
Wadhwa, Nand K; Reddy, Gampala H
Exit-site infection (ESI), tunnel infection and associated peritonitis are major causes of morbidity and catheter loss in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Meticulous exit-site care is vital in preventing ESI. Avoiding trauma to the exit-site and daily cleaning of the exit-site with a dedicated antimicrobial soap is essential for the longevity of the peritoneal dialysis catheter. Antibiotics cream and disinfectant agents including povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, electrolytic chloroxidizing solutions (Amuchina 10% - ExSept Plus, Amuchina 5% - ExSept) are useful to keep the resident micro-organisms inhibited. ESI rates in peritoneal dialysis patients treated with Amuchina 10% (ExSept Plus) and Amuchina 5% (ExSept) for the exit-site care are similar or lower compared to povidone-iodine or chlorhexidine. Electrolytic chloroxidizing (Amuchina 10% - ExSept Plus and Amuchina 5% - ExSept) solutions for exit-site care are effective for prevention and treatment of ESI.
Ocak, Gurbey; Vossen, Carla Y; Rotmans, Joris I; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Parlevliet, Karien J; Krediet, Ray T; Boeschoten, Els W; Dekker, Friedo W; Verduijn, Marion
Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk. Furthermore, it is unknown whether having a history of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to dialysis treatment increases mortality risk. A total of 455 dialysis patients were followed for objectively verified symptomatic thrombotic events between January 1997 and June 2009. The incidence rates in dialysis patients as compared to the general population was 5.6-fold (95% CI 3.1-8.9) increased for venous thrombosis, 11.9-fold (95% CI 9.3-14.9) increased for myocardial infarction, and 8.4-fold (95% CI 5.7-11.5) increased for ischaemic stroke. The combination of haemodialysis, lowest tertile of albumin, history of venous thrombosis, and malignancy was associated with subsequent venous thrombosis. Increased age, renal vascular disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, history of venous thrombosis, and history of arterial thrombosis were associated with subsequent arterial thrombosis. The all-cause mortality risk was 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.1-3.3) increased for patients with a history of venous thrombosis and 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.4-2.6) increased for patients with a history of arterial thrombosis. A potential limitation of this study was that in some risk categories associations with venous thrombosis did not reach statistical significance due to small numbers. In conclusion, dialysis patients have clearly elevated risks of venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis and occurrence of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to the start of dialysis is associated with an increased mortality risk.
Williams, Mark E; Mittman, Neal; Ma, Lin; Brennan, Julia I; Mooney, Ann; Johnson, Curtis D; Jani, Chinu M; Maddux, Franklin W; Lacson, Eduardo
The validity of hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) is undergoing increasing scrutiny in the advanced CKD/ESRD (chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease) population, where it appears to be discordant from other glycemic indices. In the Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) Study, we sought to assess correlation of HgbA1c with casual glucose, glycated albumin, and serum fructosamine in a large group of diabetic patients on dialysis. From 26 dialysis facilities in the United States, 1758 diabetic patients (hemodialysis = 1476, peritoneal dialysis = 282) were enrolled in the first quarter of 2013. The distributions of HgbA1c and the other glycemic indices were analyzed. Intra-patient coefficients of variation and correlations among the four glycemic indices were determined. Patients with low HgbA1c values were both on higher erythropoietin (ESA) doses and more anemic. Serum glucose exhibited the highest intra-patient variability over a 3-month period; variability was modest among the other glycemic indices, and least with HgbA1c. Statistical analyses inclusive of all glycemic markers indicated modest to strong correlations. HgbA1c was more likely to be in the target range than glycated albumin or serum fructosamine, suggesting factors which may or may not be directly related to glycemic control, including anemia, ESA management, and iron administration, in interpreting HgbA1c values. These initial results from the GIDE Study clarify laboratory correlations among glycemic indices and add to concerns about reliance on HgbA1c in patients with diabetes and advanced kidney disease.
Dussol, B; Berthezène, P; Brunet, P; Roubicek, C; Berland, Y
During the last quarter of 1992, 984 patients from 13 dialysis centers in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region in France participated in a multicenter cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence, the risk factors, and the clinical consequences of infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Serum samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies using second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the case of a positive result, a combination test was performed using second-generation recombinant immunoblot (RIBA) or direct detection of HCV-RNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Collected data included the patient's age, gender, cause of the kidney disease, type of dialysis treatment, number of years on dialysis, weekly dialysis time, drug addiction, co-infection with hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), number of kidney transplants, number of blood transfusions, and history of acute or chronic hepatitis. Chronic HCV infection was detected in 232 (23.6%) patients, whereas only 71 (7.2%) were infected by HBV. Logistic-regression analysis showed that HCV infection was associated with dialysis over a long period, numerous blood transfusions, female gender, kidney grafts, HBV infection, hemodialysis, and acute as well as chronic hepatitis. Multiple-correspondence analysis confirmed that the contamination was both transfusional and nosocomial. These results underscore the need for a strict compliance with "universal precautions" (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], Atlanta) in dialysis units and raise the question as to whether anti-HCV-positive patients should be isolated.
Ozeki, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Hideaki; Fujita, Yoshiro; Inaguma, Daijo; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ohyama, Yukako; Minatoguchi, Shun; Murai, Yukari; Terashita, Maho; Tagaya, Tomoki
Objective The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines have recommended the use of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) at the initiation of dialysis. However, there are significant differences in the dialysis environments of Japan and the United States, and there are few people who receive hemodialysis via a central venous catheter (CVC) in Japan. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the type of vascular access at the initiation of dialysis and the incidence of mortality in Japan. Methods This study was a prospective, multicenter, cohort study. The data was collected by the Aichi Cohort study of Prognosis in Patients newly initiated into dialysis (AICOPP) in which 18 Japanese tertiary care centers participated. The present study enrolled 1,524 patients who were newly introduced to dialysis (the patients started maintenance dialysis between October 2011 and September 2013). After excluding 183 patients with missing data, 1,341 patients were enrolled. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate mortality based on the type of vascular access. The types of vascular access were divided into four categories: AVF, arteriovenous graft (AVG), CVC changed to AVF during the course (CAVF), CVC changed to AVG during the course (CAVG). Results A multivariate analysis revealed that AVG, CAVF and CAVG were associated with a higher risk of mortality in comparison to AVF [hazard ratio (HR), 1.60; p=0.048; HR, 2.26; p=0.003; and HR, 2.45; p=0.001, respectively]. Conclusion The research proved that the survival rate among patients in whom hemodialysis was initiated with AVF was significantly higher than that in patients in whom hemodialysis was initiated with AVG or CVC.
... My 82-year-old husband has been on kidney dialysis for a year. He's not a good candidate for a kidney transplant. How will we know when dialysis is ... Robert Albright, D.O. To determine how well kidney dialysis is working, your husband's doctor can check ...
Just the Facts: Skin and Hair Problems on Dialysis How does dialysis affect my skin? Many people on dialysis have skin changes. The skin may seem more ... treated by a skin specialist. Why is my hair falling out? Hair is made of protein. If ...
... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Renal dialysis services. 415.176 Section 415.176 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 415.176 Renal dialysis services. In the case of renal dialysis services, physicians who are not paid...
... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renal dialysis services. 415.176 Section 415.176 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 415.176 Renal dialysis services. In the case of renal dialysis services, physicians who are not paid...
... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Renal dialysis services. 415.176 Section 415.176 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 415.176 Renal dialysis services. In the case of renal dialysis services, physicians who are not paid...
... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renal dialysis services. 415.176 Section 415.176 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Renal dialysis services. In the case of renal dialysis services, physicians who are not paid under...
Ross, Louise E; Swift, Pauline A; Newbold, Sandra M; Bramham, Kate; Hurley, Anne; Gallagher, Hugh
Pregnancy outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis are improving. Recent literature supports intensive hemodialysis (HD) as the modality of choice during pregnancy in ESRD. We report the successful delivery of a healthy infant at full term in a patient with ESRD by supplementing peritoneal dialysis (PD) with intermittent HD to achieve adequate dialysis intensity.
A 53-year-old Egyptian female with end stage renal disease, one month after start of hemodialysis via an internal jugular catheter, presented with fever and shortness of breath. She developed desquamating vesiculobullous lesions, widespread on her body. She was in profound septic shock and broad spectrum antibiotics were started with appropriate fluid replenishment. An echocardiogram revealed bulky leaflets of the mitral valve with a highly mobile vegetation about 2.3 cm long attached to the anterior leaflet. CT scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed bilateral pleural effusions in the chest, with triangular opacities in the lungs suggestive of infarcts. There was splenomegaly with triangular hypodensities consistent with splenic infarcts. Blood cultures repeatedly grew Candida albicans. Despite parenteral antifungal therapy, the patient deteriorated over the course of 5 days. She died due to a subsequent cardiac arrest. Systemic review of literature revealed that the rate of infection varies amongst the various types of accesses, and it is well documented that AV fistulas have a much less rate of infection in comparison to temporary catheters. All dialysis units should strive to make a multidisciplinary effort to have a referral process early on, for access creation, and to avoid catheters associated morbidity. PMID:28409042
Shiki, Naomi; Ohno, Yuko; Fujii, Ayumi; Murata, Taizo; Matsumura, Yasushi
Hospital-based cancer registry involves complex processing steps that span across multiple departments. In addition, management techniques and registration procedures differ depending on each medical facility. Establishing processes for hospital-based cancer registry requires clarifying specific functions and labor needed. In recent years, the business modeling technique, in which management evaluation is done by clearly spelling out processes and functions, has been applied to business process analysis. However, there are few analytical reports describing the applications of these concepts to medical-related work. In this study, we initially sought to model hospital-based cancer registration processes using the Unified Modeling Language (UML), to clarify functions. The object of this study was the cancer registry of Osaka University Hospital. We organized the hospital-based cancer registration processes based on interview and observational surveys, and produced an As-Is model using activity, use-case, and class diagrams. After drafting every UML model, it was fed-back to practitioners to check its validity and improved. We were able to define the workflow for each department using activity diagrams. In addition, by using use-case diagrams we were able to classify each department within the hospital as a system, and thereby specify the core processes and staff that were responsible for each department. The class diagrams were effective in systematically organizing the information to be used for hospital-based cancer registries. Using UML modeling, hospital-based cancer registration processes were broadly classified into three separate processes, namely, registration tasks, quality control, and filing data. An additional 14 functions were also extracted. Many tasks take place within the hospital-based cancer registry office, but the process of providing information spans across multiple departments. Moreover, additional tasks were required in comparison to using a
Charytan, David M; Foley, Robert; McCullough, Peter A; Rogers, John D; Zimetbaum, Peter; Herzog, Charles A; Tumlin, James A
Dialysis patients have high rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but data on arrhythmia burden, arrhythmia type, arrhythmia triggers, and the identity of terminal arrhythmias have historically been limited by an inability to monitor heart rhythm for prolonged periods. To investigate arrhythmia and its association with sudden death in dialysis-dependent ESRD, describe the potential for implantable devices to advance study of dialysis physiology, review the ethical implications of using implantable devices in clinical studies, and report on the protocol and baseline results of the Monitoring in Dialysis Study (MiD). In this multicenter, interventional-observational, prospective cohort study, we placed implantable loop recorders in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The proportion of patients experiencing clinically significant arrhythmias was the primary endpoint. For 6 months, we captured detailed data on the primary endpoint, symptomatic arrhythmias, other electrocardiographic variables, dialysis prescription, electrolytes, dialysis-related variables, and vital signs. We collected additional electrocardiographic data for up to 1 year. Overall, 66 patients underwent implantation in sites in the United States and India. Diabetes was present in 63.6% of patients, 12.1% were age ≥70 years, 69.7% were men, and 53.0% were black. Primary and secondary endpoint data are expected in 2016. Cardiac arrhythmia is an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients, but available technology has previously limited the ability to estimate its true burden and triggers and to define terminal rhythms in sudden death. Use of implantable technology in observational studies raises complex issues but may greatly expand understanding of dialysis physiology. The use of implantable loop recorders in MiD is among the first examples of such a trial, and the results are expected to provide novel insights into the nature of arrhythmia
Foley, Robert; McCullough, Peter A.; Rogers, John D.; Zimetbaum, Peter; Herzog, Charles A.; Tumlin, James A.
