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Sample records for hospitalized persons united

  1. Inpatient Hospitalization Costs Associated with Birth Defects Among Persons of All Ages - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Arth, Annelise C; Tinker, Sarah C; Simeone, Regina M; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Cragan, Janet D; Grosse, Scott D

    2017-01-20

    In the United States, major structural or genetic birth defects affect approximately 3% of live births (1) and are responsible for 20% of infant deaths (2). Birth defects can affect persons across their lifespan and are the cause of significant lifelong disabilities. CDC used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2013 National Inpatient Sample (NIS), a 20% stratified sample of discharges from nonfederal community hospitals, to estimate the annual cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations in the United States, both for persons of all ages and by age group. Birth defect-associated hospitalizations had disproportionately high costs, accounting for 3.0% of all hospitalizations and 5.2% of total hospital costs. The estimated annual cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations in the United States in 2013 was $22.9 billion. Estimates of the cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations offer important information about the impact of birth defects among persons of all ages on the overall health care system and can be used to prioritize prevention, early detection, and care.

  2. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–associated Lung Disease in Hospitalized Persons, United States, 1998–2005

    PubMed Central

    Billinger, Megan E.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Viboud, Cecile; Montes de Oca, Ruben; Steiner, Claudia; Holland, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and trends of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)–associated hospitalizations in the United States were estimated using national hospital discharge data. Records were extracted for all persons with a pulmonary NTM International Classification of Diseases code (031.0) hospitalized in the 11 states with continuous data available from 1998 through 2005. Prevalence was calculated using US census data. Pulmonary NTM hospitalizations (031.0) increased significantly with age among both sexes: relative prevalence for persons 70–79 years of age compared with those 40–49 years of age was 15/100,000 for women (9.4 vs. 0.6) and 9/100,000 for men (7.6 vs. 0.83). Annual prevalence increased significantly among men and women in Florida (3.2%/year and 6.5%/year, respectively) and among women in New York (4.6%/year) with no significant changes in California. The prevalence of pulmonary NTM–associated hospitalizations is increasing in selected geographic areas of the United States. PMID:19861046

  3. Nontuberculous mycobacteria-associated lung disease in hospitalized persons, United States, 1998-2005.

    PubMed

    Billinger, Megan E; Olivier, Kenneth N; Viboud, Cecile; de Oca, Ruben Montes; Steiner, Claudia; Holland, Steven M; Prevots, D Rebecca

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and trends of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-associated hospitalizations in the United States were estimated using national hospital discharge data. Records were extracted for all persons with a pulmonary NTM International Classification of Diseases code (031.0) hospitalized in the 11 states with continuous data available from 1998 through 2005. Prevalence was calculated using US census data. Pulmonary NTM hospitalizations (031.0) increased significantly with age among both sexes: relative prevalence for persons 70-79 years of age compared with those 40-49 years of age was 15/100,000 for women (9.4 vs. 0.6) and 9/100,000 for men (7.6 vs. 0.83). Annual prevalence increased significantly among men and women in Florida (3.2%/year and 6.5%/year, respectively) and among women in New York (4.6%/year) with no significant changes in California. The prevalence of pulmonary NTM-associated hospitalizations is increasing in selected geographic areas of the United States.

  4. Air handling units for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, V; Gjestvang, R

    1989-10-01

    Air handling units should provide proper quality and conditioned air to various hospital areas. Unit capacity should be able to meet limited space functionality or load changes as well as any smoke control requirements. System components should be readily accessible and appropriate for spaces served. In summary, engineers should consider the following: Environmental design criteria for area being served Components desired Unit type required Economic issues affecting design. Using this approach, design engineers can design hospital air handling units methodically and logically.

  5. [Crisis unit at the general hospital: Determinants of further hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Norotte, C; Omnès, C; Crozier, C; Verlyck, C; Romanos, M

    2016-10-10

    The availability of short-stay beds for brief admission (less than 72hours) of crisis patients presenting to the emergency room is a model that has gained a growing interest because it allows time for developing alternatives to psychiatric hospitalization and favors a maintained functioning in the community. Still, the determinants influencing the disposition decision at discharge after crisis intervention remain largely unexplored. The primary objective of this study was to determine the factors predicting aftercare dispositions at crisis unit discharge: transfer for further hospitalization or return to the community. Secondary objectives included the description of clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the crisis unit upon presentation to the emergency room. All patients (n=255) admitted to the short-stay unit of the emergency department of Rambouillet General Hospital during a one-year period were included in the study. Patient characteristics were collected in a retrospective manner from medical records: patterns of referral, acute stressors, presenting symptoms, initial patient demand, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5) disorders, psychiatric history, and socio-demographic characteristics were inferred. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with hospitalization decision upon crisis intervention at discharge. Following crisis intervention at the short-stay unit, 100 patients (39.2%) required further hospitalization and were transferred. Statistically significant factors associated with a higher probability of hospitalization (P<0.05) included the patient's initial wish to be hospitalized (OR=4.28), the presence of a comorbid disorder (OR=3.43), a referral by family or friends (OR=2.89), a history of psychiatric hospitalization (OR=2.71) and suicidal ideation on arrival in the emergency room (OR=2.26). Conversely, significant factors associated with a lower probability of

  6. Hospitality, Recreation, and Personal Service Occupations: Grade 8. Cluster V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Hospitality, Recreation, and Personal Service Occupations." It is divided into four units: recreational resources for education, employment, and professional opportunities; barbering and cosmetology; mortuary science; hotel-motel management. Each unit is…

  7. Radiation decontamination unit for the community hospital.

    PubMed

    Waldron, R L; Danielson, R A; Shultz, H E; Eckert, D E; Hendricks, K O

    1981-05-01

    "Freestanding" radiation decontamination units including surgical capability can be developed and made operational in small/medium sized community hospitals at relatively small cost and with minimal plant reconstruction. Because of the development of nuclear power plants in relatively remote areas and widespread transportation of radioactive materials it is important for hospitals and physicians to be prepared to handle radiation accident victims. The Radiological Assistance Program of the United States Department of Energy and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site of Oak Ridge Associated Universities are ready to support individual hospitals and physicians in this endeavor. Adequate planning rather than luck, should be used in dealing with potential radiation accident victims. The radiation emergency team is headed by a physician on duty in the hospital. It is important that the team leader be knowledgeable in radiation accident management and have personnel trained in radiation accident management as members of this team. The senior administrative person on duty is responsible for intramural and extramural communications. Rapid mobilization of the radiation decontamination unit is important. Periodic drills are necessary for this mobilization and the smooth operation of the unit.

  8. Leptospirosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 1998–2009

    PubMed Central

    Callinan, Laura S.; Holman, Robert C.; Steiner, Claudia; Guerra, Marta A.

    2014-01-01

    A small percentage of persons with leptospirosis, a reemerging zoonosis, experience severe complications that require hospitalization. The number of leptospirosis cases in the United States is unknown. Thus, to estimate the hospitalization rate for this disease, we analyzed US hospital discharge records for 1998–2009 for the total US population by using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. During that time, the average annual rate of leptospirosis-associated hospitalizations was 0.6 hospitalizations/1,000,000 population. Leptospirosis-associated hospitalization rates were higher for persons >20 years of age and for male patients. For leptospirosis-associated hospitalizations, the average age of patients at admission was lower, the average length of stay for patients was longer, and hospital charges were higher than those for nonleptospirosis infectious disease–associated hospitalizations. Educating clinicians on the signs and symptoms of leptospirosis may result in earlier diagnosis and treatment and, thereby, reduced disease severity and hospitalization costs. PMID:25076111

  9. Leptospirosis-associated hospitalizations, United States, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Traxler, Rita M; Callinan, Laura S; Holman, Robert C; Steiner, Claudia; Guerra, Marta A

    2014-08-01

    A small percentage of persons with leptospirosis, a reemerging zoonosis, experience severe complications that require hospitalization. The number of leptospirosis cases in the United States is unknown. Thus, to estimate the hospitalization rate for this disease, we analyzed US hospital discharge records for 1998-2009 for the total US population by using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. During that time, the average annual rate of leptospirosis-associated hospitalizations was 0.6 hospitalizations/1,000,000 population. Leptospirosis-associated hospitalization rates were higher for persons >20 years of age and for male patients. For leptospirosis-associated hospitalizations, the average age of patients at admission was lower, the average length of stay for patients was longer, and hospital charges were higher than those for nonleptospirosis infectious disease-associated hospitalizations. Educating clinicians on the signs and symptoms of leptospirosis may result in earlier diagnosis and treatment and, thereby, reduced disease severity and hospitalization costs.

  10. Looking at hospitalized persons throughout the prism of the handicap.

    PubMed

    Giral, M; Boussat, B; Lombard, F; Stempfle, S; François, P; Pérennou, D

    2017-07-14

    To describe the disability status of non-selected hospitalized persons. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess activity limitations of every person older than 18 years hospitalized in a regional university hospital covering all medical fields. Evaluators rated, on a scale from 0 to 4, 22 selected items of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), covering the 6 following domains: learning and applying knowledge, general tasks and demands, communication, mobility, self-care, and interpersonal interactions and relationships. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the prevalence, severity and profile of the handicap in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and care pathways. Among 1572 eligible persons, 1267 (81%) were surveyed (mean age 62.7±20.4years; 655 males [51.7%]). Overall, 82% showed at least one activity limitation. For 52%, disability was severe or total for at least one ICF item. Prevalence of disabilities was higher for mobility (75%) and self-care domains (63%). Disability was strongly related to age: age older than 80years versus 18 to 44years (OR=12.8 95% CI 6.4-27.9]; P<0.01). Disability was associated with hospitalization in rehabilitation units (96%; OR=4.3 [95% CI 2.2-5.3]; P<0.01). Severe disability was associated with hospitalization in critical care units (OR=6.7 [CI 3.2-15.1]; P<0.001) and psychiatry units (OR=5.3 [CI 2.7-11.4]; P<0.001). Handicap was common in hospitalized persons, involving all 6 tested ICF activity domains, particularly mobility and self-care. This study alerts care givers, hospital administrators, and in general, people influencing health policies about the need to plan actions to reduce activity limitations of hospitalized persons, whatever the cause of the hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Stability and change in levels of depression and personality: a follow-up study of postpartum depressed mothers that were hospitalized in a mother-infant unit.

    PubMed

    Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick; Besser, Avi; Casalin, Sara; Kempke, Stefan; Tang, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the role of the personality dimensions of dependency and self-criticism in the course of depressive symptoms in a sample of inpatient severely postpartum depressed mothers (n = 55). Depressive symptoms and personality were measured during hospitalization and on average 3 1/2 years later. In line with previous research, a considerable subgroup of mothers (39%) reported moderate to severe symptoms of depression at time 2. In addition, although these mothers did not exhibit more depressive episodes during follow-up period compared with mothers with a less chronic course of depression, their depressive episodes were considerably longer, and they had higher levels of severity of depression as well as of dependency and self-criticism at Time 1. Finally, self-criticism, but not dependency, assessed at Time 1, predicted both depression diagnosis and levels of depression at follow-up, supporting a vulnerability model positing that self-criticism confers vulnerability for depression over time.

  12. Suicides among persons with psychiatric hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Goldberger, Nehama; Haklai, Ziona; Pugachova, Inna; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Persons with severe mental disorders have higher suicide rates than the general population. Their risk profile needs to be fully explored to better guide suicide preventive efforts. Downsizing the number of beds in psychiatric hospitals and high bed turnover may also affect the suicide risk. To investigate 1) Suicide rates among persons who were ever hospitalized in psychiatric facilities compared to the general population, 2) Associated sociodemographic and psychiatric factors, 3) Changes in rate over time, and 4) Timing of suicide deaths. We linked the National Psychiatric Case Register (NPCR) with the national database on causes of death. Suicides in the years 1981-2009 were analyzed for the study group of Israelis aged 18 and over ever hospitalized (N= 158,800). Suicide rates were computed by age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis and year of death, as well as agestandardized rates and rate ratios (RR) for persons in the NPCR compared with those never hospitalized. The proportion of suicides committed by the ever hospitalized from all suicides in the population was calculated. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide were computed for the ever hospitalized based on the total suicide rates of the population. A multivariate logistic model investigated risk factors associated with suicide in the ever-hospitalized population. The age-standardized suicide rate of Jews and Others with a psychiatric hospitalization was 17.6 times higher than that of the non-hospitalized (95% CI 16.7-18.6) and 29.7 times higher for Arabs (95% CI 23.4- 37.9). The rates were higher among females and younger persons. In the years 2007-2009, 30% of all suicides of Jews and Others were committed by persons who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. The SMRs of Jews and Others, which increased at the beginning of the study period, fell steadily until 1995. In recent years they have been rising since 2000 and 2005 among females and males, respectively. One fifth (19%) of suicides

  13. A new hospital general practice teaching unit.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, R G

    1991-05-06

    The formation of the latest General Practice Teaching Unit in an Australian hospital is part of a national trend to teach undergraduates and post-graduates about some parts of general practice using patients separated at triage from the accident and emergency departments. Planning this unit required much negotiating between several institutions and a set of guidelines on organisational relationships was created. Innovative features of the Modbury General Practice Teaching Unit include payment of teachers to attend compulsory medical education workshops, dividing the Family Medicine Programme trainee's time between the unit and a neighbouring practice and payment of non-academic general practitioner teachers by the South Australian Government, which eliminates the risk that service interferes with teaching. The Modbury General Practice Teaching Unit is currently the only hospital based unit of this kind in South Australia.

  14. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  15. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  16. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  17. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  18. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  19. Charity, Hospitality, and the Human Person.

    PubMed

    Agius, Mark; McKeever, Anna

    2017-09-01

    expression to thin imperative for Charity , and took this further to show how paintings of the Roman story see Pero, who secretly breastfeeds her father, Cimon, after he is incarcerated and sentenced to death by starvation, expresses the need for Charity as a 'giving of self' to others which can be explained by the embedded of the neural network for empathy in the human brain, closely linked with the sense of self. Finally, we moved to hospitality, most easily expressed among humans by the sharing of a meal. We showed the Confraternities of 'Our Lady of Charity' used paintings of the feast of the Marriage of Cana to express hospitality and their charitable work. We took the metaphor of sharing a meal further, and suggested that in paintings of the Trinity by Andrei Rublëv and the Supper of Emmeus by Caravaggio expressed that hospitality, as in sharing a meal, can link the human person to the Transendent ... perhaps through the mediation of the Neural system which expresses both sense of self and empathy. We concluded that 'In the consultation we should treat people as embodied spirits', and that 'Treating people as an embodied spirit - demands charity, in which we give of our own embodied spirit'.

  20. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515... Definitions § 515.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person...

  1. 31 CFR 500.330 - Person within the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 500... Definitions § 500.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term, person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person...

  2. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515... Definitions § 515.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person...

  3. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515... Definitions § 515.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person...

  4. 31 CFR 595.315 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person... General Definitions § 595.315 United States person; U.S. person. The term United States person or U.S. person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the...

  5. Hepatitis A hospitalizations in the United States, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Collier, Melissa G; Tong, Xin; Xu, Fujie

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis A illness severity increases with age. One indicator of hepatitis A illness severity is whether persons are hospitalized. We describe changes in primary hepatitis A hospitalization rates in the United States from 2002-2011, including changes in demographics, secondary discharge diagnoses, and factors affecting hospitalization duration. We describe changes from 2002-2011 among U.S. residents hospitalized with a principal hepatitis A diagnosis and accompanying secondary diagnoses using ICD-9 codes from the National Inpatient Survey discharge data. We calculated rates of hospitalizations with hepatitis A as the principal discharge diagnosis and rates of secondary discharge diagnoses. Using multiple regression, we assessed the effect of secondary diagnoses on hospitalization length of stay for five time intervals: 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011. Rates of hospitalization for hepatitis A as a principal diagnosis decreased from 0.72/100,000 to 0.29/100,000 (P < 0.0001) and mean age of those hospitalized increased from 37.6 years to 45.5 years (P < 0.0001) during 2002-2011. The percentage of hepatitis A hospitalizations covered by Medicare increased from 12.4% to 22.7% (P < 0.0001). Secondary comorbid discharge diagnoses increased, including liver disease, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, disorders of lipid metabolism, and chronic kidney disease. No changes in length-of-stay or in-hospital deaths from hepatitis A over time were found, but persons with liver disease were hospitalized longer. Hospitalization rates for hepatitis A illness have declined significantly from 2002-2011, but the characteristics of the hospitalized population also changed. Persons hospitalized for hepatitis A in recent years are older and more likely to have liver diseases and other comorbid medical conditions. Hepatitis A disease and resulting hospitalizations could be prevented through adult vaccination. © 2014 Published 2014. This article is a U

  6. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States. ...

  7. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  8. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  9. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  10. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  11. [24 hours at Johannesburg Hospital Trauma Unit].

    PubMed

    Østerballe, Lene; Asbury, Sarah; Boffard, Kenneth D

    2011-05-02

    This paper describes the hectic work as a doctor at the Trauma Unit of Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, a highly regarded and well-visited trauma unit worldwide. A trauma junior doctor is followed on a 24-hour-call through a full casualty to urgent operations and complicated postoperative management of the trauma patient. In a diary fashion the paper describes the evidence-based guidelines of management of certain trauma cases brought into the trauma unit during the 24-hour-shift.

  12. Hospital readmission from a transitional care unit.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mary Ann; Tyler, Denice; Helms, Lelia B; Hanson, Kathleen S; Sparbel, Kathleen J H

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to characterize patients readmitted to the hospital during a stay in a transitional care unit (TCUT). Typically, readmitted patients were females, widowed, with 8 medical diagnoses, and taking 12 different medications. Readmission from the TCU occurred within 7 days as a result of a newly developed problem. Most patients did not return home after readmission from the TCU. Understanding high-risk patients' characteristics that lead to costly hospital readmission during a stay in the TCU can assist clinicians and healthcare providers to plan and implement timely and effective interventions, and help facility personnel in fiscal and resource management issues.

  13. Patient safety in hospital acute care units.

    PubMed

    Blegen, Mary A

    2006-01-01

    The most visible threats to patient safety associated with nursing care occur on hospital inpatient units. Patient safety research is a new phenomenon, but it builds on the knowledge provided by quality-of-care research done previously. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the current state of the science in the area of nurse staffing and patient safety. The results of research studies published since the last round of reviews (1996-2005) are described by level of analysis, measures of nurse staffing and patient outcomes. Although research linking nurse staffing to the quality of patient care has increased markedly since 1996, the results of recent research projects do not yet provide a thorough and consistent foundation for producing solutions to the crisis in hospital nursing care. The inconsistencies are largely due to differing units of analysis (hospital, patient, care unit), variability in measures of nurse staffing, the variety of quality indicators chosen, the difficulty finding accurate measures of these indicators, and the difficulty creating risk-adjustment strategies for the indicators most sensitive to nursing care. Nursing administration and policy most urgently need research conducted with standardized data collected at the patient care unit level.

  14. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  15. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  16. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  17. Incidence and trends of blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Amy E; Younes, Naji; Steiner, Claudia A; Prevots, D Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We used the State Inpatient Databases from the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to provide state-specific age-adjusted blastomycosis-associated hospitalization incidence throughout the entire United States. Among the 46 states studied, states within the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys had the highest age-adjusted hospitalization incidence. Specifically, Wisconsin had the highest age-adjusted hospitalization incidence (2.9 hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years). Trends were studied in the five highest hospitalization incidence states. From 2000 to 2011, blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations increased significantly in Illinois and Kentucky with an average annual increase of 4.4% and 8.4%, respectively. Trends varied significantly by state. Overall, 64% of blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations were among men and the median age at hospitalization was 53 years. This analysis provides a complete epidemiologic description of blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations throughout the endemic area in the United States.

  18. Incidence and Trends of Blastomycosis-Associated Hospitalizations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Amy E.; Younes, Naji; Steiner, Claudia A.; Prevots, D. Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We used the State Inpatient Databases from the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to provide state-specific age-adjusted blastomycosis-associated hospitalization incidence throughout the entire United States. Among the 46 states studied, states within the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys had the highest age-adjusted hospitalization incidence. Specifically, Wisconsin had the highest age-adjusted hospitalization incidence (2.9 hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years). Trends were studied in the five highest hospitalization incidence states. From 2000 to 2011, blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations increased significantly in Illinois and Kentucky with an average annual increase of 4.4% and 8.4%, respectively. Trends varied significantly by state. Overall, 64% of blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations were among men and the median age at hospitalization was 53 years. This analysis provides a complete epidemiologic description of blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations throughout the endemic area in the United States. PMID:25126839

  19. Exploring the relationship between personal control and the hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anne M; Dawson, Sky; Kristjanson, Linda J

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the further development of the substantive theory Optimising Personal Control to Facilitate Emotional Comfort. In previous work, emotional comfort was identified as a therapeutic state that was influenced by several factors, one of which was the hospital environment. This paper focuses on aspects within the hospital environment that patients perceive to influence their feelings of personal control. A relationship between control and health has been discussed in previous literature. There are indications that aspects of the hospital environment can impact on a patient's perception of control. This project explored personal control in relation to the hospital environment from the perspective of patients. Grounded theory method was used. Data were collected from patients' interviews and field observations and analysed using the constant comparative method. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A qualitative data computer program was used to manage the data. The results confirmed the findings of the original study where hospitalised patients were found to experience feelings of reduced personal control. The conditions of level of security, level of knowing and level of personal value were described in terms of their contribution to the patient's feelings of personal control. Specific directions for further research into the development and evaluation of therapeutic hospital environments that promote personal control and the associated emotional comfort are provided. This research highlights the importance of considering patients' feelings of personal control during their hospital stay. Several directions for establishment of therapeutic environments within hospitals are provided, but more research in this area is recommended.

  20. Aspects of Fear of Personal Death, Levels of Awareness, and Professional Affiliation among Dialysis Unit Staff Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Lea; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined expressions of fear of personal death among physicians, nurses, and social workers working in hospital dialysis units. Results indicated no differences in fear of personal death between 71 dialysis personnel and 68 other hospital personnel serving as controls. Physicians had lowest scores of fear of personal death followed by nurses and…

  1. Aspects of Fear of Personal Death, Levels of Awareness, and Professional Affiliation among Dialysis Unit Staff Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Lea; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined expressions of fear of personal death among physicians, nurses, and social workers working in hospital dialysis units. Results indicated no differences in fear of personal death between 71 dialysis personnel and 68 other hospital personnel serving as controls. Physicians had lowest scores of fear of personal death followed by nurses and…

  2. Hospital Magnet Status, Unit Work Environment, and Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chenjuan; Park, Shin Hye

    2015-11-01

    To identify how organizational nursing factors at different structural levels (i.e., unit-level work environment and hospital Magnet status) are associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) in U.S. acute care hospitals. A cross-sectional observational study used data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators®. Responses from 33,845 registered nurses (RNs) were used to measure unit work environments. The unit of analysis was the nursing unit, and there were 1,381 units in 373 hospitals in the United States. Unit work environment was measured by the Practice Environment Scale of Nurse Working Index (PES-NWI). Multilevel logistic regressions were used to estimate the effects of unit work environment and hospital Magnet status on HAPUs. All models were controlled for hospital and unit characteristics when considering clustering of units within hospitals. Magnet hospital units had 21% lower odds of having an HAPU than non-Magnet hospital units (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.98). With one unit increase of the PES-NWI score, units had 29% lower odds of having an HAPU (95% CI, 0.55-0.91). When including both hospital Magnet status and unit work environment in the model, hospital Magnet status no longer had a significant effect on HAPUs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.02), whereas the significant effect of unit work environment persisted (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.93). Both hospital and unit environments were significantly associated with HAPUs, and the unit-level work environment can be more influential in reducing HAPUs. Investment in the nurse work environments at both the hospital level and unit level has the potential to reduce HAPUs; and additional to hospital-level initiatives (e.g., Magnet recognition program), efforts targeting on-unit work environments deserve more attention. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Congenital anomalies: hospitalization in a pediatric unit.

    PubMed

    Polita, Naiara Barros; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida P; de Moraes, Priscila Santa; Sant'Anna, Flávia Lopes; Tacla, Mauren Teresa G M

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the profile of children with congenital anomalies admitted to a pediatric unit. This is a quantitative and retrospective research. The sample consisted of records of children aged from 0 to 12 years old who were hospitalized in the pediatric unit of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Southern Brazil, from 2007 to 2009. Data were collected by chart review processed in the Epi-Info® program, and they were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. There were 282 first admissions of children with congenital anomalies. Of these, 130 (46.0%) required readmission totaling therefore 412 hospitalizations. The mean stay was three days. There was a male predominance, and the age range was from three to seven years old. The most frequent congenital anomalies were in the genital and urinary systems (19.6%), followed by cleft lip and palate (17.3%), and those of the circulatory system (16.2%). There were 269 surgical procedures to correct there anomalies. This study underscores the epidemiological importance of congenital malformations, highlighting the need to prevent and control the triggering factors.

  4. [User's arguments in the use of a hospital emergency unit].

    PubMed

    Martínez Sánchez, J; Portella Argelaguet, E; de Pascual Mettler, M

    1992-12-01

    300 cases admitted in a hospital Emergency Unit are studied, corresponding to two weeks of June 1989, with the aim to know user's characteristics and pathology shown. Through a survey addressed to the patient, or person accompanying him/her, it is intended to know the reasons which motivated the election of this type of service. Predominant pathology is the one which groups lesions and adverse effects (52%) and are younger age groups the ones who consult more frequently. Most part of patient (80%) show up with no previous inform or document and 89% of admitted patients were sent to their homes. Geographical proximity explains in most cases the election of the Emergency Unit. Reasons vary according to age, diagnostic and different circumstances. For example during morning hours, and among patients who attend based on their initiative, "familiarity" is the most important reason to adopt the decision to attend Emergency Unit.

  5. Social Determinants of Influenza Hospitalization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Sloan, Chantel; Mitchel, Edward; Ndi, Danielle; Alden, Nisha; Thomas, Ann; Bennett, Nancy M; Kirley, Pam D; Hill, Mary; Anderson, Evan J; Lynfield, Ruth; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Bargsten, Marisa; Zansky, Shelley M; Lung, Krista; Schroeder, Monica; Monroe, Maya; Eckel, Seth; Markus, Tiffanie M; Cummings, Charisse N; Garg, Shikha; Schaffner, William; Lindegren, Mary Lou

    2017-09-05

    Influenza hospitalizations result in substantial morbidity and mortality each year. Little is known about the association between influenza hospitalization and census tract-based socioeconomic determinants beyond the effect of individual factors. To evaluate if census tract-based determinants such as poverty and household crowding would contribute significantly to the risk of influenza hospitalization above and beyond individual level determinants. We analyzed 33,515 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations that occurred during the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 influenza seasons using a population-based surveillance system at 14 sites across the United States. Using a multilevel regression model, we found that individual factors were associated with influenza hospitalization with the highest adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 9.20 (95% CI 8.72-9.70) for those >=65 versus 5-17 years old. African Americans had an AOR of 1.67 (95% CI 1.60-1.73) compared to Whites, and Hispanics had an AOR of 1.21 (95% CI 1.16-1.26) compared to non-Hispanics. Among census tract-based determinants, those living in a tract with >=20% versus <5% of persons living below poverty had an AOR of 1.31 (95% CI 1.16-1.47), those living in a tract with >=5% versus <5% of persons living in crowded conditions had an AOR of 1.17 (95% CI 1.11-1.23) and those living in a tract with >=40% versus <5% female heads of household had an AOR of 1.32 (95% CI 1.25-1.40). Census tract-based determinants account for 11% of the variability in influenza hospitalization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. 31 CFR 547.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 547.312 Section 547.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.312 United States person; U.S. person. The term United...

  7. 42 CFR 412.22 - Excluded hospitals and hospital units: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Costs and Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.22 Excluded hospitals and hospital units: General...

  8. 42 CFR 412.22 - Excluded hospitals and hospital units: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Costs and Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.22 Excluded hospitals and hospital units: General...

  9. 42 CFR 412.22 - Excluded hospitals and hospital units: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Costs and Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.22 Excluded hospitals and hospital units: General...

  10. 42 CFR 412.22 - Excluded hospitals and hospital units: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Costs and Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.22 Excluded hospitals and hospital units: General...

  11. [Characteristics of Hospitalizations of Homeless Persons in Seville, Spain].

    PubMed

    Tornero Patricio, Sebastián; Fernández Ajuria, Alberto; Charris Castro, Liliana

    2016-02-10

    The aim was to determine the characteristics of hospital admissions of homeless persons in Seville, Spain. Observational study of 103,802 hospital admissions of 71,756 patients admitted in the Hospitals "Virgen del Rocío" and "Virgen Macarena" (Seville), in 2013 and 2014. Bivariate analysis were performed using χ2 and t-Student tests and multivariate analysis using binomial logistic regression model. 0.16% (n=163) of admissions were homeless persons and 99.84% (n=103,639) were not. The mean age at admission in homeless patients was 48 years and 76.5% of them were men. Hospital deaths of homeless patients occurred being 23 years younger. 92% of hospital admissions came from emergency departments and 10.0% of their discharges were against medical advice. The average length of stay was 4.8 days longer in homeless persons and the most frequent diagnoses on admission were mental (27.0%), infectious (19.6%) and respiratory diseases (18.4%). Mental disorders were present on 83.7% of homeless patients as secondary diagnose and 77.6% referred drugs consumption. Hospital admissions characteristics of homeless persons were particularly different. Homeless patients were hospitalized and died at a younger age than non-homeless patients. The morbidity and mortality of homeless persons reflect their vulnerable health condition.

  12. 26 CFR 1.957-3 - United States person defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false United States person defined. 1.957-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.957-3 United States person defined. (a) Basic rule—(1) In general. The term United States person has the same meaning for purposes...

  13. 26 CFR 1.957-3 - United States person defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false United States person defined. 1.957-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.957-3 United States person defined. (a) Basic rule—(1) In general. The term United States person has the same meaning for purposes...

  14. 31 CFR 103.39 - Person outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person outside the United States. 103... Person outside the United States. For the purposes of this subpart, a remittance or transfer of funds, or... the United States, shall be deemed to be a remittance or transfer to a person outside the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.957-3 - United States person defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true United States person defined. 1.957-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.957-3 United States person defined. (a) Basic rule—(1) In general. The term United States person has the same meaning for purposes...

  16. 26 CFR 1.957-3 - United States person defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false United States person defined. 1.957-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.957-3 United States person defined. (a) Basic rule—(1) In general. The term United States person has the same meaning for purposes...

  17. 26 CFR 1.957-3 - United States person defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States person defined. 1.957-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.957-3 United States person defined. (a) Basic rule—(1) In general. The term United States person has the same meaning for purposes of sections...

  18. Mobile phone use on a young person's unit.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jacquelyn; Finlay, Fiona; Baverstock, Anna

    2009-09-01

    To ascertain information about the use of mobile phones on a young person's hospital unit and to obtain the views of nursing staff and young people about the benefits of their use. A qualitative study using a pre-piloted questionnaire was given to 50 young people admitted consecutively to the young person's unit of district general hospital in a four-week period. A separate questionnaire was given to nine members of the nursing team over the same time period. Most young people had access to a mobile phone while on the ward. A total of 30 per cent were told they could use their phone, 75 per cent of those had made calls or sent texts while on the ward, 80 per cent had received calls or texts, and 20 per cent had used the ward phone at the nursing station. All staff agreed that it was helpful for young people to use their phones on the ward to keep in contact with friends and family, to avoid isolation and ease boredom. Young people have different social needs to younger children and appreciate the opportunity to use mobile phones. A more flexible approach should be adopted. The advantages of phone use clearly outweigh the risks.

  19. [Personality disorders in a psychiatric unit: retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Morón, D; Chinchilla Moreno, A

    1995-01-01

    From those patients who were admitted to the psychiatric in-patient unit of the Hospital Ramón y Cajal of Madrid across a period of eight years, those who received a diagnosis of personality disorder according to the axis II of DSM-III or DSM-III-R were selected. We analyzed the patterns of comorbidity between axis I and II, length of the admission, the percentage of readmissions and general variables as age and sex. 17.35% of the patients admitted for the first time and 27.03% of those readmitted received a clinical diagnosis of personality disorder. The most frequent disorders were: unspecified, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive and dependent. In the 93.81% of the patients admitted for the first time, comorbidity with axis I disorders was found. Cluster A personality disorders were most frequently associated to schizophrenia and delusional disorder, cluster B diagnoses with dystimia and alcohol-related problems and cluster C disorders with depression, dystimia and OCD. The cluster A was the one that presented more frequently without axis I comorbidity (14.28%). Cluster B disorders were associated with a shorter length of the admission but, as the unspecified personality disorder, were readmitted more frequently. We discuss the results and compare them with those obtained by other authors.

  20. 31 CFR 1010.440 - Person outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Person outside the United States. 1010... Maintained § 1010.440 Person outside the United States. For the purposes of this chapter, a remittance or... transfer, to be outside the United States, shall be deemed to be a remittance or transfer to a...

  1. 31 CFR 1010.440 - Person outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Person outside the United States. 1010... Maintained § 1010.440 Person outside the United States. For the purposes of this chapter, a remittance or... transfer, to be outside the United States, shall be deemed to be a remittance or transfer to a...

  2. Randomized trial of a patient-centered hospital unit.

    PubMed

    Martin, D P; Diehr, P; Conrad, D A; Davis, J H; Leickly, R; Perrin, E B

    1998-06-01

    Patient-centered hospital units have grown out of the national trend to greater consumerism, but few of these units have been evaluated rigorously. We used a randomized controlled trial to compare patient outcomes on the Planetree Model Hospital Unit with other medical-surgical units in the hospital. Planetree patients were significantly more satisfied than controls with their hospital stay, the unit's environment and nursing care, but did not differ in ratings of physician care. Planetree patients reported more involvement in their care while hospitalized and higher satisfaction with the education they received. There were few differences between Planetree and controls in health behaviors. While Planetree patients reported better mental health status and role functioning after discharge, their health status was similar to controls after 3 to 6 months. There were no differences in length of stay and charges for the index hospitalization, readmissions or outpatient care during the following year.

  3. Unit Cost of Medical Services at Different Hospitals in India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1 = INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates

  4. Investigation of Borderline Personality Disorder among Nonpsychotic, Involuntarily Hospitalized Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansone, Randy A.; Gage, Mark D.; Wiederman, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    Clients (N=32) who were involuntarily hospitalized in a psychiatric facility were assessed for borderline personality disorder (BPD) using an interview and two self-report questionnaires. The majority (53.1%) met criteria for BPD on all three measures, 18.8% on two measures, and 18.8% on only one measure. Implications of these findings are…

  5. Investigation of Borderline Personality Disorder among Nonpsychotic, Involuntarily Hospitalized Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansone, Randy A.; Gage, Mark D.; Wiederman, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    Clients (N=32) who were involuntarily hospitalized in a psychiatric facility were assessed for borderline personality disorder (BPD) using an interview and two self-report questionnaires. The majority (53.1%) met criteria for BPD on all three measures, 18.8% on two measures, and 18.8% on only one measure. Implications of these findings are…

  6. Hospital librarianship in the United States: at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Diane G; Chastain-Warheit, Christine C; Easterby-Gannett, Sharon; Chayes, Marion C; Long, Bradley A

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines recent developments in hospital librarianship in the United States, including the current status of hospital-based clinical library services. Several examples of hospital library services are presented that demonstrate some characteristics of struggling and thriving services. The implications of the informationist concept are considered. The continuation of the hospital librarian's primary role in support of patient care is explored, as core competencies are reexamined for relevancy in the new millennium.

  7. Hospital librarianship in the United States: at the crossroads

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Diane G.; Chastain-Warheit, Christine C.; Easterby-Gannett, Sharon; Chayes, Marion C.; Long, Bradley A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines recent developments in hospital librarianship in the United States, including the current status of hospital-based clinical library services. Several examples of hospital library services are presented that demonstrate some characteristics of struggling and thriving services. The implications of the informationist concept are considered. The continuation of the hospital librarian's primary role in support of patient care is explored, as core competencies are reexamined for relevancy in the new millennium. PMID:11838458

  8. Daptomycin Use in United States Children's Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Larru, Beatriz; Cowden, Carter L; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Gerber, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    We described 1035 pediatric hospitalizations with daptomycin use in 794 patients since 2004. Daptomycin use was uncommon but increased over time. A minority of hospitals accounted for the majority of use. This variability of daptomycin use highlights the need for future studies to assess the efficacy and safety of daptomycin in children.

  9. Observation units as substitutes for hospitalization or home discharge

    PubMed Central

    Blecker, Saul; Gavin, Nicholas; Park, Hannah; Ladapo, Joseph A.; Katz, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Observation unit admissions have been increasing, a trend which will likely continue due to recent changes in reimbursement policies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the availability of observation units on hospitalizations and discharges to home for emergency department (ED) patients. Methods We studied ED visits with a final diagnosis of chest pain in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2007-2010. ED visits that resulted in an observation unit admission were propensity-score matched to visits at hospitals without an observation unit. We used logistic regression to develop a prediction model for hospitalization versus discharge home for matched patients seen at non-observation hospitals. The model was applied to matched observation unit patients to determine the likely alternative disposition had the observation unit not been available. Results There were 1,325 eligible visits that represented 5,079,154 visits in the United States. Two hundred and twenty-seven visits resulted in an observation unit admission. The predictive model for hospitalization had a c-statistic of 0.91; variables significantly associated with subsequent hospitalization included age, history of coronary atherosclerosis, systolic blood pressure<115 and administration of antianginal medications. When the model was applied to matched observation unit patients, 49.9% of these patients were categorized as discharge home likely. Conclusions In this study, we estimated that half of ED visits for chest pain that resulted in an observation unit admission were made by patients who may have been discharged home had the observation unit not been available. Increased availability of observation units may result in both decreased hospitalizations as well as decreased discharges to home. PMID:26619756

  10. Sporotrichosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 2000–2013

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Jeremy A.W.; Derado, Gordana; Mody, Rajal K.

    2016-01-01

    To determine frequency and risk for sporotrichosis-associated hospitalizations, we analyzed the US 2000–2013 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. An estimated 1,471 hospitalizations occurred (average annual rate 0.35/1 million persons). Hospitalizations were associated with HIV/AIDS, immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although rare, severe sporotrichosis should be considered for at-risk patients. PMID:27648881

  11. Post-Hospital Medical Respite Care and Hospital Readmission of Homeless Persons

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Stefan G.; Posner, Michael A.; O’Connell, James J.; Swain, Stacy; Mullins, Ashley N.; Michael, Shwartz; Ash, Arlene S.

    2009-01-01

    Medical respite programs offer medical, nursing, and other care as well as accommodation for homeless persons discharged from acute hospital stays. They represent a community-based adaptation of urban health systems to the specific needs of homeless persons. This paper examines whether post-hospital discharge to a homeless medical respite program was associated with a reduced chance of 90-day readmission compared to other disposition options. Adjusting for imbalances in patient characteristics using propensity scores, Respite patients were the only group that was significantly less likely to be readmitted within 90 days compared to those released to Own Care. Respite programs merit attention as a potentially efficacious service for homeless persons leaving the hospital. PMID:19363773

  12. Post-hospital medical respite care and hospital readmission of homeless persons.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Stefan G; Posner, Michael A; O'Connell, James J; Swain, Stacy; Mullins, Ashley N; Shwartz, Michael; Ash, Arlene S

    2009-01-01

    Medical respite programs offer medical, nursing, and other care as well as accommodation for homeless persons discharged from acute hospital stays. They represent a community-based adaptation of urban health systems to the specific needs of homeless persons. This article examines whether post-hospital discharge to a homeless medical respite program was associated with a reduced chance of 90-day readmission compared to other disposition options. Adjusting for imbalances in patient characteristics using propensity scores, respite patients were the only group that was significantly less likely to be readmitted within 90 days compared to those released to Own Care. Respite programs merit attention as a potentially efficacious service for homeless persons leaving the hospital.

  13. How hospitals view unit-level nurse turnover data collection: analysis of a hospital survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Hye; Boyle, Diane K

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the quality of unit-level nurse turnover data collection among the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators hospitals and to identify the burdens of collecting such data. Tracking and managing nurse turnover at the unit level are critical for administrators who determine managerial strategies. Little is known about the quality of and burdens of unit-level turnover data collection. Surveys from 178 hospitals were analyzed descriptively. Most hospitals strongly agreed or agreed with the quality of unit-level turnover data collection. Hospitals identified the burdens of additional time and resources needed for unit-level turnover data collection and the difficulty of obtaining specific reasons for turnover. Collecting unit-level nurse turnover data can be important and useful for administrators to improve nurse retention, workforce stability, and quality of care. We suggest that the advantages of unit-level nurse turnover data and reports can overcome the identified burdens.

  14. 31 CFR 539.313 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE... under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or any person in the United States. ...

  15. 31 CFR 539.313 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL... laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or any person in the United States. ...

  16. 31 CFR 539.313 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL... laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or any person in the United States. ...

  17. Trends in hospitalization with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-United States, 1990-2005.

    PubMed

    Brown, David W; Croft, Janet B; Greenlund, Kurt J; Giles, Wayne H

    2010-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and a major cause of morbidity and disability. To update national estimates and examine trends for hospitalization with COPD between 1990 and 2005, we analyzed data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The results indicated that an estimated 715,000 hospitalizations with COPD, or 23.6 per 10,000 population, occurred during 2005, an increase in the number and the rate of COPD hospitalizations since 1990 (370,000 hospitalizations; rate = 15.9 per 10,000 population). To reverse increases in the number of COPD hospitalizations and decrease the burden of COPD, public health programs should continue focused efforts to reduce total personal exposure to tobacco smoke, including passive smoke exposure; to occupational dusts and chemicals; and to other indoor and outdoor air pollutants linked to COPD.

  18. Hospital preparedness for emergency response: United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    Niska, Richard W; Shimizu, Iris M

    2011-03-24

    This report is a summary of hospital preparedness for responding to public health emergencies, including mass casualties and epidemics of naturally occurring diseases such as influenza. Data are from an emergency response preparedness supplement to the 2008 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, which uses a national probability sample of nonfederal general and short-stay hospitals in the United States. Sample data were weighted to produce national estimates.

  19. Psychiatric rehospitalization among elderly persons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D; Akincigil, Ayse; Kalay, Ece; Walkup, James T; Hoover, Donald R; Lucas, Judith; Bowblis, John; Crystal, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    This study examined predictors of psychiatric rehospitalization among elderly persons. Readmission within six months of an index hospitalization was modeled by using Medicare data on all hospitalizations with a primary psychiatric diagnosis in the first half of 2002 (N=41,839). Data were linked with state and community-level information from the U.S. census. Twenty-two percent of beneficiaries were rehospitalized for psychiatric reasons within six months of discharge. After the analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors, readmission was most likely among persons with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia (hazard ratio [HR]=2.63), followed by bipolar disorder (HR=2.51), depression (HR=1.75), and substance abuse (HR=1.38) (reference group was "other" psychiatric conditions). A baseline hospital stay of five or more days for an affective disorder was associated with a reduced readmission hazard (HR=.68, relative to shorter stays), yet the opposite was true for a nonaffective disorder (HR=1.26). For persons with nonaffective disorders, an elevated hazard of readmission was associated with comorbid alcohol dependence (HR=1.32), panic disorder (HR=1.76), borderline personality disorder (HR=2.33), and drug dependence (HR=1.17). However, for persons with affective disorders, having a personality disorder other than borderline personality disorder or dependent personality disorder (HR=1.27) and having an "other" anxiety disorder (HR=1.15) were significantly associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization. Obsessive-compulsive disorder increased the readmission hazard in both groups. Readmission risk factors may differ for affective disorders and nonaffective disorders. Very short hospitalizations were associated with increased risk of rehospitalization among persons with an affective disorder, which underscores the need for adequate stabilization of this group of patients during hospitalization. Results also highlight the specific types of comorbidities associated

  20. Efficiency of federal hospitals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jeffrey P; Coppola, M Nicholas; Wakefield, Mark

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluates the technical efficiency of federal hospitals in the United States using a variable returns to scale, input-oriented, data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology. Hospital executives, health care policy-makers, taxpayers, and other stakeholders, benefit from studies that improve the efficiency of federal hospitals. Data for 280 federal hospitals in 1998 and 245 in 2001 were analyzed using DEA to measure hospital efficiency. Results indicate overall efficiency in federal hospitals improved from 68% in 1998 to 79% in 2001. However, based upon 2001 spending of $42.5 billion for federal hospitals potential savings of $2.0 billion annually are possible through more efficient management of resources. From a policy perspective, this study highlights the importance of establishing more specific policies to address inefficiency in the federal health care industry.

  1. An isolation unit in a district general hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, D A; Stephany, J; Larson, H E; Blowers, R

    1977-01-01

    The working of a 19-bed isolation unit in a general hospital was studied from August 1975 to July 1976. A few patients received the highest degree of isolation, but infections in all categories were contained and patients at risk in the same unit were protected from infection. PMID:890303

  2. Personal response systems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, C

    1992-01-01

    In summation, although Personal Response Systems are relatively new in the marketplace they have made tremendous inroads over the past fifteen years. The next decade presents some difficult problems for this country in terms of its aging population and the delivery of quality, cost effective health care to all who need it. In light of these problems, the PRS industry can offer viable solutions-solutions for the U.S. health care system in helping to control and reduce the cost of health care delivery; solutions for industry in attempting to meet their employee health care needs; solutions for families who are coping with the strains of eldercare; and most important, solutions for many people who, regardless of age, could not live independently without a Personal Response System.

  3. Characteristics of inpatient psychiatric units in small rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hartley, David; Loux, Stephenie; Gale, John; Lambert, David; Yousefian, Anush

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated inpatient psychiatric units in small rural hospitals to determine their characteristics, the availability of community-based services after discharge, and the impact of the new Medicare payment system on these units. Unit managers in all rural hospitals with fewer than 50 beds that had a psychiatric unit in 2006 (N=74) were surveyed on the telephone. On average these units had ten beds and 230 admissions per year. Medicare was the major payer (median of 84%). Typical staffing includes no more than one staff member from each category: psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, counselor or therapist, and nurse practitioner. Common diagnoses reported were depression (74% of units), schizophrenia or other psychoses (42% of units), and dementia or Alzheimer's disease (57% of units). Hospital staff reported little difficulty obtaining postdischarge care, and most staff clinicians provided outpatient services locally. Thus mental health services infrastructure appears better in these communities than in most rural communities, but it may be weakened by recent closures reported by some units, caused, in part, by changes in Medicare reimbursement.

  4. Antipsychotic prescription and mortality in hospitalized older persons.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Deborah; Marengoni, Alessandra; Nobili, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Mauro; Pasina, Luca; Franchi, Carlotta; Djade, Codjo D; Corrao, Salvatore; Salerno, Francesco; Marcucci, Maura; Romanelli, Giuseppe; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2017-06-06

    Recent scientific reports have shown that older persons treated with antipsychotics for dementia-related behavioural symptoms have increased mortality. However, the impact of these drugs prescribed during hospitalization has rarely been assessed. We aimed to investigate whether antipsychotics are associated with an increased risk of mortality during hospitalization and at 3-month follow-up in elderly inpatients. We analyzed data gathered during two waves (2010 and 2012) by the REPOSI (Registro Politerapie Società Italiana Medicina Interna). All new prescriptions of antipsychotic drugs during hospitalization, whether maintained or discontinued at discharge, were collected, and logistic regression models were used to analyze their association with in-hospital and 3-month mortality. Covariates were age, sex, the Short Blessed Test (SBT) score, and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Among 2703 patients included in the study, 135 (5%) received new prescriptions for antipsychotic drugs. The most frequently prescribed antipsychotic during hospitalization and eventually maintained at discharge was haloperidol (38% and 36% of cases, respectively). Patients newly prescribed with antipsychotics were older and had a higher Cumulative Illness Rating Scale comorbidity index both at admission and at discharge compared to those who did not receive a prescription. Of those prescribed antipsychotics, 71% had an SBT score ≥10 (indicative of dementia), 12% had an SBT score of 5-9 (indicative of questionable dementia); and 17% had an SBT score <5 (indicative of normal cognition). In-hospital mortality was slightly higher in patients prescribed antipsychotic drugs (14.3% vs 9.4%; P = 0.109), but in multivariate analysis only male sex, older age, and higher SBT scores were significantly related to mortality during hospitalization. At 3-month follow-up, only male sex, older age, and higher SBT scores were associated with mortality. We found that the prescription of antipsychotic

  5. Mobility decline in patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Fábio Santos; Paim, Daniel de Macedo; Brito, Juliana de Oliveira; Barros, Idiel de Araujo; Nogueira, Thiago Barbosa; Martinez, Bruno Prata; Pires, Thiago Queiroz

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the variation in mobility during hospitalization in an intensive care unit and its association with hospital mortality. Methods This prospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit. The inclusion criteria included patients admitted with an independence score of ≥ 4 for both bed-chair transfer and locomotion, with the score based on the Functional Independence Measure. Patients with cardiac arrest and/or those who died during hospitalization were excluded. To measure the loss of mobility, the value obtained at discharge was calculated and subtracted from the value obtained on admission, which was then divided by the admission score and recorded as a percentage. Results The comparison of these two variables indicated that the loss of mobility during hospitalization was 14.3% (p < 0.001). Loss of mobility was greater in patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours in the intensive care unit (p < 0.02) and in patients who used vasopressor drugs (p = 0.041). However, the comparison between subjects aged 60 years or older and those younger than 60 years indicated no significant differences in the loss of mobility (p = 0.332), reason for hospitalization (p = 0.265), SAPS 3 score (p = 0.224), use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.117), or hospital mortality (p = 0.063). Conclusion There was loss of mobility during hospitalization in the intensive care unit. This loss was greater in patients who were hospitalized for more than 48 hours and in those who used vasopressors; however, the causal and prognostic factors associated with this decline need to be elucidated. PMID:27410406

  6. Hospital markup and operation outcomes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gani, Faiz; Ejaz, Aslam; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-07-01

    Although the price hospitals charge for operations has broad financial implications, hospital pricing is not subject to regulation. We sought to characterize national variation in hospital price markup for major cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal operations and to evaluate perioperative outcomes of hospitals relative to hospital price markup. All hospitals in which a patient underwent a cardiothoracic or gastrointestinal procedure were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2012. Markup ratios (ratio of charges to costs) for the total cost of hospitalization were compared across hospitals. Risk-adjusted morbidity, failure-to-rescue, and mortality were calculated using multivariable, hierarchical logistic regression. Among the 3,498 hospitals identified, markup ratios ranged from 0.5-12.2, with a median markup ratio of 2.8 (interquartile range 2.7-3.9). For the 888 hospitals with extreme markup (greatest markup ratio quartile: markup ratio >3.9), the median markup ratio was 4.9 (interquartile range 4.3-6.0), with 10% of these hospitals billing more than 7 times the Medicare-allowable costs (markup ratio ≥7.25). Extreme markup hospitals were more often large (46.3% vs 33.8%, P < .001), urban, nonteaching centers (57.0% vs 37.9%, P < .001), and located in the Southern (46.4% vs 32.8%, P < .001) or Western (27.8% vs 17.6%, P < .001) regions of the United States. Of the 639 investor-owned, for-profit hospitals, 401 hospitals (62.8%) had an extreme markup ratio compared with 19.3% (n = 452) and 6.8% (n = 35) of nonprofit and government hospitals, respectively. Perioperative morbidity (32.7% vs 26.4%, P < .001) was greater at extreme markup hospitals. There is wide variation in hospital markup for cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal procedures, with approximately a quarter of hospital charges being 4 times greater than the actual cost of hospitalization. Hospitals with an extreme markup had greater perioperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016

  7. Acute Surgical Unit at Auckland City Hospital: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsee, Li; Devaud, Marcelo; Middelberg, Lisa; Jones, Wayne; Civil, Ian

    2012-09-01

    Lack of timely assessment and access to acute operating rooms is a worldwide problem and also exists in New Zealand hospitals. To address these issues, an Acute Surgical Unit (ASU) was set up at Auckland City Hospital (ACH) in January 2009. This service has evolved and been modified to address the specific needs of acute surgical patients of ACH. Despite initial challenges inherent to setting up a new service, the Unit has been in steady operation and enhanced its performance over time. This paper is a descriptive analysis of the design of the ACH ASU and discusses some of the indications for streamlining acute surgical services at a large tertiary metropolitan hospital in New Zealand. Performance of the ASU has shown benefits for acute patients and the Hospital. The acute surgical rotation has also been beneficial for surgical training.

