Russell-Taylor, W J
Management of heroin addiction with oral methadone continues to create controversy. Since the first Dole-Nyswander experiments were reported almost a decade ago, methadone maintenance programs have been started in every major city in North America at an estimated public cost in the hundreds of millions of tax dollars. By the end of 1972, the United States alone spending at an annual rate in excess of $250 million, and an expenditure rate in excess of one billion dollars was occurring by the end of 1973. Despite the FDA investigational New Drug status of methadone when used for this purpose, objective data have still not been generated to substantiate the worth of Narcotic Substitution Therapy. Iatrogenic consequences are on the increase, and scepticism is growing among most pharmacologists. A critical evaluation of the entire methadone maintenance approach is being advocated by many and being attempted by some. Data currently being generated at the Philadelphia General Hospital suggest that many patients may have been better managed without methadone.
Afriandi, Irvan; Siregar, Adiatma Y M; Meheus, Filip; Hidayat, Teddy; van der Ven, Andre; van Crevel, Reinout; Baltussen, Rob
To assess the cost of hospital-based methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for injecting drug users (IDUs) in Bandung, Indonesia; to address concerns of financial sustainability at the hospital level and financial accessibility and economic attractiveness at the health care policy level. In a 1 year observation period in 2006-2007, MMT service delivery costs were estimated on the basis of a micro-costing approach. Patient costs were estimated on the basis of a survey among 48 methadone clients. A total number of 129 clients attended the MMT clinic, resulting in a total of 16,335 client visits. Total annual societal costs of running the MMT clinic equalled Rp 1130 mln (US$123,672), or Rp 69,206 (US$7.57) per client visit. Of total costs, patient costs established the largest share (65%), followed by that of central government (20%), and the hospital (15%). Present consultation tariffs already cover hospital costs and the patient costs of accessing MMT services constitute almost 70% of their income. Under current circumstances, MMT services are financially sustainable to the hospital. MMT services are subsidized by the central government, and this is warranted considering the important role of the program in HIV/AIDS among IDUs. Still, the present user fee seems a barrier to utilization, and a higher level of subsidy might be justified to reduce the cost to the patient. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Preston, K L; Griffiths, R R; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A
Survey study data and high rates of diazepam use/abuse in methadone maintenance suggest that acute administration of diazepam with daily methadone doses may enhance methadone effects. Acute subjective and physiologic effects of single oral doses of placebo, diazepam (20 and 40 mg), methadone (100%, 150%, and 200% of the maintenance dose), and four diazepam-methadone dose combinations (20 and 40 mg diazepam in combination with 100% and 150% of the maintenance dose) were assessed under double-blind conditions. The subjects were five adult male patients on methadone maintenance with histories of diazepam abuse who were receiving 50 to 60 mg methadone a day. Physiologic measures were continuously monitored for 30 min before and for 2 hr after dosing. Pupil diameter and subjective responses were measured 15 min before dosing and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after dosing. Methadone induced dose-dependent increases in pupil constriction and scores on a subjective opioid effects rating scale, but diazepam had no significant effect on either. The combination of methadone at 150% of the maintenance dose with 40 mg diazepam induced increases in these measures greater than those induced by either drug dose alone. Drug combinations, however, were more frequently identified as being benzodiazepine/barbiturate-like than as methadone-like. Thus although the subjective effects of the drug combination are distinguishable from those of methadone alone, diazepam with methadone in methadone maintenance appears to increase some physiologic and subjective opioid effects that may be related to the relatively great use/abuse of diazepam in this population.
Brown, B S; Benn, G J; Jansen, D R
The authors found similar attitudes toward methadone and methadone treatment programs in 75 detoxification and 115 methadone maintenance clients. Both groups expressed considerable ambivalence--although they viewed methadone as capable of helping them end their herioin addiction, they were concerned about possible methadone dependence and about side effects, both real and imagined. The authors stress the societal context of such concern and suggest that, althought they are not easily allayed, limiting the duration of methadone maintenace from the outset of treatment may be an ameliorative factor.
The institution of methadone maintenance as a treatment modality for heroin addiction in the mid-1960s was part of the growing medicalization of social problems in the United States. The definition of deviance as "sickness" rather than "badness" set the stage for America's first harm-reduction strategy. By the 1970s methadone maintenance was seen as a way to reduce drug-related crime, and federally funded programs proliferated. Accompanying methadone's phenomenal expansion was increased regulation, bureaucratization, and criticism. The early 1980s brought the Reagan era, fiscal austerity, the new "just say no" abstinence morality, and demedicalization of methadone maintenance. By the time needle-sharing was recognized as a major contributing factor in the spread of HIV, methadone had been transformed into a largely fee-for-service, short-term, begrudgingly tolerated treatment modality. Ironically, while other countries were able to use methadone to curb the spread of AIDS, the United States refused to facilitate its expansion, and in fact impeded it. To the frustration of proponents and consumers, this original harm-reduction tool, with the potential to impact the epidemic, was demedicalized and remains marginalized.
The purpose of this study is to provide a perspective on key issues in methadone maintenance treatment for opiod dependence and its role in the...seropositivity? The study describes and analyzes the development of methadone maintenance as a treatment modality for opiod dependence and reviews the
Dore, G M; Walker, J D; Paice, J R; Clarkson, S
To provide information on methadone treatment outcomes for opiate-dependent individuals. Questionnaires and random urine tests were completed for 112 Otago clients comparing outcomes before and during methadone maintenance treatment. Treatment retention rates were high, with 86% of clients remaining on the programme six months or more. The number of clients on benefits reduced by almost 30% during treatment, with employment rates doubling from 19% to 40% (including attendance at educational programmes). For the 89 clients injecting opiates daily at initial presentation, 64% reported no opiate use in the three months prior to review. Of the remaining 36%, opiate use reduced significantly. Rates of sharing injecting equipment reduced by almost 90%. Almost 50% of cannabis users reduced their use from daily to less than daily use. Clients reporting no current use of illicit benzodiazepines increased by 85%. Heavy binge drinking weekly or more reduced by almost 75%. Use of other illicit drugs reduced by almost 90%. Drug-related convictions reduced by almost 60%, while accidental drug overdoses reduced by over 90%. The widespread benefits of methadone maintenance treatment demonstrated underline the importance of making quality methadone programmes readily accessible within the health system. Currently, there are long waiting lists and many individuals cannot gain access to active treatment. We believe the health system urgently needs to look at expanding existing services and/or establishing private methadone clinics similar to those in New South Wales.
Barnett, P G; Hui, S S
Although methadone maintenance is effective in reducing injection drug use, needle sharing, and the overall mortality associated with opiate abuse, many health plans offer little or no access to methadone, and many methadone providers do not comply with treatment guidelines regarding dose, duration of treatment, or provision of ancillary services. Moral and political judgments have helped shape the U.S. treatment system. Evaluations of methadone cost-effectiveness may play a role in changing public policy. Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare a change, or changes, in treatment to that of current standard care. The cost of treatment and its effect on outcomes are used to find the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, and determine whether the change(s) should be adopted. The literature on methadone maintenance is reviewed from an economic perspective, focusing on five policy questions: (1) whether methadone should be a health care benefit; (2) what level of ancillary services is optimal; (3) what methadone dose is appropriate; (4) what length of treatment is appropriate; and (5) whether contingency contracts should be employed. Expanded access to methadone maintenance has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of less than $11,000 per Quality-Adjusted Life Year. This is more cost-effective than many widely used medical therapies, a finding that strongly supports the inclusion of methadone in the formulary of health care plans.Ancillary services have been shown to be an effective part of methadone maintenance therapy, especially during the beginning of a treatment episode, but there is not enough information available to tell whether the optimal amount of services is being used. There is extensive evidence that many treatment programs dispense inadequate doses of methadone. The cost of additional drugs is very small compared to the benefits of an adequate dose. Many methadone programs limit treatment to 6 months or less, but such short episodes are not
Novick, David M; Salsitz, Edwin A; Joseph, Herman; Kreek, Mary Jeanne
Methadone medical maintenance is the treatment of stable methadone-maintained patients in primary care physicians' offices under an exemption from federal methadone regulations. Reports from seven such programs in six states show high retention and low frequencies of illicit drug use. Patients and physicians indicate high levels of satisfaction. Although methadone maintenance has a long history of safety and efficacy, most methadone medical maintenance programs are no longer operating or accepting new patients. Federal regulations for standard methadone clinics allow some features of methadone medical maintenance, and advocacy for state approval of these changes is strongly recommended.
King, Charles H.
This paper discusses various difficulties which arise when the staff of a methadone maintenance clinic must come to grips with the manifest and latent issues in service delivery. A solution is suggested which involves severing the tie between methadone and the behaviors which are reinforced by its use. (Author)
King, Charles H.
This paper discusses various difficulties which arise when the staff of a methadone maintenance clinic must come to grips with the manifest and latent issues in service delivery. A solution is suggested which involves severing the tie between methadone and the behaviors which are reinforced by its use. (Author)
Bloch, Harriet I.; And Others
Analysis of employment patterns of methadone maintenance clients had indicated that the majority were not employed at time of program admission. At time of evaluation, 70 percent of the sample were employed; 88 percent of these clients had previous work histories and brought marketable skills with them. (Author)
Shidlansik, Lia; Adelson, Miriam; Peles, Einat
Stigma attached to methadone maintenance treatment is very common. The objective of the current article is to evaluate the presence of stigma and its relation to the extent of knowledge about methadone maintenance treatment. The authors conducted a survey among methadone maintenance treatment and non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction therapists from different treatment centers in Israel, including methadone maintenance treatment clinics (Ministry of Health) and non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction facilities (Ministry of Social Services), using an anonymous questionnaire about methadone maintenance treatment stigma and knowledge. There were 63 therapists from methadone maintenance treatment clinics (63%) and 46 therapists from the social services department (SSD) non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction facilities (9.2%) who responded. Methadone maintenance treatment versus social services department personnel were older (42.7 ± 12.8 versus 37.5 ± 8.2 years; p = 0.03), with fewer females (48 versus 75%; p = 0.006), and 50% were social workers compared to 100% social workers in the SSD group (p < 0.0005). Stigma score was lower among methadone maintenance treatment personnel compared to the social services department personnel (3 ± 2.5 versus 5.0 ± 3.5; p = 0.0001), while the knowledge score about methadone maintenance treatment was higher among the methadone maintenance treatment personnel (10.3 ± 2.9 versus 7.7 ± 2.8; p < 0.0005). The difference in both the stigma and knowledge scores remained significant after controlling for age, gender, and profession. There was a negative correlation between the stigma and knowledge scores among both the methadone maintenance treatment (R = -0.5, p < 0.0005) and the social services department personnel (R = -0.33, p = 0.03). These results revealed a significant correlation between the presence of stigma and the extent of education and knowledge about methadone maintenance treatment, with ignorance
Vanagas, Giedrius; Padaiga, Zilvinas; Subata, Emilis
Methadone maintenance is effective in reducing injection drug use, needle sharing, and the overall mortality associated with opiate abuse. Scientific literature describes that efficiency of methadone maintenance program depends on many factors. Our analysis is based on description of economic research methods and on factors affecting economic efficiency of methadone maintenance. Computerized Medline data base was searched by key words: "economic evaluation", "cost-effectiveness", "cost-utility", "methadone", "methadone dosage", "ancillary services", "treatment duration". Review and analysis. Methadone maintenance therapy has higher economic efficiency with 80-100 mg per day methadone dose. Doses lower than 40 mg per day are considered as inefficient. Some methadone programs limit treatment to 90 days or less, but such short treatment episodes are not likely to be cost-effective. Ancillary services are more cost-effective at the beginning of methadone maintenance program, than in the later stages of the program. Economic efficiency is higher when program involves more participants, than when more ancillary services are provided. CONCLUSIONS. Effectiveness of Methadone maintenance program affects methadone dosage policy, treatment duration and ancillary services.
Bell, J; Mattick, R; Hay, A; Chan, J; Hall, W
Using data from an evaluation of methadone maintenance treatment, this study investigated factors associated with continued involvement in crime during treatment, and in particular whether there appeared to be differences in effectiveness of treatment between different methadone clinics. The methodology was an observational study, in which 304 patients attending three low-intervention, private methadone clinics in Sydney were interviewed on three occasions over a twelve month period. Outcome measures were self-reported criminal activity and police department records of convictions. By self-report, crime dropped promptly and substantially on entry to treatment, to a level of acquisitive crime about one-eighth that reported during the last addiction period. Analysis of official records indicated that rates of acquisitive convictions were significantly lower in the in-treatment period compared to prior to entry to treatment, corroborating the changes suggested by self-report. Persisting involvement in crime in treatment was predicted by two factors: the cost of persisting use of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis, and ASPD symptom count. Treatment factors also were independently predictive of continued involvement in crime. By both self-report and official records, and adjusting for subject factors, treatment at one clinic was associated with greater involvement in crime. This clinic operated in a chaotic and poorly organized way. It is concluded that crime during methadone treatment is substantially lower than during street addiction, although the extent of reduction depends on the quality of treatment being delivered.
Somogyi, Andrew A; Barratt, Daniel T; Ali, Robert L; Coller, Janet K
Methadone is the major opioid substitution therapy for opioid dependence. Dosage is highly variable and is often controlled by the patient and prescriber according to local and national policy and guidelines. Nevertheless many genetic factors have been investigated including those affecting its metabolism (CYP2B6-consistent results), efflux transport (P-gp-inconsistent results), target μ-opioid receptor (μ-opioid receptor-inconsistent results) and a host of other receptors (DRD2) and signaling elements (GIRK2 and ARRB2; not replicated). None by themselves have been able to substantially explain dosage variation (the major but not sole end point). When multiple genes have been combined such as ABCB1, CYP2B6, OPRM1 and DRD2 a greater contribution to dosage variation was found but not as yet replicated. As stabilization of dosage needs to be made rapidly, it is imperative that larger internationally based studies be instigated so that genetic contribution to dosage can be properly assessed, which may or may not tailor to different ethnic groups and each country's policy towards an outcome that benefits all.
Taj, R; Keenan, E; O'Connor, J J
This study involves a review of 178 patients on a strictly monitored methadone maintenance programme. All patients had a minimum of 9 years of intravenous drug misuse. 35.7% were HIV positive, 55.7% males and 29% females had previous prison sentences. On average patients had undergone 3.26 out-patient and 0.9 in-patient detoxification. 46.1% had attempted rehabilitation in the past. Out of 25,470 urine samples obtained while on the programme, 10.8% were positive for opiates, 19.2% for benzodiazepines, 32.5% for cannabis, 4.92% for alcohol and 2.27% for amphetamines. Long history of misuse, multiple custodial sentences, previous unsuccessful rehabilitation and positive HIV status were associated with acceptance for maintenance. Frequency of urinalysis, and results triggering dose change can effectively reduce illicit drug use.
Zaric, G S; Barnett, P G; Brandeau, M L
OBJECTIVES: This study determined the cost-effectiveness of expanding methadone maintenance treatment for heroin addiction, particularly its effect on the HIV epidemic. METHODS: We developed a dynamic epidemic model to study the effects of increased methadone maintenance capacity on health care costs and survival, measured as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). We considered communities with HIV prevalence among injection drug users of 5% and 40%. RESULTS: Additional methadone maintenance capacity costs $8200 per QALY gained in the high-prevalence community and $10,900 per QALY gained in the low-prevalence community. More than half of the benefits are gained by individuals who do not inject drugs. Even if the benefits realized by treated and untreated injection drug users are ignored, methadone maintenance expansion costs between $14,100 and $15,200 per QALY gained. Additional capacity remains cost-effective even if it is twice as expensive and half as effective as current methadone maintenance slots. CONCLUSIONS: Expansion of methadone maintenance is cost-effective on the basis of commonly accepted criteria for medical interventions. Barriers to methadone maintenance deny injection drug users access to a cost-effective intervention that generates significant health benefits for the general population. PMID:10897189
Chan, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Szu-Nian; Lin, Jyh-Chyang; Chang, Junn-Liang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lo, Wan-Yu
Opioid addiction influences many physiological functions including reactions of the immune system. The objective of this study was to investigate the immune system function in heroin addicted patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) compared to healthy controls. We tested the cytokine production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from a group of heroin addicts (n=34) and healthy controls (n=20). The results show that production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was significantly higher in the group of methadone-maintained patients than in the healthy control group. Plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly correlated with the dairy methadone dosage administered, and the IL-1β level was significantly correlated with the duration of methadone maintenance treatment. These findings suggest that methadone maintenance treatment influences the immune system functions of opioid-dependent patients and may also induce long-term systemic inflammation.
Diong, Shiau Hui; Mohd Yusoff, Nor Shuhadah; Sim, Maw Shin; Raja Aziddin, Raja Elina; Chik, Zamri; Rajan, Poppy; Abdul Rashid, Rusdi; Chemi, Norliza; Mohamed, Zahurin
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitative method was developed to monitor concentrations of methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) in plasma and urine of patients. The developed method was simple, accurate and reproducible to quantify methadone and EDDP in plasma and urine samples in the concentration range of 15-1,000 and 50-2,000 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed analytical method was applied to plasma and urine samples obtained from 96 patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) with daily methadone doses of 2-120 mg/day. Urinary methadone excretion was observed to be significantly affected by pH, in which the ratio of methadone to EDDP was two times higher in acidic urine (P = 0.029). The findings of this study further enhance the guidelines for monitoring of methadone treatment among outpatients. Methadone-to-EDDP ratio in urine was found to be consistent at 24 and 4 h, hence suggesting the possibility that outpatients may be monitored with single urine sample in order to check for compliance. This study which provides data on peak concentrations of methadone and EDDP as well as the ratio of both compounds has added to the body of knowledge regarding pharmacokinetic properties of methadone among heroin-dependent patients under MMT.
Noori, Roya; Narenjiha, Homan; Aghabakhshi, Habibollah; Habibi, Gholamreza; Khoshkrood Mansoori, Babak
Because of the increasing number of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Iran and the risk of the spread of HIV infection, harm reduction programs have been considered for conventional law enforcement measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in IDUs and the associated health and social outcomes. This case-control study was conducted at the Persepolis Harm Reduction Center in Tehran during the year 2006. Data were gathered from two groups of randomly chosen patients. The first group consisted of 75 IDU patients who had undergone at least 6 months of methadone treatment (the MMT group), and second group consisted of 75 newly admitted clients (the control group). Participants were assessed on their dangerous injection and sexual behaviors, social well-being, and patterns of drug use. The results were compared between the two groups. The mean age of participants in the two groups was almost the same (34.28 years in the control group and 35.68 years in the MMT group, p >.05). Prevalence of drug injection in the MMT group was less than that in the control group (16% vs. 100%). There was also a dramatic difference in needle and syringe sharing (40% in the control group vs. 4% in the MMT group) but not in crimes and arrests (p = .4). Those in the MMT group had a better relationship with their families, partners, coworkers, and neighbors compared with controls. There was no considerable difference in dangerous sexual behaviors between the two groups. Given the large number of HIV-positive cases among IDUs and considering that injection drug use is the main spreading factor for HIV, MMT would play a major role in controlling the HIV epidemic through reduction of heroin injection and the risk behaviors related to it. High inflation rate, lack of interorganization coordination, budget limitation, and no follow-up were the most important limitations of this study.
Wojnar-Horton, R. E.; Kristensen, J. H.; Yapp, P.; Ilett, K. F.; Dusci, L. J.; Hackett, L. P.
Aims Methadone is widely used in maintenance programs for opioid-dependent subjects. The aims of the study were to quantify the distribution and excretion of methadone in human milk during the early postnatal period and to investigate exposure of breast fed infants to the drug. Methods Blood and milk samples were obtained from 12 breast feeding women who were taking methadone in daily doses ranging from 20–80 mg (0.3–1.14 mg kg−1 ). Blood was also obtained from eight of their infants. Methadone concentration in these samples was quantified by h.p.l.c. The infants were observed for withdrawal symptoms. Results The mean (95% CI) milk/plasma ratio was 0.44 (0.24–0.64). Exposure of the infants, calculated assuming an average milk intake of 0.15 l kg−1 day−1 and a bioavailability of 100% was 17.4 (10.8–24) μg kg−1 day−1. The mean infant dose expressed as a percentage of the maternal dose was 2.79 (2.07–3.51)%. Methadone concentrations in seven infants were below the limit of detection for the h.p.l.c. assay procedure, while one infant had a plasma methadone concentration of 6.5 μg l−1. Infant exposure to methadone via human milk was insufficient to prevent the development of a neonatal abstinence syndrome which was seen in seven (64%) infants. No adverse effects attributable to methadone in milk were seen. Conclusions We conclude that exposure of breast fed infants to methadone taken by their mothers is minimal and that women in methadone maintenance programs should not be discouraged from breast feeding because of this exposure. PMID:9431829
Wojnar-Horton, R E; Kristensen, J H; Yapp, P; Ilett, K F; Dusci, L J; Hackett, L P
Methadone is widely used in maintenance programs for opioid-dependent subjects. The aims of the study were to quantify the distribution and excretion of methadone in human milk during the early postnatal period and to investigate exposure of breast fed infants to the drug. Blood and milk samples were obtained from 12 breast feeding women who were taking methadone in daily doses ranging from 20-80 mg (0.3-1.14 mg kg-1). Blood was also obtained from eight of their infants. Methadone concentration in these samples was quantified by h.p.l.c. The infants were observed for withdrawal symptoms. The mean (95% CI) milk/plasma ratio was 0.44 (0.24-0.64). Exposure of the infants, calculated assuming an average milk intake of 0.15 l kg-1 day-1 and a bioavailability of 100% was 17.4 (10.8-24) microg kg-1 day-1. The mean infant dose expressed as a percentage of the maternal dose was 2.79 (2.07-3.51)%. Methadone concentrations in seven infants were below the limit of detection for the h.p.l.c. assay procedure, while one infant had a plasma methadone concentration of 6.5 microg l-1. Infant exposure to methadone via human milk was insufficient to prevent the development of a neonatal abstinence syndrome which was seen in seven (64%) infants. No adverse effects attributable to methadone in milk were seen. We conclude that exposure of breast fed infants to methadone taken by their mothers is minimal and that women in methadone maintenance programs should not be discouraged from breast feeding because of this exposure.
Crandall, Cynthia; Crosby, Ross D; Carlson, Gregory A
Studies of pregnant women receiving methadone maintenance have tended to focus on teratogenic, prenatal, and neonatal issues. We are not aware of any controlled studies comparing pregnant to non-pregnant heroin-addicted women in methadone treatment. This article presents findings from a study examining treatment outcome between pregnant and non-pregnant participants in a metropolitan methadone-maintenance program. Participants were 51 pregnant women and 51 non-pregnant women enrolled in a methadone maintenance program between 1994 and 2003. Groups were compared on demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, urinalysis results and retention rates. Groups were comparable in terms of most demographic characteristics and severity of addiction at intake. Groups did not differ significantly in terms of urinalysis results or retention rates. While most women reduced their drug use, a majority of both groups continued to use illicit drugs at least occasionally. Psychiatric comorbidity was significantly different with the non-pregnant group being more psychiatrically disordered. Clinical implications are discussed.
Wilson, P.; Watson, R.; Ralston, G. E.
OBJECTIVE--To assess recruitment to and work-load associated with methadone maintenance clinics in general practice; to investigate the characteristics of patients and outcomes associated with treatment. DESIGN--Study of case notes. SETTING--Methadone maintenance clinics run jointly by general practitioners and drug counsellors in two practices in Glasgow. PARTICIPANTS--46 injecting drug users receiving methadone maintenance during an 18 month period, 31 of whom were recruited to clinic based methadone maintenance treatment and 15 of whom were already receiving methadone maintenance treatment from the general practitioners. Mean (SD) age of patients entering treatment was 29.6 (5.5) years; 29 were male. They had been injecting opiates for a mean 9.9 (5.1) years, and most had a concurrent history of benzodiazepine misuse. Average reported daily intake of heroin was approximately 0.75 g. Participants in treatment had high levels of preexisting morbidity, and most stated that they committed crime daily. RESULTS--2232 patient weeks of treatment were studied. Mean duration of treatment during the study period was 50.7 (21.1) weeks and retention in treatment at 26 weeks was 83%. No evidence of illicit opiate use was obtained at an average of 78% of patients' consultations where methadone had been prescribed in the previous week; for opiate injection the corresponding figure was 86%. CONCLUSIONS--Providing methadone maintenance in general practice is feasible. Although costs are considerable, the reduction in drug use, especially of intravenous opiates, is encouraging. Attending clinics also allows this population, in which morbidity is considerable, to receive other health care. PMID:8086989
Argues that substitution of methadone for heroin would not rehabilitate the drug addict, but it may be used as a method of tranquilizing a potentially troublesome ghetto and poor white population. (RJ)
Gruber, Valerie A.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Kielstein, Anousheh; Batki, Steven L.
Background Important questions remain regarding the necessary duration and intensity for methadone treatment to be effective. Methods As part of a clinical trial of tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis (Batki et al., 2002), patients with opioid dependence were recruited from an outpatient 21-day methadone detoxification program and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: 1) continuation in 21-day methadone detoxification; 2) transfer to six-month methadone maintenance with only minimal counseling; or 3) transfer to six-month methadone maintenance with standard twice monthly counseling and as-needed social work and psychiatric services. Both of the six-month maintenance treatments were followed by 1.5 months of detoxification. Urine drug tests and self-report measures were collected at baseline, months 1 through 6, and month 8.5. Results Compared to 21-day methadone detoxification, six-month methadone maintenance with either minimal or standard counseling resulted in fewer opiate positive urine tests and days of self-reported heroin and alcohol use. There was no change in cocaine use or other outcome measures. The increased counseling available in the standard counseling condition did not appear to reduce heroin use further than the minimal counseling condition, in contrast to the effect found for more structured counseling in long-term methadone maintenance (McLellan et al., 1993). Conclusions Six months of methadone maintenance, even with minimal counseling, reduces heroin and alcohol use more than 21-day methadone detoxification. PMID:18243585
Fallah, Ferigol; Hamidikenari, Abolhasan; Sajadi, Seyed Navid; Sajadi, Seyed Rohollah; Shiran, Mohammadreza
Background: Clopidogrel is a prodrug that converts in the liver to an active thiol metabolite, which irreversibly inhibits the platelet P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor. It seems that methadone as CYP2C19 inhibitor affects ticlopidine activity in vivo. This study aimed to test the ability of methadone in changing ticlopidine pharmacokinetics. Methods: We conducted a case–control study in 10 subjects. The cases (5 subjects) in our study were addicts who were receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for preventing opium withdrawal symptoms. The control group were opiate users before starting MMT. In both groups, the patients received clopidogrel (75mg/day) for 5 days. On the 6th day, the subjects returned to the clinic, blood samples were taken up to 12 hours following clopidogrel dosing in case and control groups. Plasma concentration of clopidogrel was measured by GC-MAS. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel software to estimate PK parameters. Results: In this study, methadone decreased clopidogrel clearance by 25% and increased the AUC0-inf nearly 1.3 fold during the coadministration of clopidogrel as an antiplatelet drug. Conclusion: A significant decrease in the clearance of clopidogrel during the coadministration of methadone consistent with a decrease in clopidogrel conversion to its active metabolite and this may decrease its efficacy and may have life-threatening consequences for the patients undergoing clopidogerel maintenance therapy. PMID:27386066
Fallah, Ferigol; Hamidikenari, Abolhasan; Sajadi, Seyed Navid; Sajadi, Seyed Rohollah; Shiran, Mohammadreza
Clopidogrel is a prodrug that converts in the liver to an active thiol metabolite, which irreversibly inhibits the platelet P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor. It seems that methadone as CYP2C19 inhibitor affects ticlopidine activity in vivo. This study aimed to test the ability of methadone in changing ticlopidine pharmacokinetics. We conducted a case-control study in 10 subjects. The cases (5 subjects) in our study were addicts who were receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for preventing opium withdrawal symptoms. The control group were opiate users before starting MMT. In both groups, the patients received clopidogrel (75mg/day) for 5 days. On the 6(th) day, the subjects returned to the clinic, blood samples were taken up to 12 hours following clopidogrel dosing in case and control groups. Plasma concentration of clopidogrel was measured by GC-MAS. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel software to estimate PK parameters. In this study, methadone decreased clopidogrel clearance by 25% and increased the AUC0-inf nearly 1.3 fold during the coadministration of clopidogrel as an antiplatelet drug. A significant decrease in the clearance of clopidogrel during the coadministration of methadone consistent with a decrease in clopidogrel conversion to its active metabolite and this may decrease its efficacy and may have life-threatening consequences for the patients undergoing clopidogerel maintenance therapy.
Sim, S. K.
Methadone and acetylmethadol, although possessing almost all of morphine's pharmacological properties, differ from other morphine-like drugs in their longer action, more gradual and less intense withdrawal syndrome, and blockade of euphoric effect of other opiates in addicts. A high percentage of patients maintained on methadone are better able to hold employment or to be otherwise socially productive than when dependent on heroin or morphine. A review of published results and procedures used in methadone maintenance treatment programs for heroin dependence is presented. Former heroin addicts are usually maintained on 80 to 120 mg. (high dose) or 20 to 60 mg. (low dose) oral methadone daily. Some programs are reported to have produced 80% success (patients employed or otherwise socially productive). Selection of patients, availability of allied therapeutic and rehabilitative facilities, strict control of supply, record keeping and periodic evaluation are considered essential. Different criteria (“drug-free” vs. “socially productive”) for judging “success” of treatment of heroin-dependent persons by methadone maintenance and administrative problems in large-scale treatment programs constitute the principal aspects of controversy. PMID:4599599
Schwartzman, John; Bokos, Peter
A study of four methadone clinics, the addicts treated at these clinics, and their families, reveals basic dissonances in treatment ideology and professional-paraprofessional relationships which, combined with the addict's particular mode of functioning, make significant change in his behavior improbable. (Author)
Voon, Pauline; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas
The complexity of treating concurrent pain and opioid dependence among many methadone-maintained individuals presents a major challenge in many clinical settings. Furthermore, recent expert guidelines have called for increased research on the safety of methadone in the context of chronic pain. This study explores the prevalence and correlates of pain among a prospective cohort of people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, who reported enrollment in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) between 2011 and 2014. Among the 823 participants eligible for this analysis, 338 (40.9%) reported moderate pain and 91 (11.1%) reported extreme pain at the first study visit. In multivariable, generalized, linear mixed model analyses, higher pain severity was positively and independently associated with self-managing pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77-2.60), patient perception of methadone dose being too low (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.41-2.34), older age (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13-1.51), having a physical disability (AOR 4.59, 95% CI 3.73-5.64), having ever been diagnosed with a mental illness (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.84), white ethnicity (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10-1.83), and marijuana use (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.52). These findings suggest several areas for clinical intervention, particularly related to patient education and alternative analgesic approaches for MMT patients experiencing pain. Perspective: To better understand the complexity of concurrent pain and opioid dependency among individuals on methadone maintenance treatment, this article describes the prevalence and correlates of higher pain severity among methadone-maintained people who use illicit drugs. Patients on methadone with comorbid pain may benefit from education and alternative analgesic approaches.
Strike, Carol; Wenghofer, Elizabeth; Gnam, William; Hillier, Wade; Veldhuizen, Scott; Millson, Margaret
Introduction: Medical associations and licensing bodies face pressure to implement quality assurance programs, but evidence-based models are lacking. To improve the quality of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Canada, conducts an innovative quality assurance program on the basis of peer…
Strike, Carol; Wenghofer, Elizabeth; Gnam, William; Hillier, Wade; Veldhuizen, Scott; Millson, Margaret
Introduction: Medical associations and licensing bodies face pressure to implement quality assurance programs, but evidence-based models are lacking. To improve the quality of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Canada, conducts an innovative quality assurance program on the basis of peer…
Gogineni, A; Stein, M D; Friedmann, P D
This study examined the extent to which social relationships were associated with continued injection drug use and needle sharing among 252 methadone maintenance patients. Logistic regression analyses indicated that drug use was highest among persons who had a substance using live-in partner and among those with more drug-using social relationships. Among injectors, whites and those who had more people present during IV drug use were more likely to share needles, while those with more emotional support were less likely to do so. These findings suggest that personal relationships strongly influence continued injection drug use and that methadone programs should help patients develop social networks of non-users.
Harris, Kenneth A.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Joseph, Herman; Hecht, Joe; Marion, Ira; Juliana, Patti; Gourevitch, Marc N.
Methadone medical maintenance (MMM) is a model for the treatment of opioid dependence in which a monthly supply of methadone is distributed in an office setting, in contrast to more highly regulated settings where daily observed dosing is the norm. We assessed patient characteristics and treatment outcomes of an MMM program initiated in the Bronx, New York, in 1999 by conducting a retrospective chart review. Participant characteristics were compared with those of patients enrolled in affiliated conventional methadone maintenance treatment programs. Patients had diverse ethnicities, occupations, educational backgrounds, and income levels. Urine toxicology testing detected illicit opiate and cocaine use in 0.8% and 0.4% of aggregate samples, respectively. The retention rate was 98%, which compares favorably with the four other MMM programs that have been reported in the medical literature. This study demonstrates that selected patients from a socioeconomically disadvantaged population remained clinically stable and engaged in treatment in a far less intensive setting than traditional methadone maintenance. PMID:17084798
Gamaleya, N; Dmitrieva, I; Borg, S; Ericcson, N
By means of two different types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques, antibodies to methadone were detected in blood plasma of heroin addicts on methadone maintenance treatment. In 11-15% of cases immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies were detected, while IgG antibodies were observed in 33-40%. At least two types of antibodies to methadone were induced-antibodies with high affinity to methadone and low-affinity antibodies more specific for morphine than for methadone. The methadone antibody-positive group of patients had a significantly higher plasma methadone concentration--440 ng/ml, than the antibody-negative group--250 ng/ml (P < 0.005) despite almost the same mean therapeutic doses of methadone. Of patients with all types of antibodies to methadone 52% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, whereas in the group without antibodies, HIV-positive reactions were observed in 10.5% only (P < 0.002). Alternatively, 87.5% of HIV-positive patients had antibodies to methadone, a fact which should be taken into consideration during methadone dose adjustment.
Background Although methadone has been used for the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence for decades, it was not introduced in China or Taiwan until 2000s. Methadone-drug interactions (MDIs) have been shown to cause many adverse effects. However, such effects have not been scrutinized in the ethnic Chinese community. Methods The study was performed in two major hospitals in southern Taiwan. A total of 178 non-HIV patients aged ≥ 20 years who had participated in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program (MMTP) ≥ 1 month were recruited. An MDI is defined as concurrent use of drug(s) with methadone that may result in an increase or decrease of effectiveness and/or adverse effect of methadone. To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MDIs, credible data sources, including the National Health Insurance (NHI) database, face-to-face interviews, medical records, and methadone computer databases, were linked for analysis. Socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with MDIs and co-medications were also examined. Results 128 (72%) MMTP patients took at least one medication. Clinically significant MDIs included withdrawal symptoms, which were found among MMTP patients co-administered with buprenorphine or tramadol; severe QTc prolongation effect, which might be associated with use of haloperidol or droperidol; and additive CNS and respiratory depression, which could result from use of methadone in combination with chlorpromazine or thioridazine. Past amphetamine use, co-infection with hepatitis C, and a longer retention in the MMTP were associated with increased odds of co-medication. Among patients with co-medication use, significant correlates of MDIs included the male gender and length of co-medication in the MMTP. Conclusions The results demonstrate clinical evidence of significant MDIs among MMTP patients. Clinicians should check the past medical history of MMTP clients carefully before prescribing medicines. Because combinations of
Scavone, Jillian L.; Sterling, Robert C.; Weinstein, Stephen P.; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.
Background and Objectives Illicit drug use, particularly of cannabis, is common among opiate-dependent individuals, and has the potential to impact treatment in a negative manner. Methods To examine this, patterns of cannabis use prior to and during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) were examined to assess possible cannabis-related effects on MMT, particularly during methadone stabilization. Retrospective chart analysis was used to examine outpatient records of patients undergoing MMT (n=91), focusing specifically on past and present cannabis use and its association with opiate abstinence, methadone dose stabilization, and treatment compliance. Results Objective rates of cannabis use were high during methadone induction, dropping significantly following dose stabilization. History of cannabis use correlated with cannabis use during MMT, but did not negatively impact the methadone induction process. Pilot data also suggested that objective ratings of opiate withdrawal decrease in MMT patients using cannabis during stabilization. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The present findings may point to novel interventions to be employed during treatment for opiate dependence that specifically target cannabinoid-opioid system interactions. PMID:23795873
Meini, Milo; Moncini, Marco; Daini, Laura; Giarratana, Tania; Scaramelli, Daniela; Chericoni, Silvio; Stefanelli, Fabio; Rucci, Paola
This study evaluated the relationship between the plasma concentration of l-methadone and response to methadone in real-world patients, in order to identify a minimum plasma concentration above which methadone treatment is effective. Ninety-four patients with opioid dependence under maintenance methadone treatment were consecutively recruited. Response was defined as negative urine analyses in the three weeks prior to the blood sampling. The percentage of participants with a plasma l-methadone concentration between 100 and 250 ng/ml was 54.2% among those with a methadone dosage ≥60 mg/day. Plasma l-methadone concentrations were significantly higher in patients with negative urine analyses compared with those with positive urine analyses (median 93 vs. 77 ng/ml, Mann-Whitney test, P<0.05). Above plasma l-methadone concentrations of 200 ng/ml no heroin use was reported and urine analyses were negative. Moreover, above concentrations of 250 ng/ml craving was absent. Examination of demographic correlates of treatment outcome indicated that older age, a stable job and being married were protective against the use of heroin. Mean plasma l-methadone concentration was significantly lower in patients who used cannabis compared with those who did not use cannabis, after adjusting for methadone dosage. In conclusion our results identify specific cut-offs for plasma l-methadone concentrations about which therapeutic response is observed and provide new evidence that therapeutic response is associated with patient׳s demographic characteristics. This underscores the need to monitor plasma methadone concentrations as part of Drug Addiction Services routine practice, in order to provide an objective framework for changing the methadone dosage.
Chang, Jamie Suki; Chiu, Joshua D; Gruber, Valerie A; Sorensen, James L
A system known as fair hearings is a due process opportunity for patients who are involuntarily discharged from methadone maintenance treatment to challenge the discharge recommendation. We know very little about the processes and outcomes of fair hearings. For this study, we used a mixed methods approach to retrospectively analyze 73 fair hearing reports that were documented from a California methadone maintenance treatment program between 2000 and 2014. The aims of the study were to identify the reasons for involuntary discharge recommendation from methadone maintenance, describe the factors involved when fair hearing outcomes decided in favor of the clinic, and describe the factors involved when fair hearing outcomes decided in favor of the patient. We found that patient attendance at the fair hearing meeting was significantly related to the outcome ruling in favor of the patient. We organized the reasons for discharge recommendations into five categories: 1) suspected diversion, 2) behavioral/interpersonal, 3) repeated, unexcused absences, 4) co-occurring substance use, and 5) multiple sources of opioids. For each category, we use excerpts from fair hearing reports to provide context to the circumstances involved in an outcome favoring the patient or the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Methadone maintenance is a relatively new method for treating heroin addiction. Controversy and questions remain about the drug itself and its use of methadone. The author was engaged by The Drug Abuse Council to prepare these descriptions of four methadone programs and the accompanying summary. The evolution of these programs is examined, and the…
Lin, Huang-Chi; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Incarcerated intravenous heroin users have more problematic patterns of heroin use, but are less likely to access methadone maintenance treatment by their own initiative than heroin users in the community. The present study examined predictors for receiving methadone maintenance treatment post-release among incarcerated intravenous heroin users within a 24-month period. This cohort study recruited 315 incarcerated intravenous heroin users detained in 4 prisons in southern Taiwan and followed up within the 24-month period post-release. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to determine the predictive effects of sociodemographic and drug-use characteristics, attitude toward methadone maintenance treatment, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression for access to methadone maintenance treatment after release. There were 295 (93.7%) incarcerated intravenous heroin users released that entered the follow-up phase of the study. During the 24-month follow-up period, 50.8% of them received methadone maintenance treatment. After controlling for the effects of the detainment period before and after recruitment by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, incarcerated intravenous heroin users who had positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.80-4.52, p < .001) and had ever received methadone maintenance treatment before committal (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, p < .01) were more likely to enter methadone maintenance treatment within the 24-month follow-up period. Positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus with fully subsidized treatment and previous methadone maintenance treatment experiences predicted access of methadone maintenance treatment post-release. Strategies for getting familiar with methadone maintenance treatment during detainment, including providing methadone maintenance treatment prior to release and lowering the economic burden of receiving treatment, may
Trujols, Joan; González-Saiz, Francisco; Manresa, María José; Alcaraz, Saul; Batlle, Francesca; Duran-Sindreu, Santiago; Pérez de Los Cobos, José
In clinical practice, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) entails tailoring the methadone dose to the patient's specific needs, thereby individualizing treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the independent factors that may significantly explain methadone dose adequacy from the patient's perspective. Secondary analysis of data collected in a treatment satisfaction survey carried out among a representative sample of MMT patients (n=122) from the region of La Rioja (Spain). As part of the original study protocol, participants completed a comprehensive battery to assess satisfaction with MMT, psychological distress, opinion of methadone as a medication, participation in dosage decisions, and perception of dose adequacy. Multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the only variable independently associated with the likelihood of a patient perceiving methadone dose as inadequate was the variable perceived-participation in methadone dosage decisions (OR=0.538, 95% CI=0.349-0.828). Patient participation in methadone dosage decisions was predictive of perceived adequacy of methadone dose beyond the contribution of other socio-demographic, clinical, and MMT variables. Patient participation in methadone dosage decision-making is valuable for developing a genuinely patient-centred MMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perez de Los Cobos, Jose; Trujols, Joan; Siñol, Núria; Duran-Sindreu, Santiago; Batlle, Francesca
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has long been used to treat heroin-dependent patients. However, satisfaction with methadone in this patient population is unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to evaluate satisfaction with methadone in heroin-dependent patients with current substance use disorders (SUDs). Cases included 152 methadone-maintained patients with current SUD, requiring inpatient detoxification treatment, and controls included 33 methadone-maintained patients in sustained full remission for SUD. Satisfaction with methadone as a medication to treat heroin addiction was measured by using the Scale to Assess Satisfaction with Medications for Addiction Treatment-methadone for heroin addiction (SASMAT-METHER). The SASMAT-METHER subscales assess the following domains: personal functioning and well-being, antiaddictive effect on heroin, and antiaddictive effect on other substances. Compared with patients with remitted SUD, patients with current SUD scored lower on all SASMAT-METHER assessments. In such patients, overall SASMAT-METHER scores were independently and negatively associated with downward desired adjustment of methadone dose and days of heroin use during last month; although various sets of factors were independently associated with each of the SASMAT-METHER subscales, the only determinant of dissatisfaction on all subscales was the desire for downward adjustment of methadone dose. In summary, MMT patients with current SUD are less satisfied with methadone than MMT patients with remitted SUD. In patients with current SUD, downward desired adjustment of methadone dose and days of heroin use during last month are independently associated with overall dissatisfaction with methadone.
Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Marcus, Ruthanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Zahari, Muhammad Muhsin
Abstract Problem In Malaysia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is highly concentrated among people who inject opioids. For this reason, the country undertook a three-phase roll-out of a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme. In Phase 3, described in this paper, MMT was implemented within prisons and retention in care was assessed. Approach After developing standard operating procedures and agreement between its Prisons Department and Ministry of Health, Malaysia established pilot MMT programmes in two prisons in the states of Kelantan (2008) and Selangor (2009) – those with the highest proportions of HIV-infected prisoners. Community-based MMT programmes were also established in Malaysia to integrate treatment activities after prisoners’ release. Local setting Having failed to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, in 2005 Malaysia embarked on a harm reduction strategy. Relevant changes Standard operating procedures were modified to: (i) escalate the dose of methadone more slowly; (ii) provide ongoing education and training for medical and correctional staff and inmates; (iii) increase the duration of methadone treatment before releasing prisoners; (iv) reinforce linkages with community MMT programmes after prisoners’ release; (v) screen for and treat tuberculosis; (vi) escalate the dose of methadone during treatment for HIV infection and tuberculosis; and (vii) optimize the daily oral dose of methadone (> 80 mg) before releasing prisoners. Lessons learnt Prison-based MMT programmes can be effectively implemented but require adequate dosing and measures are needed to improve communication between prison and police authorities, prevent police harassment of MMT clients after their release, and improve systems for tracking release dates. PMID:23554524
Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Marcus, Ruthanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Zahari, Muhammad Muhsin; Altice, Frederick L
In Malaysia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is highly concentrated among people who inject opioids. For this reason, the country undertook a three-phase roll-out of a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme. In Phase 3, described in this paper, MMT was implemented within prisons and retention in care was assessed. After developing standard operating procedures and agreement between its Prisons Department and Ministry of Health, Malaysia established pilot MMT programmes in two prisons in the states of Kelantan (2008) and Selangor (2009) - those with the highest proportions of HIV-infected prisoners. Community-based MMT programmes were also established in Malaysia to integrate treatment activities after prisoners' release. Having failed to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, in 2005 Malaysia embarked on a harm reduction strategy. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES WERE MODIFIED TO: (i) escalate the dose of methadone more slowly; (ii) provide ongoing education and training for medical and correctional staff and inmates; (iii) increase the duration of methadone treatment before releasing prisoners; (iv) reinforce linkages with community MMT programmes after prisoners' release; (v) screen for and treat tuberculosis; (vi) escalate the dose of methadone during treatment for HIV infection and tuberculosis; and (vii) optimize the daily oral dose of methadone (> 80 mg) before releasing prisoners. Prison-based MMT programmes can be effectively implemented but require adequate dosing and measures are needed to improve communication between prison and police authorities, prevent police harassment of MMT clients after their release, and improve systems for tracking release dates.
Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam
Weight gain was reported during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, its relation to eating habits and specific risk factors, including methadone dose or serum level, was limited. The aims of this study were to characterize risk factors for weight gain and to study current eating habits, food preferences, and nutrition knowledge. Patients with available measures of weight and height (body mass index [BMI]) at admission to MMT and at follow-up, when methadone serum levels were determined (after 1 year or when stabilized) (N = 114), were studied (using the Addiction Severity Index [ASI], drugs in urine, methadone doses, and serum levels). In addition, 109 current patients with available earlier (5.8 ± 2.6 years earlier) BMI completed eating behavior rating and nutrition knowledge questionnaires, and their current and earlier BMI were compared. The BMI of 114 newly admitted patients increased from 22.5 ± 3.8 to 24.4 ± 4.3 (P < .0005). Once stabilized on methadone, BMI increased further (24.3 ± 4.5 to 25.6 ± 5.0; P < .0005; n = 74), with no change in methadone doses (125.6 ± 32.5 to 128.0 ± 34.1; F = 1.4, P = .2) or serum levels (495.6 ± 263.7 to 539.8 ± 306.2; F = 1.3, P = .2). Repeated-measures analyses revealed that BMI elevation was higher among 45 hepatitis C virus seronegative and 46 non-benzodiazepine-abusing on-admission patients. Those who scored lower on knowledge about healthy diet and showed a higher sweet-foods preference had a higher BMI. BMI increased over time, but independent of methadone dosage and blood levels. As expected, worse diet habits and a desire for sweet foods are related to higher BMI. Paradoxically, healthier status (i.e., hepatitis C seronegative, no benzodiazepine abuse) at admission is predictive of greater weight gain during MMT. Education about nutrition habits is recommended.
Nguyen, Chinh D.; Kim, Jong Won; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Thamrin, Cindy; Wang, David
Study Objectives: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients have a high prevalence of central sleep apnea and ataxic breathing related to damage to central respiratory rhythm control. However, the quantification of sleep apnea indices requires laborious manual scoring, and ataxic breathing pattern is subjectively judged by visual pattern recognition. This study proposes a semi-automated technique to characterize respiratory variability in MMT patients. Methods: Polysomnography, blood, and functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire (FOSQ) from 50 MMT patients and 20 healthy subjects with matched age, sex, and body mass index, were analyzed. Inter-breath intervals (IBI) were extracted from the nasal cannula pressure signal. Variability of IBI over 100 breaths was quantified by standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and scaling exponent (α) from detrended fluctuation analysis. The relationships between these variability measures and blood methadone concentration, central sleep apnea index (CAI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and clinical outcome (FOSQ), were then examined. Results: MMT patients had significantly higher SD and CV during all sleep stages. During NREM sleep, SD and CV were correlated with blood methadone concentration (Spearman R = 0.52 and 0.56, respectively; p < 0.01). SD and CV were also correlated with CAI (R = 0.63 and 0.71, p < 0.001, respectively), and AHI (R = 0.45 and 0.58, p < 0.01, respectively). Only α showed significant correlation with FOSQ (R = −0.33, p < 0.05). Conclusions: MMT patients have a higher respiratory variability during sleep than healthy controls. Semi-automated variability measures are related to apnea indices obtained by manual scoring and may provide a new approach to quantify opioid-related sleep-disordered breathing. Citation: Nguyen CD, Kim JW, Grunstein RR, Thamrin C, Wang D. Respiratory variability during sleep in methadone maintenance treatment patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):607–616
Mr. Chairman: In response to your request, we reviewed the activities of a number of methadone maintenance treatment programs. This report focuses on...the (1) extent of drug use by patients in methadone maintenance treatment programs; (2) the goals, objectives, and approaches of the treatment...treatment programs and the status of proposed regulations to allow methadone to be dispensed without counseling or other supportive services that are
Fareed, Ayman; Vayalapalli, Sreedevi; Byrd-Sellers, Johnita; Casarella, Jennifer; Drexler, Karen; Amar, Richard; Smith-Cox, Jocelyn; Lutchman, Tamara Shaw
To improve the electrocardiogram screening process and early detection of patients at high risk for cardiac arrhythmias, the authors created a model in their clinic where they provided an onsite electrocardiogram screening that might be feasible and practical. The authors then performed a retrospective chart review to access the efficacy and feasibility of their new onsite procedure in identifying methadone maintained patients at high risk for cardiac arrhythmias. Records from all patients who are currently or had previously been maintained on methadone in the methadone maintenance program at the Atlanta VA Medical Center between 2002 and 2009 were evaluated. Of the 140 patients treated at the clinic between 2002 and 2009, 85 were excluded from the study because they had been treated as guests (had been in treatment in other clinics but received methadone dosing temporarily from our clinic), were treated in the clinic for less than 6 months, or dropped out of treatment. Thus, 55 patient charts were selected for review. Most patients (95%) received baseline and annual electrocardiogram screening. The average baseline QTc was (417 +/- 30) and most recent QTc (442 +/- 25). This QTc prolongation from baseline showed statistical significance (P < .0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients had statistically significant QTc prolongation from baseline but was less than 450 ms (mean: 428 +/- 16, P = .008). Twenty-seven percent of patients had statistically significant QTc prolongation from baseline of more 450 ms but was less than 500 ms (mean: 460 +/- 8, P < .0001). Six percent of patients had statistically significant QTc prolongation from baseline of more 500 ms (mean: 503 +/- 1.15, P = .027). Recent cocaine use was the only individual variable that showed statistically significant correlation with QTc prolongation (F = 6.98, P = .01). The authors demonstrated in this study that providing an onsite electrocardiogram screening with a focus on patient education and limiting
Stuker, Patricia B.; And Others
Compared the Adjective Check List descriptions of addicts in treatment toward methadone maintenance, multimodality, and therapeutic community clients and program staff. Results indicate client pessimism regarding methadone maintenance. Results suggest addict opinions represent a valuable source for evaluating treatment approaches and identifying…
Hettema, Jennifer E.; Sorensen, James L.
This policy commentary addresses a significant access to care issue that faces methadone maintenance patients seeking residential treatment in the United States. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) has demonstrated strong efficacy in the outpatient treatment of opiate dependence. However, many opiate dependent patients are also in need of more…
Marienfeld, Carla; Rosenheck, Robert A
Comorbidity and co-prescription patterns of people with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance may complicate their treatment and have not been studied. The goal of this study was to examine the care and characteristics of people with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment nationally in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Using national VHA data from FY2012, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare veterans in methadone maintenance treatment wo had a serious mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major affective disorder) to patients in methadone maintenance treatment without serious mental illness and patients with serious mental illness who were not in methadone maintenance treatment. Only a small fraction of patients with serious mental illness were receiving methadone maintenance treatment (0.65%), but a relatively large proportion in methadone maintenance treatment had a serious mental illness (33.2%). Compared to patients without serious mental illness, patients with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment were more likely to have been homeless, to have had a recent psychiatric hospitalization, to be over 50% disabled, and to have had more fills for more classes of psychotropic drugs. Compared to other patients with serious mental illness, patients with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment were more likely to have a drug abuse diagnosis and to reside in large urban areas. One-third of patients in methadone maintenance treatment have serious mental illness and more frequent psychiatric comorbidity, and they are more likely to use psychiatric and general health services and fill more types of psychiatric prescriptions. Further study and clinical awareness of potential drug-drug interactions in this high medication and service using population are needed.
de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Stein, Michael
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances. Methods The current study examined 1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and 2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (n=203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use. Results Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean CES-D scores (b = 0.54, 95%CI 0.07; 1.02, p < .05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (OR = 6.65, 95%CI 1.61; 27.46, p < .01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use and ethnicity. Conclusions These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment. PMID:24821357
de Dios, Marcel A; Anderson, Bradley J; Caviness, Celeste M; Stein, Michael
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances. The current study examined (1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and (2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (N = 203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use. Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores (b = 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.07; 1.02], P <.05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (odds ratio [OR] = 6.65, 95% CI: [1.61; 27.46], P <.01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use, and ethnicity. These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment.
Magura, Stephen; Lee, Joshua D.; Hershberger, Jason; Joseph, Herman; Marsch, Lisa; Shropshire, Carol; Rosenblum, Andrew
Buprenorphine has rarely been administered as an opioid agonist maintenance therapy in a correctional setting. This study introduced buprenorphine maintenance in a large urban jail, Rikers Island in New York City. Heroin-dependent men not enrolled in community methadone treatment and sentenced to 10-90 days in jail (N=116) were voluntarily randomly assigned either to buprenorphine or methadone maintenance, the latter being the standard of care for eligible inmates at Rikers. Buprenorphine and methadone maintenance completion rates in jail were equally high, but the buprenorphine group reported for their designated post-release treatment in the community significantly more often than did the methadone group (48% vs. 14%, p <.001). Consistent with this result, prior to release from Rikers, buprenorphine patients stated an intention to continue treatment after release more often than did methadone patients (93% vs. 44%, p <.001). Buprenorphine patients were also less likely than methadone patients to withdraw voluntarily from medication while in jail (3% vs. 16%, p <.05). There were no post-release differences between the buprenorphine and methadone groups in self-reported relapse to illicit opioid use, self-reported re-arrests, self-reported severity of crime or re-incarceration in jail. After initiating opioid agonist treatment in jail, continuing buprenorphine maintenance in the community appears to be more acceptable to offenders than continuing methadone maintenance. PMID:18930603
Marienfeld, Carla; Liu, Pulin; Wang, Xia; Schottenfeld, Richard; Zhou, Wang
Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) reduces the harms of opioid use disorder and is being rapidly scaled-up in China. This study evaluated the real-world implementation of MMT system in Wuhan, China. Methods Data extracted from electronic medical records collected in 2010 on 8,811 patients were used to compute for each patient indices of the prescribed and consumed daily methadone doses, an adherence index, dose adjustments following missed doses, the rates of opiate positive urine tests, self-reported drug use, injection drug use (IDU), and the duration of MMT exposure. Findings The modal daily doses prescribed were 60 mg and above for 68.5% of patients. Adherence was variable: 51% of patients attended less than 60% and 26% attended 80% to 100% of their treatment days; and patients with long MMT exposure had significantly higher adherence rates than patients with short MMT exposure. The differences between doses dispensed immediately before and after the interruption in dosing days ranged from 0 to 7 mg, independently of the length of the interruption or the prescribed dosing level. The overall rate of opiate positive tests was 20%; 45% of patients had at least one opiate positive test; 29% reported past month drug use and 53% of them reported past month IDU. Adherence and MMT exposure duration correlated significantly with the proportion of opiate negative urine tests (r=0.355, p<0.001; r=0.351, p<0.001, respectively). Treatment for males and females was comparable. Conclusions Provision of safe methadone dosing after absences and improving daily attendance are identified as priority improvement areas. PMID:26601934
Verdejo, Antonio; Toribio, Inmaculada; Orozco, Carmen; Puente, Krista Lee; Pérez-García, Miguel
Several studies have reported on neuropsychological status as an important contributing variable in drug abuse rehabilitation outcomes. However, few studies have dealt with cognitive impairment in methadone maintenance patients (MMP), despite the fact that methadone is the most frequently used opioid substitution treatment in European countries. The objective of the present study is to contrast the neuropsychological performance of MMP with that of abstinent heroin abusers (AHA). Participants were matched with respect to age, education, pre-morbid IQ, employment status and lifetime drug abuse, and they underwent a set of tests aimed at assessing visuo-spatial attention, processing speed and executive functions. Although processing speed and attention deficits have previously been the focus of studies with MMP, executive functions have not received a similar degree of attention. The purpose of comparing matched MMP and AHA is two-fold: firstly, to test the differential effects of current opioid consumption and past opioid abuse on cognitive-executive performance and secondly, to assess the potential consequences of opioid-related neuropsychological deficits. Results showed a significantly slower performance by MMP on processing speed, visuo-spatial attention, and cognitive flexibility tests (Five Digit Test (FDT) parts 1 and 3; Oral Trails (OT) parts 1, 2; Interference 2-1), and less accuracy in working memory and analogical reasoning tests extracted from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS III). Effect sizes for significant comparisons ranged from 0.67 to 1. These results seem to suggest that methadone consumption by itself induces significant cognitive impairments that could compromise drug-treatment outcomes in MMP.
Nguyen, Chinh D; Kim, Jong Won; Grunstein, Ronald R; Thamrin, Cindy; Wang, David
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients have a high prevalence of central sleep apnea and ataxic breathing related to damage to central respiratory rhythm control. However, the quantification of sleep apnea indices requires laborious manual scoring, and ataxic breathing pattern is subjectively judged by visual pattern recognition. This study proposes a semi-automated technique to characterize respiratory variability in MMT patients. Polysomnography, blood, and functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire (FOSQ) from 50 MMT patients and 20 healthy subjects with matched age, sex, and body mass index, were analyzed. Inter-breath intervals (IBI) were extracted from the nasal cannula pressure signal. Variability of IBI over 100 breaths was quantified by standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and scaling exponent (α) from detrended fluctuation analysis. The relationships between these variability measures and blood methadone concentration, central sleep apnea index (CAI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and clinical outcome (FOSQ), were then examined. MMT patients had significantly higher SD and CV during all sleep stages. During NREM sleep, SD and CV were correlated with blood methadone concentration (Spearman R = 0.52 and 0.56, respectively; p < 0.01). SD and CV were also correlated with CAI (R = 0.63 and 0.71, p < 0.001, respectively), and AHI (R = 0.45 and 0.58, p < 0.01, respectively). Only α showed significant correlation with FOSQ (R = -0.33, p < 0.05). MMT patients have a higher respiratory variability during sleep than healthy controls. Semi-automated variability measures are related to apnea indices obtained by manual scoring and may provide a new approach to quantify opioid-related sleep-disordered breathing. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Rass, Olga; Kleykamp, Bethea A.; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Bigelow, George E.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Strain, Eric; Copersino, Marc L.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.