Background Dialysis patients have high rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but data on arrhythmia burden, arrhythmia type, arrhythmia triggers, and the identity of terminal arrhythmias have historically been limited by an inability to monitor heart rhythm for prolonged periods. Objectives To investigate arrhythmia and its association with sudden death in dialysis-dependent ESRD, describe the potential for implantable devices to advance study of dialysis physiology, review the ethical implications of using implantable devices in clinical studies, and report on the protocol and baseline results of the Monitoring in Dialysis Study (MiD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this multicenter, interventional-observational, prospective cohort study, we placed implantable loop recorders in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The proportion of patients experiencing clinically significant arrhythmias was the primary endpoint. For 6 months, we captured detailed data on the primary endpoint, symptomatic arrhythmias, other electrocardiographic variables, dialysis prescription, electrolytes, dialysis-related variables, and vital signs. We collected additional electrocardiographic data for up to 1 year. Results Overall, 66 patients underwent implantation in sites in the United States and India. Diabetes was present in 63.6% of patients, 12.1% were age ≥70 years, 69.7% were men, and 53.0% were black. Primary and secondary endpoint data are expected in 2016. Conclusions Cardiac arrhythmia is an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients, but available technology has previously limited the ability to estimate its true burden and triggers and to define terminal rhythms in sudden death. Use of implantable technology in observational studies raises complex issues but may greatly expand understanding of dialysis physiology. The use of implantable loop recorders in MiD is among the first examples of such a
Hasegawa, Takeshi; Nakai, Shigeru; Moriishi, Misaki; Ito, Yasuhiko; Itami, Noritomo; Masakane, Ikuto; Hanafusa, Norio; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Hamano, Takayuki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Shinoda, Toshio; Kazama, Junichiro; Watanabe, Yuzo; Shigematsu, Takashi; Marubayashi, Seiji; Morita, Osamu; Wada, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Seiji; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Kimata, Naoki; Wakai, Kenji; Fujii, Naohiko; Ogata, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Kenji; Nishi, Hiroshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Nakamoto, Hidetomo
Since 2009, the peritoneal dialysis (PD) registry survey has been carried out as part of the annual nationwide survey conducted by the Statistical Survey Committee of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy with the cooperation of the Japanese Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. In this report, the current status of PD patients is presented on the basis of the results of the survey conducted at the end of 2012. The subjects were PD patients who lived in Japan and participated in the 2012 survey. Descriptive analysis of various items was performed, which included the current status of the combined use of PD and another dialysis method such as hemodialysis (HD) or hemodiafiltration (HDF), the method of exchanging dialysate, the use of an automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) machine, and the rates of peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection. From the results of the facility survey in 2012, the number of PD patients was 9514, a decrease of 128 from 2011. Among the entire dialysis patient population, 3.1% were PD patients, a decrease of 0.1%. Among the studied patients, 347 had a peritoneal catheter and underwent peritoneal lavage, 175 were started on PD in 2012 but introduced to other blood purification methods in the same year, and 1932 underwent both PD and another dialysis method such as HD or HDF. The percentage of patients who underwent PD and another dialysis method increased with PD vintage: <1 year, 4.8%; 1 to <2 years, 9.2%; 2 to <4 years, 16.3%; 4 to <8 years, 32.0%; and ≥8 years, 47.5%. The percentage of PD patients who completely manually exchanged the dialysate was 29.8%. The percentages of PD patients who used a double-bag exchange system with ultraviolet-light irradiation and those who used the same system but with a sterile connecting device were 54.7 and 13.9%, respectively. The percentage of patients on PD for <1 year using an APD machine was 43.4%, and it decreased with a PD vintage of ≥2 years. The mean rate of peritonitis was 0.22 per patient
Bande-Fernández, José Joaquín; García-Castro, Raúl; Sánchez-Alvarez, José Emilio; Rodríguez-Suárez, Carmen; Coronel-Aguilar, Diego; Hidalgo, Carlos; Istanbuli, Beatriz; Merino-Bueno, Carmen; Del Rio-García, Laura
A case of Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, a congenital generalised lipodystrophy, is reported. Symptoms first appeared when the patient was 20 years old. She showed severe insulin resistance as well as micro- and macro-angiopathic complications, including chronic kidney disease, which required renal replacement therapy with peritoneal dialysis. The patient's clinical course was reviewed since paediatric age (when initial signs of the disease being already evident) to present time. Berardinelli-Seip syndrome is very uncommon, and the present case is particularly rare because it is the only case (at least as reported in the literature) in a patient receiving dialysis.
Bender, Filitsa H
This review is focused on minimizing complications and avoiding harm in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Issues related to planning for PD are covered first, with emphasis on PD versus hemodialysis outcomes. Catheter types and insertion techniques are described next, including relevant recommendations by the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. A brief review of both noninfectious and infectious complications follows, with emphasis on cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Finally, recommendations for preventing PD-related infections are provided. In conclusion, with proper catheter insertion technique, good training, and attention to detail during the tenure in PD, excellent outcomes can be obtained in a well-informed motivated patient.
Errors in dialysis care can cause harm and death. While dialysis machines are rarely a major cause of morbidity, human factors at the machine interface and suboptimal communication among caregivers are common sources of error. Major causes of potentially reversible adverse outcomes include medication errors, infections, hyperkalemia, access-related errors, and patient falls. Root cause analysis of adverse events and "near misses" can illuminate care processes and show system changes to improve safety. Human factors engineering and simulation exercises have strong potential to define common clinical team purpose, and improve processes of care. Patient observations and their participation in error reduction increase the effectiveness of patient safety efforts. PMID:25376767
Bonnet, S; Bourgerette, A; Gharbi, S; Rubeck, C; Arkouche, W; Massot, B; McAdams, E; Montalibet, A; Jallon, P
This paper describes the development and the validation of a prototype wearable miniaturized impedance monitoring system for remote monitoring in home-based dialysis patients. This device is intended to assess the hydration status of dialysis patients using calf impedance measurements. The system is based on the low-power AD8302 component. The impedance calibration procedure is described together with the Cole parameter estimation and the hydric volume estimation. Results are given on a test cell to validate the design and on preliminary calf measurements showing Cole parameter variations during hemodialysis.
Boudville, N; Cho, Y; Equinox, K L; Figueiredo, A E; Hawley, C M; Howard, K; Johnson, D W; Jose, M; Lee, A; Maley, Mal; Moodie, J; Pascoe, E M; Steiner, G Z; Tomlins, M; Voss, D; Chow, J
Up to a 10-fold difference in clinical outcomes between Australian peritoneal dialysis (PD) units exists. There is an international focus on the harmonisation of educational practices in PD to determine whether this may lead to improved patient outcomes. Evaluate the current teaching practices of nurses and patients in Australian PD units. An online survey with questions on nurse and patient training was made available to PD units in Australia. Thirty-eight (70%) of 54 PD units in Australia completed the survey. A written standardised curricula was utilised in 21 units (55%) for nursing staff and 30 units (86%) for patients, with 22% and 12% including an electronic delivery component for each group respectively. Universal teaching of adult learning principles was not demonstrated. The hours spent on teaching nursing staff ranged from <15 hours in 24% to >100 hours in 21% of units. The average number of hours spent by nurses each day to train patients ranged from <2 hours in 14% to >6 hours in 11% of units, with the average total training days ranging from 2-3 days in 14% to over 7 days in 14% of units. Staff and patient competency assessments were performed routinely in 37% and 74% of units respectively. Considerable differences exist amongst Australian PD units in the education of staff and patients. There is a general lack of delivery and competency assessment to meet educational standards. It remains to be seen if harmonisation of educational curricula can translate to improved clinical outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Esteve Simo, Vicent; Moreno-Guzmán, Fátima; Martínez Calvo, Gemma; Fulquet Nicolas, Miquel; Pou Potau, Monica; Macias-Toro, Javier; Duarte-Gallego, Verónica; Saurina Sole, Anna; Ramírez-de Arellano Serna, Manel
Cinacalcet has proved effective to control secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on haemodialysis (HD). Some studies have reported an appropriate secondary hyperparathyroidism control and a better compliance after intradialytic use of calcimimetics. To assess the effect of post-dialysis calcimimetics use on mineral bone disorders and calcimimetics gastrointestinal tolerability in our HD unit. A 12-week single-centre prospective study in HD patients treated with cinacalcet (>2 months). Two study periods: Usual outpatient use (Stage 1) and use after HD session (Stage 2). 1) Biochemical MBD data; 2) Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) for gastrointestinal tolerability, and visual analogic scale (VAS) for satisfaction; 3) Adherence: Morisky-Green test (MG) and final tablet count (TC). Sixty-two HD patients. Fourteen received cinacalcet (22.5%). TEN patients were included, mean age was 60.9 years; patients had received HD for 80.9 months. Mean Charlson index: 9. Biochemical data: Stage 1 (initial vs. final): Ca 8.8 ± 0.5 vs. 9.1 ± 0.7 mg/dl (p<0.05); P 5.2 ± 0.8 vs. 4.5 ± 1.6 mg/dl, iPTH 360.3 ± 232.7 vs. 349 ± 122 pg/ml. MG: 70%. Stage 2 (initial vs. final): Ca 9.1 ± 0.7 vs. 8.8 ± 0.6 mg/dl; P 4.5 ± 1.6 vs. 4.6 ± 1.3 mg/dl, iPTH 360.3 ± 232.7 vs. 349 ± 122 pg/ml. TC: 89%. GSRS and VAS were better in Stage 2 (GSRS 7.5 ± 5.2 vs. 4.3 ± 1.9; VAS 4.8 ± 2.3 vs. 6.9 ± 2.8). No significant changes were observed in calcimimetic dose (201 vs. 207 mg/wk), number of phosphate binders (9 vs. 8.2 pts/day), native vitamin D (70 vs. 60%), selective vit D receptor activators (30%), or suitable dialysis parameters. Post-dialysis use of calcimimetic was effective in secondary hyperparathyroidism control, improved gastrointestinal tolerability and ameliorated patients' satisfaction. Based on our findings, post-dialysis use of calcimimetics should be considered in selected patients with low therapeutic compliance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by
Wetmore, James B.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Hou, Qingjiang; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Rigler, Sally K.; Spertus, John A.; Shireman, Theresa I.
Background Despite their high risk for adverse cardiac outcomes, persons on chronic dialysis have been shown to have lower use of antihypertensive medications with cardioprotective properties, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs), than might be expected. We constructed a novel database that permits detailed exploration into the demographic, clinical and geographic factors associated with the use these agents of among hypertensive chronic dialysis patients. Study Design National cross-sectional retrospective analysis linking Medicaid prescription drug claims with United States Renal Data System core data. Setting & Participants 48,882 hypertensive chronic dialysis patients who were dually-eligible for Medicaid and Medicare services in 2005. Factors Demographics, comorbidities, functional status, and state of residence. Outcomes Prevalence of cardioprotective antihypertensive agents in Medicaid pharmacy claims and state-specific observed:expected odds ratios of medication exposure. Measurements Factors associated with medication use were modeled using multi-level logistic regression models. Results In multivariable analyses, cardioprotective antihypertensive medication exposure was significantly associated with younger age, female sex, non-Caucasian race, intact functional status, and use of in-center hemodialysis. Diabetes was associated with a statistically-significant 28% higher odds of ACE inhibitor/ARB use, but congestive heart failure (CHF) was associated with only a 9% increase in the odds of β-blockers and no increase in ACE inhibitor/ARB use. There was substantial state-by-state variation in use of all classes of agents, with a greater than 2.9-fold difference in adjusted rate odds ratios between the highest- and lowest-prescribing states for ACE inhibitors/ARBs and a 3.6-fold difference for β-blockers. Limitations Limited generalizability beyond study
Zakaria, El Rasheid; Patel, Anuj A.; Li, Na; Matheson, Paul J.; Garrison, Richard N.