  8. Influenza-Related Hospitalizations and Poverty Levels - United States, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Hadler, James L; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Pérez, Alejandro; Anderson, Evan J; Bargsten, Marisa; Bohm, Susan R; Hill, Mary; Hogan, Brenna; Laidler, Matt; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lung, Krista L; Mermel, Elizabeth; Miller, Lisa; Morin, Craig; Parker, Erin; Zansky, Shelley M; Chaves, Sandra S

    2016-02-12

    Annual influenza vaccine is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months in the United States, with recognition that some persons are at risk for more severe disease (1). However, there might be previously unrecognized demographic groups that also experience higher rates of serious influenza-related disease that could benefit from enhanced vaccination efforts. Socioeconomic status (SES) measures that are area-based can be used to define demographic groups when individual SES data are not available (2). Previous surveillance data analyses in limited geographic areas indicated that influenza-related hospitalization incidence was higher for persons residing in census tracts that included a higher percentage of persons living below the federal poverty level (3-5). To determine whether this association occurs elsewhere, influenza hospitalization data collected in 14 FluSurv-NET sites covering 27 million persons during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 influenza seasons were analyzed. The age-adjusted incidence of influenza-related hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years in high poverty (≥20% of persons living below the federal poverty level) census tracts was 21.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.7-22.4), nearly twice the incidence in low poverty (<5% of persons living below the federal poverty level) census tracts (10.9, 95% CI: 10.3-11.4). This relationship was observed in each surveillance site, among children and adults, and across racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that persons living in poorer census tracts should be targeted for enhanced influenza vaccination outreach and clinicians serving these persons should be made aware of current recommendations for use of antiviral agents to treat influenza (6).

  9. Delirium in Prolonged Hospitalized Patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Vahedian Azimi, Amir; Ebadi, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Saadat, Soheil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prolonged hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) can impose long-term psychological effects on patients. One of the most significant psychological effects from prolonged hospitalization is delirium. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prolonged hospitalization of patients and subsequent delirium in the intensive care unit. Patients and Methods: This conventional content analysis study was conducted in the General Intensive Care Unit of the Shariati Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from the beginning of 2013 to 2014. All prolonged hospitalized patients and their families were eligible participants. From the 34 eligible patients and 63 family members, the final numbers of actual patients and family members were 9 and 16, respectively. Several semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with patients and their families in a private room and data were gathered. Results: Two main themes from two different perspectives emerged, 'patients' perspectives' (experiences during ICU hospitalization) and 'family members' perspectives' (supportive-communicational experiences). The main results of this study focused on delirium, Patients' findings were described as pleasant and unpleasant, factual and delusional experiences. Conclusions: Family members are valuable components in the therapeutic process of delirium. Effective use of family members in the delirium caring process can be considered to be one of the key non-medical nursing components in the therapeutic process. PMID:26290854

  10. Nurse stress in hospital and satellite haemodialysis units.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Kirsten; Bennett, Paul N

    2008-03-01

    To explore nurse stress in both in-centre hospital haemodialysis and satellite haemodialysis unit in an Australian city's health service. Focus groups from both in-centre and satellite dialysis units were undertaken followed by questionnaires generated by the focus group data. In-centre nursing staff rated the busyness of the unit as the maximum stress and stated that they felt this high level of stress on a daily basis. The most notable stressor for the staff at the satellite unit related to patient behaviour and the perceived unrealistic expectations of the patient followed by patients arriving unwell at the unit. Nurses suffer stress on a daily basis in both in-centre and satellite dialysis units. The major stressors differ from in-centre to satellite dialysis units.

  11. Bioterrorism and mass casualty preparedness in hospitals: United States, 2003.

    PubMed

    Niska, Richard W; Burt, Catharine W

    2005-09-27

    This study examined the content of hospital terrorism preparedness emergency response plans; whether those plans had been updated since September 11, 2001; collaboration of hospitals with outside organizations; clinician training in the management of biological, chemical, explosive, and nuclear exposures; drills on the response plans; and equipment and bed capacity. The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) is an annual survey of a probability sample of approximately 500 non-Federal general and short-stay hospitals in the United States. A Bioterrorism and Mass Casualty Supplement was included in the 2003 survey and provided the data for this analysis. Almost all hospitals have plans for responding to natural disasters (97.3 percent). Most have plans for responding to chemical (85.5 percent), biological (84.8 percent), nuclear or radiological (77.2 percent), and explosive incidents (76.9 percent). About three-quarters of hospitals were integrated into community-wide disaster plans (76.4 percent), and 75.9 percent specifically reported a cooperative planning process with other local health care facilities. Despite these plans, only 46.1 percent reported written memoranda of understanding with these facilities to accept inpatients during a declared disaster. Hospitals varied widely in their plans for re-arranging schedules and space in the event of a disaster. Training for hospital incident command and smallpox, anthrax, chemical, and radiological exposures was ahead of training for other infectious diseases. The percentage of hospitals training their staff in any exposure varied from 92.1 percent for nurses to 49.2 percent for medical residents. Drills for natural disasters occurred more often than those for chemical, biological, explosive, nuclear, and epidemic incidents. More hospitals staged drills for biological attacks than for severe epidemics. Despite explosions being the most common form of terrorism, drills for these were staged by only

  12. 31 CFR 593.313 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 593.313 Section 593.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR...

  13. 31 CFR 542.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 542.312 Section 542.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 542.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 542.312 Section 542.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 542.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 542.312 Section 542.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 542.319 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 542.319 Section 542.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 542.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 542.312 Section 542.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 548.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 548.312 Section 548.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 548.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 548.312 Section 548.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 548.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 548.312 Section 548.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 548.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 548.312 Section 548.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 548.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 548.312 Section 548.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 586.319 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 586.319 Section 586.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  4. 31 CFR 587.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 587.312 Section 587.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  5. 31 CFR 549.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 549.312 Section 549.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  6. 31 CFR 592.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 592.312 Section 592.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 592.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 592.312 Section 592.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 592.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 592.312 Section 592.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 592.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 592.312 Section 592.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 592.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 592.312 Section 592.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  11. 31 CFR 543.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 543.312 Section 543.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 536.316 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 536.316 Section 536.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 536.316 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 536.316 Section 536.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 536.316 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 536.316 Section 536.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 536.316 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 536.316 Section 536.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 536.316 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 536.316 Section 536.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 558.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 558.311 Section 558.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 594.315 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 594.315 Section 594.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 594.315 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 594.315 Section 594.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 552.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 552.311 Section 552.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  1. 31 CFR 552.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 552.311 Section 552.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  2. 31 CFR 545.315 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 545.315 Section 545.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN)...

  3. 31 CFR 562.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 562.311 Section 562.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  4. 31 CFR 562.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 562.311 Section 562.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  5. 31 CFR 562.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 562.311 Section 562.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  6. 31 CFR 562.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 562.311 Section 562.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  7. 31 CFR 510.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 510.311 Section 510.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  8. 31 CFR 510.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 510.311 Section 510.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  9. 31 CFR 510.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 510.311 Section 510.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  10. 31 CFR 510.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 510.311 Section 510.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  11. 31 CFR 551.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 551.311 Section 551.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 551.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 551.311 Section 551.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 551.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 551.311 Section 551.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 551.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 551.311 Section 551.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 551.311 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 551.311 Section 551.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS...

  16. Paying the Hospital: Foreign Lessons For the United States

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, William A.

    1983-01-01

    This special report synthesizes the findings of a Health Care Financing Administration grant which allowed the author to analyze hospital finance in six foreign countries and in the United States. The author identified the principal problems facing hospital owners, carriers, and governments in the United States, and he conducted lengthy field work abroad to learn how each country dealt with the same problems. One set of the author's conclusions makes more clear issues that are debated in the United States, such as the meaning of “cost-based reimbursement” and “prospective reimbursement”. Some of the author's findings show the difficulty of implementing policies often proposed in the United States, such as incentive reimbursement schemes. Other findings of the author show the conditions necessary for cost containment, such as strong representation of consumers and firm political will by government. PMID:10310003

  17. Hospital Utilization and Cost Trends in Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ronald; Hull, John T.

    1969-01-01

    Differences in hospital costs and utilization between the United States and Canada are analyzed and an attempt made to measure the significance of various demographic, economic, and other factors thought to be related to the differences. Increases in utilization are traced to population increases and to actual increased use per person; and cost increases tied to general inflationary trends are separated from those attributable to specific hospital price increases. Differences in the financing and reimbursement mechanisms in the two countries are shown to have had little effect on relative cost increases, which in the period under consideration were parallelled by similar or greater increases in other industrialized nations. PMID:4981616

  18. 38 CFR 17.43 - Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care. 17.43 Section 17.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.43 Persons entitled to hospital...

  19. 38 CFR 17.43 - Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care. 17.43 Section 17.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.43 Persons entitled to hospital...

  20. 38 CFR 17.43 - Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care. 17.43 Section 17.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.43 Persons entitled to hospital...

  1. 38 CFR 17.43 - Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care. 17.43 Section 17.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.43 Persons entitled to hospital...

  2. 38 CFR 17.43 - Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care. 17.43 Section 17.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.43 Persons entitled to hospital...

  3. Safety organizing, emotional exhaustion, and turnover in hospital nursing units.

    PubMed

    Vogus, Timothy J; Cooil, Bruce; Sitterding, Mary; Everett, Linda Q

    2014-10-01

    Prior research has found that safety organizing behaviors of registered nurses (RNs) positively impact patient safety. However, little research exists on how engaging in safety organizing affects caregivers. While we know that organizational processes can have divergent effects on organizational and employee outcomes, little research exists on the effects of pursuing highly reliable performance through safety organizing on caregivers. Specifically, we examined whether, and the conditions under which, safety organizing affects RN emotional exhaustion and nursing unit turnover rates. Subjects included 1352 RNs in 50 intensive care, internal medicine, labor, and surgery nursing units in 3 Midwestern acute-care hospitals who completed questionnaires between August and December 2011 and 50 Nurse Managers from the units who completed questionnaires in December 2012. Cross-sectional analyses of RN emotional exhaustion linked to survey data on safety organizing and hospital incident reporting system data on adverse event rates for the year before survey administration. Cross-sectional analysis of unit-level RN turnover rates for the year following the administration of the survey linked to survey data on safety organizing. Multilevel regression analysis indicated that safety organizing was negatively associated with RN emotional exhaustion on units with higher rates of adverse events and positively associated with RN emotional exhaustion with lower rates of adverse events. Tobit regression analyses indicated that safety organizing was associated with lower unit level of turnover rates over time. Safety organizing is beneficial to caregivers in multiple ways, especially on nursing units with high levels of adverse events and over time.

  4. Women in hospital medicine: facts, figures and personal experiences.

    PubMed

    Meghen, K; Sweeney, C; Linehan, C; O'Flynn, S; Boylan, G

    2013-02-01

    Although females represent a high proportion of medical graduates, women are under represented at consultant level in many hospital specialties. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken which established female representation at all levels of the medical workforce in Ireland in 2011 and documented the personal experiences of a sample of female specialists. The proportions of female trainees at initial and higher specialist training levels are 765 (53%) and 656 (55%) respectively but falls to 1,685 (32%) at hospital specialist level (p < 0.0001). Significantly fewer women are found at specialist as compared to training levels in anaesthesia (p = 0.04), emergency medicine (p = 0.02), medicine (p < 0.0001), obstetrics/gynaecology (p = 0.0005), paediatrics (p = 0.006), pathology p = 0.03) and surgery (p < 0.0001). The lowest proportion of female doctors at specialist level exists in the combined surgical specialties 88 (10%); the highest is in psychiatry 380 (53%). Qualitative findings indicate that females who complete specialist training are wary of pursuing either flexible training or part time work options and experience discrimination at a number of levels. They appear to be resilient to this and tolerate it. Balancing motherhood and work commitments is the biggest challenge faced by female doctors with children and causes some to change career pathways.

  5. [Personalized nursing care and perceived quality of care in hospitals].

    PubMed

    García Juárez, M A Del Rosario; López Alonso, Sergio R; Orozco Cózar, M A José; Caro Quesada, Raimundo; Ramos Osquet, Gádor; Márquez Borrego, M A José; Cano Antelo, M A Dolores; Serrano Pedrero, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between the Primary Nursing Model and perceived quality of care. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study in four hospital wards with Primary Nursing organization. Over a 12-month period, all the patients discharged from each ward were included in this study. The degree of development of Primary Nursing was measured by using the Personalization of Nursing Care Index and the perceived quality of care was measured with the LOPSS-12. Bivariate statistical analysis was carried out through ANOVA and Student's t-tests. Multivariate linear regression analysis was then applied to correlated variables (p < 0.05). 817 patients were included, 447 from two medical wards and 370 from two surgical wards. After a preliminary data analysis performed 6 months after the start of the study, four items were removed from the LOPSS-12 and each of the remaining items were analyzed separately. Scores for both patient satisfaction and the introduction of the Primary Nursing Model were higher in the surgical wards. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) association between implantation of the model and all except one of the items included in the questionnaire. The introduction of the Primary Nursing Model in hospital wards allows the presence of a primary nurse for each patient and consequently improves the nurse-patient relationship, increasing perceived quality of care among patients. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of a person-centred psychosocial unit climate on satisfaction with care and work.

    PubMed

    Lehuluante, Abraraw; Nilsson, Anita; Edvardsson, David

    2012-04-01

    To describe nurses' satisfaction with care and work and to explore the extent to which a person-centred unit climate influenced this satisfaction. Although the concept of person-centred care is used to describe high-quality care, there is a shortage of studies exploring the relationship between person-centredness and nurses' satisfaction with care and work in acute care settings. Registered nurses within a university hospital in Sweden (n = 206) completed the Satisfaction with Nursing Care and Work Assessment Scale and the Person-centred Climate Questionnaire. The data collected was analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Cross-sectional explorative study. The majority of respondents were satisfied with the care and work situation. Nurses with more than 9 years of work experience were more satisfied with care and work, and there were a significant association between a person-centred psychosocial climate of units and nurses' satisfaction with care and work. This study provided evidence for a significant association between person-centredness and the satisfaction with care and work of nurses in acute care environments. Promoting and implementing a person-centred philosophy of care can be one way to improve nurses' satisfaction with care and work. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Decommissioning of a 60Co unit and estimation of personal doses.

    PubMed

    Lin, K H; Lin, J P; Liu, M T; Chu, T C

    2003-01-01

    Chang-hua Christian Hospital needs to uninstall the 60Co unit. The mode of this 60Co teletherapy unit is SHIMADZU RTGS-10. The original lead head was taken as the source container of this 60Co unit. The source head was dismantled and put into the prepared wooden box, after the source was sealed. This study describes the planning and dismantling of the retirement and transport of the 60Co unit, and personal doses measured during the procedure. This work estimates the doses of radiation received by exposed workers during the dismantling of the machine. The workers received doses of approximately 53 microSv. This study shows that the original lead head can be used as the source container of this 60Co unit. The 60Co machine was smoothly dismantled and transported by conscientious and careful workers, using planned and controlled radiation protection, following the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) rule.

  8. [Probabilistic models of mortality for patients hospitalized in conventional units].

    PubMed

    Rué, M; Roqué, M; Solà, J; Macià, M

    2001-09-29

    We have developed a tool to measure disease severity of patients hospitalized in conventional units in order to evaluate and compare the effectiveness and quality of health care in our setting. A total of 2,274 adult patients admitted consecutively to inpatient units from the Medicine, Surgery and Orthopaedic Surgery, and Trauma Departments of the Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí of Sabadell, Spain, between November 1, 1997 and September 30, 1998 were included. The following variables were collected: demographic data, previous health state, substance abuse, comorbidity prior to admission, characteristics of the admission, clinical parameters within the first 24 hours of admission, laboratory results and data from the Basic Minimum Data Set of hospital discharges. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to develop mortality probability models during the hospital stay. The mortality probability model at admission (MPMHOS-0) contained 7 variables associated with mortality during hospital stay: age, urgent admission, chronic cardiac insufficiency, chronic respiratory insufficiency, chronic liver disease, neoplasm, and dementia syndrome. The mortality probability model at 24-48 hours from admission (MPMHOS-24) contained 9 variables: those included in the MPMHOS-0 plus two statistically significant laboratory variables: hemoglobin and creatinine. Severity measures, in particular those presented in this study, can be helpful for the interpretation of hospital mortality rates and can guide mortality or quality committees at the time of investigating health care-related problems.

  9. Emergency department transfers and transfer relationships in United States hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Dana R; Mutter, Ryan L; Houchens, Robert L; Barrett, Marguerite L; Pines, Jesse M

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to describe transfers out of hospital-based emergency departments (EDs) in the United States and to identify different characteristics of sending and receiving hospitals, travel distance during transfer, disposition on arrival to the second hospital, and median number of transfer partners among sending hospitals. Emergency department records were linked at transferring hospitals to ED and inpatient records at receiving hospitals in nine U.S. states using the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Emergency Department Databases and State Inpatient Databases, the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, and the Trauma Information Exchange Program. Using the Clinical Classification Software (CCS) to categorize conditions, the 50 disease categories with the highest transfer rates were studied, and these were then placed into nine clinical groups. Records were included where both sending and receiving records were available; these data were tabulated to describe ED transfer patterns, hospital-to-hospital distances, final patient disposition, and number of transfer partners. A total of 97,021 ED transfer encounters were included in the analysis from the 50 highest transfer rate disease categories. Among these, transfer rates ranged from 1% to 13%. Circulatory conditions made up about half of all transfers. Receiving hospitals were more likely to be nonprofit, teaching, trauma, and urban and have more beds with greater specialty coverage and more advanced diagnostic and therapeutic resources. The median transfer distance was 23 miles, with 25% traveling more than 40 to 50 miles. About 8% of transferred encounters were discharged from the second ED, but that varied from 0.6% to 53% across the 50 conditions. Sending hospitals had a median of seven transfer partners across all conditions and between one and four per clinical group. Among high-transfer conditions in U.S. EDs, patients are often transferred great distances, more

  10. An inexpensive, interdisciplinary, methodology to conduct an impact study of homeless persons on hospital based services.

    PubMed

    Parker, R David; Regier, Michael; Brown, Zachary; Davis, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Homelessness is a primary concern for community health. Scientific literature on homelessness is wide ranging and diverse. One opportunity to add to existing literature is the development and testing of affordable, easily implemented methods for measuring the impact of homeless on the healthcare system. Such methodological approaches rely on the strengths in a multidisciplinary approach, including providers, both healthcare and homeless services and applied clinical researchers. This paper is a proof of concept for a methodology which is easily adaptable nationwide, given the mandated implementation of homeless management information systems in the United States and other countries; medical billing systems by hospitals; and research methods of researchers. Adaptation is independent of geographic region, budget restraints, specific agency skill sets, and many other factors that impact the application of a consistent methodological science based approach to assess and address homelessness. We conducted a secondary data analysis merging data from homeless utilization and hospital case based data. These data detailed care utilization among homeless persons in a small, Appalachian city in the United States. In our sample of 269 persons who received at least one hospital based service and one homeless service between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013, the total billed costs were $5,979,463 with 10 people costing more than one-third ($1,957,469) of the total. Those persons were primarily men, living in an emergency shelter, with pre-existing disabling conditions. We theorize that targeted services, including Housing First, would be an effective intervention. This is proposed in a future study.

  11. [Development of performance measure indicators in hospital nursing units].

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeong-Hwa; Kim, In-Sook

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units based on a Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This study was a methodological study. The development process consisted of 3 stages. The first stage was setting up strategies for nursing units from a nursing department's mission and vision. The second stage was developing performance measure indicators after a validity check. The third stage was modifying developed performance measure indicators and classifying them. 7 strategies were set up according to 4 perspectives of a BSC. 15 performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units were developed, and the indicators were divided into 8 independent indicators and 7 shared indicators according to the degree of performance responsibility. In addition, they were classified into two groups, 7 leading indicators and lagging indicators. The result of this study suggests that performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units provide a framework and method for nursing organizations' performance management. Also, the developed indicators are expected to provide valuable information for successful organization management.

  12. [Study of the work climate in four critical care units in a hospital].

    PubMed

    Gámez Perales, M; Santano Magariño, A; Matías Benayas, S; Roca Sánchez, S; Tomey Soria, M J

    1999-01-01

    A study was made of the work climate, which was understood to be the overall group of factors that influence nursing professionals in critical-care units. A descriptive study was made by carrying out an anonymous survey among the staff of four adult critical-care units: intensive care unit, coronary unit, reanimation unit, and cardiac postoperative care unit. The survey included seven factors: occupational satisfaction, occupational stress, occupational pressures, work relations, professional skills, professional training, and sociodemographic variables. Of 132 questionnaires completed, 80% of the persons who answered accepted their tasks, but only 51% indicated that they planned to continue in the critical-care unit. Sixty percent of the persons surveyed indicated that their work was stressful and that they felt physically fatigued as the workday progressed. Similarly, 60% reported that their work sometimes had a negative impact on family life and 35% indicated that it affected their health. Relations among members of the health-care team were reported as good by 90%. Seventy-five percent were capable of working independently and resolving situations at their own initiative. Ninety-five percent of the persons who completed the survey considered the possibilities for professional advancement to be scant and 88% were interested in the development of specialization. It was interesting that one third of the persons in the sample wanted to leave the hospital. Unit ergonomics had a negative effect on work activities. Staff felt a lack of information in spite of good relations with superiors and other team members. They felt the need for more social and professional recognition, as well as better economic remuneration, but they expected specialization to palliate these needs to some degree.

  13. Expectations of relatives of Syrian patients in intensive care units in a state hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sevinç, Sibel; Ajghif, Mohammad; Uzun, Özge; Gülbil, Uğur

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the personal experiences of relatives of Syrian patients in the intensive care unit in one hospital in Turkey. The concept of the intensive care unit can be particularly frightening for family members. Current recommendations for training Intensive care unit nurses should support a holistic approach to patient (and family) care, including explanations at a level that families can easily understand and allowing family members to see the patient at regular intervals. This qualitative study was conducted between June and August 2014 and included a study sample of 30 Syrian family members related to patients receiving treatment at a state hospital intensive care unit in Turkey. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews. We used percentages to represent descriptive data and conducted qualitative content analysis. Following data analysis, six themes arose: (1) communication-related difficulties, (2) difficulties receiving information regarding the patient's condition, (3) difficulties meeting personal needs, (4) difficulties communicating with other family members, (5) difficulties receiving support from other family members, and (6) unmet expectations from nurses and hospital administration. Syrian patient's relatives receiving treatment in an intensive care unit in Turkey experienced communication difficulties in terms of receiving information from health care personnel, informing other family members, receiving social support from other family members, and having various unmet expectations from nurses and hospital administration. The results of this study can be used to develop guidelines and predictions for scenarios that are likely to arise for patients' relatives from foreign countries who arrive to support patients who receive healthcare services in our increasingly global world. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Rural model dedicated education unit: partnership between college and hospital.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Lisa M

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the pilot project development of a rural model Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) by a rural college nursing program and a rural hospital to increase student nurses' confidence and proficiency and improve recruitment of prepared rural staff nurses. Traditionally, for economies of scale, most student clinical rotations occurred in urban settings with the number of students per clinical instructor allowed by the state board of nursing. College budget constraints negated the placement of fewer than this mandated maximum number of students in a rural hospital with a clinical instructor; moreover, rural hospitals could not accommodate 10 students at one time. Rural nursing students were anxious in the urban settings, and this anxiety precluded learning in many instances. Rural hospitals face higher registered nurse vacancies than urban centers. Of the nurses applying for open positions, many were not prepared for the demands of rural nursing, resulting in increased turnover and high orientation costs. The rural model DEU addressed issues of both the nursing program and the hospital. The design and development of the rural model DEU and the advantages of the partnership for the college nursing program and the hospital are discussed. Initial outcomes and serendipitous findings from the pilot project are also discussed.

  15. Estimated influenza illnesses and hospitalizations averted by influenza vaccination - United States, 2012-13 influenza season.

    PubMed

    2013-12-13

    Influenza is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality each year in the United States. From 1976 to 2007, annual deaths from influenza ranged from approximately 3,300 to 49,000. Vaccination against influenza has been recommended to prevent illness and related complications, and since 2010, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that all persons aged ≥6 months be vaccinated against influenza each year. In 2013, CDC published a model to quantify the annual number of influenza-associated illnesses and hospitalizations averted by influenza vaccination during the 2006-11 influenza seasons. Using that model with 2012-13 influenza season vaccination coverage rates, influenza vaccine effectiveness, and influenza hospitalization rates, CDC estimated that vaccination resulted in 79,000 (17%) fewer hospitalizations during the 2012-13 influenza season than otherwise might have occurred. Based on estimates of the percentage of influenza illnesses that involve hospitalization or medical attention, vaccination also prevented approximately 6.6 million influenza illnesses and 3.2 million medically attended illnesses. Influenza vaccination during the 2012-13 season produced a substantial reduction in influenza-associated illness. However, fewer than half of persons aged ≥6 months were vaccinated. Higher vaccination rates would have resulted in prevention of a substantial number of additional cases and hospitalizations.

  16. Impact of a stroke unit on length of hospital stay and in-hospital case fatality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai Feng; Newcommon, Nancy N; Cooper, Mary Elizabeth; Green, Teri L; Seal, Barbara; Klein, Gary; Weir, Nicolas U; Coutts, Shelagh B; Watson, Tim; Barber, Philip A; Demchuk, Andrew M; Hill, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Randomized trials have demonstrated reduced morbidity and mortality with stroke unit care; however, the effect on length of stay, and hence the economic benefit, is less well-defined. In 2001, a multidisciplinary stroke unit was opened at our institution. We observed whether a stroke unit reduces length of stay and in-hospital case fatality when compared to admission to a general neurology/medical ward. A retrospective study of 2 cohorts in the Foothills Medical Center in Calgary was conducted using administrative databases. We compared a cohort of stroke patients managed on general neurology/medical wards before 2001, with a similar cohort of stroke patients managed on a stroke unit after 2003. The length of stay was dichotomized after being centered to 7 days and the Charlson Index was dichotomized for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the length of stay and case fatality in 2 cohorts, adjusted for age, gender, and patient comorbid conditions defined by the Charlson Index. Average length of stay for patients on a stroke unit (n=2461) was 15 days vs 19 days for patients managed on general neurology/medical wards (n=1567). The proportion of patients with length of stay >7 days on general neurology/medical wards was 53.8% vs 44.4% on the stroke unit (difference 9.4%; P<0.0001). The adjusted odds of a length of stay >7 days was reduced by 30% (P<0.0001) on a stroke unit compared to general neurology/medical wards. Overall in-hospital case fatality was reduced by 4.5% with stroke unit care. We observed a reduced length of stay and reduced in-hospital case-fatality in a stroke unit compared to general neurology/medical wards.

  17. Safety Climate on Hospital Units: A New Measure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    429 Safety Climate on Hospital Units: A New Measure Mary A. Blegen , Ginette A. Pepper, Joseph Rosse Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this...Address correspondence to: Mary A. Blegen R.N., PhD., School of Nursing, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Ave, Denver...5):496–504. 20. Blegen MA, Goode CJ, Reed L. Nurse staffing and patient outcomes. Nurs Res 1998;47(1):43–50. 21. Blegen , MA, Vaughn T. A

  18. [Management of malnutrition in geriatric hospital units in Germany].

    PubMed

    Smoliner, C; Volkert, D; Wirth, R

    2013-01-01

    Elderly hospitalized patients have a high risk for developing malnutrition. The causes for an impaired nutritional status in old age are various and the impact is far-reaching. Malnutrition is a comorbidity that is well treatable and various studies show the favorable effect of nutrition therapy on nutritional status and prognosis. In the past few years, several guidelines have been developed to improve nutritional management and to ensure standardized procedures to identify patients at nutritional risk who will benefit from nutrition therapy. However, it is still not clear to what extent nutrition management has been implemented in geriatric wards in Germany. This survey is intended to give an overview on the situation of the current diagnosis and therapy of malnutrition and nutritional management in geriatric hospital units for acute and rehabilitative care. In 2011, the task force of the German Geriatric Society ("Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geriatrie", DGG) developed a questionnaire which was sent out to 272 directors of geriatric hospital and rehabilitational units. Included were questions regarding the size and staffing of the hospital and wards, food provision, diagnosis and therapy of malnutrition, as well as communication of malnutrition and nutrition therapy in the doctor's letter. A total of 38% of the questioned units answered. The following information was compiled: 31% of the geriatric facilities employed a doctor with training in clinical nutrition, 42% employ dieticians or nutritional scientists, and 90% speech and language pathologists. In 36% of the wards, a so-called geriatric menu is offered (small portions, rich in energy and/or protein, easy to chew). In 89% of the wards, snacks are available between meals. Diagnosis of malnutrition is mainly done by evaluation of weight and BMI. Validated and established screening tools are only used in 40% of the geriatric wards. Food records are carried out in 64% of the units when needed. Diagnosed

  19. Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized children in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nylund, Cade M.; Goudie, Anthony; Garza, Jose M.; Fairbrother, Gerry; Cohen, Mitchell B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the trend, impact, severity and risk factors of Clostridium difficile infections in hospitalized children in the United States. Design A retrospective cohort study utilizing the triennial Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database years: 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006. Setting Hospitalized children in the United States. Participants 10,495,728 nationally weighted hospital discharges and 21,274 with Clostridium difficile infection. Main Exposure Discharge diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. Outcome measures Trend in cases; impact and severity was measured by length of stay, hospital charges, colectomy rate and death rate. Results There was an increasing trend in cases of Clostridium difficile infection from 3,565 in 1997 to 7,779 in 2006 (p<.001). Clostridium difficile infections had an increased risk of death with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval); 1.20 (1.01–1.43), colectomy; 1.36 (1.04–1.79), longer length of stay; 4.34 (3.97–4.83) and higher charges; 2.12 (1.98–2.26). There was no trend in death, colectomy, length of stay, or charges over the four time periods. The risk of comorbid diagnoses associated with Clostridium difficile infection included inflammatory bowel disease, with an odds ratio of 11.42 (10.16–12.83), and other comorbid diagnoses associated with immunosuppression, or antibiotic administration. Conclusions There is an increasing trend and a significant impact of Clostridium difficile infections on hospitalized children. In contrast to adults, there is no increasing trend in the severity of Clostridium difficile infections in children. Children with medical conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, immunosuppression, or conditions requiring antibiotic administration are at high risk of Clostridium difficile infection. PMID:21199971

  20. Medication reconciliation in patients hospitalized in a cardiology unit.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Gabriella Fernandes; Santos, Gláucia Noblat de Carvalho; Santos, Gláucia Beisl Noblat de Carvalho; Rosa, Mário Borges; Noblat, Lúcia de Araújo Costa Beisl

    2014-01-01

    To compare drugs prescribed on hospital admission with the list of drugs taken prior to admission for adult patients admitted to a cardiology unit and to identify the role of a pharmacist in identifying and resolving medication discrepancies. This study was conducted in a 300 bed university hospital in Brazil. Clinical pharmacists taking medication histories and reconciling medications prescribed on admission with a list of drugs used prior to admission. Discrepancies were classified as justified (e.g., based on the pharmacotherapeutic guidelines of the hospital studied) or unintentional. Treatments were reviewed within 48 hours following hospitalization. Unintentional discrepancies were further classified according to the categorization of medication error severity. Pharmacists verbally contacted the prescriber to recommend actions to resolve the discrepancies. A total of 181 discrepancies were found in 50 patients (86%). Of these discrepancies, 149 (82.3%) were justified changes to the patient's home medication regimen; however, 32 (17.7%) discrepancies found in 24 patients were unintentional. Pharmacists made 31 interventions and 23 (74.2%) were accepted. Among unintentional discrepancies, the most common was a different medication dose on admission (42%). Of the unintentional discrepancies 13 (40.6%) were classified as error without harm, 11 (34.4%) were classified as error without harm but which could affect the patient and require monitoring, 3 (9.4%) as errors could have resulted in harm and 5 (15.6%) were classified as circumstances or events that have the capacity to cause harm. The results revealed a high number of unintentional discrepancies and the pharmacist can play an important role by intervening and correcting medication errors at a hospital cardiology unit.

  1. Medication Reconciliation in Patients Hospitalized in a Cardiology Unit

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Gabriella Fernandes; Santos, Gláucia Beisl Noblat de Carvalho; Rosa, Mário Borges; Noblat, Lúcia de Araújo Costa Beisl

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare drugs prescribed on hospital admission with the list of drugs taken prior to admission for adult patients admitted to a cardiology unit and to identify the role of a pharmacist in identifying and resolving medication discrepancies. Method This study was conducted in a 300 bed university hospital in Brazil. Clinical pharmacists taking medication histories and reconciling medications prescribed on admission with a list of drugs used prior to admission. Discrepancies were classified as justified (e.g., based on the pharmacotherapeutic guidelines of the hospital studied) or unintentional. Treatments were reviewed within 48 hours following hospitalization. Unintentional discrepancies were further classified according to the categorization of medication error severity. Pharmacists verbally contacted the prescriber to recommend actions to resolve the discrepancies. Results A total of 181 discrepancies were found in 50 patients (86%). Of these discrepancies, 149 (82.3%) were justified changes to the patient's home medication regimen; however, 32 (17.7%) discrepancies found in 24 patients were unintentional. Pharmacists made 31 interventions and 23 (74.2%) were accepted. Among unintentional discrepancies, the most common was a different medication dose on admission (42%). Of the unintentional discrepancies 13 (40.6%) were classified as error without harm, 11 (34.4%) were classified as error without harm but which could affect the patient and require monitoring, 3 (9.4%) as errors could have resulted in harm and 5 (15.6%) were classified as circumstances or events that have the capacity to cause harm. Conclusion The results revealed a high number of unintentional discrepancies and the pharmacist can play an important role by intervening and correcting medication errors at a hospital cardiology unit. PMID:25531902

  2. Challenges in Hospital-Associated Infection Management: A Unit Perspective.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining a successful unit-based continuous quality improvement program for managing hospital-associated infections is a huge challenge and an overwhelming task. It requires strong organizational support and unit leadership, human and fiscal resources, time, and a dedicated and motivated nursing staff. A great deal of effort goes into implementing, monitoring, reporting, and evaluating quality improvement initiatives and can lead to significant frustration on the part of the leadership team and nursing staff when quality improvement efforts fail to produce the desired results. Each initiative presents its own unique set of challenges; however, common issues influence all initiatives. These common issues include organization and unit culture, current clinical practice guidelines being used to drive the initiatives, performance discrepancies on the part of nursing staff, availability of resources including equipment and supplies, monitoring of the data, and conflicting quality improvement priorities.

  3. Enhancing the therapeutic potential of hospital environments by increasing the personal control and emotional comfort of hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anne M; Irurita, Vera F

    2005-02-01

    Previous literature has revealed that patients in various health-care facilities worldwide have experienced dissatisfaction with aspects of the hospital environment. This article focuses on the impact of the hospital environment on patients' perceptions of personal control. The grounded theory method was used, and interviews with 40 patient participants and 75 hours of field observations provided data for this study. Personal control was found to be a central feature of emotional comfort, a therapeutic state that was considered to be an integral part of recovery. This study outlines some new directions for enhancing the therapeutic potential of hospital environments.

  4. Factors associated with multiple hospitalizations of patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hull, J W; Yeomans, F; Clarkin, J; Li, C; Goodman, G

    1996-06-01

    The study sought to identify aspects of borderline personality disorder and comorbid axis I conditions associated with multiple hospitalizations in a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder. Data were collected as part of a larger study of treatment course of inpatients with this disorder. Predictors of multiple hospitalization from three domains were considered: demographic characteristics, criteria of borderline personality disorder, and comorbid axis I pathology. A sequential model-building strategy was used, with each domain considered separately and result combined into an overall regression model of factors related to multiple hospitalization. Three factors were related to frequency of hospitalization: anorexia, psychotic symptoms, and suicidality. Other variables that are often assumed to be related to hospitalization, such as depression, did not emerge as significant predictors. Clinicians should intervene early to address the emergence of certain axis I conditions among patients with borderline personality disorder. Increased expenditure of outpatient resources may prevent hospitalization when these conditions are present.

  5. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihui; Kiryu, Tohru; Tamura, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Background Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. Methods The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. Results We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. Conclusion The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment. PMID:15982425

  6. 38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hospital observation and physical examination. 17.41 Section 17.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Examinations and Observation and Examination § 17.41 Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. Hospitalization for observation and physical...

  7. 24 CFR 891.863 - Maintenance as supportive housing units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities. 891.863 Section 891.863 Housing and Urban... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES For-Profit Limited Partnerships and...

  8. 24 CFR 891.863 - Maintenance as supportive housing units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... units for elderly persons and persons with disabilities. 891.863 Section 891.863 Housing and Urban... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES For-Profit Limited Partnerships and...

  9. Pharmacological treatment of borderline personality disorder: a retrospective observational study at inpatient unit in Italy.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Enrico; Mezzetti, Francesca Alice Fiore; Pierri, Francesca; Moretti, Patrizia

    2017-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a high prevalence personality disorder. Pharmacotherapy is commonly used, however, a minority of studies investigated patterns of prescription for BPD, particularly in inpatients unit. We aimed to describe the clinical features and the prescribing practice for BPD patients, and to investigate the possible advantages of a single class of medications or of combined drug treatments in terms of length of stay in hospital. This is a retrospective observational study evaluating 109 BPD inpatients from June 2011 to June 2013. There was evidence of an extensive use of drugs: benzodiazepines/hypnotics (85.2%), antipsychotics (78.7%), mood stabilizers (70.4%) and antidepressants (31.5%). Polypharmacy was common (83.5%). A longer length of stay in hospital was associated with the prescription of antipsychotic and/or antidepressant medication, while a shorter hospitalization was associated with the use of a mood stabilizer. The rates of prescription of different classes of drugs reported in our sample and in similar 'naturalistic' studies highlight a heterogeneous pattern of prescriptions for BPD. Mood stabilizers showed a more favourable profile in terms in length of stay in hospital than antipsychotic and/or antidepressant. Our results reiterate the discrepancy between international recommendations and everyday clinical practice.

  10. Design, Planning and Management of the Hospital Custody Unit at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Martín, C de la; Fuente Martín, B de la; Grifol-Clar, E

    2017-12-01

    The design and management of a Hospital Custody Unit at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, to focus the aim of this study on specialized medical care for extra-penitentiary patients who have suffered from a disease. We are building a new space to facilitate their daily lives at hospital and we want to offer a double function to the patients that consists of a custody space and a health rehabilitation space. We carried out a scientific literature search on the international and national databases, about Hospital Custody Units or Restricted Access Units. The language of the reviews that we checked was English and Spanish. We wrote the Action Guide of the Hospital Custody Unit for the design, planning and management of the Hospital Custody Unit at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón. (We included complementary bibliographic material and the Quick Guide in the Unit). The Hospital Custody Unit will be compatible with medical activity, occupational safety and the custody of patients that are in prison. We thus require consensus with police departments about custody protocols along with assistance from the clinicians' teams at penitentiary centers and referral hospitals. Furthermore, it is important to step up special care for mental health and to promote telemedicine and new technologies to streamline medical care along with coordination with healthcare professionals.

  11. 78 FR 53478 - Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement... Police Personal History Statement) to collect detailed personal history information from applicants... information, including financial data and residence history. Selective Service information and military...

  12. Temporal Trends in Hospitalization for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in the United States, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sunil K; Wruck, Lisa; Quibrera, Miguel; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Loehr, Laura R; Chang, Patricia P; Rosamond, Wayne D; Wright, Jacqueline; Heiss, Gerardo; Coresh, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Estimates of the numbers and rates of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) hospitalization are central to understanding health-care utilization and efforts to improve patient care. We comprehensively estimated the frequency, rate, and trends of ADHF hospitalization in the United States. Based on Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study surveillance adjudicating 12,450 eligible hospitalizations during 2005-2010, we developed prediction models for ADHF separately for 3 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code 428 discharge diagnosis groups: 428 primary, 428 nonprimary, or 428 absent. We applied the models to data from the National Inpatient Sample (11.5 million hospitalizations of persons aged ≥55 years with eligible ICD-9-CM codes), an all-payer, 20% probability sample of US community hospitals. The average estimated number of ADHF hospitalizations per year was 1.76 million (428 primary, 0.80 million; 428 nonprimary, 0.83 million; 428 absent, 0.13 million). During 1998-2004, the rate of ADHF hospitalization increased by 2.0%/year (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 2.5) versus a 1.4%/year (95% CI: 0.8, 2.1) increase in code 428 primary hospitalizations (P < 0.001). In contrast, during 2005-2011, numbers of ADHF hospitalizations were stable (-0.5%/year; 95% CI: -1.4, 0.3), while the numbers of 428-primary hospitalizations decreased by -1.5%/year (95% CI: -2.2, -0.8) (P for contrast = 0.03). In conclusion, the estimated number of hospitalizations with ADHF is approximately 2 times higher than the number of hospitalizations with ICD-9-CM code 428 in the primary position. The trend increased more steeply prior to 2005 and was relatively flat after 2005. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 22 CFR 72.26 - Vesting of personal estate in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vesting of personal estate in United States. 72... PROPERTY AND ESTATES DEATHS AND ESTATES Personal Estates of Deceased United States Citizens and Nationals § 72.26 Vesting of personal estate in United States. (a) If no claimant with a legal right to the...

  14. Dynamic and Personalized Risk Forecast in Step-Down Units. Implications for Monitoring Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lujie; Ogundele, Olufunmilayo; Clermont, Gilles; Hravnak, Marilyn; Pinsky, Michael R; Dubrawski, Artur W

    2017-03-01

    Cardiorespiratory insufficiency (CRI) is a term applied to the manifestations of loss of normal cardiorespiratory reserve and portends a bad outcome. CRI occurs commonly in hospitalized patients, but its risk escalation patterns are unexplored. To describe the dynamic and personal character of CRI risk evolution observed through continuous vital sign monitoring of individual step-down unit patients. Using a machine learning model, we estimated risk trends for CRI (defined as exceedance of vital sign stability thresholds) for each of 1,971 admissions (1,880 unique patients) to a 24-bed adult surgical trauma step-down unit at an urban teaching hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania using continuously recorded vital signs from standard bedside monitors. We compared and contrasted risk trends during initial 4-hour periods after step-down unit admission, and again during the 4 hours immediately before the CRI event, between cases (ever had a CRI) and control subjects (never had a CRI). We further explored heterogeneity of risk escalation patterns during the 4 hours before CRI among cases, comparing personalized to nonpersonalized risk. Estimated risk was significantly higher for cases (918) than control subjects (1,053; P ≤ 0.001) during the initial 4-hour stable periods. Among cases, the aggregated nonpersonalized risk trend increased 2 hours before the CRI, whereas the personalized risk trend became significantly different from control subjects 90 minutes ahead. We further discovered several unique phenotypes of risk escalation patterns among cases for nonpersonalized (14.6% persistently high risk, 18.6% early onset, 66.8% late onset) and personalized risk (7.7% persistently high risk, 8.9% early onset, 83.4% late onset). Insights from this proof-of-concept analysis may guide design of dynamic and personalized monitoring systems that predict CRI, taking into account the triage and real-time monitoring utility of vital signs. These monitoring systems may prove

  15. The federal government's use of Title VI and Medicare to racially integrate hospitals in the United States, 1963 through 1967.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, P P

    1997-01-01

    Explicit discrimination against minorities existed in the 1960s in hospital patient admissions and physician and nurse staff appointments. With passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, along with Medicare legislation in 1965, civil rights advocates within the federal government had both a legislative mandate to guarantee equal access to programs funded by the federal government in Title VI and a federal program that affected every hospital in the country in Medicare. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which the Medicare hospital certification program was a major determinant in the racial integration of hospitals throughout the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with individuals involved in hospital and health care policy in the 1950s and 1960s. Other primary resources include archival and personal manuscripts, government documents, newspapers, and periodicals. PMID:9366643

  16. The federal government's use of Title VI and Medicare to racially integrate hospitals in the United States, 1963 through 1967.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, P P

    1997-11-01

    Explicit discrimination against minorities existed in the 1960s in hospital patient admissions and physician and nurse staff appointments. With passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, along with Medicare legislation in 1965, civil rights advocates within the federal government had both a legislative mandate to guarantee equal access to programs funded by the federal government in Title VI and a federal program that affected every hospital in the country in Medicare. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which the Medicare hospital certification program was a major determinant in the racial integration of hospitals throughout the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with individuals involved in hospital and health care policy in the 1950s and 1960s. Other primary resources include archival and personal manuscripts, government documents, newspapers, and periodicals.

  17. History of personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Soares, C G

    2007-01-01

    The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2001). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonisation to US personal dosemeter processing testing. Since there is no type testing program in the US for personal dosemeters, the testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing. This philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005.

  18. [Hospital infection surveillance in 5 Roman intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Orsi, G B; Raponi, M; Sticca, G; Branca, L; Scalise, E; Franchi, C; Venditti, M; Fara, G M

    2003-01-01

    The A.A. carried out a survey on hospital acquired infection (HAI) in the intensive care units (ICU) of five roman hospitals. The study monitored the following site-specific infection rates: pneumonia (PNE), blood stream infections (BSI), urinary tract infections (UTI), surgical site infections (SSI). According to CDC definitions all patients developing infection 48 hours or more after ward admission were included. Furthermore risk factors (i.e. age, sex, SAPS II), invasive procedures (i.e. endotracheal intubation, vascular and urinary catheterisation), microbiological isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility were screened. The overall 503 patients characteristics (i.e., age, length of stay, case-mix...) showed the wards as general ICU's. Although the SAPS II score was similar, mortality (18.2%-42.9%) and general infection rates (15.4%-40.4%) among the five ICU's were considerably variable (p < 0.05), as HAI episodes distribution by type: PNE (37-88%), BSI (6-42%), UTI (6-24%), SSI (3-7%) (p < 0.05). Also device-associated infection rates such as Ventilator-associated PNE (11.6-24.6@1000), Vascular catheter-associated BSI (3.4-19.2@1000). Urinary catheter-associated UTI (2.6-14.0@1000) and invasive procedures management were different. Among the infected patients the most commonly isolated microorganisms were P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus spp., which presented a considerable antibiotic resistance. The study showed: 1) sampling (i.e. blood cultures, tracheal aspirate and urine samples) and laboratory methodology indispensable for a correct HAI diagnosis were not standardized in the five ICU's; 2) hospital infection control policy was not carried out in all ICU's. The study showed a lack of standardization which limits the comparability of the general roman ICU's.

  19. Ensemble-based methods for forecasting census in hospital units

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to accurately forecast census counts in hospital departments has considerable implications for hospital resource allocation. In recent years several different methods have been proposed forecasting census counts, however many of these approaches do not use available patient-specific information. Methods In this paper we present an ensemble-based methodology for forecasting the census under a framework that simultaneously incorporates both (i) arrival trends over time and (ii) patient-specific baseline and time-varying information. The proposed model for predicting census has three components, namely: current census count, number of daily arrivals and number of daily departures. To model the number of daily arrivals, we use a seasonality adjusted Poisson Autoregressive (PAR) model where the parameter estimates are obtained via conditional maximum likelihood. The number of daily departures is predicted by modeling the probability of departure from the census using logistic regression models that are adjusted for the amount of time spent in the census and incorporate both patient-specific baseline and time varying patient-specific covariate information. We illustrate our approach using neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) data collected at Women & Infants Hospital, Providence RI, which consists of 1001 consecutive NICU admissions between April 1st 2008 and March 31st 2009. Results Our results demonstrate statistically significant improved prediction accuracy for 3, 5, and 7 day census forecasts and increased precision of our forecasting model compared to a forecasting approach that ignores patient-specific information. Conclusions Forecasting models that utilize patient-specific baseline and time-varying information make the most of data typically available and have the capacity to substantially improve census forecasts. PMID:23721123

  20. Ensemble-based methods for forecasting census in hospital units.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Devin C; Ombao, Hernando; Bender, Jesse

    2013-05-30

    The ability to accurately forecast census counts in hospital departments has considerable implications for hospital resource allocation. In recent years several different methods have been proposed forecasting census counts, however many of these approaches do not use available patient-specific information. In this paper we present an ensemble-based methodology for forecasting the census under a framework that simultaneously incorporates both (i) arrival trends over time and (ii) patient-specific baseline and time-varying information. The proposed model for predicting census has three components, namely: current census count, number of daily arrivals and number of daily departures. To model the number of daily arrivals, we use a seasonality adjusted Poisson Autoregressive (PAR) model where the parameter estimates are obtained via conditional maximum likelihood. The number of daily departures is predicted by modeling the probability of departure from the census using logistic regression models that are adjusted for the amount of time spent in the census and incorporate both patient-specific baseline and time varying patient-specific covariate information. We illustrate our approach using neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) data collected at Women & Infants Hospital, Providence RI, which consists of 1001 consecutive NICU admissions between April 1st 2008 and March 31st 2009. Our results demonstrate statistically significant improved prediction accuracy for 3, 5, and 7 day census forecasts and increased precision of our forecasting model compared to a forecasting approach that ignores patient-specific information. Forecasting models that utilize patient-specific baseline and time-varying information make the most of data typically available and have the capacity to substantially improve census forecasts.

  1. Non-work-related use of personal mobile phones by hospital registered nurses.

    PubMed

    McBride, Deborah L; LeVasseur, Sandra A; Li, Dongmei

    2015-01-13

    Personal mobile phones and other personal communication devices (smartphones and tablet computers) provide users with an ever-increasing number and diversity of non-work-related activities while at work. In hospitals, where the vigilance of health care workers is essential for patient care, the potential distraction of these devices could be hazardous to patients. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of non-work-related use of personal mobile phones and other personal communication devices among hospital registered nurses. In March 2014, a previously validated 30-question survey was emailed to the 10,978 members of the Academy of Medical Surgical Nurses. There were 825 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The use of a personal mobile phone or other personal communication device while working (excluding meal times and breaks) was reported by 78.1% (644/825) of respondents. Nurses reported regularly (sometimes, often, or always) sending personal emails and text messages (38.6%, 318/825), reading news (25.7%, 212/825), checking/posting on social networking sites (20.8%, 172/825), shopping (9.6%, 79/825), and playing games (6.5%, 54/825) while working. This study found that hospital nurses frequently use their personal mobile phones or other personal communication devices for non-work-related activities at work. The primary activity reported was to send personal emails and text messages to family and friends.