Given the long-term nature of methadone maintenance treatment, it is important to assess the extent of cognitive side effects. This study investigated cognitive and psychomotor performance in fifty-one methadone maintenance patients (MMP) as a function of time since last methadone dose and maintenance dose level. MMP maintained on doses ranging from 40 to 200 mg (Mean = 97 mg) completed a battery of psychomotor and cognitive measures across two sessions, during peak and trough states, in a double-blind crossover design. Peak sessions were associated with worse performance on measures of sensory processing, psychomotor speed, divided attention, and working memory, compared to trough sessions. The effects of maintenance dose were mixed, with higher dose resulting in worse performance on aspects of attention and working memory, improved performance on executive function, and no effects on several measures. Longer treatment duration was associated with better performance on some measures, but was also associated with increased sensitivity to time since last dose (i.e., worse performance at peak vs. trough) on some measures. The results suggest that cognitive functioning can fluctuate as a function of time since last dose even in MMP who have been maintained on stable doses for an extended time (mean duration in treatment = 4 years), but worsened performance at peak is limited to a subset of functions and may not be clinically significant at these modest levels of behavioral effect. For patients on stable methadone maintenance doses, maintenance at higher doses may not significantly increase the risk of performance impairment. PMID:24548244
Strike, Carol; Wenghofer, Elizabeth; Gnam, William; Hillier, Wade; Veldhuizen, Scott; Millson, Margaret
Medical associations and licensing bodies face pressure to implement quality assurance programs, but evidence-based models are lacking. To improve the quality of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Canada, conducts an innovative quality assurance program on the basis of peer assessments. Using data from this program, we assessed physician compliance with MMT guidelines and determined whether physician factors (e.g., training, years of practice), practice type, practice location, and/or caseload is associated with MMT guideline adherence. Secondary analysis of methadone practice assessment data collected by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Canada. Assessment data from methadone prescribing physicians who completed their first year of methadone practice were analyzed. We calculated the mean percentage compliance per guideline per physician and global compliance across all guidelines per physician. Linear regression was used to assess factors associated with compliance. Data from 149 physician practices and 1,326 patient charts were analyzed. Compliance across all charts was greater than 90% for most areas of care. Compliance was less than 90% for take-home medication procedures; urine toxicology screening; screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis, other sexually transmitted infections, and completion of a psychosocial assessment. Mean global compliance across all charts and guidelines per physician was 94.3% (standard deviation = 7.4%) with a range of 70% to 100%. Linear regression analysis revealed that only year of medical school graduation was a significant predictor of physician compliance. This is the first report of MMT peer assessments in Canada. Compliance is high. Few countries conduct similar assessment processes; none report physician-level results. We cannot quantify the contribution of peer assessment, training
Hser, Yih-Ing; And Others
A repeated measures design was used to evaluate methadone maintenance (MM) treatment effects for 720 heroin addicts who entered MM in Southern California in 1971-1978. Compared to pretreatment measures, results show significant improvement for methadone users. Level of improvement was affected by sex, ethnicity, and treatment duration. (TJH)
Stitzer, Maxine L.; And Others
Examined contingent methadone take-home privileges for effectiveness in reducing supplemental drug use of methadone maintenance patients. Assigned 53 new intakes to begin receiving take-home privileges after 2 consecutive weeks of drug-free urines or to noncontingent procedure in which take-homes were delivered independently of urine results.…
Loimer, N; Lenz, K; Schmid, R; Presslich, O
Acute methadone detoxification was induced by the intravenous administration of naloxone during simultaneous intravenous sedation with midazolam, a fully reversible short-acting benzodiazepine, in seven patients addicted to opiates. Within hours the patients tolerated full doses of naltrexone. This technique enables patients to transfer easily, quickly, and safely from methadone to naltrexone maintenance.
Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Le, Hai Quan; Van Nguyen, Hung; Le, Huong Thi; Tran, Tho Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Thuc Minh Thi
We conducted a cross-sectional study in Tuyen Quang Province, a mountainous province in northern Vietnam, to examine rates of psychological distress among 241 patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Using the Kessler psychological distress Scale, we found that approximately one-fourth (26.8%) of respondents suffered from mental health pathologies. Physical health problems, current drug use, and alcohol abuse were found to be associated with mental health problems among the participants. Our findings highlight the high prevalence of psychological distress among MMT patients in northern Vietnam, and the need to integrate mental and physical health care services, as well as behavioral health counseling, into currently existing MMT clinics in this region.
Joseph, H; Stancliff, S; Langrod, J
Methadone maintenance has been evaluated since its development in 1964 as a medical response to the post-World War II heroin epidemic in New York City. The findings of major early studies have been consistent. Methadone maintenance reduces and/or eliminates the use of heroin, reduces the death rates and criminality associated with heroin use, and allows patients to improve their health and social productivity. In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential toreduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with heroin injection, such as hepatitis and HIV. The principal effects of methadone maintenance are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with heroin. A majority of patients require 80-120 mg/d of methadone, or more, to achieve these effects and require treatment for an indefinite period of time, since methadone maintenance is a corrective but not a curative treatment for heroin addiction. Lower doses may not be as effective or provide the blockade effect. Methadone maintenance has been found to be medically safe and nonsedating. It is also indicated for pregnant women addicted to heroin. Reviews issued by the Institute of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health have defined narcotic addiction as a chronic medical disorder and have claimed that methadone maintenance coupled with social services is the most effective treatment for this condition. These agencies recommend reducing governmental regulation to facilitate patients access to treatment. In addition, they recommend that the number of programs be expanded, and that new models of treatment be implemented,if the nationwide problem of addiction is to be brought under control. The National Institutes of Health also recommend that methadone maintenance be available to persons under legal supervision, such as probationers, parolees and the incarcerated. However, stigma and bias directed at the programs and the
Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Wan, Dai; Zhang, Linglin; Lai, Wenhong
The study examined concurrent illicit heroin use among methadone maintenance clients in China and its association with clients' demographic characteristics, treatment experience, and personal social network. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 178 clients randomly recruited from six methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Sichuan, China. Concurrent heroin use was measured based on self-report of heroin use during the past 30 days and a confirmatory urine morphine test. The participants' demographic characteristics and treatment factors were measured and examined. The drug use status of their family members and friends was also assessed. A total of 80 participants (44.9%) who either reported illicit heroin use in the past 30 days or had a positive urine test were defined as using heroin concurrently. Having drug-using friends was significantly associated with increased concurrent heroin use. Longer length of treatment (2 years or longer) was associated with increased concurrent heroin use. Among those who had both drug-using family members and friends, more women (71.4%) than men (50.0%) used heroin. For those who had no drug-using family members or friends, more men (34.8%) than women (20.8%) used heroin. Study findings indicate an urgent need to address concurrent illicit heroin use among MMT clients. Further examination of the influence of social networks on concurrent drug abuse behavior is encouraged. Results also highlight the importance of understanding gender differences in treatment seeking and behavioral changes, which is crucial to the development of gender-specific treatment strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wolff, K; Hay, A; Raistrick, D; Calvert, R; Feely, M
A quantitative indicator of compliance is not available for methadone--the drug of choice for the treatment of opioid addiction. We successfully used low-dose phenobarbital (a valid pharmacologic indicator) to measure compliance by incorporating the drug into the methadone medication of patients attending an addiction unit. Plasma phenobarbital and methadone concentrations were measured in 20 (11 clinic-based and 9 community-based) patients receiving long-term treatment with the phenobarbital level-to-dose ratio, together with interviews, to validate methadone measurements and to monitor compliance. Patients attending the unit on a daily basis and who consumed their medication in the clinic were substantially more compliant than community-based patients. Laboratory measurements of phenobarbital and methadone helped to identify the use of illicit methadone, as well as incorrect self-administration, such as the consumption of several days' dosage at one time.
Knealing, Todd W.; Roebuck, M. Christopher; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth
The therapeutic workplace is a novel intervention that uses access to paid training and employment to reinforce drug abstinence within the context of standard methadone maintenance. We used the Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program as a standard method of estimating the economic costs of this intervention. Over a one-year period, the therapeutic workplace served 122 methadone maintenance clients who had a median length of stay of 22 weeks. The workplace maintained a mean daily census of 48 clients. The combined cost of methadone maintenance and the therapeutic workplace was estimated at $362 per week. This cost is less than other treatments that might be used to promote abstinence in individuals who continue to use drugs during methadone treatment. Given prior evidence of effectiveness, these cost data may be useful to policymakers, social service agencies, and researchers interested in using or further developing the therapeutic workplace intervention. PMID:17614239
Bruce, R Douglas; Winkle, P; Custodio, J M; Wei, X; Rhee, M S; Kearney, B P; Ramanathan, S; Friedland, Gerald H
Interactions between HIV and opioid dependence therapies are known to occur. We sought to determine if such interactions occurred between methadone and elvitegravir boosted with cobicistat (EVG/COBI). We performed a within-subject open-label pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of 11 HIV-seronegative subjects stabilized on at least 2 weeks of methadone. Subjects underwent baseline and steady-state evaluation of the effect of elvitegravir 150 mg once a day (QD) boosted with 150 mg QD of cobicistat (EVG/COBI) on methadone pharmacokinetic parameters. Safety and pharmacodynamics were monitored throughout the study. Compared to baseline values, the R-methadone mean area under the concentration-time curve to the end of the dosing period (AUCtau) (5,550 versus 6,210 h · ng/ml) and mean maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) (316 versus 337 ng/ml) did not significantly increase in the presence of EVG/COBI. Compared to baseline values, the S-methadone mean AUCtau (7,040 versus 7,540 h · ng/ml) and mean Cmax (446 versus 452 ng/ml) did not significantly increase in the presence of EVG/COBI. The AUCtau, Cmax, and Ctau of elvitegravir and cobicistat did not significantly differ from those of historical controls. Opioid withdrawal or overdose was not observed among subjects in this study. The addition of EVG/COBI to stabilized patients receiving methadone did not affect methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These two agents can be safely coadministered.
Zweben, J E; Payte, J T
We describe the historical underpinnings of negative attitudes towards methadone and how these affect medical decisions. Current developments have increased the understanding of the origins of opioid addiction, such as how receptor system dysfunction may affect the ability to remain abstinent once out of treatment. Specialized topics include the pregnant addict, the role of methadone maintenance in limiting the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and patients with a dual diagnosis. We also describe issues that arise when methadone is used in conjunction with prescribed or abused drugs, noting pharmacologic alternatives and adjuncts to methadone treatment. Finally, we comment on treatment issues such as methadone patients in 12-step programs and the growing legitimacy of this treatment method. PMID:2190427
Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Blaine, Jack D.
We sought to determine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of past-month illicit methadone use and history of regular illicit use among stimulant-using methadone maintenance treatment patients. We obtained self-reported information on illicit methadone use from 383 participants recruited from six community-based methadone maintenance programs. Overall, 1.6% of participants reported illicit use in the past month, and 4.7% reported a history of regular use. Younger age and history of outpatient psychological treatment were associated with increased odds of past-month illicit use. Illicit methadone use among patients in maintenance programs is infrequent; however, a number of factors may increase risk of illicit use. PMID:18612886
Zhang, Bo; Cai, Thomas; Yan, Zhihua; Mburu, Gitau; Wang, Bangyuan; Yang, Liping
Outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in the management of opioid dependency can be impaired by poor adherence and retention, concomitant drug use, poor adjustment of methadone dosage, and low levels of awareness regarding methadone among drug users, among other factors. This study investigated the effects of intensive blended treatment literacy and psychoeducation on treatment compliance, methadone dose, and heroin use among MMT clients in China. A total of 492 MMT clients who tested positive for urine morphine at least once during a 12-week intervention period preceding the study were recruited from 16 MMT clinics. Employing a client-centred approach, a blended treatment literacy and psychoeducation intervention was then implemented between March and June 2014, comprising (1) intensified methadone treatment literacy sessions; (2) participatory goal setting; (3) continuous adherence monitoring and support; and (4) engagement of both peers and doctors in delivering psychoeducation. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare urine morphine positive rates, daily methadone dosage, and the number of days that clients successfully accessed methadone before and during the intervention. During the intervention, urine morphine positive rates reduced to 27% from 49.3% previously; p < 0.001. In response to client needs, methadone dosages increased among 74% of participants, remained unchanged among 12.0%, and reduced among 13.4% during the intervention. In addition, the average daily methadone dose increased from 63.0 to 72.6 mg; p < 0.001, while the average number of days that clients successfully accessed methadone increased from 69.4 to 73.9 over a period of 12 weeks; p < 0.001. Blended treatment literacy and psychoeducation delivered by a combination of peers and doctors was associated with reduced heroin use, improved treatment adherence, and higher methadone doses among our sample of MMT clients.
Jansson, Lauren M; Choo, Robin; Velez, Martha L; Harrow, Cheryl; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A
In a sample of methadone-maintained breastfeeding women and a matched group of formula-feeding women, this study evaluated concentrations of methadone in breast milk among breastfeeding women and concentrations of methadone in maternal and infant plasma in both groups. Eight methadone-maintained (dose: 50-105 mg/day), lactating women provided blood and breast milk specimens on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 14, and 30 after delivery, at the times of trough and peak maternal methadone levels. Paired specimens of foremilk and hindmilk were obtained at each sampling time. Eight matched formula-feeding subjects provided blood samples on the same days. Infant blood samples for both groups were obtained on day 14. Urine toxicological screening between 36 weeks of gestation and 30 days after the birth confirmed that subjects were not using illicit substances in the perinatal period. Concentrations of methadone in breast milk were low (range: 21.0-462.0 ng/mL) and not related to maternal dose. There was a significant increase in methadone concentrations in breast milk over time for all 4 sampling times. Concentrations of methadone in maternal plasma were not different between groups and were unrelated to maternal dose. Concentrations of methadone in infant plasma were low (range: 2.2-8.1 ng/mL) in all samples. Infants in both groups underwent neurobehavioral assessments on days 3, 14, and 30; there were no significant effects of breastfeeding on neurobehavioral outcomes. Fewer infants in the breastfed group required pharmacotherapy for neonatal abstinence syndrome, but this was not a statistically significant finding. Results contribute to the recommendation of breastfeeding for methadone-maintained women.
Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Schwartz, Robert P.; O’Grady, Kevin E.
Aims This study examined the effectiveness of methadone maintenance initiated prior to or just after release from prison at 6 months post-release. Design A three-group randomized controlled trial was conducted between September 2003 and June 2005. Setting A Baltimore pre-release prison. Participants Two hundred and eleven adult pre-release inmates who were heroin-dependent during the year prior to incarceration. Intervention Participants were assigned randomly to the following: counseling only: counseling in prison, with passive referral to treatment upon release (n = 70); counseling + transfer: counseling in prison with transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release (n = 70); and counseling + methadone: methadone maintenance and counseling in prison, continued in a community-based methadone maintenance program upon release (n = 71). Measurements Addiction Severity Index at study entry and follow-up. Additional assessments at 6 months post-release were treatment record review; urine drug testing for opioids, cocaine and other illicit drugs. Findings Counseling + methadone participants were significantly more likely than both counseling only and counseling + transfer participants to be retained in drug abuse treatment (P = 0.0001) and significantly less likely to have an opioid-positive urine specimen compared to counseling only participants (P = 0.002). Furthermore, counseling + methadone participants reported significantly fewer days of involvement in self-reported heroin use and criminal activity than counseling only participants. Conclusions Methadone maintenance, initiated prior to or immediately after release from prison, increases treatment entry and reduces heroin use at 6 months post-release compared to counseling only. This intervention may be able to fill an urgent treatment need for prisoners with heroin addiction histories. PMID:18855822
METODO, a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in heroin-addicted patients undergoing a methadone maintenance treatment: preliminary results at baseline evaluation.
D'Egidio, Pietro Fausto; Bignamini, Emanuele; De Vivo, Enrico; Leonardi, Claudio; Pieri, Maria Chiara; González-Saiz, Francisco; Lucchini, Alfio
METODO (methadone efficacy therapy optimization dosage on-going) is a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in 500 heroin-addicted patients taking a methadone maintenance treatment, enrolled through 2010 to 2011 in five Italian sites, observed over 2 years. The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale has been used for the evaluation of the "adequacy" of the methadone dosage and to stratify patients in adequate and not adequate groups. The treatment efficacy has been evaluated in correlation to the dosage adequacy during the visits. Moreover, patients have been evaluated according to the retention rate and duration of retention in treatment and a series of questionnaires.
Stimmel, B; Kreek, M J
Scientific information about the neurobiology of addictive behaviors provides an increasingly important rationale to support opioid agonist pharmacotherapy, primarily methadone maintenance treatment, for long-term heroin addiction. In late 1963 and 1964, the first research was performed at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research by Dole, Nyswander, and Kreek in an attempt to develop a new pharmacotherapy for opiate addiction. The hypothesis underlying that research was that heroin addiction was a disease. However, the evidence for heroin addiction being a disease was based primarily on clinical anecdotes and the natural history of opiate addiction. Until then chronic addiction was managed primarily using abstinence-based, medication-free behavioral approaches. Such approaches were uniformly successful in only a small percent of long-term heroin addicts. Subsequent research, both clinical research as well as laboratory-based research, using a variety of appropriate animal models as well as in vitro techniques, has shown that drugs of abuse in general, and specifically the short-acting opiates, such as heroin, may profoundly alter molecular and neurochemical indices, and thus physiologic functions. Also, research has shown that after chronic exposure to a short-acting opiate,these alterations may be persistent, or even permanent, and may contribute directly to the perpetuation of self-administration of opiates, and even the return to opiate use after achieving a drug-free and medication-free state. There is ample evidence now that disruption of several components of the endogenous opioid system, ranging from changes in gene expression to changes in behavior, may occur during cycles of short-acting opiate abuse. Also, there are very convincing studies that suggest that stress responsivity is profoundly altered by chronic abuse of short-acting opiates including: documentation of atypical hypo-responsivity to stressors during cycles of heroin addiction; evidence
Glosser, D S
The effects of a token economy in modifying the illicit polydrug use of 97 methadone maintenance clients was investigated over a period of two and a half years. Subjects' drug-free urinalysis reports were reinforced with points which could be redeemed to obtain methadone. Each subject's daily dose level varied with the point balance. A multiple baseline analysis showed that when methadone acquisition was in part made contingent upon drug-free urinalyses, illicit drug use declined rapidly. After six months, the token economy group's urines were 14% positive for illicit drugs compared to 39% in the traditional treatment group. As time in treatment increased, illicit drug use further declined. These results suggest a more effective and practical strategy for the treatment of polydrug abusing methadone maintenance clients than has previously been available.
Li, Wei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yarong; Zhu, Jia; Ye, Jianjun; Yan, Xuejiao; Li, Yongbin; Chen, Jiajie; Liu, Jierong; Li, Zhe; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yijun
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can induce impairments in brain function and structure, despite its clinical effectiveness. However, the effect of chronic MMT on brain white matter (WM) is not fully known. Thirty-three MMT patients underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) twice – at the start of the study (Scan1) and one year later (Scan2). Tract-based spatial statistics were used to investigate changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) between the two scans. The correlations between DTI indices and methadone consumption and neuropsychological status were analysed. We found significantly decreased FA, decreased AD and increased RD in Scan2 in extensive WM regions; overlapping regions were found in the left posterior limb and the retrolenticular part of internal capsule, superior and posterior corona radiata, bilateral external capsule and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In addition, the change of FA in the overlapping regions was positively correlated with the accumulated dosage of methadone use, the RD value in Scan2 and non-planning impulsiveness (NPI) measured at follow-up. The results suggest that methadone has damaging effects on WM integrity. The dose-dependent pattern and characteristics of the impairment may suggest new strategies for MMT. PMID:26794650
Tomedi, Laura E.; Bogen, Debra; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Bodnar, Lisa M.
Pregnant women in methadone maintenance therapy may have poor nutrition during pregnancy. In 2006–2008, methadone treated pregnant women (n = 22) were recruited at an urban academic medical center and compared with non-drug using pregnant women (n = 119) at 20–35 weeks gestation. We measured adiposity using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, and micronutrient and essential fatty acid status using biomarkers. Methadone treated women had lower BMI, consumed more calories, had lower serum carotenoid concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than controls. The study’s limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22217127
Peles, Einat; Bodner, Gershon; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Rados, Vera; Adelson, Miriam
To determine and evaluate QTc intervals in electrocardiograms (ECGs) of former heroin addicts, currently in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), as previous reports suggest that methadone may prolong QTc intervals, thus possibly increasing the risk for Torsade de pointes (TdP). Cross-sectional study. Between January 2003 and September 2004, patients on a steady dose of methadone for at least 2 weeks were studied. This study is a subset of 153 patients, of whom 151 patients participated in a study of high methadone doses and serum levels. A total of 138 patients in MMT for a minimum of 100 days up to 10.7 years, receiving 40-290 mg/day methadone dose, participated. Patients had an ECG at the time when blood was drawn for determination of serum methadone levels at around 24 hours after the last oral methadone dose. Corrected-QT intervals (QTc) were calculated using the Bazett formula. Of 138 patients studied, 98 (71%) were male. Mean QTc interval was 418.3 +/- 32.8 milliseconds (ms). Mean methadone dose was 170.9 +/- 50.3 mg/day and mean serum methadone level was 708.2 +/- 363.1 ng/ml. Methadone dose and serum levels did not correlate with QTc. Three patients had QTc intervals above 500 ms ('prolonged'). After 2 +/- 0.4 years of follow-up, two patients died; they were two of three patients with very prolonged QTc. Causes of death were not attributed to cardiac origin. An additional 19 patients had QTc intervals of between 450 and 499 ms ('possibly prolonged'). None of these QTc > or = 450 ms patients had any cardiac problems. Methadone doses of all 22 patients were > 120 mg/day. Methadone maintenance is generally safe; however, the possible toxicity of high dose (> 120 mg/day) should be monitored for QTc.
Kashiwagi, Maki; Arlettaz, Romaine; Lauper, Urs; Zimmermann, Roland; Hebisch, Gundula
Although methadone maintenance is the standard treatment of opiate addiction in pregnancy, opinion as to its utility is divided. The aim of this study was to analyze polydrug abuse, pregnancy outcome and fetomaternal complications among pregnant women in a major Swiss methadone maintenance program. Prospective data collection of all pregnant opiate addicts and their neonates from 1996 to 2001. Maternal complications occurred in 73% and fetal complications in 34% of the pregnancies. The average methadone dose at delivery in the 89 pregnancies was 40.9 +/- 32.7 (0-150) mg/day. Sixty-four percent of the women were co-users of cocaine and/or heroin. Birthweight was lower in polydrug abusers than in near-exclusive methadone users (p = 0.001). The high rate of maternal complications demonstrates the need for further improvement in antenatal management of opiate addiction in pregnancy. Methadone maintenance is inefficient in preventing pregnancy exposure to additional illicit drug consumption. Additional illicit heroin and/or cocaine abuse does not seem to increase the incidence of fetomaternal complications during pregnancy, but reverses the positive impact of methadone on birthweight. Heroin-assisted treatment may be a more effective method of minimizing the use of street drugs.
Teoh Bing Fei, Joni; Yee, Anne; Habil, Mohamad Hussain Bin; Danaee, Mahmoud
Methadone maintenance therapy has been found to be an effective harm reduction treatment for opioid use disorder. However evidence of its benefits over a longer duration of treatment is limited as most studies focus on its short term benefits. As methadone maintenance therapy reaches a decade since its implementation in Malaysia, this study sought to examine the effectiveness of methadone treatment, change in quality of life among patients since entry to methadone treatment, as well as factors predicting the magnitude of change in quality of life. This study found that methadone maintenance therapy was effective in reducing heroin use, injecting practices and crime, and in improving in social functioning and physical symptoms, but not in reducing sex-related HIV risk-taking behavior. Though patients had a significantly better quality of life at follow-up than at entry to methadone maintenance therapy, the improvement in quality of life was not significantly greater as the duration of treatment increased. Age above 50 years old, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive status and physical symptoms predicted a poorer improvement in quality of life between baseline and follow-up. On the other hand, patients with hepatitis B showed a greater improvement in quality of life in the social relationships domain compared to patients without hepatitis B. In conclusion, methadone maintenance therapy is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder and improves quality of life but its benefits in further improving quality of life beyond a decade of treatment need further evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon; Graves, Lisa; Abrahams, Ronald; Boyajian, Talar
Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics of a national cohort of pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and to provide treatment outcome data for integrated care programs. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Three different integrated care programs in geographically distinct cities: the Toronto Centre for Substance Use in Pregnancy in Toronto, Ont; the Herzl Family Practice Centre in Montreal, Que; and the Sheway clinic in Vancouver, BC. Participants Pregnant women meeting criteria for opioid dependence and attending an integrated care program between 1997 and 2009. Women were excluded if they were on MMT only for chronic pain. Main outcome measures Patient demographic characteristics, concurrent medical and psychiatric disorders, and substance use outcome data. Results A total of 102 opioid-dependent pregnancies were included. The mean age was 29.7 years and 64% of women were white. Women in Montreal were more likely to have partners and had fewer children. Differences in living and housing situations among the sites tended to resolve by the time of delivery. Almost half of this cohort tested positive for hepatitis C. Women had a high prevalence of depression and anxiety across all sites. Half of this cohort was on MMT before conception and for the other half, MMT was initiated at a mean gestational age of 20.7 weeks, resulting in a mean dose of 82.4 mg at delivery. At the first visit, polysubstance use was common. Prescription opioid use was more frequent in Toronto and heroin use was more prevalent in Vancouver and Montreal. For the entire population, significant reductions were found by the time of delivery for illicit (P < .001) and prescription opioids (P = .001), cocaine (P < .001), marijuana (P = .009), and alcohol use (P < .001). Conclusion Despite geographic differences, all 3 integrated care programs have been associated with significant decreases in substance use in pregnant opioid-dependent women. PMID:24130301
Aghayan, Shahrokh; Amiri, Mohammad; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad
Background: Measurement of life quality as an index of health status has a widespread application in health care domain. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the quality of life of referents to addiction cessation centers of Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 988 addicts who had referred to addiction cessation centers in Shahroud were studied through SF-36 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using linear regression in structural equation modeling and STATA 12 statistical software. Results: The mean ± SD age of the participants was 41.2 ± 11.8 years. Most of the referents used smoking followed by eating method of opium abuse. The mean ± SD score of life quality was 67.8 ± 17.2, the mean ± SD score of life quality in physical health dimension was 76.9 ± 26.7, and the mean ± SD score in mental health dimension was 64.5 ± 18.4. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between life quality and gender, place of residence, education, occupation, marital status, and income (P ≤ 0.05). However, in multivariate analysis a significant relationship was observed only between gender, socioeconomic status, and quality of life score. Conclusions: Although most studies have reported low and weak quality of life in addicts, the findings of this study shows that the life quality score of addicts is rather good. It seems that the maintenance treatment that addicts receive in addiction cessation centers has been effective in improving the quality of life of the patients. Hence, expanding methadone treatment centers can play a leading role in the improvement of life quality in addicts. PMID:26870708
Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Kurth, Megan; Stein, Michael
BACKGROUND Exchange of prescription medications is a significant public health problem particularly among substance abusing populations. Little is known about the extent of medication sharing and receiving behaviors in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) populations and the factors associated with such behaviors. METHODS We examined rates, and factors associated with past year medication sharing and receiving practices of 315 MMT smokers who had enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation. Sequential logistic regression models estimated the effect of demographic and substance use variables on the probability of sharing or receiving medications. RESULTS Participants averaged 40 years of age, and 49% were male. Among persons prescribed medications, 19.9% reported sharing. Nearly 40% had used medication not prescribed to them. Pain medications, sleep medications, and sedatives, were most commonly shared and received. Younger age was a significant predictor of both sharing medications (OR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.88; 0.96, p < .01) and receiving medications (OR = 0.94; 95%CI 0.92, 0.97, p < .01). Financial hardship (OR = 2.05; 95%CI 1.13; 3.72, p < .05), and recent use of heroin (OR = 5.59, 95%CI 1.89; 16.57, p < .01) or cocaine (OR = 3.70, 95%CI 1.48; 9.28, p < .05), were also independently associated with a significantly higher likelihood of receiving prescription drugs of abuse. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of prescription medication sharing and receiving behaviors among persons in MMT often include substances with abuse potential and suggest the need for comprehensive approaches for minimizing this phenomenon. PMID:22854293
Glenn, Matthew C; Sohler, Nancy L; Starrels, Joanna L; Maradiaga, Jeronimo; Jost, John J; Arnsten, Julia H; Cunningham, Chinazo O
Opioid analgesic use and disorders have dramatically increased among the general American population and those receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Most research among MMT patients focuses on opioid analgesics misuse or disorders; few studies focus on MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics. We describe demographic, clinical, and substance use characteristics of MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics and compare them with MMT patients not prescribed opioid analgesics. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis using screening interviews from a parent study. From 2012 to 2015, we recruited adults from 3 MMT Bronx clinics. Questionnaire data included patterns of opioid analgesic use, substance use, comorbid illnesses, and demographic characteristics. Our main dependent variable was patients' report of currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics. To compare characteristics between MMT patients prescribed and not prescribed opioid analgesics, we conducted chi-square tests, t tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Of 611 MMT patients, most reported chronic pain (62.0%), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (52.1%), and current use of illicit substances (64.2%). Of the 29.8% who reported currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics, most misused their opioid analgesics (57.5%). Patients prescribed (versus not prescribed) opioid analgesics were more likely to report human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.3) and chronic pain (aOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 4.6-12.6). Among MMT patients primarily in 3 Bronx clinics, nearly one third reported taking prescribed opioid analgesics. Compared with patients not prescribed opioid analgesics, those prescribed opioid analgesics were more likely to report chronic pain and HIV infection. However, between these patients, there was no difference in illicit substance use. These findings highlight the complexity of addressing chronic pain in MMT patients.
Glenn, Matthew C.; Sohler, Nancy L.; Starrels, Joanna L.; Maradiaga, Jeronimo; Jost, John J.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.
Background Opioid analgesic use and disorders have dramatically increased among the general American population and those receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Most research among MMT patients focuses on opioid analgesics misuse or disorders; few studies focus on MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics. We describe demographic, clinical, and substance use characteristics of MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics and compare them to MMT patients not prescribed opioid analgesics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis using screening interviews from a parent study. From 2012–2015, we recruited adults from 3 MMT Bronx clinics. Questionnaire data included: patterns of opioid analgesic use, substance use, comorbid illnesses, and demographic characteristics. Our main dependent variable was patients’ report of currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics. To compare characteristics between MMT patients prescribed and not prescribed opioid analgesics, we conducted chi-squared tests, t-tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Of 611 MMT patients, most reported chronic pain (62.0%), HCV infection (52.1%), and currently using illicit substances (64.2%). Of the 29.8% who reported currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics, most misused their opioid analgesics (57.5%). Patients prescribed (versus not prescribed) opioid analgesics were more likely to report HIV infection (aOR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3) and chronic pain (aOR=7.6, 95% CI: 4.6–12.6). Conclusion Among MMT patients primarily in three Bronx clinics, nearly one-third reported taking prescribed opioid analgesics. Compared to patients not prescribed opioid analgesics, those prescribed opioid analgesics were more likely to report chronic pain and HIV infection. However, between these patients, there was no difference in illicit substance use. These findings highlight the complexity of addressing chronic pain in MMT patients. PMID:26731299
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; de Dios, Marcel A; Kurth, Megan; Stein, Michael
Exchange of prescription medications is a significant public health problem particularly among substance abusing populations. Little is known about the extent of medication sharing and receiving behaviors in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) populations and the factors associated with such behaviors. We examined rates, and factors associated with past year medication sharing and receiving practices of 315 MMT smokers who had enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation. Sequential logistic regression models estimated the effect of demographic and substance use variables on the probability of sharing or receiving medications. Participants averaged 40 years of age, and 49% were male. Among persons prescribed medications, 19.9% reported sharing. Nearly 40% had used medication not prescribed to them. Pain medications, sleep medications, and sedatives, were most commonly shared and received. Younger age was a significant predictor of both sharing medications (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.88; 0.96, p<.01) and receiving medications (OR=0.94, 95%CI 0.92; 0.97, p<.01). Financial hardship (OR=2.05, 95%CI 1.13; 3.72, p<.05), and recent use of heroin (OR=5.59, 95%CI 1.89; 16.57, p<.01) or cocaine (OR=3.70, 95%CI 1.48; 9.28, p<.05), were also independently associated with a significantly higher likelihood of receiving prescription drugs of abuse. The high prevalence of prescription medication sharing and receiving behaviors among persons in MMT often include substances with abuse potential and suggest the need for comprehensive approaches for minimizing this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Ayutthaya, Prempreeda Pramoj Na; Suwannawong, Paisan; Kaplan, Karyn; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas
Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is a mainstay for treating opioid use disorder and preventing and managing HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). While previous research suggested low dosing of methadone and high rates of discontinuation of MMT among PWID in Thailand, little is known about patients' lived experiences with MMT in this setting. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-methods study to examine barriers to retention in MMT among PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, with particular attention to methadone dosing. Bivariate statistics were used to analyze quantitative survey data collected from methadone-treated PWID between July and October 2011. Qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews with 16 methadone-treated PWID between July 2011 and June 2012 were analyzed thematically, with a focus on individual-level, social-structural, and environmental barriers to accessing MMT. Among 158 survey participants, a median dosage of methadone was 30 mg/day (interquartile range 20-50). Of these, 15.8% reported having acquired street methadone due to low prescribed dosages of methadone and 19.0% reported recent syringe sharing. Qualitative interview data indicated some methadone provider-related barriers, including discouraging patients from using methadone due to it being a Western medicine, difficulty negotiating higher doses of methadone, and abrupt dose reductions without patient consultation (involving the provision of non-medicated "syrup" in some cases). Social-structural and environmental barriers to optimal MMT access included intense police surveillance of methadone clinics; and frequent incarceration of PWID and a lack of access to methadone in prisons. Among our sample of methadone-treated PWID, methadone dosages were suboptimal according to the international guidelines. Poor adherence to international guidelines for opioid agonist therapies, aggressive law enforcement, and a lack of methadone in prisons need to be addressed to optimize MMT and
Johnson, Shakevia; Martin, Peter R
Opioid use disorder during pregnancy is a growing health concern. Methadone maintenance is the treatment of choice but emerging data indicate buprenorphine is a viable alternative. Due to costs and limited accessibility of methadone, pregnant women may require transition from methadone to buprenorphine for maintenance treatment. To assess safety and effectiveness of transitioning from methadone to buprenorphine when necessary during pregnancy. A standardized protocol using low buprenorphine doses to minimize emergent withdrawal symptoms under careful obstetric and psychiatric monitoring was implemented in 20 pregnant women. Outpatient maternal and neonatal outcomes were assessed. Women maintained on an average methadone dose of 44 ± 4.77 (20-100) mg/day (mean±standard error mean (SEM); range) were successfully transitioned to 12.60 ± 0.8 (8-16) mg/day (mean±SEM; range) of buprenorphine. Within 4 weeks of transition, 15% had illicit drugs detected in urine drug screens. Ninety percent of women maintained outpatient follow-up until delivery. At delivery, 38.9% of mothers were exclusively adherent to buprenorphine (without use of illicit substances and/or other psychotropic medications); this resulted in significantly lower rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and shorter hospital stays. Pregnant women transitioned from methadone to buprenorphine maintenance showed maternal and neonatal outcomes comparable to studies of women on buprenorphine throughout pregnancy. Infants born to buprenorphine-maintained women who abstained from illicit substances and other prescribed psychotropic medications experienced less severe NAS and shorter hospitalizations compared with women with illicit substance use and other psychotropic medications. These findings suggest women can safely be transitioned from methadone to buprenorphine during pregnancy.
Results of this study indicate that at present employers are not ready to accept methadone maintained patients into their firms. The stigma placed on heroin addicts by employers is a very important issue when the treated patient tries to make it in the employment field. More employer education is needed. (Author)
Kastelic, Andrej; Dubajic, Goran; Strbad, Ervin
Evaluation of the efficacy, safety and acceptability of slow-release oral morphine (SROM) in opioid addicts intolerant to methadone or with inadequate withdrawal suppression. Prospective, open, non-comparative multi-centre study. Twelve out-patient Centres for Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction in Slovenia. Male and female opioid addicts (age>18 years) under methadone maintenance therapy requiring a change of treatment in order to continue more effectively with maintenance. Maintenance therapy with methadone was switched to once-daily SROM. Efficacy evaluations were based on the reduction of side effects and on the degree of suppression of opiate craving, signs and symptoms of withdrawal. In addition, self-reported somatic and psychic symptoms (SCL-27) as well as World Health Organization quality of life-related (WHO QOL) parameters were monitored. Thirty-nine subjects intolerant to methadone and 28 subjects showing inadequate withdrawal suppression under methadone>or=90 mg/day were included as two separate groups in the efficacy analyses. Treatment was switched easily from methadone to SROM on a 1:8 ratio. Four-week SROM treatment resulted in significant reduction of side effects reported under methadone. Signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal as well as craving for opiates were improved significantly in patients with inadequate response to methadone. Physical and psychological wellbeing improved significantly under SROM treatment. SROM was tolerated very well. Maintenance treatment with SROM appears to be a clinically useful alternative treatment in subjects not tolerating methadone or with inadequate withdrawal suppression.
Bao, Yan-ping; Liu, Zhi-min; Epstein, David H.; Du, Cun; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin
Objective To estimate, via meta-analysis, the influence of different methadone dose ranges and dosing strategies on retention rates in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods A systematic literature search identified 18 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating methadone dose and retention. Retention was defined as the percentage of patients remaining in treatment at a specified time point. After initial univariate analyses of retention by Pearson chi-squares, we used multilevel logistic regression to calculate summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the effects of methadone dose (above or below 60 mg/day), flexible vs. fixed dosing strategy, and duration of follow-up. Results The total number of opioid-dependent participants in the 18 studies was 2831, with 1797 in MMT and 1034 receiving alternative mediations or placebo. Each variable significantly predicted retention with the other variables controlled for. Retention was greater with methadone doses ≥ 60 than with doses <60 (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.43–2.11). Similarly, retention was greater with flexible-dose strategies than with fixed-dose strategies (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.41–2.11). Conclusions Higher doses of methadone and individualization of doses are each independently associated with better retention in MMT. PMID:19152203
Shapiro, Brad J.; Lynch, Kara L.; Toochinda, Tab; Lutnick, Alexandra; Cheng, Helen Y.; Kral, Alex H.
Objective Promethazine has been reported to be misused in conjunction with opioids in several settings. Promethazine misuse by itself or in conjunction with opioids may have serious adverse health effects. To date, no prevalence data for the nonmedical use of promethazine has been reported. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of promethazine use in two different populations in San Francisco, California, USA: methadone maintenance clinic patients and community-based injection drug users (IDUs). Methods We analyzed urine samples for the presence of promethazine and reviewed the clinical records for 334 methadone maintenance patients at the county methadone clinic. Separately, we used targeted sampling methods to recruit and survey 139 community-based opioid IDUs about their use of promethazine. We assessed prevalence and factors associated with promethazine use with bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results The prevalence of promethazine positive urine samples among the methadone maintenance patients was 26 percent. Only 15 percent of promethazine positive patients had an active prescription for promethazine. Among IDUs reporting injection of opiates in the community-based survey, 17 percent reported having used promethazine in the past month; 24 percent of the IDUs who reported being enrolled in methadone treatment reported using promethazine in the past month. Conclusions The finding that one quarter of methadone maintenance patients in a clinic or recruited in community settings have recently used promethazine provides compelling evidence of significant nonmedical use of promethazine in this patient population. Further research is needed to establish the extent and nature of nonmedical use of promethazine. PMID:23385449
Bach, Paxton; Milloy, M-J; Nguyen, Paul; Koehn, John; Guillemi, Silvia; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan
Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is an evidence-based treatment for opioid addiction. While gender differences in MMT pharmacokinetics, drug use patterns and clinical profiles have been previously described, few studies have compared rates of MMT use among community-recruited samples of persons who inject drugs (PWID). The present study used prospective cohorts of PWID followed between May 1996 and May 2013 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We investigated potential factors associated with time to methadone initiation using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Stratified analyses were used to examine for gender differences in rates of MMT enrolment. Overall, 1848 baseline methadone-naïve PWID were included in the study, among whom 595 (32%) were female. In an adjusted model, male gender was independently associated with increased time to MMT initiation and an overall lower rate of enrolment [adjusted relative hazard = 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.85)]. Among both female and male PWID, Caucasian ethnicity and daily injection heroin use were associated with decreased time to methadone initiation, while in females, pregnancy was also associated with more rapid initiation. These data highlight gender differences in methadone use among a population of community-recruited PWID. While factors associated with methadone use were similar between genders, rates of use were lower among male PWID, highlighting the need to consider gender when designing strategies to improve recruitment into MMT. [Bach P, Milloy MJ, Nguyen P, Koehn J, Guillemi S, Kerr T, Wood E. Gender differences in access to methadone maintenance therapy in a Canadian setting. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Gerra, Gilberto; Manfredini, Matteo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Maremmani, Icro; Leonardi, Claudio; Donnini, Claudia
A variety of studies evidenced a relationship between drug use disorders and sexual dysfunction. In particular, heroin and opioid agonist medications to treat heroin dependence have been found to be associated with erectile dysfunction and reduced libido. Controversial findings also indicate the possibility of factors other than the pharmacological effects of opioid drugs concurring to sexual dysfunction. With the present study, we investigated the link between sexual dysfunction and long-term exposure to opioid receptor stimulation (heroin dependence, methadone maintenance treatment, methadone dosage), the potentially related hormonal changes reflecting hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis function and prolactin (PRL) pituitary release, the role of adverse childhood experiences in the clinical history and the concomitant symptoms of comorbid mental health disorders in contributing to sexual problems. Forty male patients participating in a long-term methadone treatment program were included in the present study and compared with 40 healthy control subjects who never used drugs nor abused alcohol. All patients and controls were submitted to the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), Child Experiences of Care and Abuse-Questionnaire (CECA-Q) and the Symptom Check List-90 Scale. A blood sample for testosterone and PRL assays was collected. Methadone dosages were recorded among heroin-dependent patients on maintenance treatment. Methadone patients scored significantly higher than controls on the 5-item rating ASEX scale, on CECA-Q and on Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL 90) scale. Testosterone plasma levels were significantly lower and PRL levels significantly higher in methadone patients with respect to the healthy control group. ASEX scores reflecting sexual dysfunction were directly and significantly correlated with CECA-Q neglect scores and SCL 90 psychiatric symptoms total score. The linear regression model, when applied only to addicted patients, showed that
Fischer, G; Jagsch, R; Eder, H; Gombas, W; Etzersdorfer, P; Schmidl-Mohl, K; Schatten, C; Weninger, M; Aschauer, H N
To investigate whether the neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is different in children born to women maintained on slow-release morphine, compared with those maintained on methadone, and to compare additional drug consumption in these groups of women. An open, randomized trial was conducted in an established clinic. Forty-eight pregnant women who presented to the clinic as opiate or polysubstance abusers were enrolled and maintained on either methadone (24 women) or slow-release morphine (24 women) up to and following delivery. The programme included psychosocial therapy and support for their opiate-addicted partners. Standard urinalysis methods were used to measure consumption of cocaine and benzodiazepines during pregnancy. Injection sites were monitored to indicate additional opiate use. NAS was measured according to Finnegan score and the amount of phenobarbiturates prescribed to alleviate the symptoms. No difference was found in the number of days that NAS was experienced by neonates born to methadone or morphine maintained mothers (mean = 16 and 21 days, respectively). All children were born healthy and no serious complications arose. Fewer benzodiazepines (p < 0.05) and fewer additional opiates (p < 0.05) were consumed by the morphine-maintained women compared with those who took methadone, but no difference was seen in cocaine consumption. Nicotine consumption was reduced significantly in both groups during pregnancy (p < 0.02). Both methadone and morphine are suitable maintenance agents for pregnant opiate addicts. Maintenance agents that result in a less prolonged NAS should be studied in further trials.
Corty, Eric; And Others
Twice interviewed methadone maintenance patients in three cities using Addiction Severity Index. Of subjects followed, 35.4 percent reported having experienced recent psychological symptoms. Found no relation between length of time in treatment at first interview and psychiatric severity. Over one-year period, treatment that subjects received from…
Dolan, Michael P.; And Others
Evaluated the effectiveness of a contingency contracting intervention on reducing illicit drug use by methadone maintenance outpatients. Illicit drug use was significantly reduced during the 30-day intervention and remained below baseline levels during 60-day follow-up. (Author/MCF)
Himelhoch, Seth; Weber, Elyssa; Medoff, Deborah; Charlotte, Melanie; Clayton, Sara; Wilson, Camille; Ware, Racquel; Benford, Jewell
The goal of this single site study is to evaluate among newly enrolled patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy at an urban methadone maintenance clinic the frequency of life-time stress experiences, the predictors and prevalence of current PTSD, and whether PTSD affects retention in methadone maintenance treatment at 1 year. Of the 115 eligible people, 89 (77%) participated in the study. The mean number of reported lifetime stressful events was 8.0 (SD=3.7). Twenty-seven percent were diagnosed with PTSD. Nearly 92% of those with PTSD had co-occurring depressive symptoms. Female gender (AOR [95% CI]; 3.89 [1.07-14.01]), number of traumatic events (AOR [95% CI];1.34 [1.13-1.61]) and less education (AOR [95% CI];4.13 [1.14-14.98]) were significantly associated with PTSD. PTSD diagnosis was not associated with treatment retention (OR [95%CI] 0.61 [0.23-1.64]). Future studies are needed to determine whether early psychiatric treatment of PTSD integrated into methadone maintenance programs may impact continued substance abuse use and improve retention in care. PMID:23082830
Landry, Michel; Veilleux, Nadia; Arseneault, Julie-Eve; Abboud, Saneea; Barrieau, André; Bélanger, Mathieu
Background: Methadone maintenance treatment programs implemented in Aboriginal communities have proven to be beneficial for the control of opioid addiction and its associated consequences, but the perceptions and opinions of different community members about these programs remain elusive. The goal of this study was to determine the perceptions of members of a First Nation community in New Brunswick, Canada, on the implementation of a methadone maintenance treatment program and its effects on the community. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using semistructured focus group discussions with 3 distinct groups composed of health care professionals and influential community members, patients in the methadone maintenance treatment program and community members at large. Thematic analysis of discussion transcripts was performed. Results: A total of 22 partipants were included in the 3 focus groups. All groups of participants expressed that patients in the program are stigmatized and marginalized. Discussions also revealed widespread misconceptions about the program. Participants associated the program with improvements in community-level outcomes and in parenting abilities of patients, but also with difficulties preserving family unity. Interpretation: Despite being culturally adapted to the community, elements surrounding the methadone maintenance treatment program in this First Nation community appear to be misunderstood and stigmatized. It may be beneficial to provide community education on these programs to assure community buy-in for the successful implementation of harm reduction programs in Aboriginal communities. PMID:27730106
Deck, Dennis; Carlson, Matthew J
This study examined individual and system characteristics associated with retention in methadone maintenance treatment among Medicaid-eligible adults in treatment for opiate use in Oregon and Washington. Logistic regression was used to examine the contributions of predisposing, need, and enabling characteristics on 365 day retention in methadone maintenance treatment. Older patients, patients with a history of methadone maintenance treatment, and persons with stable Medicaid eligibility had higher rates of retention than did patients with disabilities, polysubstance users, and those with an arrest record. In Oregon, which delivers methadone maintenance treatment through managed care, retention rose sharply from 28% to 51% between 1994 and 1998 and then leveled off. During the same time period, retention in Washington State grew from 28% to 34%. The higher rates of retention in Oregon, in part, can be explained by differences in service delivery influenced by financing. Faced with long waiting lists, Washington providers were more than twice as likely to administratively discharge patients for rule violations as their Oregon counterparts. Given the importance of retention, policies and practices that influence retention should be carefully considered. Because Medicaid eligibility has a dramatic impact on retention, policies that help extend eligibility or stabilize eligibility among individuals actively engaged in treatment should be carefully considered.
Dvoriak, Sergii; Karachevsky, Andrey; Chhatre, Sumedha; Booth, Robert; Metzger, David; Schumacher, Joseph; Chychula, Nina; Pecoraro, Anna; Woody, George
With up to 40% of opioid injectors infected with HIV, Ukraine has one of the most concentrated HIV epidemics in the world, mainly due to unsterile injection practices and a historical absence of effective prevention services. Harm reduction programs, including syringe exchange and a small buprenorphine treatment program, were introduced in 2004 and methadone maintenance was allowed in 2007. Despite an initial expansion, by 2009, only 3221 injectors were receiving methadone treatment. A growing body of research on methadone maintenance has found high retention rates with reduction in opioid use and HIV risk behaviors. We report on the acceptability and initial outcome of methadone treatment as a function of HIV status, an issue that has not yet been reported for injectors in Ukraine. Longitudinal observational study of a 12-week course of methadone treatment in 25 HIV+ and 25 HIV- opioid addicted individuals recruited from a harm reduction program and the city AIDS Center. Drug use and HIV risk were assessed at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12 and 20; all patients were offered continued methadone maintenance in the Kyiv city program at the end of 12 weeks. Fifty-four individuals were asked if they were interested in the study and 50, demographically similar to other samples of opioid addicted Ukrainians, agreed to participate. Two died of non-study related causes; the other 48 completed assessments at weeks 4, 8 and 12, and 47 completed followups at week 20. Significant reductions were seen in use of heroin (p<0.0001), other opiates/analgesics (p<0.0001), and HIV risk behaviors (drug, sex, total; all p<0.0001). All 48 patients chose to continue methadone after the 12-weeks of study medication ended. Unlike most opioid treatment studies, sexual risk was somewhat higher than injecting risk at study intake. Methadone maintenance was well accepted by HIV+ and HIV- opioid dependent individuals and has the potential for significant public health impact if made more widely
Dvoriak, Sergii; Karachevsky, Andrey; Chhatre, Sumedha; Booth, Robert; Metzger, David; Schumacher, Joseph; Chychula, Nina; Pecoraro, Anna; Woody, George
Background With up to 40% of opioid injectors infected with HIV, Ukraine has one of the most concentrated HIV epidemics in the world, mainly due to unsterile injection practices and a historical absence of effective prevention services. Harm reduction programs, including syringe exchange and a small buprenorphine treatment program, were introduced in 2004 and methadone maintenance was allowed in 2007. Despite an initial expansion, by 2009, only 3221 injectors were receiving methadone treatment. A growing body of research on methadone maintenance has found high retention rates with reduction in opioid use and HIV risk behaviors. We report on the acceptability and initial outcome of methadone treatment as a function of HIV status, an issue that has not yet been reported for injectors in Ukraine. Methods Longitudinal observational study of a 12-week course of methadone treatment in 25 HIV+ and 25 HIV− opioid addicted individuals recruited from a harm reduction program and the city AIDS Center. Drug use and HIV risk were assessed at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12 and 20; all patients were offered continued methadone maintenance in the Kyiv city program at the end of 12 weeks. Results Fifty-four individuals were asked if they were interested in the study and 50, demographically similar to other samples of opioid addicted Ukrainians, agreed to participate. Two died of non-study related causes; the other 48 completed assessments at weeks 4, 8 and 12, and 47 completed followups at week 20. Significant reductions were seen in use of heroin (p<. 0001), other opiates/analgesics (p< 0.0001), and HIV risk behaviors (drug, sex, total; all p <0.0001). All 48 patients chose to continue methadone after the 12-weeks of study medication ended. Unlike most opioid treatment studies, sexual risk was somewhat higher than injecting risk at study intake. Conclusions Methadone maintenance was well accepted by HIV+ and HIV− opioid dependent individuals and has the potential for significant
Rosen, Daniel; Morse, Jennifer Q; Reynolds, Charles F
Late-life depression is prevalent in older adults who are dependent on opiates. Depressive disorders among opiate abusers have detrimental effects on their well-being and ability to refrain from illegal drugs. There are numerous barriers to the provision of appropriate mental health care to older adults receiving methadone maintenance treatment. This article focuses on problem-solving therapy (PST) and presents evidence that PST may be a promising nonpharmacological treatment for older methadone clients with comorbid depressive disorders that can be applied within the staffing and resource limits of methadone maintenance treatment facilities. The advantages of PST relative to other behavioral therapies for this population are based on evidence that PST is less cognitively demanding for an older adult population with mood and substance use disorders. A properly modified PST for an older adult substance-dependent population with subsyndromal or diagnosed depression may be a viable option for methadone maintenance programs with limited resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Samaan, Zainab; Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B; Plater, Carolyn; Varenbut, Michael; Daiter, Jeffrey; Worster, Andrew; Marsh, David C; Tan, Charlie; Desai, Dipika; Thabane, Lehana; Pare, Guillaume
Introduction Treatment of opioid addiction with methadone is effective; however, it is known to produce interindividual variability. This may be influenced in part by genetic variants, which can increase the initial risk of developing opioid addiction as well as explain differences in response to treatment. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale genetic analysis to identify genes that predict methadone treatment outcomes in this population. Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study of patients admitted to a methadone maintenance treatment program for opioid addiction. We obtained demographic and clinical characteristics in addition to blood and urine samples, for the assessment of treatment outcomes. Results The recruitment process yielded 252 patients, representing a 20% recruitment rate. We conducted genetic testing based on a 99.6% rate of provision of DNA samples. The average retention in treatment was 3.4 years, and >50% of the participants reported psychiatric and medical comorbidities. BDNF rs6265 and DRD2 rs1799978 were the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected for the feasibility study. Discussion This study met our predetermined feasibility criteria; recruitment, response rates, and genetic testing were feasible; treatment duration was sufficient for follow up; and the prevalence of comorbid conditions indicated the need for reliable psychiatric and chronic pain measures. The study strengths included effective collaboration with clinics and the generalizability of sample population. Key learning points show the need for assessment of treatment outcomes on multiple domains, implementation of follow up, and the development of standardized training for the study clinical staff. PMID:25187714
Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Jourdaine, Clément; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Bloch, Vanessa; Vorspan, Florence
Current treatments of opioid addiction include primarily maintenance medications such as methadone. Chronic exposure to opiate and/or long-lasting maintenance treatment induce modulations of gene expression in brain and peripheral tissues. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications underlie these modulations. This review summarizes published results on opioid-induced epigenetic changes in animal models and in patients. The epigenetic modifications observed with other drugs of abuse often used by opiate abusers are also outlined. Specific methadone maintenance treatment induced epigenetic modifications at different treatment stages may be combined with the ones resulting from patients' substance use history. Therefore, research comparing groups of addicts with similar history and substances use disorders but contrasting for well-characterized treatment phenotypes should be encouraged.
Professionals currently working with methadone patients are facing challenges with the rise of polydrug use, HIV and Hepatitis epidemics, and treating a large volume of individuals who are older than ever before, presenting for the first time in their 50's, 60's and 70's. There have been two literature reviews conducted on this older population, but they can only provide a snap-shot view on the later stage of life of this unique group. A longitudinal literature review of the long-term opiate abuser who has transitioned into opiate replacement therapy will provide depth and illustrate the complexity of interrelated factors that have been affected throughout their life span. This paper reviews the literature conducted on opiate addicts from their earlier stages of substance use to older adulthood where many have chosen to enter into a methadone maintenance program. The paper will also take a biopsychosocial approach when reviewing the literature because of how these three domains are deeply affected and interrelated with this population.
Isaza, Carlos; Henao, Julieta; Velez, Juan; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Sierra, Juan; Beltrán, Leonardo; Sepúlveda, Ana
Psychosocial care and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) are the preferred strategies for the management of heroin addicts, but the results are still unsatisfactory, justifying the search and intervention of the factors influencing the response to treatment. In order to determine the contribution of demographic, clinical and genetic variables on serum concentrations and response to methadone, we investigated patients on MMT, who were receiving methadone in supervised and unchanged doses at least during the previous two weeks. The age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of heroin abuse, addiction to other drugs, criminal background, current daily methadone doses, time spent in the TMM, comorbidity and concomitant medication were recorded. Blood samples were taken for the determination of serum levels of racemic methadone and its R and S-enantiomers, and for typing of candidate alleles of POR, CYP2B6, ABCB1, GRIN1, OPRM1, SLC6A3, DßH and ARRB2 genes, all associated with the metabolism, tissue distribution and mechanism of action of methadone. Methadone quantification was by HPLC-DAD, and the detection of genetic markers by Real Time PCR and VNTR methods. A total of 80 subject volunteers were enrolled, with a mean age of 23.5 (5) years (86% male), all of them were addicts of multiple drugs, 60% with a criminal background, 5.1 (2.9) years taking heroin, and 5.3 (4) months on MMT, and taking a supervised dose of 41 (12) mg/day methadone. The (R), (S) and (R, S) methadone enantiomer trough plasma levels were, 84 (40), 84 (42), and 168 (77) ng/mL, respectively. All genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The two urine tests were negative for heroin in 61.3% (49/80) of the volunteers, the decline in cocaine/crack use was 83%, 30% of marijuana, and other psychoactives (inhalants, benzodiazepines, amphetamines) decreased to zero, while the consumption of snuff remained at 93.5% (75/80). Blood concentrations of racemic methadone and its enantiomers were
Lund, Ingunn O; Fitzsimons, Heather; Tuten, Michelle; Chisolm, Margaret S; O'Grady, Kevin E; Jones, Hendrée E
Pregnancy can motivate opioid-dependent women to seek substance abuse treatment. Research has demonstrated that although prenatal exposure to buprenorphine results in less severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) relative to prenatal methadone exposure, the maternal and other neonatal outcomes are similar for the two medications. Maternal and neonatal outcomes for opioid-dependent pregnant women receiving these medications have not been systematically ompared with methadone-assisted withdrawal. The present study provides an initial assessment of the relative efficacy of both methadone and buprenorphine maintenance versus methadone-assisted withdrawal in terms of neonatal and maternal delivery outcomes. Data were derived from (1) the MOTHER (Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research) study at the Johns Hopkins University Bayview Medical Center (JHBMC), or (2) retrospective records review of women who underwent methadone-assisted withdrawal at the JHBMC during the time period in which participants were enrolled in the MOTHER study. Compared with the methadone maintenance group, the methadone-assisted withdrawal group had a significantly lower mean NAS peak score (Means = 13.7 vs 7.0; P = 0.002), required a significantly lower mean amount of morphine to treat NAS (Means = 82.8 vs 0.2; P < 0.001), had significantly fewer days medicated for NAS (Means = 31.5 vs 3.9; P < 0.001), and remained in the hospital for a significantly fewer number of days, on average (Means = 24.2 vs 7.0; P < 0.019). Compared with the buprenorphine maintenance group, the methadone-assisted withdrawal group required a significantly lower mean amount of morphine to treat NAS (Means = 8.2 vs 0.2; P < 0.001) and significantly fewer days medicated for NAS (Means = 12.0 vs 3.9; P = 0.008). Findings suggest that it is possible for some opioid-dependent pregnant women to succeed with methadone-assisted withdrawal. Future research needs to more fully evaluate the potential benefits and
Lund, Ingunn O; Fitzsimons, Heather; Tuten, Michelle; Chisolm, Margaret S; O’Grady, Kevin E; Jones, Hendrée E
Pregnancy can motivate opioid-dependent women to seek substance abuse treatment. Research has demonstrated that although prenatal exposure to buprenorphine results in less severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) relative to prenatal methadone exposure, the maternal and other neonatal outcomes are similar for the two medications. Maternal and neonatal outcomes for opioid-dependent pregnant women receiving these medications have not been systematically ompared with methadone-assisted withdrawal. The present study provides an initial assessment of the relative efficacy of both methadone and buprenorphine maintenance versus methadone-assisted withdrawal in terms of neonatal and maternal delivery outcomes. Data were derived from (1) the MOTHER (Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research) study at the Johns Hopkins University Bayview Medical Center (JHBMC), or (2) retrospective records review of women who underwent methadone-assisted withdrawal at the JHBMC during the time period in which participants were enrolled in the MOTHER study. Compared with the methadone maintenance group, the methadone-assisted withdrawal group had a significantly lower mean NAS peak score (Means = 13.7 vs 7.0; P = 0.002), required a significantly lower mean amount of morphine to treat NAS (Means = 82.8 vs 0.2; P < 0.001), had significantly fewer days medicated for NAS (Means = 31.5 vs 3.9; P < 0.001), and remained in the hospital for a significantly fewer number of days, on average (Means = 24.2 vs 7.0; P < 0.019). Compared with the buprenorphine maintenance group, the methadone-assisted withdrawal group required a significantly lower mean amount of morphine to treat NAS (Means = 8.2 vs 0.2; P < 0.001) and significantly fewer days medicated for NAS (Means = 12.0 vs 3.9; P = 0.008). Findings suggest that it is possible for some opioid-dependent pregnant women to succeed with methadone-assisted withdrawal. Future research needs to more fully evaluate the potential benefits and
Karow, A; Reimer, J; Schäfer, I; Krausz, M; Haasen, C; Verthein, U
There is increasing evidence that health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is associated with a successful treatment and better outcome in opioid addiction. The aim of the present study was the longitudinal investigation of HRQOL in patients with severe opioid dependence, who were randomly assigned to four groups of medical and psychosocial treatment: heroin (diacetylmorphine) versus methadone and case management (CM) versus psychoeducation (PSE) respectively. HRQOL (MSQoL) and physical health (OTI) were investigated in 938 subjects, who participated in the German multi-centre study examining the effects of heroin-assisted treatment in patients with severe opioid dependence. Data for the present analysis were taken from baseline and 12-month follow up. Under both forms of maintenance and psychosocial treatment HRQOL improved significantly during the observation period. HRQOL improvement under maintenance with heroin exceeded improvement under methadone, especially with regard to subjective physical health. HRQOL improvement was significantly associated with better expert-rated physical health. Further analyses showed significant better improvement of HRQOL in subjects treated with PSE compared with CM. The advantage of heroin with regard to the improvement of HRQOL may be partially explained by a better improvement of physical health under maintenance with heroin compared with methadone, which highlights the importance of a comprehensive model of health care for patients with severe opioid dependence. Future studies need to investigate the benefits of PSE for patients in maintenance therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Lashkaripour, Kobra
Background Opium abuse significantly affects the nutritional status of users and frequently leads to undernourishment. Methadone maintenance therapy has been used as one of the possible ways to prevent of infection diseases such as HIV and hepatitis B and C and improve the quality of life in opioid-dependent patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the anthropometric and socio-demographic characteristics of opium addicted persons before and after 8 weeks of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). Patients and Methods A clinical cross-sectional study was carried out on 55 opium users (15 women and 40 men; mean aged 31.6 ± 10 years), dependent on opium and its derivatives at the Addiction Treatment Clinic of the Baharan psychiatric Hospital, Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran, in 2011. The patients were examined before and after 8 weeks MMT. Weight and height of participants were taken and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Results Body weight increased significantly from 61.4 ± 14.4 to 65.3 ± 14.2 kg and BMI from 21.4 ± 4.2 to 23 ± 5.6 (kg/m2) after 8 weeks of methadone maintenance therapy in opium users (P < 0.01). The percentages of underweight, overweight and obese patients were; 27.3%, 18.2% and 3.6%, respectively pre-MMT, and 12.7%, 18.2% and 7.2%, respectively after MMT. Conclusions The study shows that methadone Maintenance Therapy led to improvements in nutritional status. PMID:24971244
Vader, John-Paul; Hämmig, Robert; Besson, Jacques; Eastus, Christopher; Eggenberger, Christina; Burnand, Bernard
With some 30,000 dependent persons, opiate addiction constitutes a major public health problem in Switzerland. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) has long played a leading role in the prevention and treatment of opiate addiction and in research on effective means of containing the epidemic of opiate addiction and its consequences. Major milestones on that path have been the successive "Methadone reports" published by that Office and providing guidance on the care of opiate addiction with substitution treatment. In view of updating the recommendations for the appropriateness of substitution treatment for opiate addiction, in particular for the prescription of methadone, the FOPH commissioned a multi-component project involving the following elements. A survey of current attitudes and practices in Switzerland related to opiate substitution treatment Review of Swiss literature on methadone substitution treatment Review of international literature on methadone substitution treatment National Methadone Substitution Conference Multidisciplinary expert panel to evaluate the appropriateness of substitution treatment. The present report documents the process and summarises the results of the latter element above. The RAND appropriateness method (RAM) was used to distil from literature-based evidence and systematically formulated expert opinion, areas where consensus exist on the appropriateness (or inappropriateness) of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and areas where disagreement or uncertainty persist and which should be further pursued. The major areas which were addressed by this report are Initial assessment of candidates for MMT Appropriate settings for initiation of MMT (general and special cases) Appropriateness of methadone supportive therapy Co-treatments and accompanying measures Dosage schedules and pharmacokinetic testing Withdrawal from MMT Miscellaneous questions Appropriateness of other (non-methadone) substitution treatment Summary
Shiran, Mohammad-Reza; Lennard, Martin S; Iqbal, Mohammad-Zafar; Lagundoye, Olawale; Seivewright, Nicholas; Tucker, Geoffrey T; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin
The aims of the present study were to characterize the relationship between plasma racemic methadone and its enantiomers' concentrations with respect to their pharmacodynamic effects and to investigate the influence of potential covariates on the pharmacodynamic parameters in patients on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Eighty-eight regular subjects at the Sheffield Care Trust Substance Misuse Services were studied. Samples of blood and urine were collected before the daily dose of methadone. Blood samples were taken up to 5 hours after dose. Total plasma concentrations of (RS)-methadone and total and unbound plasma concentrations of both enantiomers were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Total Mood Disturbance Score (TMDS), the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale (OOWS), and the Subjective Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) were used as measures of mood and withdrawal. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis and subsequent multiple regression analysis were used to determine the factors influencing the pharmacodynamic effects of methadone. Significant decreases (P ≤ 0.04) were observed in the scores for the TMDS, SOWS, and OOWS for 5 hours after methadone dosage. The TMDS had returned to baseline by 10 hours after dose (P = 0.98), at which time the SOWS remained significantly below baseline (P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that 33% of the overall variation in unbound (R)-methadone EC50 was explained by 3 variables, namely CYP3A activity (9%), age (16%), and sex (8%). Age also accounted for 8% and 9% of the variation in total (rac)- and (R)-methadone EC50. The present study has confirmed that the duration of mood change in the present study was shorter than the effect of methadone in stabilizing withdrawal symptoms. Thus, it is likely that a once-daily dose of methadone, albeit effective for preventing withdrawal, may not be sufficient to improve mood in some patients. Finally, it was established that CYP3A
Kwiatkowski, C F; Booth, R E
To compare changes in HIV risk behaviors between street-recruited opiate injectors who entered and remained in methadone maintenance treatment and those who did not. Three hundred sixteen participants were interviewed at baseline, received outreach interventions, and were interviewed again 6 months later. Significant (p <.001) reductions in HIV-related risk behaviors, including frequency of injecting, injecting with used (dirty) needles, and sharing injection paraphernalia, were demonstrated. Participants (31%) who entered and remained in methadone maintenance treatment for at least 90 days before follow-up showed a significantly greater reduction in heroin injections than those who did not. They did not show a greater reduction in using dirty needles or sharing other injection paraphernalia. These findings suggest that although methadone maintenance may reduce injection frequency, it does not reduce other HIV-related risk behaviors above and beyond what can be accomplished through outreach interventions. Treatment facilities and outreach intervention programs should collaborate to provide a comprehensive approach to reducing HIV risk behaviors among drug injectors both in and out of drug treatment.