Background Conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions elicit vasodilation, which is implicated in the variable rate of solute transport during the dwell. The components causing such vasoactivity are still controversial. This study was conducted to define the vasoactive components of conventional and new PD solutions. Methods Three visceral peritoneal microvascular levels were visualized by intravital video microscopy of the terminal ileum of anesthetized rats. Anesthesia-free decerebrate conscious rats served as control. Microvascular diameter and blood flow by Doppler measurements were conducted after topical peritoneal exposure to 4 clinical PD solutions and 6 prepared solutions designed to isolate potential vasoactive components of the PD solution. Results All clinically available PD solutions produced a rapid and generalized vasodilation at all intestinal microvascular levels, regardless of the osmotic solute. The pattern and magnitude of this dilation was not affected by anesthesia but was determined by arteriolar size, the osmotic solute, and the solution’s buffer anion system. The greatest dilation occurred in the small precapillary arterioles and was elicited by conventional PD solution and heat re-sterilized solution containing low glucose degradation products (GDPs). Hypertonic mannitol solutions produced a dilation that was approximately 50% less than the dilation obtained with glucose solutions with identical osmolarity and buffer. Increasing a solution’s osmolarity did not produce a parallel increase in the magnitude of dilation, suggesting a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. Lactate dissolved in an isotonic solution was completely non-vasoactive unless the solution’s H+ concentration was increased. At low pH, isotonic lactate produced a rapid but transient vasodilation. This vascular reactivity was similar in magnitude and pattern to that obtained with the isotonic 7.5% icodextrin solution (Extraneal; Baxter Healthcare
Regolisti, Giuseppe; Cademartiri, Carola; Cabassi, Aderville; Picetti, Edoardo; Barbagallo, Maria; Gherli, Tiziano; Castellano, Giuseppe; Morabito, Santo; Maggiore, Umberto
Summary Background and objectives A simple anticoagulation protocol was developed for sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) in patients with AKI, based on the use of anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution formulation A (ACD-A) and standard dialysis equipment. Patients’ blood recalcification was obtained from calcium backtransport from dialysis fluid. Design, setting, participants, & measurements All patients treated with SLED (8- to 12-hour sessions) for AKI in four intensive care units of a university hospital were studied over a 30-month period, from May 1, 2008 to September 30, 2010. SLED interruptions and their causes, hemorrhagic complications, as well as coagulation parameters, ionized calcium, and blood citrate levels were recorded. Results This study examined 807 SLED sessions in 116 patients (mean age of 69.7 years [SD 12.1]; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 23.8 [4.6]). Major bleeding was observed in six patients (5.2% or 0.4 episodes/100 person-days follow-up while patients were on SLED treatment). Citrate accumulation never occurred, even in patients with liver dysfunction. Intravenous calcium for ionized hypocalcemia (< 3.6 mg/dl or < 0.9 mmol/L) was needed in 28 sessions (3.4%); in 8 of these 28 sessions (28.6%), low ionized calcium was already present before SLED start. In 92.6% of treatments, SLED was completed within the scheduled time (median 8 hours). Interruptions of SLED by impending/irreversible clotting were recorded in 19 sessions (2.4%). Blood return was complete in 98% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 45 of 116 patients (38.8%). Conclusions This study protocol affords efficacious and safe anticoagulation of the SLED circuit, avoiding citrate accumulation and, in most patients, systematic calcium supplementation; it can be implemented with commercial citrate solutions, standard dialysis equipment, on-line produced dialysis fluid, and minimal laboratory monitoring. PMID:23990164
For no additional expense, little intrusion into the schedule or duties of the day, and no additional personnel to hire, dialysis facilities can make a dramatic impact on the training, motivation, and retention of employees through the use of classes designed specifically for the needs of newly employed non-clinical personnel. In today's world where many are expected to do a task with little or no orientation to the overall values and goals of the organization and how their tasks matter, what other action can accomplish so much for employee motivation and retention for so little time and expense? At DCI Mid-Missouri this program has been successful in retaining many excellent employees over many years and has been part of an ongoing effort to increase employees' interest and commitment to their work and the organization. It has also made them much more aware of treatments, other personnel and most of all, of our patients and their needs. It fulfills the needs of humans to be valued and have meaningful work. It contains costs and helps efficiency and productivity. Most of all, it keeps excellent people on the job and enjoying their work more than they would have. Participants' words when evaluating the most recent series of classes speak for themselves in demonstrating these important benefits that can be achieved easily in dialysis facilities throughout the United States and the world.
Kerr, P G; Strauss, B J; Atkins, R C
The importance of the nutritional state of our dialysis patients has been stressed for many years. Although the calculation of the protein catabolic rate has become common practice in many dialysis units, there are several problems with this measurement. In addition, the serum albumin level is subject to multiple influences making its interpretation in individual patients difficult. This paper examines a different approach to nutritional assessment-that of using longer term measures of nutrition. Several techniques for measuring body composition are explored and their use in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) examined. Total body nitrogen measurement is a gold standard technique which has been validated in renal patients, unfortunately it is not widely available. Of the alternatives, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning for assessment of fat-free mass appears to be the best technique with the narrowest limits of agreement compared to gold standard techniques. Whilst bioelectrical impedance is reasonable for body water assessment, it is not reliable in ESRD patients for lean-body mass estimation.
Mistry, C D; Mallick, N P; Gokal, R
The potential of a starch-derived glucose polymer (molecular weight 16,800) as an osmotic agent for peritoneal dialysis was evaluated. A dialysate isosmotic to uraemic serum (302 [SEM 1.3] mOsm/kg) containing 5% glucose polymer (9.4 mmol/l) was compared with hypertonic (332 [1.0] mOsm/kg) 1.36% glucose (76 mmol/l) solution for ultrafiltration, solute transport, and carbohydrate absorption over 6 h and 12 h peritoneal dialysis exchanges. Glucose polymer solution produced substantially greater net ultrafiltration than glucose, while maintaining stable dialysate osmolality throughout the exchanges. At 6 h and 12 h, 14.4% and 28.1% of glucose polymer had been absorbed, compared with 61.5% and 83.0% of glucose; thus, glucose polymer provided less than 50% of the calorie load of the glucose dialysate per unit volume of ultrafiltrate. There was a 7-9-fold increase in serum maltose with glucose polymer. This high-molecular-weight glucose polymer produced sustained ultrafiltration even when dialysate osmolality remained within the physiological range, by a mechanism resembling "colloid" osmosis. It is a safe and effective osmotic agent but its long-term effects need further study.
Yudelev, M.; Burmeister, J.; Blosser, E.; Maughan, R. L.; Kota, C.
The neutron therapy facility at the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center, Harper University Hospital in Detroit has been operational since September 1991. The d(48.5)+Be beam is produced in a gantry mounted superconducting cyclotron designed and built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Measurements were performed in order to obtain the physical characteristics of the neutron beam and to collect the data necessary for treatment planning. This included profiles of the dose distribution in a water phantom, relative output factors and the design of various beam modifiers, i.e., wedges and tissue compensators. The beam was calibrated in accordance with international protocol for fast neutron dosimetry. Dosimetry and radiobiology intercomparions with three neutron therapy facilities were performed prior to clinical use. The radiation safety program was established in order to monitor and reduce the exposure levels of the personnel. The activation products were identified and the exposure in the treatment room was mapped. A comprehensive quality assurance (QA) program was developed to sustain safe and reliable operation of the unit at treatment standards comparable to those for conventional photon radiation. The program can be divided into three major parts: maintenance of the cyclotron and related hardware; QA of the neutron beam dosimetry and treatment delivery; safety and radiation protection. In addition the neutron beam is used in various non-clinical applications. Among these are the microdosimetric characterization of the beam, the effects of tissue heterogeneity on dose distribution, the development of boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy and variety of radiobiology experiments.
Stel, Vianda S.; Caskey, Fergus J.; Stengel, Benedicte; Elliott, Robert F.; Covic, Adrian; Geue, Claudia; Cusumano, Ana; MacLeod, Alison M.; Jager, Kitty J.
Summary Background and objectives Mortality on dialysis varies greatly worldwide, with patient-level factors explaining only a small part of this variation. The aim of this study was to examine the association of national-level macroeconomic indicators with the mortality of incident dialysis populations and explore potential explanations through renal service indicators, incidence of dialysis, and characteristics of the dialysis population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Aggregated unadjusted survival probabilities were obtained from 22 renal registries worldwide for patients starting dialysis in 2003–2005. General population age and health, macroeconomic indices, and renal service organization data were collected from secondary sources and questionnaires. Linear modeling with log–log transformation of the outcome variable was applied to establish factors associated with survival on dialysis. Results Two-year survival on dialysis ranged from 62.3% in Iceland to 89.8% in Romania. A higher gross domestic product per capita (hazard ratio=1.02 per 1000 US dollar increase), a higher percentage of gross domestic product spent on healthcare (1.10 per percent increase), and a higher intrinsic mortality of the dialysis population (i.e., general population-derived mortality risk of the dialysis population in that country standardized for age and sex; hazard ratio=1.04 per death per 10,000 person years) were associated with a higher mortality of the dialysis population. The incidence of dialysis and renal service indicators were not associated with mortality on dialysis. Conclusions Macroeconomic factors and the intrinsic mortality of the dialysis population are associated with international differences in the mortality on dialysis. Renal service organizational factors and incidence of dialysis seem less important. PMID:22837275
Kendi, Sadiqa; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Seaver Hill, Karen; Arbogast, Kristy B; Gittelman, Michael A
To describe the location, staffing, clientele, safety product disbursement patterns, education provided and sustainability of safety resource centres (SRCs) in US children's hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to children's hospital-based SRC directors. Survey categories included: funding sources, customer base, items sold, items given free of charge, education provided and directors' needs. 32/38 (84.2%) SRC sites (affiliated with 30 hospitals) completed the survey. SRCs were in many hospital locations including lobby (28.1%), family resource centres (12.5%), gift shop/retail space (18.8%), mobile units (18.8%) and patient clinics (12.5%). 19% of respondents reported that their SRC was financially self-sustainable. Sales to patients predominated (mean of 44%); however, hospital employees made up a mean of 20% (range 0-60%) of sales. 78.1% of SRCs had products for children with special healthcare needs. Documentation kept at SRC sites included items purchased (96.9%), items given free of charge (65.6%) and customer demographics (50%). 56.3% of SRCs provided formal injury prevention education classes. The SRCs' directors' most important needs were finances (46.9%), staffing (50%) and space (46.9%). All of the directors were 'somewhat interested' or 'very interested' in each of the following: creation of a common SRC listserv, national SRC data bank and multisite SRC research platform. SRCs are located in many US children's hospitals, and can be characterised as heterogeneous in location, products sold, data kept and ability to be financially sustained. Further research is needed to determine best practices for SRCs to maximise their impact on injury prevention.
Lau, A H; Chow-Tung, E; Assadi, F K; Fornell, L; John, E
To determine the effect of dialysate osmolarity on peritoneal dialysis drug transfer, peritoneal dialysis clearances of theophylline, phenobarbital, and tobramycin were determined in 10 rabbits using dialysate containing 1.5 and 4.25% glucose. Urea and creatinine clearances were also obtained for comparison. Under similar dialysis conditions, the peritoneal clearances of the three drugs remained unchanged for the two types of dialysate. In contrast, the peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine were significantly higher with the use of 4.25% glucose dialysate (p less than 0.001). Thus, peritoneal dialysis clearances of theophylline, phenobarbital and tobramycin are not significantly affected by hypertonicity-induced ultrafiltration during acute peritoneal dialysis.
Vuignier, Y; Pruijm, M; Jarrayah, F; Burnier, M
Development of dialysis has saved the lives of many patients. However, haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are very demanding in resources such as water and electricity, and generate a large amount of waste. In this article, we will review the environmental aspects of dialysis. Different solutions will be discussed, such as recycling of water discharged during reverse osmosis, the integration of solar energy, recycling of waste plastics, and the use of other techniques such as sorbent dialysis. In a world where natural resources are precious and where global warming is a major problem, it is important that not only dialysis, but all branches of medicine become more attentive to ecology.