  2. Effect of influenza vaccination on hospitalizations in persons aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Roger; Ray, G Thomas; Fireman, Bruce H

    2010-10-21

    To estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing hospitalizations in persons over 50 years of age. We performed a retrospective, population based study, using a "difference-in-differences" approach to determine the association between hospitalization and prior vaccination. We examined this association when influenza was not circulating and compared it to the association found when influenza was circulating. VE was estimated from the difference in the association between hospitalization and prior vaccination, inside vs. outside influenza seasons. Kaiser Permanente in Northern California. Health plan members aged 50 years and older during the September 1997 to August 2008 study period, when there were about 68,000 pneumonia hospitalizations in 10 million person-years. Vaccination was associated with lower risk of hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza, even before flu season, presumably due to unmeasured confounders. When influenza arrived the hospitalization-vaccination association strengthened, yielding an adjusted VE estimate of 12.4% (95% CI: 1.6-22.0) in persons aged 50-64, and 8.5% (95% CI: 3.3-13.5) in those aged 65 years and older. There was no significant effect on hospitalizations for ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), or trauma. Influenza vaccination has a modest but significant effect on prevention of hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza in persons 50 years of age and older. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Histoplasmosis-Associated Hospitalizations in the United States, 2001–2012

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Derado, Gordana; Mody, Rajal K.

    2016-01-01

    We examined trends in histoplasmosis-associated hospitalizations in the United States using the 2001–2012 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. An estimated 50 778 hospitalizations occurred, with significant increases in hospitalizations overall and in the proportion of hospitalizations associated with transplant, diabetes, and autoimmune conditions often treated with biologic therapies; therefore, histoplasmosis remains an important opportunistic infection. PMID:26894201

  4. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  5. An overview of distribution of births in United States hospitals in 2008 with implications for small volume perinatal units in rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the distribution of births among United States (U.S.) hospitals in 2008 as part of the background for the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses' Guidelines for Professional Registered Nurse Staffing for Perinatal Units. Descriptive analysis of birth volumes in U.S. hospitals using American Hospital Association Annual Survey: 2008. U.S. hospitals providing obstetric (OB) services were identified based on information in any of three fields: OB services, OB beds, or number of births. Data were verified via telephone and/or website for the top 100 hospitals based on volume, hospitals with "Healthcare System" as part of their names, hospitals reporting births but no OB service, and hospitals reporting <100 births. Hospitals with <100 births were queried regarding nurse staffing. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. Approximately 3,265 U.S. hospitals offered OB services in 2008. The top 500 hospitals based on volume (15.3%) accounted for almost one half (47.4%) of births, the top 1,000 for 69.2%, and the remaining 2,265 for 30.8%. Fourteen percent of hospitals with <100 births in 2008 reported discontinuing OB services in 2010, in part due to lack of physician coverage and costs. Most hospitals (n=159, 72.3%) with <100 births routinely maintained two OB-skilled nurses in-house in 2010. U.S. births are unevenly distributed among hospitals; 15% have a disproportionate share of nearly one half of all births. Most hospitals (69.4%) are operating medium- to small-volume OB units. Most hospitals (72.3%) with <100 births annually reported currently meeting minimum staffing guidelines. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  6. [Drug use in neonatology units of 6 Spanish hospitals].

    PubMed

    Feal Cortizas, B; Barroso Pérez, C; Carcelen Andrés, J; Fábrega Bosacoma, C; Gallego Lago, V; Hidalgo Albert, E; Pozas Del Río, M T; Puy Goyache, M; Revert Molina-Niñirola, A; Valverde Molina, E; Wood Wood, M A

    2003-01-01

    To determine the status of drug use in Neonatology units regarding: 1. Frequency of use for drugs unauthorised by DirecciA(3)n General de Farmacia y Productos Sanitarios. 2. Suitability of commercial presentations regarding actual needs of patients. Two cut-off points were established for 100% of patients admitted to Neonatology Units in 6 Spanish hospitals. Data on demography and therapeutic drug profile were collected, as well as on whether doses were or not prepared by Pharmacy departments. Approval for each drug regarding indication, age range, dosage and administration route was assessed. The number of patients included was 346. In all, 17.6% of patients were under treatment with unauthorised drugs, the reason being age in 78.7% and indication in 21.3%. Master formula preparation was needed for 22% of patients because of a lack of commercial preparations suited for paediatric age. Pharmacy departments prepared 25% of prescribed drugs. The use of unauthorised drugs in Neonatology is a common fact. Pharmacy departments are actively involved in Neonatology-related drug therapies: counselling and/or processing for compassionate unauthorised drug use, master formula preparation, intravenous mixtures, etc. Therapeutics in Neonatology benefits from specialised pharmaceutical involvement.

  7. Personal hygiene and safety of governmental hospital staff in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Askarian, M; Khalooee, A; Emroodi, N N

    2006-11-01

    Complying with infection control standards is essential to prevent nosocomial infections. We aimed to determine health workers' hygiene practices and compliance with recommended instructions for personal hygiene among staff in all 30 hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The results showed that physicians and nurses were less compliant with personal hygiene practices than cleaners. Availability of protective measures was better in teaching hospitals than nonteaching hospitals as were vaccination rates among staff (hepatitis B and tetanus/diphtheria) with physicians scoring highest. Measures are needed to improve health workers' compliance.

  8. [The posturological department as clinical support for occupational medicine: clinical cases and results of a hospital unit].

    PubMed

    Centemeri, R; D'Orso, M I; Latocca, R; Pagani, W; Cesana, G C

    2007-01-01

    The posturologic visit is a not widely known medical method for the evaluation and the therapy of low back pain. We describe the clinical and instrumental method followed in our posturological clinical unit organized jointly by hospital and university and the clinical cases evaluated in two years. An individual diagnostic evaluation and a personal therapy allowed an almost generalized complete remission of the symptoms and a very low number of reactivation of low back pain after a follow up of one years.

  9. Hospitalizations for Endocarditis and Associated Health Care Costs Among Persons with Diagnosed Drug Dependence - North Carolina, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Fleischauer, Aaron T; Ruhl, Laura; Rhea, Sarah; Barnes, Erin

    2017-06-09

    Opioid dependence and overdose have increased to epidemic levels in the United States. The 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimated that 4.3 million persons were nonmedical users of prescription pain relievers (1). These users are 40 times more likely than the general population to use heroin or other injection drugs (2). Furthermore, CDC estimated a near quadrupling of heroin-related overdose deaths during 2002-2014 (3). Although overdose contributes most to drug-associated mortality, infectious complications of intravenous drug use constitute a major cause of morbidity leading to hospitalization (4). In addition to infections from hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), injecting drug users are at increased risk for acquiring invasive bacterial infections, including endocarditis (5,6). Evidence that hospitalizations for endocarditis are increasing in association with the current opioid epidemic exists (7-9). To examine trends in hospitalizations for endocarditis among persons in North Carolina with drug dependence during 2010-2015, data from the North Carolina Hospital Discharge database were analyzed. The incidence of hospital discharge diagnoses for drug dependence combined with endocarditis increased more than twelvefold from 0.2 to 2.7 per 100,000 persons per year over this 6-year period. Correspondingly, hospital costs for these patients increased eighteenfold, from $1.1 million in 2010 to $22.2 million in 2015. To reduce the risk for morbidity and mortality related to opioid-associated endocarditis, public health programs and health care systems should consider collaborating to implement syringe service programs, harm reduction strategies, and opioid treatment programs.

  10. Unit cost of healthcare services at 200-bed public hospitals in Myanmar: what plays an important role of hospital budgeting?

    PubMed

    Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-19

    Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the

  11. Factors influencing discharge location after hospitalization resulting from a traumatic fall among older persons.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun J; Hoffmann, Raymond; Brasel, Karen

    2007-10-01

    To identify significant demographic, clinical, and nonclinical factors among elderly persons influencing the discharge location after hospitalization resulting from a traumatic fall. Population-based case-only study with use of data from the 2003 National Trauma Data Bank. The study analysis included 47,234 subjects admitted to 1 of 405 hospitals in the United States between 1989 and 2003, and aged between 65 and 89 years. Demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and discharge location were obtained from the database. Eighty-three percent were discharged to home, 7% to a nursing home, and 10% to a rehabilitation facility. Female patients and white patients were more likely discharged to a nursing home or a rehabilitation facility than to home. Compared with commercial insurance, a patients who had Medicare was more likely discharged to a nursing home (odds ratio = 20.9; 95% confidence interval: 18.2-23.9) or a rehabilitation facility (odds ratio = 5.39; 95% confidence interval: 4.86-5.96) than to home. A patient who was injured in the face or neck, thorax, or abdomen was less likely discharged to a nursing home or a rehabilitation facility than to home when compared with a patient injured in an upper and lower extremity. A patient with an injury to the spine was more likely discharged to a rehabilitation facility than to home when compared with a patient injured in any other body region. Gender, race, payment type, body region injured, Injury Severity Score, physiologically based Emergency Department Revised Trauma Score, and need for intensive care unit care were significant predictors of discharge location. Understanding and addressing the factors found in this study can improve the discharge planning process and posttreatment management.

  12. 5 CFR 8.3 - Appointment of persons not citizens of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment of persons not citizens of... SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENTS TO OVERSEAS POSITIONS (RULE VIII) § 8.3 Appointment of persons not citizens of the United States. Persons who are not citizens of the United States may be recruited overseas and...

  13. 32 CFR 720.4 - Persons stationed outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Persons stationed outside the United States. 720... Personnel § 720.4 Persons stationed outside the United States. (a) Persons desired by local U.S. authorities. When delivery of any member in the Navy or Marine Corps, or any civilian employee or dependent, is...

  14. 32 CFR 720.4 - Persons stationed outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Persons stationed outside the United States. 720... Personnel § 720.4 Persons stationed outside the United States. (a) Persons desired by local U.S. authorities. When delivery of any member in the Navy or Marine Corps, or any civilian employee or dependent, is...

  15. 32 CFR 720.4 - Persons stationed outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons stationed outside the United States. 720... Personnel § 720.4 Persons stationed outside the United States. (a) Persons desired by local U.S. authorities. When delivery of any member in the Navy or Marine Corps, or any civilian employee or dependent, is...

  16. 32 CFR 720.4 - Persons stationed outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons stationed outside the United States. 720... Personnel § 720.4 Persons stationed outside the United States. (a) Persons desired by local U.S. authorities. When delivery of any member in the Navy or Marine Corps, or any civilian employee or dependent, is...

  17. 32 CFR 720.4 - Persons stationed outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Persons stationed outside the United States. 720... Personnel § 720.4 Persons stationed outside the United States. (a) Persons desired by local U.S. authorities. When delivery of any member in the Navy or Marine Corps, or any civilian employee or dependent, is...

  18. Hospital-based dental care for persons with disabilities: a study of patient selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Hulland, S; Sigal, M J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a medical and dental profile of patients attending the Mount Sinai Hospital Dental Program for Persons with Disabilities, to determine if certain selected criteria could identify patients likely to require dental care in that setting. The need for dental care under general anesthesia was used as the prime indicator that care should be provided in a hospital setting. A retrospective review of all the charts of the patients enrolled in this hospital program was undertaken. Results indicated that patients who were treated in this hospital-based dental program had the following characteristics: moderate to profound mental retardation (39.5%), moderate to severe behavioral problems (31.1%), and/or a history of seizure activity (29.1%). Behavioral criteria appear to be the predominant reason for the provision of hospital-based dental care for persons with disabilities.

  19. Exploring personal interests of physicians in hospitals and specialty clinics.

    PubMed

    Koelewijn, Wout T; Ehrenhard, Michel L; Groen, Aard J; van Harten, Wim H

    2014-01-01

    Physicians' interests substantially influence intra-organizational dynamics in hospitals, though little is known about the actual content and structure of these interests. The objective of this study was to both identify and build a structured model of physicians' interests. Based on literature and 27 semi-structured interviews with physicians, a questionnaire containing 10 interests was developed. Next, 1475 physicians in the Netherlands filled out an online survey. Analyses of the data revealed a distinction between the primary interest of 'helping patients as well as possible' and nine secondary interests. Factor analysis identified the main secondary interest dimensions as work-related, setting-related, and life-related. Value attached to interests differs between specialties and types of hospitals. The influence of hospital type on the value attached to interests is stronger than the influence of specialty group on the value attached to interests. Insight in the relative importance of different interests may help policy-makers make decisions that foster shared interests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Personal health records in a public hospital: experience at the HIV/AIDS clinic at San Francisco General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Joan F; Van Nunnery, T; Leasure, Skip; Bryant, Kelly M; Hare, C Bradley; Thom, David H

    2010-01-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) are information repositories; however, PHRs may be less available to persons in the safety net setting. We deployed a free, secure, internet-based PHR for persons receiving care at the AIDS/HIV clinic at San Francisco General Hospital. In our initial rollout, 221 persons registered for the PHR. Compared to the entire clinic, these initial users were more likely to be Caucasian, male, non-Hispanic, on antiretroviral medications, and have better control of their HIV infection. The median number of online sessions was 7 and the median session length was 4 min. Laboratory results were the most commonly accessed feature. Patients were satisfied with the PHR and more than 80% of users agreed that the PHR helped them manage their medical problems; however, some users were concerned that their health information was not accurate or secure. Patients in a safety net setting will access and use an online PHR. PMID:20190069

  1. Sexual Behavior in Patients with Psychosis Admitted to a Hospital Unit.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Baños-Martín, María; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Gutiérrez-Puertas, Lorena; Aguilera-Manrique, Gabriel; Gutiérrez-Puertas, Vanesa; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva

    2017-06-01

    The sexual dimension is part of a person's functionality. Patients with mental disorders have the same sexual needs as any other person, although they may not always be recognized. This is a retrospective observational study to describe the information on sexuality of patients with mental disorders, admitted to an acute short-stay inpatient unit between 2011 and 2015. We analyzed 293 clinical histories of patients, comprising diagnoses in the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases) between F20 and F29, inclusively. The information collected corresponded to the beginning of hospitalization, its duration and discharge. The results showed that 24% of the patients had sexual delusions. These delusions were more frequent in women, who in turn had more emotional symptoms, persecutory deception being the most common. There were few reports found on sexual dysfunction. In conclusion, the lack of data in the reports shows little recognition of sexuality in hospitalized patients with mental disorder, highlighting the need to promote the training of health personnel.

  2. Trends in hospitalization for takotsubo cardiomyopathy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Khera, Rohan; Light-McGroary, KellyAnn; Zahr, Firas; Horwitz, Phillip A; Girotra, Saket

    2016-02-01

    Takotsubo (or stress induced) cardiomyopathy is characterized by transient left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Recent trends in patient volume, characteristics, and outcomes in the United States are unknown. Using 2007-2012 National Inpatient Sample data, we identified 22,005 adults (≥18 years) with a primary and 31,942 adults with a secondary discharge diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 429.83) who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. During 2007 to 2012, the incidence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy increased over 3-fold: 52/million discharges in 2007 to 178/million in 2012 (P < .001). We found a temporal increase in the prevalence of cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension), and psychiatric disorders (P trend < .0001 for all). In-hospital mortality was 1.1% and remained unchanged over this period (P = .22). Compared to the primary diagnosis group, mortality in the secondary diagnosis group was higher (1.1% vs 3.2%) and was associated with higher incidence of cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, and respiratory failure. Men represent 8% of patients in the primary diagnosis group and 12% in the secondary group. In both groups, men had a higher incidence of shock, cardiac arrest, and respiratory failure. Although their mortality was higher than women in the primary group (3.0% vs 0.9%, adjusted odds ratio 3.85, 1.74-8.51), it was comparable in the secondary group (4.8% vs 3.0%). We found a marked increase in the hospitalization for takotsubo cardiomyopathy in the United States in recent years, suggesting higher incidence than prior reports. Although outcomes have remained favorable, there is an increasing burden of cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders in this population with growing cost of care. Risk of mortality is higher in men and in patients with underlying critical illness. The excess mortality in these groups appears to be mediated by

  3. Reliability and Validity of Borderline Personality Disorder in Hospitalized Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although the DSM-IV suggests that dysfunctional personality patterns can be traced back to adolescence, there is continued debate about whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be reliably and validly diagnosed before age 18. The current study examined the reliability and validity of BPD in a large sample of adolescent psychiatric patients. Method: BPD and Axis I disorders were assessed with validated structured interviews and a series of clinical, emotion, and personality correlates were assessed with validated self-report questionnaires. Results: Consistent with previous studies in adolescent clinical samples, approximately 30% of patients in the current sample met criteria for BPD. The nine BPD criteria demonstrated good internal consistency, equivalent to rates reported in adult samples. In addition, BPD was related to greater clinical severity and impairment as indexed by strong associations with all major Axis I disorders, as well as with dimensional measures of depression, anxiety, difficulties with emotion regulation, and impulsiveness. Notably, reliability and validity remained satisfactory even when analyses were limited to younger adolescents between the ages of 12 and 14. Conclusions: Overall, findings suggest that BPD can be reliably and validly diagnosed in adolescents as young as 12–14 years old. PMID:23970909

  4. 8 CFR 319.1 - Persons living in marital union with United States citizen spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorably... NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: SPOUSES OF UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.1 Persons living in marital union with United States citizen spouse. (a) Eligibility. To...

  5. 8 CFR 319.2 - Person whose United States citizen spouse is employed abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorably disposed... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Person whose United States citizen spouse... NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: SPOUSES OF UNITED STATES...

  6. Hospitalization Rates and Reasons Among HIV Elite Controllers and Persons With Medically Controlled HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Trevor A.; Gebo, Kelly A.; Blankson, Joel N.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Yehia, Baligh R.; Rutstein, Richard M.; Moore, Richard D.; Sharp, Victoria; Nijhawan, Ank E.; Mathews, W. Christopher; Hanau, Lawrence H.; Corales, Roberto B.; Beil, Robert; Somboonwit, Charurut; Edelstein, Howard; Allen, Sara L.; Berry, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Elite controllers spontaneously suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia but also demonstrate chronic inflammation that may increase risk of comorbid conditions. We compared hospitalization rates and causes among elite controllers to those of immunologically intact persons with medically controlled HIV. Methods. For adults in care at 11 sites from 2005 to 2011, person-years with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 cells/mm2 were categorized as medical control, elite control, low viremia, or high viremia. All-cause and diagnostic category-specific hospitalization rates were compared between groups using negative binomial regression. Results. We identified 149 elite controllers (0.4%) among 34 354 persons in care. Unadjusted hospitalization rates among the medical control, elite control, low-viremia, and high-viremia groups were 10.5, 23.3, 12.6, and 16.9 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, elite control was associated with higher rates of all-cause (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.77 [95% confidence interval, 1.21–2.60]), cardiovascular (3.19 [1.50–6.79]) and psychiatric (3.98 [1.54–10.28]) hospitalization than was medical control. Non–AIDS-defining infections were the most common reason for admission overall (24.1% of hospitalizations) but were rare among elite controllers (2.7%), in whom cardiovascular hospitalizations were most common (31.1%). Conclusions. Elite controllers are hospitalized more frequently than persons with medically controlled HIV and cardiovascular hospitalizations are an important contributor. PMID:25512624

  7. 19 CFR 148.71 - Status of persons in service of United States as returning residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Military and... States as returning residents. A person in the service of the United States and members of his...

  8. Do we need autoimmune disease units in hospitals?

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2009-09-01

    Autoimmune diseases are increasing worldwide, and associated morbidity, mortality, and health care costs are high. Biological therapies, however, have brought physicians an extraordinary opportunity to change natural disease history, although these therapies can also have high associated iatrogenic costs. These factors point to the necessity of having physicians that are dedicated to autoimmunology. The question regarding the creation of a new specialty, the autoimmunologist, should be addressed after an inquiry into the current practice in this field of medicine. This includes many classical specialties, such as internal medicine, rheumatology, and neurology, as well as clinical immunology. In clinical immunology, not counting the specialists in allergology and clinical immunology that mainly work only with allergies, heterogeneity is high in clinical practice, as the European Union of Medical Specialists documented some years ago. I am, at least for now, in favor of the creation of a transversal competency to which the different physicians working in the area could apply to in order to standardize the clinical practice in autoimmunology. It will be necessary to define a core curriculum, and in the end we shall have classical specialists and clinical immunologists with or without the competency of autoimmunology. Of utmost importance is that this new field of medicine should not be translated, as in the past happened with other areas, by walls between medical specialties. Instead it should help standardize and harmonize clinical practice. The time for autoimmunology is now, and, indeed, hospitals must have autoimmune disease units.

  9. Epidemiology of Abusive Abdominal Trauma Hospitalizations in United States Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the incidence of abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) hospitalizations among US children age 0-9 years. (2) To identify demographic characteristics of children at highest risk for AAT. Design: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, national hospitalization database. Setting: Hospitalization data from the 2003 and 2006…

  10. Epidemiology of Abusive Abdominal Trauma Hospitalizations in United States Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the incidence of abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) hospitalizations among US children age 0-9 years. (2) To identify demographic characteristics of children at highest risk for AAT. Design: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, national hospitalization database. Setting: Hospitalization data from the 2003 and 2006…

  11. Graduate Education for Hospital Administration in the United States: Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Theodore E.

    In 1968, 75% of the 5,466 graduates of hospital administration were in management positions in hospitals and related institutions, and about 1,000 to 1,500 held key government jobs. The US needs approximately 40,000 trained hospital administrators, but the total graduate output is about one-eighth of that amount. Of the 23 existing programs, 8 are…

  12. Patterns of Restraint Utilization in a Community Hospital's Psychiatric Inpatient Units.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Theresa; Sahu, Geetanjali; Frankel, Violina; Homel, Peter; Berman, Bonnie; McAfee, Scot

    2016-03-01

    Restraint use in psychiatry has been a topic of clinical and ethical debate for years. As much as the medical community desires to attain the goal of a restraint-free environment, there are not many alternatives available when it comes to protecting the safety of violent patients and those around them. Our objective was to examine patterns of restraint use and analyze the factors leading to its use in adult psychiatric inpatient units. We conducted a retrospective review of restraint orders from January 2007 to December 2012, for inpatient units at a community mental health hospital, examining-unit, patient gender, number and duration of restraint episodes, time of day, and whether medications and/or verbal redirection were used. For the 6-year period studied, a total of 1753 restraint order-sheets were filed for 455 patients. Mixed-model regression found significant differences in duration of restraint episodes depending on: patient gender, unit, medication use, verbal redirection and AM/PM shifts. These differences were consistent over time with no significant interactions with years and remained significant when included together in an overall multivariate model. We elucidate variable patterns of restraint utilization correlating with elements such as patient gender, time of day and staff shift, medication use, and attempts at verbally redirecting the patient. Besides providing much needed data on the intricate dynamics influencing restraint use, we suggest steps to implement hospital-wide restraint-reduction initiatives including cultural changes related to restraint usage, enhanced staff-training in conflict de-escalation techniques and personalized treatment plans for foreseeable restraint episodes.

  13. The role of hospital-based dentistry in providing treatment for persons with developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Park, Michael S; Sigal, Michael J

    2008-05-01

    Hospital dentistry is important to the delivery of oral health care to persons with disabilities. Recent cuts in funding for hospital dentistry in Ontario have placed a great strain on the health care system"s ability to meet the demand for such care. General anesthesia is an accepted treatment option for patients who are uncooperative, but involves inherent risks. In this paper, we present the case of a person with developmental delay who received dental treatment under general anesthesia and subsequently developed complications to support the position that a dental program for persons with special needs should be provided in a hospital setting to minimize their risk of suffering serious complications and to ensure their safety.

  14. Hospital resource intensity and cirrhosis mortality in United States

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Amit K; Chakrabarti, Apurba K; Mellinger, Jessica L; Volk, Michael L; Day, Ryan; Singer, Andrew L; Hewitt, Winston R; Reddy, Kunam S; Moss, Adyr A

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether hospital characteristics predict cirrhosis mortality and how much variation in mortality is attributable to hospital differences. METHODS We used data from the 2005-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the American Hospital Association Annual survey to identify hospitalizations for decompensated cirrhosis and corresponding facility characteristics. We created hospital-specific risk and reliability-adjusted odds ratios for cirrhosis mortality, and evaluated patient and facility differences based on hospital performance quintiles. We used hierarchical regression models to determine the effect of these factors on mortality. RESULTS Seventy-two thousand seven hundred and thirty-three cirrhosis admissions were evaluated in 805 hospitals. Hospital mean cirrhosis annual case volume was 90.4 (range 25-828). Overall hospital cirrhosis mortality rate was 8.00%. Hospital-adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for mortality ranged from 0.48 to 1.89. Patient characteristics varied significantly by hospital aOR for mortality. Length of stay averaged 6.0 ± 1.6 days, and varied significantly by hospital performance (P < 0.001). Facility level predictors of risk-adjusted mortality were higher Medicaid case-mix (OR = 1.00, P = 0.029) and LPN staffing (OR = 1.02, P = 0.015). Higher cirrhosis volume (OR = 0.99, P = 0.025) and liver transplant program status (OR = 0.83, P = 0.026) were significantly associated with survival. After adjusting for patient differences, era, and clustering effects, 15.3% of variation between hospitals was attributable to differences in facility characteristics. CONCLUSION Hospital characteristics account for a significant proportion of variation in cirrhosis mortality. These findings have several implications for patients, providers, and health care delivery in liver disease care and inpatient health care design. PMID:28348492

  15. 42 CFR 412.130 - Retroactive adjustments for incorrectly excluded hospitals and units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals and units. 412.130 Section 412.130 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Payments to Hospitals Under the Prospective Payment Systems § 412.130 Retroactive adjustments for...

  16. Caring for homeless persons with serious mental illness in general hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Leah K; Baggett, Travis P; Stern, Theodore A; O'Connell, Jim J; Shtasel, Derri

    2013-01-01

    The care of homeless persons with serious mental illness remains a common and challenging problem in general hospital settings. This article aims to review data on homelessness and its psychiatric comorbidities, and to expand the skills of providers who encounter homeless individuals in general hospital settings. Literature review reveals patient, provider, and systems factors that contribute to suboptimal health outcomes in homeless individuals. Diagnostic rigor, integrated medical and psychiatric care, trauma-informed interventions, special considerations in capacity evaluations, and health care reform initiatives can improve the treatment of homeless persons with serious mental illness. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuberculosis management continues to utilize a large amount of hospital resources in the United States.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Rampa, Sankeerth; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine longitudinal trends in hospital admissions attributed to tuberculosis and resulting hospitalization outcomes in the United States for the years 2000-2010. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which is the largest all-payer and nationally representative in-hospital dataset in the United States. All hospitalizations that had a primary diagnosis for tuberculosis were selected for analysis. Patient characteristics and outcomes including discharge status following hospitalization, length of stay in hospital and hospitalization charges were examined. During the study period, a total of 96 431 hospitalizations occurred due to tuberculosis. The mean age of hospitalizations was 48.6 years. Males comprised 64.2% of all hospitalizations; 24.8% were Whites, 25.5% Blacks, 26.5% Hispanics, 14.3% Asians/Pacific Islanders, 1% Native Americans, and 7.9% other/mixed races. Following hospitalization, 72.1% were discharged routinely, 3.4% were transferred to another acute-care hospital, 10.7% to long-term care facilities including skilled nursing facilities, 7.6% to home health care, and 2.1% were discharged against medical advice. There were 3815 patients who died (4% of hospitalizations). The total hospitalization charge for this cohort of patients admitted due to tuberculosis across the United States was $6.96 billion and the total hospitalization days over study period was 1 419 605 days. High-risk cohorts who are likely to be hospitalized due to tuberculosis included Blacks and Hispanics. Majority of hospitalization comprised of males. Even though the annual number of hospitalizations reduced over the study period, substantial amounts of resources are used in hospital settings to manage tuberculosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A study of New York City obstetrics units demonstrates the potential for reducing hospital inpatient capacity.

    PubMed

    Green, Linda V; Liu, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Hospitals are under significant pressure from payers to reduce costs. The single largest fixed cost for a hospital is inpatient beds, yet there is significant variation in hospital capacity utilization. We study bed capacity in New York City hospital obstetrics units and find that while many hospitals have an insufficient number of beds to provide timely access to care, overall there is significant excess capacity. Our findings, coupled with current demographic and clinical practice trends, indicate that a large fraction of obstetrics units nationwide could likely reduce their bed capacity while assuring timely access to care, resulting in large savings in capital and staffing costs. Given emerging health care delivery and payment models that will likely decrease demand for other types of hospital beds, our study suggests that data-based methodologies should be used by hospitals and policy makers to identify opportunities for reducing excess bed capacity in other inpatient units as well. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Hospitalizations Following Living Donor Nephrectomy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, David A.; Buccini, Laura D.; Rodrigue, James R.; Mandelbrot, Didier; Heaphy, Emily L. G.; Fatica, Richard A.; Poggio, Emilio D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Living donors represented 43% of United States kidney donors in 2012. Although research suggests minimal long-term consequences of donation, few comprehensive longitudinal studies for this population have been performed. The primary aims of this study were to examine the incidence, risk factors, and causes of rehospitalization following donation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements State Inpatient Databases (SID) compiled by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were used to identify living donors in four different states between 2005 and 2010 (n=4524). Multivariable survival models were used to examine risks for rehospitalization, and patient characteristics were compared with data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). Outcomes among patients undergoing appendectomy (n=200,274), cholecystectomy (n=255,231), and nephrectomy for nonmetastatic carcinoma (n=1314) were contrasted. Results The study population was similar to United States donors (for SRTR and SID, respectively: mean age, 41 and 41 years; African Americans, 12% and 10%; women, 60% and 61%). The 3-year incidence of rehospitalization following donation was 11% for all causes and 9% excluding pregnancy-related hospitalizations. After censoring of models for pregnancy-related rehospitalizations, older age (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.02 per year; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01 to 1.03), African American race (AHR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.54 to 3.03), depression (AHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.14), hypothyroidism (AHR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.49), and longer initial length of stay were related to higher rehospitalization rates among donors. Compared with living donors, adjusted risks for rehospitalizations were greater among patients undergoing appendectomy (AHR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.75), cholecystectomy (AHR, 2.25; 95% CI, 2.03 to 2.50), and nephrectomy for nonmetastatic carcinoma (AHR, 2.95; 95% CI, 2.58 to 3.37). Risks for

  20. The Vocational Personality of School Psychologists in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Morrison, Takea J.

    2008-01-01

    This study represents the first empirical test of the vocational personality of US school psychologists. Specifically, we investigated the personality of school psychologists using Holland's (1997) well-researched theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National…

  1. The Vocational Personality of School Psychologists in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Morrison, Takea J.

    2008-01-01

    This study represents the first empirical test of the vocational personality of US school psychologists. Specifically, we investigated the personality of school psychologists using Holland's (1997) well-researched theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National…

  2. Septic shock: a major cause of hospital death after intensive care unit discharge

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, Matheus Gomes; Lopes, Márcia Valéria Caldeira Angelucci; Gandolfi, Joelma Villafanha; Lobo, Suzana Margareth Ajeje

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the causes and factors associated with the death of patients between intensive care unit discharge and hospital discharge. Methods The present is a pilot, retrospective, observational cohort study. The records of all patients admitted to two units of a public/private university hospital from February 1, 2013 to April 30, 2013 were assessed. Demographic and clinical data, risk scores and outcomes were obtained from the Epimed monitoring system and confirmed in the electronic record system of the hospital. The relative risk and respective confidence intervals were calculated. Results A total of 581 patients were evaluated. The mortality rate in the intensive care unit was 20.8% and in the hospital was 24.9%. Septic shock was the cause of death in 58.3% of patients who died after being discharged from the intensive care unit. Of the patients from the public health system, 73 (77.6%) died in the intensive care unit and 21 (22.4%) died in the hospital after being discharged from the unit. Of the patients from the Supplementary Health System, 48 (94.1%) died in the intensive care unit and 3 (5.9%) died in the hospital after being discharged from the unit (relative risk, 3.87%; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 - 12.36; p < 0.05). The post-discharge mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with intensive care unit hospitalization time longer than 6 days. Conclusion The main cause of death of patients who were discharged from the intensive care unit and died in the ward before hospital discharge was septic shock. Coverage by the public healthcare system and longer hospitalization time in the intensive care unit were factors associated with death after discharge from the intensive care unit. PMID:25909313

  3. Patient Safety Events and Harms During Medical and Surgical Hospitalizations for Persons With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Daumit, Gail L.; McGinty, Emma E.; Pronovost, Peter; Dixon, Lisa B.; Guallar, Eliseo; Ford, Daniel E.; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Boonyasai, Romsai T.; Thompson, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored the risk of patient safety events and associated nonfatal physical harms and mortality in a cohort of persons with serious mental illness. This group experiences high rates of medical comorbidity and premature mortality and may be at high risk of adverse patient safety events. Methods Medical record review was conducted for medical-surgical hospitalizations occurring during 1994–2004 in a community-based cohort of Maryland adults with serious mental illness. Individuals were eligible if they died within 30 days of a medical-surgical hospitalization and if they also had at least one prior medical-surgical hospitalization within five years of death. All admissions took place at Maryland general hospitals. A case-crossover analysis examined the relationships among patient safety events, physical harms, and elevated likelihood of death within 30 days of hospitalization. Results A total of 790 hospitalizations among 253 adults were reviewed. The mean number of patient safety events per hospitalization was 5.8, and the rate of physical harms was 142 per 100 hospitalizations. The odds of physical harm were elevated in hospitalizations in which 22 of the 34 patient safety events occurred (p<.05), including medical events (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3–1.7) and procedure-related events (OR=1.6, CI=1.2–2.0). Adjusted odds of death within 30 days of hospitalization were elevated for individuals with any patient safety event, compared with those with no event (OR=3.7, CI=1.4–10.3). Conclusions Patient safety events were positively associated with physical harm and 30-day mortality in nonpsychiatric hospitalizations for persons with serious mental illness. PMID:27181736

  4. The activities of hospital nursing unit managers and quality of patient care in South African hospitals: a paradox?

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Susan J.; Rispel, Laetitia C.; Penn-Kekana, Loveday

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving the quality of health care is central to the proposed health care reforms in South Africa. Nursing unit managers play a key role in coordinating patient care activities and in ensuring quality care in hospitals. Objective This paper examines whether the activities of nursing unit managers facilitate the provision of quality patient care in South African hospitals. Methods During 2011, a cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in nine randomly selected hospitals (six public, three private) in two South African provinces. In each hospital, one of each of the medical, surgical, paediatric, and maternity units was selected (n=36). Following informed consent, each unit manager was observed for a period of 2 hours on the survey day and the activities recorded on a minute-by-minute basis. The activities were entered into Microsoft Excel, coded into categories, and analysed according to the time spent on activities in each category. The observation data were complemented by semi-structured interviews with the unit managers who were asked to recall their activities on the day preceding the interview. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results The study found that nursing unit managers spent 25.8% of their time on direct patient care, 16% on hospital administration, 14% on patient administration, 3.6% on education, 13.4% on support and communication, 3.9% on managing stock and equipment, 11.5% on staff management, and 11.8% on miscellaneous activities. There were also numerous interruptions and distractions. The semi-structured interviews revealed concordance between unit managers’ recall of the time spent on patient care, but a marked inflation of their perceived time spent on hospital administration. Conclusion The creation of an enabling practice environment, supportive executive management, and continuing professional development are needed to enable nursing managers to lead the provision of consistent and high

  5. The molecular epidemiology of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteraemia in a tertiary referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates 2000–2004

    PubMed Central

    Jumaa, Pauline A; Sonnevend, Agnes; Pàl, Tibor; El Hag, Mohammed; Amith, Ray; Trad, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Background Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is recognised as an important cause of nosocomial infection, especially in immunocompromised patients, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment of S. maltophilia infection presents a therapeutic challenge. The precise modes of transmission of S. maltophilia in the hospital environment are not known and such knowledge is essential to target interventions to prevent spread. There are few published data on the patterns of nosocomial infection in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A recent study showed that S. maltophilia is an established cause of bloodstream infection in Tawam Hospital in the UAE. Little is known about its epidemiology in the hospital. Methods We describe the clinical characteristics of 25 episodes of S. maltophilia bacteraemia which occurred from 2000–2004. The strains were characterised using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results All episodes were hospital-acquired and malignancy and central venous catheters were predisposing factors. Catheter-associated infection comprised 88% infection. Catheter removal was important for the successful management of catheter-associated infection. The results of PFGE suggested that there were as many strains as patients. S. maltophilia strains isolated from the same patient had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. Conclusion PFGE is a valid and reproducible typing method for S. maltophilia. The precise sources and modes of spread of S. maltophilia in the hospital are still not known. Knowledge that person to person transmission was not a major mode of transmission enabled infection control interventions for S. maltophilia to be targeted more effectively. PMID:17194302

  6. Hospital use in France and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kozak, L J; McCarthy, E; Mizrahi, A; Mizrahi, A; Sandier, S

    1989-01-01

    This report presents national statistics on hospital use from the U.S. National Hospital Discharge Survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics and the national survey of hospitalization conducted by CREDES, Centre de Recherche d'Etude et de Documentation en Economie de la Santé, previously the Medical Economics Division of CREDOC. The use statistics compared between the two countries include rates and percent distributions of discharges and days of care and average lengths of stay. These statistics are shown by sex, age, diagnostic category, and other hospital and patient characteristics. The similarities and differences between the two countries in population characteristics, causes of death, health care systems, and hospital systems are also described.

  7. Disruption, control and coping: responses of and to the person with dementia in hospital.

    PubMed

    Porock, Davina; Clissett, Philip; Harwood, Rowan H; Gladman, John R F

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to gain insight into the experience of hospitalisation from the perspectives of the older person with dementia, their family care-giver and other patients sharing the ward (co-patients). Non-participant observation of care on 11 acute hospital wards was supplemented by 39 semi-structured interviews with 35 family care-givers and four co-patients following discharge. Constant comparative analysis produced the core problem facing all those involved: disruption from normal routine meaning that the experience of hospitalisation was disrupted by the presence and behaviour of the person with dementia. Disruption adversely affected the person with dementia, triggering constructive, disengaged, distressed and neutral behaviours. Using Kitwood's model of person-centred care, these behaviours were interpreted as attempts by the person with dementia at gaining a sense of control over the unfamiliar environment and experience. Family care-givers' lives and experiences both inside and outside the hospital were disrupted by the hospitalisation. They too attempted to gain a sense of control over the experience and to give a sense of control to the patient, co-patients and staff. Co-patients experienced disruption from sharing space with the person with dementia and were left feeling vulnerable and sometimes afraid. They too attempted to gain a sense of control over their situation and give some control by helping the person with dementia, the family care-giver and the staff.

  8. Rural Residents Who Are Hospitalized in Rural and Urban Hospitals: United States, 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... hospitalized in urban hospitals ( Figure 2 ). No significant difference was observed in the percentage of hospitalized rural residents under age 45 who ... design of NHDS have been published elsewhere ( 14 ). Differences ... significance. Percentages were computed using unrounded numbers, so the results ...

  9. 8 CFR 319.1 - Persons living in marital union with United States citizen spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Persons living in marital union with United... § 319.1 Persons living in marital union with United States citizen spouse. (a) Eligibility. To be... living in marital union with the citizen spouse for the three years preceding the date of examination on...

  10. 8 CFR 319.1 - Persons living in marital union with United States citizen spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Persons living in marital union with United... § 319.1 Persons living in marital union with United States citizen spouse. (a) Eligibility. To be... living in marital union with the citizen spouse for the three years preceding the date of examination on...

  11. 26 CFR 1.959-4 - Distributions to United States persons not counting as dividends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... normal taxes and surtaxes) of subtitle A (relating to income taxes) of the Code as a distribution which... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions to United States persons not... Distributions to United States persons not counting as dividends. Except as provided in section 960(a)(3) and...

  12. Chinese International Students' Personal and Sociocultural Stressors in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2013-01-01

    To date, no empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the personal and sociocultural stressors of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examined what the most stressful aspects of their personal and social lives in the United States are, how they characterize their stress, and what conditions…

  13. Hospital Utilization among Persons with an Intellectual Disability, Ontario, Canada, 1995-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Robert S.; Hunter, Duncan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that persons with an intellectual disability consume a disproportionate amount of hospital services. Policy changes in Ontario in the 1970s and 1980s made it necessary for community health services to accommodate this population that formerly received most of its medical care in the institutions where they lived.…

  14. Identifying Risk Factors for the Prediction of Hospital Readmission among Older Persons with Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Renee Annette

    Older persons (55 years and older) with cardiovascular disease are at increased risk for hospital readmission when compared to other subgroups of our population. This issue presents an economic problem, a concern for the quality and type of care provided, and an urgent need to implement innovative strategies designed to reduce the rising cost of…

  15. Working Models of Attachment in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents: Relation to Psychopathology and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    This study examined the role of attachment in adolescent psychopathology among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Subjects consisted of 60 adolescents and 27 of their mothers. Measures included the Adult Attachment Interview classification for both the adolescents and their mothers, and a battery of diagnostic and personality assessment of…

  16. Predictors of Length of Stay in an Inpatient Psychiatric Unit of a General Hospital in Perugia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pauselli, Luca; Verdolini, Norma; Bernardini, Francesco; Compton, Michael T; Quartesan, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to understand which of a number of factors are most associated with psychiatric inpatient length of stay (LoS). We hypothesized that a longer LoS would be predicted by: older age, male gender, unmarried marital status, foreign nationality, more than one hospitalization, being hospitalized involuntarily, psychotic symptoms and behavioral dyscontrol at admission, discharge diagnosis of psychotic and personality disorders, not having a substance use disorder, treatment with more than one class of medications, and being discharged to a community residential facility. All admissions to the Psychiatric Inpatient Unit of Santa Maria della Misericordia, Perugia Hospital, Umbria, Italy, from June 2011 to June 2014, were included in a medical record review. Bivariate analyses were performed and a multiple linear regression model was built using variables that were associated (p < .05) with LoS in bivariate tests. The study sample included 1236 patients. In the final, most parsimonious regression model, five variables independently explained 18 % of variance in LoS: being admitted involuntarily, being admitted for thought disorders, not having a substance-related disorder, having had more than one hospitalization, and being discharged to a community residential facility. LoS on this inpatient psychiatric unit in Umbria was associated with a number of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Knowledge of these and other predictors of LoS will be increasingly important to, when possible, reduce the length of restrictive, costly hospitalizations and embrace community-based services.

  17. Effectiveness of intensive psychotherapy in a day hospital evaluated with Neurotic Personality Inventory KON-2006.

    PubMed

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Klasa, Katarzyna; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Mielimąka, Michał; Dembińska, Edyta; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    AIM : The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intensive psychotherapy in the day hospital for neurotic and behavioral disorders as well as the assessment of the usefulness of the Neurotic Personality Inventory KON-2006 for routine evaluation of psychotherapy effectiveness. The results of the questionnaires KON-2006 completed by 690 patients (women - 69%, men - 31%, mean age 29 years, SD 8 years) were analyzed. All persons have received comprehensive, mainly psychodynamic psychotherapy (group with elements of individual therapy), in the years 2004-2009 in the Day Hospital for Neurotic and Behavioral Disorders in Krakow. The vast majority of patients achieved after the end of psychotherapy beneficial changes in personality corresponding to various degrees of improvements in terms of the questionnaire KON-2006. Only a few patients deteriorated, somewhat more numerous group did not achieve significant changes or the effects are not possible for unambiguous interpretation. These results are highly correlated with those obtained in the personality questionnaire NEO-PI-R. The Neurotic Personality Inventory KON-2006 appears to be an adequate tool to assess the results of intensive, comprehensive psychotherapy, conducted in the day hospital for neurotic and behavioral disorders.

  18. Effect of sleep-inducing music on sleep in persons with percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography in the cardiac care unit.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Min-Jung; Park, Jeong Sook; Park, Heeok

    2012-03-01

    The study compared the effect of earplug-delivered sleep-inducing music on sleep in persons with percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography in the cardiac care unit. Diverse types of music have been claimed to improve sleeping elsewhere, but relatively little is known in South Korea. Most studies investigating the effect of sleep-inducing music on sleep have involved persons with insomnia, even though many persons with cardiovascular disease in the intensive care unit suffer from sleeping problems. There is a need to investigate the effect of sleep-inducing music on sleep disorders in persons with percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography in the cardiac care unit. An experimental research design was used. Data collection was conducted in the cardiac care unit of K University Hospital in D city, from 3 September-4 October 2010. Fifty-eight subjects participated and were randomly assigned to the experimental group (earplug-delivered sleep-inducing music for 52 min beginning at 10:00 pm, while wearing an eyeshield, n = 29) and the control group (no music, but earplugs and eyeshield worn, n = 29). The quantity and quality of sleep were measured using questionnaires at 7 am the next morning for each group. Participants in the experimental group reported that the sleeping quantity and quality were significantly higher than control group (t = 3·181, p = 0·002, t = 5·269, p < 0·001, respectively). Sleep-inducing music significantly improved sleep in patients with percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography at a cardiac care unit. Offering earplugs and playing sleep-inducing music may be a meaningful and easily enacted nursing intervention to improve sleep for intensive care unit patients. Nurses working at cardiac care unit can use music to improve sleeping in clients with percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Does hospital ownership influence hospital referral region health rankings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hamadi, Hanadi; Apatu, Emma; Spaulding, Aaron

    2017-07-21

    Extensive evidence demonstrates that a hospital's organizational ownership structure impacts its overall performance, but little is known concerning the influence of hospital structure on the health of its community. This paper explores the association between US hospital referral region (HRR) health rankings and hospital ownership and performance. Data from the 2016 Commonwealth Fund Scorecard on Local Health System Performance, the American Hospital Association dataset, and the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing dataset are utilized to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 36 quality measures across 306 HRRs. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the association among hospital ownership, system performance measures-access and affordability, prevention and treatment, avoidable hospital use and cost, and healthy lives-and performance as measured by value-based purchasing total performance scores. We found that indicators of access and affordability, as well as prevention and treatment, were significantly associated across all 3 hospitals' organizational structures. Hospital referral regions with a greater number of not-for-profit hospitals demonstrated greater indications of access and affordability, as well as better prevention and treatment rankings than for-profit and government hospitals. Hospital referral regions with a greater number of government, nonfederal hospitals had worse scores for healthy lives. Furthermore, the greater the total performance scores score, the better the HRR score on prevention and treatment rankings. The greater the per capita income, the better the score across all 4 dimensions. As such, this inquiry supports the assertion that performance of a local health system is dependent on its community's resources of health care delivery entities and their structure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Reliability assessment of a hospital quality measure based on rates of adverse outcomes on nursing units.

    PubMed

    Staggs, Vincent S

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for assessing the reliability of scores on a widely disseminated hospital quality measure based on nursing unit fall rates. Poisson regression interactive multilevel modeling was adapted to account for clustering of units within hospitals. Three signal-noise reliability measures were computed. Squared correlations between the hospital score and true hospital fall rate averaged 0.52 ± 0.18 for total falls (0.68 ± 0.18 for injurious falls). Reliabilities on the other two measures averaged at least 0.70 but varied widely across hospitals. Parametric bootstrap data reflecting within-unit noise in falls were generated to evaluate percentile-ranked hospital scores as estimators of true hospital fall rate ranks. Spearman correlations between bootstrap hospital scores and true fall rates averaged 0.81 ± 0.01 (0.79 ± 0.01). Bias was negligible, but ranked hospital scores were imprecise, varying across bootstrap samples with average SD 11.8 (14.9) percentiles. Across bootstrap samples, hospital-measure scores fell in the same decile as the true fall rate in about 30% of cases. Findings underscore the importance of thoroughly assessing reliability of quality measurements before deciding how they will be used. Both the hospital measure and the reliability methods described can be adapted to other contexts involving clustered rates of adverse patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Health care costs of persons with diabetes prior to and following hospitalization in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Caporale, Joaquín E; Calvo, Héctor; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2006-12-01

    To analyze and compare the ambulatory care expenditures for persons with diabetes during prehospitalization and posthospitalization periods with those of diabetics who were not hospitalized for diabetes-related illnesses during the same period. We determined the hospitalization and ambulatory care expenses incurred by an Argentine health insurer for the hospitalization of diabetic clients during the study period, and compared these expenses to the expenses of insured diabetics who were not hospitalized during that period. We identified 2,760 persons with diabetes (2.4% of the total number of persons covered by the insurance company). Of those, 1,683 (59%) were on medication for diabetes and its associated cardiovascular risk factors. Diabetes was associated with either one (41%) or two (24%) cardiovascular risk factors. Of those 1 683 persons, 102 (6%) were hospitalized for diabetes-related reasons during the study period. The frequency of hospitalization increased significantly in cases where diabetes was associated with arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular illness was the cause of 43.1% of the hospitalizations, with a significantly higher per capita cost than any of the other causes identified (mean +/- standard error of the mean: US 1,673 dollars +/- US 296.8 dollars; P < 0.05). The total annual per capita cost for health care for the diabetics who had been hospitalized was greater than for those who had not (US 2,907.8 dollars +/- US 262.5 dollars compared to US 473.4 dollars +/- US 9.8 dollars, respectively; P < 0.01). While the total posthospitalization ambulatory care expenditures were 12% higher than the prehospitalization costs (US 903.6 dollars +/- US 108.6 dollars vs. US 797.6 dollars +/- US 14.9 dollars), the difference was not significant. Ambulatory care expenditures increase significantly in the prehospitalization and posthospitalization periods. The results suggest that intensive treatment of hyperglycemia and its associated

  2. A goal-oriented limited-duration approach for borderline personality disorder during brief inpatient hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Siefert, Caleb J

    2012-12-01

    As part of their overall care, patients with borderline personality disorder may require inpatient hospitalization for containment and stabilization in the context of severe distress, increased risk for self-harm, or after self-harming acts. Though data suggests that such patients are frequently hospitalized, the benefits of brief hospitalizations can sometimes be questionable. In some cases, the hospitalization environment may increase patient distress. Additionally, frequent serial hospitalizations can disrupt or sidetrack longer-term outpatient treatments. The present paper presents a Goal-Oriented Limited-Duration Borderline Personality Disorder Inpatient Treatment approach. The approach integrates elements from many other expert-based approaches for working in brief hospital settings and centers on the creation of a preadmission treatment agreement with a planned discharge date. This agreement involves clear goals for treatment and specifies how staff will be involved. Establishing a discharge date early in treatment allows staff to immediately begin working with feelings of rejection or abandonment. At discharge, recommendations are made and criteria for future admissions are set forth. This paper provides a description of the approach, information to consider in determining appropriateness, discussion of methods for clarifying goals, review of the discharge planning approach, and several examples of clinician-patient exchanges. This paper concludes with a case example in which the approach was used and discussions of future directions and potential benefits and limitations of the approach. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. [Levels of satisfaction and perceived quality in a day surgery unit of a tertiary referral hospital].

    PubMed

    García Durán, A; Docobo Durántez, F; Mena Robles, J; Cárave López Becerra, A; Vázquez Monchul, J; Durán Ferreras, I

    2003-12-01

    Surgical and anesthetic advances have allowed an adequate develop at the day surgery programs, with a rational application and cost-effectiveness of the hospital resorts. The aim of this study, is to know the level of quality perceived in surgical treatment in a program of day surgery. A randomised selection of 204 patients from a series of 751 operated, between April-May 2001 in a day-surgery institution, was done. Phone questionnaire was done following protocol SERCAL (sociodemographic factors and general satisfaction, accessibility, personal assistance, guarantee and fidelity service) with validation for day surgery programs. Absolute and relatives frequencies were evaluated for dichotomous and categoric variables and medium and standard deviation for numeric variables. Possible differences were evaluated by chi2 test in qualitative variables and Student's t and ANOVA test for quantitative variables. Response index was 70.1%. Satisfaction general index was 9.1%, for 18 numeric items (range 0-10). Social and demographic items show that the best validity of treatment were by elderly, women, retired and low cultural patients. Data reduction by factorial analysis showed 4 factors with incidence (total variance 71.62%): Scientific-technical guarantee service and adequate personal treatment (Cronbach's alpha 0.9060), comfortable and security assistance (Cronbach's alpha 0.8708), accessibility to hospital and professionals (Cronbach's alpha 0.0652), accessibility to surgical service. General satisfaction of the patients treated in the day-surgery program was high, 9.1 (range 0-10). 88.8% patients would recommend this type of treatment to their parents or friends and in 84.3% would repeat the same experience in the surgery unit. The best appreciate items were the direct treatment and relation, respect, intimacy and information along the assistential circuit by implicated professionals. The worst identified item was the time past in waiting surgical list.