Kinlock, Timothy W.; Gordon, Michael S.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Fitzgerald, Terrence T.; O’Grady, Kevin E.
This study examined the impact of prison-initiated methadone maintenance at 12-months post-release. Males with pre-incarceration heroin dependence (n=204) were randomly assigned to: 1) Counseling Only: counseling in prison, with passive referral to treatment upon release; 2) Counseling+Transfer: counseling in prison with transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release; and 3) Counseling+Methadone: counseling and methadone maintenance in prison, continued in the community upon release. The mean number of days in community-based drug abuse treatment were, respectively, Counseling Only 23.1, Counseling+Transfer 91.3, and Counseling+Methadone 166.0, p <.01; all pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (all ps < .01). Counseling+Methadone participants were also significantly less likely than participants in each of the other two groups to be opioid-positive or cocaine-positive according to urine drug testing. These results support the effectiveness of prison-initiated methadone for males in the United States. Further study is required to confirm the findings for women. PMID:19339140
Yao, T; Feng, D; Pan, M H; Cheng, Y P; Li, C X; Wang, J; Feng, Y L; Shi, J; Su, T; Chen, Q; Shi, S; Wang, S P
Objective: To estimate the incidence of drop out of treatment in patients with access to methadone maintenance treatment and explore the correlation and interaction between insufficient methadone dosage and morphine positive urine on the drop out in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Methods: Face to face interview was conducted in 1 031 patients at 3 methadone maintenance treatment clinics in Guangxi. Results: The study included 1 031 participants, 40.6% of them (419/1 031) had stopped treatment. The drop out rates in urine morphine positive group and methadone dosage<100 mg/d group were 57.6% (99/172) and 37.4% (347/929) respectively, higher than those in urine morphine negative group and methadone dosage ≥100 mg/d group (42.3%, 363/859, and 26.5%, 27/102). Orderly logistic regression analysis results showed that after adjusted factors, such as gender, age, marital status, ethnic group, patients who received a dosage less than 100 mg/day (OR=3.05, 95%CI: 1.84-5.06) and had morphine positive urine (OR=2.25, 95%CI: 1.59-3.19) were more likely to drop out of the treatment. Interaction analysis showed that dosage less than 100 mg/d and morphine positive urine during treatment had additive interaction (RERI=256.46, AP=0.87, S= 8.05) and multiplication interaction (OR=2.45, 95%CI: 1.71-3.49). Conclusion: Insufficient dosage and morphine positive urine were significantly correlated with drop out of treatment in patients with access to methadone maintenance treatment.
Yee, Anne; Danaee, Mahmoud; Loh, Huai Seng; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Ng, Chong Guan
Introduction Methadone has long been regarded as an effective treatment for opioid dependence. However, many patients discontinue maintenance therapy because of its side effects, with one of the most common being sexual dysfunction. Buprenorphine is a proven alternative to methadone. This study aimed to investigate sexual dysfunction in opioid-dependent men on buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The secondary aim was to investigate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and the quality of life in these patients. Methods Two hundred thirty-eight men participated in this cross-sectional study. Four questionnaires were used, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Opiate Treatment Index, Malay version of the International Index of Erectile Function 15 (Mal-IIEF-15), and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between MMT and BMT and the Mal-IIEF 15 scores while controlling for all the possible confounders. Results The study population consisted of 171 patients (71.8%) on MMT and 67 (28.2%) on BMT. Patients in the MMT group who had a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the sexual desire domain (p < 0.012) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.043) domain compared with their counterparts in the BMT group. Similarly, patients in the MMT group without a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the orgasmic function domain (p = 0.008) compared with those in the BMT group without a partner. Intercourse satisfaction (p = 0.026) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.039) were significantly associated with the social relationships domain after adjusting for significantly correlated sociodemographic variables. Conclusions Sexual functioning is critical for improving the quality of life in patients in an opioid rehabilitation program. Our study showed that buprenorphine causes less sexual dysfunction than methadone. Thus
Barry, Declan T.; Savant, Jonathan D.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Kerns, Robert D.; Moore, Brent A.; Oberleitner, Lindsay; Joy, Michelle T.; Keneally, Nina; Liong, Christopher; Carroll, Kathleen M.
Objectives Effective and safe pain management interventions in methadone maintenance treatment are needed. Methods We examined the feasibility (i.e., single session attendance) and acceptability (i.e., patient satisfaction, booster session attendance) of cognitive-behavioral therapy-informed groups for pain management: Coping with Pain, Relaxation Training, Group Singing, and Mindful Walking. Pre- and post-session measures were collected. Results 349 (out of a census of approximately 800) methadone-maintained patients attended at least one of the groups. Group satisfaction was high. Booster session attendance was numerically lower in Mindful Walking (15%) as compared to the other groups (at least 40%). Repeat attendance at Coping with Pain was associated with reduced characteristic pain intensity and depression, while repeat attendance at Relaxation Training was associated with decreased anxiety. Conclusions Coping with Pain, Relaxation Training, and Group Singing are transportable, affordable, adaptable, and tolerated well by patients with pain and show promise as components of a multimodal pain management approach in methadone maintenance treatment. PMID:25100310
Arlettaz, Romaine; Kashiwagi, Maki; Das-Kundu, Seema; Fauchère, Jean-Claude; Lang, Anette; Bucher, Hans-Ulrich
The aim of the study was to analyze the neonatal impact of a methadone maintenance program in pregnancy, and the social resources of the families involved. Descriptive analysis of neonatal data in live births after 24 weeks of gestation in pregnant women enrolled in a methadone maintenance program. The data of 86 babies were analyzed. Median gestational age was 38 (0)/(7) (31-41) weeks; 21 babies (24%) were premature. Median birthweight was 2662 (1340-4050) g; 27% of babies were growth retarded (<3rd centile), and 13% had microcephaly (<3rd centile). Sixty-two percent developed abstinence syndrome requiring pharmacological treatment for a median 47 days. Child Protective Services (CPS) were involved in 56% of cases, and 42% of newborns required placement outside the mother's home. Babies born to women on methadone had a fourfold higher incidence of prematurity, a ninefold higher incidence of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and a fourfold higher incidence of microcephaly compared with the normal population. Sixty-two percent required pharmacological treatment for abstinence syndrome and 42% required placement.
Rashid, Rusdi Abd; Kamali, Khosrow; Habil, Mohammad Hussain; Shaharom, Mohamed Hatta; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Looyeh, Majid Yoosefi
This paper describes the rationale, implementation and operation of a "world first" Islamic inspired methadone maintenance treatment project delivered in a mosque setting and presents the outcome for the first group of participants. The project explored the viability of expanding addiction recovery services through the network of mosques in Muslim communities. The project combined methadone maintenance with peer and religious counseling. Participants consisted of 36 male Muslim heroin users who went through the project. Urine tests and self-reported measures on various dimensions relevant to drug use and quality of life were collected at baseline and 12 months. The project had a 12 month retention rate of 80%. At 12 months all but one participant tested negative for opioids and other substances. Self-report measures showed significant reductions in the degree and variety of drug use, improvements in general health, and psychological and social functioning of participants. Qualitative data showed that availability of methadone, convenient location and religion were the main reasons drawing participants to the program. Mosques are viable venues for offering medication assisted recovery services and offer an alternative approach for managing addiction in Muslim communities. The prospect of mobilizing community resources to offer community-oriented long-term recovery management programs in mosques and other places of worship deserves consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
GORDON, MICHAEL S.; KINLOCK, TIMOTHY W.; COUVILLION, KATHRYN A.; SCHWARTZ, ROBERT P.; O’GRADY, KEVIN
The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: counseling only (counseling in prison; n= 70); counseling plus transfer (counseling in prison with transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release; n= 70); and counseling plus methadone (methadone maintenance in prison, continued in a community-based methadone maintenance program upon release; n= 71). Entered prison treatment (p <. 01), and completed prison treatment (p< .001) were significantly predicted by the set of 10 explanatory variables and favored the treatment conditions receiving methadone. The present results indicate that individuals who are older in age and have longer prison sentences may have better outcomes than younger individuals with shorter sentences, meaning they are more likely to enter and complete prison-based treatment. Furthermore, implications for the treatment of prisoners with prior heroin dependence and for conducting clinical trials may indicate the importance of examining individual characteristics and the possibility of the examination of patient preference. PMID:25392605
Davie-Gray, Alison; Moor, Stephanie; Spencer, Carole; Woodward, Lianne J
Pregnant women with substance dependency are a high-risk psychiatric and obstetric population, with their infants also at elevated neonatal risk. This paper draws on prospective, longitudinal data from a regional cohort of 81 methadone-maintained (MM) and 107 comparison women and their infants to describe the obstetric, socio-familial and mental health needs of women in methadone maintenance treatment during pregnancy. Of particular interest was the extent and pattern of maternal licit and illicit drug use over the course of pregnancy. Results showed that MM women had complex reproductive histories, chronic health problems, and were subject to high rates of socioeconomic adversity and comorbid mental health problems. During pregnancy, more than half continued to use licit and illicit drugs, although there was a general trend for drug use to reduce over time. No differences were observed between women maintained on low (12.5-61.0mg/day) and high (61.1-195.0mg/day) doses of methadone, with the exception of opiate abuse which was higher in the low dose group (p=.07). Findings highlight that pregnant women enrolled in MMT and their infants represent a vulnerable group with complex, social, obstetric and psychiatric needs. They also reinforce the need for services that can provide on-going wrap-around, multidisciplinary and multiagency care for these high risk dyads, both during pregnancy and in the transition to parenthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yin, Wenyuan; Hao, Yang; Sun, Xinhua; Gong, Xiuli; Li, Fang; Li, Jianhua; Rou, Keming; Sullivan, Sheena G; Wang, Changhe; Cao, Xiaobin; Luo, Wei; Wu, Zunyou
China's methadone maintenance treatment program was initiated in 2004 as a small pilot project in just eight sites. It has since expanded into a nationwide program encompassing more than 680 clinics covering 27 provinces and serving some 242 000 heroin users by the end of 2009. The agencies that were tasked with the program's expansion have been confronted with many challenges, including high drop-out rates, poor cooperation between local governing authorities and poor service quality at the counter. In spite of these difficulties, ongoing evaluation has suggested reductions in heroin use, risky injection practices and, importantly, criminal behaviours among clients, which has thus provided the impetus for further expansion. Clinic services have been extended to offer clients a range of ancillary services, including HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C testing, information, education and communication, psychosocial support services and referrals for treatment of HIV, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases. Cooperation between health and public security officials has improved through regular meetings and dialogue. However, institutional capacity building is still needed to deliver sustainable and standardized services that will ultimately improve retention rates. This article documents the steps China made in overcoming the many barriers to success of its methadone program. These lessons might be useful for other countries in the region that are scaling-up their methadone programs.
Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band
Recent studies show that proinflammatory cytokines might be related to the development of opioid dependence (physiological, psychological, or both). In a double-blind, randomly stratified clinical trial investigating whether add-on dextromethorphan (60-120 mg/day) attenuated inflammation and the combined use of opioids in heroin-dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment, we evaluated whether inflammation is related to the progression of opioid dependence. All participants (107 heroin-dependent patients and 84 nondependent healthy controls) were recruited from National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Their plasma cytokine levels were measured to evaluate the effect of add-on dextromethorphan. Plasma TNF-α and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in long-term heroin-dependent patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). Chronic heroin-use-induced TNF-α and IL-8 levels were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated in patients treated for 12 weeks with add-on dextromethorphan. Moreover, both tolerance to methadone and the combined use of opioids were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated in patients taking dextromethorphan. We conclude that dextromethorphan might be a feasible adjuvant therapeutic for attenuating inflammation and inhibiting methadone tolerance and combined opioid use in heroin-dependent patients.
Zahari, Zalina; Siong, Lee Chee; Musa, Nurfadhlina; Mohd Yasin, Mohd Azhar; Choon, Tan Soo; Mohamad, Nasir; Ismail, Rusli
Poor sleep quality was frequently reported by opioid dependence patients during methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The study investigated a sample of patients on MMT to investigate the severity and prevalence of sleep problems in MMT patients. We evaluated sleep quality and disturbances of 119 Malay male patients from MMT clinics in Kelantan, Malaysia between March and July 2013 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)-Malay version. Patients' demographic, clinical data, past drug history and methadone treatment variables were recorded. Patients averaged 37.5 years of age (SD 6.79) and their mean age of first time illicit drug use was 19.3 years (SD 4.48). Their mean age of entering MMT was 34.7 years (SD 6.92) and the mean duration in MMT was 2.8 years (SD 2.13). The mean current daily dosage of methadone was 77.8 mg (SD 39.47) and ranged from 20 to 360 mg. The mean global PSQI score was 5.6 (SD 2.79) and 43.7% patients were identified as 'poor sleepers' (global PSQI scores >5). This study confirms the poor overall sleep quality among patients on MMT. The prevalence and severity of sleep problems in MMT patients should not be underestimated.
Yin, Wenyuan; Hao, Yang; Sun, Xinhua; Gong, Xiuli; Li, Fang; Li, Jianhua; Rou, Keming; Sullivan, Sheena G; Wang, Changhe; Cao, Xiaobin; Luo, Wei; Wu, Zunyou
China’s methadone maintenance treatment program was initiated in 2004 as a small pilot project in just eight sites. It has since expanded into a nationwide program encompassing more than 680 clinics covering 27 provinces and serving some 242 000 heroin users by the end of 2009. The agencies that were tasked with the program’s expansion have been confronted with many challenges, including high drop-out rates, poor cooperation between local governing authorities and poor service quality at the counter. In spite of these difficulties, ongoing evaluation has suggested reductions in heroin use, risky injection practices and, importantly, criminal behaviours among clients, which has thus provided the impetus for further expansion. Clinic services have been extended to offer clients a range of ancillary services, including HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C testing, information, education and communication, psychosocial support services and referrals for treatment of HIV, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases. Cooperation between health and public security officials has improved through regular meetings and dialogue. However, institutional capacity building is still needed to deliver sustainable and standardized services that will ultimately improve retention rates. This article documents the steps China made in overcoming the many barriers to success of its methadone program. These lessons might be useful for other countries in the region that are scaling-up their methadone programs. PMID:21113034
Zhang, Minying; Zhang, Huifang; Shi, Cynthia X.; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Zhang, Baohua; Zhao, Linglong; Zhang, Mianzhi; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou
Objective To investigate whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is correlated with sexual dysfunction in heroin-dependent men and to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction among men on MMT. Methods The study included a retrospective survey and a cross-sectional survey which contained interviews of 293 men who are currently engaged in MMT. The results of the two surveys were compared. For a subset of 43 participants, radioimmunoassay was additionally conducted using retrospective and prospective blood samples to test the levels of plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone. Other study evaluations were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15), and Self-rating Depression Scale. Results Sexual dysfunction in all five IIEF-15 domains (erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction) was strongly associated with long-term use of heroin. A decrease in the severity of sexual dysfunction was associated with MMT initiation. Erectile dysfunction, lack of sexual desire, inability to orgasm, and lack of intercourse satisfaction were significantly correlated with increasing age of the participants. Methadone dose and duration of methadone treatment were not found to be associated with sexual dysfunction. The level of plasma testosterone significantly declined during methadone treatment, but results from multivariate analysis indicated low levels of testosterone were not the main cause of sexual dysfunction. No correlation between reported depression status and sexual function was found. Conclusions While high levels of sexual dysfunction were reported by heroin-dependent men in our study before and after MMT initiation, MMT appears to be correlated with improved sexual function in the population of the study. PMID:24520361
Stein, Michael D.; Kurth, Megan E.; Sharkey, Katherine M; Anderson, Bradley J.; Corso, Richard P; Millman, Richard P
BACKGROUND To test whether trazodone, one of the most commonly prescribed medications for treatment of insomnia, improves subjective and/or objective sleep among methadone-maintained persons with sleep complaints, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with six month follow-up. METHODS From eight methadone maintenance programs in the northeastern United States, we recruited 137 persons receiving methadone for at least one month who reported a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score of six or higher. Two-night home polysomnography (PSG) was completed at baseline and one month later, with morning surveys and urine drug toxicologies. Interviews assessed sleep over the past 30 days at baseline and 1-, 3-, and 6- month follow-ups. RESULTS Participants averaged 38 years of age, were 47% male, and had a mean PSQI total score of 12.9 (± 3.1). At baseline, intervention groups did not significantly differ on 10 PSG-derived objective sleep measures and 11 self-reported measures. Over 88% (n = 121) of participants completed the PSG at 1-month. Without adjusting p-values for multiple comparisons, only 1 of 21 sleep measure comparisons was statistically significant (p<.05). The effect of trazodone on mean PSQI scores during the six-month follow-up was not statistically significant (p = .10). Trazodone neither significantly increased nor decreased illicit drug use relative to placebo. CONCLUSIONS Trazodone did not improve subjective or objective sleep in methadone-maintained persons with sleep disturbance. Other pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments should be investigated for this population with high rates of insomnia. PMID:21798674
Peles, Einat; Linzy, Shirley; Sason, Anat; Tene, Oren; Adelson, Miriam
Internet addiction is known to be associated with depression. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) for depression were studied among non-selective methadone maintenance treatment patients from the United States (n = 164) and Israel (n = 113). Thirty percent were not exposed to the internet, and 2.9% (n = 8) had an "occasional/frequent problem." The IAT and CES-D scores correlated significantly (p = .03). The non-exposed group was older, less educated, and had more benzodiazepine abusers. Unlike other behavioral addictions that characterized these patients, the internet addiction problem is rare, but should not be ignored.
Vanagas, Giedrius; Padaiga, Zilvinas; Bagdonas, Eugenijus
Economic considerations influence the substance user treatment system. These considerations influence who gets treatment and for how long, as well as determining what services they receive and in what setting. Current medical literature argues that maintenance treatment reduces risk-taking behavior, such as injection drug use and needle sharing. Treatment also reduces the mortality associated with abuse of opiates by injection and can cause decreases in costs incurred by the criminal justice system and social services agencies. This suggests the need for complex economic evaluations of a maintenance treatment to find out the optimum treatment program. This paper describes methods of economic evaluation in health care and reviews the methodology of cost-utility analysis in economic evaluations of methadone maintenance treatment.
McCarty, Dennis; Perrin, Nancy A; Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Lynch, Frances
Few health plans provide maintenance medication for opioid dependence. This study assessed the cost of treating opioid-dependent members in a commercial health plan and the impacts of methadone maintenance on costs of care. Individuals with diagnoses of opioid dependence (two or more diagnoses per year) and at least 9 months of health plan eligibility each year were extracted from electronic health records for the years 2000 through 2004 (1,518 individuals and 2,523 observations across the study period-some individuals were in multiple years). Analyses examined the patterns and costs of health care for three groups of patients: (1) one or more methadone visits during the year (n=1,298; 51%); (2) no methadone visits and 0 or 1 visits in the Addiction Medicine Department (n=370; 15%); (3) no methadone visits and 2 or more visits in addiction medicine (n=855; 34%). Primary care (86%), emergency department (48%) and inpatient (24%) visits were common. Mean total annual costs to the health plan were $11,200 (2004 dollars) per member per year. The health plan's costs for members receiving methadone maintenance were 50% lower ($7,163) when compared to those with two or more outpatient addiction treatment visits but no methadone ($14,157) and 62% lower than those with one or zero outpatient addiction treatment visits and no methadone treatment ($18,694). Use of opioid maintenance services was associated with lower total costs of care for opioid-dependent members in a commercial health plan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCarty, Dennis; Perrin, Nancy A.; Green, Carla A.; Polen, Michael R.; Leo, Michael C.; Lynch, Frances
Background Few health plans provide maintenance medication for opioid dependence. This study assessed the cost of treating opioid dependent members in a commercial health plan and the impacts of methadone maintenance on costs of care. Methods Individuals with diagnoses of opioid dependence (two or more diagnoses per year) and at least nine months of health plan eligibility each year were extracted from electronic health records for the years 2000 through 2004 (1,518 individuals and 2,523 observations across the study period – some individuals were in multiple years). Analyses examined the patterns and costs of health care for three groups of patients: 1) one or more methadone visits during the year (n = 1,298; 51%); 2) no methadone visits and 0 or 1 visits in the Addiction Medicine Department (n = 370; 15%); and 3) no methadone visits and 2 or more visits in addiction medicine (n = 855; 34%). Results Primary care (86%), emergency department (48%) and inpatient (24%) visits were common. Mean total annual costs to the health plan were $11,200 (2004 dollars) per member per year. The health plan’s costs for members receiving methadone maintenance were 50% lower ($7,163) when compared to those with two or more outpatient addiction treatment visits but no methadone ($14,157) and 62% lower than those with one or zero outpatient addiction treatment visits and no methadone treatment ($18,694). Conclusions Use of opioid maintenance services was associated with lower total costs of care for opioid dependent members in a commercial health plan. PMID:20627427
Gerra, G; Saenz, E; Busse, A; Maremmani, I; Ciccocioppo, R; Zaimovic, A; Gerra, M L; Amore, M; Manfredini, M; Donnini, C; Somaini, L
Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) has been found effective in treating heroin addiction. Serious consideration should be given to the modality of methadone distribution, as it influences not only treatment outcome but the attitudes of policy makers and the community, too. On one hand, the choice of take-home methadone removes the need for daily attendance at a methadone clinic, which seems to improve patients' quality of life. On the other, this method, because of its lack of supervision and the absence of strict consumption monitoring, runs the risk of methadone misuse and diversion. In this study, we compared A) supervised daily consumption, B) contingent take-home incentives and C) non-contingent take-home in methadone maintenance in three groups of heroin-addicted patients attending three different MMT programmes. Retention rates at 12 months were significantly higher in contingent take-home patients (group B) than in those with supervised daily consumption (group A) and the non-contingent take-home (group C). Retention rates were higher in group A than in group C patients. Compared to patients in groups A and B, those in group C showed fewer negative urinalyses and higher rates of self-reported diversion and episodes of crime or violence. Results indicate a more positive outcomes following take-home methadone associated with behavioural incentives and other measures that aim to facilitate treatment compliance than those following daily supervised consumption. By contrast, non-contingent take-home methadone given to non-stabilized patients is associated with a high rate of diversion, along with more crime episodes and maladaptive behaviours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jackson, Heide; Mandell, Kara; Johnson, Kimberly; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Vanness, David J.
Background The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of injectable extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX) compared to methadone maintenance and buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MMT and BMT respectively) for adult males enrolled in treatment for opioid dependence in the United States from the perspective of state-level addiction treatment payers. Methods We used a Markov model with daily time cycles to estimate the incremental cost per opioid-free day in a simulated cohort of adult males ages 18–65 over a six-month period from the state health program perspective. Results XR-NTX is predicted to be more effective and more costly than methadone or buprenorphine in our target population, with an incremental cost per opioid-free day gained relative to the next-most effective treatment (MMT) of $72. The cost-effectiveness of XR-NTX relative to MMT was driven by its effectiveness in deterring opioid use while receiving treatment. Conclusions XR-NTX is a cost-effective medication for treating opioid dependence if state addiction treatment payers are willing to pay at least $72 per opioid-free day. PMID:25775099
Che, Yanhua; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; McNeil, Edward; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Li, Jianhua; Geater, Alan; You, Jing
The aim of this study is to identify the predictors of early dropout of patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Yunnan province, China. A cohort study was conducted on 218 patients starting treatment in five MMT clinics between 1 March 2008 and 31 August, with follow up to 28 February 2009. Patients were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and drug abuse history. Attendance at clinic and daily dose were abstracted from the clinic records. The mean average daily dose per patient in each period was compared across three periods, 0-1, >1-3 and >3-6 months, using analysis of variance and random-intercept mixed linear regression modelling. Cox regression model with time-varying average daily dose within each period was performed to identify factors predicting dropout in the MMT program. Cumulative probability of retention at 1, 3 and 6 months was 94%, 75% and 57%, respectively. There was no relationship between dose and probability of dropout in periods 1 and 2. However, after 3 months higher average daily dose (>60 mg) was associated with lower probability of dropout. Dropout was more likely among the Han ethnic group [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-3.26], in those who had to spend over 30 min to visit the clinic (HR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.07-2.49) and in those living with other drug users (HR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.55-4.74). Patients' early dropout was related to ethnicity, clinic accessibility, living with drug users and methadone dose. A higher methadone dose as appropriate for maintenance treatment is recommended.
Mariani, John J; Malcolm, Robert J; Mamczur, Agnieszka K; Choi, Jean C; Brady, Ronald; Nunes, Edward; Levin, Frances R
Benzodiazepine use disorders are a common clinical problem among methadone maintenance treatment patients and have adverse effects on clinical outcomes. To evaluate gabapentin for the outpatient treatment of benzodiazepine abuse or dependence in methadone maintenance patients. Participants (n = 19) using benzodiazepines at least 4 days per week were enrolled into an 8-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled outpatient pilot trial. All participants received a manual-guided supportive psychotherapy aimed to promote abstinence. Study medication was titrated over a 2-week period to a maximum dose of gabapentin 1200 mg or placebo three times a day. Benzodiazepine use was assessed using urine toxicology confirmed self-report. Benzodiazepines were not provided as part of study participation; participants were provided guidance to gradually reduce benzodiazepine intake. Sixteen participants had post-randomization data for analysis. Retention at week eight was 50%. The mean dose of gabapentin achieved by titration was 2666 mg/day (SD = ± 1446). There were no significant between group differences on benzodiazepine use outcomes (amount benzodiazepine per day [Mann-Whitney U = 27, p = 0.745], abstinent days per week [U = 28, p = 0.811]) and Clinical Instrument Withdrawal Assessment (CIWA)-benzodiazepines scale (U = 29.0, p = 0.913). One participant in the gabapentin group discontinued study medication because of peripheral edema. Two participants in the placebo group requested admission for inpatient detoxification treatment. In outpatient methadone-maintained patients with benzodiazepine use disorder, gabapentin did significantly decrease benzodiazepine use relative to placebo. The small sample recruited for this trial may have limited the ability to detect a group difference.
Rass, Olga; Schacht, Rebecca L; Buckheit, Katherine; Johnson, Matthew W; Strain, Eric C; Mintzer, Miriam Z
Working memory impairment in individuals with chronic opioid dependence can play a major role in cognitive and treatment outcomes. Cognitive training targeting working memory shows promise for improved function in substance use disorders. To date, cognitive training has not been incorporated as an adjunctive treatment for opioid dependence. Methadone maintenance patients were randomly assigned to experimental (n=28) or active control (n=28) 25-session computerized training and run in parallel. Cognitive and drug use outcomes were assessed before and after training. Participants in the experimental condition showed performance improvements on two of four working memory measures, and both groups improved on a third measure of working memory performance. Less frequent drug use was found in the experimental group than in the control group post-training. In contrast to previous findings with stimulant users, no significant effect of working memory training on delay discounting was found using either hypothetical or real rewards. There were no group differences on working memory outcome measures that were dissimilar from the training tasks, suggesting that another mechanism (e.g., increased distress tolerance) may have driven drug use results. Working memory training improves performance on some measures of working memory in methadone maintenance patients, and may impact drug use outcomes. Working memory training shows promise in patients with substance use disorders; however, further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which performance is improved and drug use outcomes are impacted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rass, Olga; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Buckheit, Katherine; Johnson, Matthew W.; Strain, Eric C.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.
Objective Working memory impairment in individuals with chronic opioid dependence can play a major role in cognitive and treatment outcomes. Cognitive training targeting working memory shows promise for improved function in substance use disorders. To date, cognitive training has not been incorporated as an adjunctive treatment for opioid dependence. Methods Methadone maintenance patients were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 28) or active control (n = 28) 25-session computerized training and run in parallel. Cognitive and drug use outcomes were assessed before and after training. Results Participants in the experimental condition showed performance improvements on two of four working memory measures, and both groups improved on a third measure of working memory performance. Less frequent drug use was found in the experimental group than in the control group post-training. In contrast to previous findings with stimulant users, no significant effect of working memory training on delay discounting was found using either hypothetical or real rewards. There were no group differences on working memory outcome measures that were dissimilar from the training tasks, suggesting that another mechanism (e.g., increased distress tolerance) may have driven drug use results. Conclusions Working memory training improves performance on some measures of working memory in methadone maintenance patients, and may impact drug use outcomes. Working memory training shows promise in patients with substance use disorders; however, further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which performance is improved and drug use outcomes are impacted. PMID:26404954
Housová, J; Wilczek, H; Haluzík, M M; Kremen, J; Krízová, J; Haluzík, M
Heroin addiction markedly affects the nutritional and metabolic status and frequently leads to malnutrition. The aim of our study was to compare circulating concentration of adipose tissue-derived hormones leptin, adiponectin and resistin in 12 patients with heroin addiction before and after one-year methadone maintenance treatment with the group of 20 age- and body mass index-matched healthy subjects. Basal serum leptin and adiponectin levels in heroin addicts were significantly decreased (3.4+/-0.4 vs. 4.5+/-0.6 ng/ml and 18.9+/-3.3 vs. 33.9+/-3.1 ng/microl, respectively; p 0.05) while serum resistin concentrations were increased compared to healthy subjects (10.1+/-1.2 vs. 4.6+/-0.3 ng/ml; p 0.05). Moreover, positive correlation of serum leptin levels with body mass index was lost in the addicts in contrast to control group. One year of methadone maintenance treatment normalized serum leptin, but not serum adiponectin and resistin concentrations. In conclusion, circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin are markedly altered in patients with chronic heroin addiction. These alterations appear to be relatively independent of nutritional status and insulin sensitivity.
Shore, R E; Marmor, M; Titus, S; Des Jarlais, D C
The objective of this study was to determine what sociodemographic, lifestyle, or drug-related characteristics predict temporal changes in self reported drug injection frequencies among HIV-seronegative injection-drug users (IDUs) who were being given HIV testing and risk reduction counseling. The 277 subjects were given 4-11 quarterly interviews including detailed history of drug use and other HIV risk factors, HIV risk reduction counseling, and venipuncture for HIV antibody testing. A regression slope of change over time in drug injection frequency was calculated for each subject, and categories were created of decreasing temporal slope, increasing slope, relapse (decrease initially, then increase), or no substantial change. Only 44% of subjects decreased their drug injection frequencies despite repetitive HIV testing and counseling. In multivariate logistic analyses, decreasing temporal trends were associated with consistent enrollment in methadone maintenance (p < .1), whereas increasing trends conversely were associated with inconsistent enrollment (p < .01) and also with an absence of crack use (p < .01). Relapses were significantly associated with needle sharing with multiple partners and a low frequency of smoking. The data suggest that methadone maintenance facilitates a positive response to HIV risk reduction counseling. However, the fact that only a minority of subjects displayed a decreasing temporal trend in drug injection frequencies emphasizes the need for improved therapeutic and counseling techniques.
Dysart, Kevin; Hsieh, Hui-Chen; Kaltenbach, Karol; Greenspan, Jay S
We determined the effect of preterm delivery on the course of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in infants born to mothers participating in a methadone maintenance program. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which infant and maternal data were collected from the medical records of 53 preterm and 66 term infants. Infants were selected from all infants admitted to Thomas Jefferson University hospital born between 1998 and 2002 whose mothers were enrolled in the methadone maintenance program. All infants were managed by a standard protocol utilizing the Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System (NASS) and neonatal opiate solution (NOS). Preterm and term infants were compared. Preterm infants had shorter lengths of stay, treatment courses and required less medication than did term infants during the same time period. These data indicate that following exposure to maternal methadone, preterm infants have a different neonatal course than do infants born at term.
Coller, Janet K; Michalakas, Jennifer R; James, Heather M; Farquharson, Aaron L; Colvill, Joel; White, Jason M; Somogyi, Andrew A
AIMS To compare the O- (CYP2D6 mediated) and N- (CYP3A4 mediated) demethylation metabolism of tramadol between methadone and buprenorphine maintained CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer subjects. METHODS Nine methadone and seven buprenorphine maintained subjects received a single 100 mg dose of tramadol hydrochloride. Blood was collected at 4 h and assayed for tramadol, methadone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine (where appropriate) and all urine over 4 h was assayed for tramadol and its M1 and M2 metabolites. RESULTS The urinary metabolic ratio [median (range)] for O-demethylation (M1) was significantly lower (P= 0.0002, probability score 1.0) in the subjects taking methadone [0.071 (0.012–0.103)] compared with those taking buprenorphine [0.192 (0.108–0.392)], but there was no significant difference (P= 0.21, probability score 0.69) in N-demethylation (M2). The percentage of dose [median (range)] recovered as M1 was significantly lower in subjects taking methadone compared with buprenorphine (0.069 (0.044–0.093) and 0.126 (0.069–0.187), respectively, P= 0.04, probability score 0.19), M2 was significantly higher in subjects taking methadone compared with buprenorphine (0.048 (0.033–0.085) and 0.033 (0.014–0.049), respectively, P= 0.04, probability score 0.81). Tramadol was similar (0.901 (0.635–1.30) and 0.685 (0.347–1.04), respectively, P= 0.35, probability score 0.65). CONCLUSIONS Methadone inhibited the CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of tramadol to M1. Hence, as the degree of opioid analgesia is largely dependent on M1 formation, methadone maintenance patients may not receive adequate analgesia from oral tramadol. PMID:22369095
Wedekind, Dirk; Jacobs, Stefan; Karg, Iris; Luedecke, Christel; Schneider, Udo; Cimander, Konrad; Baumann, Pierre; Ruether, Eckart; Poser, Wolfgang; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula
Sixty D,L- or L-methadone treated patients in maintenance therapy were interviewed for additional drug abuse and psychiatric comorbidity; 51.7% of the entire population had a comorbid Axis-I disorder, with a higher prevalence in females (P=0.05). Comorbid patients tended to have higher abuse of benzodiazepines, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine, but not of heroin. They had received a significantly lower D,L- (P<0.05) and L-methadone dose than non-comorbid subjects. The duration of maintenance treatment showed an inverse relationship to frequency of additional heroin intake (P<0.01). Patients with additional heroin intake over the past 30 days had been treated with a significantly lower L-methadone dosage (P<0.05) than patients without. Axis-I comorbidity appears to be decreased when relatively higher dosages of D,L- (and L-methadone) are administered; comorbid individuals, however, were on significantly lower dosages. Finally, L-, but not D,L-methadone seems to be more effective in reducing additional heroin abuse.
Nolan, Seonaid; Hyashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Kerr, Thomas; Dong, Huiru; Lima, Viviane Dias; Lappalainen, Leslie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan
Background Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is among the most effective treatment modalities available for the management of opioid use disorder. However, the effect of MMT on mortality, and optimal strategies for delivering methadone are less clear. This study sought to estimate the effect of low-threshold MMT and its association with all-cause mortality among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a setting where methadone is widely available through primary care physicians and community pharmacies at no cost through the setting’s universal medical insurance plan. Methods Between May, 1996 and December, 2011 data were collected as part of two prospective cohort studies of PWID in Vancouver, Canada, and were linked to the provincial vital statistics database to ascertain rates and causes of death. The association of MMT with all-cause mortality was estimated using multivariable extended Cox regression with timedependent variables. Results Of 2335 PWID providing 15027 person-years of observation, 511 deaths were observed for a mortality rate of 3.4 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 3.1 – 3.7) deaths per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders including age and HIV seropositivity, MMT enrolment was found to be associated with lower mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61 – 0.88). Conclusions While observed all-cause mortality rates among PWID in this setting were high, participation in low-threshold MMT was significantly associated with improved survival. These findings add to the known benefits of providing low-threshold MMT on reducing the harms associated with injection drug use. PMID:26455554
Boyd, Susan J; Fang, Li Juan; Medoff, Deborah R; Dixon, Lisa B; Gorelick, David A
Concern about crime is a significant barrier to the establishment of methadone treatment centers (MTCs). Methadone maintenance reduces crime among those treated, but the relationship between MTCs and neighborhood crime is unknown. We evaluated crime around MTCs. Baltimore City, MD, USA. We evaluated crime around 13 MTCs and three types of control locations: 13 convenience stores (stores), 13 residential points and 10 general medical hospitals. We collected reports of Part 1 crimes from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2001 from the Baltimore City Police Department. Crimes and residential point locations were mapped electronically by street address (geocoded), and MTCs, hospitals and stores were mapped by visiting the sites with a global positioning satellite (GPS) locator. Concentric circular 'buffers' were drawn at 25-m intervals up to 300 m around each site. We used Poisson regression to assess the relationship between crime counts (incidents per unit area) and distance from the site. There was no significant geographic relationship between crime counts and MTCs or hospitals. A significant negative relationship (parameter estimate -0.3127, P < 0.04) existed around stores in the daytime (7 am-7 pm), indicating higher crime counts closer to the stores. We found a significant positive relationship around residential points during daytime (0.5180, P < 0.0001) and at night (0.3303, P < 0.0001), indicating higher crime counts further away. Methadone treatment centers, in contrast to convenience stores, are not associated geographically with crime. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Giacomuzzi, S; Kemmler, G; Ertl, M; Riemer, Y
With use of a randomized study design, quality of life (QOL) and physical symptoms of opioid addicts at admission were compared with slow-release oral morphine, methadone, and sublingual buprenorphine maintenance program participants after 6 months of treatment. The study was conducted from February to July 2004 in the outpatient drug user treatment center at University Department of Psychiatry at Innsbruck, providing maintenance treatment programs and detoxification in Tyrol, Austria. One hundred twenty opioid users seeking treatment were compared with 120 opioid-dependent patients retained for 6 months on a slow-release oral morphine, methadone, or sublingual buprenorphine maintenance program. The German version ("Berlin Quality of Life Profile") of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile was used, and illicit opioid use was determined by urinalysis. Physical symptoms were measured by using the Opioid Withdrawal Scale. Urinalyses revealed a significantly lower consumption of cocaine and opioids in all three substitution groups than in patients at admission (p < 0.001 and p < or = 0.004, respectively). Both the buprenorphine and the methadone maintenance group showed significantly more favorable values than opioid clients at admission for stomach cramps (p < or = 0.002), muscular tension (p < or = 0.027), general pain (p < or = 0.001), feelings of coldness (p < or = 0.000), heart pounding (p < or = 0.008), runny eyes (p < or = 0.047), and aggressions (p < or = 0.009). Patients who received slow-release oral morphine treatment generally showed the least favorable QOL scores compared with patients at admission or sublingual buprenorphine and methadone clients. Patients in the sublingual buprenorphine or methadone program showed nearly the same QOL scores. The buprenorphine and the methadone maintenance group showed significantly more favorable values than opioid clients at admission regarding leisure time (p < or = 0.019), finances (p < or = 0.014), mental health (p
Powers, Keiko Ichikawa; Anglin, M. Douglas
Whether methadone maintenance treatment demonstrates cumulative (rehabilitative) or stabilizing effects on behavior of narcotics addicts over multiple treatment episodes was studied involving 993 addicts in a quasi-experimental design. Observed behavioral changes and longitudinal self-reports indicate stabilizing, but not cumulative, effects. (SLD)
Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua
Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.
Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Linzy, Shirley; Domani, Yoav; Adelson, Miriam
Methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like prescription medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was suspected as being abused among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. We tested its presence in the routine urine monitoring of all patients in both Tel Aviv and Las Vegas MMT clinics. Data on demographic and addiction history, ADHD (Wender Utah Rating Scale), cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Exam), and lifetime DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnosis from admission were retrieved, and retention following 6 months. None of the 190 patients in Las Vegas tested positive for methylphenidate, while 14.7% (45/306) did in Tel Aviv. Abusers were less educated (p = 0.01), had higher ADHD scores (p = 0.02), lower cognitive scores (p = 0.05), and a higher benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse rate (p < 0.0005), with no difference in age, gender, duration in MMT, cannabis, opiates, and cocaine abuse and infectious disease. Of the methylphenidate abuse 42.2% have take-home methadone dose privileges. Not like opiate use, being methylphenidate positive did not relate to 6-months retention. Compared to Tel Aviv, Las Vegas patients were more educated, with lower BDZ, and cocaine abuse. The greater abuse of methylphenidate among ADHD subjects might indicate their using it as self-medication, raising a possible indication for its prescription for that subgroup of MMT patients. The high rate of methylphenidate abuse in Israel needs future study.
Nguyen, Tam T. M.; Nguyen, Long T.; Pham, Manh D.; Vu, Hoang H.; Mulvey, Kevin P.
Vietnam is among the countries with the highest rate of HIV transmission through injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 20% and up to 50% in many provinces. An estimated number of drug users in the country by the end of 2011 were 171,000 in which the most common is heroin (85%). Detoxification at home, community, and in rehabilitation centers have been the main modalities for managing heroin addiction until Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) was piloted in 2008. Recent reports have demonstrated positive treatment outcomes. Incidence of HIV was found remarkably low among patients on MMT. Treatment has significantly improved the quality of life as well as stability for society. The government has granted the Ministry of Health (MoH) to expand Methadone treatment to at least 30 provinces to provide treatment for more than 80,000 drug users by 2015. The Vietnam Administration for HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC) and MOH have outlined the role and responsibility of key departments at the central and local levels in implementing and maintaining MMT treatment. This paper will describe the achievements of the MMT pilot program and the scaling-up plan as well as strategies to ensure quality and sustainability and to overcome the challenges in the coming years. PMID:23227351
Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua
Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803
Smith, Kumi; Bartlett, Nicholas; Wang, Ning
China has launched methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and needle and syringe exchange programmes (NSEP) as part of the country's HIV prevention strategy amongst injection drug users. MMT is expanding, with backing from multiple government ministries, however, NSEP have received less political support and funding. Semi-structured, serial interviews were conducted with key informants, knowledgeable about China's harm reduction policies. Concurrent content analysis allowed for revision of the interview guide throughout the data collection process. This was combined with a systematic analysis of official government policy documents on NSEP and MMT, including white papers, legal documents, and policy statements. Early consensus between public security and public health sectors regarding methadone's dual use in HIV prevention as well as method of drug control created broad institutional support for MMT programmes amongst policy makers. In contrast, NSEP were seen as satisfying only the HIV prevention goals of the public health sector, and were perceived as condoning illicit drug use. Furthermore, NSEP's roots in China, as an experimental collaboration with international groups, created suspicion regarding its role in China's drug control policy. NSEP and MMT's distinct paths to policy development are reflected in the complex and occasionally contradictory nature of China's harm reduction strategy. These discrepancies highlight the need for a more politically sustainable and comprehensive integration of harm reduction projects. Recommendations include improved evaluation methods for NESP, NSEP-MMT cross-referral system, and stronger NSEP advocacy within the non-profit and public health sectors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fonseca, Joseph; Chang, Andrew; Chang, Feng
Misuse of opioids has become a public health concern across North America. Rural patients have limited access to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), an opioid addiction-treatment service that could be offered by community pharmacists. The aim of this study was to identify rural community pharmacists' perceived barriers, motivations, and solutions to offering MMT to their patients. One-on-one, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 community pharmacists who practice in rural southwestern Ontario. Interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Increased workload, extended operating hours, and concerns about safety, theft, burglary, community resistance, and availability of methadone training courses were identified as pharmacist-related barriers to providing MMT services. Professional satisfaction and community service were primary motivations for offering the service. Limited pharmacy staff availability exacerbated concerns about increased workload and security. Slower rural emergency-response times were cited among safety concerns. Participating pharmacists felt that rural regions had fewer MMT prescribers and that rural community members had greater apprehension about addiction-treatment services than those in urban communities. Pharmacists proposed that coordinating MMT service provision across multiple community pharmacies in the region could help improve access to treatment among their patients. Rural community pharmacy practice has unique barriers to implementing and providing MMT services. A coordinated, multipharmacy approach may be an option to provide and expand MMT services in rural regions. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.
Ren, Jinma; Ning, Zhen; Asche, Carl V; Zhuang, Minghua; Kirkness, Carmen S; Ye, Xiangyang; Fu, Jie; Pan, Qichao
The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has been implemented in Shanghai since 2005. This study aims to portray the trend of MMT dropout and identify predictive factors that may influence dropout in Shanghai MMT clinics, which could assist in the intervention strategy development. A retrospective evaluation was used in the Shanghai component of the National MMT data management system between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. The Cox model for recurrence events was employed to estimate hazard ratio (HR) predicting dropout during the follow-up period. Of all 6169 participants, 63% dropped out of the program at least once (ranging from 0 to 10 times), and 74% of them did not return by the end of this study. The average monthly incidence rate of dropout was 4.4% with a range from 0 to 9.3%. Adjusted analyses demonstrated that the individuals with methadone tapering didn't have a greater probability of dropping out compared to those with stable dosage (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.27). However, there was a higher dropout rate among younger individuals (<30 years vs. ≥50 years old; HR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.16-1.71), among those who were less educated (HR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17-1.87), among those who shared needles with others (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06-1.58), among those whose urine tested positive for opiates (HR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.51-1.89), and among those who had a low average methadone dose at the initial stable stage of treatment (≤35 mg/day vs. >65 mg/day; HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19-1.63). Shanghai has been facing the challenge of keeping a high MMT retention rate. Increasing the use of methadone tapering after a stable treatment stage with sufficient dosage could be attempted in the MMT program, as well as considering comprehensive interventions among specific populations, such as young, poorly educated, opiate-positive and needle sharing individuals.
Zahari, Zalina; Lee, Chee Siong; Ibrahim, Muslih Abdulkarim; Musa, Nurfadhlina; Mohd Yasin, Mohd Azhar; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Tan, Soo Choon; Mohamad, Nasir; Ismail, Rusli
Methadone is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter, which is encoded by ABCB1 (MDR1), and thus, ABCB1 polymorphisms may influence the transport of methadone at the blood-brain barrier, affecting its adverse effects. This study investigated the association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and cold pressor pain responses among opioid-dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). Malay male opioid-dependent patients receiving MMT (n = 148) were recruited. Cold pressor pain responses (pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain intensity) were measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours post-methadone dose. DNA was extracted from whole blood and genotyped for ABCB1 polymorphisms including 1236C>T (rs1128503), 2677G>T/A (rs2032582), and 3435C>T (rs1045642) using the allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repeated-measure analysis of variance between-group analysis was used to compare the three cold pressor pain responses and ABCB1 polymorphisms (1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, and 3435C>T) according to genotypes and allelic additive models, genotype dominant and recessive models, haplotypes, and diplotypes. Patients with 2677 GG or 2677G allele had the lowest pain threshold compared with 2677G>T/A genotypes or alleles (p = .007 and .002, respectively). Haplotype analysis showed a significant association between ABCB1 haplotypes and pain threshold (p = .02). Patients with 2677G allele had the lowest pain tolerance compared to those with 2677T and 2677A alleles (2677G < 2677T < 2677A allele carriers; p = .05). In terms of pain intensity scores, patients with 2677 GG or 2677G allele had the highest scores compared to other 2677G>T/A genotypes or alleles (p = .04 and .008, respectively). Haplotype analysis revealed a significant difference between patients with CGC haplotype and those without this haplotype (p = .02). To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that ABCB1 polymorphisms are associated with cold pressor pain
Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Zhang, Linglin; Guo, Sam; Rou, Keming; Li, Jianhua
Aims This study examines the preliminary outcomes of an intervention targeting service providers in methadone maintenance therapy clinics in China. The intervention effects on both service providers and clients are reported. Design The MMT CARE intervention pilot was developed and implemented collaboratively with local health educators. After three group intervention sessions, trained providers in intervention clinics delivered two individual motivational interviewing sessions with their clients. Settings Six clinics in Sichuan, China, were randomized to either the MMT CARE intervention condition or a standard care condition. Participants A total of 41 providers and 179 clients were sampled from the six clinics. Measurements At baseline and 3-, 6-, and 9-month assessments, providers completed self-administrated paper/pencil questionnaires regarding provider-client interaction, methadone maintenance therapy knowledge, perceived job-related stigma, and clinic support. Clients completed a face-to-face survey about their concurrent drug use and drug avoidance self-efficacy. Mixed-effects regression models with clinic-level random effect were used to assess the intervention effects. Findings Significant intervention effects for providers were found in improved methadone maintenance therapy knowledge, provider-client interaction, and perceived clinic support. For clients, better improvements in drug avoidance self-efficacy and reduced concurrent drug use were observed for the intervention compared to the standard care group. Conclusions The methadone maintenance therapy CARE intervention targeting providers in methadone maintenance clinics can improve providers’ treatment knowledge and their interaction with clients. The intervention can also reduce clients’ drug using behavior through motivational interviewing sessions conducted by trained providers. PMID:22788780
Wang, Sheng-Chang; Ho, Ing-Kang; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chen, Chia-Hui; Tan, Happy Kuy-Lok; Lin, Linen; Wu, Chi-Shin; Su, Lien-Wen; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Yang, Yi-Hong; Liu, Ming-Lun; Lin, Keh-Ming; Liu, Shu Chih; Wu, Hsiao-Yu; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Chen, Andrew C.H.; Chang, Yao-Sheng
Abstract Methadone maintenance therapy is an established treatment for heroin dependence. This study tested the influence of functional genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C19 gene encoding a CYP450 enzyme that contributes to methadone metabolism on treatment dose, plasma concentration, and side effects of methadone. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4986893 (exon 4) and rs4244285 (exon 5), were selected and genotyped in 366 patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Taiwan. The steady-state plasma concentrations of both methadone and its EDDP metabolite enantiomers were measured. SNP rs4244285 allele was significantly associated with the corrected QT interval (QTc) change in the electrocardiogram (p=0.021), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) total score (p=0.021) in patients who continued using heroin, as demonstrated with a positive urine opiate test. Using the gene dose (GD) models where the CYP2C19 SNPs were clustered into poor (0 GD) versus intermediate (1 GD) and extensive (2 GD) metabolizers, we found that the extensive metabolizers required a higher dose of methadone (p=0.035), and showed a lower plasma R-methadone/methadone dose ratio (p=0.007) in urine opiate test negative patients, as well as a greater QTc change (p=0.008) and higher total scores of TESS (p=0.018) in urine opiate test positive patients, than poor metabolizers. These results in a large study sample from Taiwan suggest that the gene dose of CYP2C19 may potentially serve as an indicator for the plasma R-methadone/methadone dose ratio and cardiac side effect in patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy. Further studies of pharmacogenetic variation in methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are warranted in different world populations. PMID:24016178
Wang, Sheng-Chang; Ho, Ing-Kang; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chen, Chia-Hui; Tan, Happy Kuy-Lok; Lin, Linen; Wu, Chi-Shin; Su, Lien-Wen; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Yang, Yi-Hong; Liu, Ming-Lun; Lin, Keh-Ming; Liu, Shu Chih; Wu, Hsiao-Yu; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Chen, Andrew C H; Chang, Yao-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Li
Abstract Methadone maintenance therapy is an established treatment for heroin dependence. This study tested the influence of functional genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C19 gene encoding a CYP450 enzyme that contributes to methadone metabolism on treatment dose, plasma concentration, and side effects of methadone. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4986893 (exon 4) and rs4244285 (exon 5), were selected and genotyped in 366 patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Taiwan. The steady-state plasma concentrations of both methadone and its EDDP metabolite enantiomers were measured. SNP rs4244285 allele was significantly associated with the corrected QT interval (QTc) change in the electrocardiogram (p=0.021), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) total score (p=0.021) in patients who continued using heroin, as demonstrated with a positive urine opiate test. Using the gene dose (GD) models where the CYP2C19 SNPs were clustered into poor (0 GD) versus intermediate (1 GD) and extensive (2 GD) metabolizers, we found that the extensive metabolizers required a higher dose of methadone (p=0.035), and showed a lower plasma R-methadone/methadone dose ratio (p=0.007) in urine opiate test negative patients, as well as a greater QTc change (p=0.008) and higher total scores of TESS (p=0.018) in urine opiate test positive patients, than poor metabolizers. These results in a large study sample from Taiwan suggest that the gene dose of CYP2C19 may potentially serve as an indicator for the plasma R-methadone/methadone dose ratio and cardiac side effect in patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy. Further studies of pharmacogenetic variation in methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are warranted in different world populations.
Ramsey, Susan E.; Engler, Patricia A.; Stein, Michael D.; Brown, Richard A.; Cioe, Patricia; Kahler, Christopher W.; Promrat, Kittichai; Rose, Jennifer; Anthony, Jennifer; Solomon, David A.
To examine the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBT) to prevent depression among methadone maintenance patients undergoing antiviral treatment for hepatitis C (HCV), 29 patients beginning HCV treatment were randomized to CBT or standard care (SC). Study participants did not meet criteria for major depressive disorder at the time of study recruitment. CBT did not result in less depression-related antiviral treatment failure, better adherence to antiviral treatment, or better HCV RNA outcomes. There were no significant treatment group differences on depressive symptoms over time. The CBT group did display a greater and more consistent decline in both BDI-II and HAM-D scores over time (d=.85 on the BDI-II; d=.72 on the HAM-D). PMID:21743837
Khazaie, Habibolah; Najafi, Farid; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Azami, Atena; Nasouri, Marzieh; Tahmasian, Masoud; Khaledi-Paveh, Behnam
Background The relationship between substance use and sleep is bidirectional. Substance use directly causessleep disturbances, and sleep problems are a critical factor in substance-use relapse. Methods This study evaluated sleep disorders in 65 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients, and61 opium-dependent patients who did not receive any treatment between September 2011 and July 2012 inKermanshah, Iran. Both groups filled out the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Global SleepAssessment Questionnaire (GSAQ). Findings Sleep disorders were remarkably similar in both groups: 78.5% of MMT patients and 87.7% ofopium-dependent patients suffered from sleep problems. Sleep disorders in the opium-dependent groupwere remarkably higher and more prominent. Conclusion Compared to opium, MMT does not have as many negative effects on sleep and is more effectivein mitigating sleep problems. PMID:27882205
Schiff, Miriam; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila
This study examines the positive aspects of intimate relationships perceived by drug-involved women victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The article examines the association of psychological distress, childhood abuse, and severity of IPV with the different positive aspects the women indicated. Most analyses were conducted on a subsample of 149 women in methadone maintenance treatment who intended to continue their relationship with their abusive partner. The women most frequently valued fulfillment of the role of an intimate partner such as "he takes care of me, loves me, makes me laugh" (29.7%). Fewer than one tenth of the women valued their partners' role as economic provider; however, these women reported more physical IPV. Women intending to continue the relationship (more than two thirds of the participants) reported less physical or sexual IPV and experienced less psychological distress. Policy and practice implications are discussed.
Martinez, A D; Dimova, R; Marks, K M; Beeder, A B; Zeremski, M; Kreek, M J; Talal, A H
Despite a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among drug users, HCV evaluation and treatment acceptance are extremely low among these patients when referred from drug treatment facilities for HCV management. We sought to increase HCV treatment effectiveness among patients from a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) by maintaining continuity of care. We developed, instituted and retrospectively assessed the effectiveness of an integrated, co-localized care model in which an internist-addiction medicine specialist from MMTP was embedded in the hepatitis clinic. Methadone maintenance treatment program patients were referred, evaluated by the internist and hepatologist in hepatitis clinic and provided HCV treatment with integration between both sites. Of 401 evaluated patients, anti-HCV antibody was detected in 257, 86% of whom were older than 40 years. Hepatitis C virus RNA levels were measured in 222 patients, 65 of whom were aviremic. Of 157 patients with detectable HCV RNA, 125 were eligible for referral to the hepatitis clinic, 76 (61%) of whom accepted and adhered with the referral. Men engaged in MMTP <36 months were significantly less likely to be seen in hepatitis clinic than men in MMTP more than 36 months (odds ratio = 7.7; 95% confidence interval 2.6-22.9) or women. We evaluated liver histology in 63 patients, and 83% had moderate to advanced liver disease. Twenty-four patients initiated treatment with 19 completing and 13 (54%) achieving sustained response. In conclusion, integrated care between the MMTP and the hepatitis clinic improves adherence with HCV evaluation and treatment compared to standard referral practices.