Ankawi, Ghada A; Woodcock, Nancy I; Jain, Arsh K; Garg, Amit X; Blake, Peter G
The use of an incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) strategy in a large contemporary patient population has not been described. We report the use of this strategy in clinical practice, the prescriptions required, and the clearances achieved in a large center which has routinely used this approach for more than 10 years. This is a cross-sectional observational study. A single large Canadian academic center. This study collected data on 124 prevalent PD patients at a single Canadian academic center. The proportion of patients who achieve the clearance target on a low clearance or incremental PD prescription; the actual PD prescriptions and consequent total, peritoneal, and renal urea clearances [Kt/V] achieved; and patient and technique survival and peritonitis rate in comparison with national and international reports. Of the 124 prevalent PD patients in this PD unit, 106 (86%) were achieving the Kt/V target, and of these, 54 (44% of all patients) were doing so using incremental PD prescriptions. Fifty of these incremental PD patients were using automated PD (APD) with either no day dwell (68%) or less than 7 days a week treatment (12%) or both (20%). Patient survival in our PD unit was not different from that reported in Canada as a whole. Peritonitis rates were better than internationally recommended standards. This is an observational study with no randomized control group. Incremental PD is feasible in a contemporary PD population treated mainly with APD. Almost half of the patients were able to achieve clearance targets while receiving less onerous and less costly low clearance prescriptions. We suggest that incremental PD should be widely used as a cost-effective strategy in PD.
Ankawi, Ghada A.; Woodcock, Nancy I.; Jain, Arsh K.; Garg, Amit X.; Blake, Peter G.
Background: The use of an incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) strategy in a large contemporary patient population has not been described. Objective: We report the use of this strategy in clinical practice, the prescriptions required, and the clearances achieved in a large center which has routinely used this approach for more than 10 years. Design: This is a cross-sectional observational study. Setting: A single large Canadian academic center. Patients: This study collected data on 124 prevalent PD patients at a single Canadian academic center. Methods and Measurements: The proportion of patients who achieve the clearance target on a low clearance or incremental PD prescription; the actual PD prescriptions and consequent total, peritoneal, and renal urea clearances [Kt/V] achieved; and patient and technique survival and peritonitis rate in comparison with national and international reports. Results: Of the 124 prevalent PD patients in this PD unit, 106 (86%) were achieving the Kt/V target, and of these, 54 (44% of all patients) were doing so using incremental PD prescriptions. Fifty of these incremental PD patients were using automated PD (APD) with either no day dwell (68%) or less than 7 days a week treatment (12%) or both (20%). Patient survival in our PD unit was not different from that reported in Canada as a whole. Peritonitis rates were better than internationally recommended standards. Limitations: This is an observational study with no randomized control group. Conclusions: Incremental PD is feasible in a contemporary PD population treated mainly with APD. Almost half of the patients were able to achieve clearance targets while receiving less onerous and less costly low clearance prescriptions. We suggest that incremental PD should be widely used as a cost-effective strategy in PD. PMID:28781885
Ficheux, A; Gayrard, N; Duranton, F; Guzman, C; Szwarc, I; Vetromile, F; Brunet, P; Servel, M F; Argilés, A
Recent randomized controlled trials suggest that sufficiently high convection post-dilutional haemodiafiltration (HC-HDF) improves survival in dialysis patients, consequently this technique is increasingly being adopted. However, when performing HC-HDF, rigorous control systems of the ultrafiltration setting are required. Assessing the global ultrafiltration coefficient of the dialysis system [GKD-UF; defined as ultrafiltration rate (QUF)/transmembrane pressure] or water permeability may be adapted to the present dialysis settings and be of value in clinics. GKD-UF was determined and its reproducibility, variability and influencing factors were specifically assessed in 15 stable patients routinely treated by high-flux haemodialysis or HC-HDF in a single unit. GKD-UF invariably followed a parabolic function with increasing QUF in dialysis and both pre- and post-dilution HC-HDF (R2 constantly >0.96). The vertex of the parabola, GKD-UF-max and related QUF were very reproducible per patient (coefficient of variation 3.9 ± 0.6 and 3.3 ± 0.3%, respectively) and they greatly varied across patients (31–42 mL/h−1/mmHg and 82–100 mL/min, respectively). GKD-UF-max and its associated QUF decreased during dialysis treatment (P < 0.01). The GKD-UF-max decrease was related to weight loss (R2 = 0.66; P = 0.0015). GKD-UF is a reliable and accurate method to assess the water permeability of a system in vivo. It varies according to dialysis setting and patient-related factors. It is an objective parameter evaluating the forces driving convection and identifies any diversion of the system during the treatment procedure. It is applicable to low- or high-flux dialysis as well as pre- or post-dilution HDF. Thus, it may be used to describe the characteristics of a dialysis system, is suitable for clinical use and may be of help for personalized prescription.
Edelbaum, David N.; Sokol, Albert; Gaynor, Sanford; Rubini, Milton E.
The long-term results of intermittent peritoneal dialysis in long-term treatment of renal disease have yet to equal those of intermittent hemodialysis. However, further exploration and refinement of this technique is justified. Performed in acute stages of disease, both peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis relieve the symptoms of uremia and specifically “buy time” for the patient so that proper medical or surgical therapy may be instituted. In acute situations, peritoneal dialysis is the procedure of choice, and is an important adjunct to more conventional treatment for chronic renal disease. It may be useful sometimes even in chronically hemodialyzed patients—for example, when the hemodialysis cannula for one reason or another is inaccessible because of clots, replacement, or infection. It is especially valuable when the hemorrhagic complications of uremia contraindicate hemodialysis treatment. Its use in chronic uremia remains sharply limited in time, but for brief periods chronic peritoneal dialysis appears to be a reasonably satisfactory means of prolonging life while awaiting homotransplant or decision for maintenance hemodialysis therapy. PMID:5639945
Parikh, Coral; Gutgarts, Victoria; Eisenberg, Elliot; Melamed, Michal L.
Most dialysis patients are vitamin D deficient, including deficiencies in both activated vitamin D (1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D) and the less active 25-hydroxyvitamin D. These and other abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), if they remain untreated, lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone changes, such as osteitis fibrosa cystica. Activated vitamin D has been proven to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in dialysis patients and is currently used for this indication. There are multiple other potential “pleotrophic” effects associated with vitamin D therapy. These include associations with lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, lower rates of infections and improved glycemic indexes. Meta-analyses of multiple observational studies have shown activated vitamin D therapy to be associated with improved survival. Observational data also suggest fewer infections and better glucose control. There have been no randomized clinical trials powered to evaluate mortality or other clinical outcomes. Small trials of nutritional vitamin D (ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol) showed increases in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels without hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia, even when given in addition to activated vitamin D therapy. While activated vitamin D therapy is associated with improved outcomes, it also leads to higher fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels, which may be detrimental in dialysis patients. Further research is needed to evaluate whether activated or nutritional vitamin D therapy are beneficial in dialysis patients for outcomes other than secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26424141
Sargent, John A
Dialysis providers use computers to automate complicated tasks, ease staff burden, and develop knowledge or understanding to improve operations and patient care. Some applications are successful, others are not. Success can be economically quantified. Business--billing and accounts receivable computerization--can yield over $5.00 for $1.00 invested. The clinical case is more complex and difficult to economically justify. Computerization of clinical information for charge capture is the simplest application (< $1.00/treatment) yielding the greatest benefit. Economic benefits for improving quality of care through electronic medical records are more problematic. Provider benefit of clinical computing is strictly the net income from more dialysis treatments. Greater complexity--e.g., total electronic records--means more expensive systems and increased staff effort. Many systems cost in the $5.00 + range which must be paid by increasing provider overhead. Dialysis providers must determine the point where computerization no longer decreases operational costs as computing cost increases. This is a classical optimization problem; its solution is crucial to the economic health of the dialysis enterprise.
Paglialonga, F; Consolo, S; Edefonti, A; Montini, G
Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular complications in children on dialysis. Volume overload and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a major role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The first step in managing blood pressure (BP) is the careful assessment of ambulatory BP monitoring. Volume control is essential and should start with the accurate identification of dry weight, based on a comprehensive assessment, including bioimpedance analysis and intradialytic blood volume monitoring (BVM). Reduction of interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is critical, as higher IDWG is associated with a worse left ventricular mass index and poorer BP control: it can be obtained by means of salt restriction, reduced fluid intake, and optimized sodium removal in dialysis. Optimization of peritoneal dialysis and intensified hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration have been shown to improve both fluid and sodium management, leading to better BP levels. Studies comparing different antihypertensive agents in children are lacking. The pharmacokinetic properties of each drug should be considered. At present, BP control remains suboptimal in many patients and efforts are needed to improve the long-term outcomes of children on dialysis.
Li, Philip Kam-Tao; Chow, Kai Ming
This review focuses on the strategy of patient selection for peritoneal dialysis (PD) based on published epidemiology studies and observational data. With the success of the PD first model in Hong Kong, experience shows that there is no particular patient group that cannot be put on PD except those who have major problems in the abdomen. Incident patients should be offered the choice to receive PD at the start of dialysis in order to preserve better the residual renal function. Concern has also been expressed for a time-dependent negative impact of PD on survival, although PD in general provides survival advantage at least during the first few years after the start of dialysis. Regular patient review is essential to allow prompt adjustment of the dialysis regimen and modality when required. Accumulating research suggests that center size has a significant effect on the patient and technique survival of patients undergoing PD. Comorbid diabetes, large and small body size, peritoneal membrane transport status, elderly age group, and socioeconomic status are important patient factors to consider. Good clinical and psychosocial care of the PD patients are essential as well as the attention to their compliance. Enhanced training to medical and nursing personnel on PD is one of the key success factors for improving its utilization and outcome.
... finds. Many patients refuse to start or modify depression treatment. And in some cases kidney specialists don't ... bleak, said the authors of an accompanying commentary. "Depression in people receiving dialysis treatment is associated with lower quality of life, increased ...
Abraham, Georgi; Mathew, Milli; Hinduja, Anish; Padma, G
Chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) has been initiated as a treatment modality for chronic renal failure patients in the Indian subcontinent since 1990. Over a period of 9 years both continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) have emerged as accepted forms of renal replacement therapy in our country. Although there were government restrictions on import of dialysis fluid until 1993, the availability of locally manufactured fluid in collapsible bags had facilitated the expansion of the programme to the far corners of the country and in neighbouring countries. Initially majority (78%) of the patients who were started on this programme were diabetics with other comorbid conditions who were drop-outs from haemodialysis and unfit for transplantation. Both CAPD and CCPD have been used for all age groups and for men and women. Majority of the patients do 3 x 2 l exchanges a day on CAPD; 8-10 l using a cycler at night those who are onCCPD. Peritonitis rate was 1 episode every 18 patient months. With the introduction of new connection and disposable sets the incidence of peritonitis is dropping down. The major cause of drop-out is cardiovascular death followed by peritonitis. Malnutrition is a major problem in both CAPD and haemodialysis patients. The programme has been expanded and there are over one thousand patients on this treatment in the country. The introduction of CPD had a major impact on the treatment of renal failure in India.
Nishizawa, M; Igari, K; Kudo, T; Toyofuku, T; Inoue, Y; Uetake, H
Peripheral artery disease in dialysis cases is more prone to critical limb ischemia compared to non-dialysis cases, with a significantly high rate of major amputation of the lower limbs. Lesions are distributed on the more distal side in dialysis critical limb ischemia cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of indocyanine green angiography to determine differences in the regional circulation in the foot between dialysis and non-dialysis patients. The subjects included 62 cases, among which 20 were dialysis patients and 42 were non-dialysis patients. We compared the indocyanine green angiography parameters for regions of interest in the dialysis and non-dialysis groups, which included the magnitude of intensity from indocyanine green onset to maximum intensity (Imax), the time from indocyanine green onset to maximum intensity (Tmax), the time elapsed from the fluorescence onset to half the maximum intensity (T1/2), and the time from maximum intensity to declining to 90% of the maximum intensity (Td90%). These indocyanine green angiography parameters were measured at region of interest 1 (the Chopart joint), region of interest 2 (the Lisfranc joint), and region of interest 3 (the distal region of the first metatarsal bone). In the comparison between the dialysis and non-dialysis groups, a significant difference was observed regarding Tmax, T1/2, and Td90%, especially in region of interest 3. In this study, we show that regional tissue perfusion is more deteriorated in dialysis patients compared with non-dialysis patients using indocyanine green angiography. Tmax, T1/2, and Td90% could be useful clinical parameters to compare ischemic severity of the lower limb between dialysis and non-dialysis patients.