  4. Predictors of the level of personal involvement in an organization: a study of Slovene hospitals.

    PubMed

    Savic', Brigita Skela; Pagon, Milan; Robida, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    The most important of the health system inputs, the performance and the benefits the system can deliver, depend largely upon the knowledge, skills, and motivation of those individuals responsible for delivering health services. This article discusses a study that considered predictors of successful personal involvement in a health care organization. The research included three independent variables (organizational culture, teamwork, and leadership) and one dependent variable (personal involvement). The sample included 734 respondents from 14 Slovene hospitals and three personnel categories: doctors, nurses, and non-health care professionals. : The results of regression analysis have shown that the dependent variable "personal involvement" can be explained with four independent variables in 49.6% of cases, which are: teamwork (p < .001), level of education (p < .001), transformational leadership (p < .001), and transactional leadership (p = .004). The study has demonstrated that doctors, nurses, and non-health care professionals view their hospitals as having a culture of internal focus, stability, and control. All three groups viewed their level of personal involvement in the organizations as low, whereas nurses and non-health care professionals also expressed a sense of subordination to doctors. In addition to other predictors of personal involvement in an organization, which have been researched and confirmed in other studies, our study has also shown the level of education and transactional leadership to be a statistically significant predictor. Managers and leaders must accept responsibility for the existing results regarding personal involvement and start to work on interprofessional collaboration within the organization and outside of it.

  5. Hospital-Level Changes in Adult ICU Bed Supply in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallace, David J; Seymour, Christopher W; Kahn, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Although the number of intensive care beds in the United States is increasing, little is known about the hospitals responsible for this growth. We sought to better characterize national growth in intensive care beds by identifying hospital-level factors associated with increasing numbers of intensive care beds over time. We performed a repeated-measures time series analysis of hospital-level intensive care bed supply using data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. All United States acute care hospitals with adult intensive care beds over the years 1996-2011. None. None. We described the number of beds, teaching status, ownership, intensive care occupancy, and urbanicity for each hospital in each year of the study. We then examined the relationship between increasing intensive care beds and these characteristics, controlling for other factors. The study included 4,457 hospitals and 55,865 hospital-years. Overall, the majority of intensive care bed growth occurred in teaching hospitals (net, +13,471 beds; 72.1% of total growth), hospitals with 250 or more beds (net, +18,327 beds; 91.8% of total growth), and hospitals in the highest quartile of occupancy (net, +10,157 beds; 54.0% of total growth). In a longitudinal multivariable model, larger hospital size, teaching status, and high intensive care occupancy were associated with subsequent-year growth. Furthermore, the effects of hospital size and teaching status were modified by occupancy: the greatest odds of increasing ICU beds were in hospitals with 500 or more beds in the highest quartile of occupancy (adjusted odds ratio, 18.9; 95% CI, 14.0-25.5; p < 0.01) and large teaching hospitals in the highest quartile of occupancy (adjusted odds ratio, 7.3; 95% CI, 5.3-9.9; p < 0.01). Increasingly, intensive care bed expansion in the United States is occurring in larger hospitals and teaching centers, particularly following a year with high ICU occupancy.

  6. Perceptions of the hospital ethical environment among hospital social workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Greg L

    2015-01-01

    Hospital social workers are in a unique context of practice, and one where the ethical environment has a profound influence on the ethical behavior. This study determined the ratings of ethical environment by hospital social workers in large nationwide sample. Correlates suggest by and compared to studies of ethical environment with nurses are explored. Positive ratings of the ethical environment are primarily associated with job satisfaction, as well as working in a centralized social work department and for a non-profit hospital. Religiosity and MSW education were not predictive. Implications and suggestions for managing the hospital ethical environment are provided.

  7. Worksite Walkthrough Intervention: Data-driven Prevention of Workplace Violence on Hospital Units.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Janisse, James; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the implementation of a data-driven, unit-based walkthrough intervention shown to be effective in reducing the risk of workplace violence in hospitals. A structured worksite walkthrough was conducted on 21 hospital units. Unit-level workplace violence data were reviewed and a checklist of possible prevention strategies and an Action Plan form guided development of unit-specific intervention. Unit supervisor perceptions of the walkthrough and implemented prevention strategies were reported via questionnaires. Prevention strategies were categorized as environmental, behavioral, or administrative. A majority of units implemented strategies within 12 months' postintervention. Participants found the walkthrough useful, practical, and worthy of continued use. Structured worksite walkthroughs provide a feasible method for workplace violence reduction in hospitals. Core elements are standardized yet flexible, promoting fidelity and transferability of this intervention.

  8. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. PMID:27433491

  9. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning.

  10. [Withdrawal in opiate addicts in an internal medicine hospital unit].

    PubMed

    Crémer, G A; Boissonnas, A

    1995-10-01

    Withdrawal of opiates drug addicts in Internal Medicine is unusual in France. Four main preliminary conditions are requested: 1--Drug addict preparation and self motivation, 2--Inter and intra institution team collaboration, 3--Opening the hospital towards community agencies, 4--Hospital staff recruited on volunteer basis. Within two years (1992-1993), 210 opiates drug addicts were hospitalized for withdrawal. Two third were males, median age was 27, median years of addiction was 7. Thirty percent were seropositive for HIV, 70% for HCV. Hospitalisation lasted 7 days for heroin addicts and 10 days for morphin, codein or buprenorphin addicts. Successful withdrawn was observed for 70% patients but six months after withdrawal, only 15% remained abstinent.

  11. Herpes zoster-related hospitalizations and expenditures before and after introduction of the varicella vaccine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mitesh S; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Davis, Matthew M

    2008-12-01

    With childhood varicella vaccination in the United States have come concerns that the incidence of herpes zoster may increase, because of diminishing natural exposure to varicella and consequent reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus. We wanted to estimate the rate of herpes zoster-related hospitalizations and the associated hospital charges before and during the promotion of varicella vaccination in the United States. A retrospective study of patients from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 1993-2004 who were hospitalized due to herpes zoster infection. We searched for diagnoses of herpes zoster (using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes starting with 053) in all 15 diagnostic-code fields included for hospital discharges in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample during 1993-2004. We designed our analysis to examine the rates of severe illness due to herpes zoster that resulted in hospitalization, as measured by the rates of herpes zoster-related hospital discharges (HZHDs). The annual population-adjusted rate of HZHDs (per 10,000 US population) and the annual inflation-adjusted total charges for HZHDs were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included mean charges for HZHDs and the distribution of total charges for HZHDs by expected primary payer. Varicella-related hospital discharges (VRHDs) were identified by use of similar diagnosis-based methods, which were described in our previous study. Population-adjusted rates of HZHDs did not change significantly from the prevaccination years (1993-1995) through the initial 5 years of the varicella vaccination period. Beginning in 2001, however, the rate of HZHDs overall began to increase, and by 2004 the overall rate was 2.5 HZHDs (95% confidence interval, 2.38-2.62) per 10,000 US population, significantly higher than any of the rates calculated during the years prior to 2002. Hospital charges for HZHDs overall increased by more than $700 million

  12. Influence of indoor air quality and personal factors on the sick building syndrome (SBS) in Swedish geriatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nordström, K; Norbäck, D; Akselsson, R

    1995-03-01

    Sick building syndrome (SBS) involves symptoms such as irritation to the eyes, skin, and upper airways, headache, and fatigue. The relations between such symptoms and both personal and environmental factors were studied in 225 female hospital workers, working in eight hospital units in the south of Sweden. Symptoms of SBS and personal factors were measured by means of a standardised self administered questionnaire. The technical investigation comprised a building survey and measurements of room temperature, supply air temperature, air humidity, and exhaust air flow. The prevalence of symptoms differed from one unit to another. The mean value of weekly complaints of fatigue was 30%, of eye irritation 23%, and of dry facial skin 34%. Eye irritation was related to work stress, self reported exposure to static electricity, and was also more common in buildings with a high ventilation flow and a high noise level (55 dB(A)) from the ventilation system. Nasal symptoms were related to asthma and hay fever only. Throat symptoms were more common in smokers, subjects with asthma or hay fever, new buildings, and in buildings with a high ventilation flow. Facial skin irritation was related to a lack of control of the work conditions, and was more common in new buildings, and buildings with a high ventilation flow and ventilation noise. General symptoms, such as headache and fatigue, were related to current smoking, asthma or hay fever, work dissatisfaction, and static electricity. As the prevalence of symptoms was high, there is a need to improve the indoor environment as well as the psychosocial environment in hospitals. These improvements could include a reduction of ventilation noise, minimised smoking, and improvements in the psychosocial climate. Further research is needed to identify indoor climatic factors that cause the increased prevalence of symptoms of SBS in new buildings.

  13. [Evaluation of a stroke unit at a university hospital in Chile].

    PubMed

    Díaz T, Violeta; Illanes D, Sergio; Reccius M, Andrés; Manterola V, José L; Cerda C, Paulina; Recabarren L, Carmen; González V, Rafael

    2006-11-01

    Stroke is the second specific cause of death in Chile, with a mortality rate of 48.6 per 100.000 inhabitants. It accounts for 6% of all hospitalizations among adults. To study the type of patients hospitalized at a Stroke Unit in a general hospital and the costs and benefits of such unit. A descriptive and retrospective study using a patient registry, developed in Access that included separate sections for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Established diagnostic criteria were used. The mean costs per patient and complications were also calculated. During 2003, 425 stroke patients were admitted to our hospital and 105 (age range 30-89 years, 58% female) were hospitalized at the Stroke Unit. Eighty-three percent had ischemic and 16% had hemorrhagic stroke. The most common etiologies were thrombosis in 41%, embolism in 36%, lacunar in 13%, arterial dissection in 5% and transient ischemic attack in 3%. Fifty eight percent of patients had partial anterior ischemic stroke (PACI), 73% had hypertension and 29.5% diabetes. Only 18% arrived to the Stroke Unit with less of 6 hours of evolution, 7% of patients were admitted within the 3 hours after the onset of symptoms and 18%, from 3 to 6 hours. The mean length of stay in the Stroke Unit was 6.6 days and at the hospital 9.9 days (p <0.01). The mean costs per patient at the Stroke Unit and at the hospital were US$ 5.550 and US$ 4.815, respectively (p =ns). The Stroke Unit decreases hospital stay days without raising costs importantly. The inclusion criteria for stroke patients admitted to the Unit were adequate and the stroke registry allowed a good assessment of the Unit operation.

  14. [Histrionic personality disorder in a psychiatry department at a general hospital].

    PubMed

    Abril, A; Valle, J; Moreno, D; de Miguel, D; Molina, D

    1991-01-01

    The personality disturbances imply problem within the psychiatric assistance, both for its difficult delimitation and classification and for the limited results and bad use obtained from therapeutic resources. We studied 402 patients psychiatric service of a general hospital over a period approximately 2 years, 70 (17.5%) were diagnosed DSM-III with Personality disturbances: 44 females (62.9%) and 26 males (37.1%), of an age group between 18 and 67 years old. The most frequent diagnosis was of histrionic of the personality followed by unspecific and border-line. Within the histrionic disturbance of the personality there was a clear predominance of women, whereas in the others types, no significant differences were observed.

  15. Observation-status patients in children's hospitals with and without dedicated observation units in 2011.

    PubMed

    Macy, Michelle L; Hall, Matthew; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Fieldston, Evan S; Shanley, Leticia A; Hronek, Carla; Hain, Paul D; Shah, Samir S

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric observation units (OUs) have demonstrated reductions in lengths of stay (LOS) and costs of care. Hospital-level outcomes across all observation-status stays have not been evaluated in relation to the presence of a dedicated OU in the hospital. To compare observation-status stay outcomes in hospitals with and without a dedicated OU. Cross-sectional analysis of hospital administrative data. Observation-status stay outcomes were compared in hospitals with and without a dedicated OU across 4 categories: (1) LOS, (2) standardized costs, (3) conversion to inpatient status, and (4) return care. Observation-status stays in 31 free-standing children's hospitals contributing observation patient data to the Pediatric Health Information System database, 2011. Fifty-one percent of the 136,239 observation-status stays in 2011 occurred in 14 hospitals with a dedicated OU; the remainder were in 17 hospitals without. The percentage of observation-status same-day discharges was higher in hospitals with a dedicated OU compared with hospitals without (23.8 vs 22.1, P < 0.001), but risk-adjusted LOS in hours and total standardized costs were similar. Conversion to inpatient status was higher in hospitals with a dedicated OU (11.06%) compared with hospitals without (9.63%, P < 0.01). Adjusted odds of return visits and readmissions were comparable. The presence of a dedicated OU appears to have an influence on same-day and morning discharges across all observation-status stays without impacting other hospital-level outcomes. Inclusion of location of care (eg, dedicated OU, inpatient unit, emergency department) in hospital administrative datasets would allow for more meaningful comparisons of models of hospital care. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Survey of Hospital Employees' Personal Preparedness and Willingness to Work Following a Disaster.

    PubMed

    Brice, Jane H; Gregg, David; Sawyer, Dalton; Cyr, Julianne M

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the personal readiness of hospital staff for disasters. As many as 30% of hospital staff say that they plan not to report for work during a large-scale disaster. We sought to understand the personal disaster preparedness for hospital staff. Surveys were distributed to the staff of a large academic tertiary-care hospital by either a paper-based version distributed through the departmental safety coordinators or a Web-based version distributed through employee e-mail services, depending on employee familiarity with and access to computer services. Surveys assessed the demographic variables and characteristics of personal readiness for disaster. Of the individuals who accessed the survey, 1334 (95.9%) enrolled in it. Women made up 75% of the respondents, with a mean age of 43 years. Respondents had worked at the hospital an average of 9 years, with the majority (90%) being full-time employees. Most households (93%) reported ≤4 members, 6% supported a person with special medical needs, and 17% were headed by a single parent. A small number (24%) of respondents reported an established meeting place for reuniting households during a disaster. Many reported stockpiling a 3-day supply of food (86%) and a 3-day supply of water (51%). Eighteen percent of respondents were not aware of workplace evacuation plans. Most respondents were willing to report to work for natural disasters (eg, tornado, snowstorm; all categories >65%), but fewer respondents were willing to report during events such as an influenza epidemic (54%), a biological outbreak (41%), a chemical exposure, (40%), or a radiation exposure (39%). Multivariate analysis revealed being female, having a child in the household younger than 6 years old, and having a child in school lowered the likelihood of being willing to report to work in two or more event types, whereas pet ownership, being a clinical healthcare worker, and being familiar with the work emergency plan increased the likelihood

  17. Hospital Schools in the United States. Bulletin, 1938, No. 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheison, Clele Lee

    1939-01-01

    Among the exceptional children for whom special educational facilities are essential are those who must spend weeks or months or years in a hospital or a sanatorium. Many of these children, while undergoing physical treatment, can very profitably engage in school work. Comparatively little has been written about this phase of educational activity,…

  18. 38 CFR 17.46 - Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service... Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.46 Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home...

  19. 38 CFR 17.46 - Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service... Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.46 Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home...

  20. 38 CFR 17.46 - Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service... Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.46 Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home...

  1. 38 CFR 17.46 - Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service... Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.46 Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home...

  2. 38 CFR 17.46 - Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service... Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.46 Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home...

  3. U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  4. Can National Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) Data Differentiate Hospitals in the United States?

    PubMed

    Masnick, Max; Morgan, Daniel J; Sorkin, John D; Macek, Mark D; Brown, Jessica P; Rheingans, Penny; Harris, Anthony D

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website (http://medicare.gov/hospitalcompare) can use nationally reported healthcare-associated infection (HAI) data to differentiate hospitals. DESIGN Secondary analysis of publicly available HAI data for calendar year 2013. METHODS We assessed the availability of HAI data for geographically proximate hospitals (ie, hospitals within the same referral region) and then analyzed these data to determine whether they are useful to differentiate hospitals. We assessed data for the 6 HAIs reported by hospitals to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). RESULTS Data were analyzed for 4,561 hospitals representing 88% of registered community and federal government hospitals in the United States. Healthcare-associated infection data are only useful for comparing hospitals if they are available for multiple hospitals within a geographic region. We found that data availability differed by HAI. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) data were most available, with 82% of geographic regions (ie, hospital referral regions) having >50% of hospitals reporting them. In contrast, 4% of geographic regions had >50% of member hospitals reporting surgical site infections (SSI) for hysterectomies, which had the lowest availability. The ability of HAI data to differentiate hospitals differed by HAI: 72% of hospital referral regions had at least 1 pair of hospitals with statistically different risk-adjusted CDI rates (SIRs), compared to 9% for SSI (hysterectomy). CONCLUSIONS HAI data generally are reported by enough hospitals to meet minimal criteria for useful comparisons in many geographic locations, though this varies by type of HAI. CDI and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) are more likely to differentiate hospitals than the other publicly reported HAIs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1167-1171.

  5. What Influences Treatment Satisfaction in Patients with Personality Disorders? A Naturalistic Investigation in a Hospitalization Setting

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Huber, Martin Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Treatment satisfaction of different mental disorders is still poorly understood, but of high clinical interest. Inpatients of a general psychiatric care hospital were asked to fill out questionnaires on satisfaction and clinical variables at admission and discharge. On the basis of an exploratory approach, differences in treatment satisfaction among diagnostic groups were examined by means of one-way analysis of variance. Potential associated clinical and socio-demographic variables were studied using multi/univariate tests. Patients with personality disorders (n=18) showed a significantly lower treatment satisfaction (ZUF-8, Zurich Satisfaction Questionnaire) and a slightly lower improvement of symptoms (CGI, Clinical Global Impression) and global functioning (GAF, Global Assessment of Functioning scale) than that of other diagnostic groups (n=95). Satisfaction in patients with personality disorders correlated much stronger with the symptom improvement and slightly with the functioning level than in patients without personality disorders. Interestingly, in patients with personality disorders psychopharmacological treatment in general (present versus not present) was independent from satisfaction. This exploratory investigation suggests that a lower satisfaction of patients with personality disorders in a general psychiatric hospital is mainly based on a reduced improvement of the symptoms and of the global functioning level. PMID:28217274

  6. Hospital closure in the United States, 1976-1980: a descriptive overview.

    PubMed Central

    Mullner, R; Byre, C S; Kubal, J D

    1983-01-01

    This paper is an overview of hospital closure in the United States for the five-year period 1976-1980. We describe the distributional patterns of closings among noncommunity and community hospitals classified according to institutional characteristics such as bed size, control, and location. We also examine the ten percent of community hospitals operating at the beginning of the period which were shown to have combined institutional characteristics strongly associated with closure via a method of regression analysis. PMID:6360955

  7. Personality differences among junior postgraduate trainees in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Martinou, Eirini; Allan, Hayley; Vig, Stella

    2015-01-01

    An early understanding of the personality profiles of junior trainees may be valuable for supporting the professional and educational development of tomorrow's doctors. This study aims to describe the personality profile of junior trainees and to explore whether the personality profiles differed according to the level of training, specialty choice, or gender. The Mental Muscle Diagram Indicator was distributed electronically. South West London, Health Education England South London. A total of 157 junior trainees completed the personality questionnaire. Specifically, there were core surgical (n = 40), core medical (n = 24), and foundation trainees (n = 93). The preferential profile across all groups was Extroversion (E), Sensing (S), Feeling (F), and Perception (P). More foundation doctors favored an extrovert and sensing personality when compared with core trainees (72% vs 60.4% and 77.4% vs 57.5%, respectively). More core surgical trainees appeared to prefer Extroversion when compared with their medical counterparts (66.7% vs 54.2%). More core medical trainees favored an intuitive behavior when compared with their surgical colleagues (50% vs 35%). Significantly, more female trainees (83.3%) displayed an extrovert personality than male trainees (66.7%) did. According to the Mental Muscle Diagram Indicator analysis, this work shows that the more junior the trainees are in their career, the more they tend to enjoy human interaction and to favor acting before thinking. The most junior trainees tend to be slightly more interested in dealing with facts rather than ideas and favor a flexible approach of life. The reducing ratio of Extroversion and Sensing in the core trainees when compared with foundation doctors may suggest that clinical experience has an effect on personality. As trainees begin to progress, they may tend to reflect more on their practice and to start thinking about more long term. These results suggest that a greater understanding of their personality

  8. Type D personality and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among intensive care unit nurses: The mediating effect of resilience.

    PubMed

    Cho, Geum-Jin; Kang, Jiyeon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Type D personality and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses and to determine the mediating effect of resilience on this relationship. A cross-sectional survey was performed with 179 ICU nurses from 7 hospitals in Gyeong-Nam province, South Korea. The Type D personality, resilience, and PTSD symptoms of subjects were measured using a self-report questionnaire. The mediating effect was analyzed by a series of hierarchical multiple regressions. A total of 38.6% of the study participants turned out to have Type D personality. The Type D personality was positively correlated with PTSD symptoms, and negatively correlated with resilience. There was a negative correlation between resilience and PTSD symptoms. The indirect effect of Type D personality on PTSD symptoms via resilience (β = .51, p < .001) was smaller than the direct effect (β = .58, p < .001). Based on the above results, it can be concluded that resilience had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between Type D personality and PTSD symptoms of ICU nurses. Further studies need to be done to develop interventions for enhancing resilience in ICU nurses.

  9. The prevalence of personality disorder in a general medical hospital population in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Walcott, G; Clarke, T R; Barton, E N; Hickling, F W

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of personality disorders in patients admitted to the general medical wards of the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Patients (n = 100) sequentially admitted to the general medical wards of the UHWI were assessed for the diagnosis of personality disorder using the gold standard of a consultant assessment based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for personality disorder, the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening questionnaire (IPDE-S) and the Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI). The three assessment instruments identified a prevalence of personality disorder in the cohort of patients of 21% consultant DSM IV-TR assessment, 28% JPDI and 70% IPDE-S. The prevalence rate identified by the IPDE-S was significantly higher than the local instruments used (p < 0.000). The prevalence of personality disorder assessed by the JPDI and the IPDE-S and the consultant DSM IV-TR instruments in Jamaica is significantly higher than the prevalence rate of studies in other countries.

  10. Mount Sinai Hospital dental program for persons with disabilities: role in undergraduate dental education.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Access to dental care for persons with special needs or disabilities continues to be a problem. This population is known to have a high incidence of dental disease, but unfortunately oral health is a significant unmet health need in many cases. To address this need, the Mount Sinai Hospital Dental Program for Persons with Disabilities was developed over 30 years ago by staff within the discipline of pediatric dentistry at the faculty of dentistry of the University of Toronto. Undergraduate students receive hands-on clinical training in dental management of persons with disabilities, the majority of whom have a developmental disability and could receive care in a community-based dental practice. This program has been successful, but access to community care is still an issue for the population served. Two new initiatives have been introduced in an attempt to develop personal links between persons with disabilities and future dentists, the first a series of lectures given by persons with disabilities and the second a nonprofit organization dedicated to raising awareness of the need for dental care for persons with disabilities. Among other activities, the organization sponsors a community-based event called Sharing Smiles Day, which brings together dental students and persons with disabilities in a carnival-like setting where the emphasis is on personal interactions. Dental preventive education is also provided but is of secondary importance. These initiatives and the program as a whole represent recognition of the responsibility of educators to ensure that new graduates have both the education and the desire to provide needed dental care to persons with disabilities.

  11. [Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Domingos, Thiago da Silva; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5%) of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate) were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  12. Using a unit assessment tool to optimize patient flow and staffing in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Rozich, John D; Resar, Roger K

    2002-01-01

    Hospital environments are too often characterized by delays for patients receiving diagnostic testing and prolonged waiting times to complete needed therapy. Frequently there is confusion in scheduling, related at least in part to the complex interplay of clinical acuity and highly individualized care. Luther Midelfort recently began to change the process of patient flow to improve access to care, optimize outcomes by enabling timely intervention, and decrease the wasting of resources. The hospital developed a unit assessment tool based on the traffic light concept, which consisted of an assessment of current capacity and a graded, color-coded "workload tolerance" for each hospital unit. Each unit can instantly update its own status and query those of other work environments in the hospital. For most of the January-July 2001 period, there was generally a progressive decrease in the percentage of time that the units were coded as red (unit closed to new admissions), with concurrent increases in the percentage of time that the units were coded as green (unit open). Use of the tool appears to have contributed to a dramatic increase in staff satisfaction. The key to regulating patient flow has been to adopt a nursing-initiated capping trust policy whereby nurses are given the authority to limit new admissions. Initiatives are now under way to provide different units with novel models of resource sharing, ranging from flexible housekeeping to "flying nurse squads" to assist units that have become red.

  13. Hospitalization for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus among Indian-born persons: a small area analysis

    PubMed Central

    Muennig, Peter; Jia, Haomiao; Khan, Kamran

    2004-01-01

    Background We set out to describe the risk of hospitalization from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes among persons born in India, all foreign-born persons, and U.S.-born persons residing in New York City. Methods We examined billing records of 1,083,817 persons hospitalized in New York City during the year 2000. The zip code of each patient's residence was linked to corresponding data from the 2000 U.S. Census to obtain covariates not present in the billing records. Using logistic models, we evaluated the risk of hospitalization for heart disease, stroke and diabetes by country of origin. Results After controlling for covariates, Indian-born persons are at similar risk of hospitalization for heart disease (RR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.02, 1.03), stroke (RR = 1.00, 95% confidence interval, 0.99, 1.01), and diabetes mellitus (RR = 0.96 95% confidence interval 0.94, 0.97) as native-born persons. However, Indian-born persons are more likely to be hospitalized for these diseases than other foreign-born persons. For instance, the risk of hospitalization for heart disease among foreign-born persons is 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.67, 0.72) and the risk of hospitalization for diabetes is 0.39 (95% confidence interval 0.37, 0.42) relative to native-born persons. Conclusions South Asians have considerably lower rates of hospitalization in New York than reported in countries with national health systems. Access may play a role. Clinicians working in immigrant settings should nonetheless maintain a higher vigilance for these conditions among Indian-born persons than among other foreign-born populations. PMID:15509299

  14. Positive impact of stroke unit establishment on patient recovery in Firoozgar hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Taghipour, Salameh; Abdollahi, Sahar; Oliaee, Fatemeh; Goran, Azin; Motamed, Mohamadreza; Ashayeri, Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Firoozgar Comprehensive Stroke Center started up as the first organized care unit in the country in 2014; this study was performed to investigate quality indicators such as reduction in mortality, morbidity and hospital stay. Methods: Two groups of ischemic stroke patients were compared. The first group had been admitted in general neurology ward (non-stroke unit patients) and the second one received specialized stroke care in the stroke unit within a period of two years (stroke unit patients). Non-stroke unit patients were selected from a pool of patients admitted two years before establishment of stroke unit. Variables compared were factors such as modified Rankin Scale (mRS), confinement days in stroke unit or Intensive Care Unit, total days of hospitalization, history of prior stroke, receiving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and the stroke category indicating anterior or posterior circulation infarct. Quantitative testing was conducted using independent t-test as well as "Mann-Whitney U Test"; Chi-squared test was used for qualitative testing. Results: A total number of 129 patients enrolled in the study (66 cases of non-stroke unit patients and 63 cases of stroke unit patients). The average total days of hospitalization were 17.32 (95% CI: 0.15-36.1) in non-stroke unit patients and 21.19 (95% CI: 4.99 - 38.1) in stroke unit patients (p=0.2). Results for stroke unit patients showed a lower mRS score (OR=1.48, p=0.01). Conclusion: It was concluded that stroke unit patients tend to have a better outcome and a lower mRS score at discharge. No significant difference in hospitalization period was noted between the two groups. PMID:28210611

  15. 31 CFR 544.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS... under the laws of the United States or any jurisdiction within the United States (including foreign...

  16. 31 CFR 544.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION... organized under the laws of the United States or any jurisdiction within the United States (including...

  17. 31 CFR 544.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS... under the laws of the United States or any jurisdiction within the United States (including foreign...

  18. Workplace and personal factors associated with physical and mental health in hospital nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Vickie A; Lambert, Clinton E; Petrini, Marcia; Li, Xiao Mei; Zhang, Yi Jin

    2007-06-01

    Limited research exists on the workplace and personal factors that might be associated with the physical and mental health of nurses working in China. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to examine, in Chinese hospital nurses, the most frequently occurring workplace stressor, the most often used coping strategy, and the relationships that exist among workplace stressors, coping strategies, psychological hardiness, demographic characteristics, and physical and mental health. Four-hundred-and-eighty hospital nurses from five hospitals in three major Chinese cities were administered five self-report questionnaires. The findings indicated the most frequently cited workplace stressor was workload, while the most commonly used coping strategy was positive reappraisal. Numerous positive and negative correlations were found, suggesting the importance that workplace stress, coping strategies, psychological hardiness, and demographic characteristics play in relationship to each other, as well as to both the physical and mental health of Chinese nurses.

  19. Testing family-centered, function-focused care in hospitalized persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marie; Chippendale, Tracy; Resnick, Barbara; Galvin, James E

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-acquired disability causes decreased quality of life for patients with dementia and family caregivers, and increased societal costs. A comparative, repeated measures study tested the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the family-centered, function-focused care intervention (Fam-FFC) in dyads of hospitalized, medical patients with dementia and family caregivers (FCGs). The intervention group demonstrated better activities of daily living and walking performance, and less severity/duration of delirium and hospital readmissions, but no significant differences in gait/balance. FCGs showed increased preparedness for caregiving and less anxiety but no significant differences in depression, strain and mutuality. Fam-FFC presents a possible pathway to meeting the Triple Aim of improved patient care, improved patient health and reduced costs for persons with dementia.

  20. Malaria-Related Hospitalizations in the United States, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Khuu, Diana; Eberhard, Mark L; Bristow, Benjamin N; Javanbakht, Marjan; Ash, Lawrence R; Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J

    2017-07-01

    Few data are available on the burden of malaria hospitalization in the United States. Study of malaria using hospital-based data can better define the impact of malaria and help inform prevention efforts. U.S. malaria cases identified from hospitalization discharge records in the 2000-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were examined. Frequencies and population rates were reported by demographics, infecting species, clinical, financial, institutional, geographic, and seasonal characteristics, and disparities were identified. Time trends in malaria cases were assessed using negative binomial regression. From 2000 to 2014, there were an estimated 22,029 malaria-related hospitalizations (4.88 per 1 million population) in the United States, including 182 in-hospital deaths and 4,823 severe malaria cases. The rate of malaria-related hospitalizations did not change significantly over the study period. The largest number of malaria-related hospitalizations occurred in August. Malaria-related hospitalizations occurred disproportionately among patients who were male, black, or 25-44 years of age. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for the majority of malaria-related hospitalizations. On average, malaria patients were hospitalized for 4.36 days with charges of $25,789. Patients with a malaria diagnosis were more often hospitalized in the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic census divisions, urban teaching, private not-for-profit, and large-bed-size hospitals. Malaria imposes a substantial disease burden in the United States. Enhanced primary and secondary prevention measures, including strategies to increase the use of pretravel consultations and prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed.

  1. Use of dialectical behavior therapy in a partial hospital program for women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Simpson, E B; Pistorello, J; Begin, A; Costello, E; Levinson, J; Mulberry, S; Pearlstein, T; Rosen, K; Stevens, M

    1998-05-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy, an outpatient psychosocial treatment for chronically suicidal women with borderline personality disorder, has been adapted for use in a partial hospital program for women. Patients attend the program for a minimum of five days of individual and group therapy, and full census is 12 women. About 65 percent of participants meet at least three criteria for borderline personality disorder, and most have suicidal and self-injurious behavior. Their comorbid diagnoses include trauma-related diagnoses and anxiety disorders, severe eating disorders, substance abuse, and depression. The partial hospital program is linked to an aftercare program offering six months of outpatient skills training based on dialectical behavior therapy. Both programs focus on teaching patients four skills: mindfulness (attention to one's experience), interpersonal effectiveness, emotional regulation, and distress tolerance. Two years of operation of the women's partial hospital program provides promising anecdotal evidence that dialectical behavioral therapy, an outpatient approach, can be effectively modified for partial hospital settings and a more diverse population.

  2. Severe maternal morbidity in the intensive care unit of a havana teaching hospital,1998 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Albadio; Bacallao, Jorge; Alcina, Serafín; Gómez, Yamilka

    2008-07-01

    Introduction In recent years, several reports have appeared in the international literature concerning evolution and prognosis for obstetric patients whose illnesses have led to admission to intensive care units (ICUs). The term severe maternal morbidity has been proposed to refer to life-threatening complications that occur during pregnancy, delivery or postpartum. Objective Characterize severe maternal morbidity in obstetric patients admitted to the ICU of the Enrique Cabrera General Teaching Hospital in Havana from 1998 to 2004. Methods From 1998 to 2004, we conducted a prospective, descriptive, and observational study of 312 patients admitted to the ICU of the Enrique Cabrera General Teaching Hospital in Havana, Cuba. Patients were included whose length of stay was >24 hours, and whose family members provided written informed consent. A data collection form was developed to record general characteristics, personal and family medical history, cause of ICU admission, diagnosis, obstetric condition at the onset of illness and at admission, pregnancy outcome, surgeries performed and patient's ICU discharge status (survivor or non-survivor), the latter a dependent variable. An Excel database was compiled and processed using SPSS 13.0. Percentages were used to summarize qualitative variables. A Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis between these qualitative variables and patient discharge status; t-test was used for quantitative analyses. Results Overall mortality in the cohort was 7.4% (23 patients), greater among women aged <20 years, those with a history of previous illnesses, and those subjected to several surgical interventions. Obstetric hemorrhage, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, and postpartum sepsis were the most commonly diagnosed obstetric disorders. Non-obstetric disorders diagnosed included severe asthma, pneumonia and peritonitis. Amniotic fluid embolism, postpartum sepsis, early postpartum hemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were associated with

  3. Investigation of perceived social support in mothers of infants hospitalized in neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Kara, S; Tan, S; Aldemir, S; Yılmaz, AE; Tatlı, MM; Dilmen, U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the degree of perceived social support by mothers of infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to investigate effects depression and anxiety levels on the perceived social support. Method: The study included 50 mothers of infants hospitalized in NICU. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the mothers were collected using a personal data form designed by the study researchers via face-to-face interviews. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale (MSPSS) was used to evaluate the degree of perceived social support by the mothers and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale was used to assess their anxiety and depression levels. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 29.1 ± 4.2 years. There was a significant correlation between the scores of the anxiety and depression subscales (r=0.772; p<0.001), whereas these scores were not significantly correlated with MSPSS total score. The scores MSPSS subscales were significantly correlated with each other, as well as with MSPSS total score. Friend subscale score and depression subscale score were positively correlated with education level (r=0.295, p=0.038 and r=0.407, p=0.003, respectively). The family and spouse subscale scores and MSPSS total score were significantly higher assisted conception technique group compared with the spontaneous conception group (p=0.020, p=0.010 and p=0.016, respectively). The family and spouse subscale scores and MSPSS total score were significantly lower in the mothers with depression subscale score of ≥7 than in the mothers with depression subscale score of <7 (p=0.010, p=0.038 and p=0.018, respectively). In the linear regression model, only education level was found to be a significant factor affecting depression level (p=0.006). Conclusion: The mothers of infants hospitalized in the NICU with higher education levels had higher depression level and perceived social support from friends. Informing the family members and

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher A; Bell, Jeneita M; Breiding, Matthew J; Xu, Likang

    2017-03-17

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, including death and disability. TBI can be caused by a number of principal mechanisms, including motor-vehicle crashes, falls, and assaults. This report describes the estimated incidence of TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths during 2013 and makes comparisons to similar estimates from 2007. 2007 and 2013. State-based administrative health care data were used to calculate estimates of TBI-related ED visits and hospitalizations by principal mechanism of injury, age group, sex, and injury intent. Categories of injury intent included unintentional (motor-vehicle crashes, falls, being struck by or against an object, mechanism unspecified), intentional (self-harm and assault/homicide), and undetermined intent. These health records come from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Emergency Department Sample and National Inpatient Sample. TBI-related death analyses used CDC multiple-cause-of-death public-use data files, which contain death certificate data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. In 2013, a total of approximately 2.8 million TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths (TBI-EDHDs) occurred in the United States. This consisted of approximately 2.5 million TBI-related ED visits, approximately 282,000 TBI-related hospitalizations, and approximately 56,000 TBI-related deaths. TBIs were diagnosed in nearly 2.8 million (1.9%) of the approximately 149 million total injury- and noninjury-related EDHDs that occurred in the United States during 2013. Rates of TBI-EDHDs varied by age, with the highest rates observed among persons aged ≥75 years (2,232.2 per 100,000 population), 0-4 years (1,591.5), and 15-24 years (1,080.7). Overall, males had higher age-adjusted rates of TBI-EDHDs (959.0) compared with females (810.8) and the most common principal mechanisms of injury for all age groups included falls (413.2, age

  5. Achieving Strong Teamwork Practices in Hospital Labor and Delivery Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    JUSTICE EDUCATION ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS NATIONAL SECURITY POPULATION AND AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND...33 Achievement of Practice Adoption and Internalization ...Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.8. Response Rates for the Participating Labor and Delivery Units

  6. Variations of nursing teamwork by hospital, patient unit, and staff characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship among hospital, patient units, and staff characteristics and nursing teamwork. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we found that nursing role, shift, absenteeism, perceived adequacy of staffing, and unit type were significant predictors of teamwork.

  7. Randomized comparison of the Personality Assessment Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    PubMed

    Locke, Dona E C; Kirlin, Kristin A; Wershba, Rebecca; Osborne, David; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Noe, Katherine H

    2011-08-01

    The two most common personality measures used in evaluation of patients on epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) are the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Both have been evaluated separately for their ability to distinguish patients with epilepsy from patients with psychogenic events, but they have never been compared directly. The primary aim of this study was to provide comparison data in an EMU population between the PAI, MMPI-2, and the MMPI-2-RF (MMPI-2 Restructured Form). Results show that the PAI Somatic Complaints (SOM) scale and the Conversion subscale (SOM-C), with classification rates of 79%, outperform other indicators from the PAI and indicators from the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF. Given its other strengths combined with better diagnostic validity performance, the PAI may be the better personality assessment measure for use in distinguishing patients with epilepsy from those with psychogenic seizures in the EMU.

  8. Personality Traits of U.S. (United States) Army Prisoners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-25

    scales from the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (Edwards, 1959); Rosenberg’s (1965) Self - Esteem Scale; and Hudson’s (1974) Index of Self - Esteem were...Delinquency." Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1952, 16, 207-212. Hudson, W.W. Manual Index of Self - Esteem . Princeton: Educational Testing Service. Nie...M. Self - Esteem Scale. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965. Taylor, R.M. et al. Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis Manual. Los Angeles

  9. 31 CFR 538.407 - Facilitation by a United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or services between Sudan and any destination (including the United States) bars any unlicensed action by a U.S. person that assists or supports trading activity with Sudan by any person. Facilitation... financial transactions with Sudan or the Government of Sudan is not considered prohibited facilitation....

  10. 31 CFR 538.407 - Facilitation by a United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or services between Sudan and any destination (including the United States) bars any unlicensed action by a U.S. person that assists or supports trading activity with Sudan by any person. Facilitation... financial transactions with Sudan or the Government of Sudan is not considered prohibited facilitation....

  11. Reducing serious injury from falls in two veterans' hospital medical-surgical units.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Patricia A; Hahm, Bridget; Collazo, Sonia; Gibson, Wanda; Janzen, Sandra; Powell-Cope, Gail; Rice, Fanny; Sarduy, Innette; Tyndall, Kyna; White, Susan V

    2009-01-01

    A large veteran's hospital participated in a year-long collaborative project across 9 hospitals to reduce serious injury from falls in acute care, targeting medical-surgical units. The primary objective of this project was to develop and test a set of interventions (bundles) to prevent serious physical injury (fractures and hemorrhagic bleeds) from patient falls. The interventions were implemented using tests of change on 2 medical-surgical units focused on engaging unit-based staff and combining innovations for vulnerable populations at greatest risk for injury if they fall.

  12. Using hospital pharmacy technicians to check unit dose carts.

    PubMed

    Spooner, S H; Emerson, P K

    1994-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of technicians checking unit dose carts as compared with pharmacists checking unit dose carts. The final (after check) fill in both arms of the study was evaluated for accuracy on the same five criteria: 1) correct drug, 2) correct dose, 3) correct dosage form, 4) correct quantity, and 5) expiration date. In the technician arm, 7571 doses were checked with 10 errors, giving a 99.76% (1 error in 420) accuracy. In the pharmacist arm of the study, 3116 doses were checked with 34 total errors, giving a 98.91% (1 error in 92) accuracy. The results of this study indicate that technicians would have as high if not a higher accuracy rate than pharmacists. Using pharmacy technicians in this role should continue the same level of care by maintaining a high accuracy in medication dispensing and provide greater economic benefit to the organization by using technical rather than professional personnel.

  13. Development and Validation of a Web-Based Survey on the Use of Personal Communication Devices by Hospital Registered Nurses: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    LeVasseur, Sandra A; Li, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of personal communication devices (such as basic cell phones, enhanced cell phones or smartphones, and tablet computers) in hospital units has risen dramatically in recent years. The use of these devices for personal and professional activities can be beneficial, but also has the potential to negatively affect patient care, as clinicians may become distracted by these devices. Objective No validated questionnaire examining the impact of the use of these devices on patient care exists; thus, we aim to develop and validate an online questionnaire for surveying the views of registered nurses with experience of working in hospitals regarding the impact of the use of personal communication devices on hospital units. Methods A 50-item, four-domain questionnaire on the views of registered nursing staff regarding the impact of personal communication devices on hospital units was developed based on a literature review and interviews with such nurses. A repeated measures pilot study was conducted to examine the psychometrics of a survey questionnaire and the feasibility of conducting a larger study. Psychometric testing of the questionnaire included examining internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability in a sample of 50 registered nurses. Results The response rate for the repeated measures was 30%. Cronbach coefficient alpha was used to examine the internal consistency and reliability, and in three of the four question groups (utilization, impact, and opinions), the correlation was observed to be very high. This suggests that the questions were measuring a single underlying theme. The Cronbach alpha value for the questions in the performance group, describing the use of personal communication devices while working, was lower than those for the other question groups. These values may be an indication that the assumptions underlying the Cronbach alpha calculation may have been violated for this group of questions. A Spearman rho correlation

  14. Development and validation of a web-based survey on the use of personal communication devices by hospital registered nurses: pilot study.

    PubMed

    McBride, Deborah L; Levasseur, Sandra A; Li, Dongmei

    2013-11-26

    The use of personal communication devices (such as basic cell phones, enhanced cell phones or smartphones, and tablet computers) in hospital units has risen dramatically in recent years. The use of these devices for personal and professional activities can be beneficial, but also has the potential to negatively affect patient care, as clinicians may become distracted by these devices. No validated questionnaire examining the impact of the use of these devices on patient care exists; thus, we aim to develop and validate an online questionnaire for surveying the views of registered nurses with experience of working in hospitals regarding the impact of the use of personal communication devices on hospital units. A 50-item, four-domain questionnaire on the views of registered nursing staff regarding the impact of personal communication devices on hospital units was developed based on a literature review and interviews with such nurses. A repeated measures pilot study was conducted to examine the psychometrics of a survey questionnaire and the feasibility of conducting a larger study. Psychometric testing of the questionnaire included examining internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability in a sample of 50 registered nurses. The response rate for the repeated measures was 30%. Cronbach coefficient alpha was used to examine the internal consistency and reliability, and in three of the four question groups (utilization, impact, and opinions), the correlation was observed to be very high. This suggests that the questions were measuring a single underlying theme. The Cronbach alpha value for the questions in the performance group, describing the use of personal communication devices while working, was lower than those for the other question groups. These values may be an indication that the assumptions underlying the Cronbach alpha calculation may have been violated for this group of questions. A Spearman rho correlation was used to determine the test

  15. Hospital mortality of adults admitted to Intensive Care Units in hospitals with and without Intermediate Care Units: a multicentre European cohort study.

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Maurizia; Volta, Carlo; Tassinati, Tania; Moreno, Rui; Valentin, Andreas; Guidet, Bertrand; Iapichino, Gaetano; Martin, Claude; Perneger, Thomas; Combescure, Christophe; Poncet, Antoine; Rhodes, Andrew

    2014-10-09

    The aim of the study was to assess whether adults admitted to hospitals with both Intensive Care Units (ICU) and Intermediate Care Units (IMCU) have lower in-hospital mortality than those admitted to ICUs without an IMCU. An observational multinational cohort study performed on patients admitted to participating ICUs during a four-week period. IMCU was defined as any physically and administratively independent unit open 24 hours a day, seven days a week providing a level of care lower than an ICU but higher than a ward. Characteristics of hospitals, ICUs and patients admitted to study ICUs were recorded. The main outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality until hospital discharge (censored at 90 days). One hundred and sixty-seven ICUs from 17 European countries enrolled 5,834 patients. Overall, 1,113 (19.1%) patients died in the ICU and 1,397 died in hospital, with a total of 1,397 (23.9%) deaths. The illness severity was higher for patients in ICUs with an IMCU (median Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II: 37) than for patients in ICUs without an IMCU (median SAPS II: 29, P <0.001). After adjustment for patient characteristics at admission such as illness severity, and ICU and hospital characteristics, the odds ratio of mortality was 0.63 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.88, P = 0.007) in favour of the presence of IMCU. The protective effect of the IMCU was absent in patients who were admitted for basic observation, for example, after surgery (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.03, P = 0.630) but was strong in patients admitted to an ICU for other reasons (odds ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.80, P = 0.002). The presence of an IMCU in the hospital is associated with significantly reduced adjusted hospital mortality for adults admitted to the ICU. This effect is relevant for the patients requiring full intensive treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01422070. Registered 19 August 2011.

  16. The United States does a poor job of evaluating Medicare hospitals: perhaps Australia can help.

    PubMed

    Bogart, G

    1992-01-01

    The United States spends more money per person on healthcare than does any other country in the world, and this rate of spending is increasing. Healthcare expenses currently absorb more than 12 percent of the American gross national product, and recent projections indicate that such expenses will exceed 16 percent by the year 2000. By the year 2005, the U.S. Medicare program is expected to absorb more of the national budget than either Social Security or defense. One justification for the high rate of spending has been that, for those who receive it, U.S. healthcare is the best in the world. There is, however, no way to validate this view because no national or international agreed-upon set of criteria for measuring quality of care exists. Proponents of the American system seem to assume that if it costs more, it must be better. If this is true, it is certainly not reflected in American consumer satisfaction: a recent poll of citizens of ten developed countries indicated that Americans were by far the least satisfied with their healthcare system. This article focuses on the American oversight of Medicare hospitals to determine it, in this narrow area, dissatisfied American consumers are justified.

  17. [Emotional climate and internal communication in a clinical management unit compared with two traditional hospital services].

    PubMed

    Alonso, E; Rubio, A; March, J C; Danet, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the emotional climate, quality of communication and performance indicators in a clinical management unit and two traditional hospital services. Quantitative study. questionnaire of 94 questions. 83 health professionals (63 responders) from the clinical management unit of breast pathology and the hospital services of medical oncology and radiation oncology. descriptive statistics, comparison of means, correlation and linear regression models. The clinical management unit reaches higher values compared with the hospital services about: performance indicators, emotional climate, internal communication and evaluation of the leadership. An important gap between existing and desired sources, channels, media and subjects of communication appear, in both clinical management unit and traditional services. The clinical management organization promotes better internal communication and interpersonal relations, leading to improved performance indicators. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Out-of-hospital births and the supply of maternity units in France.

    PubMed

    Blondel, Béatrice; Drewniak, Nicolas; Pilkington, Hugo; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Maternity unit closures in France have increased distances that women travel to deliver in hospital. We studied how the supply of maternity units influences the rate of out-of-hospital births using birth certificate data. In 2005-6, 4.3 per 1000 births were out-of-hospital. Rates were more than double for women living 30km or more from their nearest unit and were even higher for women of high parity. These associations persisted in multilevel analyses adjusting for other maternal characteristics. Long distances to maternity units should be a concern to health planners because of the maternal and infant health risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, and personal history in a postraumatic unit (descriptive study)].

    PubMed

    Spinetto, Marcela; Larregina, Luciana; Benvenuto, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    In examining predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorders, researchers have focused on trauma intensity, symptoms severity, personality disorders and devoted less attention to other variables. This descriptive study examine how personality disorders, intensity of trauma and demographic variables (previous trauma and vulnerability) are related to the likelihood of experiencing a trauma, and to the severity of posttraumatic symptoms in a sample of 50 patients reporting a wide range of trauma.

  20. Variation exists in rates of admission to intensive care units for heart failure patients across hospitals in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Kyan C.; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Kim, Nancy; Strait, Kelly M.; Li, Shu-Xia; Chen, Serene I.; Lagu, Tara; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite increasing attention on reducing relatively costly hospital practices while maintaining the quality of care, few studies have examined how hospitals use the intensive care unit (ICU), a high-cost setting, for patients admitted with heart failure (HF). We characterized hospital patterns of ICU admission for patients with HF and determined their association with the use of ICU-level therapies and patient outcomes. Methods and Results We identified 166,224 HF discharges from 341 hospitals in the 2009–10 Premier Perspective® database. We excluded hospitals with <25 HF admissions, patients <18 years old, and transfers. We defined ICU as including medical ICU, coronary ICU, and surgical ICU. We calculated the percent of patients admitted directly to an ICU. We compared hospitals in the top-quartile (high ICU admission) with the remaining quartiles. The median percentage of ICU admission was 10% (Interquartile Range 6% to 16%; range 0% to 88%). In top-quartile hospitals, treatments requiring an ICU were used less often: percentage of ICU days receiving mechanical ventilation (6% top quartile versus 15% others), non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (8% versus 19%), vasopressors and/or inotropes (9% versus 16%), vasodilators (6% versus 12%), and any of these interventions (26% versus 51%). Overall HF in-hospital risk standardized mortality was similar (3.4% versus 3.5%; P = 0.2). Conclusions ICU admission rates for HF varied markedly across hospitals and lacked association with in-hospital risk-standardized mortality. Greater ICU use correlated with fewer patients receiving ICU interventions. Judicious ICU use could reduce resource consumption without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:23355624

  1. Association Between Intensive Care Unit Utilization During Hospitalization and Costs, Use of Invasive Procedures, and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong W; Shapiro, Martin F

    2016-10-01

    Maximizing the value of critical care services requires understanding the relationship between intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, clinical outcomes, and costs. To examine whether hospitals had consistent patterns of ICU utilization across 4 common medical conditions and the association between higher use of the ICU and hospital costs, use of invasive procedures, and mortality. Retrospective cohort study of 156 842 hospitalizations in 94 acute-care nonfederal hospitals for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), pulmonary embolism (PE), upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), and congestive heart failure (CHF) in Washington state and Maryland from 2010 to 2012. Hospitalizations for DKA, PE, UGIB, and CHF were identified from the presence of compatible International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to determine the predicted hospital-level ICU utilization during hospitalizations for the 4 study conditions. For each condition, hospitals were ranked based on the predicted ICU utilization rate to examine the variability in ICU utilization across institutions. The primary outcomes were associations between hospital-level ICU utilization rates and risk-adjusted hospital mortality, use of invasive procedures, and hospital costs. The 94 hospitals and 156 842 hospitalizations included in the study represented 4.7% of total hospitalizations in this study. ICU admission rates ranged from 16.3% to 81.2% for DKA, 5.0% to 44.2% for PE, 11.5% to 51.2% for UGIB, and 3.9% to 48.8% for CHF. Spearman rank coefficients between DKA, PE, UGIB, and CHF showed significant correlations in ICU utilization for these 4 medical conditions among hospitals (ρ ≥ 0.90 for all comparisons; P < .01 for all). For each condition, hospital-level ICU utilization rate was not associated with hospital mortality. Use of invasive procedures and costs of hospitalization were greater in institutions with

  2. HIV Transmission Dynamics among Foreign-born Persons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Eduardo E; Oster, Alexandra M; Xu, Songli; Wertheim, Joel O; Hernandez, Angela L

    2017-09-07

    In the United States (U.S.), foreign-born persons are disproportionately affected by HIV and differ epidemiologically from U.S.-born persons with diagnosed HIV infection. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics among foreign-born persons is important to guide HIV prevention efforts for these populations. We conducted molecular transmission network analysis to describe HIV transmission dynamics among foreign-born persons with diagnosed HIV. Using HIV-1 polymerase nucleotide sequences reported to the U.S. National HIV Surveillance System for persons with diagnosed HIV infection during 2001-2013, we constructed a genetic distance based transmission network using HIV-TRACE and examined the birth region of potential transmission partners in this network. Of 77,686 people, 12,064 (16%) were foreign-born. Overall, 28% of foreign-born persons linked to at least one other person in the transmission network. Of potential transmission partners, 62% were born in the United States, 31% were born in the same region as the foreign-born person, and 7% were born in another region of the world. The majority of transmission partners of male foreign-born persons (63%) were born in the United States, whereas the majority of transmission partners of female foreign-born (57%) were born in their same world region. These finding suggests that a majority of HIV infections among foreign-born persons in our network occurred after immigrating to the United States. Efforts to prevent HIV infection among foreign-born persons in the U.S. should include information of the transmission networks in which these individuals acquire or transmit HIV in order to develop more targeted HIV prevention interventions.