Tran, Bach Xuan; Vu, Phuong Bich; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Latkin, Sophia Knowlton; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A
The rapid expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services has significantly improved health status and quality of life of patients. However, little is known about its impacts on addiction-related stigma and associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 in Vietnam's capital, Hanoi, and Nam Dinh province among 1016 methadone maintenance patients; 26.6 % at provincial AIDS centers (PAC) and 73.4 % at district health centers (DHC), respectively. Drug addiction history and related stigma, health status, MMT-related covariates, and sociodemographic characteristics were interviewed. More than one-sixth of the sample reported experiencing felt or enacted stigma, including Blame or Judgement (17.2 %), Shame (19.9 %), or Others' fear of HIV transmission (17.1 %). These proportions were higher in PACs than in DHCs, which are integrated with other HIV or general health care services. Very few patients reported being discriminated at the workplace (2.5 %) or at health care services (1.7 %); however, 15.6 % of patients at PACs and 10.6 % of patients at DHCs reported discrimination in their communities. Drug users taking MMT for longer periods were less likely to report felt stigma. Other factors associated with stigma against MMT patients included the lack of comprehensive services, higher education, presence of pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression, self-reported HIV positive, and number of previous drug rehabilitation episodes. The study shows a high level of stigma against MMT patients and emphasizes the necessity to integrate MMT with comprehensive health and support services. Mass communication campaigns to reduce stigma against people with drug addiction and HIV/AIDS, as well as vocational trainings and jobs referrals for MMT patients, are needed to maximize the benefits of MMT programs in Vietnam.
Leri, Francesco; Zhou, Yan; Goddard, Benjamin; Cummins, Erin; Kreek, Mary Jeanne
Methadone maintenance at appropriate doses can effectively reduce cocaine abuse in heroin-dependent individuals. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of high-dose methadone maintenance cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) and cocaine intravenous self-administration. Rats implanted with methadone-filled osmotic mini-pumps (20 and 55 mg/kg/day, SC) and conditioned with cocaine (1, 5, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) did not express cocaine CPP. Similarly, rats implanted with methadone pumps (55 mg/kg/day) after cocaine conditioning (20 mg/kg) displayed neither spontaneous nor cocaine-precipitated (20 mg/kg, i.p.) CPP. In contrast, methadone maintenance (30 and 55 mg/kg/day, SC) did not alter the intravenous self-administration (continuous schedule of reinforcement) of various doses of cocaine (0.1, 0.5, and 2.0 mg/kg/inf). To explore neuropharmacological interactions between methadone maintenance and cocaine conditioning, we quantitatively measured mRNA levels of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and proopiomelanocortin genes 10 days after methadone maintenance. MOR mRNA levels in both the nucleus accumbens core and frontal cortex were significantly elevated in rats exposed to cocaine during CPP conditioning. However, upregulation of MOR mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens core were reduced by methadone maintenance in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-dose methadone maintenance does not alter the direct reinforcing effect of cocaine, but blocks spontaneous and cocaine-precipitated cocaine-seeking, possibly by preventing MOR alterations in the nucleus accumbens core induced by cocaine conditioning.
Dennis, Brittany B; Roshanov, Pavel S; Bawor, Monica; Paul, James; Varenbut, Michael; Daiter, Jeff; Plater, Carolyn; Pare, Guillame; Marsh, David C; Worster, Andrew; Desai, Dipika; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab
Chronic pain is implicated as a risk factor for illicit opioid use among patients with opioid addiction treated with methadone. However, there exists conflicting evidence that supports and refutes this claim. These discrepancies may stem from the large variability in pain measurement reported across studies. We aim to determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients reporting pain and evaluate the prognostic value of different pain classification measures in a sample of opioid addiction patients. Multi-center prospective cohort study. Methadone maintenance treatment facilities for managing patients with opioid addiction. This study includes participants from the Genetics of Opioid Addiction (GENOA) prospective cohort study. We assessed the prognostic value of different pain measures for predicting opioid relapse. Pain measures include the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and patients' response to a direct pain question all study participants were asked from the GENOA case report form (CRF) "are you currently experiencing or have been diagnosed with chronic pain?" Performance characteristics of the GENOA CRF pain measure was estimated with sensitivity and specificity using the BPI as the gold standard reference. Prognostic value was assessed using pain classification as the primary independent variable in an adjusted analysis using 1) the percentage of positive opioid urine screens and 2) high-risk opioid use (= 50% positive opioid urine screens) as the dependent variables in a linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Among participants eligible for inclusion (n = 444) the BPI was found to be highly sensitive, classifying a large number of GENOA participants with pain (n = 281 of the 297 classified with pain, 94.6%) in comparison to the GENOA CRF (n = 154 of 297 classified with pain, 51.8%). Participants concordantly classified as having pain according to the GENOA CRF and BPI were found to have an estimated 7.79% increase in positive
Vijay, Aishwarya; Bazazi, Alexander R; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
Little is known about attitudes toward and experiences with opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) among people who inject drugs in Malaysia, a country where people who inject drugs comprise 1.3% of the adult population. In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were surveyed to evaluate attitudes toward and experiences with OMT and treatment readiness. Attitudes towards OMT with both methadone and buprenorphine were assessed using an opinions scale. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess correlates of treatment readiness, measured with the 19-item Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Few had had previous experience with methadone (9.3%) or buprenorphine (12.6%) maintenance therapy, yet many had used methadone (55.2%) or buprenorphine (51.7%) outside of treatment settings. Fifteen percent had injected buprenorphine in the past month, and of the few that were currently receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy, almost all were injecting it. The majority of subjects exhibited a moderate level of treatment readiness and a preference for methadone over buprenorphine. Those with low treatment readiness scores were more likely to have previous experience with compulsory drug detention centers (p<0.01), needle/syringe exchange programs (p<0.005), or be of Indian ethnicity (p<0.001). Past use of methadone (p<0.01), older age (p<0.001), higher stress symptom severity (p<0.001), and sharing of needles or syringes (p<0.05) were associated with higher treatment readiness scores. There are suboptimal levels of OMT experience among people who inject drugs that may be improved by addressing factors that influence patient attitudes. Those individuals with moderate treatment readiness may be targeted by brief motivational and cognitive interventions in primary care, prisons or OMT clinics aimed at improving entry into and
Himelhoch, Seth S; Miles-McLean, Haley; Medoff, Deborah; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Rugle, Loreen; Brownley, Julie; Bailey-Kloch, Marie; Potts, Wendy; Welsh, Christopher
This study sought to: (1) determine the prevalence of gambling disorder using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Version 5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, 2013) criteria; (2) identify the frequency and amount of money spent on gambling behaviors; and (3) determine demographic and treatment related predictors associated with gambling disorder in a substance using population. People receiving methadone maintenance treatment (N = 185) in an urban medical center consented to participate in the study. We used DSM-5 criteria to assess the 12-month prevalence of gambling disorder. Questions adapted from a previously developed measure were used to identify, describe and quantify the frequency of use and amount of money spent on gambling behaviors. Most participants were African-American (71.4 %), male (54.1 %), unmarried (76.8 %), unemployed (88.1 %) and had an income of <$20,000 (88.5 %). On average, participants were receiving 81.0 mg of methadone (SD: 22.8) daily. Nearly half (46.2 %) of participants met DSM-5 criteria for gambling disorder. Compared to those without gambling disorder, those with gambling disorder did not differ significantly with respect to demographic characteristics nor methadone dose. However, those with gambling disorder had been in methadone maintenance treatment for significantly less time. Those with gambling disorder were significantly more likely to report engaging in a variety of gambling behaviors. Given that the 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 defined gambling disorder was nearly 50 % future efforts to screen and treat gambling disorder in the context of methadone maintenance treatment are clearly warranted.
Vijay, Aishwarya; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.
Background Little is known about attitudes toward and experiences with opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) among people who inject drugs in Malaysia, a country where people who inject drugs comprise 1.3% of the adult population. Methods In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were surveyed to evaluate attitudes toward and experience with OMT and treatment readiness. Attitudes towards OMT with both methadone and buprenorphine were assessed using an opinions scale. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess correlates of treatment readiness, measured with the 19-item Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Few had had previous experience with methadone (9.3%) or buprenorphine (12.6%) maintenance therapy, yet many had used methadone (55.2%) or buprenorphine (51.7%) outside of treatment settings. Fifteen percent had injected buprenorphine in the past month, and of the few that were currently receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy, almost all were injecting it. The majority of subjects exhibited a moderate level of treatment readiness and a preference for methadone over buprenorphine. Those with low treatment readiness scores were more likely to have previous experience with compulsory drug detention centers (p<0.01), needle/syringe exchange programs (p<0.005), or be of Indian ethnicity (p<0.001). Past use of methadone (p<0.01), older age (p<0.001), stress symptom severity (p<0.001), and sharing of needles or syringes (p<0.05) were associated with higher treatment readiness scores. Conclusion There are suboptimal levels of OMT experience among people who inject drugs that may be improved by addressing factors that influence patient attitudes. Those individuals with moderate treatment readiness may be targeted by brief motivational and cognitive interventions in primary care, prisons or OMT clinics
Hulskotte, Ellen G J; Bruce, R Douglas; Feng, Hwa-Ping; Webster, Lynn R; Xuan, Feng; Lin, Wen H; O'Mara, Edward; Wagner, John A; Butterton, Joan R
Intravenous opioid use is a common route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; consequently, the prevalence of HCV is high among patients on methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone. The authors evaluated the pharmacokinetic interaction of boceprevir with methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone in patients on stable maintenance therapy. This was a two-center, open-label, fixed-sequence study in 21 adult volunteers on stable maintenance therapy. Oral methadone (20-150 mg once daily) or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2-24/6 mg once daily) was administered alone or in combination with boceprevir (800 mg every 8 h) on days 2-7. Pharmacokinetic sampling occurred before and up to 24 h after the dose on days 1 and 7. Coadministration of boceprevir reduced the area under the concentration-time curve during a dosing interval τ (AUC τ ) and maximum observed plasma (or serum) concentration (C max) of R-methadone (geometric mean ratios (GMRs) [90 % confidence intervals (CIs)], 0.85 [0.74, 0.96] and 0.90 [0.71, 1.13]) and S-methadone (GMRs [90 % CIs], 0.78 [0.66, 0.93] and 0.83 [0.64, 1.09]). Boceprevir increased the AUC τ and C max of buprenorphine (GMRs [90 % CIs], 1.19 [0.91, 1.58] and 1.18 [0.93, 1.50]) and naloxone (GMRs [90 % CIs], 1.33 [0.90, 1.93] and 1.09 [0.79, 1.51]). Boceprevir exposure upon methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone coadministration was not clinically different from historical controls and there was no evidence of opioid withdrawal or excess. There was no clinically meaningful impact of boceprevir on methadone or buprenorphine pharmacokinetics, suggesting that methadone/buprenorphine dose adjustments are not required upon coadministration with boceprevir. Individual patients may differ in their clinical experience and clinicians should maintain vigilance when coadministering these medications.
Duo, L.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Achanta, S.; Xue, H-M.; Satyanarayana, S.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Srivastava, S.; Qi, W.; Hu, S-Y.
Setting: Thirteen methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics across Yunnan, the province with the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden in China. Objectives: To determine, among HIV-negative participants on MMT, the proportion lost to follow-up (defined as those who missed the 6-monthly follow-up examination), factors associated with loss to follow-up (LFU), HIV seroconversion rate and factors associated with seroconversion. Design: Prospective cohort study from October 2008 to April 2011. All participants were administered a pre-tested structured questionnaire to capture associated factors and offered HIV testing every 6 months. χ2 test and log-binomial regression were used for data analysis. Results: Of 1146 participants, 541 (47%) were lost to follow-up in 2.5 years. Factors associated with higher LFU proportion include <6 months of previous MMT, inconvenient location of the MMT clinic and average methadone dose ⩽60 mg/day, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of respectively 1.4 (95%CI 1.2–1.5), 1.2 (95%CI 1.0–1.4) and 1.1 (95%CI 1.0–1.3). The overall HIV seroconversion rate was 6.6 (95%CI 3.7–11.0) per 1000 person-years. Not living with a partner contributed to higher HIV rates, with an adjusted RR of 3.6 (95%CI 1.0–12.8). Conclusion: The retention rate of MMT participants in Yunnan was not satisfactory. Decentralising service delivery in the community and making directly observed treatment more convenient has the potential to improve retention. PMID:26423758
Trémeau, F; Darreye, A; Leroy, B; Renckly, V; Ertlé, S; Weibel, H; Khidichian, F; Macher, J-P
Personality disorders and particularly antisocial personality disorders (APD) are quite frequent in opioid-dependent subjects. They show various personality traits: high neuroticism, high impulsivity, higher extraversion than the general population. Previous studies have reported that some but not all personality traits improved with treatment. In a previous study, we found a low rate of APD in a French population of opioid-dependent subjects. For this reason, we evaluated personality traits at intake and during maintenance treatment with methadone. Methods - The form A of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) was given to opioid addicts at intake and after 6 and 12 months of methadone treatment. Results - 134 subjects (96 males and 38 females) took the test at intake, 60 completed 12 months of treatment. After 12 months, the EPI Neuroticism (N) and the Extraversion-introversion (E) scale scores decreased significantly. The N score improved in the first 6 months, while the E score improved only during the second 6 months of treatment. Compared to a reference group of French normal controls, male and female opioid addicts showed high N and E scores. Demographic data and EPI scores of patients who stayed in treatment for 12 months did not differ significantly from those of dropouts (n=23). Patients with a history of suicide attempts (SA) started to use heroin at an earlier age and they showed a higher E score and a tendency for a higher N score at intake. Discussion - The two personality dimensions of the EPI changed during MMT, and the N score converged towards the score of normal controls. Opioid addicts differ from normal controls mostly in their N score. The EPI did not help to differentiate 12-month completers from dropouts. Higher E scores in patients with an SA history might reflect a higher impulsivity, which has been linked to suicidality in other patient groups.
Earnshaw, Valerie; Smith, Laramie; Copenhaver, Michael
Experiences of stigma from others among people with a history of drug addiction are understudied in comparison to the strength of stigma associated with drug addiction. Work that has studied these experiences has primarily focused on stigma experienced from healthcare workers specifically even though stigma is often experienced from other sources as well. Because stigma has important implications for the mental health and recovery efforts of people in treatment, it is critical to better understand these experiences of stigma. Therefore, we characterize drug addiction stigma from multiple sources using qualitative methodology to advance understandings of how drug addiction stigma is experienced among methadone maintenance therapy patients and from whom. Results demonstrate that methadone maintenance therapy patients experience prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination from friends and family, coworkers and employers, healthcare workers, and others. Discussion highlights similarities and differences in stigma experienced from these sources.
Smith, Laramie; Copenhaver, Michael
Experiences of stigma from others among people with a history of drug addiction are understudied in comparison to the strength of stigma associated with drug addiction. Work that has studied these experiences has primarily focused on stigma experienced from healthcare workers specifically even though stigma is often experienced from other sources as well. Because stigma has important implications for the mental health and recovery efforts of people in treatment, it is critical to better understand these experiences of stigma. Therefore, we characterize drug addiction stigma from multiple sources using qualitative methodology to advance understandings of how drug addiction stigma is experienced among methadone maintenance therapy patients and from whom. Results demonstrate that methadone maintenance therapy patients experience prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination from friends and family, coworkers and employers, healthcare workers, and others. Discussion highlights similarities and differences in stigma experienced from these sources. PMID:23956702
Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M; Ertl, Markus; Kemmler, Georg; Riemer, Yyvonne; Vigl, Alexander
This study was conducted to compare long-term outcome effects on the quality of life (QOL) of oral methadone with sublingual buprenorphine maintenance treatment. The QOL status of opioid-dependent patients was assessed using the German version ("Berlin Quality of Life Profile") of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile. Physical symptoms were measured using the Opiate Withdrawal Scale (OWS). Urine tests were carried out randomly to detect additional consumption. In the first study period, 53 opioid-dependent subjects were enrolled and 25 could be reached after 3 years. The retention rate was 50% for methadone and 45% for buprenorphine (p = 0.786). Baseline values of the total sample (completers and noncompleters) QOL and somatic complaints did not show significant differences between the two treatment groups. QOL characteristics at 6 months of treatment of the buprenorphine completer and noncompleter groups differed significantly regarding job (p = 0.013), family, and total score of physical symptoms (p = 0.002), in which the completer group showed the more favorable values. Concerning physical symptoms at 36 months, logistic regression revealed significantly less stomach cramps (p = 0.037) and fatigue and tiredness (p = 0.034) in buprenorphine compared to the methadone. Moreover, the buprenorphine-maintained group showed significantly less additional consumption of benzodiazepines (p = 0.015) compared with methadone participants. It is concluded that opioid addicts improved their QOL and health status when treated with methadone or buprenorphine. In summary, regarding QOL and health status, the present data indicate that buprenorphine is also a useful long-term alternative for maintenance treatment of opioid-dependent patients.
Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; van der Zanden, Bart P; de Borgie, Corianne A J M; Blanken, Peter; van Ree, Jan M; van den Brink, Wim
Objective To determine the cost utility of medical co-prescription of heroin compared with methadone maintenance treatment for chronic, treatment resistant heroin addicts. Design Cost utility analysis of two pooled open label randomised controlled trials. Setting Methadone maintenance programmes in six cities in the Netherlands. Participants 430 heroin addicts. Interventions Inhalable or injectable heroin prescribed over 12 months. Methadone (maximum 150 mg a day) plus heroin (maximum 1000 mg a day) compared with methadone alone (maximum 150 mg a day). Psychosocial treatment was offered throughout. Main outcome measures One year costs estimated from a societal perspective. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) based on responses to the EuroQol EQ-5D at baseline and during the treatment period. Results Co-prescription of heroin was associated with 0.058 more QALYs per patient per year (95% confidence interval 0.016 to 0.099) and a mean saving of €12 793 (£8793, $16 122) (€1083 to €25 229) per patient per year. The higher programme costs (€16 222; lower 95% confidence limit €15 084) were compensated for by lower costs of law enforcement (- €4129; upper 95% confidence limit - €486) and damage to victims of crime (- €25 374; upper 95% confidence limit - €16 625). The results were robust for the use of national EQ-5D tariffs and for the exclusion of the initial implementation costs of heroin treatment. Completion of treatment is essential; having participated in any abstinence treatment in the past is not. Conclusions Co-prescription of heroin is cost effective compared with treatment with methadone alone for chronic, treatment resistant heroin addicts. PMID:15933353
Zahari, Zalina; Lee, Chee Siong; Ibrahim, Muslih Abdulkarim; Musa, Nurfadhlina; Mohd Yasin, Mohd Azhar; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Tan, Soo Choon; Mohamad, Nasir; Ismail, Rusli
This study compared pain sensitivity among opioid dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and opioid naive subjects. The three hundred participants comprised 152 opioid naive subjects and 148 opioid dependent patients. Opioid naive subjects had not taken any opioids including morphine and methadone to their best knowledge and were presumed so after two consecutive negative urine screenings for drugs. All opioid dependent patients were stabilized in treatment, defined as having been enrolled in the program for more than one month with no change of methadone dosage over the past one month. Excluded from the study were individuals with chronic or ongoing acute pain and individuals with a history of analgesics ingestion within 3 d before the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain tolerance to CPT was evaluated at 0 h, and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post-methadone dose. Patients exhibited a significantly shorter mean pain tolerance time of 34.17 s (95% CI 24.86, 43.49) versus 61.36 (52.23, 70.48) [p < 0.001] compared with opioid naive subjects. Time-dependent mean pain tolerance was also significantly different when naive subjects were compared to patients (p = 0.016). This study revealed hyperalgesia amongst patients on MMT, as manifested by their quicker hand withdrawal. The complaints of pain in this population should not be underestimated and the pain should be evaluated seriously and managed aggressively.
Tennant, F S
The author studied 18 heroin addicts who had been maintained on 80 mg/day of methadone and who abused drugs or alcohol. His findings suggest that in some cases of aberrant methadone metabolism, the dose can be raised to achieve plasma concentrations adequate to eliminate drug and alcohol abuse.
Wells, E A; Clark, L L; Calsyn, D A; Saxon, A J; Jackson, T R; Wrede, A F
This study sought to identify differences within injection drug using (IDU) couples in reporting of sexual and needle risk behavior. Subjects were thirty-nine heterosexual couples entering methadone maintenance. In 33.3% of couples, one member reported sharing needles while the other member reported no sharing. In 12.9% of couples, one member reported sharing injection equipment, while the other member reported no sharing. Agreement was 77.4% between members of monogamous couples regarding frequency of condom use, 80.7% regarding vaginal intercourse with condoms, and 25.8% regarding vaginal intercourse without condoms. Within couples, a number of differences between members of the couple in injection equipment sharing were noted, suggesting that individuals who attempt to protect themselves by not sharing injection equipment may be placed at risk by their sexual partners. Further clinical and research efforts should be directed toward reducing barriers to behavior that would protect both partners. Implications for self-report measurement of HIV risk behavior and for preventive interventions are discussed.
Richardson, Lindsey; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas
Employment is commonly upheld as an important outcome of addiction treatment. To explore this attribution we assessed whether treatment enrolment predicts employment initiation among participants enrolled in a community-recruited Canadian cohort of people who inject drugs (IDU) (n=1579). Survival analysis initially found no association between addiction treatment enrolment and employment initiation. However, when methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) was separated from other treatment modalities, non-MMT treatment positively predicted employment transitions, while MMT was negatively associated with employment initiation. Sub-analyses examining transitions into temporary, informal and under-the-table income generation echo these results. Findings suggest that individual factors impacting employment transitions may systematically apply to MMT clients, and that, in this setting, the impact of treatment on employment outcomes is contingent on treatment type and design. Treatment-specific differences underscore the need to expand low-threshold MMT, explore MMT alternatives and evaluate the impact of treatment design on the social and economic activity of IDU. PMID:22301085
de Dios, Marcel Alejandro; Stanton, Cassandra A; Caviness, Celeste M; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael
Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p < .05) and quitting self-efficacy was negatively associated with partner smoking (r = -.217, p < .001). Findings are discussed in the context of developing smoking cessation interventions that address the influential role of social support and social networks of smokers in MMT.
Okruhlica, L; Slezáková, S
Clinical experience reveals a weight increase among patients with opiate dependence after their admission to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The objective of the present study was to find out whether there was a significant weight increase among MMT patients, and if so, to what extent this change in weight differed from the existing statistical norm of the general population. The sample consisted of 274 MMT patients of the CPLDZ Bratislava with the average age of 26.3 years, 69% were males. Only those patients were included into the study that had stayed in MMT for at least one year. Two main comparisons of their body mass index (BMI) were done: 1. at entry into MMT, and one year after entry; 2. a comparison of BMI one year after treatment entry with BMI of the general Slovak population. Underweight was present in 10% of the patients entering MMT, 72% had BMI within a normal range, 15% were overweight, and 3% were obese. A significant shift towards higher BMI categories was reported one year after treatment entry: 5%, 58%, 29% and 8%, respectively (p < 0.001), which is still significantly lower than in the general population: 4%, 49%, 34% a 13% (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that weight increase in MMT patients should not be considered a direct side-effect, because it is not possible to differentiate between a drug effect and changed behavioural eating stereotypes that could be identical to those in the general population.
Secco, Loretta; Letourneau, Nicole; Campbell, Mary Ann; Craig, Stephanie; Colpitts, Jennifer
Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the intervention of choice for addiction, unfortunately, mothers are less likely to engage in care. Greater understanding of how mothers experience the addiction and the recovery process is needed to develop strategies to effectively engage mothers in MMT. This mixed method study applied quantitative and qualitative approaches with a sample of 12 mothers who were engaged in MMT for 3 or more months. Although the results showed stresses of high depression and difficult life circumstance scores, the mothers had strengths that included positive social support and family functioning. Inductive analysis of transcribed interviews identified three themes that explained how mothers experienced addiction and recovery: diminished maternal identity, choice for mothering, and redefined maternal identity. During addiction, mothers described a sense of diminished maternal identity with two subthemes of diminished performed mothering and interrupted mothering. With the second theme, choice for mothering, mothers described making the choice to attend MMT for their children. The third theme, redefined maternal identity, consisted of two subthemes that reflected potential outcomes of MMT and addiction recovery. Whereas most mothers described positive, restored maternal identity, two mothers of older children noted continued diminished maternal identity with persistence of negative mother-child relationships despite maternal addiction recovery. Recommendations are made to assist service providers to consider maternal identity within the recovery process.
Kellogg, Scott; Melia, Dorothy; Khuri, Elizabeth; Lin, Amy; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne
This study examined the impact of methadone maintenance treatment on an inclusive group of adolescent and young adult opiate-dependent patients, ages 15-23, admitted over a 6-year period, during their first year in the program. Retention in treatment was the primary outcome variable, and at 12 months, 48% were still in treatment. The findings were: (a) a stepwise discriminant function analysis revealed that patients who consistently used heroin were at a greater risk of leaving treatment within the first 12 months; (b) the use of cocaine was an indicator of higher levels of heroin use in those who reached the one-year mark; (c) among patients who stayed in treatment for one year, there was a significant reduction in heroin use, a trend toward a reduction in cocaine use, and no significant impact on benzodiazepine use; and (d) the group that stayed in treatment was slightly younger than the group that left before the first year ended. There were no gender or ethnic differences between the two groups. Suggestions for interventions that might improve treatment outcome are presented.
Noble, Alison; Best, David; Man, Lan-Ho; Gossop, Michael; Stang, John
In a study of patients attending a methadone maintenance clinic in South London, 66 of 114 (58%) had previously attempted to detoxify themselves from opiates without medical assistance. The total number of self-detoxification attempts was 237, an average of 3.6 attempts per individual. Forty subjects (61%) reported attempting self-detoxification with the help of drugs or alcohol. The drugs most commonly used were diazepam, alcohol, and cannabis. The most commonly reported reasons for attempting self-detoxification were "fed-up with the lifestyle" (61%) and "for their family" (12%). The reasons given for why patients had decided to detoxify themselves rather than access treatment services included 23% who reported that "they could cope on their own and that they didn't need any help." The short-term success rate (abstinent for at least 24 hours) was moderate, at 41% (97/237). Patients who had been unsuccessful were asked why their last self-detoxification attempt had not resulted in abstinence, with 27% reporting that they were "tempted to use again" and 23% reported that they "didn't know why they started using again." The prevalence of both attempts and success suggests that, for some opiate users, self-detoxification may be a pathway to abstinence.
de Dios, Marcel A.; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael
Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p < .05) and quitting self-efficacy was negatively associated with partner smoking (r = −.217, p < .001). Findings are discussed in the context of developing smoking cessation interventions that address the influential role of social support and social networks of smokers in MMT. PMID:22571553
Conner, Kenneth R; Ross, Mary Ellen; Baciewicz, Gloria; Sworts, Luke M; Meldrum, Sean C
One hundred twenty one opiate-dependent individuals in methadone maintenance treatment at an urban university medical center in the U.S. were administered the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC), and 68 subjects provided follow-up assessments at two to six weeks. The sample included 61 (50.4%) women; 86 (71.1%) of the subjects reported that they were White, 29 (24.0%) Black, and six (5.0%) other race. The mean age was 41.9 (SD = 9.7) years. Ninety-nine (81.8%) of participants had used opiates intravenously. INDUC total scores and a short form showed high internal consistency (alpha) and test-retest reliability (ICC) across gender, race, ethnicity, and education, supporting their use as global measures of drug use consequences. The interpersonal scale was also reliable across strata whereas the physical and intrapersonal scales were not reliable. The impulse control and social responsibility scales were stable but not internally consistent.
Aziz, Zoriah; Chong, Nyuk Jet
The aim of this study was to examine opioid-dependent patients' satisfaction with the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in Malaysia and identify predictors of satisfaction. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire developed and validated by Rankin Court, New South Wales, Australia. Of 502 patients approached in 11 MMT centers in Malaysia, 425 agreed to participate giving a response rate of 85%. In terms of overall satisfaction, a high percentage of respondents (85%) were satisfied with the MMT services. A logistic regression analysis showed that only "centres" and marital status were associated with overall satisfaction and that being single (OR 3.31; 95% CI 1.52 to 7.20) or married (OR 4.06; 95% CI 1.76 to 9.38) was associated with higher odds of overall satisfaction compared to being divorced or separated. An analysis of the responses pertaining to the most desired changes required at the center found dosing hours, waiting area and staff shortages to be common. The findings acquired from this survey will be useful to attain a clearer perspective on what aspects of the MMT service need to be reviewed for the improvement of service delivery.
Sadeghi, Saeedeh; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Bahrami, Bahador; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili
Drug addiction has been associated with lack of insight into one's own abilities. However, the scope of metacognition impairment among drug users in general and opiate dependent individuals in particular is not fully understood. Investigating the impairments of metacognitive ability in Substance Dependent Individuals (SDIs) in different cognitive tasks could contribute to the ongoing debate over whether metacognition has domain-general or domain-specific neural substrates. We compared metacognitive self-monitoring ability of a group of SDIs during methadone maintenance treatment (n = 23) with a control group (n = 24) in a memory and a visual perceptual task. Post decision self judgements of probability of correct choice were obtained through trial by trial confidence ratings and were used to compute metacognitive ability. Results showed that despite comparable first order performance in the perceptual task, SDIs had lower perceptual metacognition than the control group. However, although SDIs had poorer memory performance, their metacognitive judgements in the memory task were as accurate as the control group. While it is commonly believed that addiction causes pervasive impairment in cognitive functions, including metacognitive ability, we observed that the impairment was only significant in one specific task, the perceptual task, but not in the memory task.
Kolar, A F; Brown, B S; Haertzen, C A; Michaelson, B S
We interviewed 70 substance abusers in methadone maintenance treatment regarding the life experiences of their 188 children. Sixty-four percent of the mothers reported using psychoactive drugs during their pregnancies. Eighty percent of parents reported an arrest during the time the child was growing up, 34% reported receiving treatment for an emotional disorder, and 14% were hospitalized. Four percent of the parents reported that their children had been placed in adoptive care, 9% in foster care, and 1% had a child in a group home. Forty-one percent of the parents reported that at least one of their children repeated a grade in school, 19% were involved in truancy, and 30% had been suspended from school. Twenty percent of parents reported their children's involvement with the law, and 17% reported drug or alcohol use. Problems with the law correlated highly with 1) being held back a grade, 2) truancy, 3) suspension from school, 4) expulsion from school, and 5) treatment for alcohol or drug abuse.
Background The aims were to identify predictors of treatment retention in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Pearl River Delta, China. Methods Retrospective longitudinal study. Participants: 6 MMT clinics in rural and urban area were selected. Statistical analysis: Stratified random sampling was employed, and the data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and life table method. Protective or risk factors were explored using Cox’s proportional hazards model. Independent variables were enrolled in univariate analysis and among which significant variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results A total of 2728 patients were enrolled. The median of the retention duration was 13.63 months, and the cumulative retention rates at 1,2,3 years were 53.0%, 35.0%, 20.0%, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis showed: age, relationship with family, live on support from family or friends, income, considering treatment cost suitable, considering treatment open time suitable, addiction severity (daily expense for drug), communication with former drug taking peer, living in rural area, daily treatment dosage, sharing needles, re-admission and history of being arrested were predictors for MMT retention. Conclusions MMT retention rate in Guangdong was low and treatment skills and quality should be improved. Meanwhile, participation of family and society should be encouraged. PMID:23497263
Li, Li; Comulada, W Scott; Lin, Chunqing; Lan, Chiao-Wen; Cao, Xiaobin; Wu, Zunyou
Provider-client interaction is an integral of clinical practice and central to the delivery of high-quality medical care. This article examines factors related to the provider-client interaction in the context of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Data were collected from 68 MMT clinics in China. In total, 418 service providers participated in the survey. Linear mixed effects regression models were performed to identify factors associated with provider-client interaction. It was observed that negative attitude toward drug users was associated with lower level of provider-client interaction and less time spent with each client. Other factors associated with lower level of interaction included being female, being younger, being a nurse, and fewer years in medical field. Higher provider-client interaction was associated with provider reported job satisfaction. The findings of this study call for a need to address provider negative attitudes that can impact provider-client interaction and the effectiveness of MMT. Future intervention efforts targeting MMT providers should be tailored by gender, provider type, and medical experiences.
Lin, Chunqing; Cao, Xiaobin; Li, Li
Background Using methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) clinics to deliver antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an effective strategy to promote treatment initiation and adherence for HIV-positive drug users. This paper describes the implementation barriers perceived by service providers for an intervention pilot designed to integrate ART services in MMT clinics. Methods The study was conducted in six MMT clinics in Sichuan province, China. Two service providers selected from each of the six clinics underwent training in administering ART. The trained providers delivered ART-related services in their clinics. A focus group was conducted among the service providers to assess their experiences and perceived challenges in delivering integrated services. Results Barriers at policy, institutional, provider, and client levels were identified. Policy level barriers included household registration restrictions and a lack of insurance coverage for testing expenses. Inefficient coordination between treatment sites and MMT clinics was an obstacle at the institutional level. Insufficient training and added workload were barriers at the provider level. Finally, conflict with daily dosing habits was identified as the primary reason that clients did not accept ART. Conclusion Although integrating ART into MMT clinics is beneficial, multilevel barriers to implementation need to be addressed. This study documents the need for treatment transferability and insurance coverage, protection of client confidentiality, proper provider training, coordination with treatment sites, and individualized ART service for MMT clients. PMID:24939555
Che, Yanhua; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua; You, Jing; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi
To describe the patterns of patients' attendance over the first three quarters of a year under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Yunnan Province, China. Data were obtained from drug abuse treatment databases from five MMT clinics in Yunnan Province. Patients registered between April 2007 and December 2007 were included in the analysis. The study period was divided into three phases consisting of 3 months each. Logistic regression was used to predict factors determining whether the patients attended the clinic on each day with repetition of the patients taken into account. The median number of days attending the clinics was 61 in the total treatment period, and the likelihood of a patient attending the clinic in the second and third phases was significantly less [odds ratio (OR) = .44 and .30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = .40-.49 and .26-.34] compared with the first phase. The predictors for attendance at clinic were being unmarried (OR = .63, 95% CI = .49-.82), self-employed (OR = .18, 95% CI = .11-.28), having a history of syringe sharing (OR = .67, 95% CI = .48-.92), and having been in a detoxification program (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.09-2.33). Heroin users attended MMT programs irregularly and their periods of attendance significantly declined by duration of the time they stayed in the treatment program. Additional interventions should be employed to help patients adhere to this long-term treatment program.
Cao, Xiaobin; Wu, Zunyou; Rou, Keming; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Wang, Changhe; Luo, Wei; Pang, Lin; Yin, Wenyuan; Li, Jianhua
To investigate factors associated with retention among the first cohort of drug users attending methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in China. A six-year cohort of 1511 drug users was enrolled in the first 8 MMT clinics in China in 2004 and followed between March, 2004 and December, 2010. Six-year retention rates were calculated and compared by methadone dosage, clinic location, and length of follow-up. Factors associated with retention were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The overall retention rate over 6-year was 35.7%. Highest drop-out occurred within the first 12 months of treatment. The retention rates for the 6-year by low (≤ 30 mg/day), medium (31-60 mg/day), and high (>60 mg/day) methadone dosage groups were 20.8%, 34.8% and 53.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). The highest 6-year retention rate among eight clinics was 43.8%, while the lowest one was 17.7% (p < 0.001). The results from Cox proportional hazard models indicate that clients having >30 mg daily methadone dosage (p < 0.001), having relatives receiving MMT (p = 0.027), and having >10% urine morphine positive result (p < 0.001) were more likely to be retained in MMT over the six-year period. It has also found that drug injection (p = 0.005) and needle sharing (p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with better retention. Health workers should adjust individuals' methadone dosages as a method to prevent early treatment termination. Further studies are needed to explore the impact of severity of opiate addiction on long-term retention of MMT clients. Careful assessment of drug users upon MMT enrollment may be helpful for providing additional care to clients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Wright, Nat M J; French, Charlotte; Allgar, Victoria
Internationally there is policy support for the introduction of methadone maintenance programmes into prison settings. Increasingly GPs are encouraged to undertake this work although concerns remain regarding the safety of such programmes. This study sought to evaluate the impact and safety of the introduction of a general practitioner with a special interest (GPsi) in substance misuse led methadone prescribing service into a UK prison between 2003 and 2010. Time series analysis of secondary prescribing data pertaining to opiate maintenance therapies, opiate detoxification therapies and opiate related deaths for the time period 2003 to 2010. Results show that following introduction of a GPsi in substance misuse there was a statistically significant increase in both methadone maintenance and detoxification treatments. Over time the rate of methadone maintenance prescribing plateaued with a corresponding decrease in the rate of methadone detoxification prescribing. There were no methadone related deaths in prison over the study period. The phased introduction of opiate replacement therapies into a busy remand prison did not result in any deaths within the prison for which opiate replacement was identified as the cause. GPsi led opiate prescribing programmes can be introduced safely into secure environments.
Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Lashkaripour, Kobra; Yousefi, Maryam
Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, modulates a number of metabolic processes. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) changes the level of hormones produced by adipose tissue in addicts. However, current data remains contradictory. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MMT on serum adiponectin levels in drug addicts. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five drug abusers with a mean age of 37.4 ± 8.7 years were referred to the Baharan Hospital, Zahedan, and 22 healthy age-matched control subjects with a mean age of 35 ± 9.5 years were enrolled in the study. Addicts were treated with methadone at (40 to 120 mg/d) for six months. Measurement of anthropometric parameters, serum adiponectin, and biochemical parameter levels, were assessed in the addicts, before and after six months of MMT, but only once in the healthy controls. Results: The mean basal serum adiponectin level was not significantly lower in the drug abuser group compared to the healthy subjects (P > 0.05). After six months of MMT, the mean serum adiponectin level of the drug addicts was not significantly different from their mean baseline level or that of the healthy subjects (P > 0.05). However, the mean baseline serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in overweight/obese addicts when compared to underweight patients and healthy individuals (P < 0.001). After six months of MMT, the mean level of serum adiponectin increased significantly in the underweight subjects compared to the normal weight and overweight/obese subjects (P < 0.0001) and the control group (P < 0.001). Adiponectin concentration was correlated inversely with body mass index and positively correlated with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusions: This study showed that MMT did not markedly alter the concentration of serum adiponectin in drug abusers. However, in regard to the variations in the serum lipid profiles and anthropometric parameters, the findings
Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam
This observational prospective study aimed to determine whether duration to the earning of privileges of "take-home" methadone doses (as a part of behavioral enforcement) reflects long-term outcome of patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). All 657 former heroin addicts admitted to our MMT clinic between June 1993 and June 2008 were prospectively studied and followed up. Duration from admission to first take-home dose (until October 2008), to leaving (retention, until June 2009), and to dying (survival, until June 2008) was calculated. Most patients (n = 435; 66.2%) ever achieved take-home privileges. Retention was longest (10 years, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.8 to 11.2) for 110 patients who achieved their first take-home dose after 3 to 6 months, followed by 9 years (95% CI: 7.7 to 10.3) for 98 patients who achieved it after >6 months and ≤1 year, and 8.3 years (95% CI: 7.2 to 9.4) for 127 patients who managed to achieve it only after >1 year. Retention was lower among patients who were given exceptional take-home doses (not respecting policy regulations) <3 months since admission: 5.1 years (95% CI: 3.4 to 7.8) for 30 patients (who got it for medical reasons), 9 years (95% CI: 6.7 to 11.3) for 14 patients admitted from another MMT, and 6.3 years (95% CI: 5 to 7.6) for 56 patients who got it for unjustified (mistakes) reasons. The shortest retention in MMT was 2.2 years (95% CI: 1.8 to 2.7, P < 0.0005) for 222 patients who never managed to achieve any take-home privileges. Survival was longer among patients who ever versus never received take-home privileges (13.2 years [95% CI: 12.8 to 13.6] vs 12.3 years [95% CI: 11.5 to 13.1], respectively; P = 0.04) and longest (14.1 years [95% CI: 13.4 to 14.7]) among those who received take-home privileges after 3 to 6 months. The group with the shortest time (3 to 6 months) to the achievement of first take-home dose had the best outcome. Further studies are needed to characterize this group.
McNeely, Jennifer; Arnsten, Julia H; Gourevitch, Marc N
We evaluated a novel intervention designed to improve access to sterile syringes and safe syringe disposal for injection drug users (IDUs) newly enrolled in methadone maintenance, through interviews with two sequential cohorts of 100 recent entrants into a methadone program in the Bronx, NY. A substantial number of participants had injected in the previous 6 months, and most continued injecting during the early weeks of treatment. The intervention was associated with significant behavior changes among IDUs, including increased use of pharmacies as a primary source of syringes (11% vs. 37%, p < .05) and decreases in both purchasing of syringes on the street (51% vs. 27%, p < .05) and needle sharing (40% vs. 7%, p < .01). The intervention had no impact on the prevalence of injection or on syringe disposal practices. Our findings suggest that drug treatment programs can serve an important role in reducing injection-related risk behavior by facilitating access to sterile syringes.
Martin, Judith A.; Campbell, Anthony; Killip, Thomas; Kotz, Margaret; Krantz, Mori J.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; McCarroll, Brian A.; Mehta, Davendra; Payte, J. Thomas; Stimmel, Barry; Taylor, Trusandra; Wilford, Bonnie B.
In an effort to enhance patient safety in Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) convened a multi-disciplinary Expert Panel on the Cardiac Effects of Methadone. Panel members reviewed the literature, regulatory actions, professional guidances, and OTPs’ experiences regarding adverse cardiac events associated with methadone. The Panel concluded that, to the extent possible, every OTP should have a universal Cardiac Risk Management Plan (incorporating clinical assessment, ECG assessment, risk stratification, and prevention of drug interactions) for all patients, and should strongly consider patient-specific risk minimization strategies (such as careful patient monitoring, obtaining ECGs as indicated by a particular patient’s risk profile, and adjusting the methadone dose as needed) for patients with identified risk factors for adverse cardiac events. The Panel also suggested specific modifications to informed consent documents, patient education, staff education, and methadone protocols. PMID:22026519
Baharom, Nizam; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ali, Norsiah; Shah, Shamsul Azhar
Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) is one of the popular choices for drug substitution therapy and is fairly new in Malaysia. Aside from its role in harm reduction against HIV infection, MMT programme may potentially enhances clients' quality of life. This study aims to identify the impact of MMT programme on clients' quality of life after 6 months in treatment and to explore factors that may be associated with changes in their quality of life. In this retrospective report review, 122 subjects from 2 government MMT clinics were selected from the district of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The raw score from the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), at baseline and 6 months after therapy were collected and converted to 0-100 scale form to give quality of life scores for four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Other variables of interest were socio-demography, age when joining MMT programme, age and duration of illicit drug use, HIV and Hepatitis C status, and the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) score on drug use, sexual and social aspect at the baseline. Statistical analysis used the SPSS version 16. There was significant improvement in all four domains of quality of life, after 6 months of MMT. The largest improvement was for psychological domain (mean score difference 15.54 ± 20.81). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that, for the physical domain, there was no significant predictor. For both the psychological and social domains, having tertiary education is a significant predictor for improvement in both aspects of quality of life. Negative HIV status is associated with improvement for the environment domain. There was a significant short term improvement in the quality of life of MMT clients who stayed in the programme for at least 6 months in the district of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
Background Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) is one of the popular choices for drug substitution therapy and is fairly new in Malaysia. Aside from its role in harm reduction against HIV infection, MMT programme may potentially enhances clients’ quality of life. This study aims to identify the impact of MMT programme on clients’ quality of life after 6 months in treatment and to explore factors that may be associated with changes in their quality of life. Methods In this retrospective report review, 122 subjects from 2 government MMT clinics were selected from the district of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The raw score from the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), at baseline and 6 months after therapy were collected and converted to 0–100 scale form to give quality of life scores for four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Other variables of interest were socio-demography, age when joining MMT programme, age and duration of illicit drug use, HIV and Hepatitis C status, and the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) score on drug use, sexual and social aspect at the baseline. Statistical analysis used the SPSS version 16. Results There was significant improvement in all four domains of quality of life, after 6 months of MMT. The largest improvement was for psychological domain (mean score difference 15.54 ± 20.81). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that, for the physical domain, there was no significant predictor. For both the psychological and social domains, having tertiary education is a significant predictor for improvement in both aspects of quality of life. Negative HIV status is associated with improvement for the environment domain. Conclusions There was a significant short term improvement in the quality of life of MMT clients who stayed in the programme for at least 6 months in the district of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. PMID:22853701
Jiao, Mingxu; Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Hao, Chun; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yuteng; Zhang, Xiao; Babbitt, Andrew; Hao, Yuantao
A considerable proportion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients have experienced mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety), and poor mental health status is associated with HIV-related risk behaviors and treatment drop-out. Resilience is known to be a protective factor for mental health problems but is not studied among MMT clients in China. This study aimed to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health problems (depression, anxiety and stress) among clients of community-based MMT clinics in China. A total of 208 MMT clients completed the face-to-face interview conducted at 4 of 11 MMT clinics in Guangzhou. The Chinese short version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the presence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience. Logistic regression models were fit in data analyses. Of all participants, 12.8%, 19.5% and 8.3% had depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. The mean resilience score was 57.6 (SD = 15.9). In the univariate analyses, resilience was negatively associated with two studied mental health problems (depression and anxiety, ORu = 0.96 and 0.96, p < .01). In multivariate models adjusting for both background and other psycho-social factors, resilience was independently associated with probable depression (ORa = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and anxiety (ORa = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). Resilience was independently associated with depression and anxiety. As resilience is changeable, interventions targeting mental health problems of MMT users should consider resilience as an important part in the designing of such interventions.
Zaller, Nickolas D.; Fu, Jeannia J.; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Rich, Josiah D.
Objectives The authors sought to analyze the relationship between financial discharge from methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and subsequent involvement in the criminal justice system among individuals receiving state-subsidized MMT slots and individuals who were financially discharged from MMT. Methods The authors examined state-level client treatment records from all individuals who were on a subsidized MMT slot and all individuals who were discharged due to their inability to pay (financial discharge) from one of the three MMT programs during an 18-month period. The authors cross-referenced these records, through a state-managed database, with records of the Department of Corrections. Results Individuals in the control group had longer durations of stay in MMT and fewer other kinds of treatment admissions during the study period. An 81 percent of individuals in the financially discharged group received other treatment episodes versus 0.3 percent in the control group (p < 0.001). More than twice the number of individuals financially discharged from MMT were incarcerated during the study period when compared with the control group (67 percent vs 33 percent, p < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, individuals in the control group had 0.26 times the odds of incarceration when compared with individuals financially discharged from MMT (95% CI: 0.09-0.73). Conclusions MMT has been shown to reduce involvement in the criminal justice system, yet cost of MMT continues to inhibit its accessibility. Our data suggest that removal of cost as a barrier to access MMT may facilitate longer treatment duration and minimize involvement with the criminal justice system. PMID:21046934
Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Huifang; Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T.F.; Hao, Chun; Zhao, Yuteng; Davis, Alissa; Hao, Yuantao
Mental health problems are prevalent among drug users. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an evidence-based effective treatment for drug addiction; however, there are few studies investigating depression, suicidal ideation, and their related factors among MMT users. In this cross-sectional study, 648 MMT users were recruited from six MMT clinics in Guangzhou, China. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers. Of all participants, 270 (42.7%) exhibited probable depression (Depression Subscale of the Chinese short version of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-D), score ≥ 10) and 99 (15.3%) reported having suicidal ideation in the last six months. After adjusting for significant socio-demographic characteristics, all studied variables, including drug use history, social support, family support for MMT use, and satisfaction toward MMT services were significantly associated with both probable depression and suicidal ideation in the last six months. Furthermore, depression fully mediated the associations between drug use history, satisfaction toward MMT services, and suicidal ideation. In the final multivariate models, probable depression was associated with social support (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.83–0.93) and satisfaction toward MMT services provided by doctors (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40–0.86), while for suicidal ideation, social support (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78–0.92) and probable depression (OR = 5.94, 95% CI = 3.39–10.42) were significant. The findings suggest that there are unmet mental health needs among MMT users. For countries with limited resources of psychological services, mental health care toward MMT users should be implanted into current health care settings and incorporate components such as social support, family’s understanding of MMT, and service satisfaction. PMID:26839180
Meng, Jinmei; Burris, Scott
The behavior of police is an important factor in drug users' access to preventive and therapeutic health services. In China, opiate users must be registered and approved by police before accessing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We conducted a literature review to identify studies reporting original data about the influence of Chinese drug policing activities on MMT access and outcomes. Searches were conducted in PubMed, the Law Journal Library of HeinOnline, the Social Science Citation Index and China Academic Journals of CNKI for empirical studies conducted in China and published in academic journals between 2005 and April 2012. The initial literature search retrieved 276 records, of which 85 were included in the review and 191 were excluded. The majority of the included papers were single-clinic observational studies. These studies reported that: (1) fear of incarceration deterred users from initiating and continuing MMT; (2) the rates of MMT referral by police were considerably lower than those by drug user peers and by community and the media; (3) police sending users to compulsory detoxification (DETOX) and reeducation through labor (RTL) centers contributed to higher rates of MMT patient dropout; (4) arrests in and around MMT clinics were not uncommon; (5) cooperation between local police and public health agencies was difficult to achieve; and (6) a limited number of trial programs were conducted to refer detainees in DETOX to MMT clinics after release, but the outcomes were not promising. Reviewed studies report drug policing practices that appear to be impeding MMT access and reducing successful treatment outcomes. Research focusing on the nature, prevalence and severity of these effects is urgently needed. Health and public security officials in China should review and reform policies and practices of registering, monitoring, and incarcerating drug users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Huang-Chi; Wu, Hung-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Yao; Chung, Kuan-Sheng; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Craving is an important issue in substance use disorder. To achieve a better understanding of the cognitive processing systems of craving, the cognitive processes of craving have been considered as two distinct processes. One system, based on rule-based inferences and named explicit cognition, is more conscious and effortful. The other system, based on prior learned association and named implicit cognition, is unconscious and effortless. How explicit and implicit cognitions are associated with heroin use in patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is not clear. This study aimed to explore the relationship between explicit and implicit cognition and heroin use in patients undergoing MMT. This study recruited one-hundred forty intravenous heroin users. The participants were invited to provide social-demographic data, the severity of substance dependence and explicit cognition with regard to heroin. Then, participants completed a computerized test to assess implicit cognition with regards to heroin. This study found that explicit and implicit heroin-related cognitions were associated with the frequency of heroin use. There was an interaction effect between implicit and explicit cognition on the frequency of heroin use. This study also found that higher explicit heroin-related cognition was a risk factor for continuing heroin use. Both explicit and implicit cognitions were associated with the frequency of heroin use in patients undergoing MMT, but only explicit cognition was associated with whether patients could stop using heroin during MMT. Therefore, the status of heroin use in patients undergoing MMT may be related to different cognitive processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stark, K; Müller, R; Bienzle, U; Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I
To determine whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is effective in reducing the levels of HIV risk-taking behaviour (borrowing and lending of injection equipment, irregular condom use) among injecting drug users (IDUs), and to identify independent predictors of the borrowing of used syringes. Cross sectional study of IDUs in MMT and not in MMT, using standardised interviews for collection of sociodemographic and behavioural data, and laboratory tests for detecting HIV antibodies. The 612 IDUs were recruited at different services for drug users such as treatment centres, walk in agencies, a hospital, and on the streets. Of all IDUs, 41% had borrowed and 34% had passed on used injection equipment in the previous six months. In univariate analysis, IDUs receiving MMT had injected less frequently and were significantly less likely to borrow and lend syringes. In logistic regression analysis, MMT was protective against the borrowing of syringes (adjusted odds ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.2, 0.8), but not against syringe lending nor against sexual risk behaviour (i.e., numbers of sex partners, lack of condom use). Important independent predictors of the borrowing of syringes were injecting drug use in prison, use of sedatives, and sex with another IDU in the previous six months. MMT may play a significant role in reducing the levels of borrowing of syringes among IDUs. However, additional prevention measures are needed which should specifically address sexual risk behaviour and target subgroups of IDUs with high levels of needle sharing, such as IDUs who have been in prison and and those who are sedative users.
Ubuguyu, Omary; Tran, Olivia C.; Bruce, R. Douglas; Masao, Frank; Nyandindi, Cassian; Sabuni, Norman; McCurdy, Sheryl; Mbwambo, Jessie
Background Injection of heroin has become widespread in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and is spreading throughout the country. To prevent potential bridging of HIV epidemics, the Tanzanian government established a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic in February 2011. We assess the effect of MMT on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and examine factors, particularly HIV infection and methadone dose, associated with changes in HRQOL. Methods This study utilized routine data on clients enrolling in methadone from February 2011 to April 2012 at Muhimbili National Hospital. Change in physical (PCS) and mental health (MCS) composite scores, as measured by the SF-12 tool, were the primary outcomes. Backward stepwise linear regression, with a criterion of p<0.2 was used to identify baseline exposure variables for inclusion in multivariable models, while adjusting for baseline scores. Results A total of 288 MMT clients received baseline and follow-up assessments. Mean methadone dose administered was 45 mg (SD±25) and 76(27%) were confirmed HIV-positive. Significant improvements were observed in PCS and MCS, with mean increases of 15.7 and 3.3, respectively. In multivariable models, clients who had previous poly-substance use with cocaine [p=0.040] had a significantly higher mean change in PCS. Clients who were living with HIV [p=0.002]; satisfied with current marital situation [p=0.045]; had a history of suicidal thoughts [p=0.021]; and previously experienced cognitive difficulties [p=0.012] had significantly lower mean change in PCS. Clients with shorter history of heroin use [p=0.012] and who received higher methadone doses [p=0.028] had significantly higher mean change in MCS, compared to their counterparts. Discussion Aspects of mental and physical health, risk behaviors and quality of life among drug users are intertwined and complex. Our research revealed positive short-term effects of MMT on HRQOL and highlights the importance of sustained retention for
Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong
Background: Low-dose dextromethorphan (DM) might have anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects mechanistically remote from an NMDA receptor. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 week study, we investigated whether add-on dextromethorphan reduced cytokine levels and benefitted opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to a group: DM60 (60mg/day dextromethorphan; n = 65), DM120 (120mg/day dextromethorphan; n = 65), or placebo (n = 66). Primary outcomes were the methadone dose required, plasma morphine level, and retention in treatment. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor–β1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12. Multiple linear regressions with generalized estimating equation methods were used to examine the therapeutic effect. Results: After 12 weeks, the DM60 group had significantly longer treatment retention and lower plasma morphine levels than did the placebo group. Plasma TNF-α was significantly decreased in the DM60 group compared to the placebo group. However, changes in plasma cytokine levels, BDNF levels, and the methadone dose required in the three groups were not significantly different. Conclusions: We provide evidence—decreased concomitant heroin use—of low-dose add-on DM’s efficacy for treating opioid-dependent patients undergoing MMT. PMID:25716777
Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band
Low-dose dextromethorphan (DM) might have anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects mechanistically remote from an NMDA receptor. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 week study, we investigated whether add-on dextromethorphan reduced cytokine levels and benefitted opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). Patients were randomly assigned to a group: DM60 (60mg/day dextromethorphan; n = 65), DM120 (120mg/day dextromethorphan; n = 65), or placebo (n = 66). Primary outcomes were the methadone dose required, plasma morphine level, and retention in treatment. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor-β1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12. Multiple linear regressions with generalized estimating equation methods were used to examine the therapeutic effect. After 12 weeks, the DM60 group had significantly longer treatment retention and lower plasma morphine levels than did the placebo group. Plasma TNF-α was significantly decreased in the DM60 group compared to the placebo group. However, changes in plasma cytokine levels, BDNF levels, and the methadone dose required in the three groups were not significantly different. We provide evidence-decreased concomitant heroin use-of low-dose add-on DM's efficacy for treating opioid-dependent patients undergoing MMT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Hser, Yih-Ing; Li, Jianhua; Jiang, Haifeng; Zhang, Ruimin; Du, Jiang; Zhang, Congbin; Zhang, Bo; Evans, Elizabeth; Wu, Fei; Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Chinyi; Huang, David; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Roll, John; Zhao, Min
Aims Methadone maintenance treatment has been made available in China in response to the rapid spread of HIV, but high rates of dropout and relapse are problematic. The aim of this study was to apply and test if a contingency management (or motivational incentives) intervention can improve treatment retention and reduce drug use. Design Random assignment to usual care with (n=160) or without (n=159) incentives during a 12-week trial. Incentives participants earned draws for a chance to win prizes on two separate tracks targeting opiate-negative urine sample or consecutive attendance; the number of draws increased with continuous abstinence or attendance. Setting Community-based methadone maintenance clinics in Shanghai and Kunming. Participants The sample was 23.8 % female, mean age was 38, mean years of drug use was 9.4, and 57.8 % had injected drugs in the past 30 days. Measurements Treatment retention and negative drug urine. Findings Relative to the treatment-as-usual (control) group, better retention was observed among the Incentives group in Kunming (44% vs. 75%), but no difference was found in Shanghai (90% vs. 86%). Submission of negative urine samples was more common among the Incentive group than the usual care (74% vs. 68% in Shanghai, 27% vs. 18% in Kunming), as was the longest duration of sustained abstinence (7.7 wks vs. 6.5 in Shanghai, 2.5 vs. 1.6 in Kunming). The average total prize amount was 371 Yuan (or $55) per participant (527 for Shanghai vs. 216 in Kunming). Conclusions Contingency management improves treatment retention and drug abstinence in methadone maintenance treatment clinics in China, although there can be considerable site differences in magnitude of effects. PMID:21793958
Lintzeris, Nicholas; Mitchell, Timothy B; Bond, Alyson; Nestor, Liam; Strang, John
Benzodiazepine use by patients in methadone and buprenorphine substitution treatment is common, despite safety concerns regarding these drug interactions. The relative safety of diazepam use by methadone- or buprenorphine-treated patients has not been systematically examined. This study aimed to examine the effect of single diazepam doses, within normal therapeutic range (doses: 0, 10, and 20 mg), upon physiological, subjective, and performance measures in stable methadone and buprenorphine-treated patients. In a double-blind, randomized crossover design, methadone- or buprenorphine-treated patients were administered their normal opioid dose and either placebo, 10-, or 20-mg diazepam, in balanced order over 3 sessions. Eight methadone- and 8 buprenorphine-prescribed patients with no concurrent benzodiazepine dependence or significant comorbidity were recruited from an outpatient addiction clinic in London. Measures were taken at baseline and for 6 hours after dosing, and included physiological responses (pulse rate, blood pressure, pupil size, respiratory rate, and peripheral pO2), subjective drug effects (Addiction Research Center Inventory subscales, visual analog scales of strength of drug effect, drug-liking, and sedation), and performance measures (simple reaction time, cancellation task, digit symbol substitution task, and balance). The 10- and 20-mg diazepam doses resulted in comparable subjective experiences of greater sedation and strength of drug effects in both patient groups, and had minimal impact on physiological parameters. However, diazepam had greater peak effects on performance measures (simple reaction time, digit symbol substitution task, and cancellation time) in methadone-treated than in buprenorphine-treated patients. Diazepam may significantly alter the response to opioid substitution treatment with methadone or buprenorphine.
Damon, Will; Small, Will; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; McNeil, Ryan
Patient attrition is common among people enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs and most pronounced during the first year of treatment. However, the experiences of patients initiating MMT have been overlooked in the literature. This study explores experiences of MMT initiation among MMT patients, focusing on contextual influences on MMT initiation and perceptions of MMT and their subsequent influence on treatment retention. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 MMT patients in Vancouver, Canada. Individuals reporting enrolment in MMT were recruited from within two ongoing cohort studies comprised of people who use drugs. Interview transcripts were analysed using an inductive and iterative approach. Two groups of MMT initiators were identified: (i) 'crisis initiators' prescribed methadone following critical transition events, such as incarceration or pregnancy; and (ii) 'everyday initiators' enrolled in MMT as part of routine healthcare utilisation. While most 'crisis initiators' and some 'everyday initiators' described experiencing coercion during MMT initiation, 'crisis initiators' were further subjected to the coercive leveraging of their vulnerability to motivate 'consent' for MMT. 'Crisis initiators' developed negative views towards MMT and were more likely to discontinue treatment. Long-standing patient-provider relationships and open dialogue were associated with more positive views regarding MMT, regardless of the circumstances of initiation. Findings underscore the need for clear and effective communication regarding treatment regimens and expectations during MMT initiation. Furthermore, training in trauma-informed care may help reduce perceptions of coercion and rates of early treatment termination. [Damon W, Small W, Anderson S, Maher L, Wood E, Kerr T, McNeil R. Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation. Drug
Musshoff, Frank; Trafkowski, Jens; Lichtermann, Dirk; Madea, Burkhard
Urine samples of patients from a heroin maintenance program (HMP) and a methadone maintenance program (MMP) were chromatographically analyzed 1 month before and 6 and 12 months into treatment for the presence of classical markers of heroin use as well as for the presence of markers for illicit heroin abuse. Furthermore, the samples were immunochemically tested for cannabinoids, cocaine metabolites, amphetamine, methylendioxyamphetamines and benzodiazepines. A co-consumption of illicit heroin (HER) in the HMP was determined to be 50% but was significantly lower compared to the MMP with a co-use of 71%. The incidence was high because not only acetylcodeine (AC) as a very specific marker was considered but also other marker substances for illicit HER use. Amphetamines played only a minor part in both collectives, and the proportion of HER and methadone patients using cocaine was similar and decreased during treatment. Also, the benzodiazepine use decreased, and cannabis use was high in both collectives during treatment. Considering only the AC in the present study, a co-use of illicit HER in the HMP was similar to previous reports concerning HER-assisted treatment programs. If additional marker substances were examined, the suspicion of a co-use of illicit HER is markedly enhanced.
Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A.
Background Patient satisfaction is an important component of quality in healthcare delivery. To inform the expansion of Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) services in Vietnam, we examined the satisfaction of patients with regards to different services delivery models and identified its associated factors. Methods We interviewed 1,016 MMT patients at 5 clinics in Hanoi and Nam Dinh province. The modified SATIS instrument, a 10-item scale, was used to measure three dimensions: “Services quality and convenience”, “Health workers’ capacity and responsiveness” and “Inter-professional care”. Results The average score was high across three SATIS dimensions. However, only one third of patients completely satisfied with general health services and treatment outcomes. Older age, higher education, having any problem in self-care and anxiety/depression were negatively associated with patient’s satisfaction. Meanwhile, patients receiving MMT at clinics, where more comprehensive HIV and general health care services were available, were more likely to report a complete satisfaction. Conclusion Patients were highly satisfied with MMT services in Vietnam. However, treatment for drug users should go beyond methadone maintenance to address complicated health demands of drug users. Integrating MMT with comprehensive HIV and general health services together with improving the capacity of health workers and efficiency of services organisation to provide interconnected health care for drug users are critical for improving the outcomes of the MMT program. PMID:26556036
Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B; Anglin, Rebecca; Steiner, Meir; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab
Use of methadone for the treatment of opioid addiction is an effective harm-reduction approach, although variability in treatment outcomes among individuals has been reported. Men and women with opioid addiction have been known to differ in factors such as opioid use patterns and characteristics at treatment entry; however, little has been reported about differences in methadone treatment outcomes between men and women. Therefore, we present a protocol for a systematic review which aims to provide a summary of existing literature on sex differences in outcomes of methadone treatment for opioid addiction. Electronic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases will be conducted using a priori defined search strategy. Two authors (MB and BBD) will independently screen potential articles for eligibility using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria and extract key information using a data extraction form designed for this study. Discrepancies will be resolved using a third party (ZS). The primary outcome will be sex differences in response to treatment defined as abstinence from illicit opioid use. We will also assess sex differences in treatment outcomes including treatment retention, remission status post-treatment, polysubstance abuse, methadone dose, drug-related adverse events, health status, psychological status, mortality, criminal activity, high risk sexual behavior, social support/relations, and employment. A meta-analysis will be conducted if possible; risk of bias and overall quality of evidence will be assessed to determine confidence in the estimates. We anticipate that this review will highlight how men and women differ in methadone treatment outcomes and allow us to generate conclusions that can be applied to treatment in a clinical setting. PROSPERO CRD42013006549.
Background Use of methadone for the treatment of opioid addiction is an effective harm-reduction approach, although variability in treatment outcomes among individuals has been reported. Men and women with opioid addiction have been known to differ in factors such as opioid use patterns and characteristics at treatment entry; however, little has been reported about differences in methadone treatment outcomes between men and women. Therefore, we present a protocol for a systematic review which aims to provide a summary of existing literature on sex differences in outcomes of methadone treatment for opioid addiction. Methods/Design Electronic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases will be conducted using a priori defined search strategy. Two authors (MB and BBD) will independently screen potential articles for eligibility using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria and extract key information using a data extraction form designed for this study. Discrepancies will be resolved using a third party (ZS). The primary outcome will be sex differences in response to treatment defined as abstinence from illicit opioid use. We will also assess sex differences in treatment outcomes including treatment retention, remission status post-treatment, polysubstance abuse, methadone dose, drug-related adverse events, health status, psychological status, mortality, criminal activity, high risk sexual behavior, social support/relations, and employment. A meta-analysis will be conducted if possible; risk of bias and overall quality of evidence will be assessed to determine confidence in the estimates. Discussion We anticipate that this review will highlight how men and women differ in methadone treatment outcomes and allow us to generate conclusions that can be applied to treatment in a clinical setting. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42013006549 PMID:24887111
Lee, Hsin-Ya; Li, Jih-Heng; Sheu, Yuh-Ling; Tang, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw; Liu, Ray-H.
This pilot study simultaneously evaluated the effects of various factors, including genetic variations of CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and ABCB1, demographic characteristics, disease states, methadone-drug interactions (MDIs), and poly-substance use, on the treatment responses among non-HIV patients in the methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) in Taiwan. A total of 178 patients were recruited from two major hospitals that provided MMTP services in southern Taiwan, and information regarding concomitant medications and diseases was acquired from the National Health Insurance (NHI) program. The results demonstrated that the methadone maintenance dose, CYP2B6 785G allele, and ABCB1 2677T allele have positive effects on the methadone plasma concentration. In contrast, patients with HCV coinfection, alcohol problems, and psychiatric diseases may have a negative response to treatment. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of treatment responses in the MMTP should include not only genetic polymorphisms in methadone metabolism and transporter proteins, but also concomitant diseases, MDIs, and poly-substance use. The results also suggest that personalized medicine may be indispensable for a better outcome of the MMTP. PMID:24455721
Lee, Hsin-Ya; Li, Jih-Heng; Sheu, Yuh-Ling; Tang, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw; Liu, Ray-H
This pilot study simultaneously evaluated the effects of various factors, including genetic variations of CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and ABCB1, demographic characteristics, disease states, methadone-drug interactions (MDIs), and poly-substance use, on the treatment responses among non-HIV patients in the methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) in Taiwan. A total of 178 patients were recruited from two major hospitals that provided MMTP services in southern Taiwan, and information regarding concomitant medications and diseases was acquired from the National Health Insurance (NHI) program. The results demonstrated that the methadone maintenance dose, CYP2B6 785G allele, and ABCB1 2677T allele have positive effects on the methadone plasma concentration. In contrast, patients with HCV coinfection, alcohol problems, and psychiatric diseases may have a negative response to treatment. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of treatment responses in the MMTP should include not only genetic polymorphisms in methadone metabolism and transporter proteins, but also concomitant diseases, MDIs, and poly-substance use. The results also suggest that personalized medicine may be indispensable for a better outcome of the MMTP.
Manan, Mohamed Mansor; Ali, Salmiah Mohd; Khan, Muhammad Anwar Nawab; Jafarian, Sara
Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments may burden Methadone Maintenance Clinic patients. Since treatment is fully subsidized by the government, financial constraint might lead to patients being made to pay or be given incentive for inconvenience of therapy. This study thus evaluates the characteristic and commitment of methadone therapy patient's in terms of OOP cost, Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) and Willingness-To-Accept (WTA) concept. This survey utilizes the questionnaire by Boris ova & Goodman (2003) on the OOP, WTP and WTA. The forty adult patient's selected medical records from year 2009-2011 were from an urban government methadone clinic. Subject's selection was by convenient sampling based on the predetermined criteria. Most were male (95%) and Malay (60%) was the predominant group. Patients were group into three income groups; ≤ RM1000, ≥ RM1000 -≤ RM2000 and ≥ RM3000. The average OOP cost per month was RM391.30 (s.d RM337.50), which is about 35% of employed patient's monthly income. The wide variation could be attributed by high inter-individual and significant differences between patients in terms of transport, times taken to clinic, cost per trip and weekly household income (p=<0.05). Patients with income of less than RM1000 showed the highest tendency to pay for treatment, asked for the least money for inconvenience and many are unwilling to accept any payments. These findings showed that WTP and WTA is less of a concern for patients in the low-income group. To conclude, OOP payment is not a treatment barrier for most of the urban MMT patients.
Kirby, Kimberly C; Kerwin, Marylouise E; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Rosenwasser, Beth J; Gardner, Robert S
Contingency management (CM) for drug abstinence has been applied to individuals independently even when delivered in groups. We developed a group CM intervention in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual determined reinforcement delivery for the entire group. We also compared contingencies placed only on cocaine abstinence (CA) versus one of four behaviors (CA, treatment attendance, group CM attendance, and methadone compliance) selected randomly at each drawing. Two groups were formed with 22 cocaine-dependent community-based methadone patients and exposed to both CA and multiple behavior (MB) conditions in a reversal design counterbalanced across groups for exposure order. The group CM intervention proved feasible and safe. The MB condition improved group CM meeting attendance relative to the CA condition.
Soleimani, Robabeh; Modabbernia, Mohammad Jafar; Habibi, Sharareh; Roudsary, Maryam Habibi; Elahi, Masoumeh
Background: Sleep disturbance is a common complaint of patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). There are limited studies about the effect of different treatments on insomnia due to MMT. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBTI) on sleep disorders in patients undergoing MMT. Methods: Twenty-two patients with insomnia due to MMT (aged 18-60 years) participated in this randomized double-blind clinical trial. The intervention group received CBTI from a clinical psychologist for 8 weeks, whereas the control group received behavioral placebo therapy (BPT). The duration of individual sessions was 45 minutes, which was conducted once a week. The primary outcome was sleep disturbance assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: Eleven patients were assigned to each group. Two groups were matched according to demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and daily methadone doses). Although PSQI score was significantly reduced during weeks 5 and 8 after both interventions, there was a significant difference in intervention versus time interaction (P<0.02). The effects of CBTI versus placebo were significantly different (P<0.001). The time course was also significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that CBTI is more effective than BPT in overall sleep quality. We recommend further studies, with a larger sample, on CBTI in patients undergoing MMT. PMID:26379345
Cousins, Gráinne; Teljeur, Conor; Motterlini, Nicola; McCowan, Colin; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Fahey, Tom
This study aims to identify periods of elevated risk of drug-related mortality during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in primary care using a cohort of 3,162 Scottish drug users between January 1993 and February 2004. Deaths occurring during treatment or within 3 days after last methadone prescription expired were considered as cases "on treatment." Fatalities occurring 4 days or more after leaving treatment were cases "off treatment." Sixty-four drug-related deaths were identified. The greatest risk of drug-related death was in the first 2 weeks of treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 2.60, 95% confidence interval 1.03-6.56). Risk of drug-related death was lower after the first 30 days following treatment cessation, relative to the first 30 days off treatment. History of psychiatric admission was associated with increased risk of drug-related death in treatment. Increasing numbers of treatment episodes and urine testing were protective. History of psychiatric admission, increasing numbers of urine tests, and coprescriptions of benzodiazepines increased the risk of mortality out of treatment. The risk of drug-related mortality in MMT is elevated during periods of treatment transition, specifically treatment initiation and the first 30 days following treatment dropout or discharge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jaremko, Kellie M.; Sterling, Robert C.; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.
The present study investigated whether psychological and/or physiological measures of stress would impede induction onto methadone maintenance and predict early (<6 months) discontinuation. Compared with controls, opioid-dependent subjects displayed increased distress on the perceived stress scale (PSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder checklist (PCLC); 60% exhibited abnormal cortisol. Addiction severity index (ASI), drug-use, and stress indices explained between 17–37% of the variance in engagement including attendance, opioid abstinence, and methadone stabilization. Participants who discontinued treatment displayed poor engagement, abnormal cortisol, elevated withdrawal symptoms, higher distress, and increased ongoing opioid use versus compliant individuals. Discontinuation was initially related to drug-use severity; however, by 6 months, retention depended primarily upon cortisol abnormalities, which increased an individual’s discontinuation risk by 7.7-fold. These findings support admission screening with the ASI/cortisol for drop out, and stress/drug-use indices for engagement that together may enable clinically-relevant early recognition and interventions for prevention of stress-induced relapse in opioid-dependent populations. PMID:25239858
Yang, Ying-Jia; Xu, Yan-Min; Chen, Wen-Cai; Zhu, Jun-Hong; Lu, Jin; Zhong, Bao-Liang
To date there have been no studies investigating the characteristics of pain in Chinese heroin-dependent patients (HDPs) receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). This study examined the frequency and socio-demographic and clinical correlates of pain in HDPs under MMT. A consecutive sample of 603 HDPs was recruited from three MMT clinics in Wuhan, China. These patients completed a standardized questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and clinical data. Pain intensity was assessed with the 5-point Verbal Rating Scale ("Overall, how intense is your pain now?") with responses of: 1 = none, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = severe, 5 = very severe. A pain score of three or higher was used to denote clinical significant pain (CSP). The prevalence of CSP in HDPs receiving MMT was 53.6%. Factors significantly associated CSP in multiple logistics regression analysis were old age, marital status of "non-married", unemployment, having religious beliefs, a history of injecting heroin, a high dose of methadone, and more depressive symptoms. Over a half of Chinese HDPs receiving MMT have CSP. Services for HDPs in MMT settings should include periodic screening for pain, psychosocial supports, and professional treatment for pain.
Jaremko, Kellie M; Sterling, Robert C; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J
The present study investigated whether psychological and/or physiological measures of stress would impede induction onto methadone maintenance and predict early (<6 months) discontinuation. Compared with controls, opioid-dependent subjects displayed increased distress on the perceived stress scale (PSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder checklist (PCLC); 60% exhibited abnormal cortisol. Addiction severity index (ASI), drug-use, and stress indices explained between 17 and 37% of the variance in engagement including attendance, opioid abstinence, and methadone stabilization. Participants who discontinued treatment displayed poor engagement, abnormal cortisol, elevated withdrawal symptoms, higher distress, and increased ongoing opioid use versus compliant individuals. Discontinuation was initially related to drug-use severity; however, by 6 months, retention depended primarily upon cortisol abnormalities, which increased an individual's discontinuation risk by 7.7-fold. These findings support admission screening with the ASI/cortisol for drop out, and stress/drug-use indices for engagement that together may enable clinically-relevant early recognition and interventions for prevention of stress-induced relapse in opioid-dependent populations.
Varenbut, Michael; Plater-Zyberk, Carolyn J; Worster, Andrew; Daiter, Jeff
We sought to test the assumption that a low urine creatinine level is indicative of the presence of alcohol in the urine of patients prescribed methadone. This is a medical record review of 261,055 urine samples from approximately 6,000 patients prescribed methadone during a one-year period and for whom both urine creatinine and ethanol levels were simultaneously measured. We defined a creatinine level of less than 2.26 mmol/L as 'low' used a urine ethanol level of greater than 2.0 mmol/L as the reference standard for alcohol consumption. The sensitivity and specificity of low urine creatinine as a marker for the detection of urine ethanol are 11.9% (95% CI: 11.3, 12.5%) and 96.7% (95% CI: 96.7, 96.7%), respectively. In this patient population with a low (3.6%) prevalence of alcohol in the urine, the results correspond to a positive predictive value of 11.9% (95% CI: 11.3, 12.6%) and a negative predictive value of 96.7% (95% CI: 96.7, 96.7%), respectively. Low urine creatinine is a poor screening test for detecting alcohol consumption among patients on methadone. However, a normal creatinine level has a 96.7% probability of no alcohol urine present in the urine.
McGlone, Laura; Mactier, Helen; Hassan, Huda; Cooper, Gail
To describe the prevalence of in utero alcohol and illicit drug exposure in infants born to mothers prescribed methadone in pregnancy, and to compare the accuracy of maternal interview with infant toxicology. Urine and meconium samples were collected from 56 infants born to mothers prescribed methadone during pregnancy and a confidential interview conducted soon after delivery. Samples were screened for drugs of misuse and meconium samples analysed for the presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) to detect prenatal alcohol exposure. 91% of infants had been exposed to illicit drugs in utero, including opiates (73%), benzodiazepines (70%) and cannabinoids (59%). 47% of infants had elevated FAEEs. Meconium was more sensitive at detecting in utero drug exposure than urine toxicology (p<0.01 for opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids) or maternal interview (p=0.03 for opiates, p<0.01 for cannabinoids). The majority of infants born to mothers prescribed methadone during pregnancy are exposed to polysubstance misuse, and almost one-half additionally exposed to excess alcohol.
Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Dürsteler-MacFarland, Kenneth M; Auwaerter, Volker; Ergovic, Sonja; Thon, Natasha; Yegles, Michel; Halter, Claudia; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A
Heavy alcohol consumption may accelerate the progression of hepatitis C (HCV)-related liver disease and/or limit efforts at antiviral treatment. As most of the patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) suffer from hepatitis C infection, this study was conducted to identify the alcohol intake among these patients at a Swiss Psychiatric University Clinic by self-reports and direct ethanol metabolites as biomarkers of ethanol consumption. A convenience sample of 40 MMT patients (15 women, 25 men; median age 39 years) of the total 124 patients was asked and consented to participate in this study. This sample was not different in age, gender distribution, and rate of hepatitis C infection from the total sample. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and self-reported ethanol intake during the previous 7 days were assessed. In addition, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine, and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and EtG in hair were determined using LC-MS/MS and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. The limit of quantitation for UEtG, HEtG, and FAEEs were 0.1 mg/l, 2.3 pg/mg, and 0.1 ng/mg, respectively. Fourteen participants reported abstinence from alcohol for the previous 7 days. AUDIT scores were > or =8 in 15 male and >5 in 5 female participants. Direct ethanol metabolites were as follows (median, min, max, standard deviation): UEtG (19 positives; 9.91, 1.38 to 251, 62.39 mg/l); the values of HEtG were 17.65, 0 to 513, 105.62 pg/mg [in 2 cases no material, 8 abstinent (up to 7 pg/mg), 15 social drinkers (up to 50 g per day), and 15 excessive users (>50/60 g/d)]. For the 13 cases, where enough material for additional determination of HFAEEs was available, the values were 0.32, 0 to 1.32, 0.44 ng/mg. Among the 30 HEtG-positive participants, 20 had not reported the corresponding ethanol intake using question 1 (frequency) and 2 (quantity) of the AUDIT. Of the 14 participants reporting no alcohol intake during the previous 7 days, 4 were UEt
Potik, David; Peles, Einat; Abramsohn, Yahli; Adelson, Miriam; Schreiber, Shaul
The relationship between vulnerable attachment style, psychopathology, drug abuse, and retention in treatment among patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was examined by the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and drug abuse urine tests. After six years, retention in treatment and repeated urine test results were studied. Patients with vulnerable attachment style (a high VASQ score) had higher rates of drug abuse and higher psychopathology levels compared to patients with secure attachment style, especially on the interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation scales. Drug abstinence at baseline was related to retention in treatment and to higher rates of drug abstinence after six years in MMT, whereas a vulnerable attachment style could not predict drug abstinence and retention in treatment. Clinical Implications concerning treatment of drug abusing populations and methodological issues concerning the VASQ's subscales are also discussed.
Moore, Brent A.; Fazzino, Tera; Barry, Declan T.; Fiellin, David A.; Cutter, Christopher J.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Ball, Samuel A.
The current pilot study evaluated feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a therapeutic Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system (“The Recovery Line”) for patients receiving methadone maintenance who continue to use illicit drugs. Patients were randomized (N=36) to four weeks of Treatment-as-Usual (TAU) or Recovery Line plus TAU. Ratings of The Recovery Line were high and remained stable throughout the study. However, despite instructions and reminders, patients used substantially less than the recommended daily use (<10 days of 28). Patients were more likely to report abstinence for opioids and cocaine on days they used the Recovery Line (p = .01) than those they did not. Conditions did not differ significantly on patient satisfaction, urine screen outcomes, or coping efficacy. As with other computer-based treatments, findings suggest the Recovery Line is acceptable and feasible. However, additional methods to increase patient utilization of automated systems and larger clinical trials are needed. PMID:23375114
Wells, E A; Calsyn, D A; Clark, L L; Saxon, A J; Jackson, T R
Using AIDS Initial Assessment questionnaire (AIA) data from 353 injection drug users (IDUs) newly admitted to methadone maintenance (MM), three dimensions of injection risk behavior ("sharing with sexual partner," "sharing with others," and "new needle use") were identified. Among IDUs who continued to inject drugs at 1 year, men retained in treatment obtained lower scores on the "sharing with others" scale than men not retained, even when controlling for initial scale scores and injection frequency. Associations between retention in MM and changes in sexual risk were examined using two AIA measures of sexual risk behavior ("number of IDU sexual partners" and "relative frequency of protected vaginal intercourse"). Controlling for injection frequency, prior sexual risk, and age, there was no difference in sexual risk for men retained in treatment versus those not retained. Among women, those who stayed in MM for 1 year reported significantly fewer IDU partners.
Peles, Einat; Sason, Anat; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the gold standard for pregnant women with opioid use disorders. Still, low birth-weights were reported, in particular of mothers who became pregnant before admission to MMT. We studied whether an escalating incentive contingency-management approach may contribute to better newborn birth-weights. A nationwide controlled randomized trial among all Israeli methadone/buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MBMT), newly or already in treatment pregnant women was performed. A modified contingency-management protocol with coupons of escalating value depending upon reduction of drug use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption was compared to standard care arm. Drugs in urine, smoking (Fagerstrom score), alcohol use, and depression were monitored. Thirty-five women had 46 pregnancies. In their first pregnancy, 19 from the contingency-management and 16 from the standard care arms were studied. Contingency-management group as compared to the standard care arm included more newly admitted women (36.8% vs. 6.3%, p = .05), with benzodiazepine and cannabis onset at a younger age, and higher proportion of any drug abuse while pregnant (100% vs. 68.8%, p = .01). Fifteen of the contingency-management and 14 of the control arm gave birth (78.9% vs. 87.5%, p = .3) with similar proportions of normal (>2,500 g) birth-weight (71.4% vs. 61.5%, p = .8). Newborns' birth-weight was comparable among the two study arms indicating no contribution of the contingency-management approach. Small sample and baseline differences between arms might have influenced results. Intensive intervention should be evaluated on a larger scale of participants. (Am J Addict 2017;26:167-175). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Yan, Liping; Liu, Enwu; McGoogan, Jennifer M; Duan, Song; Wu, Li-Tzy; Comulada, Scott; Wu, Zunyou
Both compulsory detoxification treatment and community-based methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) exist for heroin addicts in China. We aim to examine the effectiveness of three intervention models for referring heroin addicts released from compulsory detoxification centers to community methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China. Using a quasi-experimental study design, three different referral models were assigned to four detoxification centers. Heroin addicts were enrolled based on their fulfillment to eligibility criteria and provision of informed consent. Two months prior to their release, information on demographic characteristics, history of heroin use, and prior participation in intervention programs was collected via a survey, and blood samples were obtained for HIV testing. All subjects were followed for six months after release from detoxification centers. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors predicting successful referrals to MMT clinics. Of the 226 participants who were released and followed, 9.7% were successfully referred to MMT(16.2% of HIV-positive participants and 7.0% of HIV-negative participants). A higher proportion of successful referrals was observed among participants who received both referral cards and MMT treatment while still in detoxification centers (25.8%) as compared to those who received both referral cards and police-assisted MMT enrollment (5.4%) and those who received referral cards only (0%). Furthermore, those who received referral cards and MMT treatment while still in detoxification had increased odds of successful referral to an MMT clinic (adjusted OR = 1.2, CI = 1.1-1.3). Having participated in an MMT program prior to detention (OR = 1.5, CI = 1.3-1.6) was the only baseline covariate associated with increased odds of successful referral. Findings suggest that providing MMT within detoxification centers promotes successful
Wang, Mei; Shen, Jiucheng; Liu, Xianling; Deng, Yuan; Li, Jiahua; Finch, Emily; Wolff, Kim
Substance misuse has been a major health and social issue worldwide and has become an important public health issue in China over the past two decades. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been proved worldwide by large bodies of research to be one of the most effective practices for illicit drug users. The Treatment Outcome Profile (TOP) was developed in 2007 by the UK National Treatment Agency (NTA). It has been proved to be a reliable instrument for outcome measure. This study aim to develop the Chinese version of the Treatment Outcome Profile (TOP), and to assess whether TOP is a reliable outcome measure that can be recommended for use in Chinese MMT program. The Chinese version of TOP was translated and revised based on the English version of TOP. Psychometric properties of TOP were evaluated through face-to-face interviews in 197 patients who had been attending methadone maintenance treatment clinics in Kunming city, Yunnan Institute for Drug Abuse, for less than three months. Patients were interviewed by 3 trained interviewers. Reliability and validity of the instrument were analyzed by measures including test-retest and inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and change sensitivity. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the scores from TOP with scores obtained from validated clinometric instruments. Self-reported opiate use was compared with results of urine analysis. Change sensitivity was judged by t-tests and chi-square tests. About 67% of the 197 interviewers were male and 33% were female. Test-retest reliability of TOP scores (after 10 days interval) were good (K=0.65 to 0.95), inter-rater correlations (ICC) ranged from 0.7 to 0.9, and the criterion validity ranged from 0.72 to 0.88. TOP covers a large scope of problems encountered by drug users needed for treatment. The Chinese version of TOP is a reliable and valid assessment tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singh, P M; Shrestha, D M; Bhandari, G P
Methadone maintenance therapy is widely accepted form of substitution therapy in people with Opioid dependent client. It is a kind of harm reduction strategy which prevents the spread of HIV and hepatitis among injecting drug users. It also improves quality of life and help decrease crime and other social issues. The program has been in Nepal for few years. The clients are increasing more each day and the demand for the program is also increasing. There is an urgent need of scaling-up the program in Nepal to address the increasing number of clients and unreached clients. This is an attempt to assess qualitatively the methadone maintenance therapy program in Nepal to generate evidences as a support to existing programs and to scale up the program in unreached population. The qualitative study revealed that the clients had adequate knowledge on the program and the program is quite satisfactory. However, they have to wait for a long to get enrollment in the program, there is no counseling session and they were more concern about the quality of the drug. Despite many lacunae, the participants found the program very useful in terms of developing good relation with family members, decreasing the necessity of money, being able to attend social functions, health and economic benefits, time saving, easily getting job. On the other hand, they were experiencing adverse effect such as decreasing sexual performance, dental caries, nausea, social stigma due to misuse of the program by some clients which are not properly addressed by the program. The program can be improved by making it priority problem at national level by the government, improving it as one stop shopping such as providing counseling, medicine and skill development program at one place.
Martinez, A. D.; Dimova, R.; Marks, K. M.; Beeder, A. B.; Zeremski, M.; Kreek, M. J.; Talal, A. H.
SUMMARY Despite a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among drug users, HCV evaluation and treatment acceptance are extremely low among these patients when referred from drug treatment facilities for HCV management. We sought to increase HCV treatment effectiveness among patients from a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) by maintaining continuity of care. We developed, instituted and retrospectively assessed the effectiveness of an integrated, co-localized care model in which an internist-addiction medicine specialist from MMTP was embedded in the hepatitis clinic. Methadone maintenance treatment program patients were referred, evaluated by the internist and hepatologist in hepatitis clinic and provided HCV treatment with integration between both sites. Of 401 evaluated patients, anti-HCV antibody was detected in 257, 86% of whom were older than 40 years. Hepatitis C virus RNA levels were measured in 222 patients, 65 of whom were aviremic. Of 157 patients with detectable HCV RNA, 125 were eligible for referral to the hepatitis clinic, 76 (61%) of whom accepted and adhered with the referral. Men engaged in MMTP <36 months were significantly less likely to be seen in hepatitis clinic than men in MMTP more than 36 months (odds ratio = 7.7; 95% confidence interval 2.6-22.9) or women. We evaluated liver histology in 63 patients, and 83% had moderate to advanced liver disease. Twenty-four patients initiated treatment with 19 completing and 13 (54%) achieving sustained response. In conclusion, integrated care between the MMTP and the hepatitis clinic improves adherence with HCV evaluation and treatment compared to standard referral practices. PMID:21129131
Zhao, Yan; Shi, Cynthia X.; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Rou, Keming; Zhang, Fujie; Wu, Zunyou
Aims The objective of this study was to examine factors that predict antiretroviral therapy (ART) access among eligible, HIV-positive methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients. We also tested the hypothesis that sustained MMT participation increases the likelihood of accessing ART. Design A nationwide cohort study conducted from March 1, 2004 to December 31, 2011. Setting MMT clients were followed from the time of their enrollment in China's national MMT program until their death or the study end date. Participants Our cohort was composed of 7,111 ART-eligible, HIV-positive MMT clients, 49.2% of whom remained ART-naïve and 50.8% of whom received ART. Measurements Demographic variables, drug use history, MMT program participation, and HIV-related clinical characteristics of study participants who remained naïve to ART and those who accessed ART were compared by univariate and multivariable analysis. Findings Predictors of accessing ART among this cohort included being retained in MMT at the time of first meeting ART eligibility (AOR=1.84, CI: 1.55-2.21, p<0.001) compared to meeting ART eligibility before entering MMT (AOR=0.98, CI:0.80-1.21, p=0.849) or previously entering MMT and dropping out before meeting ART eligibility. Additional predictors were CD4 >200 cells/μL when ART-eligibility requirement was first met (AOR=1.94, CI: 1.73-2.19, p<0.001 compared to CD4=200-350 cells/μL), and being in a stable partner relationship (married/cohabitating: AOR=1.14, CI: 1.01-1.28, p=0.029). Conclusions Retained participation in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) increases the likelihood that eligible clients will access antiretroviral therapy (ART). These results highlight the potential benefit of co-localization of MMT and ART services in a “one-stop-shop” model. PMID:25533863
Reingardiene, Dagmara; Jodziūniene, Liucija; Lazauskas, Robertas
Methadone is a long-acting synthetic opioid with high affinity for various opioid receptors, especially for m-opioid receptors. Methadone has been used as a successful pharmacologic intervention for the treatment of heroin dependence and acute and chronic pain. This treatment is effective for opiate addiction, reducing morbidity and mortality associated with heroin use. However, overdosing with methadone has become a growing phenomenon because of the increased availability of this drug. Patients enrolled in a methadone maintenance treatment program may become physically dependent and may experience methadone withdrawal symptoms. In this review article, there are discussed about pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of methadone, clinical symptoms of its overdose, dosage problems, detection of methadone in biological samples, treatment, and causes of methadone overdose-related deaths.
Rastegar, Darius A; Sharfstein Kawasaki, Sarah; King, Van L; Harris, Elizabeth E; Brooner, Robert K
Entry into methadone maintenance is associated with a reduction in criminal activity; less is known about the effects of office-based buprenorphine. To compare criminal charges before and after enrollment in methadone maintenance or office-based buprenorphine. Subjects were opioid-dependent adults who initiated either methadone maintenance (n = 252) or office-based buprenorphine (n = 252) between 2003 and 2007. Medical records were reviewed to gather demographic data and a state-maintained web-based database to collect data on criminal charges. Overall charges and drug charges in the 2 years prior to and after treatment enrollment were compared. Multivariable analysis was used to examine risk factors for charges after treatment enrollment. In the 2 years after enrolling in treatment, subjects receiving methadone had a significant decline in the proportion of subjects with any charges (49.6% vs. 32.5%, p < .001) or drug charges (25.0% vs. 17.5%, p = .015), as well as the mean number of cases (0.97 vs. 0.63, p = .002) and drug cases (0.38 vs. 0.23, p = .008), while those who initiated buprenorphine did not have significant changes in any of these measures. On multivariable analysis, the strongest predictor of criminal charges in the 2 years after treatment enrollment was prior charges (adjusted odds ratio 3.35, 95% confidence interval, 2.24-5.01). Enrollment in office-based buprenorphine treatment did not appear to have the same beneficial effect on subsequent criminal charges as methadone maintenance. If this observation is replicated in other settings, it may have implications for matching individuals to these treatment options.
Menopause is a natural process that occurs in women's lives as part of normal aging. Many women go through the menopausal transition with few or no symptoms, while some have significant or even disabling symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the menopausal symptom experience of 135 urban methadone-maintained midlife women between the ages of 40 and 55 years. A cross-sectional survey comprising sample characteristic questions and a 14-item menopause symptom checklist was administered. Ninety-six percent reported one or more symptoms with a mean of 6.2 symptoms. Symptom reporting was found to be relatively high, with more than half of the sample reporting hot flashes, night sweats, sleep disturbances, joint pains, and fatigue in the two weeks preceding the survey. However, the psychological symptoms (irritability and depression) were the two most common symptoms in this sample. This study documents a relatively heavy burden of symptoms in an aging cohort of methadone-maintained women. The physical and psychological impact of aging and, in particular, the experience of menopause in these women is rarely studied and poorly understood. This gap in critical knowledge is further complicated by the remarkable similarity of many symptoms associated with menopause and opiate withdrawal. Aging, drug-related health problems, and poor access to health care further complicate the picture and underscore the importance of better integration of health care with social work intervention.
Beck, Thilo; Haasen, Christian; Verthein, Uwe; Walcher, Stephan; Schuler, Christoph; Backmund, Markus; Ruckes, Christian; Reimer, Jens
Aims To compare the efficacy of slow-release oral morphine (SROM) and methadone as maintenance medication for opioid dependence in patients previously treated with methadone. Design Prospective, multiple-dose, open label, randomized, non-inferiority, cross-over study over two 11-week periods. Methadone treatment was switched to SROM with flexible dosing and vice versa according to period and sequence of treatment. Setting Fourteen out-patient addiction treatment centres in Switzerland and Germany. Participants Adults with opioid dependence in methadone maintenance programmes (dose ≥50 mg/day) for ≥26 weeks. Measurements The efficacy end-point was the proportion of heroin-positive urine samples per patient and period of treatment. Each week, two urine samples were collected, randomly selected and analysed for 6-monoacetyl-morphine and 6-acetylcodeine. Non-inferiority was concluded if the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) in the difference of proportions of positive urine samples was below the predefined boundary of 10%. Findings One hundred and fifty-seven patients fulfilled criteria to form the per protocol population. The proportion of heroin-positive urine samples under SROM treatment (0.20) was non-inferior to the proportion under methadone treatment (0.15) (least-squares mean difference 0.05; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.08; P > 0.01). The 95% CI fell within the 10% non-inferiority margin, confirming the non-inferiority of SROM to methadone. A dose-dependent effect was shown for SROM (i.e. decreasing proportions of heroin-positive urine samples with increasing SROM doses). Retention in treatment showed no significant differences between treatments (period 1/period 2: SROM: 88.7%/82.1%, methadone: 91.1%/88.0%; period 1: P = 0.50, period 2: P = 0.19). Overall, safety outcomes were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Slow-release oral morphine appears to be at least as effective as methadone in treating people with opioid use disorder. PMID:24304412
Eibl, Joseph K.; Gomes, Tara; Martins, Diana; Camacho, Ximena; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Dhalla, Irfan A.; Marsh, David C.
Objectives: Our objective was to determine the impact that a patient's geographic status has on the efficacy of first-time methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) retention. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study using administrative health care databases for patients who commenced methadone therapy between 2003 and 2012. Patients were stratified on the basis of their location of residence into 1 of 4 groups—Southern Urban, Southern Rural, Northern Urban, or Northern Rural. The primary outcome was continuous retention in treatment, defined as 1 year of uninterrupted therapy on the basis of prescription refill data. Mortality was measured as a secondary outcome. Results: We identified 17,211 patients initiating first-time MMT during this 10-year period. Nearly half of patients initiating therapy in northern regions completed 1 year of treatment (48.9%; N = 258 and 47.0%; N = 761 in Northern Rural and Urban regions, respectively), whereas lower rates of 40.6% (N = 410) and 39.3% (N = 5,518) occurred in Southern Rural and Urban regions, respectively. Patients residing in Northern Rural and Northern Urban regions were 31% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09%–1.58%] and 14% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02%–1.27%] more likely to be retained in treatment compared with those residing in Southern Urban regions. There was no significant difference in treatment retention between those residing in Southern Rural and Southern Urban regions. A mortality rate of 3% was observed within 1 year of patients initiating treatment, with patients in the Southern Rural region having the highest rate (4.85%). Conclusions: Our study identified regional differences in retention rates and mortality of first-time MMT. These findings may relate to geographic isolation and limited methadone program availability experienced in northern regions. We interpret the data to suggest that patients who have reduced access to
Bracken, B.K.; Trksak, G.H.; Penetar, D.M.; Tartarini, W.L.; Maywalt, M.A.; Dorsey, C.M.; Lukas, S.E.
Background In opiate-dependent individuals, abstinence results in deficits in cognitive functioning, which may be exacerbated by medication-associated sleep disruption. Method To assess cognitive function and the influence of sleep deprivation (SD), 14 healthy control (HC) and 22 methadone maintained (MM) participants completed the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) after a baseline night, a night of total SD, and two recovery sleep nights. The Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST) was administered at bedtime and in the morning. Secondary analyses separated MM participants into short- (<12 months; n=8) and long-term (≥12 months; n=14) treatment duration groups, and into low- (< 80 mg; n=9) and high-dose (≥ 80 mg; n=13) groups. Results Linear mixed model ANOVAs revealed that there was no effect of SD. Across all days MM participants had more errors of omission, fewer correct responses, and slower reaction times (RTs) on the CPT, and fewer accurate substitutions on the evening and morning DSST. Short-term MM participants exhibited slower RTs on the CPT, and fewer correct substitutions on the evening DSST compared to long-term MM participants. Low-dose MM participants had slower RTs on the CPT than HCs and high-dose MM participants. Conclusion These data demonstrate that methadone-maintained individuals exhibit poorer performance on tasks of psychomotor speed and selective attention/impulsivity, but with longer-term treatment, performance appears to return toward control levels. Furthermore, while one day of SD was enough to alter subjective reports of sleep quality, cognitive function may be more resilient. PMID:22552256
Genome-Wide Pharmacogenomic Study on Methadone Maintenance Treatment Identifies SNP rs17180299 and Multiple Haplotypes on CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L Associated with Plasma Concentrations of Methadone R- and S-enantiomers in Heroin-Dependent Patients.
Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chu, Shih-Kai; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Ho, Ing-Kang; Liu, Yu-Li
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is commonly used for controlling opioid dependence, preventing withdrawal symptoms, and improving the quality of life of heroin-dependent patients. A steady-state plasma concentration of methadone enantiomers, a measure of methadone metabolism, is an index of treatment response and efficacy of MMT. Although the methadone metabolism pathway has been partially revealed, no genome-wide pharmacogenomic study has been performed to identify genetic determinants and characterize genetic mechanisms for the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers. This study was the first genome-wide pharmacogenomic study to identify genes associated with the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers and their respective metabolites in a methadone maintenance cohort. After data quality control was ensured, a dataset of 344 heroin-dependent patients in the Han Chinese population of Taiwan who underwent MMT was analyzed. Genome-wide single-locus and haplotype-based association tests were performed to analyze four quantitative traits: the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers and their respective metabolites. A significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs17180299 (raw p = 2.24 × 10(-8)), was identified, accounting for 9.541% of the variation in the plasma concentration of the methadone R-enantiomer. In addition, 17 haplotypes were identified on SPON1, GSG1L, and CYP450 genes associated with the plasma concentration of methadone S-enantiomer. These haplotypes accounted for approximately one-fourth of the variation of the overall S-methadone plasma concentration. The association between the S-methadone plasma concentration and CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L were replicated in another independent study. A gene expression experiment revealed that CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L can be activated concomitantly through a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation pathway. In conclusion, this study revealed new
Genome-Wide Pharmacogenomic Study on Methadone Maintenance Treatment Identifies SNP rs17180299 and Multiple Haplotypes on CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L Associated with Plasma Concentrations of Methadone R- and S-enantiomers in Heroin-Dependent Patients
Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chu, Shih-Kai; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Ho, Ing-Kang; Liu, Yu-Li
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is commonly used for controlling opioid dependence, preventing withdrawal symptoms, and improving the quality of life of heroin-dependent patients. A steady-state plasma concentration of methadone enantiomers, a measure of methadone metabolism, is an index of treatment response and efficacy of MMT. Although the methadone metabolism pathway has been partially revealed, no genome-wide pharmacogenomic study has been performed to identify genetic determinants and characterize genetic mechanisms for the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers. This study was the first genome-wide pharmacogenomic study to identify genes associated with the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers and their respective metabolites in a methadone maintenance cohort. After data quality control was ensured, a dataset of 344 heroin-dependent patients in the Han Chinese population of Taiwan who underwent MMT was analyzed. Genome-wide single-locus and haplotype-based association tests were performed to analyze four quantitative traits: the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers and their respective metabolites. A significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs17180299 (raw p = 2.24 × 10−8), was identified, accounting for 9.541% of the variation in the plasma concentration of the methadone R-enantiomer. In addition, 17 haplotypes were identified on SPON1, GSG1L, and CYP450 genes associated with the plasma concentration of methadone S-enantiomer. These haplotypes accounted for approximately one-fourth of the variation of the overall S-methadone plasma concentration. The association between the S-methadone plasma concentration and CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L were replicated in another independent study. A gene expression experiment revealed that CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L can be activated concomitantly through a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation pathway. In conclusion, this study revealed new
Chan, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yi-Hung; Yang, Szu-Nian; Lo, Wan-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng
Methadone maintenance therapy is an effective treatment for opiate dependence, but more than three-quarters of persons receiving the treatment report sleep quality disturbances. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we recruited 90 individuals receiving methadone for at least one month who reported sleep disturbances and had Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores > 5. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Suan Zao Ren Tang, one of the most commonly prescribed traditional Chinese medications for treatment of insomnia, improves subjective sleep among methadone-maintained persons with disturbed sleep quality. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 45) and placebo group (n = 45), and all participants were analyzed. Compared with placebo treatment, Suan Zao Ren Tang treatment for four weeks produced a statistically significant improvement in the mean total PSQI scores (P = 0.007) and average sleep efficiency (P = 0.017). All adverse events (e.g., lethargy, diarrhea, and dizziness) were mild in severity. Suan Zao Ren Tang is effective for improving sleep quality and sleep efficiency among methadone-maintained patients with sleep complaints. PMID:26346534
Shahbakhsh, Behnaz; Moallemi, Sedighe
Background: Reports show an increasing interest in spirituality. It has been revealed that people with spiritual tendencies, can better deal with a trauma, manage the stressful situations, and have greater improvement in their health condition. Objectives: Our aim was to examine the relationship between spiritual intelligence and resiliency, and the relation of these two variables with the withdrawal time of individuals treated with methadone. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted on patients referred to the addiction center of Baharan Psychiatric Hospital in Zahedan, Iran. Our sample included 100 referrals; they were provided with questionnaires and asked to answer them honestly. King’s spiritual intelligence questionnaire and resilience questionnaires were used. Results: There were significant positive correlations between resiliency and scores of spiritual intelligence as well as with subscales of spiritual intelligence. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between withdrawal time and scores of spiritual intelligence as well as with subscales of spiritual intelligence as well as with resiliency. Conclusions: Relationships between the spiritual intelligence and resiliency parameters with withdrawal time show that these parameters can have a role in relapse protection among addicted people. PMID:24971291
Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Haasen, Christian; Verthein, Uwe; Dilg, Christoph; Schäfer, Ingo; Reimer, Jens
Benzodiazepine (BZD) use has been found to be associated with poorer psychosocial adjustment, higher levels of polydrug use and more risk-taking behaviors among opioid dependent patients. The aim of this paper is to analyze the correlation between BZD use, BZD prescription and treatment outcome among participants in the German trial on heroin-assisted treatment. 1015 patients who participated in the study comparing heroin-assisted and methadone maintenance treatment (HAT & MMT) for 12 months were included in the analysis. Analyses were carried out to assess the association of treatment outcome with baseline BZD use, with ongoing BZD use and with different patterns of BZD prescription. Baseline BZD use correlated with lower retention rates but not with poorer outcome. Ongoing BZD use correlated with poorer outcomes. Significantly better outcomes were found in the course of phobic anxiety symptomatology for those with regular prescription of BZD. The percentage of BZD positive urine tests decreased more in HAT than in MMT. Poorer outcome for benzodiazepine users may be mediated by a higher severity of addiction. Cautious prescribing of benzodiazepines may be beneficial due to the reduction of overall illicit use.
Peles, Einat; Weinstein, Aviv; Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam; Schreiber, Shaul
To evaluate the impaired attention selection (Stroop interference effect) and general performance [reaction times (RTs)] on the Stroop task among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), pathological gambling (PG), both PG/OCD or none, and the influence if having ADHD. Eighty-six patients and 15 control subjects underwent the Stroop task, which measured RTs of condition-related words (color, obsessive compulsive disorder, pathological gambling, addiction) and neutral words. MMT patients had longer RTs on the Stroop task compared with controls. RTs were longer among patients with OCD and in those who abused drugs on the study day. The combined PG/OCD group had the longest RTs, but they were also characterized as abusing more drugs, being older, and having worse cognitive status. Stroop color interference differed only among MMT patients with ADHD, and it was higher among those with OCD than those without OCD. The modified condition-related Stroop did not show any interference effect of OCD, addiction, or gambling words. MMT patients had generally poorer performance, as indicated by longer RTs, that were related to clinical OCD, drug abuse, poor cognitive state, and older age. Patients with both clinical OCD and ADHD had a higher Stroop interference effect, which is a reflection of an attention deficit. In order to improve clinical approach and treatment of MMT patients, OCD and ADHD should be evaluated (and treated as needed).
Karki, Pramila; Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Copenhaver, Michael
Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection through preventable drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. In recent decade, there has been a growing evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is associated with a significant decrease in both drug- and sex-related risk behaviors among this high-risk population. The better understanding of the relationship between MMT and HIV-related risk behaviors will help to better inform future HIV prevention strategies, which may have policy implications as well. In this systematic review, we therefore aimed to explore the relevant literature to more clearly examine the possible impact of MMT on HIV risks behaviors among high-risk IDUs. The findings thus far suggest that MMT is associated with a significant decrease in injecting drug use and sharing of injecting equipment. Evidence on sex-related risk behavior is limited, but suggest that MMT is associated with a lower incidence of multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. The literature also suggests that the most significant factor in reducing HIV risks was treatment adherence. As such, more attention needs to be given in future studies to ensure the higher rates of access to MMT as well as to improve the adherence to MMT. PMID:27066590
Karki, Pramila; Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Copenhaver, Michael
Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection through preventable drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. In recent decade, there has been a growing evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is associated with a significant decrease in both drug- and sex-related risk behaviors among this high-risk population. The better understanding of the relationship between MMT and HIV-related risk behaviors will help to better inform future HIV prevention strategies, which may have policy implications as well. In this systematic review, we therefore aimed to explore the relevant literature to more clearly examine the possible impact of MMT on HIV risks behaviors among high-risk IDUs. The findings thus far suggest that MMT is associated with a significant decrease in injecting drug use and sharing of injecting equipment. Evidence on sex-related risk behavior is limited, but suggest that MMT is associated with a lower incidence of multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. The literature also suggests that the most significant factor in reducing HIV risks was treatment adherence. As such, more attention needs to be given in future studies to ensure the higher rates of access to MMT as well as to improve the adherence to MMT.
Baklan, Zvonko; Gorisek, Jelka Rebersek; Poljak, Mario; Pisec, Andrej
The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and hepatitis B, C, and G virus infections was determined in a selected group of 40 intravenous drug addicts on methadone maintenance treatment. No drug addict was infected with HIV. Seven drug addicts (17.5%) had serologic markers of hepatitis B infection but only one among them (2.5%) exhibited signs of active infection. 16 drug addicts (40%) had serologic markers of hepatitis C infection and 13 (32.5%) of them had an active infection with positive viral tests. 22 addicts (55%) had signs of hepatitis G infection, 9 (22.5%) of them had signs of active infection and 13 (32.5%) had signs of past infection. Addicts infected with the hepatitis B and C viruses were older and had also been taking drugs longer than those who were not infected with these two viruses. The proportion of those susceptible to infection with hepatitis B (70%) is high, reflecting a low prevalence of this disease and at the same time revealing the failure of preventive measures and the unacceptably low vaccination rate.
Rosic, Tea; Naji, Leen; Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B; Plater, Carolyn; Marsh, David C; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab
Objective There is a significant interindividual variability in treatment outcomes in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder (OUD). This prospective cohort study examines the impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on continued illicit opioid use in patients receiving MMT for OUD. Methods Data were collected from 935 patients receiving MMT in outpatient clinics between June 2011 and June 2015. Using linear regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of having a comorbid psychiatric disorder on continued illicit opioid use during MMT, adjusting for important confounders. The main outcome measure was percentage of opioid-positive urine screens for 6 months. We conducted a subgroup analysis to determine the influence of specific comorbid psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders, on continued illicit opioid use. Results Approximately 80% of participants had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder in addition to OUD, and 42% of participants had a comorbid substance use disorder. There was no significant association between having a psychiatric comorbidity and continuing opioid use (P=0.248). Results from subgroup analysis, however, suggest that comorbid tranquilizer (β=20.781, P<0.001) and cocaine (β=6.344, P=0.031) use disorders are associated with increased rates of continuing opioid use. Conclusion Results from our study may serve to guide future MMT guidelines. Specifically, we find that cocaine or tranquilizer use disorder, comorbid with OUD, places patients at high risk for poor MMT outcomes. Treatment centers may choose to gear more intensive therapy toward such populations. PMID:28579787
Rosic, Tea; Naji, Leen; Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B; Plater, Carolyn; Marsh, David C; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab
There is a significant interindividual variability in treatment outcomes in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder (OUD). This prospective cohort study examines the impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on continued illicit opioid use in patients receiving MMT for OUD. Data were collected from 935 patients receiving MMT in outpatient clinics between June 2011 and June 2015. Using linear regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of having a comorbid psychiatric disorder on continued illicit opioid use during MMT, adjusting for important confounders. The main outcome measure was percentage of opioid-positive urine screens for 6 months. We conducted a subgroup analysis to determine the influence of specific comorbid psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders, on continued illicit opioid use. Approximately 80% of participants had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder in addition to OUD, and 42% of participants had a comorbid substance use disorder. There was no significant association between having a psychiatric comorbidity and continuing opioid use (P=0.248). Results from subgroup analysis, however, suggest that comorbid tranquilizer (β=20.781, P<0.001) and cocaine (β=6.344, P=0.031) use disorders are associated with increased rates of continuing opioid use. Results from our study may serve to guide future MMT guidelines. Specifically, we find that cocaine or tranquilizer use disorder, comorbid with OUD, places patients at high risk for poor MMT outcomes. Treatment centers may choose to gear more intensive therapy toward such populations.
Liang, Tao; Liu, En-Wu; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Bing; Shen, Li-Mei; Wu, Zheng-Lai
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of addiction severity index (ASI)-5th version (ASI-C-5), in illegal drug users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in China. One hundred and eighty-six heroin addicts (144 men and 42 women) receiving MMT at three clinics in Guizhou province, southwest China, were recruited. They were all interviewed with a questionnaire of ASI-C-5 and 35 were re-interviewed at an interval of seven days to assess its test-retest reliability. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of CSs varied from 0.60 to 0.81 in all domains. Test-retest reliability of composite scores (CSs) of ASI-C-5 were satisfactory (r=0.38-0.97). Based on item analysis and expert's suggestions, five items were deleted and one item was modified in ASI-C-5. Criterion validity of ASI-C-5 was found acceptable, as compared to addicts' self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) (r=0.59 and 0.45) except for social support rating scale (SSRS). ASI-C-5 can be used for heroin addicts receiving MMT with acceptable reliability and validity.
Marvel, Cherie L.; Faulkner, Monica L.; Strain, Eric C.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Desmond, John E.
Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with working memory in 5 opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and 5 matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: 1) a low working memory load “match” condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and 2) a high working memory load “manipulation” condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load (“manipulation” condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit, and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population. PMID:21892700
Marvel, Cherie L; Faulkner, Monica L; Strain, Eric C; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Desmond, John E
Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity associated with working memory in five opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and five matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: (1) a low working memory load "match" condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and (2) a high working memory load "manipulation" condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load ("manipulation" condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population.
Naji, Leen; Dennis, Brittany Burns; Bawor, Monica; Varenbut, Michael; Daiter, Jeff; Plater, Carolyn; Pare, Guillaume; Marsh, David C; Worster, Andrew; Desai, Dipika; MacKillop, James; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab
Opioid use disorder (OUD) affects approximately 21.9 million people worldwide. This study aims to determine the association between age of onset of opioid use and comorbid disorders, both physical and psychiatric, in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for OUD. Understanding this association may inform clinical practice about important prognostic factors of patients on MMT, enabling clinicians to identify high-risk patients. This study includes data collected between June 2011 and August 2016 for the Genetics of Opioid Addiction research collaborative between McMaster University and the Canadian Addiction Treatment Centers. All patients were interviewed by trained health professionals using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and case report forms. Physical comorbidities were verified using patients' electronic medical records. A multi-variable logistic regression model was constructed to determine the strength of the association between age of onset of opioid use and the presence of physical or psychiatric comorbidity while adjusting for current age, sex, body mass index, methadone dose and smoking status. Data from 627 MMT patients with a mean age of 38.8 years (SD = 11.07) were analyzed. Individuals with an age of onset of opioid use younger than 18 years were found to be at higher odds for having a physical or psychiatric comorbid disorder compared to individuals with an age of onset of opioid use of 31 years or older (odds ratio 2.94, 95% confidence interval 1.20, 7.19, p = 0.02). A significant association was not found between the risk of having a comorbidity and an age of onset of opioid use between 18 and 25 years or 26 and 30 years, compared to an age of onset of opioid use of 31 years or older. Our study demonstrates that the younger one begins to use opioids, the greater their chance of having a physical or psychiatric co-morbidity. Understanding the risk posed by an earlier onset of opioid use for the later
Dennis, B B; Bawor, M; Paul, J; Plater, C; Pare, G; Worster, A; Varenbut, M; Daiter, J; Marsh, D C; Desai, D; Thabane, L; Samaan, Z
While chronic pain has been said to impact patient's response to methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, the reported findings are inconsistent. These discrepancies may be a direct result of variations in the measurement of chronic pain or definitions of response to methadone treatment. The goal of this study is to evaluate the association between pain and substance use behaviour to determine the real impact of comorbid pain in the methadone population. We also aim to examine sources of variation across the literature with a specific focus on the measurement of pain. We performed a systematic review using an electronic search strategy across CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library including Cochrane Reviews and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Title, abstract, as well as full text screening and extraction were performed in duplicate. Studies evaluating the association between chronic pain and methadone maintenance treatment response were eligible for inclusion in this review. Using a sample of 297 methadone patients from the Genetics of Opioid Addiction (GENOA) research collaborative, we assessed the reliability of patient self-reported pain and the validated Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) assessment tool. After screening 826 articles we identified five studies eligible for full text extraction, of which three showed a significant relationship between the presence of pain and the increase in substance abuse among patients on methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence. Studies varied largely in the definitions and measurement of both pain and response to treatment. Results from our validation of pain measurement in the GENOA sample (n=297) showed the use of a simple self-reported pain question is highly correlated to the use of the BPI. Simply asking patients whether they have pain showed a 44.2% sensitivity, 88.8% specificity, 84.4% PPV and 53.6% NPV to the BPI. The area under the
Hoang, Tran Vu; Ha, Tran Thi Thanh; Hoang, Tran Minh; Nhu, Nguyen To; Quoc, Nguyen Cuong; Tam, Nguyen thi Minh; Mills, Stephen
As a dual response to the HIV epidemic and the high level of injecting drug use in Vietnam, the Ministry of Health (MOH) initiated a pilot methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) program in Hai Phong and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in early 2009. The objectives of the pilot were to provide evidence on whether MMT could be successfully implemented in Vietnam and scaled up to other localities. A prospective study was conducted among 965 opiate drug users admitted to the pilot. Data on demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, substance use behaviors (including heroin use), and blood-borne virus infection (HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C) were collected at treatment initiation and then again at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month intervals thereafter. Twenty-four months after treatment initiation, heroin use as measured by urine test or self-report had reduced from 100 % of participants at both sites to 14.6 % in Hai Phong and 22.9 % in HCMC. When adjusted for multiple factors in Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression modeling, independent predictors of continued heroin use after 24 months of MMT in HCMC were the following: poor methadone adherence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-7.8); currently on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (AOR = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.4-2.4); currently on TB treatment (AOR = 2.2, 95 % CI 1.4-3.4); currently experiencing family conflict (AOR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1-2.4); and currently employed (AOR = 0.8, 95 % CI 0.6-1.0). For Hai Phong participants, predictors were the following: currently on ART (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.4-3.0); currently experiencing family conflict (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.0-3.9); and moderate adherence to methadone (AOR = 2.1, 95 % CI = 1.2-1.9). In Hai Phong, the percentage of participants who were employed had also increased by end of study from 35.0 to 52.8 %, while in HCMC the level remained relatively unchanged, between 52
Soyka, Michael; Limmer, Claudia; Lehnert, Robert; Koller, Gabriele; Martin, Gabriele; Küfner, Heinrich; Kagerer, S; Haberthür, Annina
Cognitive impairment has been reported in drug-dependent patients under opioid maintenance treatment. To compare cognitive functioning in healthy controls and in opioid-dependent patients treated with Buprenorphine, Heroin, or methadone maintenance. We used the standardized test battery ART-90 to study cognitive function in patients under long-term heroin treatment (n = 20), Bup (n = 22), or Met (n = 24) maintenance treatment and healthy controls (n = 25). Patients receiving heroin performed significantly worse than healthy controls in most domains. Heroin patients performed worse than patients in the other two treatment groups in subtests measuring psychomotor performance under stress conditions and monotony. Although a number of limitations must be taken into account, this study provides some preliminary evidence that cognitive function may be more impaired in patients under heroin maintenance treatment than in patients receiving Bup or Met and in healthy controls.
Today's methadone patients differ greatly from those of the past. Because of the rise of polydrug use and the HIV and hepatitis epidemics, treatment has become much more complex, which multiply the concerns and complexities of treatment. Patients entering methadone programs are also more commonly presenting at ages well into their 50s, 60s, and 70s; and this phenomenon of high rates continues to grow. The majority of these individuals in treatment have presented with a number of significant comorbid medical conditions that will progress and eventually lead to death. This aging cohort must be approached with a modified treatment plan that focuses on management and promoting healthy aging, while attending to their maximum delay of illness, disease, and disability. This article argues that it is necessary for counselors working with this group to adopt a palliative care philosophy. This article also makes recommendations in areas that counselors need to be knowledgeable and skilled in to provide appropriate palliative services specific to this aging population with multiple needs as they near end of life.
Koester, S; Anderson, K; Hoffer, L
In addition to the numerous heroin users who voluntarily enter methadone treatment as a way to free themselves from illicit drug addiction and those ordered to do so by the courts, there are a large number of opioid users who enter methadone treatment with other objectives in mind. These include shorter-term goals that users do not necessarily equate with complete heroin abstinence. In this paper we report the results of a qualitative study designed to identify and describe the motivations active heroin users have for entering methadone treatment, and to suggest that many of these short-term methadone episodes may operate as self-prescribed attempts at risk reduction, and act as pilot tests for users considering or anticipating entering treatment to quit the use of illicit drugs. We argue that heroin users' motivations, perceptions about methadone, and the strategies they devise for adapting methadone treatment for their own needs should be recognized for their value in reducing the multiple risks associated with drug use.
Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle; Marsch, Lisa A.; Xie, Haiyi; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia
Despite the recent explosion of behavioral health interventions delivered on mobile devices, little is known about factors that make such applications practical, engaging and useful to their target audience. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a prototype of a novel, interactive mobile psychosocial intervention to reduce problematic drug use among clients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). A mixed-methods pilot study with new MMT clients (n=25) indicated that the mobile intervention approach was feasible, and that participants found the intervention highly acceptable and useful. On 100-point visual analog scale (VAS) items, participants reported high levels of liking the program (M=75.6), and endorsed it as useful (M=77.5), easy to use (M=80.7), and containing a significant amount of new information (M=74.8). When compared with 25 study participants who received standard MMT alone, pilot participants rated their treatment significantly higher in interestingness and usefulness, and were significantly more satisfied with their treatment. In qualitative interviews, participants reported using the mobile intervention in a range of settings, including during times of heightened risk for substance use, and finding it helpful in managing drug cravings. Additionally, pilot participants showed evidence of increased treatment retention and abstinence from illicit opioids (in terms of effect size) over a 3-month period relative to those in standard MMT, suggesting the application’s potential to enhance treatment outcomes. These promising findings suggest that an evidence-based mobile therapeutic tool addressing substance use may appeal to drug treatment clients and have clinical utility as an adjunct to formal treatment. PMID:26618796
Nguyen, Lan Phuong; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; Latkin, Carl A.
Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) reduces HIV risk behaviors and improves access to HIV-related services among drug users. In this study, we assessed the uptake and willingness of MMT patients to refer HIV testing and counseling (HTC) service to their sexual partners and relatives. Methods Health status, HIV-related risk behaviors, and HTC uptake and referrals of 1,016 MMT patients in Hanoi and Nam Dinh were investigated. Willingness to pay (WTP) for HTC was elicited using a contingent valuation technique. Interval and logistic regression models were employed to determine associated factors. Results Most of the patients (94.2%) had received HTC, 6.6 times on average. The proportion of respondents willing to refer their partners, their relatives and to be voluntary peer educators was 45.7%, 35.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. Attending MMT integrated with HTC was a facilitative factor for HTC uptake, greater WTP, and volunteering as peer educators. Older age, higher education and income, and HIV positive status were positively related to willingness to refer partners or relatives, while having health problems (mobility, usual care, pain/discomfort) was associated with lower likelihood of referring others or being a volunteer. Over 90% patients were willing to pay an average of US $17.9 for HTC service. Conclusion The results highlighted the potential role of MMT patients as referrers to HTC and voluntary peer educators. Integrating HIV testing with MMT services and applying users’ fee are potential strategies to mobilize resources and encourage HIV testing among MMT patients and their partners. PMID:27046029
Li, Yi; Liu, Xue-bing; Zhang, Yao
To study the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for the improvement of sleep quality of outpatients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Using randomized double-blinded controlled design, seventy-five MMT outpatients with low sleep quality [score of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) > or = 8], were randomly assigned to the acupuncture group (38 cases) and the sham-acupuncture group (37 cases). All patients maintained previous MMT. Acupuncture was applied to Baihui (GV20), Shenmen (bilateral, TF4), Shenting (GV24), Sanyinjiao (bilateral, SP6), and Sishencong (EX-HN1) in the acupuncture group. The same procedures were performed in the sham-acupuncture group, but not to the acupoints (5 mm lateral to the acupoints selected in the acupuncture group) with shallow needling technique. The treatment was performed 5 times each week for 8 successive weeks. The PSQI was assessed before treatment, at the end of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of the treatment. The detection ratio of low sleep quality and the incidence of adverse acupuncture reactions were compared between the two groups at the end of the 8th week. The overall PSQI score was obviously higher in the acupuncture group than in the sham-acupuncture group with statistical difference (P < 0.01). The detection ratio of low sleep quality at the end of the 8th week was lower in the acupuncture group (60.53%, 23/38 cases) than in the sham-acupuncture group (83.78%, 31/37 cases) with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The rate of adverse acupuncture reaction was 5.26% (2/38 cases) in the acupuncture group and 2.70% (1/37 cases) in the sham-acupuncture group respectively, showing no statistical difference (P > 0.05). Acupuncture therapy could effectively and safely improve the sleep quality of outpatients receiving MMT.
Du, Jiang; Chen, Hanhui; Li, Zhibin; Ling, Walter; Zhao, Min
Aims Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely available in China; but, high rates of illicit opiate use and dropout are problematic. The aim of this study was to test whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in conjunction with MMT can improve treatment retention and reduce opiate use. Method A total of 240 opiate-dependent patients in community-based MMT clinics were randomly assigned to either weekly CBT plus standard MMT (CBT group, n=120) or standard MMT (control group, n=120) for 26 weeks. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and opiate-negative urine test results at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. The secondary outcomes were composite scores on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and total scores on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. Results Compared to the control group in standard MMT, the CBT group had higher proportion of opiate-negative urine tests at both 12 weeks (59% vs. 69%, p<0.05) and 26 weeks (63% vs. 73%, p<0.05); however, the retention rates at 12 weeks (73.3% vs. 74.2%, p=0.88) and 26 weeks were not different (55.8% vs. 64.2%, p=0.19) between the two groups. At both 12 and 26 weeks, all of the ASI component scores and PSS total scores in the CBT group and control group decreased from baseline; but the CBT group exhibited more decreases in ASI employment scores at week 26 and more decrease in the PSS total score at week 12 and week 26. Conclusions CBT counselling is effective in reducing opiate use and improving employment function and in decreasing stress level for opiate-dependent patients in MMT in China. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01144390 PMID:26107818
Pan, Shujun; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Chen, Hanhui; Li, Zhibin; Ling, Walter; Zhao, Min
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely available in China; but, high rates of illicit opiate use and dropout are problematic. The aim of this study was to test whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in conjunction with MMT can improve treatment retention and reduce opiate use. A total of 240 opiate-dependent patients in community-based MMT clinics were randomly assigned to either weekly CBT plus standard MMT (CBT group, n=120) or standard MMT (control group, n=120) for 26 weeks. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and opiate-negative urine test results at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. The secondary outcomes were composite scores on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and total scores on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. Compared to the control group in standard MMT, the CBT group had higher proportion of opiate-negative urine tests at both 12 weeks (59% vs. 69%, p<0.05) and 26 weeks (63% vs. 73%, p<0.05); however, the retention rates at 12 weeks (73.3% vs. 74.2%, p=0.88) and 26 weeks were not different (55.8% vs. 64.2%, p=0.19) between the two groups. At both 12 and 26 weeks, all of the ASI component scores and PSS total scores in the CBT group and control group decreased from baseline; but the CBT group exhibited more decreases in ASI employment scores at week 26 and more decrease in the PSS total score at week 12 and week 26. CBT counselling is effective in reducing opiate use and improving employment function and in decreasing stress level for opiate-dependent patients in MMT in China. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01144390.
Mukherjee, Trena I; Pillai, Veena; Ali, Siti Hafizah; Altice, Frederick L; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Wickersham, Jeffrey A
Approximately 40%-90% of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Malaysia have hepatitis C (HCV). PWID continue to be disproportionately affected by HCV due to their lack of knowledge, perceived risk and interest in HCV treatment. Education interventions may be an effective strategy for increasing HCV knowledge in PWID, and harm reduction services are uniquely positioned to implement and deploy such interventions. We recruited 176 clients from methadone maintenance treatment (MMT: N=110) and needle/syringe programs (NSP: N=66) between November 2015 and August 2016. After baseline knowledge assessments, clients participated in a standardized, 45-min HCV education program and completed post-intervention knowledge assessments to measure change in knowledge and treatment interest. Participants were mostly male (96.3%), Malay (94.9%), and in their early 40s (mean=42.6years). Following the intervention, overall knowledge scores and treatment interest in MMT clients increased by 68% and 16%, respectively (p<0.001). In contrast, NSP clients showed no significant improvement in overall knowledge or treatment interest, and perceived greater treatment barriers. Multivariate linear regression to assess correlates of HCV knowledge post-intervention revealed that optimal dosage of MMT and having had an HIV test in the past year significantly increased HCV knowledge. Having received a hepatitis B vaccine, however, was not associated with increased HCV knowledge after participating in an education session. Generally, HCV knowledge and screening is low among clients engaged in MMT and NSP services in Malaysia. Integrating a brief, but comprehensive HCV education session within harm reduction services may be a low-cost and effective strategy in improving overall HCV knowledge and risk behaviors in resource-limited settings. In order to be an effective public health approach, however, education interventions must be paired with strategies that improve social, economic and political
Rou, Keming; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Xiaobin; Luo, Wei; Liu, Enwu; Wu, Zunyou
Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program. Methods Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution. Results Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17–8.52, p<0.0001) and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96–2.06, p<0.0001). Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001). Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012. Conclusions The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China. PMID:26906025
Liu, Di; Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Hao, Chun; Jiao, Mingxu; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Yuteng; Andrew, Babbitt; Hao, Yuantao
Club drugs and alcohol abuse are prevalent among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. However, little is known about the association between these abuse and treatment outcomes among MMT patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of club drugs and alcohol abuse among MMT patients and to investigate the associations between these abuse and treatment outcomes - dropout and poor adherence. In this one-year cohort study conducting in Guangzhou, China, data including background characteristics, club drugs use in the last six months, alcohol use history and treatment-related information was collected. Cox regression analyses and log-binomial regression analyses were applied to identify the associations between these abuse and dropout and poor adherence, respectively. Thirty-seven participants (9.2%) admitted to the use of at least one type of club drugs in the last six months and 88 (21.9%) were identified as alcohol abusers. Of all participants, 21.0% had dropped out of treatment and 27.7% exhibited poor adherence during the study period. Adjusting for significant background variables, use of at least one type of club drugs [hazards ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-3.56] and use of methamphetamine in the last six months (HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.15-4.43) significantly predicted dropout. Frequency of having six or more drinks on one drinking occasion when drinking [relative risk (RR) = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.16-2.95] significantly predicted poor adherence. Our findings indicated that club drugs and alcohol abuse predicted dropout and poor adherence among MMT patients. Early identification and intervention for the abuse should be taken into consideration when developing interventions tailored to improve treatment outcomes among MMT patients.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Huang-Chi; Wang, Peng-Wei; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Kun-Hua; Hsu, Chih-Yao; Chung, Kuan-Sheng; Wu, Hung-Chi; Cheng, Chung-Ping
Craving for substance use has been added as one of the diagnostic criteria of substance use disorders in DSM-5. However, further research is necessary to examine and expand the clinical potential of craving in the assessment and treatment for heroin users. This study aimed to examine the psychometrics of the Desire for Drug Questionnaire-Chinese Mandarin version (DDQ-CM) and its clinical utility of assessing craving for heroin measured among heroin users with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Self-reported craving for heroin use was measured on the DDQ-CM and visual analog scale among 314 intravenous heroin users receiving MMT. Self-reported heroin dependence, attitude toward heroin use, readiness to change heroin use, and depression were collected. The results found that although the original three-factor model was acceptable for applying the DDQ-CM for heroin users with MMT, only the concurrent validity of the subscales of Desire and Intention and Negative Reinforcement was supported but not that of Control. Meanwhile, the levels of craving on the subscales of Desire and Intention and of Negative Reinforcement on the DDQ-CM were positively associated with the levels of heroin dependence, positive and negative attitudes toward heroin use, and depression, but negatively associated with readiness to change heroin use. This study supported the application of the subscales of Desire and Intention and Negative Reinforcement on the DDQ-CM to measure heroin craving in Taiwanese-Chinese heroin users and supported the clinical implication of craving in heroin users with MMT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nguyen, Lan Phuong; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; Latkin, Carl A
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) reduces HIV risk behaviors and improves access to HIV-related services among drug users. In this study, we assessed the uptake and willingness of MMT patients to refer HIV testing and counseling (HTC) service to their sexual partners and relatives. Health status, HIV-related risk behaviors, and HTC uptake and referrals of 1,016 MMT patients in Hanoi and Nam Dinh were investigated. Willingness to pay (WTP) for HTC was elicited using a contingent valuation technique. Interval and logistic regression models were employed to determine associated factors. Most of the patients (94.2%) had received HTC, 6.6 times on average. The proportion of respondents willing to refer their partners, their relatives and to be voluntary peer educators was 45.7%, 35.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. Attending MMT integrated with HTC was a facilitative factor for HTC uptake, greater WTP, and volunteering as peer educators. Older age, higher education and income, and HIV positive status were positively related to willingness to refer partners or relatives, while having health problems (mobility, usual care, pain/discomfort) was associated with lower likelihood of referring others or being a volunteer. Over 90% patients were willing to pay an average of US $17.9 for HTC service. The results highlighted the potential role of MMT patients as referrers to HTC and voluntary peer educators. Integrating HIV testing with MMT services and applying users' fee are potential strategies to mobilize resources and encourage HIV testing among MMT patients and their partners.
Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Mills, Steve; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Jacobs, Philip; Houston, Stan
Background Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. Methods We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male) taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months using interviews and heroin confirmatory urine tests. A social ecological model was applied to explore multilevel predictors of continued opioid use, including individual, interpersonal, community and service influences. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) statistical models were constructed to adjust for intra-individual correlations. Results Over 9 month follow-up, self-reported opioid use and positive heroin urine test substantially decreased to 14.6% and 14.4%. MMT helped improve referrals and access to health care and social services. However, utilization of social integration services was small. GEE models determined that participants who were older (Adjusted Odd Ratio - AOR = 0.97 for 1 year increase), had economic dependents (AOR = 0.33), or were referred to TB treatment (AOR = 0.53) were less likely to continue opioid use. Significant positive predictors of ongoing opioid use included frequency of opioid use prior to MMT, peer pressure, living with sexual partners, taking antiretroviral treatment, other health concerns and TB treatment. Conclusion These findings show that MMT in the Vietnamese context can dramatically reduce opioid use, which is known to be associated with reduced antiretroviral (ART) adherence. Disease stage and drug interactions between antiretrovirals or TB drugs and MMT could explain some of the observed predictors of ongoing drug use; these findings could inform changes in MMT program design and
Zhou, Kaina; Li, Hengxin; Wei, Xiaoli; Yin, Juan; Liang, Peifeng; Zhang, Hongmei; Kou, Lingling; Hao, Mengmeng; You, Lijuan; Li, Xiaomei; Zhuang, Guihua
The multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) is a valid tool for assessing perceived support from family, friends and significant others. However, evidence about reliability and validity of the MSPSS in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is lacking. The patients (n=1212) being admitted to the first two largest MMT clinics in Xi'an were recruited in the study. Reliability was estimated with Cronbach's α and intra-class correlation (ICC). Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed using item-subscale correlation. Factorial validity was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The patients answered the questions of MSPSS at baseline and re-test after 6months, respectively. Cronbach's α of the overall MSPSS was 0.92 (subscales range: 0.84-0.89). ICC of the overall MSPSS was 0.65 (subscales range: 0.57-0.64). Better convergent validity (r≥0.40) was demonstrated by the satisfactory hypothesized item-subscale correlation. All of the hypothesized item-subscale correlations were higher than the correlations between the hypothesized items and other subscales, indicating better discriminant validity. Two factors were extracted from the 12 items, with factor 1 mainly covering friends and significant others subscales (explained 55.56% variance) and factor 2 mainly covering family subscale (explained 11.77% variance). In comparison with the proposed three-subscale model, the two-factor observed model did not fit well in this sample according to model fit indices. The MSPSS has acceptable reliability and convergent/discriminant validity in Chinese mainland MMT patients. The proposed three-factor model of MSPSS is much better fit than the two-factor observed model in this study. Findings of the study will provide evidence of psychometric properties of the MSPSS in MMT patient population and expand the use of the MSPSS in clinical MMT context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Chunqing; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Li, Li
With the initial establishment of countrywide methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) system, Vietnam is in the process of expanding and decentralizing the MMT program to community-based healthcare settings. The study aimed to measure the MMT-related knowledge and perceived difficulties in treating patient who use drugs (PWUD) among community-based healthcare providers, e.g., commune health workers (CHW), and examine its correlated factors. A total of 300 CHW from 60 communes in two provinces of Vietnam completed a survey using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) method. Twelve true-or-false questions were used to assess the CHW's MMT-related knowledge. The CHW's background characteristics and perceived difficulties treating PWUD were recorded. The mean MMT knowledge score was 8.2 (SD = 1.2; range: 5-11). Misconceptions toward the benefits, procedure, and side effects of MMT were prevalent. The participants perceived varying degrees of difficulties in recruiting, engaging, and communicating with PWUD. With all covariates holding constant, younger age (standardized ẞ = -0.166; p = 0.0078) was associated with less MMT-related knowledge. Number of PWUD seen in a month and MMT-related knowledge was associated with less perceived difficulties treating PWUD. Conclusions/importance: The finding shed lights on the CHW's knowledge gap, which need to be addressed to facilitate the decentralization of MMT services in Vietnam. In preparation for a decentralized MMT service delivery model, specially designed training is warranted to equip CHW with knowledge and confidence to provide MMT-related services to PWUD.
Werb, D; Wagner, KD; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, SA
Aims In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Methods Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Results Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1,825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.69, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02 – 2.81, p = 0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Discussion Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. PMID:25655577
Go, Vivian F; Morales, Giuliana J; Mai, Nguyen Tuyet; Brownson, Ross C; Ha, Tran Viet; Miller, William C
Integration of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and HIV services is an evidence-based intervention (EBI) that benefits HIV care and reduces costs. While MMT/HIV integration is recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is not widely implemented, due to organizational and operational barriers. Our study applied an innovative process to identify implementation strategies to address these barriers. Our process was adapted from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) protocol and consisted of two main phases. In Phase 1, we conducted 16 in-depth interviews with stakeholders and developed matrices to display barriers to integration. In Phase 2, we selected implementation strategies that addressed the barriers identified in Phase 1 and conducted a poll to vote on the most important and feasible strategies among a panel with expertise in cultural context and implementation science. Barriers fell into two broad categories: policy and programmatic. At the policy level, barriers included lack of a national mandate, different structures (MMT vs. HIV clinic) for cost reimbursement and staff salaries, and resistance on the part of staff to take on additional tasks without compensation. Programmatic barriers included the need for cross-training in MMT and HIV tasks, staff accountability, and commitment from local leaders. In Phase 2, we focused on programmatic challenges. Based on voting results and iterative dialogue with our expert panel, we selected several implementation strategies in the domains of technical assistance, staff accountability, and local commitment that targeted these barriers. Key programmatic barriers to MMT/HIV integration in Vietnam may be addressed through implementation strategies that focus on technical assistance, staff accountability, and local commitment. Our process of identifying implementation strategies was simple, low cost, and potentially replicable to other settings.
Zhang, Lei; Chow, Eric P. F.; Zhuang, Xun; Liang, Yanxian; Wang, Yafei; Tang, Caiyun; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D.; Wilson, David P.
Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been scaled up by the Chinese government alongside persistent compulsory drug user detention, but the extent to which detention interferes with MMT is unknown. The study systematically reviews Chinese MMT retention rates, reasons for drop out, and behavioural changes. Method Chinese and English databases of literature are searched for studies reporting retention rates, drug use and sexual behaviours among MMT participants in China between 2004 and 2013. The estimates are summarized through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Results A total of 74 studies representing 43,263 individuals are included in this analysis. About a third of MMT participants drop out during the first three months of treatment (retention rate 69.0% (95% CI 57.7-78.4%)). Police arrest and detention in compulsory rehabilitation was the most common cause of drop out, accounting for 22.2% of all those not retained. Among retained participants, changing unsafe drug use behaviours was more effective than changing unsafe sexual behaviours. At 12 months following MMT initiation, 24.6% (15.7-33.5%) of MMT participants had a positive urine test, 9.3% (4.7-17.8%) injected drugs and only 1.1% (0.4-3.0%) sold sex for drugs. These correspond to 0.002 (<0.001-0.011), 0.045 (0.004-0.114) and 0.209 (0.076-0.580) times lower odds than baseline. However, MMT participants did not have substantial changes in condom use rates. Conclusion MMT is effective in drug users in China but participant retention is poor, substantially related to compulsory detention. Reforming the compulsory drug user detention system may improve MMT retention and effectiveness. PMID:23922668
Werb, D; Wagner, K D; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, S A
In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (adjusted odds ratio=1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.81, p=0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wei, Xiaoli; Wang, Lirong; Wang, Xueliang; Li, Jinsong; Li, Hengxin; Jia, Wei
We analyzed a 6-year methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) retention rate in 8 MMT clinics in Xi'an and the factors that influenced the retention rate. We conducted a 6-year retrospective dynamic cohort study of 5849 eligible patients from 2006 to 2011. Participants were serially enrolled on the basis of opioid addiction, age, residence status, and civil capacity. Cumulative retention in treatment was calculated using survival analyses (life tables) on the basis of the number of days in MMT. We also used the Cox proportional hazard regression model to analyze the factors that may influence treatment retention. The MMT retention varied from a less than 1 month to a maximum of 71.2 months; the average dose was 48.76 ± 17.03 mg/d. The cumulative retention for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 months after MMT initiation were 0.87, 0.76, 0.66, 0.57, 0.49, and 0.43, respectively. The MMT retention rate was significantly associated with factors that included the particular clinic for MMT, the year when the subject initiated MMT, average daily dose, hidden drug use, sex, age, length of drug abuse history, needle sharing, living arrangements, and employment status. The 6-year retention rates for MMT in the 8 clinics in Xi'an were higher than those reported in other studies of other clinics. High therapeutic doses (>60 mg/d) could reduce the risk of patients withdrawing from treatment. Retention rates were relatively high in cohorts who were elderly, living with family, employed, or drug users, especially those with a long history of drug abuse.
Wang, Sheng-Chang; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Chung, Ren-Hua; Chang, Yao-Sheng; Fang, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Chia-Hui; Ho, Ing-Kang; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Liu, Shu Chih; Shih, Yu-Huei; Wu, Hsiao-Yu; Huang, Bo-Hau; Lin, Keh-Ming; Chen, Andrew C H; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Liu, Yu-Li
Methadone is a synthetic opioid that binds to the κ-opioid receptor with a low affinity. This study tested the hypotheses that the genetic polymorphisms in the κ-opioid receptor 1 (OPRK1) gene region are associated with methadone treatment responses in a Taiwan methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) cohort. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OPRK1 were selected and genotyped on DNA of 366 MMT patients. Six SNPs from rs7843965 to rs1051660 (intron 2 to exon 2) were significantly associated with body weight (P < 0.007). A haplotype of 4 SNPs rs7832417-rs16918853-rs702764-rs7817710 (exon 4 to intron 3) was associated with bone or joint aches (P ≤ 0.004) and with the amount of alcohol use (standard drinks per day; global P < 0.0001). The haplotype rs10958350-rs7016778-rs12675595 was associated with gooseflesh skin (global P < 0.0001), yawning (global P = 0.0001), and restlessness (global P < 0.0001) withdrawal symptoms. The findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in OPRK1 were associated with the body weight, alcohol use, and opioid withdrawal symptoms in MMT patients.
Wang, Sheng-Chang; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Chen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ting; Ho, Ing-Kang; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chou, Sun-Yuan; Lin, Yen-Feng; Fang, Kai-Chi; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Su, Lien-Wen; Fang, Yung-Chun; Liu, Ming-Lun; Wu, Hsiao-Yu; Lin, Keh-Ming; Liu, Shu Chih; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Chiang, I-Chen; Chen, Andrew C H; Tian, Jia-Ni; Liu, Yu-Li
Methadone, a synthetic racemic opioid that primarily works as a μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) agonist, is commonly used for the treatment of heroin addiction. Genetic association studies have reported that the OPRM1 gene is involved in the physiology of heroin and alcohol addiction. Our current study is designed to test the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in the OPRM1 gene region are associated with methadone dosage, plasma concentrations, treatment responses, adverse reactions and withdrawal symptoms in a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) cohort from Taiwan. Fifteen OPRM1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and genotyped using DNA samples from 366 MMT patients. The plasma concentrations of methadone and its metabolite were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The results obtained using dominant model analysis indicate that the OPRM1 SNPs rs1074287, rs6912029, rs12209447, rs510769, rs3798676, rs7748401, rs495491, rs10457090, rs589046, rs3778152, rs563649, and rs2075572 are significantly associated with change-in-libido side effects (adjusted p<0.042). Using recessive model analysis, these SNPs were also found to be significantly associated with insomnia side effects in this cohort (p<0.009). The significance of the insomnia findings was mainly contributed by a subgroup of patients who had a positive urine morphine test (p<0.022), and by individuals who did not use benzodiazepine hypnotics (p<0.034). Our current data thus suggest that genetic polymorphisms in OPRM1 may influence the change-in-libido and insomnia side effects sometimes found in MMT patients.
Lua, Pei Lin; Talib, Nor Samira
This paper focuses on the evaluation of addiction program effectiveness which involves changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile. This study was conducted from 2007 until 2010 at a rural methadone maintenance treatment center in Malaysia to assess HRQoL outcomes before and after treatment. Fifty-seven respondents completed the WHOQOL-BREF at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using nonparametric techniques (SPSS 15). Significant and positive HRQoL impacts were demonstrated. Future studies with larger sample are encouraged. This study was supported by the Ministry of Health Malaysia.
Weizman, Tal; Gelkopf, Marc; Melamed, Yuval; Adelson, Miriam; Bleich, Avraham
Therapeutic approaches for benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence in patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) have met with limited success. Clonazepam detoxification (CDTX) and clonazepam maintenance treatment (CMT) were compared in an open, clinical naturalistic study on such patients. Benzodiazepine dependent patients substituted their BZD of abuse for clonazepam and were then either detoxified (CDTX) or a maintenance dose was reached and maintained (CMT). Patients were considered as failing the trial if they either abused BZDs (CDTX group) or abused BZDs over the maintenance dose (CMT group). Treatment outcome was evaluated based upon self and staff reports over 1 year after beginning treatment. Axis I and II psychiatric diagnosis was assessed and methadone dosage and history of abuse was recorded. In the CDTX group, 9/33 (27.3%), were BZD-free after 2 months. In the CMT group, 26/33 (78.8%) refrained from abusing additional BZDs over the maintenance dose after 2 months. The same success rate remained over the entire year. Survival analysis showed CMT to be more successful than the CDTX. Axis I psychiatric comorbidity was found to be positively related to treatment success in the CMT group while axis II antisocial personality disorder was found to be negatively related to treatment success in that group. It had no impact in the CDTX group. Maintenance strategy with clonazepam is a useful BZD treatment modality for BZD-dependent MMT patients with a long-term history of abuse and previous attempts at detoxification. Psychiatric comorbidity may have an important role in choosing the adequate treatment modality and influencing treatment outcome.
Fonseca, Francina; Castillo, Claudio; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia
Abstract Problem During the 1980s, Spain had very strict laws limiting access to opioid agonist maintenance treatment (OAMT). Because of this, mortality among people who used illicit opioids and other illicit drugs was high. Spain was also the European country with the highest number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmitted through illicit drug injection. Approach The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among people using heroin led to a shift from a drug-free approach to the treatment of opioid dependence to one focused on harm reduction. A substantial change in legislation made it possible to meet public health needs and offer OAMT as part of harm reduction programmes in the public health system, including prisons. Local setting Legislative changes were made throughout the country, although at a different pace in different regions. Relevant changes Legal changes facilitated the expansion of OAMT, which has achieved a coverage of 60%. A parallel reduction in the annual incidence of HIV infection has been reported. Reductions in morbidity and mortality and improved health-related quality of life have been described in patients undergoing OAMT. Lessons learnt The treatment of opioid dependence has been more heavily influenced by moral concepts and prejudices that hinder legislation and interfere with the implementation of OAMT than by scientific evidence. To fulfil public health needs, OAMT should be integrated in harm reduction programmes offered primarily in public facilities, including prisons. Longitudinal studies are needed to detect unmet needs and evaluate programme impact and suitability. PMID:23554526
PASHAEI, Tahereh; SHOJAEIZADEH, Davoud; RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas; GHAZITABATABAE, Mahmoud; MOEENI, Maryam; RAJATI, Fatemeh; M RAZZAGHI, Emran
Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of a relapse prevention cognitive-behavioral model, based on Marlatt treatment approach, in Opioid-dependent patients participating in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in Iran. Methods: The study consisted of 92 individuals treated with methadone in Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies (INCAS). Participants were randomized into two groups: educational intervention group (N=46) and control group (N=46). The intervention was comprised of 10 weekly 90 minute sessions, done during a period of 2.5 months based on the most high risk situations determined using Inventory Drug Taking Situation instrument. Relapse was defined as not showing up for MMT, drug use for at least 5 continuous days, and a positive urinary morphine test. Results: While, only 36.4% of the intervention group relapsed into drug use, 63.6% of the control group relapsed. The result of the logistic regressions showed that the odd ratio of the variable of intervention program for the entire follow up period was 0.43 (P<0.01). Further, the odd ratio of this variable in one month, three months, and 195 days after the therapy were 0.48 (P<.03), 0.31 (P<.02), and 0.13 (P<.02) respectively that revealed that on average, the probability of relapse among individuals in the intervention group was lower than patients in control group Conclusion: Relapse prevention model based on Marlatt treatment approach has an effective role in decreasing relapse rate. This model can be introduced as a complementary therapy in patients treated with methadone maintenance. PMID:26056645
Schreiber, Shaul; Peles, Einat; Adelson, Miriam
We had evaluated the depressive symptoms severity of 75 former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) using the 21-item Hamilton rating scale for depression (21-HAM-D) and re-assessed 63 of them 1.6+/-0.3 years later. The second mean 21-HAM-D score was lower than the first (11.8+/-8.4 versus 17.4+/-6.2, p<0.0005). Benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse was lower although not significantly (p=0.06) during the month preceding the second analysis (32/63, 50.8%) than the month preceding the first one (40/63, 63.5%). Psychotropic medication usage was higher at the second assessment than at the first one (50/63, 79.4% versus 27/63, 42.9%, p<0.0005). 21-HAM-D score reduced significantly over time among 13 "no psychotropic medication" patients (13.5+/-6.3 versus 6.8+/-6.8, p=0.005) and in 27 who started medication following the first assessment (19.3+/-3.8 versus 11.0+/-8.4, p<0.0005), but not in those who were already taking any medication before the first assessment (17.7+/-7.0 versus 15.0+/-8.0, p=n.s). 21-HAM-D score reduced in all BDZ groups but scores were still highest in the 32 patients who continued BDZ abuse (19.4+/-5.6 versus 15.2+/-7.7) followed by 14 who stopped it (16.8+/-6.4 versus 9.6+/-9.1) and were lowest in 17 patients who never abused BDZ (14.2+/-5.2 versus 7.2+/-6.4) (repeated measured, time and group effect, each p<0.0005). Predictors for being depressed at follow-up were pre-existing depression only. Stopping BDZ abuse and starting psychotropic treatment was associated with a reduction of depressive symptoms among MMT patients.
Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; Schwartz, Robert P.; O'Grady, Kevin
The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly…
Liu, Anthony J W; Jones, Michael P; Murray, Henry; Cook, Colleen-Maree; Nanan, Ralph
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs in more than 50% of infants exposed to intrauterine opiates. Maternal opiate dosing has been investigated with conflicting results. The aims of this study were to correlate maternal methadone dose and other risk factors with the development of NAS requiring pharmacological treatment by using easily accessible clinical parameters. Retrospective medical record review of data from 228 opioid dependent pregnant women who delivered 232 live-born infants. Logistic regression analysis was performed on maternal, perinatal and neonatal parameters to identify risk factors for NAS requiring treatment. A prediction model was developed and validated on a separate independent cohort of 188 infants. Of the 232 infants, 172 (74%) infants were treated for NAS. The risk of withdrawal increased by 17% per 5 mg increment of the last maternal methadone dose. The risk was lower for younger gestational ages and for those delivered by Caesarean section compared to those delivered by normal vaginal delivery. Through predictive modeling, gestational age, mode of delivery and last methadone dose were established as risk factors for withdrawal. The model was validated by other statistical measures and its diagnostic performance confirmed on the separate independent cohort. Our data suggests that timing and mode of delivery as well as last maternal methadone dose are significant risk factors for the development of NAS requiring treatment. Based on these clinical parameters, risk stratification for perinatal management of pregnancies associated with opioid dependency and risk prediction for the neonate might now be possible.
Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; Schwartz, Robert P.; O'Grady, Kevin
The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly…
Trksak, George H.; Jensen, J. Eric; Plante, David T.; Penetar, David M.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Maywalt, Melissa A.; Brendel, Michael; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.
SUMMARY Insomnia afflicts many individuals, but particularly those in chronic methadone treatment. Studies examining sleep deprivation (SD) have begun to identify sleep restoration processes involving brain bioenergetics. The technique P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can measure brain changes in the high-energy phosphates: alpha-, beta-, and gamma-nucleoside triphosphate (NTP). In the present study, 21 methadone-maintained (MM) and 16 control participants underwent baseline (BL), SD (40 wakeful hrs), recovery1 (RE1), and recovery2 (RE2) study nights. Polysomnographic sleep was recorded each night and P MRS brain scanning conducted each morning using a 4T MR scanner (dual-tuned proton/phosphorus headcoil). Interestingly, increases in total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency index (SEI) commonly associated with RE sleep were not apparent in MM participants. Analysis of methadone treatment duration revealed that the lack of RE sleep increases in TST and SEI were primarily exhibited by short-term MM participants (methadone<12 months), while RE sleep in long-term MM (methadone>12 months) participants was more comparable to control participants. Slow wave sleep increased during RE1, but there was no difference between MM and control participants. Spectral power analysis revealed that compared to control participants; MM participants had greater delta, theta, and alpha spectral power during BL and RE sleep. P MRS revealed that elevations in brain beta-NTP (a direct measure of ATP) following RE sleep were greater in MM compared to control participants. Results suggest that differences in sleep and brain chemistry during RE in MM participants may be reflective of a disruption in homeostatic sleep function. PMID:19775835
Bracht, M; Ardal, F; Bot, A; Cheng, C M
The impact of a premature birth can be very traumatic for parents. They are usually not prepared for this event, and their sense of grief and loss is so intense that they often have difficulty coping with the situation. A parent group can help parents adapt to the crisis of prematurity by providing information and family support. This article describes the development of a parent group at a regional perinatal center in Ontario and identifies key factors for its successful initiation and maintenance.
Pang, Tak Ting P; Lee, Shui Shan
Objective While access and utilization form core components in assessing the effectiveness of a health service, the concept of coverage is often neglected. In this study we propose to develop a GIS-based methodological framework for the measurement of district-based geographic coverage to examine the service effectiveness of methadone treatment programme (MTP) in Hong Kong on a regular basis. Methods To overcome the incompatibility of spatial units, population data and data of heroin addiction of the year 2001 are interpolated by population-weighted and area-weighted algorithms. Standard overlay and proximity analytical functions are used to delineate altogether 20 accessible zones around each methadone clinic at a fixed 1.5 km Euclidean distance. Geographic coverage here is defined as the percentage of heroin addicts covered by a methadone clinic within the accessible zone by district. Results A total of 6413 out of 11000 reported heroin addicts are found geographically covered. The average geographic coverage in Hong Kong is 44.6%, with the figure varying from 0% to 96% by district. One district having no clinic results in 0% coverage whereas another without a clinic yields 15.3% coverage from the clinic in adjacent district. Maps illustrating district-based geographic coverage are generated. Conclusion As continuous data collection is required for a monitoring system, the simplified approach facilitates the handling of large volume data and relevant data analysis. It is concluded that the number of methadone clinics is as important as their locations. Geographic coverage could become an important consideration for monitoring harm reduction. PMID:18234088
Christie, Timothy K S; Murugesan, Alli; Manzer, Dana; O'Shaughnessey, Michael V; Webster, Duncan
Objective. To report the one-year retention rate and the prevalence of illicit opioid use and cocaine use in the Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance (LTHT) methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic located in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Methods. A description of the LTHT MMT clinic is provided. The one-year retention rate was determined by collecting data on patients who enrolled in the LTHT MMT clinic between August 04, 2009 and August 04, 2010. The prevalence of illicit drug use was determined using a randomly selected retrospective cohort of 84 participants. For each participant the results of six consecutive urine tests for the most recent three months were compared to the results of the first six consecutive urine tests after program entry. Results. The one-year retention rate was 95%, 67% of the cohort achieved abstinence from illicit opioids and an additional 13% abstained from cocaine use. Conclusion. The novel feature of the LTHT MMT clinic is that patients are not denied methadone because of lack of ancillary services. Traditional comprehensive MMT programs invest the majority of financial resources in ancillary services that support the biopsychosocial model, whereas the LTHT approach utilizes a medical model and directs resources at medical management.
Selwyn, P A; Hartel, D; Wasserman, W; Drucker, E
To examine the impact of the AIDS epidemic on morbidity and mortality in a defined population of intravenous drug users, we analyzed overall and cause-specific death rates, AIDS incidence, and acute medical hospitalizations among patients in a long-term methadone maintenance program in New York City for the years 1984 through 1987 (midyear population for each year 828 to 891; demographic characteristics did not differ). The number of deaths while in treatment increased from 11 (13.3/1000) in 1984 to 39 (44.2/1000) in 1987. Deaths from AIDS increased from 3.6/1000 to 14.7/1000, deaths due to bacterial pneumonia/sepsis from 3.6/1000 to 13.6/1000; deaths from cirrhosis, drug overdose, trauma, and other causes remained relatively stable. AIDS incidence rose from six cases/1000 in 1984 to 20.4.1000 in 1987. Hospitalizations for AIDS, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and endocarditis/sepsis increased from 84.9/1000 in 1986 to 144.8/1000 in 1987. These data suggest that the AIDS epidemic has had a profound effect on patterns of morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users in this methadone program population. Drug treatment programs may be important sites for targeting clinical services for drug users with AIDS, although the increasing burden of AIDS-related disease will require expansion of existing funding and treatment resources.
Strauss, Shiela M; Astone, Janetta M; Jarlais, Don Des; Hagan, Holly
Drug treatment programs are uniquely situated to screen patients for antibodies for hepatitis C virus (HCV), an infectious disease that has reached epidemic proportions among drug users. This paper compares the accessibility and patients' use of opportunities for HCV antibody testing in a large sample of methadone and drug-free treatment programs (N=256) in the US, and reports programs' recent changes and future plans concerning it. Results indicate that almost all methadone and about two-thirds of drug-free programs in the sample provided HCV antibody screening to at least some patients in 2001. While about two-thirds of the methadone and close to one-third of the drug-free programs offered this service to all patients, these programs report that only about 3/5 of their patients actually provided specimens for testing for HCV antibodies. Some drug treatment programs were planning to increase the availability and accessibility of HCV antibody screening, but others were planning to cut back on these services, primarily due to limited resources. These results can inform policymakers who advocate for increased HCV antibody screening in drug treatment programs about the current level and future plans for implementing these services, illuminating where resources and motivational efforts need to be targeted.
Ghaderi, Amir; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Motmaen, Maryam; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Asemi, Zatollah
Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with some complications including nonspecific musculoskeletal pain and periodontal disease in maintenance methadone treatment (MMT) patients. This study was designed to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on psychological symptoms and metabolic profiles in MMT patients. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out among 68 MMT patients. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either 50,000IU vitamin D supplements (n=34) or placebo (n=34) every 2weeks for 12weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and post-intervention to evaluate relevant variables. After the 12-week intervention, serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group (+8.1±4.9 vs. -0.4±3.0, P<0.001). In addition, vitamin D supplementation significantly improved Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (-1.5±2.2 vs. -0.2±2.3, P=0.02) and Beck Depression Inventory (-4.8±7.3 vs. -1.5±6.1, P=0.04) compared with the placebo. Patients who received vitamin D supplements had significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (-7.5±10.6 vs. +0.3±10.7mg/dL, P=0.004), serum insulin levels (-3.6±5.3 vs. -0.9±3.5 μIU/mL, P=0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-1.0±1.3 vs. -0.2±0.7, P=0.003), serum triglycerides (-9.6±30.8 vs. +15.6±30.2mg/dL, P=0.001), total- (-8.7±20.9 vs. +11.0±27.4mg/dL, P=0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (-11.1±17.9 vs. +5.9±27.5mg/dL, P=0.004) compared with the placebo. Additionally, vitamin D intake resulted in a significant decrease in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (-2.2±4.2 vs. +2.0±3.7mg/L, P<0.001), and significant increases plasma total antioxidant capacity (+26.2±99.8 vs. -86.3±127.5mmol/L, P<0.001) and glutathione levels (+292.3±172.4 vs. +48.9±208.9μmol/L, P<0.001) compared with the placebo. There was no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum HDL
Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Rehm, Jürgen
Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is one of the major side effects in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Quite often, constipation becomes a factor significantly affecting therapeutic options and choices. Currently used approaches are symptomatic and in many cases ineffective. At the same time, it is well known that the gastrointestinal system is a subject for psychosomatic influences. In this case report, we describe an unexpected outcome of placebo administration in a patient suffering from OIC since her participation in MMT. The patient participated in a triple-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of naloxone for treatment of OIC. As part of the study crossover design, the patient received 1 week of placebo followed by 1 week of naloxone, and had significant improvement in her bowel functioning when receiving placebo, then returned to baseline during the second week of the study.
Wang, Mei; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Linglin; Jiang, Baofa; Xiao, Yan; Jia, Yujiang; Wu, Pingsheng; Cassell, Holly; Vermund, Sten
Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted among injection drug users (IDUs). Of 2,530 participants, 47.7% reported ever sharing needles, 78.2% having had unprotected sex in the last month, 34.4% not receiving either methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) or HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), 4.8% ever receiving MMT-only, 36.6% ever receiving VCT-only, and 24.2% ever receiving both MMT and VCT. MMT-only and the combination of MMT and VCT had significant associations with needle sharing and on unprotected sexual behaviors. Effectively integrating VCT into MMT services is a logical way to maximize the impact of both interventions on risky behaviors among IDUs.
Smye, Victoria; Browne, Annette J; Varcoe, Colleen; Josewski, Viviane
Using our research findings, we explore Harm Reduction and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) using an intersectional lens to provide a more complex understanding of Harm Reduction and MMT, particularly how Harm Reduction and MMT are experienced differently by people dependent on how they are positioned. Using the lens of intersectionality, we refine the notion of Harm Reduction by specifying the conditions in which both harm and benefit arise and how experiences of harm are continuous with wider experiences of domination and oppression; A qualitative design that uses ethnographic methods of in-depth individual and focus group interviews and naturalistic observation was conducted in a large city in Canada. Participants included Aboriginal clients accessing mainstream mental health and addictions care and primary health care settings and healthcare providers; All client-participants had profound histories of abuse and violence, most often connected to the legacy of colonialism (e.g., residential schooling) and ongoing colonial practices (e.g., stigma & everyday racism). Participants lived with co-occurring illness (e.g., HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, PTSD, depression, diabetes and substance use) and most lived in poverty. Many participants expressed mistrust with the healthcare system due to everyday experiences both within and outside the system that further marginalize them. In this paper, we focus on three intersecting issues that impact access to MMT: stigma and prejudice, social and structural constraints influencing enactment of peoples' agency, and homelessness; Harm reduction must move beyond a narrow concern with the harms directly related to drugs and drug use practices to address the harms associated with the determinants of drug use and drug and health policy. An intersectional lens elucidates the need for harm reduction approaches that reflect an understanding of and commitment to addressing the historical, socio-cultural and political forces that shape
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Kohestani, Mina; Norozi Khalili, Mina
One of the most important problems in treatment of drug dependence is the cooperation of the patient's family. Many families do not look at drug dependence as a chronic and relapsing disorder and expect a quick and definite recovery of the disease. These families, including wives, are unfamiliar with the concept of harm reduction as a realistic approach. The aim of this study was to educate the spouses of patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) on the different aspects of harm reduction approach and assess the impact of this training on marital satisfaction and relapse rate. This study was a pretest-posttest study with control group. The sample consisted of 50 MMT patients and their wives in private methadone maintenance treatment clinics in the city of Bojnurd, located in the northeastern region of Iran. The experimental group received eight group training sessions run by a psychiatrist. The content of the training sessions was based on harm reduction programs for families of patients with high-risk behaviors. Two groups are compared in terms of marital satisfaction and relapse rate. A paired t test was used to compare changes before and after the training. The results of this study showed that harm reduction education and efforts for changing wives' views toward MMT are effective in increasing their marital satisfaction. However, the conducted training showed no effect on relapse rate in the six-month follow-up. Regarding the fact that this type of training has not been paid enough attention in the national protocol, the proposed training program of this research can be considered in MMT clinics.
Madadi, Parvaz; Kelly, Lauren E; Ross, Colin J; Kepron, Charis; Edwards, James N; Koren, Gideon
There is a paucity of data to aid in assessing whether postmortem methadone findings in breastfed infants are clinically and/or toxicologically significant. Two cases are reported in which methadone was detected in deceased neonates whose mothers were enrolled in methadone maintenance programs and were breastfeeding. In addition to a complete autopsy and toxicological testing for alcohol, prescription medications, and drugs of abuse, pharmacogenetic analysis was performed for variants in genes related to methadone metabolism and response. In both cases, the postmortem methadone concentration measured in neonatal heart blood was higher than the maximum serum methadone concentration reported in living breastfed infants whose mothers were receiving methadone. However, additional analysis of antemortem blood indicated postmortem redistribution of methadone. Pharmacogenetic results were suggestive of a potential predisposition to methadone toxicity based on studies in adults; the significance of these findings in breastfed neonates requires further research. The medical cause of death was unascertained in both cases. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
van Heeswijk, Rolf; Verboven, Peter; Vandevoorde, Ann; Vinck, Petra; Snoeys, Jan; Boogaerts, Griet; De Paepe, Els; Van Solingen-Ristea, Rodica; Witek, James; Garg, Varun
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody is present in most patients enrolled in methadone maintenance programs. Therefore, interactions between the HCV protease inhibitor telaprevir and methadone were investigated. The pharmacokinetics of R- and S-methadone were measured after administration of methadone alone and after 7 days of telaprevir (750 mg every 8 h [q8h]) coadministration in HCV-negative subjects on stable, individualized methadone therapy. Unbound R-methadone was measured in predose plasma samples before and during telaprevir coadministration. Safety and symptoms of opioid withdrawal were evaluated throughout the study. In total, 18 subjects were enrolled; 2 discontinued prior to receiving telaprevir. The minimum plasma concentration in the dosing interval (C(min)), the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from h 0 (time of administration) to 24 h postdose (AUC(0-24)) for R-methadone were reduced by 31%, 29%, and 29%, respectively, in the presence of telaprevir. The AUC0-24 ratio of S-methadone/R-methadone was not altered. The median unbound percentage of R-methadone increased by 26% in the presence of telaprevir. The R-methadone median (absolute) unbound C(min) values in the absence (10.63 ng/ml) and presence (10.45 ng/ml) of telaprevir were similar. There were no symptoms of opioid withdrawal and no discontinuations due to adverse events. In summary, exposure to total R-methadone was reduced by approximately 30% in the presence of telaprevir, while the exposure to unbound R-methadone was unchanged. No symptoms of opioid withdrawal were observed. These results suggest that dose adjustment of methadone is not required when initiating telaprevir treatment. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00933283.).
Bartos, F; Olsen, G D; Leger, R N; Bartos, D
Anti-d,l-methadone antibodies were produced in rabbits immunized with d,l-methadol-hemisuccinate thyroglobulin conjugate. Using the antiserum, a radioimmunoasay (RIA) for determination of d,l-methadone in human serum has been developed and is described. Concentration of d,l-methadone of 1.4 pmol in a native serum sample (volume 0.1 ml or less) could be measured directly by RIA. The antibodies crossreact 100% with d,l-methadone, 50% with d-methadone, 50% with l-methadone and 100% with alpha-d-methadol. No crossreactivity was found with alpha 1-methadol, morphine, meperidine, dextropropoxyphene, 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenyl-l-pyrroline and 2-ethylidene-l, 5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidene. High sensitivity and small sample requirements make this method suitable for future monitoring of patients on methadone maintenance and for studies where other procedures have lack of sensitivity.
Zhang, Lei; Zou, Xia; Zhang, Di; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Peizhen; Ling, Li
Client adherence is vital for effective methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). This study explores the pattern and associated factors of client adherence, drop-out and re-enrolment in the Chinese MMT programme over the period of 2006-2013. This retrospective study was conducted in 14 MMT clinics in Guangdong Province, China. We employed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to estimate the rates of drop-out and re-enrolment of MMT clients and multivariate Cox regression to identify associated factors. Among 1,512 study participants, 79% have experienced 'drop-out' during the 7-year study period. However, 82% 'dropped-out' clients resumed treatment at a later time. Low education level (junior high or below versus otherwise, HR = 1.21, 1.05-1.40), low methadone dosage in the first treatment episode (<50 ml versus ≥50 ml, HR = 1.84, 1.64-2.06) and higher proportion of positive urine test (≥50% versus<50%, HR = 3.72, 3.30-4.20) during the first treatment episode were strong predictors of subsequent drop-outs of the participants. Among the 'dropped-out' clients, being female (HR = 1.40, 1.23-1.60), being married (HR = 1.19, 1.09-1.30), and having a higher proportion of positive urine tests in the first treatment episode (≥50% versus<50%, HR = 1.35, 1.20-1.51) had greater likelihood of subsequent re-enrolment in MMT. Clients receiving lower methadone dosage (first treatment episode <50 ml versus ≥50 ml, HR = 1.12, 1.03-1.23; the last intake before drop-out <50 ml versus ≥50 ml, HR = 1.16, 1.04-1.30) were also more likely to re-enrol. Persistent cycling in-and-out of clients in MMT programmes is common. Insufficient dosage and higher proportion of positive urine samples in the first treatment episode are the key determinants for subsequent client drop-out and re-enrolment. Interventions should target clients in their early stage of treatment to improve retention in the long term.
Hoseiny, Hadis; Jadidi, Mohsen; Habiballah Nataj, Leila; Saberi-Zafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher
Due to the chronic and recurrent nature of addiction, many people who quit drug addiction may slip back into the pattern of using drugs shortly after the detoxification period. Emotion-regulation strategies and resilience play an important role in preventing the recurrences of substance abuse. This study aimed to compare the effects of methadone-maintenance therapy (MMT) and interactive therapy (a combination of MMT and cognitive-behavioral therapy) on improving emotion-regulation strategies and resilience among opiate-dependent clients. This pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was performed on 60 patients with substance abuse admitted to Methadone Addiction Treatment Centers and Detox Centers in Sari within three months of therapy for their addiction (from October to December 2013). Then, the participants were randomly assigned to two different groups (n = 30) were examined in two groups of 30 people targeted to be available in the selected population. Participants in all three groups, before and after the intervention, filled out the questionnaires of Schutte emotional intelligence scale and Connor-Davidson resiliency questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance method. The results showed that an interactive therapy would be significantly more effective than the MMT on improving emotion-regulation strategies and promoting the resilience level among opiate-dependent clients. Moreover, the results showed that cognitive- behavior therapy combined with MMT may improve emotion-regulation strategies, and promote the amount of resiliency and recovery. The cognitive-behavior therapy combined with MMT can improve emotion-regulation strategies and resiliency and thus prevent the substance-abuse relapse.
Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Rovai, Luca; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rugani, Fabio; Pacini, Matteo; Pani, Pier Paolo; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Akiskal, Hagop; Maremmani, Icro
The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of treatment-resistant bipolar 1 heroin addicts with peers who were without DSM-IV axis I psychiatric comorbidity (dual diagnosis). 104 Heroin-dependent patients (TRHD), who also met criteria for treatment resistance - 41 of them with DSM-IV-R criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder (BIP1-TRHD) and 63 without DSM-IV-R axis I psychiatric comorbidity (NDD-TRHD) - were monitored prospectively (3 years on average, min. 0.5, max. 8) along a Methadone Maintenance Treatment Programme (MMTP). The rates for survival-in-treatment were 44% for NDD-TRHD patients and 58% for BIP1-TRHD patients (p=0.062). After 3 years of treatment such rates tended to become progressively more stable. BIP1-TRHD patients showed better outcome results than NDD-TRHD patients regarding CGI severity (p<0.001) and DSM-IV GAF (p<0.001). No differences were found regarding urinalyses for morphine between groups during the observational period. Bipolar 1 patients needed a higher methadone dosage in the stabilization phase, but this difference was not statistically significant. The observational nature of the protocol, the impossibility of evaluating a follow-up in the case of the patients who dropped out, and the multiple interference caused by interindividual variability, the clinical setting and the temporary use of adjunctive medications. Contrary to expectations, treatment-resistant patients with bipolar 1 disorder psychiatric comorbidity showed a better long-term outcome than treatment-resistant patients without psychiatric comorbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brill, Leon; Chambers, Carl D.
This multimodality approach is geared primarily to the goal of abstinence. For addicts who cannot achieve this goal, methadone maintenance is suggested as the next step. The modalities described range from low-dose maintenance for clinic outpatients to intensive rehabilitation in a methadone maintenance residential center facility. (Author)
Brill, Leon; Chambers, Carl D.
This multimodality approach is geared primarily to the goal of abstinence. For addicts who cannot achieve this goal, methadone maintenance is suggested as the next step. The modalities described range from low-dose maintenance for clinic outpatients to intensive rehabilitation in a methadone maintenance residential center facility. (Author)
Tsui, Judith I.; Lira, Marlene C.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael R.; Alford, Daniel P.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Mao, Jianren; Edwards, Robert R.; Samet, Jeffrey H.
Background Patients with opioid use disorders on opioid agonist therapy (OAT) have lower pain tolerance compared to controls. While chronic viral infections such as HCV and HIV have been associated with chronic pain in this population, no studies have examined their impact on pain sensitivity. Methods We recruited 106 adults (41 uninfected controls; 40 HCV mono-infected; and 25 HCV/HIV co-infected) on buprenorphine or methadone to assess whether HCV infection (with or without HIV) was associated with increased experimental pain sensitivity and self-reported pain. The primary outcome was cold pain tolerance assessed by cold-press or test. Secondary outcomes were cold pain thresholds, wind-up ratios to repetitive mechanical stimulation (i.e., temporal summation) and acute and chronic pain. Multivariable regression models evaluated associations between viral infection status and outcomes, adjusting for other factors. Results No significant differences were detected across groups for primary or secondary outcomes. Adjusted mean cold pain tolerance was 25.7 (uninfected controls) vs. 26.8 (HCV mono-infection) vs. 25.3 (HCV/HIV co-infection) seconds (global p-value=0.93). Current pain appeared more prevalent among HCV mono-infected (93%) compared to HCV/HIV co-infected participants (76%) and uninfected controls (80%), as did chronic pain (77% v. 64% v. 61% respectively). However, differences were not statistically significant in multivariable models. Conclusion This study did not detect an association between HCV infection and increased sensitivity to pain among adults with and without HIV who were treated with buprenorphine or methadone for opioid use disorders. Results reinforce that pain and hyperalgesia are common problems in this population. PMID:26048638
Design and implementation of a factorial randomized controlled trial of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention for incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence in Malaysia.
Bazazi, Alexander R; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Shrestha, Roman; Al-Darraji, Haider; Copenhaver, Michael M; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
Incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence face enormous challenges to accessing evidence-based treatment during incarceration and after release into the community, placing them at risk of poor HIV treatment outcomes, relapse to opioid use and accompanying HIV transmission risk behaviors. Here we describe in detail the design and implementation of Project Harapan, a prospective clinical trial conducted among people living with HIV and opioid dependence who transitioned from prison to the community in Malaysia from 2010 to 2014. This trial involved 2 interventions: within-prison initiation of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention adapted to the Malaysian context (the Holistic Health Recovery Program for Malaysia, HHRP-M). Individuals were recruited and received the interventions while incarcerated and were followed for 12months after release to assess post-release HIV transmission risk behaviors and a range of other health-related outcomes. Project Harapan was designed as a fully randomized 2×2 factorial trial where individuals would be allocated in equal proportions to methadone maintenance therapy and HHRP-M, methadone maintenance therapy alone, HHRP-M alone, or control. Partway through study implementation, allocation to methadone maintenance therapy was changed from randomization to participant choice; randomization to HHRP-M continued throughout. We describe the justification for this study; the development and implementation of these interventions; changes to the protocol; and screening, enrollment, treatment receipt, and retention of study participants. Logistical, ethical, and analytic issues associated with the implementation of this study are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Madden, Michelle E; Shapiro, Steven L
The prevalence of methadone-related overdose deaths is increasing worldwide and has been a topic of recent debate. Methadone-related deaths, to this point, have not been systematically reviewed in the state of Vermont. All of the methadone-related fatalities from 2001 to 2006 (total, 76 cases), which were examined by the Vermont Office of the Chief Medical Examiner were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the decedents was 36 years (range, 16-74 years), and 72% were male. The manners of death were classified as follows: 84% accident, 12% undetermined, and 4% suicide. The mean level of methadone was 457 ng/mL (range, 50-3793 ng/mL). The substances causing death were determined to be methadone alone in 26 (34%), methadone with only other prescribed medications in 29 (38%), methadone with only illicit drugs (excluding tetrahydrocannabinol) in 13 (17%), methadone with both illicit and prescribed medications in 5 (7%), and methadone with ethanol in 3 (4%). The methadone was obtained by illegal diversion (sale, gift, or theft) in 67% of cases. In the remaining cases (33%), the methadone was obtained by physician's prescription for chronic pain (60%), acute pain or injury (8%), methadone maintenance therapy for heroin dependence (8%), and unknown reasons (24%). The number of overdose deaths has increased 4-fold from 2001 (17 deaths) to 2006 (79 deaths). The proportion of methadone-related deaths has increased by 300% from 2001 (0.6% of reported deaths, 12% of overdose deaths) to 2006 (3% of reported deaths, 37% of overdose deaths). Methadone maintenance therapy for heroin dependence in our population comprises an insignificant number of the methadone-related deaths (3% of the decedents). In Vermont, the populations most at risk are those taking methadone for chronic pain and those obtaining diverted methadone for abuse. Education of clinicians regarding the increasing number of methadone-related deaths, the potential for abuse and diversion, and the pharmacokinetics
Kandall, S R; Doberczak, T M; Jantunen, M; Stein, J
Methadone treatment during pregnancy offers overwhelming advantages compared with the less acceptable option of medical detoxification or the unacceptably dangerous option of leaving heroin-addicted women dependent on street drugs. General agreement exists that pregnancy offers a unique opportunity to bring women into medical, obstetric, and drug treatment. Methadone maintenance in the setting of comprehensive service provision during pregnancy reduces maternal morbidity and mortality and promotes fetal stability and growth. With an accumulated experience of over 25 years, methadone maintenance has been shown to be an invaluable and often an essential ingredient in bettering the health of women during pregnancy, in improving the outcomes of those pregnancies, and in offering opiate-addicted women a chance to improve both their lives and the lives of their families.
Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band
An important interaction between opioid and dopamine systems has been indicated, and using opioids may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Memantine, a medication for Alzheimer's disease, increasingly is being used for several disorders and maybe important for cognitive improvement. Opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy (MMT) and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Patients randomly assigned to the experimental (5 mg/day memantine (MMT+M) or placebo (MMT+P) group: 57 in MMT+M, 77 in MMT+P. Those completed the cognitive tasks at the baseline and after the 12-week treatment were analyzed. Thirty-seven age- and gender-matched HCs, and 42 MMT+P and 39 MMT+M patients were compared. The dropout rates were 49.4% in the MMT+P and 26.3% in the MMT+M. Both patient groups' cognitive performances were significantly worse than that of the HCs. After the treatment, both patient groups showed improved cognitive performance. We also found an interaction between the patient groups and time which indicated that the MMT+M group's post-treatment improvement was better than that of the MMT+P group. Memantine, previously reported as neuroprotective may attenuate chronic opioid-dependence-induced cognitive decline. Using such low dose of memantine as adjuvant treatment for improving cognitive performance in opioid dependents; the dose of memantine might be a worthy topic in future studies.
Marotta, Phillip L; McCullagh, Charlotte A
Although many studies have found an association between harm reduction interventions and reductions in incidence rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, scant research explores the effects of harm reduction cross-nationally. This study used a year- and country-level fixed effects model to estimate the potential effects of needle-and-syringe programs (NSPs) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on incidence rates of HIV in the general population and among people who inject drugs (PWID), in a sample of 28 European nations. After adjusting for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and total expenditures on healthcare, we identified significant associations between years of MMT and NSP implementation and lower incidence rates of HIV among PWID and the general population. In addition to years of implementation of NSP and MMT, the greater proportion of GDP spent on healthcare was associated with a decrease in logged incidence rates of HIV. The findings of this study suggest that MMT and NSP may reduce incidence rates of HIV among PWID cross-nationally. The current study opens a new avenue of exploration, which allows for a focus on countrywide policies and economic drivers of the epidemic. Moreover, it highlights the immense importance of the adoption of harm reduction programs as empirically-based health policy as well as the direct benefits that are accrued from public spending on healthcare on incidence rates of HIV within the general population and among subpopulations of PWID.
Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Vu, Phu Xuan; Mills, Steve; Houston, Stan; Jacobs, Philip
We analysed the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme in HIV prevention and treatment among injection drug users (DUs) in Vietnam. The costs and health outcomes of providing MMT for opioid-dependent DUs versus non-MMT were estimated using a decision analytical model. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to justify uncertainties of model parameters simultaneously. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of MMT in HIV prevention was US$3324 per one averted HIV case. The decision model showed that the cost-effectiveness ratio of MMT and non-MMT strategies was US$480 and US$204 per 1 quality-adjusted life year (QALY), equivalent to 0.43 and 0.18 times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc). The ICER for MMT versus non-MMT strategy was US$1964, approximately 1.76 times the GDPpc/QALY, classifying MMT as a cost-effective intervention. At the willingness to pay threshold of three times the GDPpc, the probability of MMT and non-MMT strategies being cost-effective was 80.3 and 19.7%, respectively. The budget impact of scaling up MMT from 2011 to 2015 will be US$97 million for 65% coverage or US$49 million for treating 80,000 DUs. The results indicated that MMT was cost-effective in HIV prevention and treatment among DUs who were opioid dependent.