Kelman, Jeffrey; Finne, Kristen; Bogdanov, Alina; Worrall, Chris; Margolis, Gregg; Rising, Kristin; MaCurdy, Thomas E; Lurie, Nicole
Hurricane Sandy affected access to critical health care infrastructure. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) historically have experienced problems accessing care and adverse outcomes during disasters. Retrospective cohort study with 2 comparison groups. Using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims data, we assessed the frequency of early dialysis, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and 30-day mortality for patients with ESRD in Sandy-affected areas (study group) and 2 comparison groups: (1) patients with ESRD living in states unaffected by Sandy during the same period and (2) patients with ESRD living in the Sandy-affected region a year prior to the hurricane (October 1, 2011, through October 30, 2011). Regional variation in dialysis care patterns and mortality for patients with ESRD in New York City and the State of New Jersey. Frequency of early dialysis, ED visits, hospitalizations, and 30-day mortality. Of 13,264 study patients, 59% received early dialysis in 70% of the New York City and New Jersey dialysis facilities. The ED visit rate was 4.1% for the study group compared with 2.6% and 1.7%, respectively, for comparison groups 1 and 2 (both P<0.001). The hospitalization rate for the study group also was significantly higher than that in either comparison group (4.5% vs 3.2% and 3.8%, respectively; P<0.001 and P<0.003). 23% of study group patients who visited the ED received dialysis in the ED compared with 9.3% and 6.3% in comparison groups 1 and 2, respectively (both P<0.001). The 30-day mortality rate for the study group was slightly higher than that for either comparison group (1.83% vs 1.47% and 1.60%, respectively; P<0.001 and P=0.1). Lack of facility level damage and disaster-induced power outage severity data. Nearly half the study group patients received early dialysis prior to Sandy's landfall. Poststorm increases in ED visits, hospitalizations, and 30-day mortality were found in the study group, but not in the
Peritoneal dialysis is a form of kidney dialysis that is used to remove accumulated metabolic waste products and water in patients with end stage kidney disease. Long-term exposure to high concentrations of glucose and its by-products, both found in peritoneal dialysis fluid, has been implicated in contributing to peritoneal damage over time, in turn limiting long-term use of the technique. Newer peritoneal dialysis solutions have been developed in the hope of reducing the unfavorable effects of peritoneal dialysis solutions. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that newer peritoneal dialysis fluids have salutary effects on the peritoneal membrane. Short-term clinical studies have also found some metabolic benefits of glucose-sparing regimens in chronic peritoneal dialysis. Mixed results have been found in studies examining whether newer peritoneal dialysis fluids reduce peritonitis rates. Long-term studies are needed to investigate whether newer peritoneal dialysis fluids provide better peritoneal dialysis technique and/or patient survival, compared to standard glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluids. PMID:26097730
Background In March, 2007, a black box warning was issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use the lowest possible erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) doses for treatment of anemia associated with renal disease. The goal is to determine if a change in ESA use was observed following the warning among US dialysis patients. Methods ESA therapy was examined from September 2004 through August 2009 (thirty months before and after the FDA black box warning) among adult Medicare hemodialysis patients. An interrupted time series model assessed the impact of the warnings. Results The FDA black box warning did not appear to influence ESA prescribing among the overall dialysis population. However, significant declines in ESA therapy after the FDA warnings were observed for selected populations. Patients with a hematocrit ≥36% had a declining month-to-month trend before (−164 units/week, p = <0.0001) and after the warnings (−80 units/week, p = .001), and a large drop in ESA level immediately after the black box (−4,744 units/week, p = <.0001). Not-for-profit facilities had a declining month-to-month trend before the warnings (−90 units/week, p = .009) and a large drop in ESA dose immediately afterwards (−2,487 units/week, p = 0.015). In contrast, for-profit facilities did not have a significant change in ESA prescribing. Conclusions ESA therapy had been both profitable for providers and controversial regarding benefits for nearly two decades. The extent to which a FDA black box warning highlighting important safety concerns influenced use of ESA therapy among nephrologists and dialysis providers was unknown. Our study found no evidence of changes in ESA prescribing for the overall dialysis population resulting from a FDA black box warning. PMID:23927675
Thamer, Mae; Zhang, Yi; Lai, Dejian; Kshirsagar, Onkar; Cotter, Dennis
In March, 2007, a black box warning was issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use the lowest possible erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) doses for treatment of anemia associated with renal disease. The goal is to determine if a change in ESA use was observed following the warning among US dialysis patients. ESA therapy was examined from September 2004 through August 2009 (thirty months before and after the FDA black box warning) among adult Medicare hemodialysis patients. An interrupted time series model assessed the impact of the warnings. The FDA black box warning did not appear to influence ESA prescribing among the overall dialysis population. However, significant declines in ESA therapy after the FDA warnings were observed for selected populations. Patients with a hematocrit≥36% had a declining month-to-month trend before (-164 units/week, p=<0.0001) and after the warnings (-80 units/week, p=.001), and a large drop in ESA level immediately after the black box (-4,744 units/week, p=<.0001). Not-for-profit facilities had a declining month-to-month trend before the warnings (-90 units/week, p=.009) and a large drop in ESA dose immediately afterwards (-2,487 units/week, p=0.015). In contrast, for-profit facilities did not have a significant change in ESA prescribing. ESA therapy had been both profitable for providers and controversial regarding benefits for nearly two decades. The extent to which a FDA black box warning highlighting important safety concerns influenced use of ESA therapy among nephrologists and dialysis providers was unknown. Our study found no evidence of changes in ESA prescribing for the overall dialysis population resulting from a FDA black box warning.
Estes, Jason P; Nguyen, Danh V; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Mu, Yi; Şentürk, Damla
Among patients on dialysis, cardiovascular disease and infection are leading causes of hospitalization and death. Although recent studies have found that the risk of cardiovascular events is higher after an infection-related hospitalization, studies have not fully elucidated how the risk of cardiovascular events changes over time for patients on dialysis. In this work, we characterize the dynamics of cardiovascular event risk trajectories for patients on dialysis while conditioning on survival status via multiple time indices: (1) time since the start of dialysis, (2) time since the pivotal initial infection-related hospitalization, and (3) the patient's age at the start of dialysis. This is achieved by using a new class of generalized multiple-index varying coefficient (GM-IVC) models. The proposed GM-IVC models utilize a multiplicative structure and one-dimensional varying coefficient functions along each time and age index to capture the cardiovascular risk dynamics before and after the initial infection-related hospitalization among the dynamic cohort of survivors. We develop a two-step estimation procedure for the GM-IVC models based on local maximum likelihood. We report new insights on the dynamics of cardiovascular events risk using the United States Renal Data System database, which collects data on nearly all patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States. Finally, simulation studies assess the performance of the proposed estimation procedures. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.
Lioussfi, Zineb; Errami, Zineb; Radoui, Aicha; Rhou, Hakima; Ezzaitouni, Fatima; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Bayahia, Rabea; Benamar, Loubna
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients at the Rabat University Hospital and to identify the major risk factors for transmission. A retrospective study was performed in 67 chronic HD and 36 peritoneal dialysis patients. For the screening of viral infections, we tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HBs antigen (Hbs Ag). We compared infected and non-infected patients in order to determine the risk factors for contamination. In the HD unit, the prevalence of anti-HCV was 60% and the prevalence of HBs Ag was 6%. Duration of dialysis (P = 0.001) was the only risk factor in our HD patients. In peritoneal dialysis (PD), the prevalence of anti-HCV was 8%. Hbs Ag was detected in 2.6% of our PD patients. Viral hepatitis C is the main viral infection in our HD unit. The duration of dialysis is the main risk factor for infection in our study. The transmission is essentially nosocomial, requiring a strict adherence to infection control procedures.
Bong, Y C; Walsham, J
Heparin locking of venous dialysis catheters is routinely performed in intensive care to maintain catheter patency when the catheters are not being used. Leakage of heparin into the circulation can potentially cause systemic anticoagulation and may present a risk to intensive care patients. To assess the effect of 5000 units per millilitre heparin locking of non-tunnelled dialysis catheters on systemic anticoagulation, we performed a prospective observational study of ten intensive care patients receiving heparin locking of dialysis catheters in an adult tertiary intensive care unit between July and September 2015. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was measured prior to, and three minutes after, heparin locking of catheter lumens with the manufacturer's recommended locking volume to assess the effect on systemic anticoagulation. Heparin locking of venous dialysis catheters resulted in a significant rise in APTT (P=0.002). The median rise was by 56 seconds (interquartile range 30-166.5). Following heparin locking, 80% of patients had APTT values within or above the range associated with therapeutic anticoagulation. Heparin locking of non-tunnelled venous dialysis catheters can cause systemic anticoagulation in intensive care patients and therefore poses a potential risk to patient safety.
Locatelli, Francesco; Canaud, Bernard
The need to improve haemodialysis (HD) therapies and to reduce cardiovascular and all-cause mortality frequently encountered by dialysis patients has been recognized and addressed for many years. A number of approaches, including increasing the frequency versus duration of treatment, have been proposed and debated in terms of their clinical efficacy and economic feasibility. Future prescription of dialysis to an expanding end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD-5D) population needs a re-evaluation of existing practices while maintaining the emphasis on patient well-being both in the short and in the long term. Efficient cleansing of the blood of all relevant uraemic toxins, including fluid and salt overload, remains the fundamental objective of all dialysis therapies. Simultaneously, metabolic disorders (e.g. anaemia, mineral bone disease, oxidative stress) that accompany renal failure need to be corrected also as part of the delivery of dialysis therapy itself. Usage of high-flux membranes that enable small and large uraemic toxins to be eliminated from the blood is the first prerequisite towards the aforementioned goals. Application of convective therapies [(online-haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF)] further enhances the detoxification effects of high-flux haemodialysis (HF-HD). However, despite an extended clinical experience with both HF-HD and OL-HDF spanning more than two decades, a more widespread prescription of convective treatment modalities awaits more conclusive evidence from large-scale prospective randomized controlled trials. In this review, we present a European perspective on the need to implement optimal dialysis and to improve it by adopting high convective therapies and to discuss whether inertia to implement these practice patterns may deprive patients of significantly improved well-being and survival.
Johansen, Kirsten L.
Background. Physical inactivity is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with poor physical functioning. Patients with end-stage renal disease are inactive even compared to sedentary individuals without kidney disease. We sought to identify patient barriers to physical activity. Methods. Adult patients on hemodialysis in the San Francisco Bay Area were recruited and asked to complete a study survey composed of questions about self-reported level of physical functioning, physical activity participation, patient physical activity preference and barriers to physical activity. Univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between barriers to physical activity and participation in physical activity. Results. A total of 100 patients participated in the study, the majority of whom were male (73%), with a mean age of 60 ± 15 years. Twenty-seven percent identified themselves as white, 30% black and 21% Hispanic. The majority of participants strongly agreed that a sedentary lifestyle was a health risk (98%) and that increasing exercise was a benefit (98%). However, 92% of participants reported at least one barrier to physical activity. The most commonly reported barriers were fatigue on dialysis days and non-dialysis days (67 and 40%, respectively) and shortness of breath (48%). In multivariate analysis, a greater number of reported barriers was associated with lower levels of physical activity (P < 0.02). Post-dialysis fatigue was not associated with differences in activity level in multivariate analysis. Lack of motivation was associated with less physical activity. Endorsement of too many medical problems and not having enough time on dialysis days were also associated with less activity in adjusted analysis. Conclusion. We have identified a number of barriers to physical activity that can be addressed in studies aimed at increasing levels of physical activity
Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Agarwal, Rajiv
Among patients on dialysis, hypertension is highly prevalent and contributes to the high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Strict volume control via sodium restriction and probing of dry weight are first-line approaches for the treatment of hypertension in this population; however, antihypertensive drug therapy is often needed to control BP. Few trials compare head-to-head the superiority of one antihypertensive drug class over another with respect to improving BP control or altering cardiovascular outcomes; accordingly, selection of the appropriate antihypertensive regimen should be individualized. To individualize therapy, consideration should be given to intra- and interdialytic pharmacokinetics, effect on cardiovascular reflexes, ability to treat comorbid illnesses, and adverse effect profile. β-Blockers followed by dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers are our first- and second-line choices for antihypertensive drug use. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers seem to be reasonable third-line choices, because the evidence base to support their use in patients on dialysis is sparse. Add-on therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in specific subgroups of patients on dialysis (i.e., those with severe congestive heart failure) seems to be another promising option in anticipation of the ongoing trials evaluating their efficacy and safety. Adequately powered, multicenter, randomized trials evaluating hard cardiovascular end points are urgently warranted to elucidate the comparative effectiveness of antihypertensive drug classes in patients on dialysis. In this review, we provide an overview of the randomized evidence on pharmacotherapy of hypertension in patients on dialysis, and we conclude with suggestions for future research to address critical gaps in this important area.