  3. The feasibility of hospital-based universal newborn hearing screening in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, W; Kemp, D T

    2001-01-01

    Current hearing screening programmes in the United Kingdom are performing unacceptably poorly. Davies et al. (1997) suggested that universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) would be more effective and cheaper to run. However, there is concern that hospital-based UNHS would not be feasible because of early postnatal discharge, and thus babies not staying in hospital long enough to be screened. Two studies were designed to determine the viability of hospital-based UNHS in a district general hospital in the United Kingdom. Study 1 retrospectively determined the discharge age and time of discharge of all 3021 well babies born at St Helier hospital, Carshalton, and the number of babies born at home in the area, from 19 October 1997-18 October 1998. Most well babies were found to pass through hospital at a convenient time for predischarge hearing screening, and the optimal protocol was screening from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week. The predicted maximal screening coverage was 92.68%. Study 2 tested the calculated optimal protocol over 1 week. It was found that UNHS with otoacoustic emissions on the maternity ward from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week, achieved a coverage of 89.06%, with an acceptable false positive rate of 6.2%. It is likely that a similar protocol with slight modifications could be implemented successfully in other hospitals in the United Kingdom.

  4. Personal Economic and Financial Security. Unit 7: A Core Curriculum of Related Instruction for Apprentices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The personal economic and financial security unit is presented to assist apprentices to acquire a general knowledge of how to maintain economic security and stability. The unit consists of six modules: (1) Fair Labor Standards Act: minimum wages and maximum hours, (2) unemployment insurance: payments for the unemployed worker, (3) workmen's…

  5. 31 CFR 538.407 - Facilitation by a United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., technology, or services between Sudan and any other location including but not limited to business and legal... against facilitation by a United States person of the exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services between Sudan and any destination (including the United States) bars any unlicensed...

  6. Personal Economic and Financial Security. Unit 7: A Core Curriculum of Related Instruction for Apprentices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The personal economic and financial security unit is presented to assist apprentices to acquire a general knowledge of how to maintain economic security and stability. The unit consists of six modules: (1) Fair Labor Standards Act: minimum wages and maximum hours, (2) unemployment insurance: payments for the unemployed worker, (3) workmen's…

  7. Ebola Preparedness Resources for Acute-Care Hospitals in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Study of Costs, Benefits, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Smit, Michael A; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Braun, Barbara I; Kusek, Linda L; Milstone, Aaron M; Morgan, Daniel J; Mermel, Leonard A

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess resource allocation and costs associated with US hospitals preparing for the possible spread of the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in the United States. METHODS A survey was sent to a stratified national probability sample (n=750) of US general medical/surgical hospitals selected from the American Hospital Association (AHA) list of hospitals. The survey was also sent to all children's general hospitals listed by the AHA (n=60). The survey assessed EVD preparation supply costs and overtime staff hours. The average national wage was multiplied by labor hours to calculate overtime labor costs. Additional information collected included challenges, benefits, and perceived value of EVD preparedness activities. RESULTS The average amount spent by hospitals on combined supply and overtime labor costs was $80,461 (n=133; 95% confidence interval [CI], $56,502-$104,419). Multivariate analysis indicated that small hospitals (mean, $76,167) spent more on staff overtime costs per 100 beds than large hospitals (mean, $15,737; P<.0001). The overall cost for acute-care hospitals in the United States to prepare for possible EVD cases was estimated to be $361,108,968. The leading challenge was difficulty obtaining supplies from vendors due to shortages (83%; 95% CI, 78%-88%) and the greatest benefit was improved knowledge about personal protective equipment (89%; 95% CI, 85%-93%). CONCLUSIONS The financial impact of EVD preparedness activities was substantial. Overtime cost in smaller hospitals was >3 times that in larger hospitals. Planning for emerging infectious disease identification, triage, and management should be conducted at regional and national levels in the United States to facilitate efficient and appropriate allocation of resources in acute-care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:405-410.

  8. Variation in Inpatient Rehabilitation Utilization After Hospitalization for Burn Injury in the United States.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nathaniel H; Pham, Tam N; Esselman, Peter C; Rivara, Frederick P

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 45,000 individuals are hospitalized annually for burn treatment. Rehabilitation after hospitalization can offer a significant improvement in functional outcomes. Very little is known nationally about rehabilitation for burns, and practices may vary substantially depending on the region based on observed Medicare post-hospitalization spending amounts. This study was designed to measure variation in rehabilitation utilization by state of hospitalization for patients hospitalized with burn injury. This retrospective cohort study used nationally collected data over a 10-year period (2001 to 2010), from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SIDs). Patients hospitalized for burn injury (n = 57,968) were identified by ICD-9-CM codes and were examined to see specifically if they were discharged immediately to inpatient rehabilitation after hospitalization (primary endpoint). Both unadjusted and adjusted likelihoods were calculated for each state taking into account the effects of age, insurance status, hospitalization at a burn center, and extent of burn injury by TBSA. The relative risk of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation varied by as much as 6-fold among different states. Higher TBSA, having health insurance, higher age, and burn center hospitalization all increased the likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation following acute care hospitalization. There was significant variation between states in inpatient rehabilitation utilization after adjusting for variables known to affect each outcome. Future efforts should be focused on identifying the cause of this state-to-state variation, its relationship to patient outcome, and standardizing treatment across the United States.

  9. Personality traits of cocaine-dependent patients associated with cocaine-positive baseline urine at hospitalization.

    PubMed

    de Los Cobos, José Pérez; Siñol, Núria; Bañulus, Enrique; Batlle, Francisca; Tejero, Antoni; Trujols, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine abstinence at treatment entry is considered a predictor of good response in cocaine dependence treatment. Therefore, identification of factors facilitating pretreatment cocaine abstinence could be useful for developing new therapeutic strategies. This retrospective chart review study examines the association between personality traits and cocaine-positive baseline urinalysis (CPB) in cocaine-dependent inpatients. All 107 participants met DSM-IV criteria for cocaine dependence, and were admitted consecutively to a closed addiction unit for detoxification treatment. Personality was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). CPB was detected in 80 patients (74.8%). The logistic regression model solely based on personality dimensions showed that only the MCMI-II avoidant traits were significantly associated with a decreased probability of cocaine-dependent patients presenting CPB. The logistic regression model based on both personality dimensions and substance use-related variables alike retained the number of days of cocaine use during the last 30 days as a risk factor, and alcohol dependence and the MCMI-II schizoid dimension as protective factors in predicting CPB results. Avoidant and schizoid traits are personality dimensions of cocaine-dependent patients that are associated with cocaine abstinence prior to inpatient admission. These findings suggest an inverse relationship between social isolation and CPB. Notwithstanding, more research is needed, not only to assess the generalizability of these findings, but also to enrich the personality and substance use model with variables related to readiness to change.

  10. Anxiety in family caregivers of hospitalized persons with dementia: contributing factors and responses.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marie; Chippendale, Tracy; Resnick, Barbara; Galvin, James E

    2015-01-01

    Baseline health and functional vulnerabilities increase the risk for complications in persons with dementia and predispose family caregivers (FCGs) to increased stress. This secondary analysis used a combined quantitative and qualitative approach. Regression analyses examined the contribution of patient and FCG characteristics to FCG anxiety. Interviews with FCGs explored the experiences and responses of FCGs during hospitalization of their family member with dementia. Lower patient physical function and higher caregiver strain were associated with higher FCG anxiety. FCGs described the following themes related to the hospitalization: (1) added strain, (2) care-related worries, (3) keeping vigil, (4) need to be heard, and (5) enablers of FCGs. Routine evaluation of caregiver strain and baseline patient function is integral to informing the transitional planning for persons with dementia. The FCG responses suggest that a multifactorial approach (family-centered policies of partnership in care, staff education addressing the specialized needs of patients and family members, and attention to promoting functional recovery) may benefit both hospitalized patients with dementia as well as FCGs and warrants future research.

  11. Personality, organizational stress, and attitudes toward work as prospective predictors of professional burnout in hospital nurses.

    PubMed

    Hudek-Knezević, Jasna; Kalebić Maglica, Barbara; Krapić, Nada

    2011-08-15

    To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R(2)=0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (βNRCWO=-0.30; βcRCWO=-0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (β=0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (β=-0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout.

  12. Personality, organizational stress, and attitudes toward work as prospective predictors of professional burnout in hospital nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kalebić Maglica, Barbara; Krapić, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Aim To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. Methods The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Results Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R2 = 0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (βNRCWO = -0.30; ßcRCWO = -0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (β = 0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (β = -0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Conclusion Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout. PMID:21853549

  13. Health service utilization costs for borderline personality disorder patients treated with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization versus general psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The authors assessed health care costs associated with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospital treatment for borderline personality disorder compared with treatment as usual within general psychiatric services. Health care utilization of all borderline personality disorder patients who participated in a previous trial of partial hospital treatment compared with treatment as usual was assessed by using information from case notes and service providers. Costs were compared for the 6 months before treatment, 18 months of treatment, and an 18-month follow-up period. There were no cost differences between the groups during pretreatment or treatment. Costs of partial hospital treatment were offset by less psychiatric inpatient care and reduced emergency room treatment. The trend for costs to decrease in the partial hospitalization group during the follow-up period was not apparent in the treatment-as-usual group. Specialist partial hospital treatment for borderline personality disorder is no more expensive than treatment as usual and shows considerable cost savings after treatment.

  14. Decline in tuberculosis among Mexico-born persons in the United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brian J; Jeffries, Carla D; Moonan, Patrick K

    2014-05-01

    In 2010, Mexico was the most common (22.9%) country of origin for foreign-born persons with tuberculosis in the United States, and overall trends in tuberculosis morbidity are substantially influenced by the Mexico-born population. To determine the risk of tuberculosis disease among Mexico-born persons living in the United States. Using data from the U.S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and the American Community Survey, we examined tuberculosis case counts and case rates stratified by years since entry into the United States and geographic proximity to the United States-Mexico border. We calculated trends in case rates over time measured by average annual percent change. The total tuberculosis case count (-14.5%) and annual tuberculosis case rate (average annual percent change -5.1%) declined among Mexico-born persons. Among those diagnosed with tuberculosis less than 1 year since entry into the United States (newly arrived persons), there was a decrease in tuberculosis cases (-60.4%), no change in tuberculosis case rate (average annual percent change of 0.0%), and a decrease in population (-60.7%). Among those living in the United States for more than 5 years (non-recently arrived persons), there was an increase in tuberculosis cases (+3.4%), a decrease in tuberculosis case rate (average annual percent change of -4.9%), and an increase in population (+62.7%). In 2010, 66.7% of Mexico-born cases were among non-recently arrived persons, compared with 51.1% in 2000. Although border states reported the highest proportions (>15%) of tuberculosis cases that were Mexico-born, the highest Mexico-born-specific tuberculosis case rates (>20/100,000 population) were in states in the eastern and southeastern regions of the United States. The decline in tuberculosis morbidity among Mexico-born persons may be attributed to fewer newly arrived persons from Mexico and lower tuberculosis case rates among non-recently arrived Mexico-born persons. The extent of the decline

  15. Decline in Tuberculosis among Mexico-Born Persons in the United States, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brian J.; Jeffries, Carla D.; Moonan, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2010, Mexico was the most common (22.9%) country of origin for foreign-born persons with tuberculosis in the United States, and overall trends in tuberculosis morbidity are substantially influenced by the Mexico-born population. Objectives To determine the risk of tuberculosis disease among Mexico-born persons living in the United States. Methods Using data from the U.S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and the American Community Survey, we examined tuberculosis case counts and case rates stratified by years since entry into the United States and geographic proximity to the United States–Mexico border. We calculated trends in case rates over time measured by average annual percent change. Results The total tuberculosis case count (−14.5%) and annual tuberculosis case rate (average annual percent change −5.1%) declined among Mexico-born persons. Among those diagnosed with tuberculosis less than 1 year since entry into the United States (newly arrived persons), there was a decrease in tuberculosis cases (−60.4%), no change in tuberculosis case rate (average annual percent change of 0.0%), and a decrease in population (−60.7%). Among those living in the United States for more than 5 years (non-recently arrived persons), there was an increase in tuberculosis cases (+3.4%), a decrease in tuberculosis case rate (average annual percent change of −4.9%), and an increase in population (+62.7%). In 2010, 66.7% of Mexico-born cases were among non–recently arrived persons, compared with 51.1% in 2000. Although border states reported the highest proportions (>15%) of tuberculosis cases that were Mexico-born, the highest Mexico-born–specific tuberculosis case rates (>20/100,000 population) were in states in the eastern and southeastern regions of the United States. Conclusions The decline in tuberculosis morbidity among Mexico-born persons may be attributed to fewer newly arrived persons from Mexico and lower tuberculosis case rates among

  16. Patient Falls: Association With Hospital Magnet Status and Nursing Unit Staffing

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Eileen T.; Shang, Jingjing; Klaus, Susan; Dunton, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between hospital Magnet® status, nursing unit staffing, and patient falls were examined in a cross-sectional study using 2004 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI®) data from 5,388 units in 108 Magnet and 528 non-Magnet hospitals. In multivariate models, the fall rate was 5% lower in Magnet than non-Magnet hospitals. An additional registered nurse (RN) hour per patient day was associated with a 3% lower fall rate in ICUs. An additional licensed practical nurse (LPN) or nursing assistant (NA) hour was associated with a 2–4% higher fall rate in non-ICUs. Patient safety may be improved by creating environments consistent with Magnet hospital standards. PMID:20824686

  17. [Complexity of care and organizational effectiveness: a survey among medical care units in nine Lombardy region hospitals].

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara; Capitoni, Enrica; Tiraboschi, Giuseppina; Alborghetti, Adriana; De Luca, Giuseppe; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Eleven medical care units of nine Lombardy Region hospitals organized by levels of care model or by the traditional departmental model have been analyzed, in order to evaluate if methods for complexity of patient-care evaluation represent an index factor of nursing organizational effectiveness. Survey with nine Nurses in managerial position was conducted between Nov. 2013-Jan. 2014. The following factors have been described: context and nursing care model, staffing, complexity evaluation, patient satisfaction, staff well-being. Data were processed through Microsoft Excel. Among Units analysed ,all Units in levels of care and one organized by the departmental model systematically evaluate nursing complexity. Registered Nurses (RN) and Health Care Assistants (HCA) are on average numerically higher in Units that measure complexity (0.55/ 0.49 RN, 0.38/0.23 HCA - ratio per bed). Adopted measures in relation to changes in complexity are:rewarding systems, supporting interventions, such as moving personnel within different Units or additional required working hours; reduction in number of beds is adopted when no other solution is available. Patient satisfaction is evaluated through Customer Satisfaction questionnaires. Turnover, stress and rate of absenteeism data are not available in all Units. Complexity evaluation through appropriate methods is carried out in all hospitals organized in levels of care with personalized nursing care models, though complexity is detected with different methods. No significant differences in applied managerial strategies are present. Patient's satisfaction is evaluated everywhere. Data on staffing wellbeing is scarcely available. Coordinated regional actions are recommended in order to gather comparable data for research, improve decision making and effectiveness of Nursing care.

  18. Reprocessing practice in digestive endoscopy units of district hospitals: results of a Portuguese National Survey.

    PubMed

    Soares, João-Bruno; Gonçalves, Raquel; Banhudo, António; Pedrosa, José

    2011-11-01

    An inadequate disinfection of endoscopes and associated accessories can result in the transmission of infections to patients. The aim of this study was to access reprocessing practice in the endoscopy units of Portuguese district general hospitals. An anonymous questionnaire on cleaning and disinfection methods was sent to all endoscopy units of Portuguese district general hospitals. A total of 25 units responded (93%). All endoscopy units performed manual cleaning (including brushing of accessible channels) before disinfection. Automated endoscope reprocessing machines were available in all units. Manual disinfection was performed in only one unit. In 48% of the surveyed units, endoscopes were systematically disinfected before each session, whereas in 16% this was performed only occasionally. The most commonly used disinfectant was peracetic acid (32%). Disposable papillotomes, biopsy forceps, and polipectomy snares were used in nine (36%), six (24%), and 14 (56%) units, respectively. Disposable papillotomes, forceps, and snares were reused in three (12%), two (8%), and three (12%) units, respectively, always after sterilization. Most units did not perform regular evaluation of reprocessing staff competence (60%), regular microbiological inspection (56%), or registry of reprocessing (56%). The data collected suggest that there is a good compliance with standard guidelines. Nevertheless, there is still room for improvement mainly in quality assurance.

  19. Application of the Activity-Based Costing Method for Unit-Cost Calculation in a Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Javid, Mahdi; Hadian, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Ghaffari, Shahram; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Choosing an appropriate accounting system for hospital has always been a challenge for hospital managers. Traditional cost system (TCS) causes cost distortions in hospital. Activity-based costing (ABC) method is a new and more effective cost system. Objective: This study aimed to compare ABC with TCS method in calculating the unit cost of medical services and to assess its applicability in Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on accounting data of Kashani Hospital in 2013. Data on accounting reports of 2012 and other relevant sources at the end of 2012 were included. To apply ABC method, the hospital was divided into several cost centers and five cost categories were defined: wage, equipment, space, material, and overhead costs. Then activity centers were defined. ABC method was performed into two phases. First, the total costs of cost centers were assigned to activities by using related cost factors. Then the costs of activities were divided to cost objects by using cost drivers. After determining the cost of objects, the cost price of medical services was calculated and compared with those obtained from TCS. Results: The Kashani Hospital had 81 physicians, 306 nurses, and 328 beds with the mean occupancy rate of 67.4% during 2012. Unit cost of medical services, cost price of occupancy bed per day, and cost per outpatient service were calculated. The total unit costs by ABC and TCS were respectively 187.95 and 137.70 USD, showing 50.34 USD more unit cost by ABC method. ABC method represented more accurate information on the major cost components. Conclusion: By utilizing ABC, hospital managers have a valuable accounting system that provides a true insight into the organizational costs of their department. PMID:26234974

  20. Application of the Activity-Based Costing Method for Unit-Cost Calculation in a Hospital.

    PubMed

    Javid, Mahdi; Hadian, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Ghaffari, Shahram; Salehi, Masoud

    2015-05-17

    Choosing an appropriate accounting system for hospital has always been a challenge for hospital managers. Traditional cost system (TCS) causes cost distortions in hospital. Activity-based costing (ABC) method is a new and more effective cost system. This study aimed to compare ABC with TCS method in calculating the unit cost of medical services and to assess its applicability in Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord City, Iran.‎ This cross-sectional study was performed on accounting data of Kashani Hospital in 2013. Data on accounting reports of 2012 and other relevant sources at the end of 2012 were included. To apply ABC method, the hospital was divided into several cost centers and five cost categories were defined: wage, equipment, space, material, and overhead costs. Then activity centers were defined. ABC method was performed into two phases. First, the total costs of cost centers were assigned to activities by using related cost factors. Then the costs of activities were divided to cost objects by using cost drivers. After determining the cost of objects, the cost price of medical services was calculated and compared with those obtained from TCS.‎ The Kashani Hospital had 81 physicians, 306 nurses, and 328 beds with the mean occupancy rate of 67.4% during 2012. Unit cost of medical services, cost price of occupancy bed per day, and cost per outpatient service were calculated. The total unit costs by ABC and TCS were respectively 187.95 and 137.70 USD, showing 50.34 USD more unit cost by ABC method. ABC method represented more accurate information on the major cost components. By utilizing ABC, hospital managers have a valuable accounting system that provides a true insight into the organizational costs of their department.

  1. Rehab rounds: overcoming barriers to individualized psychosocial rehabilitation in an acute treatment unit of a state hospital.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, A S; Dollieslager, L P

    2000-03-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation begins during the acute stages of a psychiatric disorder and continues throughout the person's lifetime, with the types of services flexibly keyed to the person's phase of illness, needs, and personal goals. During periods of relapse and exacerbation of symptoms, when hospitalization is often required, psychiatric rehabilitation should include the following five objectives: * Clarify how the person's own goals in life, such as a desire for more self-control, freedom of choice, privacy, and time with friends and family, can be served by inpatient treatment and symptom stabilization. * Educate the patient about the nature of his or her illness and how medications work to restore self-control. * Teach the patient about side effects and self-monitoring and negotiating about medication and its effects in a collaborative way with the psychiatrist and other members of the treatment team. * Connect with the family or other natural supports that the person has in the community. * Enable the patient to make appropriate aftercare plans for residential and continuing treatment needs after discharge. When rehabilitation is viewed from the vantage point of these objectives, the inextricable interweaving of "treatment" with "rehabilitation" becomes clear. Treatment and rehabilitation are two sides of the same. It is much easier to integrate psychiatric rehabilitation into more traditional methods of treatment than it is to reorganize a treatment program or facility so that it blends rehabilitation with prevailing treatment imperatives of pharmacotherapy, supervision, and security and safety. In previous Rehab Rounds columns, we have described examples of creative methods for bringing the principles and practices of psychiatric rehabilitation into the treatment milieu (1,2,3). Faced with regulatory criticism from governmental agencies, Dr. Dhillon and his colleagues at Eastern State Hospital in Williamsburg, Virginia, launched a vigorous initiative to

  2. Variation and outcomes associated with direct hospital admission among children with pneumonia in the United States.

    PubMed

    Leyenaar, JoAnna K; Shieh, Meng-Shiou; Lagu, Tara; Pekow, Penelope S; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2014-09-01

    Although the majority of children with an unplanned admission to the hospital are admitted through the emergency department (ED), direct admissions constitute a significant proportion of hospital admissions nationally. Despite this, past studies of children have not characterized direct admission practices or outcomes. Pneumonia is the leading cause of pediatric hospitalization in the United States, providing an ideal lens to examine variation and outcomes associated with direct admissions. To describe rates and patterns of direct admission in a large sample of US hospitals and to compare resource utilization and outcomes between children with pneumonia admitted directly to a hospital and those admitted from an ED. Retrospective cohort study of children 1 to 17 years of age with pneumonia who were admitted to hospitals contributing data to Perspective Data Warehouse. We developed hierarchical generalized linear models to examine associations between admission type and outcomes. Outcome measures included (1) length of stay, (2) high turnover hospitalization, (3) total hospital cost, (4) transfer to the intensive care unit, and (5) readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge. A total of 19,736 children from 278 hospitals met eligibility criteria, including 7100 (36.0%) who were admitted directly and 12,636 (64.0%) through the ED. Rates of direct admission varied considerably across hospitals, with a median direct admission rate of 33.3% (interquartile range, 11.1%-50.0%). Children admitted directly were more likely to be white, to have private health insurance, and to be admitted to small, general community hospitals. In adjusted models, children admitted directly had a 9% higher length of stay (risk ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.07-1.11]), 39% lower odds of high turnover hospitalization (odds ratio [OR], 0.61 [95% CI, 0.56-0.66]), and 12% lower cost (risk ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.87-0.90]) than those admitted through the ED, with no significant differences in transfers

  3. The effects on helplessness and recovery of an empowerment program for hospitalized persons with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Park, Soon Ah; Sung, Kyung Mi

    2013-04-01

    The study aim was to evaluate the effects on helplessness and recovery of an empowering program for patients with chronic schizophrenia. A repeated-measure design with a control group was used. The subjects consisted of 46 patients with schizophrenia admitted in three psychiatric hospitals in South Korea. The experimental group (n = 23) received the empowering program twice a week for 60 min, with a total of 6 weeks. This finding revealed that the empowering program was effective on helplessness (F = 185.218, p <.001) and recovery (F = 159.402, p <.001, F = 34.154, p <.001) of hospitalized persons with schizophrenia. This study demonstrated that the empowering program can be a useful psychiatric nursing intervention. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Outbreaks of Acute Gastroenteritis Transmitted by Person-to-Person Contact, Environmental Contamination, and Unknown Modes of Transmission--United States, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Wikswo, Mary E; Kambhampati, Anita; Shioda, Kayoko; Walsh, Kelly A; Bowen, Anna; Hall, Aron J

    2015-12-11

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of illness in the United States, with an estimated 179 million episodes annually. AGE outbreaks propagated through direct person-to-person contact, contaminated environmental surfaces, and unknown modes of transmission were not systematically captured at the national level before 2009 and thus were not well characterized. 2009-2013. The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) is a voluntary national reporting system that supports reporting of all waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks and all AGE outbreaks resulting from transmission by contact with contaminated environmental sources, infected persons or animals, or unknown modes. Local, state, and territorial public health agencies within the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia (DC), five U.S. territories, and three Freely Associated States report outbreaks to CDC via NORS using a standard online data entry system. A total of 10,756 AGE outbreaks occurred during 2009-2013, for which the primary mode of transmission occurred through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission. NORS received reports from public health agencies in 50 U.S. states, DC, and Puerto Rico. These outbreaks resulted in 356,532 reported illnesses, 5,394 hospitalizations, and 459 deaths. The median outbreak reporting rate for all sites in a given year increased from 2.7 outbreaks per million population in 2009 to 11.8 outbreaks in 2013. The etiology was unknown in 31% (N = 3,326) of outbreaks. Of the 7,430 outbreaks with a suspected or confirmed etiology reported, norovirus was the most common, reported in 6,223 (84%) of these outbreaks. Other reported suspected or confirmed etiologies included Shigella (n = 332) and Salmonella (n = 320). Outbreaks were more frequent during the winter, with 5,716 (53%) outbreaks occurring during December-February, and 70% of the 7,001 outbreaks with a reported setting of exposure occurred in long

  5. Intimate partner violence-related hospitalizations in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian United States

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephen M.; Zhu, Motao; Afifi, Tracie O.; Kimber, Melissa; Goldstein, Abby L.; Pitre, Nicole; Gurka, Kelly K.; Stocks, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The highly rural region of Appalachia faces considerable socioeconomic disadvantage and health disparities that are recognized risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). The objective of this study was to estimate the rate of IPV-related hospitalizations in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian United States for 2007–2011 and compare hospitalizations in each region by clinical and sociodemographic factors. Data on IPV-related hospitalizations were extracted from the State Inpatient Databases, which are part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Hospitalization day, year, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, average and total hospital charges, sex, age, payer, urban-rural location, income, diagnoses and procedures were compared between Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties. Poisson regression models were constructed to test differences in the rate of IPV-related hospitalizations between both regions. From 2007–2011, there were 7,385 hospitalizations related to IPV, with one-third (2,645) occurring in Appalachia. After adjusting for age and rurality, Appalachian counties had a 22% higher hospitalization rate than non-Appalachian counties (ARR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14–1.31). Appalachian residents may be at increased risk for IPV and associated conditions. Exploring disparities in healthcare utilization and costs associated with IPV in Appalachia is critical for the development of programs to effectively target the needs of this population. PMID:28886119

  6. Intimate partner violence-related hospitalizations in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian United States.

    PubMed

    Davidov, Danielle M; Davis, Stephen M; Zhu, Motao; Afifi, Tracie O; Kimber, Melissa; Goldstein, Abby L; Pitre, Nicole; Gurka, Kelly K; Stocks, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The highly rural region of Appalachia faces considerable socioeconomic disadvantage and health disparities that are recognized risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). The objective of this study was to estimate the rate of IPV-related hospitalizations in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian United States for 2007-2011 and compare hospitalizations in each region by clinical and sociodemographic factors. Data on IPV-related hospitalizations were extracted from the State Inpatient Databases, which are part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Hospitalization day, year, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, average and total hospital charges, sex, age, payer, urban-rural location, income, diagnoses and procedures were compared between Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties. Poisson regression models were constructed to test differences in the rate of IPV-related hospitalizations between both regions. From 2007-2011, there were 7,385 hospitalizations related to IPV, with one-third (2,645) occurring in Appalachia. After adjusting for age and rurality, Appalachian counties had a 22% higher hospitalization rate than non-Appalachian counties (ARR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14-1.31). Appalachian residents may be at increased risk for IPV and associated conditions. Exploring disparities in healthcare utilization and costs associated with IPV in Appalachia is critical for the development of programs to effectively target the needs of this population.

  7. University of Florida and Shands Hospital Personalized Medicine Program: clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Julie A; Elsey, Amanda R; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Nessl, David; Conlon, Michael; Nelson, David R

    2013-01-01

    The University of Florida and Shands Hospital recently launched a genomic medicine program focused on the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics called the Personalized Medicine Program. We focus on a preemptive, chip-based genotyping approach that is cost effective, while providing experience that will be useful as genomic medicine moves towards genome sequence data for patients becoming available. The Personalized Medicine Program includes a regulatory body that is responsible for ensuring that evidence-based examples are moved to clinical implementation, and relies on clinical decision support tools to provide healthcare providers with guidance on use of the genetic information. The pilot implementation was with CYP2C19-clopidogrel and future plans include expansion to additional pharmacogenetic examples, along with aiding in implementation in other health systems across Florida. PMID:23651020

  8. Personality traits of hospital pharmacists: toward a better understanding of factors influencing pharmacy practice change.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jill; Rosenthal, Meagen; Family, Hannah; Sutton, Jane; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2013-09-01

    The profession of pharmacy has adopted a mandate to become more patient-centred; however, significant change in this direction has not been achieved. To characterize the personality traits of hospital pharmacists in one Canadian province, to provide insights into potential barriers to practice change. A cross-sectional survey of hospital pharmacists was conducted in Alberta, Canada. An invitation to participate was sent to all 766 hospital pharmacists practising in the province's 2 health service organizations. The survey was based on the Big Five Inventory, a validated, reliable instrument that uses a 5-point Likert scale to measure the traits of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Of the 347 pharmacists who completed the survey (45% response rate), the majority (297 [86%]) were staff pharmacists working full time in an urban setting. The average age of respondents was 41 years (standard deviation [SD] 11 years), and the average period in practice was 17 years (SD 11 years). Respondents' mean scores were 3.2 (SD 0.7) on extraversion, 3.8 (SD 0.4) on agreeableness, 4.0 (SD 0.4) on conscientiousness, 2.5 (SD 0.7) on neuroticism, and 3.5 (SD 0.6) on openness. Total frequency counts revealed that respondents tended toward stronger expression of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness and low levels of neuroticism (with the latter indicating stability). The Big Five Inventory represents a novel approach to examining pharmacists' change-related behaviours. Improving understanding of hospital pharmacists' personality traits will provide insights for the development of training and support programs tailored specifically to this group.

  9. Personality Traits of Hospital Pharmacists: Toward a Better Understanding of Factors Influencing Pharmacy Practice Change

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jill; Rosenthal, Meagen; Family, Hannah; Sutton, Jane; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2013-01-01

    Background The profession of pharmacy has adopted a mandate to become more patient-centred; however, significant change in this direction has not been achieved. Objective: To characterize the personality traits of hospital pharmacists in one Canadian province, to provide insights into potential barriers to practice change. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of hospital pharmacists was conducted in Alberta, Canada. An invitation to participate was sent to all 766 hospital pharmacists practising in the province’s 2 health service organizations. The survey was based on the Big Five Inventory, a validated, reliable instrument that uses a 5-point Likert scale to measure the traits of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Results: Of the 347 pharmacists who completed the survey (45% response rate), the majority (297 [86%]) were staff pharmacists working full time in an urban setting. The average age of respondents was 41 years (standard deviation [SD] 11 years), and the average period in practice was 17 years (SD 11 years). Respondents’ mean scores were 3.2 (SD 0.7) on extraversion, 3.8 (SD 0.4) on agreeableness, 4.0 (SD 0.4) on conscientiousness, 2.5 (SD 0.7) on neuroticism, and 3.5 (SD 0.6) on openness. Total frequency counts revealed that respondents tended toward stronger expression of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness and low levels of neuroticism (with the latter indicating stability). Conclusion: The Big Five Inventory represents a novel approach to examining pharmacists’ change-related behaviours. Improving understanding of hospital pharmacists’ personality traits will provide insights for the development of training and support programs tailored specifically to this group. PMID:24159231

  10. Hospital use by the elderly in Poland and the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, W E; Wotjyniak, B; Krzyzanowski, M

    1984-01-01

    Hospital use by elderly patients in Poland and the United States was compared using data from the 1980 General Hospital Morbidity Study (Poland) and the National Hospital Discharge Survey (US). Discharge and days-of-care rates were higher in the US but average lengths of stay were longer in Poland. All three measures increased with advancing age in the US but remained relatively constant or decreased with age in Poland. Although the most frequent causes of hospitalization were similar in the two countries, the characteristic use patterns across age were evident for most frequently occurring disease conditions. The greater use of hospitals in the US is not associated with marked differences between the two countries in health status of the elderly. PMID:6388364

  11. Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children With Chronic Pancreatitis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Sferra, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed 2 national databases to assess the use of health care resources by children with chronic pancreatitis (CP). In 2012, the hospital discharge rate for pediatric CP was 2.73/100,000 children. Patients with CP were sicker with a greater burden of illness than age- and sex-matched counterparts. Acute pancreatitis occurred frequently in hospitalized children with CP. Abdominal pain and nausea, and vomiting were the most common gastrointestinal symptoms associated with emergency department visits in children with CP. A significant proportion of these visits resulted in a hospitalization. These findings add to our understanding of the epidemiology of CP in the United States.

  12. [Tasks performed by nurses at inpatient units in a training hospital].

    PubMed

    Costa, Rita de Almeida; Shimizu, Helena Eri

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze tasks performed by nurses at inpatient units in a large general hospital in Brasilia, Federal District, which also functions as a training hospital. A quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study was carried out and involved a total of 612 hours of direct observation of the activities performed by 18 nurses at the General Medicine, Surgical, Pediatric and Maternity units. The tasks observed were classified as: administration, nursing care delivery, education and related to information system. Nurses dedicate a large part of their time to administrative tasks, followed by tasks related to nursing care delivery and information system, performing almost no educative tasks.

  13. Personal exposure level and environmental ethylene oxide gas concentration in sterilization facilities of hospitals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hajime; Yahata, Katsuya; Fujishiro, Kazuya; Yoshizumi, Koji; Li, Ding; Goto, Yoshiaki; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2002-09-01

    Personal and environmental (stationary) ethylene oxide (EO) gas concentrations in gas sterilization facilities were measured at six workplaces in five hospitals. An ethylene oxide gas monitor (3M #3551) was used for both personal and stationary samplings. A gas detector tube was also used for instantaneous sampling. In most workplaces, the personal exposure levels of EO were below the detection limit of the gas monitor. Most of the time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations by the stationary sampling were below the threshold limit value of EO (TLV-TWA = 1 ppm), but in one workplace, more than 4 ppm of EO were detected in front of the sterilizer in a clean room during a 24-hour measurement, although all the personal exposure levels were below the detection limit. Method of aeration after the sterilization was very important for reducing the EO exposure. The EO gas concentrations in two workplaces where sufficient aeration was carried out were below the detection limit in all the stationary samples. In one workplace where insufficient aeration was performed, EO was detected from 16 of 17 stationary samples, and more than 90-200 ppm of EO was determined by the gas detector tube near the worker's face at the moment when the door of the sterilizer was opened and the sterilized materials were removed.

  14. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of <33). In multivariable analysis, age, job grade, and neuroticism were significantly associated with each of the 3 components of the MBI. Staff nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  15. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shin Yuh; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of <33). In multivariable analysis, age, job grade, and neuroticism were significantly associated with each of the 3 components of the MBI. Staff nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout.

  16. What are you like?: A personality profile of cancer and palliative care nurses in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gambles, M; Wilkinson, S M; Dissanayake, C

    2003-04-01

    Occupational psychology has long been concerned with the proposed link between personality and occupational success or stress. The role of the cancer and palliative care nurse can be challenging and stressful, and the aim of the current study was to explore the existence of a personality profile for nurses working in this area. For this study, 178 nurses undertaking degree and diploma studies in cancer and palliative care at a specialist palliative care unit in northwest England completed the 16PF personality inventory and a demographic questionnaire. The mean age of these nurses was 38 years, and 95% were women. Approximately half (52%) were staff nurses, and the majority (77%) worked in hospital or community environments. The profile suggested that the nurses were extraverted, empathic, trusting, open, expressive, insightful, and group oriented. They were likely to be cautious when facing new ideas, potentially naïve in dealings with more astute others, and somewhat lacking in objectivity. Positive aspects of the profile suggested that they would thrive in a stressful occupation wherein caring for others and multidisciplinary team working are important. However, less positive elements may affect their ability to be influential members of the multidisciplinary team. The potential for using personality profiling for effective targeting of personnel, education, training, and improvement of self-awareness is explored.

  17. Trends in pediatric pulmonary hypertension–related hospitalizations in the United States from 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Matthew A.; Morales, David L. S.; Gerald, Ken; Hanna, Brian D.; Mallory, George B.; Rossano, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are few data on the epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH)–related hospitalizations in children in the United States. Our aim was to determine hospital mortality, length of hospitalization, and hospital charges pertaining to PH-related hospitalizations and also the effects of codiagnoses and comorbidities. A retrospective review of the Kids’ Inpatient Database during the years 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009 was analyzed for patients ≤20 years of age with a diagnosis of PH by ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) codes, along with associated diagnoses and comorbidities. Descriptive statistics, including Rao-Scott χ2, ANOVA, and logistic regression models, were utilized on weighted values with survey analysis procedures. The number of PH-related hospital admissions is rising, from an estimated 7,331 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5,556–9,106) in 2000 to 10,792 (95% CI: 8,568–13,016) in 2009. While infant age and congenital heart disease were most commonly associated with PH-related hospitalizations, they were not associated with mortality. Overall mortality for PH-related hospitalizations was greater than that for hospitalizations not associated with PH, 5.7% versus 0.4% (odds ratio: 16.22 [95% CI: 14.78%–17.8%], P < 0.001), but mortality is decreasing over time. Sepsis, respiratory failure, acute renal failure, hepatic insufficiency, arrhythmias, and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are associated with mortality. The number of PH-related hospitalizations is increasing in the United States. The demographics of PH in this study are evolving. Despite the increasing prevalence, mortality is improving. PMID:26064460

  18. Unit-Specific Rates of Hand Hygiene Opportunities in an Acute-Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Han, Angela; Conway, Laurie J; Moore, Christine; McCreight, Liz; Ragan, Kelsey; So, Jannice; Borgundvaag, Emily; Larocque, Mike; Coleman, Brenda L; McGeer, Allison

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the frequency of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) in multiple units of an acute-care hospital. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING The adult intensive care unit (ICU), medical and surgical step-down units, medical and surgical units, and the postpartum mother-baby unit (MBU) of an academic acute-care hospital during May-August 2013, May-July 2014, and June-August 2015. PARTICIPANTS Healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS HHOs were recorded using direct observation in 1-hour intervals following Public Health Ontario guidelines. The frequency and distribution of HHOs per patient hour were determined for each unit according to time of day, indication, and profession. RESULTS In total, 3,422 HHOs were identified during 586 hours of observation. The mean numbers of HHOs per patient hour in the ICU were similar to those in the medical and surgical step-down units during the day and night, which were higher than the rates observed in medical and surgical units and the MBU. The rate of HHOs during the night significantly decreased compared with day (P92% of HHOs on medical and surgical units, compared to 67% of HHOs on the MBU. CONCLUSIONS Assessment of hand hygiene compliance using product utilization data requires knowledge of the appropriate opportunities for hand hygiene. We have provided a detailed characterization of these estimates across a wide range of inpatient settings as well as an examination of temporal variations in HHOs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:411-416.

  19. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside the...

  20. Implementation of a Personal Fitness Unit Using the Personalized System of Instruction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Levels of physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) are decreasing among adolescents in the United States. Several interventions have been implemented to reverse this downtrend. Traditionally, physical educators incorporate a direct instruction (DI) strategy, with teaching potentially leading students to disengage during class. An…

  1. Security deficiencies in psychiatric units and mental hospitals: what regulators are finding; how hospitals are responding.

    PubMed

    2002-04-01

    There is probably no other healthcare environment more difficult to manage than a psychiatric facility. So reports Jim House of the Mental Health Association's St. Louis, MO, chapter. Patients--many of them estranged from their families--find it difficult to report complaints ... may not even realize the dangers they are in, he says. Conversely, mentally impaired patients can also voice irrational complaints, and make accusations that turn out to be unfounded ... but only after extensive investigative surveys by state agencies are conducted, and the facility's accreditation and state licensure are put at risk. In this report, we'll present examples of what happened at four facilities when state or federal investigators go in, or the hospital is subjected to negative media coverage.

  2. The Creation of a Biocontainment Unit at a Tertiary Care Hospital. The Johns Hopkins Medicine Experience.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Brian T; Kelen, Gabor D; Brower, Roy G; Bova, Gregory; Ernst, Neysa; Reimers, Mallory; Langlotz, Ronald; Gimburg, Anatoly; Iati, Michael; Smith, Christopher; MacConnell, Sally; James, Hailey; Lewin, John J; Trexler, Polly; Black, Meredith A; Lynch, Chelsea; Clarke, William; Marzinke, Mark A; Sokoll, Lori J; Carroll, Karen C; Parish, Nicole M; Dionne, Kim; Biddison, Elizabeth L D; Gwon, Howard S; Sauer, Lauren; Hill, Peter; Newton, Scott M; Garrett, Margaret R; Miller, Redonda G; Perl, Trish M; Maragakis, Lisa L

    2016-05-01

    In response to the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, Johns Hopkins Medicine created a biocontainment unit to care for patients infected with Ebola virus and other high-consequence pathogens. The unit team examined published literature and guidelines, visited two existing U.S. biocontainment units, and contacted national and international experts to inform the design of the physical structure and patient care activities of the unit. The resulting four-bed unit allows for unidirectional flow of providers and materials and has ample space for donning and doffing personal protective equipment. The air-handling system allows treatment of diseases spread by contact, droplet, or airborne routes of transmission. An onsite laboratory and an autoclave waste management system minimize the transport of infectious materials out of the unit. The unit is staffed by self-selected nurses, providers, and support staff with pediatric and adult capabilities. A telecommunications system allows other providers and family members to interact with patients and staff remotely. A full-time nurse educator is responsible for staff training, including quarterly exercises and competency assessment in the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment. The creation of the Johns Hopkins Biocontainment Unit required the highest level of multidisciplinary collaboration. When not used for clinical care and training, the unit will be a site for research and innovation in highly infectious diseases. The lessons learned from the design process can inform a new research agenda focused on the care of patients in a biocontainment environment.

  3. Trends in Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations in the United States, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Tsugawa, Yusuke; Brown, David F.M.; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trend in the national incidence of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, use of mechanical ventilation, and hospital charges between 2000 and 2009. METHODS: We performed a serial, cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis. The Kids Inpatient Database was used to identify children <2 years of age with bronchiolitis by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 466.1. Primary outcome measures were incidence of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, mechanical ventilation (noninvasive or invasive) use, and hospital charges. Temporal trends were evaluated accounting for sampling weights. RESULTS: The 4 separated years (2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009) of national discharge data included 544 828 weighted discharges with bronchiolitis. Between 2000 and 2009, the incidence of bronchiolitis hospitalization decreased from 17.9 to 14.9 per 1000 person-years among all US children aged <2 years (17% decrease; Ptrend < .001). By contrast, there was an increase in children with high-risk medical conditions (5.9%–7.9%; 34% increase; Ptrend < .001) and use of mechanical ventilation (1.9%–2.3%; 21% increase; Ptrend = .008). Nationwide hospital charges increased from $1.34 billion to $1.73 billion (30% increase; Ptrend < .001); this increase was driven by a rise in the geometric mean of hospital charges per case from $6380 to $8530 (34% increase; Ptrend < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Between 2000 and 2009, we found a significant decline in bronchiolitis hospitalizations among US children. By contrast, use of mechanical ventilation and hospital charges for bronchiolitis significantly increased over this same period. PMID:23733801

  4. Inpatient hospital care of children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katherine E; Hexem, Kari R; Feudtner, Chris

    2012-05-01

    Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 are generally considered fatal anomalies, with a majority of infants dying in the first year after birth. The inpatient hospital care that these patients receive has not been adequately described. This study characterized inpatient hospitalizations of children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 in the United States, including number and types of procedures performed. Retrospective repeated cross-sectional assessment of hospitalization data from the nationally representative US Kids' Inpatient Database, for the years 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. Included hospitalizations were of patients aged 0 to 20 years with a diagnosis of trisomy 13 or trisomy 18. The number of hospitalizations for each trisomy type ranged from 846 to 907 per year for trisomy 13 (P = .77 for temporal trend) and 1036 to 1616 per year for trisomy 18 (P < .001 for temporal trend). Over one-third (36%) of the hospitalizations were of patients older than 1 year of age. Patients underwent a total of 2765 major therapeutic procedures, including creation of esophageal sphincter (6% of hospitalizations; mean age 23 months), repair of atrial and ventricular septal defects (4%; mean age 9 months), and procedures on tendons (4%; mean age 8 years). Children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 receive significant inpatient hospital care. Despite the conventional understanding of these syndromes as lethal, a substantial number of children are living longer than 1 year and undergoing medical and surgical procedures as part of their treatment.

  5. Alexithymia in patients with antisocial personality disorder in a military hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Sayar, K; Ebrinc, S; Ak, I

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of alexithymic features and other psychometric correlates in patients diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder in a military hospital setting. Forty soldiers diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder in a general military hospital and 50 normal soldiers with no known medical or psychiatric disorder were assessed by sociodemographic data form, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-26 items, the Beck Depression Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Antisocial patients showed significantly higher rates of unemployment, lower educational and socioeconomic status, higher rates of self mutilation, previous suicide attempts, substance abuse, history of incarceration and broken family bonds. The patient group also displayed significantly higher scores on alexithymia, depression, hopelessness and general psychological distress measures. Alexithymia was not associated with other psychological measures but was associated with socioeconomic and educational status. The failure in the socialization process of these patients may pave the way for an inability to identify and communicate their feelings. To draw a more definitive conclusion on this issue, a study which recruits ASPD patients from the community and compares them with a sociodemographically matched patient control group is necessary.

  6. [Children's medically complex diseases unit. A model required in all our hospitals].

    PubMed

    Climent Alcalá, Francisco José; García Fernández de Villalta, Marta; Escosa García, Luis; Rodríguez Alonso, Aroa; Albajara Velasco, Luis Adolfo

    2017-05-09

    The increase in survival of children with severe diseases has led to the rise of children with chronic diseases, sometimes with lifelong disabilities. In 2008, a unit for the specific care of medically complex children (MCC) was created in Hospital La Paz. To describe the work and care activities of this Unit. Patients and methods An analysis was performed on all discharge reports of the Unit between January 2014 and July 2016. The MCC Unit has 6 beds and daily outpatient clinic. A total of 1,027 patients have been treated since the creation of the unit, with 243 from 2014. The median age was 24.2 months (IQ: 10.21-84.25). The large majority (92.59%) have multiple diseases, the most frequent chronic conditions observed were neurological (76.95%), gastrointestinal (63.78%), and respiratory diseases (61.72%). More than two-thirds (69.54%) of MCC are dependent on technology, 53.49% on respiratory support, and 35.80% on nutritional support. Hospital admission rates have increased annually. There have been 403 admissions since 2014, of which 8.93% were re-admissions within 30 days of hospital discharge. The median stay during 2014-2016 was 6 days (IQ: 3-14). The occupancy rate has been above 100% for this period. Currently, 210 patients remain on follow-up (86.42%), and 11 children (4.53%) were discharged to their referral hospitals. The mortality rate is 9.05% (22 deaths). The main condition of these 22 patients was neurological (9 patients). Infectious diseases were the leading cause of death. MCC should be treated in specialized units in tertiary or high-level hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in hospital costs after introducing an intermediate care unit: a comparative observational study

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Barbara CJ; Dirksen, Carmen D; Nieman, Fred HM; van Merode, Godefridus; Poeze, Martijn; Ramsay, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The high cost of critical care resources has resulted in strategies to reduce the costs of ruling out low-risk patients by developing intermediate care units (IMCs). The aim of this study was to compare changes in total hospital costs for intensive care patients before and after the introduction of an IMC at the University Hospital Maastricht. Methods The design was a comparative longitudinal study. The setting was a university hospital with a mixed intensive care unit (ICU), an IMC, and general wards. Changes in total hospital costs were measured for patients who were admitted to the ICU before and after the introduction of the IMC. The comparison of interest was the opening of a six-bed mixed IMC. Results The mean total hospital cost per patient increased significantly. Before the introduction of the IMC, the total hospital cost per patient was €12,961 (± €14,530) and afterwards it rose to €16,513 (± €17,718). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine to what extent patient characteristics explained these higher hospital costs using mortality, type of stay, diagnostic categories, length of ICU and ward stay, and the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS) as predictors. More surgical patients, greater requirements of therapeutic interventions on the ICU admission day, and longer ICU stay in patients did explain the increase in hospital costs, rather than the introduction of the IMC. Conclusion After the introduction of the IMC, the higher mean total hospital costs for patients with a high TISS score and longer ICU stay explained the cost increase. PMID:18482443

  8. Review of paediatric cardiology services in district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Hannah; Singh, Yogen

    2016-03-01

    Following the Safe and Sustainable review of Paediatric Services in 2012/2013, National Health Service England recommended that local paediatric cardiology services should be provided by specially trained paediatricians with expertise in cardiology in all non-specialist hospitals. To understand the variation in local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom. An internet-based questionnaire was sent out via the Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group and the Neonatologists with Interest in Cardiology and Haemodynamics contact databases and the National Health Service directory. Non-responders were followed-up via telephone. The response rate was 80% (141 of 177 hospitals), and paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were available in 68% of those. Local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were provided in 96 hospitals (68%), whereas specialist outreach clinics were held in 123 centres (87%). A total of 11 hospitals provided neither specialist outreach clinics nor any local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology. Paediatric echocardiography services were provided in 83% of the hospitals, 12-lead electrocardiogram in 96%, Holter electrocardiogram in 91%, and exercise testing in only 47% of the responding hospitals. Telemedicine facilities were established in only 52% of the centres, where sharing echocardiogram images via picture archiving and communication system was used most commonly. There has been a substantial increase in the availability of paediatricians with expertise in cardiology since 2008. Most of the hospitals are well-supported by specialist cardiology centres via outreach clinics; however, there remains significant variation in the local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

  9. Pressure ulcers and prevention among acute care hospitals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Dong, Lei; He, Jianghua; Dunton, Nancy

    2013-09-01

    Most pressure ulcers can be prevented with evidence-based practice. Many studies describe the implementation of a pressure ulcer prevention program but few report the effect on outcomes across acute care facilities. Data on hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and prevention from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators 2010 Pressure Ulcer Surveys were linked to hospital characteristics and nurse staffing measures within the data set. The sample consisted of 1,419 hospitals from across the United States and 710,626 patients who had been surveyed for pressure ulcers in adult critical care, step-down, medical, surgical, and medical/surgical units. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed to identify study variables associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers among patients at risk for these ulcers. The rate of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers was 3.6% across all surveyed patients and 7.9% among those at risk. Patients who received a skin and pressure ulcer risk assessment on admission were less likely to develop a pressure ulcer. Additional study variables associated with lower hospital-acquired pressure ulcer rates included a recent reassessment of pressure ulcer risk, higher Braden Scale scores, a recent skin assessment, routine repositioning, and Magnet or Magnet-applicant designation. Variables associated with a higher likelihood of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers included nutritional support, moisture management, larger hospital size, and academic medical center status. Results provide empirical support for pressure ulcer prevention guideline recommendations on skin assessment, pressure ulcer risk assessment, and routine repositioning, but the 7.9% rate of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers among at-risk patients suggests room for improvement in pressure ulcer prevention practice.