Moradi, Ghobad; Farnia, Marzieh; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Moazen, Babak; Rahmani, Khaled
As one of the most important components of harm reduction strategy for high-risk groups, following the HIV epidemics, Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) has been initiated in prisoners since 2003. In this paper, we aimed to assess the advantages and shortcomings of the MMT program from the perspective of people who were involved with the delivery of prison healthcare in Iran. On the basis of grounded theory and through conducting 14 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 7 FGDs among physicians, consultants, experts, and 7 FGDs among directors and managers of prisons (n= 140) have been performed. The respondents were asked about positive and negative elements of the MMT program in Iranian prisons. This study included a total of 48 themes, of which 22 themes were related to advantages and the other 26 were about shortcomings of MMT programs in the prisons. According to participants' views "reduction of illegal drug use and high-risk injection", "reduction of potentially high-risk behaviors" and "making positive attitudes" were the main advantages of MMT in prisons, while issues such as "inaccurate implementation", "lack of skilled manpower" and "poor care after release from prison" were among the main shortcomings of MMT program. MMT program in Iran's prisons has achieved remarkable success in the field of harm reduction, but to obtain much more significant results, its shortcomings and weaknesses must be also taken into account by policy-makers. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Luo, R; Feng, X L; Luo, X; Liu, Z S; Hu, P W; Liu, S; Li, X L
To study the distributions of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in β-arrestin2 (ARRB2) which including rs3786047, rs1045280 and rs2036657 and to elucidate the relationship between these SNPs and response to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) among heroin-dependent patients of Han ethnicity population in Hunan. Han MMT patients were recruited in four random-chosen MMT clinics from Hunan province. Demographics, history of drug-use and MMT were recorded. ARRB2 SNPs were genotyped to determine the association between SNPs and response to MMT. Distributions of the three SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both groups (responders vs. non-responders). There was no statistical significance in the distribution frequency of genotype on rs3786047 (χ(2)=0.486 2, P=0.784), rs1045280 (χ(2)=1.591 9, P=0.451) and rs2036657 (χ(2)=1.061 5, P=0.588) in ARRB2 among the responders or the non-responders. Associations between the ARRB2 genotypes, rs3786047, rs1045280 and rs2036657, and MMT response in Han MMT patients in Hunan province did not appear.
Copenhaver, Michael; Shrestha, Roman; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Weikum, Damian; Altice, Frederick L.
The present study examines the factor structure of the existing Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS) through the use of exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The NIS is a brief self-report measure originally designed to assess neurocognitive impairment (NCI) by having patients rate a range of items that may influence cognitive functioning. Stabilized patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT; N=339) in New Haven, CT who reported drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6 months were administered the full 95-item NIS. An EFA was then conducted using principal axis factoring and orthogonal varimax rotation. The EFA resulted in retaining 57 items, with a 9-factor solution that explained 54.8% of the overall variance. The revised 9-factor measure - now referred to as the Brief Inventory of Neuro-cognitive Impairment (BINI) - showed a diverse set of factors with excellent to good reliability (i.e., F1 α = 0.97 to F9 α = 0.73). This EFA suggests the potential utility of using the BINI in the context of addiction treatment. Further research should examine the utility of this tool within other clinical care settings. PMID:26879859
Copenhaver, Michael; Shrestha, Roman; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Weikum, Damian; Altice, Frederick L
The present study examines the factor structure of the existing Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS) through the use of exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The NIS is a brief, self-report measure originally designed to assess neurocognitive impairment (NCI) by having patients rate a range of items that may influence cognitive functioning. Stabilized patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT; N=339) in New Haven, CT who reported drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6 months were administered the full 95-item NIS. An EFA was then conducted using principal axis factoring and orthogonal varimax rotation. The EFA resulted in retaining 57 items, with a 9-factor solution that explained 54.8% of the overall variance. The revised 9-factor measure--now referred to as the Brief Inventory of Neuro-cognitive Impairment (BINI)--showed a diverse set of factors with excellent to good reliability (i.e., F1 α=0.97 to F9 α=0.73). This EFA suggests the potential utility of using the BINI in the context of addiction treatment. Further research should examine the utility of this tool within other clinical care settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, I. Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band
An important interaction between opioid and dopamine systems has been indicated, and using opioids may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Memantine, a medication for Alzheimer's disease, increasingly is being used for several disorders and maybe important for cognitive improvement. Opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy (MMT) and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Patients randomly assigned to the experimental (5 mg/day memantine (MMT+M) or placebo (MMT+P) group: 57 in MMT+M, 77 in MMT+P. Those completed the cognitive tasks at the baseline and after the 12-week treatment were analyzed. Thirty-seven age- and gender-matched HCs, and 42 MMT+P and 39 MMT+M patients were compared. The dropout rates were 49.4% in the MMT+P and 26.3% in the MMT+M. Both patient groups' cognitive performances were significantly worse than that of the HCs. After the treatment, both patient groups showed improved cognitive performance. We also found an interaction between the patient groups and time which indicated that the MMT+M group's post-treatment improvement was better than that of the MMT+P group. Memantine, previously reported as neuroprotective may attenuate chronic opioid-dependence-induced cognitive decline. Using such low dose of memantine as adjuvant treatment for improving cognitive performance in opioid dependents; the dose of memantine might be a worthy topic in future studies. PMID:25989606
Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in the United States (U.S.) has been undergoing a shift towards conceptualizing the program as recovery-based treatment. Although recovery is seen by some as a means to restore MMT to its rightful position as a medically-based treatment for addiction, it may not represent the experiences, or meet the needs of people who use drugs (PWUD), many of whom who use the program as a pragmatic means of reducing harms associated with criminalization. To examine alternative constructions of MMT in order to produce a richer, more contextualized picture of the program and the reasons PWUD employ its services. This paper uses semi-structured interviews with 23 people on MMT (either currently or within the previous two years). Most participants linked their use of MMT to the structural-legal context of prohibition/criminalization rather than through the narrative of the recovery model. Responses suggested the recovery model functions in part to obscure the role of criminalization in the harms PWUD experience in favor of a model based on individual pathology. Conclusions/Importance: In contrast to the recovery model, MMT cannot be understood outside of the structural context of criminalization and the War on Drugs which shape illegal drug use as a difficult and dangerous activity, and consequently position MMT as a way to moderate or escape from those harms.
Calsyn, D A; Wells, E A; Fleming, C; Saxon, A J
The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) was administered to 144 men and 86 women within 1 month of admission to methadone maintenance treatment and was readministered 18 months following admission. Based on prior research, we hypothesized there would be significant decreases on scales measuring affective disturbance, anxiety, and social isolation and little change in scales measuring antisocial and narcissistic traits. In addition, it was hypothesized that changes on the MCMI would be related to retention in treatment and illicit drug use during the interim between initial assessment and follow-up. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for repeated measures. There was an overall decrease in MCMI scores, indicating less psychopathology between initial assessment and follow-up. MCMI scales did not change as a function of retention status, but decreases in MCMI scale scores were greater for subjects who were light drug users in the 6 months prior to the follow-up compared to heavy users. Inspection of individual MCMI scales supported our hypothesis; there were decreases on scales measuring affective disturbance, anxiety, and social isolation, but not on scales measuring antisocial and narcissistic traits.
Moradi, Ghobad; Farnia, Marzieh; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Moazen, Babak; Rahmani, Khaled
Background: As one of the most important components of harm reduction strategy for high-risk groups, following the HIV epidemics, Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) has been initiated in prisoners since 2003. In this paper, we aimed to assess the advantages and shortcomings of the MMT program from the perspective of people who were involved with the delivery of prison healthcare in Iran. Methods: On the basis of grounded theory and through conducting 14 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 7 FGDs among physicians, consultants, experts, and 7 FGDs among directors and managers of prisons (n= 140) have been performed. The respondents were asked about positive and negative elements of the MMT program in Iranian prisons. Results: This study included a total of 48 themes, of which 22 themes were related to advantages and the other 26 were about shortcomings of MMT programs in the prisons. According to participants’ views "reduction of illegal drug use and high-risk injection", "reduction of potentially high-risk behaviors" and "making positive attitudes" were the main advantages of MMT in prisons, while issues such as "inaccurate implementation", "lack of skilled manpower" and "poor care after release from prison" were among the main shortcomings of MMT program. Conclusions: MMT program in Iran’s prisons has achieved remarkable success in the field of harm reduction, but to obtain much more significant results, its shortcomings and weaknesses must be also taken into account by policy-makers. PMID:26340487
Talka, Reeta; Tuominen, Raimo K; Salminen, Outi
Methadone is a long-acting opioid agonist that is frequently prescribed as a treatment for opioid addiction. Almost all methadone maintenance patients are smokers, and there is a correlation between smoking habit and use of methadone. Methadone administration increases tobacco smoking, and heavy smokers use higher doses of methadone. Nevertheless, methadone maintenance patients are willing to quit smoking although their quit rates are low. Studies on nicotine-methadone interactions provide an example of the bedside-to-bench approach, i.e., observations in clinical settings have been studied experimentally in vivo and in vitro. In vivo studies have revealed the interplay between nicotine and the endogenous opioid system. At the receptor level, methadone has been shown to be an agonist of human α7 nAChRs and a non-competitive antagonist of human α4β2 and α3* nAChRs. These drugs do not have significant interactions at the level of drug metabolism, and thus the interaction is most likely pharmacodynamic. The net effect of the interaction may depend on individual characteristics because pharmacogenetic factors influence the disposition of both methadone and nicotine.
Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Lau, Joseph T F; Chen, Long; Wang, Zixin; Hao, Chun; Hao, Yuantao
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a key risk reduction measure for controlling HIV transmission among drug users. Studies using traditional methods exist to distinguish between drop outs and nondrop outs. However, many nondrop outs use MMT discontinuously and no study has identified situation-specific factors predicting their showing or not showing up. This study used a case-crossover design comparing situation-specific factors appearing on the last episode of attendance versus those of the last episode of nonattendance. A total of 133 participants were recruited from two MMT clinics in Guangzhou, China. Participants were asked separately whether various situation-specific factors existed in the last episodes of nonattendance and attendance of MMT. Matched odds ratios (ORs) based on conditional logistic regression analysis were presented. The results showed that the participants attended the MMT clinics on average for 25 days in the last month. Situation-specific factors significantly predicting nonattendance included: (1) physical and mental health status: in illness (OR = 33.0, P < 0.001), in a bad mood (OR = 7.5, P < 0.001), and occurrence of an unhappy event (OR = 18.0, P < 0.001); (2) other engagement: work engagement (OR = 40.0, P < 0.001), trip to other places (OR = 83.0, P < 0.001), and social activities (OR = 10.0, P = 0.012); (3) interpersonal relationship: conflicts with family (OR = 19.0, P = 0.004); and (4) structural situational factors: financial difficulty (OR = 19.0, P = 0.004) and worrying about police arrest (OR = 12.0, P = 0.003). Other factors such as interaction with drug users and heroin use were marginally significant, while reduced methadone dosage was nonsignificant. Interventions to improve MMT adherence need to consider situation-specific factors. Ancillary psychosocial services should be integrated with current MMT; MMT should also provide more flexible services to the clients. Furthermore, efforts should be taken to build up
Zou, Xia; Ling, Li; Zhang, Lei
This study explores the trends and associated factors of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis seroconversion among Chinese methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients over a follow-up period of up to 7 years. Drug users from 14 MMT clinics in Guangdong Province were recruited during 2006-2014. Participants were seronegative with at least one HIV, HCV or syphilis infection at baseline and had completed at least one follow-up test during the study period. We estimated HIV, HCV and syphilis seroconversion rates in follow-up years and identified the underlying predictors using a multivariate Cox regression model. Among 9240 participants, the overall HIV seroconversion rate was 0.20 (0.13 to 0.28)/100 person-years (pys), 20.54 (18.62 to 22.46)/100 pys for HCV and 0.77 (0.62 to 0.93)/100 pys for syphilis, over the study period. HIV seroconversion rate showed a moderate but non-significant annual decline of 13.34% (-42.48% to 30.56%) (χ(2) trend test; p=0.369), whereas the decline of HCV seroconversion was 16.12% (5.53% to 25.52%) per annum (p<0.001). Syphilis seroconversion rate remained stable (p=0.540). Urine results positive for opioid predicted HIV seroconversion (≥ 60% vs <60%; HR=3.40, 1.07 to 10.85), being unmarried (HR=1.59, 1.15 to 2.20), injection drug use in the past 30 days (HR=2.17, 1.42 to 3.32), having sexual intercourse in the past 3 months (HR=1.74, 1.22 to 2.47) and higher daily dosage of methadone (≥ 60 mL vs <60 mL; HR=1.40, 1.01 to 1.94) predicted HCV seroconversion. Being female (HR=3.56, 2.25 to 5.64) and infected with HCV at baseline (HR=2.40, 1.38 to 8.36) were associated with subsequent syphilis seroconversion. MMT in China has demonstrated moderate-to-good effectiveness in reducing HIV and HCV incidence but not syphilis infection among participating drug users. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Luo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Peizhen; Gong, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Weiming; Zou, Xia; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li
Objective: To assess concurrent heroin use and correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clients in Guangdong Province, China. Method: Demographic and drug use data were collected with a structured questionnaire, and MMT information was obtained from the MMT clinic registration system in Guangdong. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected status and urine morphine results were obtained from laboratory tests. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the factors associated with concurrent heroin use. Results: Among the 6848 participants, 75% continued using heroin more than once during the first 12 months after treatment initiation. Concurrent heroin use was associated with inharmonious family relationship (OR (odds ratio) = 1.49, 95% CI (confidence intervals): 1.24–1.78), HIV positivity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.55), having multiple sex partners (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.69), having ever taken intravenous drugs (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69–0.95), higher maintenance dose (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28) and poorer MMT attendance (OR<20% = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13–1.53; OR20%– = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14–1.54; OR50%– = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.44–2.00). Among those who used heroin concurrently, the same factors, and additionally being older (OR35– = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11–1.43; OR≥45 = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.30–2.05) and female (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28–2.00), contribute to a greater frequency of heroin use. Conclusions: Concurrent heroin use was prevalent among MMT participants in Guangdong, underscoring the urgent needs for tailored interventions and health education programs for this population. PMID:27005649
Ballard, Jeanne L
This article addresses the management of pregnant women participating in a methadone maintenance program. An approach to management of the labor of a woman on a methadone maintenance program is described along with a summary of what to anticipate at delivery and postpartum, and options for management of the infant who manifests symptoms of the neonatal abstinence syndrome.
Gordon, Andrea L; Lopatko, Olga V; Somogyi, Andrew A; Foster, David J R; White, Jason M
AIMS The aim of this study was to compare the transfer of buprenorphine and methadone between maternal and cord blood in women under chronic dosing conditions and to determine if differences exist in the transfer of the two methadone enantiomers. METHODS Maternal and cord blood samples were collected at delivery from women maintained on methadone (35, 25–140 mg day−1) (median; range) or buprenorphine (6.00, 2–20 mg day−1) during pregnancy. Plasma concentration ratios are presented as an indicator of foetal exposure relative to the mother. RESULTS Methadone was quantified in all samples, with cord : maternal plasma methadone concentration ratios (n = 15 mother-infant pairs) being significantly higher (P < 0.0001; mean difference (MD) 0.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.048, 0.092) for the active (R)-methadone enantiomer (0.41; 0.19, 0.56) (median; range) compared with (S)-methadone (0.36; 0.15, 0.53). (R)- : (S)-methadone concentration ratios were also significantly higher (P < 0.0001; MD 0.24 95% CI 0.300, 0.180) for cord (1.40; 0.95, 1.67) compared with maternal plasma (1.16; 0.81, 1.38). Half the infant buprenorphine samples were below the assay lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (0.125 ng ml−1). The latter was four-fold lower than the LLOQ for methadone (0.50 ng ml−1). The cord : maternal plasma buprenorphine concentration ratio (n = 9 mother-infant pairs) was 0.35; 0.14, 0.47 and for norbuprenorphine 0.49; 0.24, 0.91. CONCLUSIONS The transfer of the individual methadone enantiomers to the foetal circulation is stereoselective. Infants born to buprenorphine maintained women are not exposed to a greater proportion of the maternal dose compared with methadone and may be exposed to relatively less of the maternal dose compared with infants born to women maintained on methadone during pregnancy. PMID:21175445
Gordon, Andrea L; Lopatko, Olga V; Somogyi, Andrew A; Foster, David J R; White, Jason M
The aim of this study was to compare the transfer of buprenorphine and methadone between maternal and cord blood in women under chronic dosing conditions and to determine if differences exist in the transfer of the two methadone enantiomers. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected at delivery from women maintained on methadone (35, 25-140 mg day⁻¹) (median; range) or buprenorphine (6.00, 2-20 mg day⁻¹) during pregnancy. Plasma concentration ratios are presented as an indicator of foetal exposure relative to the mother. Methadone was quantified in all samples, with cord : maternal plasma methadone concentration ratios (n= 15 mother-infant pairs) being significantly higher (P < 0.0001; mean difference (MD) 0.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.048, 0.092) for the active (R)-methadone enantiomer (0.41; 0.19, 0.56) (median; range) compared with (S)-methadone (0.36; 0.15, 0.53). (R)- : (S)-methadone concentration ratios were also significantly higher (P < 0.0001; MD 0.24 95% CI 0.300, 0.180) for cord (1.40; 0.95, 1.67) compared with maternal plasma (1.16; 0.81, 1.38). Half the infant buprenorphine samples were below the assay lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (0.125 ng ml⁻¹). The latter was four-fold lower than the LLOQ for methadone (0.50 ng ml⁻¹). The cord : maternal plasma buprenorphine concentration ratio (n= 9 mother-infant pairs) was 0.35; 0.14, 0.47 and for norbuprenorphine 0.49; 0.24, 0.91. The transfer of the individual methadone enantiomers to the foetal circulation is stereoselective. Infants born to buprenorphine maintained women are not exposed to a greater proportion of the maternal dose compared with methadone and may be exposed to relatively less of the maternal dose compared with infants born to women maintained on methadone during pregnancy. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.
Taghizadeh, Fatemeh; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid
Self-efficacy is the belief that one has the ability to implement the behaviors needed to produce a desired effect. There has been growing interest in the role of self-efficacy as a predictor and/or mediator of treatment outcome in a number of domains. Procrastination is a self-regulatory failure, defined as the voluntary delay of an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. Behavioral procrastination is a self-sabotage strategy that allows people to shift blame and avoid action; the decisional procrastination strategy is to put off making a decision when dealing with conflicts or choices. Procrastination has a great role in quitting drug addiction. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between procrastination and self-efficacy and other factors among intravenous drug users. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 178 intravenous drug users in the behavioral disease counseling, health center in Sari city, Mazandaran province, Iran, in 2013. The samples were selected through census sampling, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to measure the properties of distribution that depicts a set of data shown as frequency distribution tables, while for the mean and standard deviation, chi-square, Fisher and Spearman-Brown coefficients were used to analyze the data. The mean age of the participants was 43 years. Seventy-two percent of them were married and opium was the first drug used. The first substance used in them was 54% of opium, 33% cannabis and 5% alcohol and 79% smoking. The reason of the first drug use in 32% of the subjects was temptation and in 10% a friend's influence. The mean age of the first drug use was 23 years, and the frequency was 2 times per day. All of them had relapse at least once. Seven percent of them currently use other materials (2% crystal, 5% alcohol and opium and crack) both in methadone treatment. Behavioral procrastination in 60.5% of them and decisional procrastination in
Taghizadeh, Fatemeh; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid
Background: Self-efficacy is the belief that one has the ability to implement the behaviors needed to produce a desired effect. There has been growing interest in the role of self-efficacy as a predictor and/or mediator of treatment outcome in a number of domains. Procrastination is a self-regulatory failure, defined as the voluntary delay of an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. Behavioral procrastination is a self-sabotage strategy that allows people to shift blame and avoid action; the decisional procrastination strategy is to put off making a decision when dealing with conflicts or choices. Procrastination has a great role in quitting drug addiction. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between procrastination and self-efficacy and other factors among intravenous drug users. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 178 intravenous drug users in the behavioral disease counseling, health center in Sari city, Mazandaran province, Iran, in 2013. The samples were selected through census sampling, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to measure the properties of distribution that depicts a set of data shown as frequency distribution tables, while for the mean and standard deviation, chi-square, Fisher and Spearman-Brown coefficients were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of the participants was 43 years. Seventy-two percent of them were married and opium was the first drug used. The first substance used in them was 54% of opium, 33% cannabis and 5% alcohol and 79% smoking. The reason of the first drug use in 32% of the subjects was temptation and in 10% a friend’s influence. The mean age of the first drug use was 23 years, and the frequency was 2 times per day. All of them had relapse at least once. Seven percent of them currently use other materials (2% crystal, 5% alcohol and opium and crack) both in methadone treatment. Behavioral
Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Vu, Phu Xuan; Mills, Steve; Houston, Stan; Jacobs, Philip
Drug use negatively affects adherence to and outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART). This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) with ART for HIV-positive drug users (DUs) in Vietnam. A decision analytical model was developed to compare the costs and consequences of 3 HIV/AIDS treatment strategies for DUs: (1) only ART, (2) providing ART and MMT in separated sites (ART-MMT), and (3) integrating ART and MMT with direct administration (DAART-MMT). The model was parameterized using empirical data of costs and outcomes extracted from the MMT and ART cohort studies in Vietnam, and international published sources. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the model's robustness. The base-case analysis showed that the cost-effectiveness ratio of ART, DAART-MMT, and ART-MMT strategies was USD 1358.9, 1118.0 and 1327.1 per 1 Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY), equivalent to 1.22, 1.00, and 1.19 times Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for DAART-MMT and ART-MMT versus ART strategy was 569.4 and 1227.8, approximately 0.51 and 1.10 times GDPpc/QALY. At the willingness to pay threshold of 3 times GDPpc, the probability of being cost-effective of DAART-MMT versus ART was 86.1%. These findings indicated that providing MMT along with ART for HIV-positive DUs is a cost-effective intervention in Vietnam. Integrating MMT and ART services could facilitate the use of directly observed therapy that supports treatment adherence and brings about clinically important improvements in health outcomes. This approach is also incrementally cost-effective in this large injection-driven HIV epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael
The adoption of mobile technologies for health (mHealth) in healthcare has grown considerably in recent years, but systematic assessment of interest in the use of mHealth in HIV prevention efforts among people who use drugs (PWUD) is lacking. We therefore examined interest in use of mHealth technology in HIV prevention and associated individual-level factors among high-risk PWUD enrolled in methadone maintenance program. A total of 400 HIV-negative PWUD, who reported drug- and/or sex-related risk behaviors completed a standardized assessment using audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI). Results revealed significant interest in using mHealth-based approaches for specific purposes, including: to receive medication reminders (72.3%), to receive information about HIV risk reduction (65.8%), and to assess HIV risk behaviors (76.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that interest in receiving medication reminders was associated with currently taking medication and being neurocognitively impaired, whereas interest in receiving HIV-risk reduction information was associated with being non-white, married, and perceiving the person was at high-risk for contracting HIV. Similarly, participants' interested in using mHealth for HIV risk behavior assessment was associated with having recently visited a healthcare provider and exhibiting depressive symptoms. Overall, this study demonstrated that high-risk PWUD are interested in using mHealth-based tools as a key part of an HIV prevention approach within a common type of drug treatment settings. Thus, formative research on preferences for design and functionality of mHealth-based HIV prevention tools are now needed, followed by practical development, implementation, and evaluation of these new intervention strategies.
Weizman, Tal; Gelkopf, Marc; Melamed, Yuval; Adelson, Miriam; Bleich, Avraham
We addressed the following questions. What are the current and lifetime prevalence of cannabis abuse in an Israeli methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic? Does cannabis abuse change over time during MMT? Is cannabis abuse related to treatment outcome measures such as retention rate and the abuse of drugs? Is the abuse of cannabis related to psychopathology, HIV/HCV risk-taking and infectious diseases? Do cannabis abusers (CAs) have a different psychosocial and demographic profile than nonabusers (NCAs)? Is cannabis abuse part of a polydrug abuse tendency or a distinct substance of abuse? Overlapping samples of either the entire clinic population (n = 283) or all the patients who had completed 1 year of MMT treatment (n = 196 of which 20 were re-entering) underwent random and twice-weekly observed urine analysis for various drugs of abuse, responded to self-report questionnaires (SCL-90-R; HIV/HCV risk-taking behaviours; n = 164), interviews (ASI, n = 176; SCID, n = 151) and hepatitis C and HIV testing (n = 149). Lifetime abuse prevalence was found in 75% and current abuse at MMT intake in 25%. Abuse did not increase significantly over a 1-year period. Cannabis abusers were found to be more often polydrug abusers than NCAs. Cannabis abusers did not suffer from more psychological distress, infectious diseases, and did not engage in more HCV/HIV risk-taking behaviour, nor did they leave treatment earlier than NCAs. Cannabis abuse MMT patients should be treated as polydrug abusers, although no specific influences of cannabis abuse on psychological and medical conditions of MMT patients have been observed. Treatment policy should take these results into consideration.
McDuff, D R; Schwartz, R P; Tommasello, A; Tiegel, S; Donovan, T; Johnson, J L
Benzodiazepines are used by a substantial minority of opioid addicts on methadone maintenance. Alprazolam, now the most widely prescribed benzodiazepine in the United States, appears to have supplanted diazepam as the benzodiazepine drug of choice in this population. Its greater addiction liability, shorter half-life, and more intense withdrawal symptoms make addiction to alprazolam more likely and its management in methadone patients more complicated. This article describes a slow outpatient tapered reduction procedure that was utilized to detoxify benzodiazepine dependent methadone patients seen over a two-year period. The reduction procedure was offered to 22 opioid addicts on methadone maintenance who were regularly ingesting low to moderate amounts of benzodiazepines, primarily alprazolam. Of the 22 patients, 4 patients refused outpatient detoxification, and 18 were started on a reduction procedure. Twelve patients completed the detoxification procedure which averaged 7.8 weeks. Comparisons are made between completers and non-completers and essential design features of the procedure are discussed.
Harris, Andiea; Selling, Daniel; Luther, Charles; Hershberger, Jason; Brittain, Joan; Dickman, Samuel; Glick, Alvin; Lee, Joshua D
The Rikers Island Key Extended Entry Program (KEEP) has offered methadone treatment for opioid dependent inmates incarcerated in New York City's jails since 1986. In response to a trend toward low-dose methadone maintenance prescribing, a quality improvement (QI) protocol trained KEEP counselors, physicians, and pharmacists in the evidence base supporting moderate-to-high methadone maintenance doses in order to maximize therapeutic effects and rates of successful reporting to community methadone treatment programs (MTPs) post release. Discharge dose level and length of incarceration data were analyzed for 2 groups of KEEP patients discharged pre/post-QI. Among patients incarcerated for 21 or more days, the proportion of those on moderate-to-high doses of methadone increased significantly. Patients who reached a moderate-to-high methadone dose demonstrated higher rates of reporting to community MTP versus lower doses, both pre- and post-QI. Overall, a higher proportion of all patients reported to community MTP post-QI.
Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Groppi, Angelo
Over the last 10 years we have registered in our district (about 500,000 inhabitants) 36 cases of fatal methadone poisoning, involving both patients on treatment and naive subjects: this is a significant increase of deaths due to methadone use, misuse or abuse compared with previous years. Twenty-four patients (66.7%) were on methadone maintenance programs for heroin detoxification, while 12 (33.3%) were taking the drug without a medical prescription. The average blood concentration of methadone in patients undergoing a maintenance program was 1.06 mg/L (0.21-3.37 mg/L), against 0.79 mg/L (0.2-3.15 mg/L) in those taking the non-prescribed drug. Since 111 heroin-related deaths were recorded in our district in the same period, the fact that there appear to be many methadone deaths (about a third of heroin-related deaths) cannot be overlooked. The aim of this work is to understand the possible reasons for such a large number of methadone-related deaths. On this subject, we have noticed that risks associated with methadone intake are often underestimated by clinicians prescribing the drug: sometimes methadone is prescribed without taking into account patient's tolerance to opiates, and a large number of subjects enrolled in methadone maintenance programs in Italy, have also been given take-home doses, thus increasing the risk of abuse and diversion.
Stotts, Angela L.; Masuda, Akihiko; Wilson, Kelly
Many clients who undergo methadone maintenance (MM) treatment for heroin and other opiate dependence prefer abstinence from methadone. Attempts at methadone detoxification are often unsuccessful, however, due to distressing physical as well as psychological symptoms. Outcomes from an MM client who voluntarily participated in an Acceptance and…
Stotts, Angela L.; Masuda, Akihiko; Wilson, Kelly
Many clients who undergo methadone maintenance (MM) treatment for heroin and other opiate dependence prefer abstinence from methadone. Attempts at methadone detoxification are often unsuccessful, however, due to distressing physical as well as psychological symptoms. Outcomes from an MM client who voluntarily participated in an Acceptance and…
Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wu, Kuang-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Ta; Chien, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wang, Yun
Growing evidence has indicated that opioids enhance replication of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in target cells. However, it is unknown whether opioids can enhance replication of other clinically important viral pathogens. In this study, the interaction of opioid agonists and human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus was examined in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Cells were exposed to morphine, methadone or buprenorphine followed by human H1N1 viral infection. Exposure to methadone differentially enhanced viral propagation, consistent with an increase in virus adsorption, susceptibility to virus infection and viral protein synthesis. In contrast, morphine or buprenorphine did not alter H1N1 replication. Because A549 cells do not express opioid receptors, methadone-enhanced H1N1 replication in human lung cells may not be mediated through these receptors. The interaction of methadone and H1N1 virus was also examined in adult mice. Treatment with methadone significantly increased H1N1 viral replication in lungs. Our data suggest that use of methadone facilitates influenza A viral infection in lungs and might raise concerns regarding the possible consequence of an increased risk of serious influenza A virus infection in people who receive treatment in methadone maintenance programs. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Nekhayeva, Ilona A; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Deshmukh, Sujal V; Zharikova, Olga L; Hankins, Gary D V; Ahmed, Mahmoud S
Methadone maintenance programs are considered the standard of care for the pregnant opiate addict. However, data on changes in methadone pharmacokinetics (PK) during pregnancy are limited and do not include its disposition by the placenta due to obvious ethical and safety considerations. Accordingly, investigations in our laboratory are focusing on human placental disposition of opiates including methadone. Recently, we reported on methadone metabolism by placental aromatase and provide here data on its bidirectional transfer across the tissue utilizing the technique of dual perfusion of placental lobule. The concentrations of the opiate transfused into the term placental tissue were those reported for its in vivo levels in the maternal serum of women under treatment with the drug. Data obtained indicated that the opiate has no adverse effects on placental viability and functional parameters and that it is retained by the tissue. Also, methadone transfer and its clearance index in the fetal to maternal direction (0.97+/-0.05) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the maternal to fetal (0.83+/-0.09). The observed asymmetry in methadone transfer could be explained by the unidirectional activity of the efflux transporter P glycoprotein (P-gp) that is highly expressed in variable amounts in trophoblast tissue. Therefore, placental disposition of methadone might be an important contributor to the regulation of its concentration in the fetal circulation and consequently may affect the incidence and intensity of neonatal abstinence syndrome for women treated with the drug during pregnancy.
Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi
A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Patients' work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants' employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was 'freelancer' (17.5%), followed by 'blue-collar worker' (10.6%) and 'farmer' (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for <1 year and those who had been enrolled >1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial
Background HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Methods Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. Results A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran’s I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P < 0.0001). Both the geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. Conclusion HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent
Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Wang, Qi-Xing; Gong, Yu-Han; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu
HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran's I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P < 0.0001). Both the geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent site-specific intervention strategies to
Maguire, Denise J
When women addicted to opioids seek prenatal care, the treatment of choice is methadone. Methadone mediates the addiction by reducing fluctuations in maternal serum opioid levels and protecting the fetus from repeated withdrawal episodes. Methadone maintenance is associated with increased maternal weight gain, decreased illegal drug use, and improved compliance with prenatal care. Although the risks are less when compared with street drugs, the risk to the fetus is physical dependence. Despite the magnitude of this national problem, there is a dearth of literature to guide NICU nurses on how to best support mothers of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the care of their infants. The purposes of this article are to review what is known about women in methadone treatment who have a history of opioid addiction and apply that evidence to guide neonatal nurses to support mothers of infants with NAS in the NICU.
This essay reviews four texts which critically analyse methadone maintenance therapy using Foucault as a key theoretical framework: [Friedman, J., & Alicea, M. (2001). Surviving heroin: Interviews with women in methadone clinics. Florida: University Press of Florida], [Bourgois, P. (2000). Disciplining addictions: The bio-politics of methadone and heroin in the United States. Culture Medicine and Psychiatry, 24, 165-195], [Bull, M. (2008). Governing the heroin trade: From treaties to treatment. Ashgate: Aldershot], and [Fraser, S., & valentine, k. (2008). Substance & substitution: Methadone subjects in liberal societies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan]. Taken together these works demonstrate one trajectory in the development of critical drug studies over the past decade. While all four view MMT as a regulatory technology which aims to create productive and obedient subjects, their understandings of the power relations of the clinic are quite distinct. The first two texts emphasise the social control of drug users, the third, issues of governmentality and liberal political practice, while the fourth engages with ontological questions about substances themselves. Thus while Foucauldian analysis has become familiar in social studies of drugs and alcohol, new uses for its conceptual tools continue to emerge.
Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the diagnostic utility of oral fluid testing collected with the Intercept oral fluid collection device. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Opioids (opiates or narcotics) are a class of drugs derived from the opium poppy plant that typically relieve pain and produce a euphoric feeling. Methadone is a long-acting synthetic opioid used to treat opioid dependence and chronic pain. It prevents symptoms of opioid withdrawal, reduces opioid cravings and blocks the euphoric effects of short-acting opioids such as heroin and morphine. Opioid dependence is associated with harms including an increased risk of exposure to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C as well as other health, social and psychological crises. The goal of methadone treatment is harm reduction. Treatment with methadone for opioid dependence is often a long-term therapy. The Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons estimates that there are currently 250 physicians qualified to prescribe methadone, and 15,500 people in methadone maintenance programs across Ontario. Drug testing is a clinical tool whose purpose is to provide objective meaningful information, which will reinforce positive behavioral changes in patients and guide further treatment needs. Such information includes knowledge of whether the patient is taking their methadone as prescribed and reducing or abstaining from using opioid and other drugs of abuse use. The results of drug testing can be used with behavior modification techniques (contingency management techniques) where positive reinforcements such as increased methadone take-home privileges, sustained employment or parole are granted for drug screens negative for opioid use, and negative reinforcement including loss of these privileges for drug screens positive for opioid used. Body fluids including blood, oral fluid, often referred to as saliva, and urine may contain metabolites and the
Jungen, Hilke; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Müller, Alexander; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie
The detection of disaccharides in urine is under investigation to act as a marker for intravenous abuse of disaccharide formulations, like liquid methadone with syrup (sucrose), methadone tablets (lactose and sucrose), or buprenorphine tablets (lactose). As the detection time in urine has not yet been investigated and a routine method for detecting disaccharides is still lacking, a study was performed to estimate the window of detection in urine after intravenous consumption of disaccharides. Furthermore, an analytical LC-MSMS method for the quantification of sucrose and lactose in urine was validated. The method was applied to urine samples of intravenous substitute consumers, with urine being sampled before intravenous use of substitutes and approximately 30 minutes later. Twenty users provided information regarding their most recent prior intravenous consumption. Disaccharides were detectable in all 20 urine samples about 30 minutes after consumption. A cut off for both disaccharides of 40mg/L was used. Based on these conditions 81% of the persons who consumed in a time frame of 24 hours ago showed positive results for disaccharides. The study showed that the validated LC-MSMS method with an easy and fast workup is usable for daily routine in the laboratory. It might be helpful for methadone and buprenorphine prescribing physicians to check whether the opiate maintenance treatment patient takes his or her substitution medicines orally as intended, or continues with intravenous misuse by injecting substitution medicines instead of heroin. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Potter, Jennifer S; Marino, Elise N; Hillhouse, Maureen P; Nielsen, Suzanne; Wiest, Katharina; Canamar, Catherine P; Martin, Judith A; Ang, Alfonso; Baker, Rachael; Saxon, Andrew J; Ling, Walter
The objective of this secondary analysis was to explore differences in baseline clinical characteristics and opioid replacement therapy treatment outcomes by type (heroin, opioid analgesic [OA], or combined [heroin and OA]) and route (injector or non-injector) of opioid use. A total of 1,269 participants (32.2% female) were randomized to receive one of two study medications (methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone [BUP]). Of these, 731 participants completed the 24-week active medication phase. Treatment outcomes were opioid use during the final 30 days of treatment (among treatment completers) and treatment attrition. Non-opioid substance dependence diagnoses and injecting differentiated heroin and combined users from OA users. Non-opioid substance dependence diagnoses and greater heroin use differentiated injectors from non-injectors. Further, injectors were more likely to be using at end of treatment compared with non-injectors. OA users were more likely to complete treatment compared with heroin users and combined users. Non-injectors were more likely than injectors to complete treatment. There were no interactions between type of opioid used or injection status and treatment assignment (methadone or BUP) on either opioid use or treatment attrition. Findings indicate that substance use severity differentiates heroin users from OA users and injectors from non-injectors. Irrespective of medication, heroin use and injecting are associated with treatment attrition and opioid misuse during treatment. These results have particular clinical interest, as there is no evidence of superiority of BUP over methadone for treating OA users versus heroin users.
Chan, Ferdinand J; Schwartz, Andrew M; Wong, Jason; Chen, Cynthia; Tiwari, Bharat; Kim, Sun Jin
A subset of patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are on methadone maintenance. They require more and often unpredictable quantities of opioids to function as effective painkillers. This study aims to compare the opioid requirements and the immediate postoperative course for patients on methadone maintenance with those who are not, after a TKA. A retrospective, case-control study was performed. From 2005 to 2010, 36 patients, who underwent a unilateral TKA, on chronic methadone maintenance were identified. A control group matched for age, gender, and body mass index comprised patients from the same period, who did not self-report taking methadone. Chart review and analysis of patient demographics, type of anesthesia used, preoperative methadone use, inpatient opioid use (converted to oral morphine equivalent doses), need for in-house pain management consult, length of hospital stay, and need for reoperation were performed. Patients on chronic methadone maintenance used significantly more opioids than patients not on methadone during their entire inpatient stay (P < .001). This was demonstrated by a higher median daily usage of opioids and higher patient-controlled analgesia usage. Patients on methadone maintenance had a significantly longer postoperative inpatient hospitalization (P < .001). Finally, these patients required significantly more inpatient pain management referrals (P = .025). There is a significantly higher opioid requirement, length of stay, and pain management consults in patients on methadone maintenance compared with those who are not after a TKA. These patients may benefit from a nonroutine approach to perioperative care in TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Hua-Min; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chow, Eric P F; Li, Tong; Xian, Yun; Lu, Yi-Hua; Tian, Tian; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Lei
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented in China since 2004 and has expanded into a nationwide programme. This study aims to evaluate changes in social functioning, family relations and drug-related criminal behaviour among MMT clients in China. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Both English and Chinese literature databases, including PubMed, Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Journals Database (CQVIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Data, were comprehensively searched over the period 2004-2014 for studied indicators. Study selection, quality assessment and data extraction were conducted according to the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) Statement. Meta-analyses were conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Biostat software. Thirty-eight articles were included in this review (1 in English and 37 in Chinese). The self-reported arrest rate decreased from 13.1% (95% CI 9.1% to 18.5%) at baseline to 3.4% (95% CI 1.5% to 7.7%) and 4.3% (95% CI 1.6% to 11.4%) after 6 and 12 months of MMT intervention, respectively. The rate of drug selling decreased from 7.6% (95% CI 3.8% to 14.8%) at baseline to 1.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 6.2%) and 3.0% (95% CI 1.0% to 8.9%) after 6 and 12 months of intervention, respectively. Similarly, the rates of selling sex for drugs and drug-related crime decreased from 5.3% (95% CI 2.4% to 11.1%) and 9.9% (95% CI 6.8% to 14.2%) at baseline to 1.1% (95% CI 0.5% to 2.3%) and 3.4% (95% CI 2.5% to 4.5%) at 6 months, then to 0.8% (95% CI 0.3% to 1.9%) and 3.4% (95% CI 0.8% to 13.1%) at 12 months after treatment initiation, respectively. In contrast, the rate of employment of clients and the proportion of clients having a good relationship with their family increased substantially from 26.4% (95% CI 22.9% to 30.1%) and 37.9% (95% CI 32.0% to 44.2%) to 41.6% (95% CI 36.6% to 48.0%) and 59.6% (95% CI 48.1% to 70.2%) at 6 months, then to 59.8% (95
Sun, Hua-Min; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chow, Eric P F; Li, Tong; Xian, Yun; Lu, Yi-Hua; Tian, Tian; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Lei
Objective Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented in China since 2004 and has expanded into a nationwide programme. This study aims to evaluate changes in social functioning, family relations and drug-related criminal behaviour among MMT clients in China. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Both English and Chinese literature databases, including PubMed, Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Journals Database (CQVIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Data, were comprehensively searched over the period 2004–2014 for studied indicators. Study selection, quality assessment and data extraction were conducted according to the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) Statement. Meta-analyses were conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Biostat software. Results Thirty-eight articles were included in this review (1 in English and 37 in Chinese). The self-reported arrest rate decreased from 13.1% (95% CI 9.1% to 18.5%) at baseline to 3.4% (95% CI 1.5% to 7.7%) and 4.3% (95% CI 1.6% to 11.4%) after 6 and 12 months of MMT intervention, respectively. The rate of drug selling decreased from 7.6% (95% CI 3.8% to 14.8%) at baseline to 1.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 6.2%) and 3.0% (95% CI 1.0% to 8.9%) after 6 and 12 months of intervention, respectively. Similarly, the rates of selling sex for drugs and drug-related crime decreased from 5.3% (95% CI 2.4% to 11.1%) and 9.9% (95% CI 6.8% to 14.2%) at baseline to 1.1% (95% CI 0.5% to 2.3%) and 3.4% (95% CI 2.5% to 4.5%) at 6 months, then to 0.8% (95% CI 0.3% to 1.9%) and 3.4% (95% CI 0.8% to 13.1%) at 12 months after treatment initiation, respectively. In contrast, the rate of employment of clients and the proportion of clients having a good relationship with their family increased substantially from 26.4% (95% CI 22.9% to 30.1%) and 37.9% (95% CI 32.0% to 44.2%) to 41.6% (95% CI 36.6% to 48.0%) and 59.6% (95% CI 48.1% to 70
Müller, M J; Lange, M; Paul, T; Seeliger, S
The number of opiate addicted patients treated with opioid replacement therapy is continuously increasing. In Germany, 57.7% of these patients are treated with methadone and 18.6% with buprenorphine. This maintenance therapy provides several advantages while addicted pregnant women and their foetus have a high benefit from appropriate replacement therapy. However, the recommendations concerning breast feeding during an opioid replacement therapy are discussed controversially, because methadone as well as buprenorphine accumulate in breast milk. This accumulation might cause damages to the newborn's health; so, child benefits of breast feeding have to be balanced with possible health risks.This review provides an overview of a selective literature search based on the PubMed-database and german consensus recommendations. Used search terms included: (methadone*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation), (methadone*) AND (human milk), (buprenorphine*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation) and (buprenorphine*) AND (human milk).According to the available literature, addicted women, substinated with methadone or buprenorphine are allowed to breast feed their newborns. The advantages of breast feeding prevail the risks of an infant opiate intoxication caused by methadone or buprenorphine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Deniker, P; Loo, H; Zarifian, E; Cuche, H
Methadone chlorhydrate has been administred to opiate addicts either for a short period with a decreasing dosage as a withdrawal cure, or for longterm treatments as a basis of a maintenance program. The analysis of precise clinical criteria regarding the socio-professional states, the family-life, the general health and the psychopathological diagnosis, allows an evaluation of the success of the cure and of its elective indications. The study of the personnality of the drug-addicts shows the importance of this factor in the potential success of a methadone cure. Urinary biological controls are regularly performed. This limitations and promises of this treatment discussed form a basis of a year's experience.
Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio S.; Li, Kathy; Barney, Lucy; Tyndall, Mark W.; Kerr, Thomas
Background Previous studies have shown elevated rates of health-related harms among Aboriginal people who use injection drugs such as heroin. Methadone maintenance therapy is one of the most effective interventions to address the harms of heroin injection. We assessed the rate of methadone use in a cohort of opioid injection drug users in Vancouver and investigated whether methadone use was associated with Aboriginal ethnic background. Methods Using data collected as part of the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (May 1996–November 2005), we evaluated whether Aboriginal ethnic background was associated with methadone use using generalized estimating equations and Cox regression analysis. We compared methadone use among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal injection drug users at the time of enrolment and during the follow-up period, and we evaluated the time to first methadone use among people not using methadone at enrolment. Results During the study period, 1603 injection drug users (435 Aboriginal, 1168 non-Aboriginal) were recruited. At enrolment, 54 (12.4%) Aboriginal participants used methadone compared with 247 (21.2%) non-Aboriginal participants (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38–0.73, p < 0.001). Among the 1351 (84.3%) participants who used heroin, Aboriginal people were less likely to use methadone throughout the follow-up period (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45–0.81, p < 0.001). Among people using heroin but who were not taking methadone at enrolment, Aboriginal ethnic background was associated with increased time to first methadone use (adjusted relative hazard 0.60, 95% CI 0.49–0.74, p < 0.001). Interpretation Methadone use was lower among Aboriginal than among non-Aboriginal injection drug users. Culturally appropriate interventions with full participation of the affected community are required to address this disparity. PMID:17606937
Bernard, Jean-Paul; Khiabani, Hassan Z; Hilberg, Thor; Karinen, Ritva; Slørdal, Lars; Waal, Helge; Mørland, Jørg
There are currently over 7000 patients enrolled in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) programs in Norway. A rise in methadone-related deaths proportional to increasing methadone sales over the period 2000-2006 has been observed, but the causative factors for these fatalities have been elusive. In the present study, individual characteristics, methadone concentrations and additional toxicological findings were analyzed. Methadone intoxication deaths (n = 264) were divided into 3 groups according to toxicological findings in whole blood: group 1 - methadone detected alone, or together with one additional drug at low or therapeutic levels, or a low concentration of ethanol (<1 g/L) (n = 21); group 2 - multiple additional drugs/substances detected below lethal levels (n = 175); group 3 - one or more additional drugs/substances detected at lethal levels, or ethanol >3 g/L (n = 55). Methadone blood concentrations in decedents who had been enrolled in OMT were higher than for decedents not in treatment, in all groups. Blood methadone concentrations around 1 mg/L were present in fatal multi-drug intoxications in OMT patients. Results suggest that some patients may be at risk of dying when combining therapeutic concentrations of methadone with other psychoactive substances. Somatic disease was a common finding among deceased OMT patients. Concentrations in methadone users not enrolled in OMT were predominantly between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L and were not related to the presence of other drugs. However, methadone concentrations below 0.1 mg/L may be associated with intoxication following methadone use, both alone and in combination with other drugs. Younger male users (mean age 34 years) seemed to have a higher susceptibility to methadone intoxication.
Trafton, Jodie A; Minkel, Jared; Humphreys, Keith
Background Randomized clinical trials of methadone maintenance have found that on average high daily doses are more effective for reducing heroin use, and clinical practice guidelines recommend 60 mg/d as a minimum dosage. Nevertheless, many clinicians report that some patients can be stably maintained on lower methadone dosages to optimal effect, and clinic dosing practices vary substantially. Studies of individual responses to methadone treatment may be more easily translated into clinical practice. Methods and Findings A volunteer sample of 222 opioid-dependent US veterans initiating methadone treatment was prospectively observed over the year after treatment entry. In the 168 who achieved at least 1 mo of heroin abstinence, methadone dosages on which patients maintained heroin-free urine samples ranged from 1.5 mg to 191.2 mg (median = 69 mg). Among patients who achieved heroin abstinence, higher methadone dosages were predicted by having a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder or depression, having a greater number of previous opioid detoxifications, living in a region with lower average heroin purity, attending a clinic where counselors discourage dosage reductions, and staying in treatment longer. These factors predicted 42% of the variance in dosage associated with heroin abstinence. Conclusions Effective and ineffective methadone dosages overlap substantially. Dosing guidelines should focus more heavily on appropriate processes of dosage determination rather than solely specifying recommended dosages. To optimize therapy, methadone dosages must be titrated until heroin abstinence is achieved. PMID:16448216
Dawson, Camilla; Paterson, Fiona; McFatter, Fiona; Buchanan, Deans
Methadone is a synthetic opioid which is being used with increased frequency in the palliative care setting for management of complex pain. There have been cases published reporting the development of oedema with methadone maintenance therapy but no cases on the association with methadone and peripheral oedema in the palliative care setting. As yet, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This case report describes a gentleman with ependymoma and difficult-to-control lower back pain and scrotal pain. This pain had failed to respond to other strong opioids. He was prescribed methadone and then subsequently developed bilateral peripheral oedema. Peripheral oedema resolved following cessation of methadone. This highlights an important potential adverse effect of methadone in a society of increased methadone prescription for pain control. The published literature to date is reviewed and possible underlying mechanisms explored.
Anglin, M D; McGlothlin, W H; Speckart, G
A 7-year followup of three male samples of 1971-1973 methadone maintenance admissions was conducted: a random sample of 100; a sample of 136 who had a minimum of 30 months remaining on civil addict parole status at the time of methadone entry; and a matched sample of 136 not on parole. Ninety percent of those not decreased were interviewed. The overall sample spent 58% of the nonincarcerated follow-up interval on methadone. This resulted in a large decline in daily heroin use and associated criminal behavior measures. The addition of parole supervision with urine testing resulted in only marginal improvements in behavior over that attributable to maintenance alone; however, the parole status did significantly reduce the length of intervals of daily heroin use both prior and subsequent to methadone entry.
Chevillard, Lucie; Declèves, Xavier; Baud, Frédéric J; Risède, Patricia; Mégarbane, Bruno
Methadone may cause respiratory depression and fatalities. Concomitant use of benzodiazepines in methadone-treated patients for chronic pain or as maintenance therapy for opiate abuse is common. However, the exact contribution of benzodiazepines to methadone-induced respiratory toxicity remains debatable. We investigated the respiratory effects of the combination diazepam (20mg/kg)/methadone (5mg/kg) in the rat, focusing on methadone concentration/effect relationships. Respiratory effects were studied using arterial blood gases and whole-body plethysmography. Plasma concentrations of both R- and S-methadone enantiomers were measured using high-performance liquid chiral chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. To clarify mechanisms of diazepam/methadone interaction, methadone metabolism was investigated in vitro using rat liver microsomes. Diazepam/methadone co-administration significantly increased methadone-related effects on inspiratory time (p<0.001) but did not significantly alter the other respiratory parameters when compared with methadone alone, despite significant increase in the area under the curve of plasma R-methadone concentrations measured during 240 min (p<0.05). Diazepam/methadone co-incubation with microsomes in vitro resulted in a significant inhibition of methadone metabolism (p<0.01), with 50%-inhibitory diazepam concentrations of 25.02 ± 0.18 μmol/L and 25.18 ± 0.23 μmol/L for R- and S-methadone, respectively. We concluded that co-administration of high-doses of diazepam and methadone in rats is not responsible for additional respiratory depression in comparison to methadone alone, despite significant metabolic interaction between the drugs. In humans, although our experimental data may suggest the relative safety of benzodiazepine/methadone co-prescription, physicians should remain cautious as other underlying conditions may enhance this drug-drug interaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chiang, Yao-Chang; Ye, Li-Ci; Hsu, Kuei-Ying; Liao, Chien-Wei; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Lo, Wan-Jou; Ho, Ing-Kang; Tao, Pao-Luh
Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. Although methadone is widely used in maintenance therapy for heroin/morphine addiction, the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to methadone and preventative therapy remain unclear. For revealing this question, female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were sub-grouped to receive (1) vehicle, (2) methadone 5 mg/kg at embryonic day 3 (E3) and then 7 mg/kg from E4 to E20, (3) dextromethorphan (DM) 3 mg/kg, and (4) methadone + DM (the rats received methadone followed by DM treatment), subcutaneously, twice a day from E3 to E20. The body weight, natural withdrawal, pain sensitivity, ED50, conditioned place preference and water maze were conducted at different postnatal stages (P1 to P79) of offspring. The quantitative real-time RT-PCR and electrophysiology were also used to measure the gene expression of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and changes of LTP/LTD in the hippocampus, separately. Prenatal exposure to methadone or DM did not affect survival rate, body weight, water maze and LTP or LTD of offspring. However, prenatal methadone significantly increased the withdrawal symptoms, pain sensitivity, addiction liability and decreased the mRNA expression of pain related opioid receptors. Co-administration of DM with methadone in the maternal rats effectively prevented these abnormalities of offspring induced by methadone. Our study clearly showed that co-administration of dextromethorphan with methadone in the maternal rats prevented the adverse effects induced by prenatal methadone exposure. It implies that dextromethorphan may have a potential to be used in combination with methadone for maintenance treatment in pregnant heroin-addicted women to prevent the adverse effects induced by methadone on offspring.
McCarthy, John J; Leamon, Martin H; Willits, Neil H; Salo, Ruth
To evaluate the effects of a multiple daily dose methadone regimen in pregnancy on neonatal outcomes. Although methadone maintenance has been the standard for the treatment of opioid dependence in pregnancy, there is no consensus on proper dosing. Single daily dosing is the most common strategy. Because of accelerated metabolism of methadone in pregnancy, this regimen may expose mother and fetus to daily episodes of withdrawal and possibly contribute to more severe Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). This study reports on a protocol that increased both methadone dose and dose frequency in response to maternal reports of withdrawal. Treatment of NAS was needed in 29% of neonates, compared to a published rate of 60% to 80%. The mean methadone dose was 152 mg at delivery, divided into 2 to 6 doses per day. Ninety-two percent of mothers were free of illicit drug use at delivery. There was no relationship between methadone dose and treatment of NAS. Female babies had a treatment rate of 16% versus 38% for male babies. Beyond abstinence symptoms, cohort outcomes in terms of gestational age, birth weight, prematurity, Caesarian sections, and breastfeeding equaled or approximated US population norms. The protocol was associated with low rates of treatment of NAS and high rates of maternal recovery. High rates of treatment for NAS reported in methadone-exposed neonates might relate in part to iatrogenic factors and be reduced through the use of divided daily doses and protocols that minimize maternal withdrawal.
Cleary, Brian J; Donnelly, Jean M; Strawbridge, Judith D; Gallagher, Paul J; Fahey, Tom; White, Martin J; Murphy, Deirdre J
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among methadone maintenance treatment, perinatal outcomes, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. This was a retrospective cohort study of 61,030 singleton births at a large maternity hospital from 2000-2007. There were 618 (1%) women on methadone at delivery. Methadone-exposed women were more likely to be younger, to book late for antenatal care, and to be smokers. Methadone exposure was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.34), being small for gestational age <10th percentile (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49-4.28), admission to the neonatal unit (aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 7.21-11.57), and diagnosis of a major congenital anomaly (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10-3.43). There was a dose-response relationship between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome. Methadone exposure is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, even when known adverse sociodemographic factors have been accounted for. Methadone dose at delivery is 1 of the determinants of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gilman, Stephen M.; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen
Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12-step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Clients rated components of MA to be significantly more helpful to recovery than MMTP treatment components. Affiliation to five MA members known best by the respondents was significantly greater than affiliation to non-MA members. Length of time in MA was positively associated with MA affiliation. Social affiliation and endorsement of 12-step principles were positively correlated. These findings suggest that MA participation has benefits not available in professionally driven MMTP, and should be further studied.
Lennard, Henry L.; And Others
Methadone treatment for heroin addiction does not touch the roots of the drug problem" and to think that the use of another drug can solve the profound and complex task facing us is indeed an illusion." (Author/AL)
Vann, Robert E; Wise, Laura E; Varvel, Stephen A; Philibin, Scott D; Walentiny, D Matthew; Porter, Joseph H
Replacement therapy with the synthetic mu-opioid agonist methadone is an efficacious treatment for opioid abuse. While much is known about methadone's pharmacology, its discriminative stimulus properties remain largely unexplored. The present study sought to establish methadone discrimination in rats. Moreover, some research suggests that route of administration alters the discriminative stimulus of methadone. Thus, the present study also compared intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes of administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 3.0mg/kg methadone (i.p.) from vehicle in a two-lever discrimination procedure. Generalization tests were conducted with a variety of compounds administered i.p. and s.c. Methadone fully substituted for itself, yielding ED(50)s of 1.5mg/kg (i.p.) and 0.2mg/kg (s.c.). Naltrexone (i.p.), an opioid antagonist produced a dose-dependent reduction in methadone-appropriate responding. The methadone stereoisomers fully substituted for methadone when given s.c.; however, when administered i.p., (+) and (-) methadone produced partial and no substitution, respectively. Heroin fully generalized to methadone regardless of administration route, while morphine fully substituted when given s.c., but not i.p. The kappa-agonist U50-488 failed to generalize to methadone with either route of administration. These results demonstrated that methadone's discriminative stimulus is mediated through mu-opioid receptor activity and is similar to that of commonly abused opioids (heroin, morphine). Additionally, route of administration produced differential results for many of the drugs tested, suggesting decreased drug bioavailability following i.p. administration due to hepatic first pass metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that methadone's shared subjective effects with abused opioids, as well as its unique metabolic properties contribute to its efficacy in opioid maintenance therapy.
Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Copenhaver, Michael M
Previous research has suggested possible sex-related differences in executive functioning among cocaine users; however, no studies specifically explain sex-related differences in neurocognitive impairment (NCI) among cocaine users receiving clinical care. Knowledge about this association can aid in the development of targeted prevention strategies to reduce adverse health outcomes. This study was designed to examine the sex-related differences in NCI among high-risk cocaine users receiving substance-abuse treatment. The Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS) was administered to 199 cocaine users (98 men; 101 women), receiving methadone maintainance treatment, to assess self-reported NCI by identifying the patients' awareness of neuropsychological symptoms. We used T-test comparison to find differences in NCI between men and women and multiple regression analysis to explore the relative contribution of sex to NCI. Consistent with prior work, high NCI was evident within this sample, as indicated by high scores on most of the NIS subscales. Women reported greater impairment than men, as evidenced by significantly higher scores on several NIS subscales, after controlling for demographic and other confounding variables. Interestingly, cocaine craving significantly predicted NCI among men but not among women, as suggested by the significant association between cocaine craving and all except one of the NIS subscales. These findings suggest that cocaine users enter into treatment with a range of NCI - with women having significantly more neurocognitive deficits than men - that may contribute to differential treatment outcomes. This highlights the need to include additional services such as neuropsychological screening and sex-specific treatment programs to optimally reduce adverse health outcomes in these high-risk, cognitively impaired patients.