Scarpioni, R; Ricardi, M; Albertazzi, V; De Amicis, S; Rastelli, F; Zerbini, L
Amyloidosis refers to the extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils composed of low-molecular-weight subunits of a variety of proteins. These deposits may result in a wide range of clinical manifestations depending upon their type, location, and the amount of deposition. Dialysis-related amyloidosis is a serious complication of long-term dialysis therapy and is characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils, principally composed of β2 microglobulins (β2M), in the osteoarticular structures and viscera. Most of the β2M is eliminated through glomerular filtration and subsequent reabsorption and catabolism by the proximal tubules. As a consequence, the serum levels of β2M are inversely related to the glomerular filtration rate; therefore, in end-stage renal disease patients, β2M levels increase up to 60-fold. Serum levels of β2M are also elevated in several pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation, liver disease, and above all, in renal dysfunction. Retention of amyloidogenic protein has been attributed to several factors including type of dialysis membrane, prolonged uremic state and/or decreased diuresis, advanced glycation end products, elevated levels of cytokines and dialysate. Dialysis treatment per se has been considered to be an inflammatory stimulus, inducing cytokine production (such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6) and complement activation. The released cytokines are thought to stimulate the synthesis and release of β2M by the macrophages and/or augment the expression of human leukocyte antigens (class I), increasing β2M expression. Residual renal function is probably the best determinant of β2M levels. Therefore, it has to be maintained as long as possible. In this article, we will focus our attention on the etiology of dialysis-related amyloidosis, its prevention, therapy, and future solutions. PMID:27994478
Krediet, Raymond T.
Peritoneal dialysis was first employed in patients with acute renal failure in the 1940s and since the 1960s for those with end-stage renal disease. Its popularity increased enormously after the introduction of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in the end of 1970s. This stimulated both clinical and basic research. In an ideal situation, this should lead to cross-fertilization between the two. The present review describes two examples of interactions: one where it worked out very well and another where basic science missed the link with clinical findings. Those on fluid transport are examples of how old physiological findings on absorption of saline and glucose solutions were adopted in peritoneal dialysis by the use of glucose as an osmotic agent. The mechanism behind this in patients was first solved mathematically by the assumption of ultrasmall intracellular pores allowing water transport only. At the same time, basic science discovered the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), and a few years later, studies in transgenic mice confirmed that AQP-1 was the ultrasmall pore. In clinical medicine, this led to its assessment in patients and the notion of its impairment. Drugs for treatment have been developed. Research on biocompatibility is not a success story. Basic science has focussed on dialysis solutions with a low pH and lactate, and effects of glucose degradation products, although the first is irrelevant in patients and effects of continuous exposure to high glucose concentrations were largely neglected. Industry believed the bench more than the bedside, resulting in ‘biocompatible’ dialysis solutions. These solutions have some beneficial effects, but are evidently not the final answer. PMID:26120456
Icodextrin, a glucose polymer, is an alternative osmotic agent to glucose in peritoneal dialysis solutions. Icodextrin generates ultrafiltration through colloid osmosis and is thus effective even during long-term (e.g., nighttime) dwells and in cases of high peritoneal permeability, where it prevents dialysate reabsorption into the systemic circulation. Ultrafiltration is maintained even in the presence of peritonitis. The incidence of bacterial peritonitis is not different when using icodextrin- or glucose-based solutions. Some time ago, icodextrin use was implicated in an increased incidence of sterile peritonitis. This was due to contamination of some batches of the solution by peptidoglycan present in the cell wall of G+ bacteria. Using exact isotope methods, treatment with icodextrin-based solution has been shown to improve the hydration status of peritoneal dialysis patients, suggesting a potential for improved blood pressure control. Icodextrin-based dialysis is associated with a reduction of left ventricular mass. Given the methodological flaws of trials conducted to date, the acute hemodynamic effects of icodextrin cannot be conclusively interpreted. Inclusion of icodextrin-based solution instead of the glucose-based one into the prescription of peritoneal dialysis decreases the metabolic load with glucose potentially having a beneficial effect on hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, with improved glycemic control in patients with diabetes as an additional benefit. Function of the peritoneum as a dialysis membrane is stable during icodextrin-based treatment, possibly longer compared with glucose-based solutions. Data derived from a large-scale registry have shown lower mortality oficodextrin-treated patients; this, however, needs to be confirmed by prospective randomized controlled trials.
Marshall, Mark R.; Walker, Rachael C.; Polkinghorne, Kevan R.; Lynn, Kelvin L.
Background New Zealand (NZ) has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home haemodialysis (HD) relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. Methods We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. Results We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category) associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (<3 years) that is offset by a 33% greater mortality risk in the late period (>3 years), with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. Conclusion Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase. PMID:24806458
Kıhtır, Hasan Serdar; Yıldırım, Hamdi Murat; Yeşilbaş, Osman; Duramaz, Burcu Bursal; Şevketoğlu, Esra
A girl aged six months was hospitalized because of resistant seizures and was discharged with phenobarbital and carbamazepine therapy. She was admitted to a state hospital with symptoms of inability to waken and difficulty in breathing. It was learned that phenobarbital had been used incorrectly and the patient was sent to our pediatric intensive care unit because of severe phenobarbital overdose. The decision was taken for hemodialysis. Single-pass albumin dialysis was planned because phenobarbital can bind to high levels of plasma protein. The process was undertaken with 1% albumin-containing dialysate, which was prepared manually. After 6 hours of dialysis, the phenobarbital blood level measured 62 mcg/mL (>140 mcg/mL on admission) and the patient's clinical findings were markedly regressed. There are no case reports about phenobarbital overdose treated with single-pass albumin dialysis in the literature. We conclude that single-pass albumin dialysis may be a useful treatment, especially with intoxications of drugs that bind protein at high levels.
Kıhtır, Hasan Serdar; Yıldırım, Hamdi Murat; Yeşilbaş, Osman; Duramaz, Burcu Bursal; Şevketoğlu, Esra
A girl aged six months was hospitalized because of resistant seizures and was discharged with phenobarbital and carbamazepine therapy. She was admitted to a state hospital with symptoms of inability to waken and difficulty in breathing. It was learned that phenobarbital had been used incorrectly and the patient was sent to our pediatric intensive care unit because of severe phenobarbital overdose. The decision was taken for hemodialysis. Single-pass albumin dialysis was planned because phenobarbital can bind to high levels of plasma protein. The process was undertaken with 1% albumin-containing dialysate, which was prepared manually. After 6 hours of dialysis, the phenobarbital blood level measured 62 mcg/mL (>140 mcg/mL on admission) and the patient’s clinical findings were markedly regressed. There are no case reports about phenobarbital overdose treated with single-pass albumin dialysis in the literature. We conclude that single-pass albumin dialysis may be a useful treatment, especially with intoxications of drugs that bind protein at high levels. PMID:28123338
Johansen, Kirsten L.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kutner, Nancy G.; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Grimes, Barbara A.; Kaysen, George A.
Physical inactivity contributes to the frailty and the decline in function that develops over time among patients with end-stage renal disease. We assessed physical activity among 1547 ambulatory patients new to dialysis in the United States Renal Data System Comprehensive Dialysis Study. We used a self-reporting Human Activity Profile that included Maximal and Adjusted Activity Scores and compared results to established norms by age and gender. Physical activity was found to be extremely low with scores for all age and gender categories below the 5th percentile of healthy individuals and 95% of patients had scores consonant with low fitness. Older age, female gender, diabetes, atherosclerotic disease, and a low level of education were associated with lower activity scores assessed by univariate and multivariable linear regression analysis. Higher serum albumin, creatinine, and lower body mass index, but not hemoglobin levels, were associated with greater physical activity. By multivariable analysis, patients on hemodialysis using a catheter reported lower levels of physical activity compared to those on peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis using an arteriovenous fistula, or with a graft. Lower Maximal and Adjusted Activity Scores were associated with poor physical function and mental health. Hence, physical activity is distressingly low among patients new to dialysis. Thus, strategies to enhance activity in these patients should be explored. PMID:20811334
Gabbay, Ezra; Hersch, Moshe; Shavit, Linda; Shmuelevitz, Lev; Helviz, Yigal; Shapiro, Henry; Slotki, Itzchak
While dialysis historically began as treatment intended for younger patients, it has, over time, increasingly been extended to treat elderly patients with a high comorbidity burden. Data on the outcomes of dialysis in these patients show that in some cases it confers no benefit and may be associated with functional decline. We describe a 101-year-old male patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD), admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with exacerbation of heart failure and sepsis. He experienced acute deterioration of renal function, with oliguria and acidosis. The patient's healthcare proxy insisted that dialysis be initiated despite his extremely advanced age, citing the patient's devout religious beliefs. He underwent 56 dialysis treatments over the course of ∼4 months after which he died as a result of septic and cardiogenic shock. Our case is unique, in that it may represent the oldest individual ever reported to start haemodialysis. It illustrates the ever-growing clinical and ethical challenges posed by the treatment of renal failure in the geriatric population.
Kaiser, B A; Polinsky, M S; Stover, J; Morgenstern, B Z; Baluarte, H J
Maintenance dialysis usually serves as an interim treatment for children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) until transplantation can take place. Some children, however, may require dialytic support for an extended period of time. Although dialysis improves some of the problems associated with growth failure in ESRD (acidosis, uremia, calcium, and phosphorus imbalance), many children continue to grow poorly. Therefore, three different dialysis modalities, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), cycler/intermittent peritoneal dialysis (CPD), and hemodialysis (HD), were evaluated with regard to their effects on the growth of children initiating dialysis and remaining on that modality for 6-12 months. Growth was best for children undergoing CAPD when compared with the other two modalities with regard to the following growth parameters: incremental height standard deviation score for chronological age [-0.55 +/- 2.06 vs. -1.69 +/- 1.22 for CPD (P < 0.05) and -1.80 +/- 1.13 for HD (P < 0.05)]; incremental height standard deviation score for bone age [-1.68 +/- 1.71 vs. -2.45 +/- 1.43 for CPD (P = NS) and -2.03 +/- 1.28 for HD (P = NS)]; change in height standard deviation score during the dialysis period [0.00 +/- 0.67 vs. -0.15 +/- .29 for CPD (P = NS) and -0.23 +/- .23 for HD (P = NS)]. The reasons why growth appears to be best in children receiving CAPD may be related to its metabolic benefits: lower levels of uremia, as reflected by the blood urea nitrogen [50 +/- 12 vs. 69 +/- 16 mg/dl for CPD (P < 0.5) and 89 +/- 17 for HD (P < 0.05)], improved metabolic acidosis, as indicated by a higher serum bicarbonate concentration [24 +/- 2 mEq/l vs. 22 +/- 2 for CPD (P < 0.05) and 21 +/- 2 for HD (P < 0.05)]. In addition, children undergoing CAPD receive significant supplemental calories from the glucose absorbed during dialysis. CAPD, and possibly, other types of prolonged-dwell daily peritoneal dialysis appear to be most beneficial for growth, which may be of
Lok, Charmaine E; Davidson, Ingemar
Patient-focused dialysis modality and access selection requires a coordinated teamwork approach that emphasizes chronic kidney disease care to be a continuum of care. Individualized and detailed patient history and examination are the mainstays of dialysis modality and access selection. Preoperative vessel mapping by duplex Doppler ultrasonography can be a useful supplementary investigation to the history and physical examination to determine the optimal dialysis access type and site. Dialysis access modality and choice considers many patient factors that can be aided by a clinical risk score, asking key clinical questions, surgical expert opinion, and a multidisciplinary approach to individualized patient care. In many situations, a lifelong access utilization strategy prioritizes peritoneal dialysis as the first dialysis modality followed by appropriately planned hemodialysis. The goal of an integrated patient-focused approach is to achieve complication-free access to help patients achieve their life goals on and off dialysis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Manno, Carlo; Zuccalà, Alessandro
In this article, the Italian Society of Nephrology discusses the recent statement of the Italian National Government regarding the 'The definition of the structure and technological standards of hospital health care' and suggests a new model of organization of the Italian Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Network. In particular, the Italian Society of Nephrology proposes the presence of a nephrologist as part of the Emergency Hospital Network, to oversee all extracorporeal replacement treatments taking place in Intensive Care Units. Finally, this article recommends the cooperation of the nephrologist with primary health care teams and general practitioners as a move to prevent the complications of chronic kidney disease, thus improving short-term and long-term survival outcomes and reducing the costs to the National Health System.