  10. Cysticercosis-Related Hospitalizations in the United States, 1998–2011

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, Kaitlin A.; Eberhard, Mark L.; Shafir, Shira C.; Wilkins, Patricia; Ash, Lawrence R.; Sorvillo, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis has become increasingly recognized as an important infection in the United States in recent decades. Despite its potential impact, there is a lack of comprehensive information on the nationwide burden of disease. To better define the burden of cysticercosis in the United States, we analyzed in-patient records using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 1998–2011 to estimate cysticercosis-related hospitalizations and patient/institutional characteristics. There were an estimated 33,060 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 29,610.5–36,510.3) cysticercosis-related hospitalizations nationwide, representing a hospitalization rate of 8.03 per million population. The highest proportion of cases were male (54.8%), Hispanic (62.0%), aged 18–44 (58.8%), and occurred in the West (45.1%). An estimated 459 deaths occurred, representing an in-hospital case-fatality rate of 1.4%. These findings indicate the burden of cysticercosis-related hospitalizations in the United States is considerable and may be greater than currently appreciated. Cysticercosis should be a nationally reportable disease. PMID:25385857

  11. Cysticercosis-related hospitalizations in the United States, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Kaitlin A; Eberhard, Mark L; Shafir, Shira C; Wilkins, Patricia; Ash, Lawrence R; Sorvillo, Frank J

    2015-02-01

    Cysticercosis has become increasingly recognized as an important infection in the United States in recent decades. Despite its potential impact, there is a lack of comprehensive information on the nationwide burden of disease. To better define the burden of cysticercosis in the United States, we analyzed in-patient records using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 1998-2011 to estimate cysticercosis-related hospitalizations and patient/institutional characteristics. There were an estimated 33,060 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 29,610.5-36,510.3) cysticercosis-related hospitalizations nationwide, representing a hospitalization rate of 8.03 per million population. The highest proportion of cases were male (54.8%), Hispanic (62.0%), aged 18-44 (58.8%), and occurred in the West (45.1%). An estimated 459 deaths occurred, representing an in-hospital case-fatality rate of 1.4%. These findings indicate the burden of cysticercosis-related hospitalizations in the United States is considerable and may be greater than currently appreciated. Cysticercosis should be a nationally reportable disease.

  12. A profile of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Northern Emirates, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Batt, Alan M.; Al-Hajeri, Ahmed S.; Cummins, Fergal H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To report the characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients and their outcomes in the emirates of Sharjah, Ras-al-Khaimah, Umm Al-Quwain, Fujairah, and Ajman in the United Arab Emirates (collectively known as the Northern Emirates). Methods: This is a prospective descriptive cohort study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidents transported by the national ambulance crews between February 2014 and March 2015 in the Northern Emirates. Results: A total of 384 patients were enrolled in this study. Male victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest represented 76% of the participants. The mean age of the study population was 50.9 years. An over-all prehospital return of spontaneous circulation rate of 3.1% was documented, as well as a 30% rate of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation being performed. Public access defibrillators were applied in 0.5% of cases. Data is presented according to Utstein reporting criteria. Conclusion: Baseline data for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was established for the first time in the Northern Emirates of the United Arab Emirates. A low survival rate for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, low rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and low public access defibrillator use were discovered. Although low by comparison to established western systems results are similar to other systems in the region. Determining the baseline data presented in this study is essential in recommending and implementing strategies to reduce mortality from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. PMID:27761558

  13. A profile of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Northern Emirates, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Batt, Alan M; Al-Hajeri, Ahmed S; Cummins, Fergal H

    2016-11-01

    To report the characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients and their outcomes in the emirates of Sharjah, Ras-al-Khaimah, Umm Al-Quwain, Fujairah, and Ajman in the United Arab Emirates (collectively known as the Northern Emirates). Methods: This is a prospective descriptive cohort study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidents transported by the national ambulance crews between February 2014 and March 2015 in the Northern Emirates. Results: A total of 384 patients were enrolled in this study. Male victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest represented 76% of the participants. The mean age of the study population was 50.9 years. An over-all prehospital return of spontaneous circulation rate of 3.1% was documented, as well as a 30% rate of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation being performed. Public access defibrillators were applied in 0.5% of cases. Data is presented according to Utstein reporting criteria. Conclusion: Baseline data for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was established for the first time in the Northern Emirates of the United Arab Emirates. A low survival rate for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, low rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and low public access defibrillator use were discovered. Although low by comparison to established western systems results are similar to other systems in the region. Determining the baseline data presented in this study is essential in recommending and implementing strategies to reduce mortality from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

  14. Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Flecker, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003–2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20–44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money. PMID:25988221

  15. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–20121

    PubMed Central

    Strollo, Sara; Lionakis, Michail S.; Adjemian, Jennifer; Steiner, Claudia A.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a major nosocomial fungal disease in the United States associated with high rates of illness and death. We analyzed inpatient hospitalization records from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to estimate incidence of invasive candidiasis–associated hospitalizations in the United States. We extracted data for 33 states for 2002–2012 by using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, for invasive candidiasis; we excluded neonatal cases. The overall age-adjusted average annual rate was 5.3 hospitalizations/100,000 population. Highest risk was for adults >65 years of age, particularly men. Median length of hospitalization was 21 days; 22% of patients died during hospitalization. Median unadjusted associated cost for inpatient care was $46,684. Age-adjusted annual rates decreased during 2005–2012 for men (annual change –3.9%) and women (annual change –4.5%) and across nearly all age groups. We report a high mortality rate and decreasing incidence of hospitalizations for this disease. PMID:27983497

  16. Volunteers improving person-centred dementia and delirium care in a rural Australian hospital.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Catherine; Anderson, Katrina; Bird, Michael; Hungerford, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to address the challenges faced by staff in an acute rural hospital in Australia when providing person-centred care for patients with dementia and/or delirium. This was done by training volunteers to provide personal support to these patients, then measuring the outcomes of this intervention. Volunteers were given training, then allocated patients with dementia/delirium or at risk of delirium. A quasi-experimental pre-post design assessed outcomes of the intervention. Quantitative measures were clinical outcome data for the 64 patients who passed through the program; questionnaire data related to the stress and attitudes of the 18 participating nurses; and attitudes, knowledge and confidence of the 18 volunteers. Qualitative measures assessed acceptability and feasibility of the intervention to staff and volunteers. There was a significant reduction over time in length of stay for patients, and an increase in the use of analgesic medications. Only one patient fell while volunteers were on duty. There were no effects on the stress of nursing staff or their attitudes to dementia. Volunteers gained significantly in confidence and attitudes to dementia. The program was highly acceptable, with 96% of staff and 100% of volunteers perceiving the program as beneficial for patients, staff and volunteers. The program has continued and is now being expanded to other rural sites. It is feasible to introduce and then sustain a relatively inexpensive program to improve quality of care for people with dementia and/or delirium in an acute rural hospital. Reasons for the program's effectiveness are canvassed in the paper, but further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of a similar program in urban hospitals.

  17. Factors Affecting Code Status in a University Hospital Intensive Care Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Sherman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The authors collected data on diagnosis, hospital course, and end-of-life preparedness in patients who died in the intensive care unit (ICU) with "full code" status (defined as receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation), compared with those who didn't. Differences were analyzed using binary and stepwise logistic regression. They found no…

  18. Legal Outcomes of Sexually Abused Children Evaluated at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugue-Castillo, Mariella

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the legal outcomes and factors associated with case reaching court and conviction for sexual abuse of children seen at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit (PGH-CPU) from 1997 to 2000. Methods: Mixed transdisciplinary research design combined longitudinal cohort with qualitative methods. Data were obtained…

  19. Osteoporosis among hospitalized patients with proximal femoral fractures in Assiut University Trauma Unit, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Osama; Mahran, Dalia G; Said, Hatem G; Alaa, Mohamed M; Eisa, Amr; Imam, Hisham; Said, G Z

    2017-12-01

    The study was done to investigate osteoporosis prevalence in 275 hip fracture admissions at the Trauma Unit of Assiut University Hospitals and associated factors, which are understudied in our locality. Prevalence was 74.9%. Female sex, older age, low body mass index, and fall on the ground were associated with osteoporosis.

  20. Factors Affecting Code Status in a University Hospital Intensive Care Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Sherman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The authors collected data on diagnosis, hospital course, and end-of-life preparedness in patients who died in the intensive care unit (ICU) with "full code" status (defined as receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation), compared with those who didn't. Differences were analyzed using binary and stepwise logistic regression. They found no…

  1. Legal Outcomes of Sexually Abused Children Evaluated at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugue-Castillo, Mariella

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the legal outcomes and factors associated with case reaching court and conviction for sexual abuse of children seen at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit (PGH-CPU) from 1997 to 2000. Methods: Mixed transdisciplinary research design combined longitudinal cohort with qualitative methods. Data were obtained…

  2. Personality Disorders and Cigarette Smoking among Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Jenkins, Elizabeth F.; Johnson, Kirsten A.; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There is a paucity of empirical information pertaining to the association between personality disorders and cigarette smoking. The present study examined whether, and to what degree, personality disorders are associated with cigarette smoking; investigated the specificity of any observed smoking-personality disorder association; and the role of mood/anxiety disorders, substance use, and nicotine dependence in those relations. Methods Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative sample of 43,083 adults in the United States. Results Results indicated a substantial percentage of those with personality disorders are nicotine dependent. Interestingly, the association between dependent, avoidant, histrionic, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders as well as former dependent smoking was partially explained by co-occurring mood/anxiety disorders, and adjusting for such clinical conditions appeared to generally attenuate the strength of many other associations. Finally, the association between personality disorders and smoking appears to differ by specific personality disorder, with some of the strongest relations being evident for antisocial personality disorder. Discussion These novel empirical findings are discussed in relation to the relevance of cigarette smoking among those with personality disorders. PMID:21168156

  3. Stockpile of personal protective equipment in hospital settings: preparedness for influenza pandemics.

    PubMed

    Hashikura, Mayuko; Kizu, Junko

    2009-11-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is known to be a crucial means of preventing influenza pandemics; however, the amount of PPE that should be stored in hospital settings has been unclear. The purpose of this paper is to propose a PPE calculation system to help hospitals to decide their PPE stockpile. We searched influenza guidelines from a number of countries and research papers on protective devices and infectious diseases. The PPE calculation system included factors such as the influenza pandemic period, risk classification by health care workers (HCW) type, and the type and number of PPE for a HCW per day. We concluded that 4 sets of PPE (N95 respirators, double gloves, gowns, and goggles) per day should be prepared for HCWs in a high-risk group. Similarly, 2 sets of appropriate PPE, depending on the risk level, are required for medium- and low-risk groups. In addition, 2 surgical masks are required for every worker and inpatient and 1 for each outpatient. The PPE stockpile should be prepared to cover at least an 8-week pandemic. Purchasing a PPE stockpile requires a sizable budget. The PPE calculation system in this paper will hopefully support hospitals in deciding their PPE stockpile.

  4. Recent Trends in Out-of-Hospital Births in the United States.

    PubMed

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Mathews, T J

    2013-01-01

    Although out-of-hospital births are still relatively rare in the United States, it is important to monitor trends in these births, as they can affect patterns of facility usage, clinician training, and resource allocation, as well as health care costs. Trends and characteristics of home and birth center births are analyzed to more completely profile contemporary out-of-hospital births in the United States. National birth certificate data were used to examine a recent increase in out-of-hospital births. After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the number of out-of-hospital births increased from 35,578 in 2004 to 47,028 in 2010. In 2010, 1 in 85 US infants (1.18%) was born outside a hospital; about two-thirds of these were born at home, and most of the rest were born in birth centers. The proportion of home births increased by 41%, from 0.56% in 2004 to 0.79% in 2010, with 10% of that increase occurring in the last year. The proportion of birth center births increased by 43%, from 0.23% in 2004 to 0.33% in 2010, with 14% of the increase in the last year. About 90% of the total increase in out-of hospital births from 2004 to 2010 was a result of increases among non-Hispanic white women, and 1 in 57 births to non-Hispanic white women (1.75%) in 2010 was an out-of-hospital birth. Most home and birth center births were attended by midwives. Home and birth center births in the United States are increasing, and the rate of out-of-hospital births is now at the highest level since 1978. There has been a decline in the risk profile of out-of-hospital births, with a smaller proportion of out-of-hospital births in 2010 than in 2004 occurring to adolescents and unmarried women and fewer preterm, low-birth-weight, and multiple births. © 2013 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the United States.

  5. GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD PRACTICES IN HOSPITAL-BASED HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT UNITS.

    PubMed

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Lach, Krzysztof; Pasternack, Iris; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Cicchetti, Americo; Marchetti, Marco; Kidholm, Kristian; Arentz-Hansen, Helene; Rosenmöller, Magdalene; Wild, Claudia; Kahveci, Rabia; Ulst, Margus

    2015-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) carried out for policy decision making has well-established principles unlike hospital-based HTA (HB-HTA), which differs from the former in the context characteristics and ways of operation. This study proposes principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. A framework for good practice criteria was built inspired by the EFQM excellence business model and information from six literature reviews, 107 face-to-face interviews, forty case studies, large-scale survey, focus group, Delphi survey, as well as local and international validation. In total, 385 people from twenty countries have participated in defining the principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. Fifteen guiding principles for good practices in HB-HTA units are grouped in four dimensions. Dimension 1 deals with principles of the assessment process aimed at providing contextualized information for hospital decision makers. Dimension 2 describes leadership, strategy and partnerships of HB-HTA units which govern and facilitate the assessment process. Dimension 3 focuses on adequate resources that ensure the operation of HB-HTA units. Dimension 4 deals with measuring the short- and long-term impact of the overall performance of HB-HTA units. Finally, nine core guiding principles were selected as essential requirements for HB-HTA units based on the expertise of the HB-HTA units participating in the project. Guiding principles for good practices set up a benchmark for HB-HTA because they represent the ideal performance of HB-HTA units; nevertheless, when performing HTA at hospital level, context also matters; therefore, they should be adapted to ensure their applicability in the local context.

  6. Acinetobacter infections prevalence and frequency of the antibiotics resistance: comparative study of intensive care units versus other hospital units

    PubMed Central

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Frikh, Mohammed; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Bssaibis, Fatna; Belefquih, Bouchra; Maleb, Adil; Dahraoui, Souhail; Belyamani, Lahcen; Bait, Abdelouahed; Haimeur, Charki; Louzi, Lhoussain; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Elouennass, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to determine the Acinetobacter sp clinical isolates frequency and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern by comparing results obtained from the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) to that of other units at the Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital in Rabat. Methods This is a retrospective study over a 2-years period where we collected all clinical isolates of Acinetobacter sp obtained from samples for infection diagnosis performed on hospitalized patients between 2012 to 2014. Results During the study period, 441 clinical and non-repetitive isolates of Acinetobacter sp were collected representing 6.94% of all bacterial clinical isolates (n = 6352) and 9.6% of Gram negative rods (n = 4569). More than a half of the isolates were from the ICUs and were obtained from 293 infected patients of which 65, 2% (191 cases) were males (sex ratio = 1.9) and the median age was 56 years (interquartile range: 42-68 years). Acinetobacter clinical isolates were obtained from respiratory samples (44.67%) followed by blood cultures (14.51%). The resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin / tazobactam, imipenem, amikacin, tobramycin, netilmicin, rifampicin and colistin was respectively 87%, 86%, 79%, 76%; 52%, 43%, 33% 32% and 1.7%. The difference in resistance between the ICUs and the other units was statistically significant (p <0.05) except for colistin, tetracycline and rifampicin. Conclusion This paper shows that solving the problem of prevalence and high rate of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter infection which represents a therapeutic impasse, requires the control of the hospital environment and optimizing hands hygiene and antibiotics use in the hospital. PMID:27347280

  7. Hospital based emergency department visits attributed to child physical abuse in United States: predictors of in-hospital mortality.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Asad, Rahimullah; Lee, Min Kyeong; Nalliah, Romesh P; Rampa, Sankeerth; Speicher, David G; Rotta, Alexandre T; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2014-01-01

    To describe nationally representative outcomes of physical abuse injuries in children necessitating Emergency Department (ED) visits in United States. The impact of various injuries on mortality is examined. We hypothesize that physical abuse resulting in intracranial injuries are associated with worse outcome. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all payer hospital based ED database, for the years 2008-2010. All ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations with a diagnosis of "Child physical abuse" (Battered baby or child syndrome) due to various injuries were identified using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. In addition, we also examined the prevalence of sexual abuse in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between mortality and types of injuries after adjusting for a multitude of patient and hospital level factors. Of the 16897 ED visits that were attributed to child physical abuse, 5182 (30.7%) required hospitalization. Hospitalized children were younger than those released treated and released from the ED (1.9 years vs. 6.4 years). Male or female partner of the child's parent/guardian accounted for >45% of perpetrators. Common injuries in hospitalized children include- any fractures (63.5%), intracranial injuries (32.3%) and crushing/internal injuries (9.1%). Death occurred in 246 patients (13 in ED and 233 following hospitalization). Amongst the 16897 ED visits, 1.3% also had sexual abuse. Multivariable analyses revealed each 1 year increase in age was associated with a lower odds of mortality (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.96, p < 0.0001). Females (OR = 2.39, 1.07-5.34, p = 0.03), those with intracranial injuries (OR = 65.24, 27.57-154.41, p<0.0001), or crushing/internal injury (OR = 4.98, 2.24-11.07, p<0.0001) had higher odds of mortality compared to their male counterparts. In this

  8. Hospital Based Emergency Department Visits Attributed to Child Physical Abuse in United States: Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Asad, Rahimullah; Lee, Min Kyeong; Nalliah, Romesh P.; Rampa, Sankeerth; Speicher, David G.; Rotta, Alexandre T.; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe nationally representative outcomes of physical abuse injuries in children necessitating Emergency Department (ED) visits in United States. The impact of various injuries on mortality is examined. We hypothesize that physical abuse resulting in intracranial injuries are associated with worse outcome. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all payer hospital based ED database, for the years 2008–2010. All ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations with a diagnosis of “Child physical abuse” (Battered baby or child syndrome) due to various injuries were identified using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. In addition, we also examined the prevalence of sexual abuse in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between mortality and types of injuries after adjusting for a multitude of patient and hospital level factors. Results Of the 16897 ED visits that were attributed to child physical abuse, 5182 (30.7%) required hospitalization. Hospitalized children were younger than those released treated and released from the ED (1.9 years vs. 6.4 years). Male or female partner of the child’s parent/guardian accounted for >45% of perpetrators. Common injuries in hospitalized children include- any fractures (63.5%), intracranial injuries (32.3%) and crushing/internal injuries (9.1%). Death occurred in 246 patients (13 in ED and 233 following hospitalization). Amongst the 16897 ED visits, 1.3% also had sexual abuse. Multivariable analyses revealed each 1 year increase in age was associated with a lower odds of mortality (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81–0.96, p<0.0001). Females (OR = 2.39, 1.07–5.34, p = 0.03), those with intracranial injuries (OR = 65.24, 27.57–154.41, p<0.0001), or crushing/internal injury (OR = 4.98, 2.24–11.07, p<0

  9. Hospital differences in motor activity early after stroke: a comparison of 11 Norwegian stroke units.

    PubMed

    Hokstad, Anne; Indredavik, Bent; Bernhardt, Julie; Ihle-Hansen, Hege; Salvesen, Øyvind; Seljeseth, Yngve Müller; Schüler, Stephan; Engstad, Torgeir; Askim, Torunn

    2015-06-01

    Activity levels in patients early after stroke vary across the world. The primary aim of this study was to assess the variation in motor activity in patients admitted to multiple Norwegian stroke units and to identify factors which explained the variation between hospitals. Eligible patients were those less than 14 days after stroke, more than 18 years, not receiving palliative care. Activity levels, people present, and location were recorded by the use of a standard method of observation between 8 am and 5 pm. Hospital policy on serving meals in communal areas was also registered. Mixed general binomial model was used to analyze, which factors explained variation in activity levels between hospitals, after adjusting for age and stroke severity. A total of 393 patients from 11 stroke units were included. The patients spent 44.1% of the day in bed, 43.2% sitting out of bed, and 8.3% in higher motor activities (4.4% were not observed). Increased physical activity was associated with spending more time with a physical therapist, odds ratio (OR), 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.08, P < .001) and admitted to a hospital serving the meals in communal areas, OR, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.09-1.95, P = .011). Despite variation between the hospitals, patients admitted to Norwegian stroke units spend most of the day out of bed. Time spent with a physical therapist and hospitals having a policy of serving meals in communal areas explained most of the variation in activity between hospitals. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical assessment of the oral cavity of patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit of an emergency hospital

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Maristela Kapitski; de Morais, Teresa Márcia Nascimento; Trevisani, Deny Munari

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the oral health status of patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Methods Clinical assessment of the oral cavity was performed in 35 patients at two time-points (up to 48 hours after admission and 72 hours after the first assessment) and recorded in data collection forms. The following data were collected: plaque index, condition of the mucosa, presence or absence of dental prosthesis, number of teeth present, and tongue coating index. Results The prevalence of nosocomial infection was 22% (eight patients), with 50% respiratory tract infections. All patients exhibited oral biofilm, and 20 (57%) showed biofilm visible to the naked eye; tongue coating was present on more than two thirds of the tongue in 24 patients (69%) and was thick in most cases. A significant increase in plaque index (p=0.007) occurred after 72 hours, although the tongue coating index was p<0.001 regarding the area and p=0.5 regarding the thickness. Conclusion The plaque and tongue coating indices increased with the length of hospital stay at the intensive care unit. PMID:25607267

  11. Hospitalizations for Intussusception Before and After the Reintroduction of Rotavirus Vaccine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zickafoose, Joseph S.; Benneyworth, Brian D.; Riebschleger, Meredith P.; Espinosa, Claudia M.; Davis, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether hospital discharges for intussusception in children younger than 1 year have changed since the reintroduction of rotavirus vaccine in the United States. Design Serial cross-sectional analysis. Setting US hospitals. Participants Children younger than 1 year with a discharge diagnosis of intussusception identified in the Kids’ Inpatient Database, a series of nationally representative data sets of pediatric hospital discharges in the United States with 4 available years prior to vaccine reintroduction (1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006) and 1 year after (2009). Main Exposures Hospital discharge before vs after rotavirus vaccine reintroduction. Outcome Measures Total number and rate of hospital discharges for infants younger than 1 year with a diagnosis of intussusception (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 560.0). Results From 1997 to 2006, there was no change in the total number of hospital discharges for intussusception, with a small decrease in the rate of intussusception discharges (41.6 [95% CI, 36.7–46.5] to 36.5 [95% CI, 31.7–41.2] per 100 000 infants). Based on the trend, the predicted rate of discharges for intussusception in 2009 was 36.0 (95% CI, 30.2–41.8) per 100 000 infants. The measured rate of hospital discharges for intussusception in 2009 was 33.3 (95% CI, 29.0–37.6) per 100 000 infants. Conclusion The reintroduction of rotavirus vaccine since 2006 has not resulted in a detectable increase in the number of hospital discharges for intussusception among US infants. PMID:22213609

  12. Diabetes Mellitus and Infection: An Evaluation of Hospital Utilization and Management Costs in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2014-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study is to evaluate the number of diabetics that seek medical treatment in emergency departments or require hospitalization for infection management in the United States. This study also assesses the socioeconomic impact of inpatient infection management among diabetics. Methods We accessed the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project’s Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to perform a retrospective analysis on diabetics presenting to the emergency department or hospitalized for infection management from 2006-2011. Results Emergency Department Since 2006, nearly 10 million diabetics were annually evaluated in the emergency department. Infection was the primary reason for presentation in 10% of these visits. Among those visits, urinary tract infection was the most common infection, accounting for over 30% of emergency department encounters for infections. Other common infections included sepsis, skin and soft tissue infections, and pneumonia. Diabetics were more than twice as likely to be hospitalized for infection management than patients without diabetes. Hospitalization Since 2006, nearly 6 million diabetics were annually hospitalized. 8-12% of these patients were hospitalized for infection management. In 2011, the inpatient care provided to patients with DM and infection was responsible for over $48 billion dollars in aggregate hospital charges. Conclusions Diabetics commonly present to the emergency department and require hospitalization for infection management. The care provided to diabetics for infection management has a large economic impact on the United States healthcare system. More efforts are needed to develop cost-effective strategies for the prevention of infection in patients with diabetes. PMID:25488325

  13. Economic Burden of Hospitalizations for Heat-Related Illnesses in the United States, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Schmeltz, Michael T.; Petkova, Elisaveta P.; Gamble, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how heat waves affect morbidity and mortality, as well as the associated economic costs, is essential for characterizing the human health impacts of extreme heat under a changing climate. Only a handful of studies have examined healthcare costs associated with exposures to high temperatures. This research explores costs associated with hospitalizations for heat-related illness (HRI) in the United States using the 2001 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Descriptive statistics of patient data for HRI hospitalizations were examined and costs of hospitalizations were reported using the all-payer inpatient cost-to-charge ratio. Costs were examined using a log-gamma model with patient and hospital characteristics included as fixed effects. Adjusted mean costs were then compared across racial groups. The mean costs of HRI hospitalizations were higher among racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites, who accounted for almost 65% of all HRI hospitalizations. Observed differences in costs based on income, insurance, and gender were also significant. These results suggest that these populations are suffering disproportionately from health inequity, thus, they could shoulder greater disease and financial burdens due to climate change. These findings may have important implications in understanding the economic impact public health planning and interventions will have on preventing hospitalizations related to extreme heat. PMID:27618079

  14. The convergence between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals in the United States.

    PubMed

    David, Guy

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel model of the hospital industry in the United States in which firms in effect choose their ownership type and the regulatory and tax regimes under which they must function. Accordingly, I develop a model in which firms have identical objectives but differ in their ability to benefit from a given ownership form. Changes in the economic environment alter firms' incentives to maintain a given ownership type. This in turn induces firms to modify their capacity and encourages some firms to switch ownership type. One implication of this model is that changes in the economic environment that have occurred since 1960 imply that the optimal size of those firms which choose to be for profit should more closely approximate the optimal size of firms which choose to be nonprofit. Hospital level data indicate that this size convergence has indeed occurred. In 1960, U.S. nonprofit hospitals maintained on average more than three times as many beds per hospital as their for-profit counterparts; following a monotonic decline in relative size, by 2000, the average nonprofit hospital was only 32% larger than the typical for-profit hospital. Declining roles of government hospitals, population growth, suburbanization, and increasing government intervention in the healthcare market help explain the convergence in size. Analysis of data at the state and Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) levels is consistent with the principal theoretical predictions.

  15. Gunshot wounds resulting in hospitalization in the United States: 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Cook, Alan; Osler, Turner; Hosmer, David; Glance, Laurent; Rogers, Frederick; Gross, Brian; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Malhotra, Ajai

    2017-03-01

    The United States (US) leads all high income countries in gunshot wound (GSW) deaths. However, as a result of two decades of reduced federal support, study of GSW has been largely neglected. In this paper we describe the current state of GSW hospitalizations in the US using population-based data. We conducted an observational study of patients hospitalized for GSW in the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2004 -2013. Our primary outcome is mortality after admission and we model its associations with gender, race, age, intent, severity of injury and weapon type, as well as providing temporal trends in hospital charges. Each year approximately 30,000 patients are hospitalized for GSW, and 2500 die in hospital. Men are 9 times as likely to be hospitalized for GSW as women, but are less likely to die. Twice as many blacks are hospitalized for GSW as non-Hispanic whites. In-hospital mortality for blacks and non-Hispanic whites was similar when controlled for other factors. Most GSW (63%) are the result of assaults which overwhelmingly involve blacks; accidents are also common (23%) and more commonly involve non-Hispanic whites. Although suicide is much less common (8.3%), it accounts for 32% of all deaths; most of which are older non-Hispanic white males. Handguns are the most common weapon reported, and have the highest mortality rate (8.4%). During the study period, the annual rate of hospitalizations for GSW remained stable at 80 per 100,000 hospital admissions; median inflation-adjusted hospital charges have steadily increased by approximately 20% annually from $30,000 to $56,000 per hospitalization. The adjusted odds for mortality decreased over the study period. Although extensively reported, GSW inflicted by police and terrorists represent few hospitalizations and very few deaths. The preponderance GSW hospitalizations resulting from assaults on young black males and suicides among older non-Hispanic white males have continued unabated over the last

  16. Evaluation of intoxicated patients hospitalized in a newly-opened level two pediatric intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Güngörer, Vildan; Yisldırım, Nurdan Kökten

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to retrospectively examine the demographic and etiological characteristics, prognosis and length of stay in intensive care unit of intoxicated patients hospitalized in Level two Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Samsun. Material and Methods: The study retrospectively examined the records of patients hospitalized between 14th March 2014 and 14th March 2015 in Level two Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Samsun with respect to age, gender, cause of poisoning, time of emergency department admission, length of hospitalization and prognosis. Results: Of 82 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, 29 (35.3%) were male and 53 (64.6%) were female. The mean age of the male and female patients was 7.89±6.3 years and 11.2±5.7 years, respectively and the mean age of the study group was 10.04±6.1. Twenthy one (39,6%) of the female patients were at the age group of 0–14 years and 32 (60.4%) were at the age group of 14–18 years. Twenthy (68.9%) of the male patients were at the age group of 0–14 years and nine (31.1%) were at the age group of 14–18 years. The cause of poisoning was drug intoxication (antidepressants, antibiotics, painkillers and other drugs) in 64 patients (78%) and the remaining 18 patients (22%) were admitted to hospital for other causes (rat poison, mushroom, carbonmonoxide, scorpion stings, bonzai and pesticides). Thirthy eight (46.3%) of all the patients used such substances for suicidal purpose. Thirthy three (62.2%) of these were female and 32 were at the age group of 14–18 years. Fourty (48.7%) of the patients who ingested medication ingested one drug, while 24 (29.2%) ingested multiple drugs. Antidepressants were found to be the most commonly used drugs (31.2%). The mean hospital admission time was 3.41±2 hours and the mean time of intensive care unit stay was 2.89±1.04 days. No mortality was recorded. Thirthy patients (36.5%) were referred

  17. Vaccination coverage among persons with asthma -- United States, 2010-2011 influenza season.

    PubMed

    2013-12-06

    Asthma was the most common underlying condition among persons hospitalized with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in 2009. Although persons with asthma are not more likely than others to get influenza, influenza can make asthma symptoms worse, trigger asthma attacks, and lead to pneumonia or other complications that result in hospitalization and even death. During 1964-2010, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that all adults and children aged ≥6 months with asthma receive an influenza vaccination annually. Beginning with the 2010-11 influenza season, ACIP expanded its annual vaccination recommendation to include all persons aged ≥6 months, while emphasizing that protection of persons at higher risk for influenza-related complications continue as a focus of vaccination efforts. To provide the first update of national vaccination coverage among persons aged ≥2 years with asthma since the new ACIP recommendation, CDC analyzed data from the 2010 and 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that influenza vaccination during the 2010-11 season among persons with asthma was 50%, up from 36% 5 years earlier. However, vaccination coverage across all age groups, including among those with health insurance, a usual place for health care, and one or more health-care visits in the past 12 months, remained well below Healthy People 2020 targets of 80% for children aged 6 months-17 years and 90% for adults aged ≥18 years who are at high risk. These findings highlight the need to educate health-care providers and persons with asthma about the importance of annual influenza vaccination.

  18. Healthcare associated infections in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in India: Hospital stay & extra costs

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Jitender; Satpathy, Sidhartha; Sharma, D.K.; Lodha, Rakesh; Kapil, Arti; Wadhwa, Nitya; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) increase the length of stay in the hospital and consequently costs as reported from studies done in developed countries. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of HAIs on length of stay and costs of health care in children admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: This prospective study was done in the seven bedded PICU of a large multi-specialty tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. A total of 20 children with HAI (cases) and 35 children without HAI (controls), admitted to the PICU during the study period (January 2012 to June 2012), were matched for gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Each patient's length of stay was obtained prospectively. Costs of healthcare were estimated according to traditional and time driven activity based costing methods approach. Results: The median extra length of PICU stay for children with HAI (cases), compared with children with no HAI (controls), was seven days (IQR 3-16). The mean total costs of patients with and without HAI were 2,04,787 (US$ 3,413) and 56,587 (US$ 943), respectively and the mean difference in the total cost between cases and controls was 1,48,200 (95% CI 55,716 to 2,40,685, P<0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: This study highlights the effect of HAI on costs for PICU patients, especially costs due to prolongation of hospital stay, and suggests the need to develop effective strategies for prevention of HAI to reduce costs of health care. PMID:27377508

  19. Healthcare associated infections in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in India: Hospital stay & extra costs.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Jitender; Satpathy, Sidhartha; Sharma, D K; Lodha, Rakesh; Kapil, Arti; Wadhwa, Nitya; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) increase the length of stay in the hospital and consequently costs as reported from studies done in developed countries. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of HAIs on length of stay and costs of health care in children admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a tertiary care hospital in north India. This prospective study was done in the seven bedded PICU of a large multi-specialty tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. A total of 20 children with HAI (cases) and 35 children without HAI (controls), admitted to the PICU during the study period (January 2012 to June 2012), were matched for gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Each patient's length of stay was obtained prospectively. Costs of healthcare were estimated according to traditional and time driven activity based costing methods approach. The median extra length of PICU stay for children with HAI (cases), compared with children with no HAI (controls), was seven days (IQR 3-16). The mean total costs of patients with and without HAI were ' 2,04,787 (US$ 3,413) and ' 56,587 (US$ 943), respectively and the mean difference in the total cost between cases and controls was ' 1,48,200 (95% CI 55,716 to 2,40,685, p<0.01). This study highlights the effect of HAI on costs for PICU patients, especially costs due to prolongation of hospital stay, and suggests the need to develop effective strategies for prevention of HAI to reduce costs of health care.

  20. Impact of hospitalization in an acute geriatric unit on polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescriptions: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Valencia, Marta; Izquierdo, Mikel; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Alonso-Renedo, Javier; González-Glaría, Belén; Larrayoz-Sola, Beatriz; Monforte-Gasque, María Pilar; Latasa-Zamalloa, Pello; Martínez-Velilla, Nicolás

    2017-04-19

    Polypharmacy is a highly prevalent geriatric syndrome, and hospitalizations can worsen it. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of hospitalization on polypharmacy and indicators of quality of prescribing, and their possible association with health outcomes. A retrospective study of 200 patients discharged from an acute geriatric unit was carried out. Indicators of quality of prescription were registered at admission and discharge: polypharmacy defined as ≥5 medications, hyperpolypharmacy (≥10), potentially inappropriate prescribing by Beers and Screening Tool of Older Persons' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria, potentially prescribing omissions by Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment (START) criteria, drug interactions and anticholinergic burden measured with the Anticholinergic Risk Scale. Mortality, emergency room visits and hospital admissions occurring during 6 months after discharge were also registered. The total number of drugs increased at discharge (9.1 vs 10.1, P < 0.001), without increasing chronic medications (8.5 vs 8.3, P = 0.699). No significant variations were observed in the prevalence of polypharmacy (86.5% vs 82.2%), potentially inappropriate prescribing (68.5% vs 71.5%), potential prescribing omissions (58% vs 58%) or drug interactions (82.5% vs 83.5%). Patients with anticholinergic drugs tended to increase, not reaching statistical significance (39.5% vs 44.5%; P = 0.064). Polypharmacy was associated with emergency room visits (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.07-6.40; P = 0.034), and hyperpolypharmacy with hospitalizations (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.25-4.93; P = 0.009). After hospitalization in an acute geriatric unit, the prevalence of polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate prescribing, potential prescribing omissions, interactions or anticholinergic drugs is still very high. Polypharmacy is a risk factor for hospitalization and emergency room visits. Measuring indicators of quality of

  1. Consumer perspectives and mental health reform movements in the United States: 30 years of first-person accounts.

    PubMed

    Gumber, Shinakee; Stein, Catherine H

    2013-09-01

    The present qualitative study examined 69 published first-person accounts written by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1979-2010 within the historical context of the four major mental health movements in the United States. Content analysis techniques were used to identify major topics and overarching content categories in the first-person accounts written over the 30-year period. The frequency of topics in each content category was examined as a function of the decade and corresponding mental health movement in which accounts were published. Five overarching content categories emerged reflecting authors' conceptualizations of schizophrenia, their experiences with psychiatric hospitalization, medications, coping with social stigma, and achieving and maintaining valued social roles. Two summary categories emerged reflecting authors explicit views about what helped and what did not help in their experience of living with schizophrenia. With the exception of social stigma, frequency of topics within content categories did not change as a function of decade and corresponding mental health movement. Despite changes in mental health policies, treatment, and systems of care, the overall lack of significant differences in the content of first-person accounts across the 30-year period suggests an enduring nature to the experiences of individuals coping with schizophrenia. Implications of present findings for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Namoğlu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects.

  3. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  4. Status of Personal Health Requirement for Graduation at Institutions of Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dayna S.; Aydt Klein, Nicole; Kempland, Monica; Rose Oswalt, Sarah; Rexilius, Molly A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of higher education institutions in the United States that require a personal health course (PHC) for graduation and to describe the nature of such requirements. Participants: This study included a random sample of public and private institutions of higher education (IHE) with…

  5. 27 CFR 70.182 - Disposition of personal property acquired by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of personal property acquired by the United States. 70.182 Section 70.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection...

  6. Enriched Upper Elementary Language Arts Unit: Personal Writing, Grades 5-6. Bulletin No. 346-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeri, David

    The guide provides enrichment suggestions for teaching personal writing skills to gifted and talented intermediate students. The unit is organized according to objectives, entry skills, teacher's approaches, student activities, resources, and followup/evaluation. Topics covered include the following: formal and informal diction; sentences to…

  7. Enriched Upper Elementary Language Arts Unit: Personal Writing, Grades 5-6. Bulletin No. 346-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeri, David

    The guide provides enrichment suggestions for teaching personal writing skills to gifted and talented intermediate students. The unit is organized according to objectives, entry skills, teacher's approaches, student activities, resources, and followup/evaluation. Topics covered include the following: formal and informal diction; sentences to…

  8. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  9. 26 CFR 301.7505-1 - Sale of personal property acquired by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Sale—(1) In general. Any personal property (except bonds, notes, checks, and other securities) acquired by the United States in payment of or as security for debts arising under the internal revenue laws... office of the Treasury Department for redemption. Other bonds, notes, checks, and other securities...

  10. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units. 74.5 Section 74.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES Approval Requirements for Coal Mine...

  11. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units. 74.5 Section 74.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES Approval Requirements for Coal Mine...

  12. Influenza Hospitalizations Among American Indian/Alaska Native People and in the United States General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, Prabhu P.; Callinan, Laura S.; Holman, Robert C.; Cheng, Po-Yung; Bruce, Michael G.; Redd, John T.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Bresee, Joseph; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Historically, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have experienced a disproportionate burden of infectious disease morbidity compared with the general US population. We evaluated whether a disparity in influenza hospitalizations exists between AI/AN people and the general US population. Methods.  We used Indian Health Service hospital discharge data (2001–2011) for AI/AN people and 13 State Inpatient Databases (2001–2008) to provide a comparison to the US population. Hospitalization rates were calculated by respiratory year (July–June). Influenza-specific hospitalizations were defined as discharges with any influenza diagnoses. Influenza-associated hospitalizations were calculated using negative binomial regression models that incorporated hospitalization and influenza laboratory surveillance data. Results.  The mean influenza-specific hospitalization rate/100 000 persons/year during the 2001–2002 to 2007–2008 respiratory years was 18.6 for AI/AN people and 15.6 for the comparison US population. The age-adjusted influenza-associated hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (98.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51.6–317.8) was similar to the comparison US population (58.2; CI, 34.7–172.2). By age, influenza-associated hospitalization rates were significantly higher among AI/AN infants (<1 year) (1070.7; CI, 640.7–2969.5) than the comparison US infant population (210.2; CI, 153.5–478.5). Conclusions.  American Indian/Alaska Native people had higher influenza-specific hospitalization rates than the comparison US population; a significant influenza-associated hospitalization rate disparity was detected only among AI/AN infants because of the wide CIs inherent to the model. Taken together, the influenza-specific and influenza-associated hospitalization rates suggest that AI/AN people might suffer disproportionately from influenza illness compared with the general US population. PMID:25734102

  13. [Application of stroke rehabilitation unit in municipal hospitals during the acute phase of cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-min; Wang, Peng; Chen, Jie; Luo, Dan-hong; Shen, Wang-ming

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stroke rehabilitation unit in municipal hospitals during the acute phase of cerebral infarction. 77 acute cerebral infarction patients were randomly assigned to stroke rehabilitation unit group and 73 to ordinary group. The NIH stroke scale (NIHSS), activities of daily living (ADL) Barthel index and average hospitalized time were compared in two groups before and after the treatment. The average NIHSS in two groups before treatment were 9.26 and 9.12 respectively (P > 0.05) but became 2.62 and 7.64 after treatment (P < 0.01). The average ADL Barthel index in two groups before the treatment were 52.04 and 53.16 (P > 0.05) but 87.26 and 64.20 after the treatment (P < 0.01). The average hospitalized time in the two groups were 22.25 and 26.67 days (P < 0.05). When stroke rehabilitation unit being applied in the acute phase of cerebral infarction, it showed positive results in the following aspects as: improving the neurological function, capabilities of managing daily life, and also shortening the days of hospitalization.

  14. Burden of hospitalizations for bicycling injuries by motor vehicle involvement: United States, 2002 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Cara; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Lynch, Charles F; Ramirez, Marizen; Torner, James

    2013-11-01

    Bicycling and bicycling injuries have increased during the past decade in the United States, but research on the extent and outcomes of injuries has lagged behind. This study aimed to estimate the current burden of injury from bicycling injury hospitalizations by motor vehicle crash (MVC) and non-MVC in the United States. We included patients with primary or secondary diagnosis e-codes corresponding to MVC or non-MVC bicycle injury, drawn from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2009). Descriptive statistics, linear regression, and logistic regression were used to examine patient and hospital characteristics (length of stay, total charges, nonroutine discharges, and demographics) associated with hospitalizations for bicycling injuries by motor vehicle involvement. On average, from 2002 to 2009, there were an annually estimated 6,877 MVC and 18,457 non-MVC bicycle injury hospitalizations nationwide. This translates to more than $1 billion of hospital charges overall, $425 million for MVC and $588 million for non-MVC per year. After controlling for covariates, MVC bicycling injury hospitalizations had an average length of stay that was 2 days longer (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.3) and an average hospitalization charge of $23,424 more (95% CI, $21,360-$25,538) than non-MVC. Those with MVC bicycling injuries were more than two times as likely to have a nonroutine hospital discharge than non-MVC (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.06-2.39). The burden of injury from bicycle crashes is large overall, and MVC-related bicycling injuries result in longer hospital stays, higher costs, and more nonroutine hospital discharges than non-MVC, despite the fact that non-MVC hospitalizations are more frequent and result in higher total charges, overall. To have the greatest impact on reducing the burden of injury from bicycle crashes, educational interventions, policy, and infrastructure changes should include all age groups and prioritize reducing bicycle-motor vehicle

  15. Multi-unit Providers Survey. For-profits report decline in acute-care hospitals ... newcomers to top 10.

    PubMed

    Bellandi, D; Kirchheimer, B

    1999-05-24

    For-profit hospital systems cleaned house last year. After years of adding hospitals, investor-owned operators shed facilities in 1998, recording the first decline in the number of acute-care hospitals they've owned or managed since 1991, according to our 23rd annual Multi-unit Providers Survey.

  16. Development of certified environmental management in hospital and outpatient haemodialysis units.

    PubMed

    García Vicente, Sergio; Morales Suárez-Varela, María; Martí Monrós, Anna; Llopis González, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of haemodialysis is very high. Institutional activity in this sense is important, even in the production of references. Voluntary environmental management systems (EMS), environmental management and auditing systems (EMAS) and the International Organization for Standardization standards (ISO 14001) are important tools for environmental protection, together with legislation, taxation and tax benefits. To determine the degree of implementation of EMS in hospital units and outpatient haemodialysis in the Spanish National Health System to provide a group of reference centres in environmental management in this healthcare activity. Development of a list by autonomous communities showing hospital and outpatient dialysis units using an EMAS and/or ISO 14001 in 2012-2013. The sources of information were the Spanish National Catalogue of Hospitals, Spanish Registry of Healthcare Certification and Accreditation, European and regional EMAS records, world ISO registrations, dialysis centre lists from scientific societies and patients, responses from accredited entities in Spain for environmental certification and the institutional website of each haemodialysis centre identified. Of the 210 hospitals with a dialysis unit, 53 (25%) have the ISO 14001 and 15 of these also have an EMAS). This constitutes 30% of all hospital dialysis chairs in Spain: 1,291 (of 4,298). Only 11 outpatient clinics are recorded, all with the ISO 14001. There is no official documentation of the implementation of EMS in dialysis units. Making this list provides an approach to the situation, with special reference to haemodialysis because of its significant environmental impact. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Hospital Use by Children in the United States and Canada. Comparative International Vital and Health Statistics Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Lola Jean; McCarthy, Eileen

    1984-01-01

    This document presents a statistical study of hospital use by children in the United States and Canada designed to determine why the hospital discharge rate of children in the United States is lower than many other Western industrialized nations, although the discharge rate for the general U.S. population is higher. Several reasons for the lower…

  18. Dying in Palliative Care Units and in Hospital: A Comparison of the Quality of Life of Terminal Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viney, Linda L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compared quality of life of terminal cancer patients (n=182) in two palliative care units with that of those in general hospital. Patients in specialized palliative care units were found to differ from those dying in hospital, showing less indirectly expressed anger but more positive feelings. They also reported more anxiety about death but less…

  19. [Work engagement of hospital physicians: do social capital and personal traits matter?].

    PubMed

    Susanne Lehner, Birgit; Kowalski, Christoph; Wirtz, Markus; Ansmann, Lena; Driller, Elke; Ommen, Oliver; Oksanen, Tuula; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-03-01

    Work engagement has been proven to be a viable indicator of physical and mental well-being at work. Research findings have shown a link between work engagement and both individual and organizational resources. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesized relationships between personal traits (Big-5), the quality of the social work environment (social capital) and work engagement among hospital (n=35) physicians (n=387) in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Structural equation modeling (SEM), combining confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and path analysis, was employed to conduct the statistical analyses. The results of the SEM indicated that social capital and neuroticism were significantly associated with work engagement. The relationship between agreeableness and work engagement was fully mediated by social capital. Findings suggest that social capital plays a key role in promoting work engagement of physicians.

  20. Improving health service quality from within: the case of United Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Lewisohn, C; Reynoso, J

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates how the implementation of the internal customer concept has assisted United Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust to establish a culture for quality. Explains the conceptual framework on which the notion of the internal customer is derived. Describes how, from 1992 to date, the Trust's quality management approach was designed to apply these management principles in a large teaching hospital setting. Outlines how this quality management approach has been successful in enabling departmental managers to recognize, develop and improve internal customer/supplier relationships. Concludes by explaining that business process re-engineering is now being applied as a prime quality tool to help deliver a major culture change throughout the organization.

  1. Hospital Magnet® Designation and Missed Nursing Care in Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Pickler, Rita H; Mara, Constance A; Othman, Mohammad; Kovacs, Allison; Mark, Barbara A

    Missed nursing care is an emerging measure of front-line nursing care effectiveness in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Given Magnet® hospitals' reputations for nursing care quality, missed care comparisons with non-Magnet® hospitals may yield insights about how Magnet® designation influences patient outcomes. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the relationship between hospital Magnet® designation and 1) the occurrence of nurse-reported missed care and 2) reasons for missed nursing care between NICU nurses employed in Magnet® and non-Magnet® hospitals. A random sample of certified neonatal intensive care unit nurses was invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2012; data were analyzed from nurses who provided direct patient care (n=230). Logistic regression was used to model relationships between Magnet® designation and reports of the occurrence of and reasons for missed care while controlling for nurse and shift characteristics. There was no relationship between Magnet® designation and missed care occurrence for 34 of 35 types of care. Nurses in Magnet® hospitals were significantly less likely to report tensions and communication breakdowns with other staff, lack of familiarity with policies/procedures, and lack of back-up support from team members as reasons for missed care. Missed nursing care in NICUs occurs regardless of hospital Magnet® recognition. However, nurses' reasons for missed care systematically differ in Magnet® and non-Magnet® hospitals and these differences merit further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alaithan, Abdulsalam M; Memon, Javed I; Rehmani, Rifat S; Qureshi, Arif A; Salam, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little data surrounding the survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are admitted to the critical care unit with exacerbation of symptoms. We conducted a study to measure the in-hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes of patients admitted with COPD exacerbation, and identified the related prognostic factors. Method We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who were admitted to the adult ICU between January 2006 and July 2011 for COPD exacerbation in King Abdulaziz National Guard Hospital, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia. Results During the study period, a total of 119 patients were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure attributed to COPD exacerbation. The mean age was 72 ± 13 years, and 44 (37%) were females. The main cause of respiratory failure was infection, which occurred in 102 (86%) patients. Thirty-nine (33%) of the admitted patients were mechanically ventilated, and the median duration was 2.6 (1–42) days. The median lengths of the ICU and hospital stays were 3 (1–40) and 9 (2–43) days, respectively. The ICU mortality was 6%, and hospital mortality was 11%. Low Glasgow Coma Scale on admission, intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation, current smoking, tracheostomy, cardiopulmonary arrest, and the development of acute renal failure were associated with higher hospital mortality. Conclusion Early ICU and hospital mortality is low for COPD patients who have been admitted to the ICU with exacerbation. Low Glasgow Coma Scale scores on admission, intubation, prolonged use of mechanical ventilation, and the development of acute renal failure were identified as risk factors associated with increased hospital mortality. PMID:23269866

  3. Nationwide trends of hospitalizations for cystic fibrosis in the United States from 2003 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Agarwal, Abhishek; Mehta, Dhruv; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Du, Doantrang; Wang, Janice

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem autosomal recessive genetic disorder with significant advances in early diagnosis and treatment in the last decade. It is important to provide updated information regarding these changing demographics as they also reflect a considerable improvement in survival. We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample Database (NIS) in the United States for all patients in which CF was the primary discharge diagnosis (ICD-9: 277.0–277.09) from 2003 to 2013 to evaluate the rate of hospitalizations and determine the cost and mortality associated with CF along with other epidemiological findings. The statistical significance of the difference in the number of hospital discharges, lengths of stays and associated hospital costs over the study period was calculated. In 2003, there were 8,328 hospital discharges with the principal discharge diagnosis of CF in the United States, which increased to 12,590 discharges in 2013 (p < 0.001). The mean hospital charges increased by 57.64% from US$ 60,051 in 2003 to US$ 94,664 in 2013. The aggregate cost of hospital visits increased by 138.31% from US$ 500,105,727 to US$ 1,191,819,760. In the same time, the mortality decreased by 49.3 %. The number of inpatient discharges related to CF has increased from 2003 to 2013. This is due to increased life expectancy of CF patients, resulting in increased disease prevalence. There has been a significant increase in the mean and aggregate cost associated with CF admissions. Over the last decade, many advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of CF, consequentially leading to a significant transformation in the epidemiology and demographics of this chronic disease. Rising hospital costs associated with the care of CF patients necessitates future studies analyzing the diagnostic modalities, algorithms and treatment practices of physician's treating CF patients. PMID:28944141

  4. Audit of the red cell units supply of a busy hospital blood bank in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fasola, F A; Kotila, T R; Shokunbi, W A

    2009-06-01

    Blood bank audit embraces all procedures from blood procurement to the long -term consequences of transfusion which helps to identify opportunities for improvement. We have therefore looked at red cell transfusion in our hospital to identify areas that will require improvement. Data was collected retrospectively from the hard copy record of the blood bank for a period of one month. Request was made for 1210 red cell units; crossmatch was made for 64% of the request. All units crossmatched were issued, of these 4.15% were returned unutilized. 5.1% were issued as uncrossmatched. The Obstetrics/Gynaecology unit recorded the highest blood usage and the medical unit the least. The use of blood by the emergency and paediatric were the same. The crossmatch:transfusion ratio for the hospital was 0.9:1. This study has shown that the crossmatch and transfusion rates are almost equal and only a small percentage was returned unused. This showed that there is inadequate supply of blood. There is a need to assess the reason for transfusion and establishing a blood transfusion advisory committee by the hospital. This will ensure interaction and collaboration between blood suppliers and users to improve the quality of transfusion practice. The new policy establishing a national transfusion service will also improve the transfusion service but emphasis has to be put on donor recruitment and donor care.