Zhou, Kaina; Zhuang, Guihua; Zhang, Hongmei; Liang, Peifeng; Yin, Juan; Kou, Lingling; Hao, Mengmeng; You, Lijuan
Objective To test psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0) in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods A total of 1,212 patients were recruited from two MMT clinics in Xi’an, China. Reliability was estimated with Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation (ICC). Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed using multitrait-multimethod correlation matrix. Sensitivity was measured with ANOVA and relative efficiency. Responsiveness was evaluated by pre-post paired-samples t-test and standardized response mean based on the patients’ health status changes following 6-month period. Results Cronbach’s α of the SF-36v2 physical and mental summary components were 0.80 and 0.86 (eight scales range 0.73–0.92) and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.96 (four scales range: 0.80–0.93). ICC of the SF-36v2 two components were 0.86 and 0.85 (eight scales range: 0.72–0.87) and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.94 (four scales range: 0.88–0.92). Convergent validity was lower between the two instruments (γ <0.70) while discriminant validity was acceptable within each instrument. Sensitivity was satisfied in self-evaluated health status (both instruments) and average daily methadone dose (SF-36v2 physical functioning and vitality scales; QOL-DAv2.0 except psychology scale). Responsiveness was acceptable in the improved health status change (SF-36v2 except vitality scale; QOL-DAv2.0 except psychology and symptoms scales) and deteriorated health status change (SF-36v2 except vitality, social functioning and mental health scales; QOL-DAv2.0 except society scale). Conclusions The SF-36v2 and the QOL-DAv2.0 are valid tools and can be used independently or complementary according to different emphases of health-related quality of life evaluation in patients with MMT. PMID:24278188
Johnson, Helen L.; And Others
The physical and neurobehavioral findings at 3 years of age for 39 children born to mothers on methadone- maintenance and 23 children born to drug-free comparison mothers are reported. The methadone children had a higher incidence of head circumferences less than the third percentile, nystagmus/strabismus, and otitis media. No differences were…
Johnson, Helen L.; And Others
The physical and neurobehavioral findings at 3 years of age for 39 children born to mothers on methadone- maintenance and 23 children born to drug-free comparison mothers are reported. The methadone children had a higher incidence of head circumferences less than the third percentile, nystagmus/strabismus, and otitis media. No differences were…
Liu, William F; Singh, Kultar; Faisal, Mohamed; Li, Shuang
This article aims to describe neonatal outcomes, clinical correlates, and the rate for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) for women on methadone maintenance therapy. This study is a retrospective review, which includes 119 mothers and 120 live newborns. Methadone mothers tends to be white, single, on government insurance, with increased tobacco use (73%) and hepatitis C (11%). Prematurity increased (28%), and the term infant had a higher risk for admission for respiratory symptoms (22, 7%, p < 0.001). Overall, 78% newborns developed NAS, with the onset of symptoms 4.3 ± 2.9 days, and average length of stay of 36.7 ± 26.4 days. There was a decreased overall gestational age for those infants who did not have NAS (36, 38 weeks, p = 0.04). Overall, 56% had possible illicit drug supplementation. Self-reporting had a 59% negative predictive value with a positive drug screen. No difference in maternal methadone dosage and newborns with and without NAS. Increasing gestational age will increase the odds for NAS. Newborns are at higher risk for prematurity and admission for respiratory symptoms. Utilizing a 7-day observation period, 78% of newborns were diagnosed with NAS with a mean onset of symptoms of 4.3 days. There was no difference in methadone dosage between babies with and without NAS. Increasing gestational age increases the risk for NAS. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Dashe, Jodi S; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Olscher, Debora A; Todd, Sally J; Jackson, Gregory L; Wendel, George D
To determine whether maternal methadone dosage affects duration and degree of neonatal narcotic withdrawal. This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with opioid addiction who delivered live-born singletons between April 1990 and April 2001. Inpatient detoxification or outpatient methadone maintenance therapy was offered. Women who had a positive drug screen or whose neonate tested positive for opioids were considered to be supplementing. We evaluated indices of neonatal withdrawal according to the maximum daily methadone dosage in the last week of pregnancy. Seventy women with opioid addiction were followed. Median methadone dosage was 20 mg (range 0-150 mg), and 32 infants (46%) were treated for narcotic withdrawal. Among women who received less than 20 mg per day, 20-39 mg per day, and at least 40 mg per day of methadone, treatment for withdrawal occurred in 12%, 44%, and 90% of infants, respectively (P < 0.02). Methadone dosage was also correlated with both duration of neonatal hospitalization and neonatal abstinence score (r(s) =.70 and.73 respectively, both P <.001). Neonates were more likely to experience withdrawal if their mothers were supplementing with heroin, 68% versus 35% (P =.01). Regardless of supplementation, there was a significant relationship between methadone dosage and neonatal withdrawal (P <.05). Maternal methadone dosage was associated with duration of neonatal hospitalization, neonatal abstinence score, and treatment for withdrawal. Heroin supplementation did not alter this dose-response relationship. In selected pregnancies, lowering the maternal methadone dosage was associated with both decreased incidence and severity of neonatal withdrawal.
Chen, Kevin W; Berger, Christine C; Forde, Darlene P; D'Adamo, Christopher; Weintraub, Eric; Gandhi, Devang
Benzodiazepines (BZD) misuse is a serious public health problem, especially among opiate-dependent patients with anxiety enrolled in methadone program because it puts patients at higher risk of life-threatening multiple drug overdoses. Both elevated anxiety and BZD misuse increase the risk for ex-addicts to relapse. However, there is no recent study to assess how serious the problem is and what factors are associated with BZD misuse. This study estimates the prevalence of BZD misuse in a methadone program, and provides information on the characteristics of BZD users compared to non-users. An anonymous survey was carried out at a methadone program in Baltimore, MD, and all patients were invited to participate through group meetings and fliers around the clinic on a voluntary basis. Of the 205 returned questionnaires, 194 were complete and entered into final data analysis. Those who completed the questionnaire were offered a $5 gift card as an appreciation. 47% of the respondents had a history of BZD use, and 39.8% used BZD without a prescription. Half of the BZD users (54%) started using BZD after entering the methadone program, and 61% of previous BZD users reported increased or resumed use after entering methadone program. Compared to the non-users, BZD users were more likely to be White, have prescribed medication for mental problems, have preexistent anxiety problems before opiate use, and had anxiety problems before entering methadone program. They reported more mental health problems in the past month, and had higher scores in anxiety state, depression and perceived stress (p < .05). Important information on epidemiology of BZD misuse among methadone-maintenance patients suggests that most methadone programs do not address co-occurring anxiety problems, and methadone treatment may trigger onset or worsening of BZD misuse. Further study is needed to explore how to curb misuse and abuse of BZD in the addiction population, and provide effective treatments
Jiang, Haifeng; Hillhouse, Maureen; Du, Jiang; Pan, Shujun; Alfonso, Ang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Zhirong; Yuan, Weijun; Ling, Walter; Zhao, Min
The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood levels of methadone in participants receiving methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence. After stabilization on methadone for four weeks, blood samples from 95 participants were collected between treatment weeks 4 and 12, before and after receiving doses of methadone, and its blood levels were measured. A multiple linear regression model was used to examine the association between methadone blood levels and the outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Outcome differences between participants who had high (≥2) or low (<2) peak-to-trough ratios were also compared using an independent sample t-test. The blood level of methadone was not correlated with the clinical outcome of MMT with the moderate range of doses given. However, the retention of patients who had a free peak-to-trough ratio >2 was significantly poorer than those whose ratio was <2. Thus, monitoring plasma methadone levels is unlikely to be effective for guiding dosing decisions in situations where compliance with MMT is already very high or when the methadone dose is no longer the dominant factor in determining the clinical outcome. However, monitoring plasma methadone levels is still helpful for guiding the dosage for patients with a rapid metabolism.
Stotts, Angela L.; Masuda, Akihiko; Wilson, Kelly
Many clients who undergo methadone maintenance (MM) treatment for heroin and other opiate dependence prefer abstinence from methadone. Attempts at methadone detoxification are often unsuccessful, however, due to distressing physical as well as psychological symptoms. Outcomes from a MM client who voluntarily participated in an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) – based methadone detoxification program are presented. The program consisted of a 1-month stabilization and 5-month gradual methadone dose reduction period, combined with weekly individual ACT sessions. Urine samples were collected twice weekly to assess for use of illicit drugs. The participant successfully completed the program and had favorable drug use outcomes during the course of treatment, and at the one-month and one-year follow-ups. Innovative behavior therapies, such as ACT, that focus on acceptance of the inevitable distress associated with opiate withdrawal may improve methadone detoxification outcomes. PMID:20628479
Background Methadone maintenance treatment is the most widely prescribed treatment for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients. In naïve users or in case of recreational misuse, methadone can be a source of potentially lethal intoxications, resulting in fatal overdoses. A few cases of infantile intoxications have been described in the literature, some of which resulted in death. Nowadays, more than 50,000 bottles are used every day in France, most of which are thrown away in the bin. Relatives at home, especially children, can have access to these empty bottles. This study aims to determine whether the residual quantity of methadone in the bottles is associated with a risk of intoxication for someone who has a low tolerance to opiates, such as a child. Methods The methadone dosage left in a sample of 175 bottles recapped after use by the patients taking their maintenance treatment in an addiction treatment program centre was analysed during a 2-week period in March 2013. Results The mean residual quantity of methadone left in each bottle after use is 1.9 ± 1.8 mg and 3.3 ± 2.4 mg in the sample of 60 mg bottles. Conclusions There is a potential danger of accidental overdose with empty bottles of methadone syrup, especially for children. To take into account this hazard, several harm reduction strategies can be proposed, such as favouring the taking of the treatment within the delivery centres rather than the ‘take home’ doses, asking methadone users to bring back their used bottles, and raising patients’ awareness of the intoxication risks and the necessary everyday precautions. For stable patients with take home methadone, the use of capsules could be considered. PMID:24990630
Nakamura, K.; Hachey, D.L.; Kreek, M.J.; Irving, C.S.; Klein, P.D.
A new technique for simultaneous stereoselective kinetic studies of methadone enantiomers was developed using three deuterium-labeled forms of methadone and GLC-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. A racemic mixture (1:1) of (R)-(-)-(2H5)methadone (l-form) and (S)-(R)-(2H3)methadone (d-form) was administered orally in place of a single daily dose of unlabeled (+/-)-(2H0)methadone in long-term maintenance patients. Racemic (+/-)-(2H8)methadone was used as an internal standard for the simultaneous quantitation of (2H0)-, (2H3)-, and (2H5)methadone in plasma and urine. A newly developed extraction procedure, using a short, disposable C18 reversed-phase cartridge and improved chemical-ionization procedures employing ammonia gas, resulted in significant reduction of the background impurities contributing to the ions used for isotopic abundance measurements. These improvements enabled the measurement of labeled plasma methadone levels for 120 hr following a single dose. This methodology was applied to the study of methadone kinetics in two patients; in both patients, the analgesically active l-enantiomer of the drug had a longer plasma elimination half-life and a smaller area under the plasma disappearance curve than did the inactive d-form.
Greenfield, Lawrence; Tang, Beth Archibald
This overview focuses on methadone treatment. Briefly, it describes the clinical uses of methadone for substance abuse treatment, explores dosage guidelines, and discusses counseling components. This overview also reviews research data on the application of methadone treatment to special populations, such as pregnant women, polydrug users, and…
Mattocks, Kristin M; Clark, Robin; Weinreb, Linda
The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of experiences and challenges with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and obstetrical care among pregnant and postpartum women enrolled in a methadone maintenance program. The study featured a grounded theory approach including two focus groups with pregnant and postpartum methadone users at a methadone maintenance clinic in Worcester, Massachusetts. Two research team members conducted and recorded focus groups, which took approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour. Grounded theory was used to guide data analysis and open coding, where transcripts were reviewed line by line to create code definitions as concepts emerged inductively from the data. Five emergent themes were derived from the data: 1) guilt, coupled with fear of negative outcomes for their infant, dictates women's MMT treatment decisions; 2) finding obstetricians with experience treating pregnant women using methadone can be a challenge; 3) methadone clinic physicians are instrumental in helping women find the right methadone dose during pregnancy; 4) some women had strong preferences for methadone over buprenorphine; and 5) women face substantial substance abuse treatment challenges after delivery. Women experience substantial challenges engaging in MMT during the perinatal period. Additional challenges arise from finding obstetrical providers who have experience with MMT and are willing to care for pregnant women. This study may provide a starting point for future interventions seeking to improve care coordination between substance abuse treatment and prenatal care programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Faskowitz, Andrew J; Kramskiy, Vladimir N; Pasternak, Gavril W
To determine if recent observations of hypoglycemia in patients receiving high-dose methadone extended to an animal model, we explored the effects of methadone and other mu-opioids on blood glucose levels in mice. Methadone lowered blood glucose in a dose-dependent manner with 20 mg/kg yielding a nadir in average glucose levels to 55 ± 6 mg/dL from a baseline of 172 ± 7 mg/dL, an effect that was antagonized by naloxone and mu selective antagonists β-funaltrexamine and naloxonazine. The effect was stereoselective and limited to only the l-isomer, while the d-isomer was ineffective. Despite the robust decrease in blood glucose produced by methadone, a series of other mu-opioids, including morphine, fentanyl, levorphanol, oxycodone or morphine-6β-glucuronide failed to lower blood glucose levels. Similar differences among mu-opioid agonists have been observed in other systems, suggesting the possible role of selected splice variants of the mu-opioid receptor gene Oprm1. This mouse model recapitulates our clinical observations and emphasizes the need to carefully monitor glucose levels when using high methadone doses, particularly intravenously, and the need for controlled clinical trials.
Chen, Zheng; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Huihua
The activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD) is traditionally assessed using the ratio of cortisol to cortisone in urine or saliva. However, these biomarkers only reflect the local activity of 11β-HSD, and are easily affected by circadian variation of cortisol secretion. The shortcomings might be overcome by hair analysis. The present study aimed to develop an enhanced assay for simultaneous measurements of cortisol and cortisone in both hair and urine samples. The samples were collected from 29 patients under methadone maintenance treatment. The cortisol and cortisone were extracted either by solid phase extraction from a 20-mg milled hair sample after a 14-h incubation in 1ml of methanol, or by twice liquid-liquid extraction from a 20-fold diluted urine sample. The analyses were performed using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in negative mode. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.5 and 1.25pg/mg for hair steroids and 0.2 and 0.5ng/ml for urinary steroids, respectively. The recoveries were more than 97%. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. The ratios of cortisol to cortisone in hair and urine were both less than one, but did not correlate with each other. A possible reason for the lack of correlation was that the ratios in hair and urine might mostly reflect the activity of 11β-HSD type 2 in the eccrine sweat gland and in the kidney, respectively. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between results obtained using external standard quantification and internal standard quantification.
Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian
Several classes of drugs have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and occurrence of arrhythmias potentially involved in sudden deaths in chronic users even at therapeutic doses. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to methadone use. 60 cases were included in the study in total and were divided into three groups (therapeutic methadone users: 20 cases, recreational methadone users: 20 cases, and sudden death group in subjects who had never taken methadone: 20 cases). Autopsies, histology, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Macroscopic and microscopic investigation results in therapeutic methadone users were similar to those observed in sudden, unexpected deaths in non-methadone users. In recreational methadone consumers, macroscopic and microscopic examination of the heart failed to provide results consistent with acute or chronic myocardial or coronary damage, thereby corroborating the hypothesis of death most likely following respiratory depression.
Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Borg, Lisa; Ducat, Elizabeth; Ray, Brenda
Methadone maintenance treatment is the most widely available pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction and has been shown over a period of 40 years to be an effective and safe treatment. While women comprise approximately 40% of clients currently being treated in MMT programs, comparatively little research geared specifically toward this group has been published. This article begins with an overview of neurobiological studies on opioid addiction, including a discussion of gender differences, followed by a review of the pharmacology of methadone The authors then examine the particular needs and differences of women being treated in MMTs, including co-dependence with other substances, women’s health issues and psychosocial needs unique to this population. In conclusion, research shows that women have different substance abuse treatment needs in comparison to their male counterparts. One New York City MMT program that has attempted to address these differences is highlighted. PMID:20407977
Lalkin, A; Kapur, B M; Verjee, Z H; Koren, G
To report an accidental contamination of antibiotic suspension by methadone that occurred in a retail Canadian pharmacy, leading to severe poisoning in a young child. A 4 1/2-year-old healthy Asian boy was prescribed amoxicillin suspension for cough and fever. Shortly after receiving the second dose of 5 mL he became drowsy and less responsive. On admission, he was arousable by deep pain, and pinpoint pupils were noted. A urine sample sent for a toxicology screen revealed the presence of methadone and its metabolite. Blood methadone concentrations were 0.23 and 0.14 mg/L, five and nine hours after the second dose of amoxicillin was given, respectively. The amoxicillin suspension was tested for methadone and was found to have a concentration of 2.4 g/L. The child gradually improved and was discharged on day 4 in good condition. The pharmacy in which the antibiotic was dispensed has been a dispensing center for a local methadone maintenance program, and methadone was accidentally mixed with the antibiotics. In this case, a near fatal outcome occurred when methadone was inadvertently mixed with antibiotics in a community pharmacy. A literature search revealed two previous reports of opiate toxicity in children following ingestion of oral antibiotic preparations. Prompt action is needed in Canadian pharmacies that dispense methadone in order to minimize such errors in the future. General practitioners, pediatricians, and emergency department physicians should recognize and suspect this rare cause of opiate toxicity in a child. In a patient presenting with a decreased level of consciousness and miosis, with or without respiratory depression, naloxone administration should be considered, whether or not a history of opioid ingestion is obtained.
Esteban, Javier; de la Cruz Pellín, María; Gimeno, Carmen; Barril, José; Mora, Eva; Giménez, Jesús; Vilanova, Eugenio
A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to detect interactions between methadone and anti-retroviral compounds. Eight subjects, who underwent methadone maintenance treatment in the Province of Alicante (Spain), consented to participate in the present study. Of those, one subject was followed up for 123 days to detect drug-drug interactions. The enantiomers of methadone and those of its main metabolite were conveniently resolved within 4 min using a chiral electrophoresis buffer mixture which consisted of phosphate buffer, pH 5, plus 0.2% highly sulphated-(beta)-cyclodextrin. The effective mobility of the analytes was in the 0.061-0.140 cm(2)/(kV s) range at pH 5. The R-methadone plasma concentration range for seven patients was 91-318 ng/mL, it decreased from 186 to 46 ng/mL in a patient followed-up on commencement of the anti-retroviral therapy, returning to the previous higher levels after progressive dose increases. We conclude that monitoring R-methadone plasma levels can be a useful tool for the dose adjustment of methadone.
Kaufmann, C.A.; Kreek, M.J.; Raghunath, J.; Arns, P.
Narcotic withdrawal is often accompanied by an atypical depression which responds to resumption of narcotics. It was hypothesized that methadone might exert its antidepressant effects through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. The current study examined /sub 3/H-methadone distribution in rat brain and effects on regional MAO activity with acute doses (2.5 mg/kg) which approximate those found during chronic methadone maintenance in man. Limbic areas (amygdala, basomedial hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, preoptic nucleus), as well as pituitary and liver were assayed for MAO activity and methadone concentration. MAO activities did not differ significantly in acute methadone or saline-treated cage-mates at 1 or 24 hr. The concentrations of methadone at 1 hr ranged between 17 and 223 ng/100 mg wet wt tissue in the preoptic nucleus and pituitary, respectively. No significant correlation was found between change in MAO activity (MAO methadone/MAO saline) and methadone concentration in any region at 1 or 24 hr. This study does not support the hypothesis that methadone acts as an antidepressant through MAO inhibition, at least not following acute administration of this exogenous opioid.
Leimanis, Edijs; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S; Pesce, Amadeo J
Methadone is used to treat moderate to severe pain in patients not responsive to non-narcotic analgesics and for maintenance treatment of opioid addiction. Methadone is primarily metabolized by N-demethylation to an inactive metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidene (EDDP) by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. Establishing expected concentrations for metabolism of methadone to EDDP using urine excretion data may be useful for monitoring "medications" and toxicity. Urine specimens from chronic pain patients were collected during routine clinic visits. Methadone and EDDP were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 8,000 subjects who reported taking methadone had creatinine concentrations ≥20 mg/dL, and excreted concentrations of methadone and EDDP above ≥100 ng/mL were selected. The median methadone urine concentration was 3.03 mg/g cr. Ninety-five percent of the population had concentrations between 0.175 and 20.9 mg/g cr. EDDP was, on average, twice the methadone concentration. The wide variance in relationship of methadone to its metabolite was not concentration-dependent. Variability between subjects was larger than variability within subjects. As the urinary pH increased, the proportion of excreted EDDP increased, implying a preferred excretion of EDDP.
Rich, Josiah D; McKenzie, Michelle; Larney, Sarah; Wong, John B; Tran, Liem; Clarke, Jennifer; Noska, Amanda; Reddy, Manasa; Zaller, Nickolas
Summary Background Methadone is an effective treatment for opioid dependence. When people who are receiving methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence are incarcerated in prison or jail, most US correctional facilities discontinue their methadone treatment, either gradually, or more often, abruptly. This discontinuation can cause uncomfortable symptoms of withdrawal and renders prisoners susceptible to relapse and overdose on release. We aimed to study the effect of forced withdrawal from methadone upon incarceration on individuals’ risk behaviours and engagement with post-release treatment programmes. Methods In this randomised, open-label trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) inmates of the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI, USA) who were enrolled in a methadone maintenance-treatment programme in the community at the time of arrest and wanted to remain on methadone treatment during incarceration and on release, to either continuation of their methadone treatment or to usual care—forced tapered withdrawal from methadone. Participants could be included in the study only if their incarceration would be more than 1 week but less than 6 months. We did the random assignments with a computer-generated random permutation, and urn randomisation procedures to stratify participants by sex and race. Participants in the continued-methadone group were maintained on their methadone dose at the time of their incarceration (with dose adjustments as clinically indicated). Patients in the forced-withdrawal group followed the institution’s standard withdrawal protocol of receiving methadone for 1 week at the dose at the time of their incarceration, then a tapered withdrawal regimen (for those on a starting dose >100 mg, the dose was reduced by 5 mg per day to 100 mg, then reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg; for those on a starting dose ≤100 mg, the dose was reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg). The main outcomes were engagement with a methadone maintenance
Maremmani, Icro; Gerra, Gilberto
Maintenance therapy with methadone or buprenorphine-based regimens reduces opioid dependence and associated harms. The perception that methadone is more effective than buprenorphine for maintenance treatment has been based on low buprenorphine doses and excessively slow induction regimens used in early buprenorphine trials. Subsequent studies show that the efficacy of buprenorphine sublingual tablet (Subutex®) or buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet (Suboxone®) is equivalent to that of methadone when sufficient buprenorphine doses, rapid induction, and flexible dosing are used. Although methadone remains an essential maintenance therapy option, buprenorphine-based regimens increase access to care and provide safer, more appropriate treatment than methadone for some patients. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Sullivan, Sheena G; Wu, Zunyou; Rou, Keming; Pang, Lin; Luo, Wei; Wang, Changhe; Cao, Xiaobin; Yin, Wenyuan; Liu, Enwu; Mi, Guodong
To describe the data collected by the Chinese methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) system and the characteristics of clients entering the programme. Descriptive study using routinely collected data from the MMT data management system for the period March 2004 and March 2010. All MMT clinics in China. Clients who enrolled for services between March 2004 and March 2010. Routinely collected data included: demographic information; drug use, sexual and criminal behaviours; status of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis; random urine-opiate test results; and the daily methadone dose received. Differences among clients by year were examined. During the period examined, there were 251,974 clients attending 684 clinics in 27 provinces. Overall, the mean age was 34.4 years, 83.8% were male, 70.2% were unemployed, 75% had ever injected drugs, 17% had shared needles and 7.4% were HIV-positive. The profile of clients changed over time, with fewer HIV-positive individuals, fewer injecting drug users, fewer needle-sharers, fewer females and fewer unemployed. Half the clients dropped out within 6 months. The average final dose received was 49.4 mg. The estimated probability of interrupting treatment before 6 months was 52.5%. The profile of clients enrolling in methadone maintenance treatment in China is continually changing and appears to be associated with reduced risk of HIV. High dropout in the programme may limit its effectiveness. The availability of a centralized, real-time data system was extremely useful for monitoring the progress of the Chinese methadone maintenance treatment programme. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Hendrikson, Hollie; Hansen, Melissa
(1) Methadone accounted for 2 percent of painkiller prescriptions and more than 30 percent of prescription painkiller deaths in 2009. (2) Data suggest that the rise in deaths from methadone overdose is not related to its use in treating drug abuse but, rather, to its use for pain management. (3) Preferred drug lists in most Medicaid programs identify methadone as a preferred drug for managing chronic pain, but most experts do no recommend it as a first choice.
Trends and factors in human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis C virus testing and infection among injection drug users newly entering methadone maintenance treatment in Guangdong Province, China 2006-2013: a consecutive cross sectional study.
Liu, Yin; Liu, Yu; Zou, Xia; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li
To assess trends and related factors in HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing and infection among injection drug users (IDUs) newly entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Guangdong Province, China. Consecutive cross sectional surveys were conducted in 14 MMT clinics from July 2006 to December 2013 in Guangdong Province, China. IDUs were excluded if they were re-enrolled or referred from other MMT clinics. Trend tests were used to examine HIV and/or HCV testing and infection, sociodemographic characteristics, drug use related behaviours and the past 3 month sexual behaviours on enrolment. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of HIV and/or HCV testing and infection. 7539 IDUs with an average age of 35.6±6.2 years were newly enrolled with a history of injection for an average of 11.8±4.9 years. The average frequency of injection before enrolment had been increasing. HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV dual testing increased from 2006 to 2013 (ptrend<0.001). However, all three types of infections remained stable (ptrend>0.05) until reaching a peak in 2011, excluding the first year. Associating with fellow drug users 1-4 times during the past month, injecting for 15+ years and having multiple sexual partners during the past 3 months predicted higher percentages for HIV and/or HCV testing (p<0.05), while those injecting 4+ times per day in the past month and those who had ever shared needles were less likely to take both tests (p<0.05). Having multiple sexual partners, a longer duration of injection drug use and sharing needles or sharing more frequently were major risk factors for HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection (p<0.05). The prevalence of HIV and HCV were high and quite stable among new IDU entrants in MMT. Publicising MMT, routine screening, and behavioural and structural interventions is needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No
Li, Mingli; Li, Rongjian; Shen, Zhiyong; Li, Chunying; Liang, Nengxiu; Peng, Zhenren; Huang, Wenbo; He, Chongwei; Zhong, Feng; Tang, Xianyan; Lan, Guanghua
A methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program to curb the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use has been administered by China since 2004. Little is known regarding the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among MMT clients in the resource-constrained context of Chinese provinces, such as Guangxi. This study aimed to characterize the geographic distribution patterns and co-clustered epidemic factors of HIV, HCV and co-infections at the county level among drug users receiving MMT in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, located in the southwestern border area of China. Baseline data on drug users' demographic, behavioral and biological characteristics in the MMT clinics of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during the period of March 2004 to December 2014 were obtained from national HIV databases. Residential addresses were entered into a geographical information system (GIS) program and analyzed for spatial clustering of HIV, HCV and co-infections among MMT clients at the county level using geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics. A total of 31,015 MMT clients were analyzed, and the prevalence of HIV, HCV and co-infections were 13.05%, 72.51% and 11.96% respectively. Both the geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics showed that HIV, HCV and co-infections in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region exhibited significant geographic clustering at the county level, and the Moran's I values were 0.33, 0.41 and 0.30, respectively (P < 0.05). The most significant high-risk overlapping clusters for these infections were restricted to within a 10.95 km(2) radius of each of the 13 locations where P county was the cluster center. These infections also co-clustered with certain characteristics, such as being unmarried, having a primary level of education or below, having used drugs for more than 10 years, and receptive sharing of syringes with others. The high-risk clusters for these
Isemann, B; Meinzen-Derr, J; Akinbi, H
To identify maternal and neonatal factors that impact response to methadone therapy for neonatal abstinence syndrome. This is a retrospective review of 128 infants that received pharmacotherapy for opiate withdrawal to identify factors associated with favorable response to methadone therapy. Maternal and neonatal data were analyzed with univariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Maternal methadone maintenance dose during pregnancy correlated with length of stay (P=0.009). There was an inverse correlation between the amount of mother's breast milk ingested and length of stay (β=-0.03, P=0.02). Methadone was initiated later, tapered more rapidly and was more successful as monotherapy in preterm infants. Five percent of infants were admitted to hospital again for rebound withdrawal following reduction of breast milk intake. Severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome may be mitigated by titrating methadone to the lowest effective dose during pregnancy and by encouraging breast milk feeds, which should be weaned gradually.
Jansson, Lauren M; Dipietro, Janet A; Elko, Andrea; Velez, Martha
Though methadone pharmacotherapy is the treatment of choice for opiate-dependence during pregnancy in the USA, most methadone-exposed neonates develop neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). NAS expression is widely variable among methadone-exposed neonates and only a subset requires pharmacotherapy. This study explores the potential predictors of NAS severity, including aspects of maternal substance use and methadone maintenance histories, concomitant exposure to other licit substances, and individual differences in intrinsic maternal or infant factors that may affect the infant's vulnerability to NAS expression. Fifty methadone-maintained pregnant women attending a comprehensive substance abuse treatment facility, received electrocardiogram monitoring at 36 weeks of gestation at the times of trough and peak maternal methadone levels. Vagal tone, an estimate of the magnitude of an individual's respiratory sinus arrhythmia and an indicator of autonomic control, was derived. NAS expression was unrelated to maternal substance abuse history, methadone maintenance history, or psychotropic medication exposure. Male infants displayed more profound NAS symptoms and received more pharmacotherapy to treat NAS (all p < 0.05). NAS expression was related to maternal vagal reactivity; both suppression and activation of maternal vagal tone in response to methadone administration were positively and significantly associated with NAS symptomatology (F (2,44) = 4.15, p < 0.05) and treatment (F (2,44) = 3.39, p < 0.05). Infants of vagal non-responder mothers showed substantially lower NAS expression. NAS severity is associated with maternal vagal tone change in response to methadone administration.
Cleary, Brian J; Eogan, Maeve; O'Connell, Michael P; Fahey, Tom; Gallagher, Paul J; Clarke, Tom; White, Martin J; McDermott, Christine; O'Sullivan, Anne; Carmody, Deirdre; Gleeson, Justin; Murphy, Deirdre J
Methadone use in pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study aimed to examine perinatal outcomes and NAS in relation to (i) concomitant drug use and (ii) methadone dose. Prospective cohort study. Two tertiary care maternity hospitals. A total of 117 pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment recruited between July 2009 and July 2010. Information on concomitant drug use was recorded with the Addiction Severity Index. Perinatal outcomes included pre-term birth (<37 weeks' gestation), small-for-gestational-age (<10th centile) and neonatal unit admission. NAS outcomes included: incidence of medically treated NAS, peak Finnegan score, cumulative dose of NAS treatment and duration of hospitalization. Of the 114 liveborn infants 11 (9.6%) were born pre-term, 49 (42.9%) were small-for-gestational-age, 56 (49.1%) had a neonatal unit admission and 29 (25.4%) were treated medically for NAS. Neonates exposed to methadone-only had a shorter hospitalization than those exposed to methadone and concomitant drugs (median 5.0 days versus 6.0 days, P = 0.03). Neonates exposed to methadone doses ≥80 mg required higher cumulative doses of morphine treatment for NAS (median 13.2 mg versus 19.3 mg, P = 0.03). The incidence and duration of NAS did not differ between the two dosage groups. The incidence and duration of the neonatal abstinence syndrome is not associated with maternal methadone dose, but maternal opiate, benzodiazepine or cocaine use is associated with longer neonatal hospitalization. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
de Castro, Ana; Jones, Hendreé E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Gray, Teresa R.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.
BACKGROUND Few investigations have used placenta as an alternative matrix to detect in utero drug exposure, despite its availability at the time of birth and the large amount of sample. Methadone-maintained opioid-dependent pregnant women provide a unique opportunity to examine the placental disposition of methadone and metabolite [2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP)], to explore their correlations with maternal methadone dose and neonatal outcomes, and to test the ability to detect in utero exposure to illicit drugs. METHODS We calculated the correlations of placental methadone and EDDP concentrations and their correlations with maternal methadone doses and neonatal outcomes. Cocaine- and opiate-positive placenta results were compared with the results for meconium samples and for urine samples collected throughout gestation. RESULTS Positive correlations were found between placental methadone and EDDP concentrations (r = 0.685), and between methadone concentration and methadone dose at delivery (r = 0.542), mean daily dose (r = 0.554), mean third-trimester dose (r = 0.591), and cumulative daily dose (r = 0.639). The EDDP/methadone concentration ratio was negatively correlated with cumulative daily dose (r = 0.541) and positively correlated with peak neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) score (r = 0.513). Placental EDDP concentration was negatively correlated with newborn head circumference (r = 0.579). Cocaine and opiate use was detected in far fewer placenta samples than in thrice-weekly urine and meconium samples, a result suggesting a short detection window for placenta. CONCLUSIONS Quantitative methadone and EDDP measurement may predict NAS severity. The placenta reflects in utero drug exposure for a shorter time than meconium but may be useful when meconium is unavailable or if documentation of recent exposure is needed. PMID:21245372
de Castro, Ana; Jones, Hendreé E; Johnson, Rolley E; Gray, Teresa R; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A
Few investigations have used placenta as an alternative matrix to detect in utero drug exposure, despite its availability at the time of birth and the large amount of sample. Methadone-maintained opioid-dependent pregnant women provide a unique opportunity to examine the placental disposition of methadone and metabolite [2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP)], to explore their correlations with maternal methadone dose and neonatal outcomes, and to test the ability to detect in utero exposure to illicit drugs. We calculated the correlations of placental methadone and EDDP concentrations and their correlations with maternal methadone doses and neonatal outcomes. Cocaine- and opiate-positive placenta results were compared with the results for meconium samples and for urine samples collected throughout gestation. Positive correlations were found between placental methadone and EDDP concentrations (r=0.685), and between methadone concentration and methadone dose at delivery (r=0.542), mean daily dose (r=0.554), mean third-trimester dose (r=0.591), and cumulative daily dose (r=0.639). The EDDP/methadone concentration ratio was negatively correlated with cumulative daily dose (r=-0.541) and positively correlated with peak neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) score (r=0.513). Placental EDDP concentration was negatively correlated with newborn head circumference (r=-0.579). Cocaine and opiate use was detected in far fewer placenta samples than in thrice-weekly urine and meconium samples, a result suggesting a short detection window for placenta. Quantitative methadone and EDDP measurement may predict NAS severity. The placenta reflects in utero drug exposure for a shorter time than meconium but may be useful when meconium is unavailable or if documentation of recent exposure is needed.
Pizarro, David; Habli, Mounira; Grier, Marquia; Bombrys, Annette; Sibai, Baha; Livingston, Jeffrey
The purpose of this study is to assess the incidence of clinically significant neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) based on maternal antenatal methadone dosing in women with a history of narcotic dependence. A retrospective review of 174 pregnant women on methadone maintenance was performed. Data were stratified based on maternal methadone dose at delivery: low (0-50 mg/day, n = 59), medium (51-100 mg/day, n = 63), and high (>100 mg/day, n = 52). NAS was defined by Finnegan as score greater than 7 on two occasions. Outcome measures were rate and severity of NAS, birth weight, preterm birth rate, and neonatal morbidities and mortality. The rates of NAS (40.7% vs. 52.4% vs. 40.8%, p > .05), birth weight, and neonatal morbidities were similar regardless of the maternal methadone dose. Although there was a trend toward earlier delivery, the rate of preterm birth among the three groups (low dose, 17%; medium dose, 19%; high dose, 27%; p > .05) was not statistically significant. Higher maintenance dosing of methadone is not associated with increased rate or severity of NAS or other adverse perinatal outcomes. Concerns about NAS should not restrict the methadone dosing during pregnancy. Methadone dosing should not be restricted to lower dosing during pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Benzodiazepines (BZD) misuse is a serious public health problem, especially among opiate-dependent patients with anxiety enrolled in methadone program because it puts patients at higher risk of life-threatening multiple drug overdoses. Both elevated anxiety and BZD misuse increase the risk for ex-addicts to relapse. However, there is no recent study to assess how serious the problem is and what factors are associated with BZD misuse. This study estimates the prevalence of BZD misuse in a methadone program, and provides information on the characteristics of BZD users compared to non-users. Methods An anonymous survey was carried out at a methadone program in Baltimore, MD, and all patients were invited to participate through group meetings and fliers around the clinic on a voluntary basis. Of the 205 returned questionnaires, 194 were complete and entered into final data analysis. Those who completed the questionnaire were offered a $5 gift card as an appreciation. Results 47% of the respondents had a history of BZD use, and 39.8% used BZD without a prescription. Half of the BZD users (54%) started using BZD after entering the methadone program, and 61% of previous BZD users reported increased or resumed use after entering methadone program. Compared to the non-users, BZD users were more likely to be White, have prescribed medication for mental problems, have preexistent anxiety problems before opiate use, and had anxiety problems before entering methadone program. They reported more mental health problems in the past month, and had higher scores in anxiety state, depression and perceived stress (p < .05). Conclusions Important information on epidemiology of BZD misuse among methadone-maintenance patients suggests that most methadone programs do not address co-occurring anxiety problems, and methadone treatment may trigger onset or worsening of BZD misuse. Further study is needed to explore how to curb misuse and abuse of BZD in the addiction population
Fonseca, Francina; de la Torre, Rafael; Díaz, Laura; Pastor, Antonio; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Pizarro, Nieves; Khymenets, Olha; Farré, Magí; Torrens, Marta
Although the efficacy of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in opioid dependence disorder has been well established, the influence of methadone pharmacokinetics in dose requirement and clinical outcome remains controversial. The aim of this study is to analyze methadone dosage in responder and nonresponder patients considering pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic factors that may contribute to dosage adequacy. Opioid dependence patients (meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, [4th Edition] criteria) from a MMT community program were recruited. Patients were clinically assessed and blood samples were obtained to determine plasma concentrations of (R,S)-, (R) and (S)- methadone and to study allelic variants of genes encoding CYP3A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and P-glycoprotein. Responders and nonresponders were defined by illicit opioid consumption detected in random urinalysis. The final sample consisted in 105 opioid dependent patients of Caucasian origin. Responder patients received higher doses of methadone and have been included into treatment for a longer period. No differences were found in terms of genotype frequencies between groups. Only CYP2D6 metabolizing phenotype differences were found in outcome status, methadone dose requirements, and plasma concentrations, being higher in the ultrarapid metabolizers. No other differences were found between phenotype and responder status, methadone dose requirements, neither in methadone plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic factors could explain some but not all differences in MMT outcome and methadone dose requirements. PMID:21589866
Maradiaga, Jeronimo A; Nahvi, Shadi; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Sanchez, Jennifer; Fox, Aaron D
Incarceration is a common experience for individuals with opioid use disorder, including those receiving medication assisted treatments (MAT), such as buprenorphine or methadone. In the United States, MAT is rarely available during incarceration. We were interested in whether challenges with methadone maintenance treatment during incarceration affected subsequent attitudes toward MAT following release. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 formerly incarcerated individuals with opioid use disorder in community substance abuse treatment settings. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged upon iterative readings of transcripts were discussed by the research team. The three main themes relating to methadone were: 1) rapid dose reduction during incarceration; 2) discontinuity of methadone during incarceration; and 3) post incarceration aversion to methadone. Participants who received methadone maintenance treatment prior to incarceration reported severe and prolonged withdrawal symptoms from rapid dose reductions or disruption of their methadone treatment during incarceration. The severe withdrawal during incarceration contributed to a subsequent aversion to methadone and adversely affected future decisions regarding reengagement in MAT. Though MAT is the most efficacious treatment for opioid use disorder, current penal policy, which typically requires cessation of MAT during incarceration, may dissuade individuals with opioid use disorder from considering and engaging in MAT after release from incarceration.
Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian
Oral administration of methadone has been used as a treatment strategy for opiate addiction for many years. The state of Victoria, Australia, has a long-running methadone program with a large number of participants. Accordingly, a growing number of adults have utilised methadone maintenance treatment for a number of years and are now moving into older age due to advances in medical treatment and harm reduction initiatives. The objective of this review is to examine the literature pertaining to co-occurring mental illness in older methadone treatment participants and to explore the future challenges this growing cohort of ageing adults pose to aged persons’ psychiatry services. As part of a broader study into dual diagnosis in older adults, a search of the Scopus, ProQuest, and CINAHL journal databases was performed. Twenty abstracts from literature published within the previous 15 years (1999–2014) were identified that explored methadone maintenance programs and the older adults maintained on them. A number of researchers have identified the ageing methadone population to have a high degree of comorbid mental illness and psychological distress. Studies also indicate that individuals enrolled in methadone maintenance programs may engage in a degree of continual substance use, potentially leading to deleterious effects on their psychosocial function. An ageing methadone population experiencing a high degree of comorbid mental illness is likely to challenge aged persons’ psychiatry services. These services are likely to be increasingly called on to manage these individuals, particularly within Victoria where few substance use services exist for those over the age of 65. It is essential that aged persons’ psychiatry services prepare to provide care for these individuals in a responsive manner that is inclusive of both their mental health and substitution pharmacotherapy.
Liu, S.J.; Wang, R.I.H.
Rats given 2-day oral administration of methadone (15 mg/kg, twice on day 1 and once on day 2) by gastric tube developed dispositional tolerance to methadone analgesia as demonstrated by a decrease in analgesic response and by an increase in methadone metabolism. The increased metabolism of methadone was evidenced by a decrease in brain concentration of /sup 14/C-methadone and increases in the percentages of total /sup 14/C in liver or urine as /sup 14/C-water-soluble metabolites (/sup 14/C-WSM) after the rats were challenged with a test dose of /sup 14/C-methadone. Two-day pretreatment with a combination of desipramine (DMI) (10 mg/kg, ip) and methadone (15 mg/kg, po) enhanced the development of dispositional tolerance to methadone analgesia which was evidenced by a greater decrease in the brain concentration of methadone and a greater increase in methadone metabolism as compared to those changes in rats pretreated with only methadone. Repeated treatment with DMI alone neither decreased the analgesic effect of methadone nor stimulated methadone metabolism. It is suggested that DMI given together with methadone promoted the induction of methadone metabolism in the liver by prolonging the enzyme-stimulating state of methadone, thus enhancing the development of dispositional tolerance to methadone. 20 references, 1 figure, 1 table.
Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Yuan, Zung Fan; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lai, Mei-Dan; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-Kang; Chen, Shao-Tsu
Methadone and buprenorphine are widely used for treating people with opioid dependence, including pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to opioids has devastating effects on the development of human fetuses and may induce long-term physical and neurobehavioral changes during postnatal maturation. This study aimed at comparing the behavioral outcomes of young rats prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine during embryonic days 3-20. The cognitive function, social interaction, anxiety-like behaviors, and locomotor activity of offsprings were examined by novel object recognition test, social interaction test, light-dark transition test, elevated plus-maze, and open-field test between 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age. Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine did not affect locomotor activity, but significantly impaired novel object recognition and social interaction in both male and female offsprings in the same manner as morphine. Although prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark transition in both male and female offsprings, the effects were less pronounced as compared to that of morphine. Methadone affected elevated plus-maze in both sex, but buprenorphine only affected the female offsprings. These findings suggest that buprenorphine and methadone maintenance therapy for pregnant women, like morphine, produced detrimental effects on cognitive function and social behaviors, whereas the offsprings of such women might have a lower risk of developing anxiety disorders.
Fairbairn, Nadia; Hayashi, Kanna; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Qi, Jiezhi; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Little is known about the characteristics of injection drug users (IDU) who take methadone treatment in Thailand. We examined prevalence and correlates of methadone treatment among a community-recruited sample of IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Among 273 participants, 143 (52.4%) reported accessing methadone treatment within the previous 6 months. Older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-3.30) and more than weekly midazolam injection (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.04-3.29) were positively associated, whereas alcohol use (AOR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.63) and noninjection methamphetamine use (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.85) were negatively associated with methadone treatment. In subanalyses, 98.6% of IDU on methadone continued to inject drugs, and the most common reason for stopping methadone was becoming incarcerated (49%). Evidence-based addiction treatment in the form of methadone maintenance therapy, with attention paid to concomitant midazolam injection in this setting, should be implemented.
Holbrook, Amber M
The past decade has seen an increase in rates of opioid abuse during pregnancy. This clinical challenge has been met with debate regarding whether or not illicit and prescription opioid-dependent individuals require different treatment approaches; whether detoxification is preferable to maintenance; and the efficacy of methadone versus buprenorphine as treatment options during pregnancy. The clinical recommendations resulting from these discussions are frequently influenced by the comparative stigma attached to heroin abuse and methadone maintenance versus prescription opioid abuse and maintenance treatment with buprenorphine. While some studies have suggested that a subset of individuals who abuse prescription opioids may have different characteristics than heroin users, there is currently no evidence to suggest that buprenorphine is better suited to treatment of prescription opioid abuse than methadone. Similarly, despite its perennial popularity, there is no evidence to recommend detoxification as an efficacious approach to treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. While increased access to treatment is important, particularly in rural areas, there are multiple medical and psychosocial reasons to recommend comprehensive substance abuse treatment for pregnant women suffering from substance use disorders rather than office-based provision of maintenance medication. Both methadone and buprenorphine are important treatment options for opioid abuse during pregnancy. Methadone may still remain the preferred treatment choice for some women who require higher doses for stabilization, have a higher risk of treatment discontinuation, or who have had unsuccessful treatment attempts with buprenorphine. As treatment providers, we should advocate to expand available treatment options for pregnant women in all States.
Himes, Sarah K; Goodwin, Robert S; Rock, Colleen M; Jones, Hendrée E; Johnson, Rolley E; Wilkins, Diana G; Huestis, Marilyn A
Methadone is the recommended pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women. The primary aims of this study were to determine whether a dose-concentration relationship exists between cumulative maternal methadone dose, methadone and metabolite concentrations in maternal hair during pregnancy and whether maternal hair methadone and metabolite concentrations predict neonatal outcomes. Hair specimens were collected monthly from opioid-dependent mothers enrolled in methadone treatment and 4 of their infants. Hair specimens were segmented (3 cm), washed (maternal hair only), and analyzed for methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyrroline by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. There was large intersubject variability and no dose-concentration relationship for cumulative methadone dose and methadone, EDDP, 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyrroline, or total concentrations in hair. For individual women, a positive trend was noted for cumulative methadone dose and methadone and EDDP concentrations in hair. There was a positive linear trend for cumulative methadone dose and EDDP/methadone ratio in maternal hair, perhaps reflecting methadone's induction of its own metabolism. Maternal methadone concentrations were higher than those in infant hair, and infant EDDP hair concentrations were higher than those in maternal hair. Maternal methadone dose, and methadone and EDDP hair concentrations were not correlated with peak infant neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) scores, days to peak NAS, duration of NAS, time to NAS onset, birth length, head circumference, or amount of neonatal morphine pharmacotherapy. Maternal cumulative third trimester methadone dose was positively correlated with infant birth weight. Methadone and EDDP in pregnant women's hair are markers of methadone exposure and do not predict total methadone dose, nor neonatal outcomes from in utero methadone exposure.
McClure, Bridget; Mendoza, Sonia; Duncan, Laura; Rotrosen, John; Hansen, Helena
Hurricane Sandy led to the closing of many major New York City public hospitals including their substance abuse clinics and methadone programs, and the displacement or relocation of thousands of opioid-dependent patients from treatment. The disaster provided a natural experiment that revealed the relative strengths and weaknesses of methadone treatment in comparison to physician office-based buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence, two modalities of opioid maintenance with markedly different regulatory requirements and institutional procedures. To assess these two modalities of treatment under emergency conditions, semi-structured interviews about barriers to and facilitators of continuity of care for methadone and buprenorphine patients were conducted with 50 providers of opioid maintenance treatment. Major findings included that methadone programs presented more regulatory barriers for providers, difficulty with dose verification due to impaired communication, and an over reliance on emergency room dosing leading to unsafe or suboptimal dosing. Buprenorphine treatment presented fewer regulatory barriers, but buprenorphine providers had little to no cross-coverage options compared to methadone providers, who could refer to alternate methadone programs. The findings point to the need for well-defined emergency procedures with flexibility around regulations, the need for a central registry with patient dose information, as well as stronger professional networks and cross-coverage procedures. These interventions would improve day-to-day services for opioid-maintained patients as well as services under emergency conditions.
Mouly, Stéphane; Bloch, Vanessa; Peoc'h, Katell; Houze, Pascal; Labat, Laurence; Ksouda, Kamilia; Simoneau, Guy; Declèves, Xavier; Bergmann, Jean Francois; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Vorspan, Florence
Aims Methadone is characterized by wide intersubject variability regarding the dose needed to obtain full therapeutic response. We assessed the influence of sociodemographic, ethnic, clinical, metabolic and genotypic variables on methadone maintenance dose requirement in opioid-dependent responder patients. Methods Eighty-one stable patients (60 men and 21 women, 43.7 ± 8.1 years old, 63.1 ± 50.9 mg day−1 methadone), divided into quartiles with respect to the median daily dose, were enrolled and underwent clinical examination, treatment history and determination of liver/intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity measured by the midazolam test, R,S-methadone trough concentration and clinically significant polymorphisms of the OPRM1, DRD2, COMT, ABCB1, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes. Results Methadone maintenance dose was correlated to the highest dose ever used (r2 = 0.57, P < 0.0001). Fractioned methadone intake (odds ratio 4.87, 95% confidence interval 1.27–18.6, P = 0.02), bodyweight (odds ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.01–2.44, P = 0.04), history of cocaine dependence (80 vs. 44 mg day−1 in never-addict patients, P = 0.005) and ethnicity (Asian > Caucasian > African, P = 0.04) were independently associated with high-dose methadone in multiple regression analysis. A modest correlation was observed between liver/intestinal CYP3A4 activity and methadone dose at steady state (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.21, P = 0.06) but not with highest dose ever used (rs = 0.15, P = 0.18) or dose-normalized R,S-methadone trough concentrations (rs = −0.05, P = 0.64). Concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitors only affected the relationship between methadone dose and R,S-methadone trough concentration. None of the genetic polymorphisms explored was predictive of the methadone maintenance dose. Conclusions Methadone maintenance dose was predicted by sociodemographic and clinical variables rather than genetic polymorphisms or liver/intestinal CYP
Using Geographic Information System (GIS), the spatial distribution of methadone clinic clients and their utilization of a treatment service in Hong Kong was analysed. A majority (93.7%) of the 63 methadone users recruited were residing in the same district, of which 84.1% spent not more than 15 minutes for traveling. Walking (55.6%) was the commonest transport mode followed by cycling (30.2%). There was no distance decay effect on traveling time, but an association between distance and transport selection could be demonstrated. The residence locations displayed a compact distribution, merging with the general population without any evidence of clustering. Though the distribution of methadone users could have been shaped by the location of clinic, it can also be concluded that methadone clinics at convenient locations are needed if maintenance is a key determinant of service effectiveness. PMID:20602756
Burch, Ashley E.; Rash, Carla J.; Petry, Nancy M.
Contingency management (CM) is an effective treatment for promoting cocaine abstinence in patients receiving methadone maintenance. However, few studies have examined the effect of sex on treatment outcomes in this population. This study evaluated the impact of sex on longest duration of abstinence (LDA) and percent negative urine samples in 323 cocaine-using methadone patients from four randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard methadone care. Overall, women had better treatment outcomes compared to men, demonstrated by an increase in both LDA and percentages of negative samples. Patients receiving CM also had significantly higher LDA and percentages of negative samples compared to patients receiving standard care, but sex by treatment condition effects were not significant. These data suggest that cocaine using methadone patients who are women have better substance use outcomes than men in interventions that regularly monitor cocaine use, and CM is equally efficacious regardless of sex. PMID:26237326
Lacroix, Isabelle; Berrebi, Alain; Garipuy, Daniel; Schmitt, Laurent; Hammou, Yamina; Chaumerliac, Catherine; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Damase-Michel, Christine
In order to investigate the effects of exposure to buprenorphine compared with methadone during pregnancy, a prospective multicenter study was conducted in collaboration with maternity hospitals, maintenance therapy centers, and general practitioners involved in addiction care. Ninety pregnant women exposed to buprenorphine and 45 to metadone were selected for the study. During pregnancy, some women were exposed to illicit agents: cannabis (42% in the buprenorphine group vs. 58% in the methadone-treated group), heroin (17% vs. 44%), or cocaine (3% vs. 11%). Pregnancies ended in 85 vs. 40 live births, one vs. two stillbirths, two vs. one spontaneous abortion, two vs. one voluntary termination, and one vs. one medical termination in the buprenorphine and the methadone groups, respectively. Newborns had a birth weight of 2,892 ± 506 g (buprenorphine) vs. 2,731 ± 634 g (methadone) and a body length of 47.6 ± 2.5 cm vs. 47.1 ± 3 cm. 18.8% vs. 10% of newborns were delivered before 37 weeks of amenorrhea. Neonatal withdrawal syndrome occurred more frequently in the methadone group (62.5% vs. 41.2, p = 0.03). After adjustment for heroin exposure in late pregnancy, rates of neonatal withdrawal were no longer different between the methadone and buprenorphine groups. Twenty-one babies (84%) in the methadone group and 20 (57%) in the buprenorphine group (p = 0.03) required opiate treatment. We did not observe more frequent malformations or cases of withdrawal syndrome in the buprenorphine group than in the methadone-treated group. Buprenorphine appears to be as safe as the currently approved substitute methadone considered to date as the reference treatment for pregnant opioid-dependent women.
Delano, Kaitlyn; Gareri, Joey; Koren, Gideon
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the standard of care during pregnancy for opioid-dependency, showing efficacy in improving prenatal care and reducing risk of relapse. By design, however, MMT is only intended to prevent withdrawal thus facilitating cognitive behavioural interventions. In order to maximize the benefits of MMT, it is essential that methadone is both properly prescribed and that additional addiction treatment is concurrently administered. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of MMT engagement in high-risk pregnant women in reducing polydrug use by objective laboratory examination of neonatal meconium. Over a 29-month period, the Motherisk Laboratory at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto analyzed meconium samples as per request by social services and hospitals for drugs of abuse. Of the 904 meconium samples received, 273 were tested for methadone with 164 positive and 109 negative for methadone. Almost half of the methadone positive samples (46.34%) were also positive for at least one other opioid compound, which did not differ statistically from the methadone-negative control samples (46.79%; Chi square test, p=0.94). No differences were found between the methadone positive and negative groups in rates of concurrent amphetamines, cocaine, cannabis, and alcohol use indicating a similar risk of polydrug use between pregnant women taking or not taking methadone in this population. The high rates of additional opioid and other drug use in the MMT group, suggest that MMT is failing this population of patients. It is possible that methadone doses during pregnancy are not appropriately adjusted for changes in pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g. blood volume, renal function) during the second and third trimesters. This may result in sub-therapeutic dosing creating withdrawal symptoms leading to additional substance use. Alternatively, these results may be demonstrating a substantial lack in delivery of addiction support services in this
Ziegler, M; Poustka, F; von Loewenich, V; Englert, E
In a retrospective case control study at the University of Frankfurt, Germany, 101 babies born to opiate-addicted mothers were identified from birth charts from 1988 to 1995. After birth, they developed a withdrawal syndrome (neonatal abstinence syndrome). Fifty control infants and their mothers were selected from neonatal wards. The group of opiate-exposed babies was subdivided into a group born to mothers without methadone treatment (n = 48) and a group born to mothers who were enrolled in a methadone program (n = 51). The methadone infants had a significantly higher mean birth weight (2822 g) than children in the group without methadone (2471 g). The abstinence syndrome was much more intense in the methadone group (convulsions 47.1%) than in heroin-exposed babies without methadone treatment (convulsions 27.1%). Women in methadone maintenance programs lived in more stable socioeconomic conditions than opiate-addicted women without methadone substitution. Moreover, they cared significantly better for their babies: 81.3% of the methadone mothers visited their children on a regular basis and 90.9% cared adequately. The data emphasize the need in future research to look more closely at the role of methadone treatment programs in the development of opiate-exposed babies.
Himes, Sarah K; Goodwin, Robert S; Rock, Colleen M; Jones, Hendrée E; Johnson, Rolley E; Wilkins, Diana G; Huestis, Marilyn A
Methadone is the recommended pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women. The primary aims of this study were to determine whether a dose-concentration relationship exists between cumulative maternal methadone dose, methadone and metabolite concentrations in maternal hair during pregnancy and whether maternal hair methadone and metabolite concentrations predict neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods Hair specimens were collected monthly from opioid-dependent mothers enrolled in methadone treatment and 4 of their infants. Hair specimens were segmented (3cm), washed (maternal hair only) and analyzed for methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyrroline (EMDP) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results There was large inter-subject variability and no dose-concentration relationship for cumulative methadone dose and methadone, EDDP, EMDP or total concentrations in hair. For individual women, a positive trend was noted for cumulative methadone dose and methadone and EDDP concentrations in hair. There was a positive linear trend for cumulative methadone dose and EDDP/methadone ratio in maternal hair, perhaps reflecting methadone’s induction of its own metabolism. Maternal methadone concentrations were higher than those in infant hair, and infant EDDP hair concentrations were higher than those in maternal hair. Maternal methadone dose, and methadone and EDDP hair concentrations were not correlated with peak infant neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) scores, days to peak NAS, duration of NAS, time to NAS onset, birth length, head circumference or amount of neonatal morphine pharmacotherapy. Maternal cumulative 3rd trimester methadone dose was positively correlated with infant birth weight. Conclusion Methadone and EDDP in pregnant women’s hair are markers of methadone exposure and do not predict total methadone dose, nor neonatal outcomes from in utero methadone exposure. PMID
Linares, Oscar A; Fudin, Jeffrey; Daly, Annemarie; Schiesser, William E; Boston, Raymond C
We hypothesize that there is a tissue store of methadone content in humans that is not directly accessible, but is quantifiable. Further, we hypothesize the mechanism by which methadone content is sustained in tissue stores involves methadone uptake, storage, and release from tissue depots in the body (recycling). Accordingly, we hypothesize that such tissue stores, in part, determine plasma methadone levels. We studied a random sample of six opioid-naïve healthy subjects. We performed a clinical trial simulation in silico using pharmacokinetic modeling. We found a large tissue store of methadone content whose size was much larger than methadone's size in plasma in response to a single oral dose of methadone 10 mg. The tissue store measured 13-17 mg. This finding could only be explained by the contemporaneous storage of methadone in tissue with dose recycling. We found that methadone recycles 2-5 times through an inaccessible extravascular compartment (IAC), from an accessible plasma-containing compartment (AC), before exiting irreversibly. We estimate the rate of accumulation (or storage) of methadone in tissue was 0.029-7.29 mg/h. We predict 39 ± 13% to 83 ± 6% of methadone's tissue stores "spillover" into the circulation. Our results indicate that there exists a large quantifiable tissue store of methadone in humans. Our results support the notion that methadone in humans undergoes tissue uptake, storage, release into the circulation, reuptake from the circulation, and re-release into the circulation, and that spillover of methadone from tissue stores, in part, maintain plasma methadone levels in humans.
Hesse, Morten; Pedersen, Mads U.
Background: There is currently evidence that methadone and buprenorphine maintenance is effective in reducing substance abuse. However, it is not known whether psychosocial support improves the outcome of methadone maintenance in the absence of control measures, such as regular urine testing. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational…
Freedman, L Z
We have demonstrated the dangers of alcoholism that complicate methadone treatment of heroin addiction. In future papers, we will attempt to identify contributory factors and suggest interventionist techniques. In the final analysis, however, rehabilitation programs, vocational programs, and, above all, alleviation of the dreadful socioeconomic deprivations related to, among other factors, the racial bias under which most of these people have been born and have suffered during their lives will, in the long run, prove the most satisfactory means of reducing the heroin problem, except for a minority whose psychologic problems will then provide the irreducible minimum from which the majority of the addicts will come. As has so often been stated, the great drug problem in this country is alcoholism. We know that legal prohibition does not prevent the rise of alcoholism, and we know to our sorrow that not only does it give rise to enormous wealth and power to criminals and criminal gangs but that some of them are now also profiting from the great wealth to be made by dealing in heroin.
Blanken, Peter; Hendriks, Vincent M; Koeter, Maarten W J; van Ree, Jan M; van den Brink, Wim
To investigate which baseline patient characteristics of treatment-resistant heroin addicts differentially predicted treatment response to medical heroin prescription compared to standard methadone maintenance treatment. Two open-label randomized controlled trials; pooled data. Methadone maintenance programmes and heroin treatment centres in six cities in the Netherlands. Four hundred and thirty heroin addicts. Methadone plus injectable heroin or methadone plus inhalable heroin compared to methadone alone prescribed over 12 months: heroin maximum 1000 mg per day, methadone maximum 150 mg per day. Dichotomous, multi-domain response index, including validated indicators of physical health, mental status and social functioning. Data of the inhalable and injectable heroin trials were pooled. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that treatment with medically prescribed heroin plus methadone was significantly more effective (51.8% response) than standard methadone maintenance treatment (28.7%) (95% CI of response difference: 14.1-32.2%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only one of all baseline characteristics was predictive of a differential treatment effect: patients who had previously participated in abstinence-orientated treatment responded significantly better to heroin-assisted treatment than to methadone treatment (61% versus 24%), while patients without experience in abstinence-orientated treatment did equally well in heroin-assisted or methadone maintenance treatment (39% and 38%, respectively). The effect of heroin-assisted treatment is not dependent on clinical characteristics, with the exception of previous abstinence-orientated treatment: medical prescription of heroin is most effective for those patients who have previously participated in abstinence-orientated treatment.
Nunn, Amy; Zaller, Nickolas; Dickman, Samuel; Trimbur, Catherine; Nijhawan, Ank; Rich, Josiah D
More than 50% of incarcerated individuals have a history of substance use, and over 200,000 individuals with heroin addiction pass through American correctional facilities annually. Opiate replacement therapy (ORT) with methadone or buprenorphine is an effective treatment for opiate dependence and can reduce drug-related disease and recidivism for inmates. Provision of ORT is nevertheless a frequently neglected intervention in the correctional setting. We surveyed the 50 state; Washington, District of Columbia (DC); and Federal Department of Corrections' medical directors or their equivalents about their facilities' ORT prescribing policies and referral programs for inmates leaving prison. We received responses from 51 of 52 prison systems nationwide. Twenty-eight prison systems (55%) offer methadone to inmates in some situations. Methadone use varies widely across states: over 50% of correctional facilities that offer methadone do so exclusively for pregnant women or for chronic pain management. Seven states' prison systems (14%) offer buprenorphine to some inmates. The most common reason cited for not offering ORT was that facilities "prefer drug-free detoxification over providing methadone or buprenorphine." Twenty-three states' prison systems (45%) provide referrals for some inmates to methadone maintenance programs after release, which increased from 8% in 2003; 15 states' prison systems (29%) provide some referrals to community buprenorphine providers. Despite demonstrated social,