Madihally, Sundararajan V.; Lewis, Randy S.
To enhance bioengineering in the chemical engineering curriculum, a Unit Operations experiment simulating the hemodialysis of creatinine was implemented. The blood toxin creatinine was used for developing a more realistic dialysis experiment. A dialysis model is presented that allows students to assess the validity of model assumptions. This work…
Madihally, Sundararajan V.; Lewis, Randy S.
To enhance bioengineering in the chemical engineering curriculum, a Unit Operations experiment simulating the hemodialysis of creatinine was implemented. The blood toxin creatinine was used for developing a more realistic dialysis experiment. A dialysis model is presented that allows students to assess the validity of model assumptions. This work…
Martelli, Nicolas; Puc, Cyril; Szwarcensztein, Karine; Beuscart, Régis; Coulonjou, Hélène; Degrassat-Théas, Albane; Dutot, Camille; Epis de Fleurian, Anne-Aurélie; Favrel-Feuillade, Florence; Hounliasso, Iliona; Lechat, Philippe; Luigi, Emmanuel; Mairot, Laurent; Nguyen, Thao; Piazza, Laurent; Roussel, Christophe; Vienney, Cécile
Hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA) guides decisions as to whether new healthcare products should be made available within hospital structures. Its extension to medical devices (MDs) makes it possible to analyse several relevant aspects of these healthcare products in addition to their clinical value, and such evaluations are of interest to national health authorities, other healthcare establishments and industry. The aim of this work was to formulate several recommendations for a blueprint for hospital-based HTA for MDs in France. Five themes based on the work of the European Adopting hospital-based HTA in the EU (AdHopHTA) project were defined. Each member of the roundtable was then allocated a documentation task based on their experience of the theme concerned, and a literature review was carried out. An inventory of hospital-based HTA was performed and six recommendations aiming to strengthen and improve this approach were put forward: (1) encouragement of the spread of the hospital-based HTA culture and participation in communications and the promotion of this approach to hospital decision-makers; (2) adaptation of hospital-based HTA to the needs of decision-makers, taking into account the financial timetable and strategic objectives of the healthcare establishment; (3) harmonisation of the dossiers requested from industry between healthcare establishments, based on a common core; (4) promotion of the sharing of hospital-based HTA data under certain conditions, with data dissociable from the HTA report and the use of a validated methodology for the literature review; (5) creation of a composite indicator reflecting data production effort and the sharing of HTA activities, to be taken into account in the distribution of funds allocated for teaching, research and innovation missions considered of general interest; (6) the transmission of information directly from local to national level by pioneering centres. This work highlights the major issues
Petitgout, Janine M; Pelzer, Daniel E; McConkey, Stacy A; Hanrahan, Kirsten
A hospital-based Continuity of Care program for children with special health care needs is described. A family-centered team approach provides care coordination and a medical home. The program has grown during the past 10 years to include inpatients and outpatients from multiple services and outreach clinics. Improved outcomes, including decreased length of stay, decreased cost, and high family satisfaction, are demonstrated by participants in the program. Pediatric nurse practitioners play an important role in the medical home, collaborating with primary care providers, hospital-based specialists, community services, and social workers to provide services to children with special health care needs.
Sulvetta, Margaret B.; Holahan, John
Cost differences between freestanding and hospital-based skilled nursing facilities (SNF's) are identified and examined in this article. Although hospital-based and freestanding SNF's have significant differences in terms of location, admissions per bed, percent of Medicare days, occupancy rates, staffing, provisions of rehabilitative services, and patient characteristics, these are insufficient to fully explain cost differences. Less than one-half of the existing cost differences can be explained after controlling for case mix, staffing, and other cost-contributing factors. A reimbursement system that differentiates solely by provider type without relating rates to patient characteristics may overcompensate some providers and undercompensate others. PMID:10311497
Gursu, Meltem; Uzun, Sami; Topcuoğlu, Derya; Koc, Leyli Kadriye; Yucel, Lamiye; Sumnu, Abdullah; Cebeci, Egemen; Ozkan, Oktay; Behlul, Ahmet; Koc, Leyla; Ozturk, Savas; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza
AIM: To examine all skin changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients followed up in our unit. METHODS: Patients on PD program for at least three months without any known chronic skin disease were included in the study. Patients with already diagnosed skin disease, those who have systemic diseases that may cause skin lesions, patients with malignancies and those who did not give informed consent were excluded from the study. All patients were examined by the same predetermined dermatologist with all findings recorded. The demographic, clinical and laboratory data including measures of dialysis adequacy of patients were recorded also. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 16.0 standard version was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among the patients followed up in our PD unit, those without exclusion criteria who gave informed consent, 38 patients were included in the study with male/female ratio and mean age of 26/12 and 50.3 ± 13.7 years, respectively. The duration of CKD was 7.86 ± 4.16 years and the mean PD duration was 47.1 ± 29.6 mo. Primary kidney disease was diabetic nephropathy in 11, nephrosclerosis in six, uropathologies in four, chronic glomerulonephritis in three, chronic pyelonephritis in three, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in three patients while cause was unknown in eight patients. All patients except for one patient had at least one skin lesion. Loss of lunula, onychomycosis and tinea pedis are the most frequent skin disorders recorded in the study group. Diabetic patients had tinea pedis more frequently (P = 0.045). No relationship of skin findings was detected with primary renal diseases, comorbidities and medications that the patients were using. CONCLUSION: Skin abnormalities are common in in PD patients. The most frequent skin pathologies are onychomycosis and tinea pedis which must not be overlooked. PMID:27458566
Vasilevsky, A. M.; Konoplev, G. A.; Stepanova, O. S.; Zemchenkov, A. Yu; Gerasimchuk, R. P.; Frorip, A.
The absorption spectra of effluent dialysate in the ultraviolet region were investigated. A novel dual-wavelength spectrophotometric method for uric acid determination in effluent dialysate and an optoelectronic sensor based on UV LED were developed. Clinical trials of the proposed sensor were carried out in the dialysis unit of St. Petersburg Mariinsky Hospital. The relative error of measurement for the concentration of uric acid does not exceed 10%.
Santoro, Antonio; Ferramosca, Emiliana; Mancini, Elena
The progressive increase in the mean age and the growing conditions of co-morbidity, especially of cardiovascular pathologies and diabetes, have significantly worsened the patients' clinical status and tolerance to the hemodialysis (HD) treatment. On the other hand, the demand for short treatment times enhances the risk for hemodynamic instability as well as for inadequate depuration. The traditional management of the dialysis session, setting of predefined treatment parameters, with active therapeutic interventions only in the event of complications, is definitely unsuitable for short-lasting treatments, often complicated by hemodynamic instability, especially in critical patients. The first step to improve the management of the dialysis session is the utilization of continuous and uninvasive monitoring systems for hemodynamic or biochemical parameters involved in the dialysis quality. Special sensors for the continuous measurement of blood volume, blood temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, electrolytes, have been realized throughout the last 10 years. As a second step, some of these devices have been implemented in the dialysis instrumentation, mainly with a view to preventing cardiocirculatory instability but also to control the dialysis efficiency (biofeedback control systems). The basic components of a biofeedback system are: the plant, the sensors, the actuators and the controller. The plant is the biological process that we need to control, while the sensors are the devices used for measuring the output variables. The actuators are the working arms of the controller. The controller is the mathematical model that continuously sets the measured output variable against the reference input and modifies the actuators in order to reduce any discrepancies. Yet, in practice there are a number of conceptual, physical and technological difficulties to be overcome. In particular, the behavior of what is to be controlled may be non-linear and time-varying, with
Chu, Yeh-Wen; Wu, Wen-Shiann; Hsu, Chen-Fang; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chien, Chih-Chiang
Background Diabetes is associated with development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialysis, but it is not clear whether ESRD dialysis is a risk factor for new-onset diabetes (NODM). Methods Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we designed two cohort studies to determine the association between dialysis and diabetes. Analysis 1 estimated the hazard ratios (HR) of ESRD dialysis in 20,585 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 82,340 gender- and age- matched controls without diabetes. Analysis 2 estimated the HRs of NODM in 18,489 ESRD patients undergoing dialysis and 73,956 gender- and age- matched controls without ESRD dialysis. The follow-up period was from 2000 to date of endpoint, the date of death, or December 31, 2008. Cox proportional models were used to estimate the relative hazards. Results In analysis 1, the incidence of ESRD dialysis was higher in the T2DM cohort than in the non-diabetes cohort (6.78 vs. 0.61 per 1,000 person-years; HR: 7.97; 95%CI: 7.05–8.00). In analysis 2, the incidence of NODM was higher in the ESRD dialysis cohort than in the without-ESRD dialysis cohort (22.84 vs. 13.99 per 1,000 person-years; HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.34–1.47). Conclusions ESRD dialysis and diabetes were bidirectionally associated. The relationship between T2DM and incident ESRD dialysis was much stronger than between ESRD dialysis and NODM. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of ESRD dialysis-related NODM. PMID:28296932
Maurizi Balzan, Jocelyne; Cartier, Jean Charles; Calvino-Gunther, Silvia; Carron, Pierre Louis; Baro, Patrice; Palacin, Pedro; Vialtel, Paul
Since dialysis withdrawal in maintenance dialysis patients with limited life expectancy results always in short-term death, nephrologists need a referenced process to make their decision. This study reviews 8 years of operation of an Ethics Committee in Nephrology (ECN). The ECN, within a multidisciplinary team, once a month explores cases reported by caregivers when maintaining dialysis seems not to be in the patient's best interest. Discussion is required when the vital prognosis is engaged by the evolution of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) or the occurrence of an acute medical event. Data are analyzed using a discussion guide. The informed decision is completed with an appropriated palliative care project involving the patient, and recorded in their file. Since 2006, the ECN has deliberated yearly for 10 sessions on 6-18 cases, concerning 380 identified maintenance dialysis patients. Characteristics of the population, cases, sessions and proposals are recorded and analyzed. The only variable associated with dialysis withdrawal was having at least one new comorbid condition. End of life is supported with the help of the palliative care team in the hospital or exceptionally at home. The ECN, through a multidisciplinary deliberation and resolution process, proposes an ethical shared-decision-making model ensuring that dialysis withdrawal follows professional guidelines, and is registered as a method for evaluating professional practice (EPP). Annual activity reports are submitted to the Hospital's Medical Evaluation and Quality Unit. Benefits are individual and collective for patients, relatives and caregivers. Prospects for reducing non-implemented decisions and identifying cases earlier would improve the Committee effectiveness. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.