  5. Nurses' Patient-Centeredness and Perceptions of Care among Medicaid Patients in Hospital Obstetrical Units.

    PubMed

    Aragon, Stephen J; Richardson, Liana J; Lawrence, Wanda; Gesell, Sabina B

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study examined to what degree patient-centeredness-measured as an underlying ability of obstetrical nurses-influenced Medicaid patients' satisfaction with care in hospital obstetrical units. Design. Multigroup structural equation modeling design, using three cross-sectional random samples (n = 300 each) from the 2003 Press Ganey National Inpatient Database. Setting. Self-administered mail surveys. Participants. 900 Medicaid recipients recently discharged from inpatient hospital obstetrical units across the United States. Methods. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to test the goodness of fit between a hypothesized model based on the Primary Provider Theory and patients' ratings of nurses. Results. The model fitted the data well, was stable across three random samples, and was sustained when compared to a competing model. The patient-centeredness of nurses significantly influenced overall patient satisfaction and explained 66% of its variability. When nurses' patient-centeredness increased by one standard deviation, patients' satisfaction increased by 0.80 standard deviation. Conclusion. This study offers a novel approach to the measurement of the patient-centeredness of nurses and a paradigm for increasing it and its influence on Medicaid patients' satisfaction in hospital obstetrical units.

  6. Nurses' Patient-Centeredness and Perceptions of Care among Medicaid Patients in Hospital Obstetrical Units

    PubMed Central

    Aragon, Stephen J.; Richardson, Liana J.; Lawrence, Wanda; Gesell, Sabina B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study examined to what degree patient-centeredness—measured as an underlying ability of obstetrical nurses—influenced Medicaid patients' satisfaction with care in hospital obstetrical units. Design. Multigroup structural equation modeling design, using three cross-sectional random samples (n = 300 each) from the 2003 Press Ganey National Inpatient Database. Setting. Self-administered mail surveys. Participants. 900 Medicaid recipients recently discharged from inpatient hospital obstetrical units across the United States. Methods. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to test the goodness of fit between a hypothesized model based on the Primary Provider Theory and patients' ratings of nurses. Results. The model fitted the data well, was stable across three random samples, and was sustained when compared to a competing model. The patient-centeredness of nurses significantly influenced overall patient satisfaction and explained 66% of its variability. When nurses' patient-centeredness increased by one standard deviation, patients' satisfaction increased by 0.80 standard deviation. Conclusion. This study offers a novel approach to the measurement of the patient-centeredness of nurses and a paradigm for increasing it and its influence on Medicaid patients' satisfaction in hospital obstetrical units. PMID:24027634

  7. Nursing Activities Score and workload in the intensive care unit of a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Altafin, Juliana Aparecida Morini; Grion, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho; Tanita, Marcos Toshyiuki; Festti, Josiane; Cardoso, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz; Veiga, Caio Fabrício Fonseca; Kamiji, Danielle; Barbosa, Álan Roger Gomes; Matsubara, Caio Cesar Takeshi; Lara, Aline Bobato; Lopes, Cesar Castello Branco; Blum, Djavani; Matsuo, Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The nursing workload consists of the time spent by the nursing staff to perform the activities for which they are responsible, whether directly or indirectly related to patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nursing workload in an adult intensive care unit at a university hospital using the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) instrument. Methods A longitudinal, prospective study that involved the patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a university hospital between March and December 2008. The data were collected daily to calculate the NAS, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS-28) of patients until they left the adult intensive care unit or after 90 days of hospitalization. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results In total, 437 patients were evaluated, which resulted in an NAS of 74.4%. The type of admission, length of stay in the intensive care unit and the patients’ condition when leaving the intensive care unit and hospital were variables associated with differences in the nursing workload. There was a moderate correlation between the mean NAS and APACHE II severity score (r=0.329), the mean organic dysfunction SOFA score (r=0.506) and the mean TISS-28 score (r=0.600). Conclusion We observed a high nursing workload in this study. These results can assist in planning the size of the staff required. The workload was influenced by clinical characteristics, including an increased workload required for emergency surgical patients and patients who died. PMID:25295824

  8. Impact of Hospital Admission Care At a Pediatric Unit: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Macías, Marta; Zornoza, Carmen; Rodriguez, Elena; García, José A; Fernández, José A; Luque, Rafaela; Collado, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The time of admission to a hospital, especially when unplanned, has been reported as the most stressful moment of hospitalization for both parents and children (Odievre, 2001). This qualitative study explored parents and hospital staff's perceptions and experiences related to the process of admission to a pediatric unit. Focus groups, two with parents (total n = 12) and one with health care professionals (n = 6), were conducted, and content analysis inspired by Graneheim and Lundman (2004) was performed. Parents identified four categories of perceptions: 1) management of an uncertain situation at the time of admission, 2) feelings related to the child's illness, 3) parent perception of professional's performance, and 4) parent experience of their role. Health care professionals identified two categories: 1) hospital admission as a continuous care process, and 2) undertaking improvements in the admission process. A common theme emerged about the importance of parents' trust in professionals in order to build a therapeutic relationship. Findings underscore the need for strategies to improve the hospital pediatric admission process based on a parent-professional relationship of trust and confidence through continuous quality communication and support. These strategies would include providing a nurse in charge of the admission process to assure continuity of care throughout the child's hospitalization.

  9. Housing as an intervention on hospital use: access among chronically homeless persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Parker, David

    2010-12-01

    A study examining demographics and hospital utilization for chronically homeless persons with disabilities was conducted at pre-housing enrollment and at 6 months post-housing. Of the 20 participants, 70% (n = 14) were Black American and 30% (n = 6) were White; 100% (n = 20) were non-Hispanic; 90% (n = 18) were men; 40% (n = 8) were veterans; Median years since last permanent housing and total homelessness were 7 and 10.5 respectively. The following increases were observed: employment (0 to 1); income (20%, n = 4 to 35%, n = 7); primary care (25%, n = 5 to 95%, n = 19); and mental health service use (25%, n = 5 to 60%, n = 12). Known disabilities included HIV (15%, n = 3); hepatitis C (45%, n = 9); mental illness (60%, n = 12) and substance abuse (80%, n = 16) with 45% (n = 9) dually diagnosed. Over the course of the study, Emergency department visits and inpatient hospitalization use decreased. While these differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.14 and p = 0.31, respectively), they translate to an estimated $250,208 savings.

  10. Intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care: contribution to total hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and length of stay (LOS).

    PubMed

    Escobar, Gabriel J; Greene, John D; Gardner, Marla N; Marelich, Gregory P; Quick, Bryon; Kipnis, Patricia

    2011-02-01

    Patients who experience intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care (eg, ward to intensive care unit [ICU]) are known to have high mortality. However, these findings have been based on single-center studies or studies that employ ICU admissions as the denominator. To employ automated bed history data to examine outcomes of intra-hospital transfers using all hospital admissions as the denominator. Retrospective cohort study. A total of 19 acute care hospitals. A total of 150,495 patients, who experienced 210,470 hospitalizations, admitted to these hospitals between November 1st, 2006 and January 31st, 2008. Predictors were age, sex, admission type, admission diagnosis, physiologic derangement on admission, and pre-existing illness burden; outcomes were: 1) occurrence of intra-hospital transfer, 2) death following admission to the hospital, 3) death following transfer, and 4) total hospital length of stay (LOS). A total of 7,868 hospitalizations that began with admission to either a general medical surgical ward or to a transitional care unit (TCU) had at least one transfer to a higher level of care. These hospitalizations constituted only 3.7% of all admissions, but accounted for 24.2% of all ICU admissions, 21.7% of all hospital deaths, and 13.2% of all hospital days. Models based on age, sex, preadmission laboratory test results, and comorbidities did not predict the occurrence of these transfers. Patients transferred to higher level of care following admission to the hospital have excess mortality and LOS. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. Establishing a Personal Health Record System in an Academic Hospital: One Year's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Hyun Jung; Jung, Se Young; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung; Baek, Hyunyoung; Lee, Kiheon; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah; Park, Hwayeon

    2015-01-01

    Background Personal health records (PHRs) are web based tools that help people to access and manage their personalized medical information. Although needs for PHR are increasing, current serviced PHRs are unsatisfactory and researches on them remain limited. The purpose of this study is to show the process of developing Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH)'s own PHR system and to analyze consumer's use pattern after providing PHR service. Methods Task force team was organized to decide service range and set the program. They made the system available on both mobile application and internet web page. The study enrolled PHR consumers who assessed PHR system between June 2013 and June 2014. We analyzed the total number of users on a monthly basis and the using pattern according to each component. Results The PHR service named Health4U has been provided from June 2013. Every patient who visited SNUBH could register Health4U service and view their medical data. The PHR user has been increasing, especially they tend to approach via one way of either web page or mobile application. The most frequently used service is to check laboratory test result. Conclusion For paradigm shift toward patient-centered care, there is a growing interest in PHR. This study about experience of establishing and servicing the Health4U would contribute to development of interconnected PHR. PMID:26019761

  12. 8 CFR 319.4 - Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United States organizations engaged in disseminating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by United States organizations engaged in disseminating information. 319.4 Section 319.4 Aliens and... NATURALIZED: SPOUSES OF UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.4 Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United... section 319(c)(1) of the Act; (b) Reside in the United States pursuant to a lawful admission for...

  13. 8 CFR 319.4 - Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United States organizations engaged in disseminating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by United States organizations engaged in disseminating information. 319.4 Section 319.4 Aliens and... NATURALIZED: SPOUSES OF UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.4 Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United... section 319(c)(1) of the Act; (b) Reside in the United States pursuant to a lawful admission for...

  14. 8 CFR 319.4 - Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United States organizations engaged in disseminating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by United States organizations engaged in disseminating information. 319.4 Section 319.4 Aliens and... NATURALIZED: SPOUSES OF UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.4 Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United... section 319(c)(1) of the Act; (b) Reside in the United States pursuant to a lawful admission for...

  15. Structure and Function of Observation Units in Children's Hospitals: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Shanley, Leticia A; Hronek, Carla; Hall, Matthew; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Fieldston, Evan S; Hain, Paul D; Shah, Samir S; Macy, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Observation unit (OU) use has been promoted recently to decrease resource utilization and costs for select patients, but little is known about the operations of pediatric OUs. This study aimed to characterize the infrastructure and function of OUs within freestanding children's hospitals and to compare characteristics between hospitals with and without OUs. All 43 freestanding children's hospitals that submit data to the Pediatric Health Information System were contacted in 2013 to identify OUs that admitted unscheduled patients from their emergency department (ED) in 2011. Semistructured interviews were conducted with representatives at hospitals with these OUs. Characteristics of hospitals with and without OUs were compared. Fourteen (33%) of 43 hospitals had an OU during 2011. Hospitals with OUs had more beds and more annual ED visits compared to those without OUs. Most OUs (65%) were located in the ED and had <12 beds (65%). Staffing models and patient populations differed between OUs. Nearly 60% were hybrid OUs, providing scheduled services. OUs lacked uniform outcome measures. Themes included: admissions were intuition based, certain patients were not well suited for OUs, OUs had rapid-turnover cultures, and the designation of observation status was arbitrary. Challenges included patient discontent with copayments and payer-driven utilization reviews. OUs were located in higher volume hospitals and varied by location, size, and staffing. Most functioned as hybrid OUs. OUs based admissions on intuition, had staffing cultures centered on rapid turnover of patient care, lacked consistent outcome measures, and faced challenges regarding utilization review and patient copayments. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unplanned Transfers from Hospital Wards to the Neurological Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Gold, C A; Mayer, S A; Lennihan, L; Claassen, J; Willey, J Z

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of unplanned transfers of adult patients from hospital wards to a neurological intensive care unit (NICU). We retrospectively reviewed consecutive unplanned transfers from hospital wards to the NICU at our institution over a 3-year period. In-hospital mortality rates were compared between patients readmitted to the NICU ("bounce-back transfers") and patients admitted to hospital wards from sources other than the NICU who were then transferred to the NICU ("incident transfers"). We also measured clinical characteristics of transfers, including source of admission and indication for transfer. A total of 446 unplanned transfers from hospital wards to the NICU occurred, of which 39% were bounce-back transfers. The in-hospital mortality rate associated with all unplanned transfers to the NICU was 17% and did not differ significantly between bounce-back transfers and incident transfers. Transfers to the NICU within 24 h of admission to a floor service accounted for 32% of all transfers and were significantly more common for incident transfers than bounce-back transfers (39 vs. 21%, p = .0002). Of patients admitted via the emergency department who had subsequent incident transfers to the NICU, 50% were transferred within 24 h of admission. Unplanned transfers to an NICU were common and were associated with a high in-hospital mortality rate. Quality improvement projects should target the triage process and transitions of care to the hospital wards in order to decrease unplanned transfers of high-risk patients to the NICU.

  17. Comparison of Unit-Level Patient Turnover Measures in Acute Care Hospital Settings.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Hye; Dunton, Nancy; Blegen, Mary A

    2016-06-01

    High patient turnover is a critical factor increasing nursing workload. Despite the growing number of studies on patient turnover, no consensus about how to measure turnover has been achieved. This study was designed to assess the correlation among patient turnover measures commonly used in recent studies and to examine the degree of agreement among the measures for classifying units with different levels of patient turnover. Using unit-level data collected for this study from 292 units in 88 hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators®, we compared four patient turnover measures: the inverse of length of stay (1/LOS), admissions, discharges, and transfers per daily census (ADTC), ADTC with short-stay adjustment, and the number of ADTs and short-stay patients divided by the total number of treated patients, or Unit Activity Index (UAI). We assessed the measures' agreement on turnover quartile classifications, using percent agreement and Cohen's kappa statistic (weighted and unweighted). Pearson correlation coefficients also were calculated. ADTC with or without adjustment for short-stay patients had high correlations and substantial agreement with the measure of 1/LOS (κ = .62 to .91; r = .90 to .95). The UAI measure required data less commonly collected by participating hospital units and showed only moderate correlations and fair agreement with the other measures (κ = .23 to .39; r = .41 to .45). The UAI may not be comparable and interchangeable with other patient turnover measures when data are obtained from multiple units and hospitals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The hospitalized preterm newborn: the significance of parents' participation in the Neonatal Unit.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Martínez, Josefina; Reyes-Hernández, Jaime; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2013-01-01

    to identify and analyze the significance of participation for parents in a Neonatal Unit (NU) of a maternity hospital in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. a qualitative study with 20 parents of both sexes, between 18 and 39 years of age, with a preterm hospitalized child. A content analysis using a thematic approach was used for information processing. the significance of: a) the NICU as a place of suffering and waiting, b) dealing with the child's admittance, c) being excluded from the hospitalized child's care and d) being aware of inadequacies in the child's care. parents deal with their suffering and experience barriers that impede their participation; they respond to the medical hierarchy that limits participation, even when it goes against their natural role as parents. The caregiving philosophy needs to be transformed so that parents are considered people with the right to participate and to be competent in caring for their child.

  19. A survey of rotational use of biocides in hospital pharmacy aseptic units.

    PubMed

    Murtough, S M; Hiom, S J; Palmer, M; Russell, A D

    2002-03-01

    A postal survey of biocide rotation in UK hospital pharmacy aseptic units was carried out. Seventy per cent of respondents stated that biocides were rotated, most frequently in areas outside critical work zones. High-level disinfection was employed when 'aseptic' conditions were required. Decisions on frequency of rotation were most often based on in-house validation or consultation with colleagues. Toxicity and corrosiveness were the criteria rated most important in a rotation policy. Microbiological monitoring was carried out most frequently in critical work zones but less often for handwashing. Most QC hospital pharmacists supported rotation and would prefer a standard period for all applications (monthly). Guidelines need to be clarified to assist staff in decisions regarding biocide rotation. Copyright 2002 The Hospital Infection Society.

  20. Testing the nursing outcomes classification in three clinical units in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, Sue; Johnson, Marion; Maas, Meridean; Reed, David

    2003-01-01

    The testing of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) was the focus of a 4-year study to evaluate the use of the outcomes and measurement scales developed by the Iowa Outcomes Project, a research team at the University of Iowa. Three units in a Midwest community hospital collected data as part of the larger (ten) clinical site study to test the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the NOC. This article focuses on the results of sensitivity testing obtained in a birth center, behavioral health center, and an oncology unit in a midwestern community hospital. Methods used in this study focused on change scores from initial assessment to post-treatment status for the outcomes studied in each unit. Average baseline ratings, average follow-up ratings, average change scores, and range of change are reported. Thirty-five outcomes are reported for the behavioral health unit, 21 outcomes are reported for the Birth Center, and 8 outcomes for the Oncology Unit. The overall average baseline for the behavioral health unit was 1.89 with an average follow-up rating of 3.22. For the Birth Center, the average baseline rating was 3.23 with an average follow-up score of 3.88. For the Oncology Unit, the average baseline score was 3.01 with an average follow-up rating of 3.12. The results of this study suggest that the NOC outcomes are able to identify change in some outcome ratings through time and in a direction expected for the populations studied in these three specialty units.

  1. Hospitalizations among HIV controllers and persons with medically controlled HIV in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Trevor A; Ganesan, Anuradha; Berry, Stephen A; Deiss, Robert G; Agan, Brian K; Okulicz, Jason F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV controllers (HICs) experience relatively low-level viraemia and CD4 preservation without antiretroviral therapy (ART), but also immune activation that may predispose to adverse clinical events such as cardiovascular disease and hospitalization. The objective of this study was to characterize the rates and reasons for hospitalization among HICs and persons with medically controlled HIV. Methods Subjects with consistently well-controlled HIV were identified in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study. ART prescription and HIV-1 RNA data were used to categorize subjects as HICs or medically controlled as defined by ≥3 HIV-1 RNA measurements ≤2000 or ≤400 copies/mL, respectively, representing the majority of measurements spanning ≥12 months. Hospitalizations were tallied and assigned diagnostic categories. All-cause hospitalization rates were compared between groups using negative binomial regression. Results and discussion Of 3106 subjects followed from 2000 to 2013, 221 were HICs, including 33 elite (1.1%) and 188 viraemic (6.0%) controllers, who contributed 882 person-years (PY) of observation time. An additional 870 subjects with medically controlled HIV contributed 4217 PY. Mean hospitalization rates were 9.4/100 PY among HICs and 8.8/100 PY among medically controlled subjects. Non-AIDS-defining infections were the most common reason for hospitalization (2.95/100 PY and 2.70/100 PY, respectively) and rates of cardiovascular hospitalization were similar in both groups (0.45/100 PY and 0.76/100 PY). There was no difference in hospitalization rate for HICs compared with subjects with medically controlled HIV (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.15 [95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.65]). Conclusions All-cause and cardiovascular hospitalization rates did not differ between HICs and persons with medically controlled HIV. Non-AIDS defining infections were common in this young, healthy, predominantly male cohort of military personnel and

  2. [Factors related to nurses' patient identification behavior and the moderating effect of person-organization value congruence climate within nursing units].

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mee; Kang, Seung Wan; Kim, Se Young

    2014-04-01

    This research was an empirical study designed to identify precursors and interaction effects related to nurses' patient identification behavior. A multilevel analysis methodology was used. A self-report survey was administered to registered nurses (RNs) of a university hospital in South Korea. Of the questionnaires, 1114 were analyzed. The individual-level factors that had a significantly positive association with patient identification behavior were person-organization value congruence, organizational commitment, occupational commitment, tenure at the hospital, and tenure at the unit. Significantly negative group-level precursors of patient identification behavior were burnout climate and the number of RNs. Two interaction effects of the person-organization value congruence climate were identified. The first was a group-level moderating effect in which the negative relationship between the number of RNs and patient identification behavior was weaker when the nursing unit's value congruence climate was high. The second was a cross-level moderating effect in which the positive relationship between tenure at the unit and patient identification behavior was weaker when value congruence climate was high. This study simultaneously tested both individual-level and group-level factors that potentially influence patient identification behavior and identified the moderating role of person-organization value congruence climate. Implications of these results are discussed.

  3. Korean nurses' adjustment to hospitals in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Yi, M; Jezewski, M A

    2000-09-01

    Korean nurses' adjustment to hospitals in the United States of America Due to shortage of nurses, more nurses from other countries are employed in health care settings in the United States of America (USA). Little attention has been paid to understanding how culturally different international nurses adjust to USA hospitals. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Korean nurses adjust to USA hospital settings. Grounded theory method was used for sampling procedure, data collection and analysis in order to describe Korean nurses' experiences from their perspective and to develop a substantive theory that explains their process of adjustment. Data were collected using semi-structured formal interviews with a purposive sample of 12 Korean nurses. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Analysis of data, using the constant comparative method, revealed 'adjustment to USA hospitals' as the basic social psychological process. Five categories composed the process: (1) relieving psychological stress; (2) overcoming the language barrier; (3) accepting USA nursing practice; (4) adopting the styles of USA problem-solving strategies; and (5) adopting the styles of USA interpersonal relationships. These five categories capture the essential aspects of the adjustment process and each category contains a set of sub-categories that describe Korean nurses' day-to-day experiences that are critical and also problematic to their adjustment. The process evolves in two stages. In the initial stage, the first three of the five categories greatly influenced the nurses' adjustment. From the perspective of the nurses in the study, the initial stage lasts about 2 to 3 years. The remaining two categories are principal components of the later stage. It takes an additional 5 to 10 years to complete this stage. This model highlights both distress and accomplishments of Korean nurses during their adjustment to USA hospitals. The results of the study may help USA nurses gain

  4. Life Change Units (LCU) rating as stressors in Iranian hospitals' nurses.

    PubMed

    Dargahi, Hossein; Shaham, Golsa

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors among Iranian Hospitals Nurses by LCU rating. A cross - sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 389 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The respondents were asked to select each of 54 events that cause stress ranked in order of their life change units developed by Holmes and Rahe as stress scale. Before beginning the main study, the reliability and coincidental validity was performed. All data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 18, t-test, Anova statistical methods. Approximately, half of the nurses associated major mortgage, foreclosure of mortgage or loan. More than 50% of the Iranian nurses had 150-300 and more than 300 LCU rating which had the chance to expose to extremely serious risk to health.Iranian hospitals nurses suffer from stress that caused by Life Change Units organizational factors such as change in the financial state, change in the work environment and major mortgage. We recommend to Iranian nursing policy-makers to choose strategies to help nurses' cope effectively with workplace stressors. Nursing managers and / or nursing management should develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for nurses in the hospitals. Providing educational and career prospects can contribute to decrease nurses' occupational stress level, the maintaining their work ability.

  5. Rising Incidence of Clostridium difficile Related Discharges among Hospitalized Children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Deshpande, Abhishek; Gilroy, Richard; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-01-01

    Using a national database, we report an increasing trend in Clostridium difficile incidence among hospitalized children in the United States from 2003 to 2012. The incidence rate of CDI increased from 24.0 to 58.0 per 10,000 discharges per year (P<0.001) across all age groups, with the greatest increase in children 15 years and older. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):104-106.

  6. Personal, neighbourhood and urban factors associated with obesity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Joshu, C E; Boehmer, T K; Brownson, R C; Ewing, R

    2008-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests the built environment impacts obesity within urban areas; however, little research has investigated these relationships across levels of urbanisation in diverse and representative populations. This study aimed to determine whether personal and neighbourhood barriers differ by the level of urbanisation and the relative importance of personal barriers, neighbourhood barriers and land-use development patterns measured by a county-level sprawl index. Population-based, cross-sectional telephone survey data were collected on 1818 United States adults of diverse ethnicity and income level. Primary analyses were stratified by the level of urbanisation at the county level (large metropolitan, small metropolitan, non-metro, rural). Associations between obesity and neighbourhood and personal barriers were estimated with logistic regression, controlling for demographic variables. Within metropolitan areas, the association between body mass index (BMI) and county-level sprawl was estimated using hierarchical linear modelling, controlling for individual-level neighbourhood and personal barriers and demographic variables and then assessing cross-level interaction. The prevalence of neighbourhood, but not personal, barriers differed widely across levels of urbanisation. Specific neighbourhood (eg traffic, unattended dogs) and personal (eg time, injury) barriers differentially correlated with obesity across strata. The impact of sprawl on BMI (B = -0.005) was consistent with previous findings; standardised coefficients indicate that personal (beta = 0.10) and neighbourhood (beta = 0.05) barriers had a stronger association than sprawl (beta = -0.02). Furthermore, the effect of sprawl on BMI increased by -0.006 with each additional personal barrier. Future intervention planning and policy development should consider that personal barriers and built environment characteristics may interact with each other and influence obesity differently across urbanisation

  7. The unit costs of inpatient hospital days, outpatient visits, and daycare treatments in the fields of oncology and hematology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siok Swan; Van Gils, Chantal W M; Franken, Margreet G; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A

    2010-01-01

    Many economic evaluations are conducted in the fields of oncology and hematology, partially owing to the introduction of new expensive drugs in this field. Even though inpatient days, outpatient visits, and daycare treatments are frequently the main drivers of total treatment costs, their unit costs often lack generalizability. Therefore, we aimed to determine the unit costs of inpatient hospital days, outpatient visits, and daycare treatments specifically for oncological and hematological diseases in The Netherlands from the hospital's perspective. Unit costs were collected from 30 oncological and hematological departments of 6 university and 24 general hospitals. Costs included direct labor and indirect labor, hotel and nutrition, overheads and capital. Ordinary least squares regression models were constructed to examine the degree of association between unit costs and hospital and hospital department characteristics. All costs were based on Euro 2007 cost data. At university hospitals, the unit costs per inpatient day were determined at €633 in oncological and €680 in hematological departments. At general hospitals, the mean costs per inpatient day were €400. Unit costs for inpatient hospital days, outpatient visits. and daycare treatments equalled the relative ratio 100:21:44. Direct labor costs were the major cost driver and the type of hospital (university, yes/no) was a strong predictor of unit costs. The present study provided unit costs for inpatient hospital days, outpatient visits, and daycare treatments in the fields of oncology and hematology. The results may be used as Dutch reference unit prices in economic evaluations assessing oncological and hematological diseases. © 2010, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).

  8. The accessibility of substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States for persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    West, Steven L

    2007-07-01

    This study assessed the accessibility of a nationally representative sample of substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States for persons with disabilities (PWDs). A stratified random sample of 159 substance abuse treatment facilities in 40 states completed a survey regarding physical accessibility and the provision of services that could enhance the ability to serve individuals with disabilities. Most responding facilities self-reported a variety of barriers to physical accessibility, as well as the lack of services and physical accommodations for persons with sensory limitations. Such widespread inaccessibility may be a factor that promotes the low representation of PWDs in the treatment population.

  9. [Detection of palliative care needs in an acute care hospital unit. Pilot study].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calero, Miguel Ángel; Julià-Mora, Joana María; Prieto-Alomar, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Previous to wider prevalence studies, we designed the present pilot study to assess concordance and time invested in patient evaluations using a palliative care needs assessment tool. We also sought to estimate the prevalence of palliative care needs in an acute care hospital unit. A cross-sectional study was carried out, 4 researchers (2 doctors and 2 nurses) independently assessed all inpatients in an acute care hospital unit in Manacor Hospital, Mallorca (Spain), using the validated tool NECPAL CCOMS-ICO©, measuring time invested in every case. Another researcher revised clinical recordings to analise the sample profile. Every researcher assessed 29 patients, 15 men and 14 women, mean age 74,03 ± 10.25 years. 4-observer concordance was moderate (Kappa 0,5043), tuning out to be higher between nurses. Mean time per patient evaluation was 1.9 to 7.72 minutes, depending on researcher. Prevalence of palliative care needs was 23,28%. Moderate concordance lean us towards multidisciplinary shared assessments as a method for future research. Avarage of time invested in evaluations was less than 8 minutes, no previous publications were identified regarding this variable. More than 20% of inpatients of the acute care unit were in need of palliative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  11. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  12. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  13. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  14. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  15. Inpatient Unit Heart Failure Discharge Volume Predicts All-cause 30-Day Hospital Readmission.

    PubMed

    Dordunoo, Dzifa; Thomas, Sue A; Friedmann, Erika; Russell, Stuart D; Newhouse, Robin P; Akintade, Bim

    All-cause 30-day hospital readmission is a heart failure (HF) quality of care metric. Readmission costs the healthcare system $30.7 million annually. Specific structure, process, or patient factors that predispose patients to readmission are unclear. The aim of this study is to determine whether the addition of unit-level structural factors (attending medical service, patient-to-nurse ratio, and unit HF volume) predicts readmission beyond patient factors. A retrospective chart review of 425 patients who resided in Maryland and were discharged home in 2011 with the primary diagnosis of HF from a large, urban academic center was conducted. The patients were predominately (66.6%) black/African American, with mean (SD) age of 62.2 (14.8) years. Men represented 48.2% of the sample; 32% had nonischemic HF, 31.3% had preserved ejection fractions, 25.4% had implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and 15.3% had permanent pacemakers. Average length of stay was 6.0 days. All-cause 30-day hospital readmission rate was 20.2%. Inpatient unit HF discharge volume significantly predicted readmission after controlling for patient factors. The study found that discharge from inpatient units with higher HF discharge volume was associated with increased risk of readmission. The findings suggest that in caring for patients with severe HF, inpatient unit HF discharge volume may negatively impact care processes, increasing the odds of hospital readmission. It is unclear what specific care processes are responsible. The discharge period is a vulnerable point in care transition that warrants further investigation.

  16. Cardiac Arrest during Hospitalization for Delivery in the United States, 1998–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mhyre, Jill M.; Tsen, Lawrence C.; Einav, Sharon; Kuklina, Elena V.; Leffert, Lisa R.; Bateman, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the frequency, distribution of potential etiologies, and survival rates of maternal cardiopulmonary arrest during the hospitalization for delivery in the United States. Methods By using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample during the years 1998 through 2011, the authors obtained weighted estimates of the number of U.S. hospitalizations for delivery complicated by maternal cardiac arrest. Clinical and demographic risk factors, potential etiologies, and outcomes were identified and compared in women with and without cardiac arrest. The authors tested for temporal trends in the occurrence and survival associated with maternal arrest. Results Cardiac arrest complicated 1 in 12,000 or 8.5 per 100,000 hospitalizations for delivery (99% CI, 7.7 to 9.3 per 100,000). The most common potential etiologies of arrest included hemorrhage, heart failure, amniotic fluid embolism, and sepsis. Among patients with cardiac arrest, 58.9% of patients (99% CI, 54.8 to 63.0%) survived to hospital discharge. Conclusions Approximately 1 in 12,000 hospitalizations for delivery is complicated by cardiac arrest, most frequently due to hemorrhage, heart failure, amniotic fluid embolism, or sepsis. Survival depends on the underlying etiology of arrest. PMID:24694844

  17. Cardiac arrest during hospitalization for delivery in the United States, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    Mhyre, Jill M; Tsen, Lawrence C; Einav, Sharon; Kuklina, Elena V; Leffert, Lisa R; Bateman, Brian T

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the frequency, distribution of potential etiologies, and survival rates of maternal cardiopulmonary arrest during the hospitalization for delivery in the United States. By using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample during the years 1998 through 2011, the authors obtained weighted estimates of the number of U.S. hospitalizations for delivery complicated by maternal cardiac arrest. Clinical and demographic risk factors, potential etiologies, and outcomes were identified and compared in women with and without cardiac arrest. The authors tested for temporal trends in the occurrence and survival associated with maternal arrest. Cardiac arrest complicated 1 in 12,000 or 8.5 per 100,000 hospitalizations for delivery (99% CI, 7.7 to 9.3 per 100,000). The most common potential etiologies of arrest included hemorrhage, heart failure, amniotic fluid embolism, and sepsis. Among patients with cardiac arrest, 58.9% of patients (99% CI, 54.8 to 63.0%) survived to hospital discharge. Approximately 1 in 12,000 hospitalizations for delivery is complicated by cardiac arrest, most frequently due to hemorrhage, heart failure, amniotic fluid embolism, or sepsis. Survival depends on the underlying etiology of arrest.

  18. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital space...

  19. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital space...

  20. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital space...

  1. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  2. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  3. Changes in critical care beds and occupancy in the United States 1985-2000: Differences attributable to hospital size.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Neil A; Pastores, Stephen M; Thaler, Howard T; Greenstein, Robert J

    2006-08-01

    To determine the relationship between hospital size and changes in the number of critical care medicine (CCM) beds, proportion of hospital beds allocated to CCM, and CCM occupancy in acute care hospitals in the United States from 1985 to 2000. A 16-yr (1985 to 2000) retrospective analysis was performed using the Hospital Cost Report Information System (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, MD) on U.S. acute care hospitals that provided CCM. Hospitals were stratified into four groups (small, 1-100 beds; medium, 101-300 beds; large 301-500 beds; and extra large, >500 beds). Nonfederal, acute care hospitals with CCM units in the United States. None. None. Changes in the number of hospitals, non-CCM and CCM beds, the proportion of CCM to hospital beds, and their occupancy rates. Between 1985 and 2000, the number of hospitals providing CCM decreased overall (4,150 to 3,581, -13.7%). The greatest decreases were seen in large (-39%) and extra-large (-40%) hospitals. Small hospitals increased minimally (3.3%). The number of non-CCM beds decreased (820,300 to 566,900, -30.9%), most prominently in large (-44.2%) and extra-large (-46.1%) hospitals. In contrast, CCM beds increased overall (69,300 to 87,400, 26.1%), especially in small (27%) and medium (44.2%) hospitals. The proportion of total hospital beds assigned to CCM increased (71.8%), most markedly in large (93.5%) and extra-large (85.7%) hospitals. Non-CCM occupancy decreased (-6.4%), particularly in small (-7.5%) and extra-large (-5.8%) hospitals. However, regardless of hospital size, CCM occupancy changed negligibly (0.4%). At every time point studied, CCM occupancy was greater than non-CCM occupancy within each size group. As hospital size increased, occupancy rates increased. Across hospitals of all sizes, CCM bed numbers are increasing, whereas non-CCM bed numbers are decreasing. Although the CCM bed capacity is increasing at a greater percentage rate in smaller hospitals, the assignment of

  4. Feeling at hospitals: perspective-taking, empathy and personal distress among professional nurses and nursing students.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Gregory, Jennifer; Stocks, Eric; Oceja, Luis

    2013-04-01

    When facing a person in need, professional nurses will tend to adopt an objective perspective compared to nursing students who, instead, will tend to adopt an imagine-other perspective. Consequently, professional nurses will show lower vicarious emotional reaction such as empathy and distress. Using samples from Spain (Studies 1 and 2) and United states (Study 3), we compared perspective taking strategies and the emotional responses of nurses and nursing students when perceiving a sick child (Study 1) and a sick adult (Studies 2 and 3). Taken together, the results supported our hypotheses. We discuss the applied value of considering the relationship between perspective-taking and its emotional consequences for the nursing profession.

  5. Women's experience of transfer from midwifery unit to hospital obstetric unit during labour: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Rachel E; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Locock, Louise; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2012-11-15

    Midwifery units offer care to women with straightforward pregnancies, but unforeseen complications can arise during labour or soon after birth, necessitating transfer to a hospital obstetric unit. In England, 21% of women planning birth in freestanding midwifery units are transferred; in alongside units, the transfer rate is 26%. There is little high quality contemporary evidence on women's experience of transfer. We carried out a qualitative interview study, using semi-structured interviews, with women who had been transferred from a midwifery unit (freestanding or alongside) in England up to 12 months prior to interview. Maximum variation sampling was used. Interviews with 30 women took place between March 2009 and March 2010. Thematic analysis using constant comparison and exploration of deviant cases was carried out. Most women hoped for or expected a natural birth and did not expect to be transferred. Transfer was disappointing for many; sensitive and supportive care and preparation for the need for transfer helped women adjust to their changing circumstances. A small number of women, often in the context of prolonged labour, described transfer as a relief. For women transferred from freestanding units, the ambulance journey was a "limbo" period. Women wondered, worried or were fearful about what was to come and could be passive participants who felt like they were being "transported" rather than cared for. For many this was a direct contrast with the care they experienced in the midwifery unit. After transfer, most women appreciated the opportunity to talk about their experience to make sense of what happened and help them plan for future pregnancies, but did not necessarily seek this out if it was not offered. Transfer affects a significant minority of women planning birth in midwifery units and is therefore a concern for women and midwives. Transfer is not expected by women, but sensitive care and preparation can help women adjust to changing circumstances

  6. Effectiveness of a Psychosocial Intervention Model for Persons with Chronic Psychiatric Disorders in Long-Term Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaz-Haddad, Merav; Savaya, Riki

    2011-01-01

    The article describes a psychosocial model of intervention with psychiatric patients in long-term hospitalization in a psychiatric ward in Israel and reports the findings of the evaluation conducted of its effectiveness. The model was aimed at maintaining or improving the patients' functioning in four main areas: personal hygiene, environmental…

  7. Early post-surgical cognitive dysfunction is a risk factor for mortality among hip fracture hospitalized older persons.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, C; Bonamassa, L; Pelini, L; Prioletta, I; Cianferotti, L; Metozzi, A; Benvenuti, E; Brandi, G; Guazzini, A; Santoro, G C; Mecocci, P; Black, D; Brandi, M L

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between cognitive dysfunction or delirium detected in the early post-surgical phase and the 1-year mortality among 514 hip fracture hospitalized older persons. Patients with early cognitive dysfunction or delirium experienced a 2-fold increased mortality risk. Early post-operative cognitive dysfunction and delirium are negative prognostic factors for mortality.

  8. 75 FR 1396 - The General Hospital and Personal Use Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The General Hospital and Personal Use Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a...

  9. Primary immunodeficiency investigation in patients during and after hospitalization in a pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Suavinho, Érica; de Nápolis, Ana Carolina R.; Segundo, Gesmar Rodrigues S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze whether the patients with severe infections, admitted in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, underwent the active screening for primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Methods: Retrospective study that assessed the data records of patients with any severe infections admitted in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, covering a period from January 2011 to January 2012, in order to confirm if they performed an initial investigation for PID with blood count and immunoglobulin dosage. Results: In the studied period, 53 children were hospitalized with severe infections in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, and only in seven (13.2%) the initial investigation of PID was performed. Among these patients, 3/7 (42.8%) showed quantitative alterations in immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, 1/7 (14.3%) had the diagnosis of cyclic neutropenia, and 1/7 (14.3%) presented thrombocytopenia and a final diagnosis of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Therefore, the PID diagnosis was confirmed in 5/7 (71.4%) of the patients. Conclusions: The investigation of PID in patients with severe infections has not been routinely performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Our findings suggest the necessity of performing PID investigation in this group of patients. PMID:24676187

  10. Encephalitis Hospitalization Rates and Inpatient Mortality in the United States, 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    George, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Encephalitis rates by etiology and acute-phase outcomes for encephalitis in the 21st century are largely unknown. We sought to evaluate cause-specific rates of encephalitis hospitalizations and predictors of inpatient mortality in the United States. Methods Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2000 to 2010, a retrospective observational study of 238,567 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.8 [24.0] years) hospitalized within non-federal, acute care hospitals in the U.S. with a diagnosis of encephalitis was conducted. Hospitalization rates were calculated using population-level estimates of disease from the NIS and population estimates from the United States Census Bureau. Adjusted odds of mortality were calculated for patients included in the study. Results In the U.S. from 2000–2010, there were 7.3±0.2 encephalitis hospitalizations per 100,000 population (95% CI: 7.1–7.6). Encephalitis hospitalization rates were highest among females (7.6±0.2 per 100,000) and those <1 year and >65 years of age with rates of 13.5±0.9 and 14.1±0.4 per 100,000, respectively. Etiology was unknown for approximately 50% of cases. Among patients with identified etiology, viral causes were most common (48.2%), followed by Other Specified causes (32.5%), which included predominantly autoimmune conditions. The most common infectious agents were herpes simplex virus, toxoplasma, and West Nile virus. Comorbid HIV infection was present in 7.7% of hospitalizations. Average length of stay was 11.2 days with mortality of 5.6%. In regression analysis, patients with comorbid HIV/AIDS or cancer had increased odds of mortality (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.30–2.22 and OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.88–2.71, respectively). Enteroviral, postinfectious, toxic, and Other Specified causes were associated with lower odds vs. herpes simplex encephalitis. Conclusions While encephalitis and encephalitis-related mortality impose a considerable burden in the U.S. in the 21st

  11. Encephalitis hospitalization rates and inpatient mortality in the United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    George, Benjamin P; Schneider, Eric B; Venkatesan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Encephalitis rates by etiology and acute-phase outcomes for encephalitis in the 21st century are largely unknown. We sought to evaluate cause-specific rates of encephalitis hospitalizations and predictors of inpatient mortality in the United States. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2000 to 2010, a retrospective observational study of 238,567 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.8 [24.0] years) hospitalized within non-federal, acute care hospitals in the U.S. with a diagnosis of encephalitis was conducted. Hospitalization rates were calculated using population-level estimates of disease from the NIS and population estimates from the United States Census Bureau. Adjusted odds of mortality were calculated for patients included in the study. In the U.S. from 2000-2010, there were 7.3±0.2 encephalitis hospitalizations per 100,000 population (95% CI: 7.1-7.6). Encephalitis hospitalization rates were highest among females (7.6±0.2 per 100,000) and those <1 year and >65 years of age with rates of 13.5±0.9 and 14.1±0.4 per 100,000, respectively. Etiology was unknown for approximately 50% of cases. Among patients with identified etiology, viral causes were most common (48.2%), followed by Other Specified causes (32.5%), which included predominantly autoimmune conditions. The most common infectious agents were herpes simplex virus, toxoplasma, and West Nile virus. Comorbid HIV infection was present in 7.7% of hospitalizations. Average length of stay was 11.2 days with mortality of 5.6%. In regression analysis, patients with comorbid HIV/AIDS or cancer had increased odds of mortality (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.30-2.22 and OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.88-2.71, respectively). Enteroviral, postinfectious, toxic, and Other Specified causes were associated with lower odds vs. herpes simplex encephalitis. While encephalitis and encephalitis-related mortality impose a considerable burden in the U.S. in the 21st Century, the reported demographics of hospitalized

  12. Trends in Aortic Dissection Hospitalizations, Interventions, and Outcomes among Medicare Beneficiaries in the United States, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Purav S.; Wang, Yun; Geirsson, Arnar; Kim, Nancy; Desai, Mayur M.; Gupta, Aakriti; Dodson, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of aortic dissection (AD) has not been well-described among older persons in the United States. It is not known whether advancements in AD care over the last decade have been accompanied by changes in outcomes. Methods and Results The Inpatient Medicare data from 2000 to 2011 were used to determine trends in hospitalization rates for AD. Mortality rates were ascertained through corresponding vital status files. A total of 32,057 initial AD hospitalizations were identified between 2000 and 2011. The overall hospitalization rate for AD remained unchanged at 10 per 100,000 person-years. For 30-day and 1-year mortality associated with AD, the observed rate decreased from 31.8% to 25.4% (difference, 6.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2–6.5; adjusted, 6.4%; 95% CI, 5.7–6.9) and from 42.6% to 37.4% (difference, 5.2%; 95% CI, 5.1–5.2; adjusted, 6.2%; 95% CI, 5.3–6.7) respectively. For patients undergoing surgical repair for type A dissections, the observed 30-day mortality decreased from 30.7% to 21.4% (difference, 9.3%; 95% CI, 8.3–10.2; adjusted, 7.3%; 95% CI, 5.8–7.8) and the observed 1-year mortality decreased from 39.9% to 31.6% (difference, 8.3%; 95% CI, 7.5–9.1%; adjusted, 8.2%; 95% CI, 6.7 – 9.1). The 30-day mortality decreased from 24.9% to 21% (difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 3.5–4.2; adjusted, 2.9%; 95% CI, 0.7–4.4) and 1-year decreased from 36.4% to 32.5% (difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 3.3–4.3; adjusted, 3.9%; 95% CI, 2.5–6.3) for surgical repair of type B dissection. Conclusions While AD hospitalization rates remained stable, improvement in mortality was noted, particularly in patients undergoing surgical repair. PMID:25336626

  13. AB025. Diseases with temporary disability of the respiratory system at persons working in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hristova, Lidiya; Filippidou, Elisavet-Christina; Chernaeva, Mariya; Tsacheva, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Background This retrospective study carried out during the period 2009–2015, represents an examination of people working in a Multi-profile Hospital of Varna, suffering from temporary disability of the respiratory system, with regard to structure, dynamics and relationship to their working conditions. Methods The status and the trends of health of more than 1,000 medical practitioners and other people working in the field of health were examined. Used methods sociological, electronic health record, patient charts and statistical methods. An inquiry was carried out with the purpose of risk assessment for all the workers in the hospital. Leading biological, chemical and physical risk factors at the place of work have been measured. Results We found out that the lung diseases take the first place in the temporary morbidity of the contingent under survey. The acute infections of the upper respiratory tract result in absence from work: (I) the yearly average of 100 workers shows 17 new cases and 812 days of absence due to acute bronchitis; (II) the yearly average of 100 workers—13 new cases and 1,035 days of absence from work due to pneumonia and COPD; (III) the yearly average of 100 workers—4 new cases and 859 days of absence from work. Thereby the overall indexes characterizing the temporary incapacity of the respiratory system are: frequency—35.44 new cases and frequency of the days—249.71 days of absences due to these diseases. Failure to observe the requirements for healthy and safe work conditions and especially the use of personal protective equipment, as well as the restriction of the vaccination of the employees, are one of the main reasons for the temporary incapacity disease of the respiratory system. Conclusions Our study, conducted for many years, proved that the respiratory system disorders are increasingly becoming one of the most important medical, social and financial problems. Most important measures to control and to reduce the respiratory

  14. Estimating the Impact of Newly Arrived Foreign-Born Persons on Tuberculosis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yecai; Painter, John A.; Posey, Drew L.; Cain, Kevin P.; Weinberg, Michelle S.; Maloney, Susan A.; Ortega, Luis S.; Cetron, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Among approximately 163.5 million foreign-born persons admitted to the United States annually, only 500,000 immigrants and refugees are required to undergo overseas tuberculosis (TB) screening. It is unclear what extent of the unscreened nonimmigrant visitors contributes to the burden of foreign-born TB in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States as “newly arrived”, and utilized data from U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and World Health Organization to estimate the incidence of TB among newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. During 2001 through 2008, 11,500 TB incident cases, including 291 multidrug-resistant TB incident cases, were estimated to occur among 20,989,738 person-years for the 1,479,542,654 newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. Of the 11,500 estimated TB incident cases, 41.6% (4,783) occurred among immigrants and refugees, 36.6% (4,211) among students/exchange visitors and temporary workers, 13.8% (1,589) among tourists and business travelers, and 7.3% (834) among Canadian and Mexican nonimmigrant visitors without an I-94 form (e.g., arrival-departure record). The top 3 newly arrived foreign-born populations with the largest estimated TB incident cases per 100,000 admissions were immigrants and refugees from high-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of ≥100 cases/100,000 population/year; 235.8 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% confidence interval [CI], 228.3 to 243.3), students/exchange visitors and temporary workers from high-incidence countries (60.9 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 58.5 to 63.3), and immigrants and refugees from medium-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of 15–99 cases/100,000 population/year; 55.2 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 51.6 to 58.8). Conclusions/Significance Newly arrived

  15. Leadership-organizational culture relationship in nursing units of acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Casida, Jesus; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    The phenomena of leadership and organizational culture (OC) has been defined as the driving forces in the success or failure of an organization. Today, nurse managers must demonstrate leadership behaviors or styles that are appropriate for the constantly changing, complex, and turbulent health care delivery system. In this study, researchers explored the relationship between nurse managers' leadership styles and OC of nursing units within an acute care hospital that had achieved excellent organizational performance as demonstrated by a consistent increase in patient satisfaction ratings. The data from this study support that transformational and transactional contingent reward leaderships as nurse manager leadership styles that are associated with nursing unit OC that have the ability to balance the dynamics of flexibility and stability within their nursing units and are essential for maintaining organizational effectiveness. It is essential for first-line nursing leaders to acquire knowledge and skills on organizational cultural competence.

  16. Iatrogenic illness in the paediatric intensive care unit at Gharian teaching hospital, Libya.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A M; Shedeed, S A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this prospective follow-up study wasto determine the incidence and risk factors of iatrogenic illness and the outcome among cases admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit in ateaching hospital in Libya. The incidence of iatrogenic complications was 22.9% among 423 cases admitted over a 1-year period. Human error (18.4%) followed by machine defects (4.5%) were the most common causes of complications. The overall mortality rate was 7.6% and was significantly higher in iatrogenic cases than others (13.4% versus 5.8%). Paediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score was a good predictor of risk of iatrogenic illness. Both mortality and occurrence of iatrogenic illness were significantly associated with: higher PRISM score, use of mechanical ventilation, higher bed occupancy rate in the unit, presence of respiratory and neurological diseases, prolonged duration of stay in the intensive care unit and younger age of the child.

  17. Infectious Disease Hospitalizations Among American Indian/Alaska Native and Non-American Indian/Alaska Native Persons in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Gounder, Prabhu P; Holman, Robert C; Seeman, Sara M; Rarig, Alice J; McEwen, Mary; Steiner, Claudia A; Bartholomew, Michael L; Hennessy, Thomas W

    Reports about infectious disease (ID) hospitalization rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons have been constrained by data limited to the tribal health care system and by comparisons with the general US population. We used a merged state database to determine ID hospitalization rates in Alaska. We combined 2010 and 2011 hospital discharge data from the Indian Health Service and the Alaska State Inpatient Database. We used the merged data set to calculate average annual age-adjusted and age-specific ID hospitalization rates for AI/AN and non-AI/AN persons in Alaska. We stratified the ID hospitalization rates by sex, age, and ID diagnosis. ID diagnoses accounted for 19% (6501 of 34 160) of AI/AN hospitalizations, compared with 12% (7397 of 62 059) of non-AI/AN hospitalizations. The average annual age-adjusted hospitalization rate was >3 times higher for AI/AN persons (2697 per 100 000 population) than for non-AI/AN persons (730 per 100 000 population; rate ratio = 3.7, P < .001). Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), which occurred in 38% (2486 of 6501) of AI/AN persons, was the most common reason for ID hospitalization. AI/AN persons were significantly more likely than non-AI/AN persons to be hospitalized for LRTI (rate ratio = 5.2, P < .001). A substantial disparity in ID hospitalization rates exists between AI/AN and non-AI/AN persons, and the most common reason for ID hospitalization among AI/AN persons was LRTI. Public health programs and policies that address the risk factors for LRTI are likely to benefit AI/AN persons.