Wang, Virginia; Diamantidis, Clarissa J; Wylie, JaNell; Greer, Raquel C
Care coordination is a challenge for patients with kidney disease, who often see multiple providers to manage their associated complex chronic conditions. Much of the focus has been on primary care physician (PCP) and nephrologist collaboration in the early stages of chronic kidney disease, but less is known about the co-management of the patients in the end-stage of renal disease. We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of empirical studies on primary care services for dialysis patients. Systematic literature search of MEDLINE/PubMED, CINAHL, and EmBase databases for studies, published until August 2015. Inclusion criteria included publications in English, empirical studies involving human subjects (e.g., patients, physicians), conducted in US and Canadian study settings that evaluated primary care services in the dialysis patient population. Fourteen articles examined three major themes of primary care services for dialysis patients: perceived roles of providers, estimated time in providing primary care, and the extent of dialysis patients' use of primary care services. There was general agreement among providers that PCPs should be involved but time, appropriate roles, and miscommunication are potential barriers to good primary care for dialysis patients. Although many dialysis patients report having a PCP, the majority rely on primary care from their nephrologists. Studies using administrative data found lower rates of preventive care services than found in studies relying on provider or patient self-report. The extant literature revealed gaps and opportunities to optimize primary care services for dialysis patients, foreshadowing the challenges and promise of Accountable Care / End-Stage Seamless Care Organizations and care coordination programs currently underway in the United States to improve clinical and logistical complexities of care for this commonly overlooked population. Studies linking the relationship between providers and patients' receipt
Patzer, Rachel E; Plantinga, Laura C; Paul, Sudeshna; Gander, Jennifer; Krisher, Jenna; Sauls, Leighann; Gibney, Eric M; Mulloy, Laura; Pastan, Stephen O
Dialysis facilities in the United States are required to educate patients with end-stage renal disease about all treatment options, including kidney transplantation. Patients receiving dialysis typically require a referral for kidney transplant evaluation at a transplant center from a dialysis facility to start the transplantation process, but the proportion of patients referred for transplantation is unknown. To describe variation in dialysis facility-level referral for kidney transplant evaluation and factors associated with referral among patients initiating dialysis in Georgia, the US state with the lowest kidney transplantation rates. Examination of United States Renal Data System data from a cohort of 15,279 incident, adult (18-69 years) patients with end-stage renal disease from 308 Georgia dialysis facilities from January 2005 to September 2011, followed up through September 2012, linked to kidney transplant referral data collected from adult transplant centers in Georgia in the same period. Referral for kidney transplant evaluation within 1 year of starting dialysis at any of the 3 Georgia transplant centers was the primary outcome; placement on the deceased donor waiting list was also examined. The median within-facility percentage of patients referred within 1 year of starting dialysis was 24.4% (interquartile range, 16.7%-33.3%) and varied from 0% to 75.0%. Facilities in the lowest tertile of referral (<19.2%) were more likely to treat patients living in high-poverty neighborhoods (absolute difference, 21.8% [95% CI, 14.1%-29.4%]), had a higher patient to social worker ratio (difference, 22.5 [95% CI, 9.7-35.2]), and were more likely nonprofit (difference, 17.6% [95% CI, 7.7%-27.4%]) compared with facilities in the highest tertile of referral (>31.3%). In multivariable, multilevel analyses, factors associated with lower referral for transplantation, such as older age, white race, and nonprofit facility status, were not always consistent with the factors
Patzer, Rachel E.; Plantinga, Laura C.; Paul, Sudeshna; Gander, Jennifer; Krisher, Jenna; Sauls, Leighann; Gibney, Eric M.; Mulloy, Laura; Pastan, Stephen O.
IMPORTANCE Dialysis facilities in the United States are required to educate patients with end-stage renal disease about all treatment options, including kidney transplantation. Patients receiving dialysis typically require a referral for kidney transplant evaluation at a transplant center from a dialysis facility to start the transplantation process, but the proportion of patients referred for transplantation is unknown. OBJECTIVE To describe variation in dialysis facility–level referral for kidney transplant evaluation and factors associated with referral among patients initiating dialysis in Georgia, the US state with the lowest kidney transplantation rates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Examination of United States Renal Data System data from a cohort of 15 279 incident, adult (18–69 years) patients with end-stage renal disease from 308 Georgia dialysis facilities from January 2005 to September 2011, followed up through September 2012, linked to kidney transplant referral data collected from adult transplant centers in Georgia in the same period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Referral for kidney transplant evaluation within 1 year of starting dialysis at any of the 3 Georgia transplant centers was the primary outcome; placement on the deceased donor waiting list was also examined. RESULTS The median within-facility percentage of patients referred within 1 year of starting dialysis was 24.4% (interquartile range, 16.7%–33.3%) and varied from 0% to 75.0%. Facilities in the lowest tertile of referral (<19.2%) were more likely to treat patients living in high-poverty neighborhoods (absolute difference, 21.8% [95% CI, 14.1%–29.4%]), had a higher patient to social worker ratio (difference, 22.5 [95% CI, 9.7–35.2]), and were more likely nonprofit (difference, 17.6% [95% CI, 7.7%–27.4%]) compared with facilities in the highest tertile of referral (>31.3%). In multivariable, multilevel analyses, factors associated with lower referral for transplantation
Grima, Daniel T; Bernard, Lisa M; Dunn, Elizabeth S; McFarlane, Philip A; Mendelssohn, David C
In many jurisdictions, cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) plays an important role in determining drug coverage and reimbursement and, therefore, has the potential to impact patient access. Health economic guidelines recommend the inclusion of future costs related to the intervention of interest within CEAs but provide little guidance regarding the definition of 'related'. In the case of CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis but do not impact the need for or the intensity of dialysis, the determination of the relatedness of future dialysis costs to the therapy of interest is particularly ambiguous. The uncertainty as to whether dialysis costs are related or unrelated in these circumstances has led to inconsistencies in the conduct of CEAs for such products, with dialysis costs included in some analyses while excluded in others. Due to the magnitude of the cost of dialysis, whether or not dialysis costs are included in CEAs of such therapies has substantial implications for the results of such analyses, often meaning the difference between a therapy being deemed cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are excluded) or not cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are included). This paper explores the issues and implications surrounding the inclusion of dialysis costs in CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of dialysis patients but do not impact the need for dialysis. Relevant case studies clearly demonstrate that, regardless of the clinical benefits of a life-extending intervention for dialysis patients, and due to the high cost of dialysis, the inclusion of dialysis costs in the analysis essentially eliminates the possibility of obtaining a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio. This raises the significant risk that dialysis patients may be denied access to interventions that are cost effective in other populations due solely to the high background cost of dialysis itself. Finally, the
O'Connor, Margaret G.; Kapust, Lissa R.; Hollis, Ann M.
Health care professionals working with the elderly have opportunities through research and clinical practice to shape public policy affecting the older driver. This article describes DriveWise, an interdisciplinary hospital-based driving assessment program developed in response to clinical concerns about the driving safety of individuals with…
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Kasahara, Mari; Nakamura, Ayako
Objective: This article explores characteristics of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) in Japan, a country which provides an egalitarian, low cost, and easy-access health care system. Methods: We sent a questionnaire survey to 11 leading doctors in the child abuse field in Japan, each located in different hospital-based sites. Child abuse doctors…
A shift in the role function of the hospital-based educator has increased his/her involvement in organizational decision making, including internal consulting. One aspect of the educator's practice now is evaluation. A broader, more flexible concept of evaluation is needed which is applicable to decision making about human resource/organizational…
... independent ESRD facilities. 413.174 Section 413.174 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.174 Prospective rates for hospital-based and independent ESRD facilities. Link to an amendment...
Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn
Objectives: This study compared health care assessments, referrals, treatment, and outcomes for young adolescent sexual assault/sexual abuse victims seen at a hospital-based Child Advocacy Center (CAC), to that provided to similar victims evaluated by other community providers. A second purpose was to document how common DNA evidence is found…
Malone, Michael; McPherson, Jenny
Sixty early intervention team members (30 community-based and 30 hospital-based) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and perceptions of teamwork. Respondents were recruited using a purposive non-probability sampling technique and completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of a detailed demographic survey, Attitudes About Teamwork Survey,…
Whitworth, Jay M.; And Others
Describes a hospital-based program for providing consultation to persons who provide direct services in child abuse/neglect cases. Conceptual issues in multidisciplinary team formation and involvement are discussed. Some topics mentioned are types of service, follow-up, educational components, and long-term involvement with families. (DB)
Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn
Objectives: This study compared health care assessments, referrals, treatment, and outcomes for young adolescent sexual assault/sexual abuse victims seen at a hospital-based Child Advocacy Center (CAC), to that provided to similar victims evaluated by other community providers. A second purpose was to document how common DNA evidence is found…
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Kasahara, Mari; Nakamura, Ayako
Objective: This article explores characteristics of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) in Japan, a country which provides an egalitarian, low cost, and easy-access health care system. Methods: We sent a questionnaire survey to 11 leading doctors in the child abuse field in Japan, each located in different hospital-based sites. Child abuse doctors…
O'Connor, Margaret G.; Kapust, Lissa R.; Hollis, Ann M.
Health care professionals working with the elderly have opportunities through research and clinical practice to shape public policy affecting the older driver. This article describes DriveWise, an interdisciplinary hospital-based driving assessment program developed in response to clinical concerns about the driving safety of individuals with…
Ganssauge, Malte; Padman, Rema; Teredesai, Pradip; Karambelkar, Ameet
Despite substantial advances in the treatment of end-stage renal disease, mortality of hemodialysis patients remains high. Several models exist that predict mortality for this population and identify patients at risk. However, they mostly focus on patients at a particular stage of dialysis treatment, such as start of dialysis, and only use the most recent patient data. Generalization of such models for predictions in later periods can be challenging since disease characteristics change over time and the evolution of biomarkers is not adequately incorporated. In this research, we explore dynamic methods which allow updates of initial predictions when patients progress in time and new data is observed. We compare a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) to regularized logistic regression models and a Cox model with landmarking. Our preliminary results indicate that the DBN achieves satisfactory performance for short term prediction horizons, but needs further refinement and parameter tuning for longer horizons. PMID:28269937
Pharmacogenomics is the study of differences in drug response on the basis of individual genetic background. With rapidly advancing genomic technologies and decreased costs of genotyping, the field of pharmacogenomics continues to develop. Application to patients with kidney disease provides growing opportunities for improving drug therapy. Pharmacogenomics studies are lacking in patients with chronic kidney disease and dialysis, but are abundant in the kidney transplant field. A potentially clinically actionable genetic variant exists in the CYP3A5 gene, with the initial tacrolimus dose selection being optimized based on CYP3A5 genotype. Although many pharmacogenomics studies have focused on transplant immunosuppression pharmacokinetics, an expanding literature on pharmacodynamic outcomes, such as calcineurin inhibitor toxicity and new onset diabetes, is providing new information on patients at risk. Appropriately powered pharmacogenomics studies with well-defined phenotypes are needed to validate existing studies and unearth new findings in patients with kidney disease, especially the chronic kidney disease and dialysis population.
Colì, Luigi; La Manna, Gaetano; Comai, Giorgia; Ursino, Mauro; Ricci, Davide; Piccari, Matteo; Locatelli, Francesco; Di Filippo, Salvatore; Cristinelli, Luciano; Bacchi, Massimo; Balducci, Alessandro; Aucella, Filippo; Panichi, Vincenzo; Ferrandello, Francesco Paolo; Tarchini, Renzo; Lambertini, Domenica; Mura, Carlo; Marinangeli, Giancarlo; Di Loreto, Ermanno; Quarello, Francesco; Forneris, Giacomo; Tancredi, Maurizio; Morosetti, Massimo; Palombo, Giuditta; Di Luca, Marina; Martello, Mauro; Emiliani, Giuseppe; Bellazzi, Roberto; Stefoni, Sergio
Hemodialysis is complicated by a high incidence of intradialytic hypotension and disequilibrium symptoms caused by hypovolemia and a decrease in extracellular osmolarity. Automatic adaptive system dialysis (AASD) is a proprietary dialysis system that provides automated elaboration of dialysate and ultrafiltration profiles based on the prescribed decrease in body weight and sodium content. A noncontrolled (single arm), multicenter, prospective, clinical trial. 55 patients with intradialytic hypotension or disequilibrium syndrome in 15 dialysis units were studied over a 1-month interval using standard treatment (642 sessions) followed by 6 months using AASD (2,376 sessions). AASD (bicarbonate dialysis with dialysate sodium concentration and ultrafiltration rate profiles determined by the automated procedure). Primary and major secondary outcomes were the frequency of intradialytic hypotension and symptoms (hypotensive events, headache, nausea, vomiting, and cramps), respectively. More stable intradialytic systolic and diastolic blood pressures with lower heart rate were found using AASD compared with standard treatment. Sessions complicated by hypotension decreased from 58.7% ± 7.3% to 0.9% ± 0.6% (P < 0.001). The incidence of other disequilibrium syndrome symptoms was lower in patients receiving AASD. There were no di