  18. What Does a Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Reveal About Patient Safety Culture of Surgical Units Compared With That of Other Units?

    PubMed

    Shu, Qin; Cai, Miao; Tao, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Hu, Yin-Huan; Li, Gang

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the strengths and weaknesses of surgical units as compared with other units, and to provide an opportunity to improve patient safety culture in surgical settings by suggesting targeted actions using Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) investigation.A Hospital Survey on Patient Safety questionnaire was conducted to physicians and nurses in a tertiary hospital in Shandong China. 12 patient safety culture dimensions and 2 outcome variables were measured.A total of 23.5% of respondents came from surgical units, and 76.5% worked in other units. The "overall perceptions of safety" (48.1% vs 40.4%, P < 0.001) and "frequency of events reported" (63.7% vs 60.7%, P = 0.001) of surgical units were higher than those of other units. However, the communication openness (38.7% vs 42.5%, P < 0.001) of surgical units was lower than in other units. Medical workers in surgical units reported more events than those in other units, and more respondents in the surgical units assess "patient safety grade" to be good/excellent. Three dimensions were considered as strengths, whereas 5 other dimensions were considered to be weaknesses in surgical units. Six dimensions have potential to aid in improving events reporting and patient safety grade. Appropriate working times will also contribute to ensuring patient safety. Medical staff with longer years of experience reported more events.Surgical units outperform the nonsurgical ones in overall perception of safety and the number of events reported but underperform in the openness of communication. Four strategies, namely deepening the understanding about patient safety of supervisors, narrowing the communication gap within and across clinical units, recruiting more workers, and employing the event reporting system and building a nonpunitive culture, are recommended to improve patient safety in surgical units in the context of 1 hospital.

  19. Microbiological contamination of mobile phones of clinicians in intensive care units and neonatal care units in public hospitals in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Heyba, Mohammed; Ismaiel, Mohammad; Alotaibi, Abdulrahman; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Baqer, Hussain; Safar, Ali; Al-Sweih, Noura; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of microbiological contamination of mobile phones that belong to clinicians in intensive care units (ICUs), pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), and neonatal care units (NCUs) in all public secondary care hospitals in Kuwait. The study also aimed to describe mobile phones disinfection practices as well as factors associated with mobile phone contamination. This is a cross-sectional study that included all clinicians with mobile phones in ICUs, PICUs, and NCUs in all secondary care hospitals in Kuwait. Samples for culture were collected from mobile phones and transported for microbiological identification using standard laboratory methods. Self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on mobile phones disinfection practices. Out of 213 mobile phones, 157 (73.7 %, 95 % CI [67.2-79.5 %]) were colonized. Coagulase-negative staphylococci followed by Micrococcus were predominantly isolated from the mobile phones; 62.9 % and 28.6 % of all mobile phones, respectively. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria were identified in 1.4 % and 7.0 % of the mobile phones, respectively. Sixty-eight clinicians (33.5 %) reported that they disinfected their mobile phones, with the majority disinfecting their mobile phones only when they get dirty. The only factor that was significantly associated with mobile phone contamination was whether a clinician has ever disinfected his/her mobile phone; adjusted odds ratio 2.42 (95 % CI [1.08-5.41], p-value = 0.031). The prevalence of mobile phone contamination is high in ICUs, PICUs, and NCUs in public secondary care hospitals in Kuwait. Although some of the isolated organisms can be considered non-pathogenic, various reports described their potential harm particularly among patients in ICU and NCU settings. Isolation of MRSA and Gram-negative bacteria from mobile phones of clinicians treating patients in high-risk healthcare

  20. HIV among African-born persons in the United States: a hidden epidemic?

    PubMed

    Kerani, Roxanne P; Kent, James B; Sides, Tracy; Dennis, Greg; Ibrahim, Abdel R; Cross, Helene; Wiewel, Ellen W; Wood, Robert W; Golden, Matthew R

    2008-09-01

    Although a large proportion of HIV diagnoses in Western Europe occur in African-born persons, analyses of US HIV surveillance data do not routinely assess the proportion of diagnoses occurring in African-born US residents. To determine the percentage of newly reported HIV diagnoses occurring in African-born persons in selected areas of the United States with large African-born immigrant populations. We collated and analyzed aggregate data on persons diagnosed with HIV in 2003-2004 and reported to HIV surveillance units in the states of California, Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New Jersey and in King County, Washington; New York City; and the portion of Virginia included in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. African-born persons accounted for 0.6% of the population and 3.8% of HIV diagnoses in participating areas (HIV diagnoses range: 1%-20%). Across all areas, up to 41% of diagnoses in women (mean: 8.4%, range: 4%-41%) and up to 50% of diagnoses in blacks (mean: 8.0%, range: 2%-50%) occurred among African-born individuals. In some areas, classifying HIV cases among foreign-born blacks as occurring in African Americans dramatically alters the epidemiological picture of HIV. Country of birth should be consistently included in local and national analyses of HIV surveillance data.

  1. Inappropriate prescribing and related hospital admissions in frail older persons according to the STOPP and START criteria.

    PubMed

    Dalleur, Olivia; Spinewine, Anne; Henrard, Séverine; Losseau, Claire; Speybroeck, Niko; Boland, Benoit

    2012-10-01

    Over the last few years, the Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP) and Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START) criteria have been increasingly used to evaluate the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing. However, very few studies have evaluated the link between these criteria and clinical outcomes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing according to STOPP and START in a population of frail elderly persons admitted acutely to hospital; to evaluate whether these inappropriate prescribing events contributed to hospital admissions; and to identify determinants of hospital admissions potentially related to inappropriate prescribing. This was a cross-sectional study including all frail older patients admitted to a 975-bed teaching hospital over a 12-month period. A pharmacist and a geriatrician independently detected events of prescribing of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) and potential prescribing omission (PPO), using the STOPP and START criteria, respectively, in all patients included in the study. They determined whether the inappropriate prescribing event was the main cause or a contributory cause of hospital admission. Demographic, clinical and geriatric clinical syndromes (i.e. cognitive impairment, falls) were evaluated as potential determinants of hospital admissions related to inappropriate prescribing, using multivariate methods (i.e. logistic regression and a classification tree). 302 frail older persons (median age 84 years) were included in the study. PIMs (prevalence 48%) mainly involved overuse and/or misuse of benzodiazepines, aspirin and opiates. PPOs (prevalence 63%) were mainly related to underuse of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, aspirin and statins. Overall, inappropriate prescribing according to STOPP (54 PIMs) and/or START (38 PPOs) led or contributed to hospital admission in 82 persons (27%). The multivariate analyses indicated a relation

  2. Characteristics of unit-level patient safety culture in hospitals in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-10-22

    Patient safety culture (PSC) has an important role in determining safety and quality in healthcare. Currently, little is known about the status of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. To develop appropriate strategies, characteristics of unit-level PSC should be investigated. Work units may be classified according to the characteristics of PSC, and common problems and appropriate strategies may be identified for each work unit category. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. In 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted at 18 hospitals in Japan. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire, developed by the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was distributed to all healthcare workers (n =12,076). Percent positive scores for 12 PSC sub-dimensions were calculated for each unit, and cluster analysis was used to categorise the units according to the percent positive scores. A generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to analyse the results of the cluster analysis, and odds ratios (ORs) for categorisation as high-PSC units were calculated for each unit type. A total of 9,124 respondents (75.6%) completed the questionnaire, and valid data from 8,700 respondents (72.0%) were analysed. There were 440 units in the 18 hospitals. According to the percent positive scores for the 12 sub-dimensions, the 440 units were classified into 2 clusters: high-PSC units (n =184) and low-PSC units (n =256). Percent positive scores for all PSC sub-dimensions for high-PSC units were significantly higher than those for low-PSC units. The GLMM revealed that the combined unit type of 'Obstetrics and gynaecology ward, perinatal ward or neonatal intensive care unit' was significantly more likely to be categorised as high-PSC units (OR =9.7), and 'Long-term care ward' (OR =0.2), 'Rehabilitation unit' (OR =0.2) and 'Administration unit' (OR =0.3) were significantly less likely to be categorised as high

  3. Application of space syntax theory in the study of medical-surgical nursing units in urban hospitals.

    PubMed

    Trzpuc, Stefnee J; Martin, Caren S

    2010-01-01

    Additional research is needed to explore how the design of urban, medical-surgical nursing units influences communication patterns, perceptions of social support, and overall job satisfaction for nurses. Space syntax theory has typically been used to study communication in office environments; more recently, it has been applied to the study of healthcare environments. The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of space syntax theory as a theoretical framework for studying nurses' communication in medical-surgical nursing units in urban hospitals. The nursing profession is rapidly changing, and nurses' work is psychologically and physically intense. At the same time, nurses are responsible for patient safety, optimal care delivery, and patient outcomes (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009; Clarke, 2007; Clarke & Donaldson, 2008; Institute of Medicine, 2000; Institute of Medicine, 2004). Nurses are central to the delivery of care and act as a conduit for communication among members of the patient care team. Some of the design characteristics that create a more appealing environment for patients, such as views of nature and single-patient rooms, may not be fully understood as they relate to nurses' tasks and responsibilities, and they could be detrimental to nursing communication. This study analyzed three medical-surgical nursing unit floor plans using two constructs of space syntax theory, and it verified analysis through three semi-structured interviews with end users. The use of space syntax theory for analyzing medical-surgical nursing unit floor plans is complex. Findings indicated that nurses' perceptions of two constructs of space syntax theory, visibility and accessibility, did not consistently match the anticipated benefits of the floor plan designs. Understanding how and when nurses communicate with each other could help designers of healthcare spaces create more effective environments that support nurses' work and personal health and welfare

  4. Variation in Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Outpatient Pediatric Urological Procedures at United States Children's Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chan, Katherine H; Bell, Teresa; Cain, Mark; Carroll, Aaron; Benneyworth, Brian D

    2017-03-01

    Guidelines recommend surgical antibiotic prophylaxis for clean-contaminated procedures but none for clean procedures. The purpose of this study was to describe variations in surgical antibiotic prophylaxis for outpatient urological procedures at United States children's hospitals. Using the PHIS (Pediatric Health Information System®) database we performed a retrospective cohort study of patients younger than 18 years who underwent clean and/or clean-contaminated outpatient urological procedures from 2012 to 2014. We excluded those with concurrent nonurological procedures or an abscess/infected wound. We compared perioperative antibiotic charges for clean vs clean-contaminated procedures using a multilevel logistic regression model with a random effect for hospital. We also examined whether hospitals that were guideline compliant for clean procedures, defined as no surgical antibiotic prophylaxis, were also compliant for clean-contaminated procedures using the Pearson correlation coefficient. We examined hospital level variation in antibiotic rates using the coefficient of variation. A total of 131,256 patients with a median age of 34 months at 39 hospitals met study inclusion criteria. Patients undergoing clean procedures were 14% less likely to receive guideline compliant surgical antibiotic prophylaxis than patients undergoing clean-contaminated procedures (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84-0.88, p <0.0001). Hospitals that used antibiotics appropriately for clean-contaminated procedures were more likely to use antibiotics inappropriately for clean procedures (r = 0.7, p = 0.01). Greater variation was seen for hospital level compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis for clean-contaminated procedures (range 9.8% to 97.8%, coefficient of variation 0.36) than for clean procedures (range 35.0% to 98.2%, coefficient of variation 0.20). Hospitals that used surgical antibiotic prophylaxis appropriately for clean-contaminated procedures were likely to use surgical antibiotic

  5. Access, quality, and costs of care at physician owned hospitals in the United States: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Orav, E John; Jena, Anupam B; Dudzinski, David M; Le, Sidney T; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare physician owned hospitals (POHs) with non-POHs on metrics around patient populations, quality of care, costs, and payments. Design Observational study. Setting Acute care hospitals in 95 hospital referral regions in the United States, 2010. Participants 2186 US acute care hospitals (219 POHs and 1967 non-POHs). Main outcome measures Proportions of patients using Medicaid and those from ethnic and racial minority groups; hospital performance on patient experience metrics, care processes, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, and readmission rates; costs of care; care payments; and Medicare market share. Results The 219 POHs were more often small (<100 beds), for profit, and in urban areas. 120 of these POHs were general (non-specialty) hospitals. Compared with patients from non-POHs, those from POHs were younger (77.4 v 78.4 years, P<0.001), less likely to be admitted through an emergency department (23.2% v. 29.0%, P<0.001), equally likely to be black (5.1% v 5.5%, P=0.85) or to use Medicaid (14.9% v 15.4%, P=0.75), and had similar numbers of chronic diseases and predicted mortality scores. POHs and non-POHs performed similarly on patient experience scores, processes of care, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, 30 day readmission rates, costs, and payments for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and pneumonia. Conclusion Although POHs may treat slightly healthier patients, they do not seem to systematically select more profitable or less disadvantaged patients or to provide lower value care. PMID:26333819

  6. An Evaluation and Ranking of Children’s Hospital Websites in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Daniel M; Ford, Eric W

    2016-01-01

    Background Children’s hospitals are faced with the rising need for technological innovation. Their prospective health care consumers, who increasingly depend on the Web and social media for communication and consumer engagement, drive this need. As patients and family members navigate the Web presence of hospitals, it is important for these specialized organizations to present themselves and their services efficiently. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the website content of children’s hospitals in order to identify opportunities to improve website design and create benchmarks to judge improvement. Methods All websites associated with a children’s hospital were identified using a census list of all children’s hospitals in the United States. In March of 2014, each website and its social media were evaluated using a Web crawler that provided a 5-dimensional assessment that included website accessibility, marketing, content, technology, and usability. The 5-dimensional assessment was scored on a scale ranging from 0 to 10 with positive findings rated higher on the scale. Websites were ranked by individual dimensions as well as according to their average ranking across all dimensions. Results Mean scores of 153 websites ranged from 5.05 to 8.23 across all 5 dimensions. Results revealed that no website scored a perfect 10 on any dimension and that room exists for meaningful improvement. Conclusions Study findings allow for the establishment of baseline benchmarks for tracking future website and social media improvements and display the need for enhanced Web-based consumer engagement for children’s hospitals. PMID:27549074

  7. [Respiratory virus infections in adult patients hospitalized in an internal medicine unit].

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Agüero, Yasna; Ubilla, Daniela; Mechsner, Pamela; Inzunza, Carlos; Riquelme, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Respiratory viral infections (RVi) can be associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations. To investigate the frequency and clinical manifestations of RVi among adult patients during winter hospitalizations. All patients admitted to the hospital with flu like disease and those with fever or exacerbation of any underlying disease during hospitalization without an evident cause, were prospectively enrolled. A direct immunofluorescence (DIF) of nasopharyngeal aspirate for influenza A (IA) and B, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and metapneumovirus, was performed. Epidemiological and clinical data were recorded. Between May and September 2012, 975 adults were admitted to the Internal Medicine Unit of Puerto Montt Hospital and in 128 (13%) patients, DIF was carried out. DIF was positive in 44 patients (34%) aged 65 ± 20 years, 68.2% females, corresponding to 4.5% of total hospitalizations. Eighty six percent of the latter had at least one co-morbidity, mainly asthma and chronic respiratory diseases in 34.1%, diabetes in 29.5%, cardiac problems in 25% and congestive heart failure in 20.5%. The most common RVi were RSV (n = 21, 48%) and IA (n = 17, 39%). Six patients had a nosocomial RVi. Patients infected with IA had a significantly higher frequency of fever and bronchial hyper reactivity than those infected with RSV. RVi were associated with exacerbation of underlying disease in 62% of cases and pneumonia in 27%. Two patients had a viral pericarditis. RVi are an important cause of adult morbidity and their detection should be routine in adult patients hospitalized during winter.

  8. Access, quality, and costs of care at physician owned hospitals in the United States: observational study.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Orav, E John; Jena, Anupam B; Dudzinski, David M; Le, Sidney T; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-09-02

    To compare physician owned hospitals (POHs) with non-POHs on metrics around patient populations, quality of care, costs, and payments. Observational study. Acute care hospitals in 95 hospital referral regions in the United States, 2010. 2186 US acute care hospitals (219 POHs and 1967 non-POHs). Proportions of patients using Medicaid and those from ethnic and racial minority groups; hospital performance on patient experience metrics, care processes, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, and readmission rates; costs of care; care payments; and Medicare market share. The 219 POHs were more often small (<100 beds), for profit, and in urban areas. 120 of these POHs were general (non-specialty) hospitals. Compared with patients from non-POHs, those from POHs were younger (77.4 v 78.4 years, P<0.001), less likely to be admitted through an emergency department (23.2% v. 29.0%, P<0.001), equally likely to be black (5.1% v 5.5%, P=0.85) or to use Medicaid (14.9% v 15.4%, P=0.75), and had similar numbers of chronic diseases and predicted mortality scores. POHs and non-POHs performed similarly on patient experience scores, processes of care, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, 30 day readmission rates, costs, and payments for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and pneumonia. Although POHs may treat slightly healthier patients, they do not seem to systematically select more profitable or less disadvantaged patients or to provide lower value care. © Blumenthal et al 2015.

  9. General Characteristics and Activity of Emergency Department Short-Stay Units in Spanish Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Carles; Llopis, Ferran; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sempere, Gonzalo; Llorens, Pere; Navarro, Carmen; Martínez-Ortiz, Mikel; Juan, Antoni

    2017-05-01

    Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding mainly due to the lack of access to inpatient beds negatively affects safety and quality of care. Implementation of ED short-stay units (EDSSUs) may help to mitigate this situation. To describe the general characteristics and evaluate the activity of EDSSUs in Spanish hospitals. This is a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was sent to coordinators responsible for the EDSSUs identified among Spanish hospitals appearing on the Ministry of Health Web page. Data regarding structure, caseloads, and clinical management practices were collected. Among the 591 hospitals surveyed, 35 EDSSUs (5.9%) were identified and 23 participated in the study. Admissions to EDSSUs over different periods in 2011 were assessed: 12-month activity in 17 EDSSUs and between 5 and 10.5 months in six EDSSUs. A total of 25,568 patients with a mean age of 67.2 ± 9.8 years were admitted, representing between 6% and 16.3% of hospital admissions from the ED. The most frequent diagnoses were acute heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, and urinary and respiratory tract infections. The average length of stay (LOS) was 2.6 ± 1.1 days (range 1.2-5.3), in-hospital mortality 0.59% (range 0-2.68), and the 30-day readmission rate after discharge was 6.7% (range 0-14.6). To date, only a few Spanish hospitals have implemented EDSSUs. Prevalent infections and exacerbation of chronic conditions are the most frequent causes for admission. Considering LOS, 30-day readmission rate and mortality, EDSSUs appear to be safe and effective and might be considered a tool to alleviate ED overcrowding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pre-hospital care after a seizure: Evidence base and United Kingdom management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Andrew; Taylor, Louise; Reuber, Markus; Grünewald, Richard A; Parkinson, Martin; Dickson, Jon M

    2015-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation to pre-hospital emergency services and they generate significant healthcare costs. This article summarises the United Kingdom (UK) Ambulance Service guidelines for the management of seizures and explores the extent to which these guidelines are evidence-based. Summary of the Clinical Practice Guidelines of the UK Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee relating to the management of seizures. Review of the literature relating to pre-hospital management of seizure emergencies. Much standard practice relating to the emergency out of hospital management of patients with seizures is drawn from generic Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines although many patients do not need ALS during or after a seizure and the benefit of many ALS interventions in seizure patients remains to be established. The majority of studies identified pertain to medical treatment of status epilepticus. These papers show that benzodiazepines are safe and effective but it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions about the best medication or the optimal route of administration. The evidence base for current pre-hospital guidelines for seizure emergencies is incomplete. A large proportion of patients are transported to hospital after a seizure but many of these may be suitable for home management. However, there is very little research into alternative care pathways or criteria that could be used to help paramedics avoid transport to hospital. More research is needed to improve care for people after a seizure and to improve the cost-effectiveness of the healthcare systems within which they are treated. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sodium azide poisoning--a rare reason of hospitalization in toxicological units--case report].

    PubMed

    Kostek, Halina; Sawiniec, Jarosław; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Kujawa, Anna; Majewska, Magdalena; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Sodium azide poisonings are a rare reason for hospitalization in toxicological units. They are observed as rarely as once within a number of years per hospital. Consequently, an algorithm for the optimum procedure of treating such intoxications does not exist and, as a result, there is a need to describe every single clinical case. A female, aged 55, was directed to the toxicological unit from a county hospital after swallowing four tablets of sodium azide, 150 mg each, in the form of preservative for fresh milk samples. Two hours after the incident a gastric lavage was performed and the tableting blend was retrieved. In the clinical examination higher concentration of lactic acid, ALAT and TSH were observed. In the ECG record unspecific aberrations in the ST segment were noticed. Due to the patient's general good condition and the fact that the tableting blend had been retrieved from the gastric rinse, further use of the antidote indicated in the therapy of cyanide intoxications was abandoned. Symptomatic treatment was used along with the patient's eight-day observation. In the described case the early decontamination prevented the development of acute poisoning.

  12. Survey on hospital-acquired urinary tract infection in neurological intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Xing, Tao; Li, Junhui; He, Yingzi; Bai, Mei; Wang, Niansong

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the causes, incidence, and risk factors of urinary tract infection patients in neurological intensive care unit (ICU). Patients (n = 916) admitted to the neurological ICU from January 2005 to December 2010 were retrospectively surveyed for urinary tract infections. There were 246 patients in neurological ICU who were diagnosed with hospital-acquired urinary tract infection during that period of time (26.9%). Forty-three cases were upper urinary tract infection, and 203 cases were lower urinary tract infection. The top three strains were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Older age (UTI rate, 22.6%), female patients (21.7%), hospital stay for more than 7 days (16.7%), diabetes (11.7%), and catheterization (21.1%) were the risk factors for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection. There is a high incidence of nosocomial urinary tract infection in the neurological intensive care unit. Active prevention program and surveillance need to be carried out in neurological ICU, especially in those with risk factors.

  13. Cost accounting in a surgical unit in a teaching hospital--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Malalasekera, A P; Ariyaratne, M H; Fernando, R; Perera, D; Deen, K I

    2003-09-01

    Economic constraints remain one of the major limitations on the quality of health care even in industrialised countries. Improvement of quality will require optimising facilities within available resources. Our objective was to determine costs of surgery and to identify areas where cost reduction is possible. 80 patients undergoing routine major and intermediate surgery during a period of 6 months were selected at random. All consumables used and procedures carried out were documented. A unit cost was assigned to each of these. Costing was based on 3 main categories: preoperative (investigations, blood product related costs), operative (anaesthetic charges, consumables and theatre charges) and post-operative (investigations, consumables, hospital stay). Theatre charges included two components: fixed (consumables) and variable (dependent on time per operation). The indirect costs (e.g. administration costs, 'hotel' costs), accounted for 30%, of the total and were lower than similar costs in industrialised nations. The largest contributory factors (median, range) towards total cost were, basic hospital charges (30%; 15 to 63%); theatre charges fixed (23%; 6 to 35%) and variable (14%; 8 to 27%); and anaesthetic charges (15%; 1 to 36%). Cost reduction in patients undergoing surgery should focus on decreasing hospital stay, operating theatre time and anaesthetic expenditure. Although definite measures can be suggested from the study, further studies on these variables are necessary to optimise cost effectiveness of surgical units.

  14. Music listening preferences and preadmission dysfunctional psychosocial behaviors of adolescents hospitalized on an in-patient psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, C K; Demi, A S

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between music listening preferences and preadmission, dysfunctional psychosocial behaviors (PDPB) of 60 adolescents who were hospitalized on an in-patient psychiatric unit. Findings were that hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to music with negative lyrics/themes had a history of more PDPB than hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to music that did not contain negative lyrics/themes; and hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to heavy metal music had a history of more PDPB than hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to other types of music.

  15. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide.

  16. Hilton's Rest and Pain, Guy's Hospital personalities and Guy's South African rugby connection.

    PubMed

    Dubovsky, H

    1997-07-01

    Guy's Hospital occupies a unique position in medical history. John Hilton (1805-1879), as anatomist, physiologist, morbid anatomist and surgeon in his classic Rest and Pain, published in 1863 (reissued in 1950), formulated principles for the diagnostic significance of pain and the value of rest in healing. An array of personalities graced Guy's Medical School in that era. The triumvirate of Richard Bright (1789-1858). Thomas Addison (1793-1860) and Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866) contemporaneously discovered the diseases that bear their names. Sir Astley Cooper, a leading surgeon of his day (1768-1841), performed the first amputation of the hip joint before the era of anaesthesia. John Keats (1795-1821) qualified as a surgeon at Guy's but, realising his unsuitability of temperament, became a leading English poet. This change of direction caused him anguish and suffering, mainly because of the rejection of his poetry; tuberculosis led to his death in Rome, where he is buried. Guy's Medical School also allowed South Africans to enter as rugby players before the 1920s, when they were required to qualify overseas.

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder and High Utilization of Inpatient Psychiatric Hospitalization: Concordance Between Research and Clinical Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Comtois, Katherine Anne; Carmel, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in public mental health patients and (2) compare research assessment rates to clinical record rates in those with and without a history of high utilization of inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. One hundred and sixty participants randomly selected from county mental health centers were fully assessed. Among the non-high utilizers, 10% met criteria for BPD on research diagnosis, 4.5% on clinical record diagnosis, and 1.5% on both. Among high utilizers, 42% met criteria for BPD on research diagnosis, 19% on clinical record diagnosis, and 19% on both. For the non-high utilizers, the sensitivity of the clinical record diagnosis (compared to the gold standard of the research diagnosis) was 15% and the specificity was 97%. For the high utilizer group, the sensitivity of the clinical record diagnosis was 45% and specificity was 100% indicating that there was never an incorrect clinical diagnosis of BPD among the high utilizers. Thus, while the specificity of the clinical record was high, the sensitivity of the clinical record diagnosis was quite low, and the clinical record greatly underestimated the prevalence of BPD in this sample. Further, since effective outpatient treatment has been developed for these expensive high utilizers with BPD, the under-recognition of BPD has significant implications for the planning of outpatient mental health services in public sector settings.

  18. Effect of costing methods on unit cost of hospital medical services.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Malaroje, Saranya; Kongsawatt, Sukalaya

    2007-04-01

    To explore the variance of unit costs of hospital medical services due to different costing methods employed in the analysis. Retrospective and descriptive study at Kaengkhoi District Hospital, Saraburi Province, Thailand, in the fiscal year 2002. The process started with a calculation of unit costs of medical services as a base case. After that, the unit costs were re-calculated based on various methods. Finally, the variations of the results obtained from various methods and the base case were computed and compared. The total annualized capital cost of buildings and capital items calculated by the accounting-based approach (averaging the capital purchase prices throughout their useful life) was 13.02% lower than that calculated by the economic-based approach (combination of depreciation cost and interest on undepreciated portion over the useful life). A change of discount rate from 3% to 6% results in a 4.76% increase of the hospital's total annualized capital cost. When the useful life of durable goods was changed from 5 to 10 years, the total annualized capital cost of the hospital decreased by 17.28% from that of the base case. Regarding alternative criteria of indirect cost allocation, unit cost of medical services changed by a range of -6.99% to +4.05%. We explored the effect on unit cost of medical services in one department. Various costing methods, including departmental allocation methods, ranged between -85% and +32% against those of the base case. Based on the variation analysis, the economic-based approach was suitable for capital cost calculation. For the useful life of capital items, appropriate duration should be studied and standardized. Regarding allocation criteria, single-output criteria might be more efficient than the combined-output and complicated ones. For the departmental allocation methods, micro-costing method was the most suitable method at the time of study. These different costing methods should be standardized and developed as

  19. Treatment utilization among persons with opioid use disorder in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S

    2016-12-01

    The United States is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. Treatment use data from diverse racial/ethnic groups with opioid use disorder (OUD) are needed to inform treatment expansion efforts. We examined demographic characteristics and behavioral health of persons aged ≥12 years that met criteria for past-year OUD (n=6,125) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=503,101). We determined the prevalence and correlates of past-year use of alcohol/drug use treatment and opioid-specific treatment to inform efforts for improving OUD treatment. Among persons with OUD, 81.93% had prescription (Rx) OUD only, 9.75% had heroin use disorder (HUD) only, and 8.32% had Rx OUD+HUD. Persons with Rx OUD+HUD tended to be white, adults aged 18-49, males, or uninsured. The majority (80.09%) of persons with OUD had another substance use disorder (SUD), and major depressive episode (MDE) was common (28.74%). Of persons with OUD, 26.19% used any alcohol or drug use treatment, and 19.44% used opioid-specific treatment. Adolescents, the uninsured, blacks, native-Hawaiians/Pacific-Islanders/Asian-Americans, persons with Rx OUD only, and persons without MDE or SUD particularly underutilized opioid-specific treatment. Among alcohol/drug use treatment users, self-help group and outpatient rehabilitation treatment were commonly used services. Most people with OUD report no use of OUD treatment. Multifaceted interventions, including efforts to access insurance coverage, are required to change attitudes and knowledge towards addiction treatment in order to develop a supportive culture and infrastructure to enable treatment-seeking. Outreach efforts could target adolescents, minority groups, and the uninsured to improve access to treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Falls Among Persons Aged ≥65 Years With and Without Severe Vision Impairment - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fung; Stevens, Judy A; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2016-05-06

    In 2014, an estimated 2.8 million persons aged ≥65 years in the United States reported severe vision impairment* defined as being blind or having severe difficulty seeing, even with eyeglasses. Good vision is important for maintaining balance as well as for identifying low-contrast hazards, estimating distances, and discerning spatial relationships. Conversely, having poor vision increases the risk for falls (1,2). Falls among older adults are common and can cause serious injuries, disabilities, and premature death (1,3). To date, no state-level investigations have examined the annual prevalence of falls among persons with and without severe vision impairment. CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with and without self-reported severe vision impairment. Overall, 46.7% of persons with, and 27.7% of older adults without, self-reported severe vision impairment reported having fallen during the previous year. The state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with severe vision impairment ranged from 30.8% (Hawaii) to 59.1% (California). In contrast, the prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years without severe vision impairment ranged from 20.4% (Hawaii) to 32.4% (Alaska). Developing fall-prevention interventions intended for persons with severe vision impairment will help states manage the impact of vision impairment and falls on health care resources, and can inform state-specific fall prevention initiatives.

  1. [Sexuality of patients with neurological disability: Perception of healthcare professionals of a neurologic rehabilitation hospital unit].

    PubMed

    Babany, F; Hamdoun, S; Denys, P; Amarenco, G

    2016-12-01

    Sexual disorders are common after neurological diseases. The reconstruction of sexuality is a major issue after neurologic disability. Why is this topic not covered in rehabilitation medicine except specialized service? The aim of this pilot study was to assess the perception of the healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to understand why this topic was not addressed. We conducted a pilot, observational, monocentric study from February to March 2016 in HCPs from a neurologic rehabilitation hospital unit. The sexuality was essential for 14/28 (50%) HCPs in general and for 7/28 (25%) in neurologic disability. The hospital inhibits sexuality rebuilding in 21/28 (75%). The question of exercise of sexuality in hospital was considered as legitimate question for 13/28 (46%). Twenty-third (82%) have talked about sexuality with patients or colleagues, 5/19 (27%) thought that their response was satisfactory when patient asked about it. The question of sexuality had been managed for 10/28 (36%) during their training; 22/28 (79%) considered it was a prime importance for their job. In this monocentric study, sexuality was often poorly managed in rehab center. The professionals did not dare talking about it with patients and answered with difficulties when they are asked about sexual disorders. They were not trained for this topic. A specialized medical education in hospital and during studies would be of great value to improve neurologic rehabilitation of these patients. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A selected review and personal experience with robotic prostatectomy: implications for adoption of this new technology in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Goldstraw, M A; Patil, K; Anderson, C; Dasgupta, P; Kirby, R S

    2007-01-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is a rapidly evolving technique for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. However, cynics point to the increasing role of market forces in the robotic revolution. As yet, Europe has not taken up RALP in large numbers and this may in part relate to the high level of expertise in laparoscopy previously gained. Furthermore, setting up a robotic programme is a major undertaking for many surgical units. This review discusses some of the challenges in the development of a robotic service drawn from personal experience within the United Kingdom. Furthermore, available data on RALP versus open and laparoscopic approaches are reviewed for surgical and cancer-related outcomes. Preliminary data appear to show an advantage over open prostatectomy with reduced blood loss, decreased pain and early mobilisation and shorter hospital stay. Most intra-institutional studies demonstrate better postoperative continence and potency with RALP; however, this needs to be viewed in the context of a paucity of randomized data available in the literature. There is no definitive data to show an advantage over standard laparoscopic surgery, but the fact that this technique has reached parity with laparoscopy within 5 years is encouraging: with continued experience, the hope is that results will continue to improve.

  3. Pharmacists on rounding teams reduce preventable adverse drug events in hospital general medicine units.

    PubMed

    Kucukarslan, Suzan N; Peters, Michael; Mlynarek, Mark; Nafziger, Daniel A

    2003-09-22

    Previous studies found that medication errors result from lack of sufficient information during the prescribing step. Therefore, it is proposed that having a pharmacist available when patients are evaluated during the rounding process may reduce the likelihood of preventable adverse drug events (ADEs). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of having a pharmacist participate with a physician rounding team on preventable ADEs in general medicine units and to document pharmacist interventions made during the rounding process. A single-blind, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare patients receiving care from a rounding team including a pharmacist with patients receiving standard care (no pharmacist on rounding team). Patients admitted to and discharged from the same general medicine unit were included in the study. The main outcome measure of this study was preventable ADEs. Patient records were randomly selected and evaluated by a blinded process involving independent senior pharmacist specialists and a senior staff physician. Interventions made by the pharmacists in the treatment group were documented. The rate of preventable ADEs was reduced by 78%, from 26.5 per 1000 hospital days to 5.7 per 1000 hospital days. There were 150 documented interventions recommended during the rounding process, 147 of which were accepted by the team. The most common interventions were (1) dosing-related changes and (2) recommendations to add a drug to therapy. Pharmacist participation with the medical rounding team on a general medicine unit contributes to a significant reduction in preventable ADEs.

  4. [Evaluation of the teamwork in six intensive care units of two university hospitals].

    PubMed

    Del Barrio Linares, M; Reverte Sanchez, M

    2010-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that teamwork has a direct positive effect on the quality and the efficiency of patient's care and consequently on hospital costs. 1.To assess attitudes toward the teamwork of nurses and physicians of 6 ICUs in two teaching hospitals. 2.To analyze if there are any relationships between attitudes toward teamwork and socio-demographic variables. 3.To study if there are differences in the attitudes toward teamwork among professionals of the different units. This prospective study evaluated the attitudes of teamwork of 136 professionals with the scale development by Heinemann et al. in 1999. This scale is made up of three subscales that measure the value of being in a team, the efficiency of the team and the function of collaboration of the physician within the team. The majority of professionals had a positive attitude towards teamwork. They obtained a mean score of 97.01 for a maximum of 120 points. In regards to sociodemographic variables, statistically significant differences were only found in gender and professional category, as women and female nurses had better attitudes toward teamwork. There were no differences in attitudes towards teamwork in the different units studied. Attitude toward teamwork by physicians and nurses of the 6 ICUs studied was good. No differences were found between attitudes toward teamwork among the professionals of the different units. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  5. [The prevalence of accidental poisoning in a hospital pediatric unit of Latium].

    PubMed

    Faraoni, F; Protano, C; Bini, V; Lizzi, R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of accidental poisoning among children, over a period of fifteen years, from 1990 to 2004, in the pediatric wards of a hospital in Latium (Italy). The prevalence of childhood poisoning was calculated based on the medical records of the pediatric unit of the hospital. The derived data was divided into different categories according to age, gender and types of poisoning. The results of this study show a decrease in accidental pediatric poisoning; according to the literature the frequency of poisoning was higher in males, under the age of 2 years, than females. Trends show an increase in pharmaceutical poisonings. The present study underlines the need for continuous information on prevention and educational programs organized by the Institutions, territorial sanitary services and GP with the aim of increasing the awareness of parents regarding the risk factors of poisoning.

  6. Determining Family Needs on an Oncology Hospital Unit Using Interview, Art, and Survey.

    PubMed

    Catlin, Anita; Ford, Marilee; Maloney, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    A movement worldwide, and specifically new to our hospital, is the implementation of Patient- and Family-Centered Care. We were unsure, however, what the needs were of our patients' families. This triangulated study, on a 28-bed oncology unit, studied family members at the bedside. We asked family members what their needs were in a three-step process (open-ended interview, use of the Draw a Bridge art therapy technique, and the Family Inventory of Needs survey). Nineteen interviews revealed needs for physical comfort, emotional support, cultural sensitivity, recognition of help provided by family members and improved pain management. Art therapy revealed the stress of caregiving and helped to uncover unmet needs for interviewers to explore. The FIN identified that care at home after discharge was a major worry. Knowledge of family members' needs while a loved one is in the hospital allows for planning and provision of modalities to assist them in their caregiving.

  7. Implementation of a large-scale hospital information infrastructure for multi-unit health-care services.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sun K; Kim, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung C; Park, Youn Jung; Chang, Byung Chul

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in demand for high quality medical services, the need for an innovative hospital information system has become essential. An improved system has been implemented in all hospital units of the Yonsei University Health System. Interoperability between multi-units required appropriate hardware infrastructure and software architecture. This large-scale hospital information system encompassed PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications Systems), EMR (Electronic Medical Records) and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). It involved two tertiary hospitals and 50 community hospitals. The monthly data production rate by the integrated hospital information system is about 1.8 TByte and the total quantity of data produced so far is about 60 TByte. Large scale information exchange and sharing will be particularly useful for telemedicine applications.

  8. Acute Care For Elders Units Produced Shorter Hospital Stays At Lower Cost While Maintaining Patients’ Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Palmer, Robert M.; Kresevic, Denise M.; Fortinsky, Richard H.; Kowal, Jerome; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Landefeld, C. Seth

    2013-01-01

    Acute Care for Elders Units offer enhanced care for older adults in specially designed hospital units. The care is delivered by interdisciplinary teams, which can include geriatricians, advanced practice nurses, social workers, pharmacists, and physical therapists. In a randomized controlled trial of 1,632 elderly patients, length-of-stay was significantly shorter—6.7 days per patient versus 7.3 days per patient—among those receiving care in the Acute Care for Elders Unit compared to usual care. This difference produced lower total inpatient costs—$9,477 per patient versus $10,451 per patient—while maintaining patients’ functional abilities and not increasing hospital readmission rates. The practices of Acute Care for Elders Units, and the principles they embody, can provide hospitals with effective strategies for lowering costs while preserving quality of care for hospitalized elders. PMID:22665834

  9. Epidemiology of Acute Pancreatitis in Hospitalized Children in the United States from 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Chaitanya; Deshpande, Abhishek; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Anderson, Michael P.; Bitar, Anas; Steele, Marilyn I.; Bass, Pat F.; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Single-center studies suggest an increasing incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) in children. Our specific aims were to (i) estimate the recent secular trends, (ii) assess the disease burden, and (iii) define the demographics and comorbid conditions of AP in hospitalized children within the United States. Methods We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for the years 2000 to 2009. Extracted data were weighted to generate national-level estimates. We used the Cochrane-Armitage test to analyze trends; cohort-matching to evaluate the association of AP and in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and charges; and multivariable logistic regression to test the association of AP and demographics and comorbid conditions. Results We identified 55,012 cases of AP in hospitalized children (1–20 years of age). The incidence of AP increased from 23.1 to 34.9 (cases per 10,000 hospitalizations per year; P<0.001) and for all-diagnoses 38.7 to 61.1 (P<0.001). There was an increasing trend in the incidence of both primary and all-diagnoses of AP (P<0.001). In-hospital mortality decreased (13.1 to 7.6 per 1,000 cases, P<0.001), median length of stay decreased (5 to 4 days, P<0.001), and median charges increased ($14,956 to $22,663, P<0.001). Children with AP compared to those without the disease had lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.78–0.95), longer lengths of stay (aOR 2.42, 95% CI, 2.40–2.46), and higher charges (aOR 1.62, 95% CI, 1.59–1.65). AP was more likely to occur in children older than 5 years of age (aORs 2.81 to 5.25 for each 5-year age interval). Hepatobiliary disease was the comorbid condition with the greatest association with AP. Conclusions These results demonstrate a rising incidence of AP in hospitalized children. Despite improvements in mortality and length of stay, hospitalized children with AP have significant morbidity. PMID

  10. Hospitalizations and mortality in the United States for adults with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Baraona, Fernando; Gurvitz, Michelle; Landzberg, Michael J; Opotowsky, Alexander R

    2013-04-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is common in patients with Down syndrome (DS), and these patients are living longer lives. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hospitalizations in adults with DS and CHD in the United States. Hospitalizations from 1998 to 2009 for adults aged 18 to 64 years with and without DS with CHD diagnoses associated with DS (atrioventricular canal defect, ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, and patent ductus arteriosus) were analyzed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Outcomes of interest were (1) in-hospital mortality, (2) common co-morbidities, (3) cardiac procedures, (4) hospital charges, and (5) length of stay. Multivariate modeling adjusted for age, gender, CHD diagnosis, and co-morbidities. There were 78,793 ± 2,653 CHD admissions, 9,088 ± 351 (11.5%) of which were associated with diagnoses of DS. The proportion of admissions associated with DS (DS/CHD) decreased from 15.2 ± 1.3% to 8.5 ± 0.9%. DS was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 2.4), especially in women (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.4). DS/CHD admissions were more commonly associated with hypothyroidism (OR 7.7, 95% CI 6.6 to 9.0), dementia (OR 82.0, 95% CI 32 to 213), heart failure (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9 to 2.5), pulmonary hypertension (OR 2.5, 95% CI 2.2 to 2.9), and cyanosis or secondary polycythemia (OR 4.6, 95% CI 3.8 to 5.6). Conversely, DS/CHD hospitalizations were less likely to include cardiac procedures or surgery (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.4) and were associated with lower charges ($23,789 ± $1,177 vs $39,464 ± $1,371, p <0.0001) compared to non-DS/CHD admissions. In conclusion, DS/CHD hospitalizations represent a decreasing proportion of admissions for adults with CHD typical of DS; patients with DS/CHD are more likely to die during hospitalization but less likely to undergo a cardiac procedure.

  11. Implementation of total quality management after reconfiguration of services on a general hospital unit.

    PubMed

    Coker, M; Sharp, J; Powell, H; Cinelli, P; French, M; Colley-Ogden, T

    1997-02-01

    In 1992 the New York State Office of Mental Health issued a statewide plan for mental health services to reduce the number of inpatient beds in state-run facilities from approximately 11,000 to between 6,000 and 8,000 by the year 2000. This reduction resulted in at least a 25 percent increase in psychiatric beds at local general hospitals. In 1992 Albany Medical Center Hospital's department of inpatient psychiatry established an interdisciplinary committee to address changes resulting from the reconfiguration of services to chronic mentally ill persons. The committee established procedures to use the principles of total quality management to respond to problems and to continuously improve the therapeutic milieu. The authors describe how these principles were used to create a patient satisfaction survey, to examine and improve part of the hospital admissions procedure, and to review and revise treatment planning documentation. A concurrent review committee reviews patients' records to ensure accuracy of documentation and quality of care.

  12. A personalized mobile patient guide system for a patient-centered smart hospital: Lessons learned from a usability test and satisfaction survey in a tertiary university hospital.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Jung, Se Young; Kim, Seok; Kim, Eunhye; Lee, Kee-Hyuck; Chung, Eunja; Hwang, Hee

    2016-07-01

    The present study focused on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a personalized mobile patient guide system that utilizes smart phones, indoor navigation technology and a hospital information system (HIS) to address the difficulties that outpatients face in finding hospital facilities, recognizing their daily treatment schedule, and accessing personalized medical and administrative information. The present study was conducted in a fully digitized tertiary university hospital in South Korea. We developed a real-time location-based outpatient guide system that consists of Bluetooth access points (APs) for indoor navigation, an Android-based guide application, a guide server, and interfaces with the HIS. A total of 33 subjects and 43 outpatients participated in the usability test (UT) and the satisfaction survey, respectively. We confirmed that the indoor navigation feature can be applied to outpatient departments with precision using a position error test. The participants in the UT completed each scenario with an average success rate of 67.4%. According to the results, we addressed the problems and made improvements to the user interface by providing users with context-based guidance information. The satisfaction rating of the system was high, with an average score of 4.0 out of 5.0, showing its utility as a patient-centered hospital service. The innovative mobile patient guide system for outpatients is feasible and can be successfully implemented to provide personalized information with high satisfaction. Additionally, the issues identified and lessons learned from our experiences regarding task scheduling, indoor navigation, and usability should be considered when developing the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prolonged stays in hospital acute geriatric care units: identification and analysis of causes.

    PubMed

    Parent, Vivien; Ludwig-Béal, Stéphanie; Sordet-Guépet, Hélène; Popitéan, Laura; Camus, Agnès; Da Silva, Sofia; Lubrano, Anne; Laissus, Frederick; Vaillard, Laurence; Manckoundia, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    In France, the population of very old frail patients, who require appropriate high-quality care, is increasing. Given the current economic climate, the mean duration of hospitalization (MDH) needs to be optimized. This prospective study analyzed the causes of prolonged hospitalization in an acute geriatric care unit. Over 6 months, all patients admitted to the target acute geriatric care unit were included and distributed into two groups according to a threshold stay of 14 days: long MDH group (LMDHG) and short MDH group (SMDHG). These two groups were compared. 757 patients were included. The LMDHG comprised 442 with a mean age of 86.7 years, of whom 67.65% were women and the SMDHG comprised 315 with a mean age of 86.6 years, of whom 63.2% were women. The two groups were statistically similar for age, sex, living conditions at home (alone or not, help), medical history and number of drugs. Patients in the LMDHG were more dependent (p=0.005), and were more likely to be hospitalized for social reasons (p=0.024) and to have come from their homes (p=0.011) than those in the SMDHG. The reasons for the prolonged stay, more frequent in the LMDHG than the SMDHG (p<0.05), were principally: waiting for imaging examinations, medical complications, and waiting for discharge solutions, assistance from social workers and/or specialist consultations. In order to reduce the MDH in acute geriatric care unit, it is necessary to consider the particularities of the patients who are admitted, their medico-socio-psychological management, access to technical facilities/consultations and post-discharge accommodation.

  14. Effect of prosthetic ankle units on the gait of persons with bilateral trans-femoral amputations.

    PubMed

    McNealy, Lexyne L; Gard, Steven A

    2008-03-01

    In able-bodied individuals, the ankle joint functions to provide shock absorption, aid in foot clearance during the swing phase, and provides a rocker mechanism during stance phase to facilitate forward progression of the body. Prosthetic ankles currently used by persons with lower limb amputations provide considerably less function than their anatomical counterparts. However, increased ankle motion in the sagittal plane may improve the gait of persons with lower limb amputations while providing a more versatile prosthesis. The primary aim of this study was to examine and quantify temporal-spatial, kinematic, and kinetic changes in the gait of four male subjects with bilateral trans-femoral amputations who walked with and without prosthetic ankle units. Two prosthesis configurations were examined: (i) Baseline with only two Seattle LightFoot2 prosthetic feet, and (ii) with the addition of Endolite Multiflex Ankle units. Data from the gait analyses were compared between prosthetic configurations and with a control group of able-bodied subjects. The amputee subjects' freely-selected walking speeds, 0.74 +/- 0.19 m/s for the Baseline condition and 0.81 +/- 0.15 m/s with the ankle units, were much less than that of the control subjects (1.35 +/- 0.10 m/s). The amputee subjects demonstrated no difference in walking speed, step length, cadence, or ankle, knee, and hip joint moments and powers between the two prosthesis configurations. Sagittal plane ankle range of motion, however, increased by 3-8 degrees with the addition of the prosthetic ankle units. Compared to the control group, following initial contact the amputee subjects passively increased the rate of energy storage or dissipation at the prosthetic ankle joint, actively increased the power generation at the hip, and increased the extension moment at the hip while wearing the prosthetic ankle configuration. The amputee subjects increased the power generation at their hips, possibly as compensation for the

  15. Better outcomes for hospitalized patients with TIA when in stroke units: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Kim, Joosup; Lannin, Natasha A; Levi, Christopher R; Dewey, Helen M; Hill, Kelvin; Faux, Steven; Andrew, Nadine E; Kilkenny, Monique F; Grimley, Rohan; Thrift, Amanda G; Grabsch, Brenda; Middleton, Sandy; Anderson, Craig S; Donnan, Geoffrey A

    2016-05-31

    To investigate differences in management and outcomes for patients admitted to the hospital with TIA according to care on a stroke unit (SU) or alternate ward setting up to 180 days post event. TIA admissions from 40 hospitals participating in the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry during 2010-2013 were assessed. Propensity score matching was used to assess outcomes by treatment group including Cox proportional hazards regression to compare survival differences and other appropriate multivariable regression models for outcomes including health-related quality of life and readmissions. Among 3,007 patients with TIA (mean age 73 years, 54% male), 1,110 pairs could be matched. Compared to management elsewhere in hospitals, management in an SU was associated with improved cumulative survival at 180 days post event (hazard ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.94; p = 0.029), despite not being statistically significant at 90 days (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.33-1.31; p = 0.237). Overall, there were no differences for being discharged on antihypertensive medication or with a care plan, and the 90- to 180-day self-reported outcomes between these groups were similar. In subgroup analyses of 461 matched pairs treated in hospitals in one Australian state (Queensland), patients treated in an SU were more often prescribed aspirin within 48 hours (73% vs 62%, p < 0.001) and discharged on antithrombotic medications (84% vs 71%, p < 0.001) than those not treated in an SU. Hospitalized patients with TIA managed in SUs had better survival at 180 days than those treated in alternate wards, potentially through better management, but further research is needed. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Trends in Prevalence of Diabetes Among Delivery Hospitalizations, United States, 1993–2009

    PubMed Central

    Bardenheier, Barbara; Elixhauser, Anne; Geiss, Linda S.; Gregg, Edward

    2015-01-01

    To describe recent trends in prevalence of pre-existing diabetes mellitus (PDM) (i.e., type 1 or type 2 diabetes) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among delivery hospitalizations in the United States. Data on delivery hospitalizations from 1993 through 2009 were obtained from the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Diagnosis-Related Group codes were used to identify deliveries and diagnosis codes on presence of diabetes. Rates of hospitalizations with diabetes were calculated per 100 deliveries by type of diabetes, hospital geographic region, patient’s age, degree of urbanicity of patient’s residence, categorized median household income for patient’s ZIP Code, expected primary payer, and type of delivery. From 1993 to 2009, age-standardized prevalence of diabetes per 100 deliveries increased from 0.62 to 0.90 for PDM (trend p < 0.001) and from 3.09 to 5.57 for GDM (trend p < 0.001). In 2009, correlates of PDM at delivery included older age [40–44 vs. 15–24: odds ratio 6.45 (95 % CI 5.27–7.88)], Medicaid/Medicare versus private payment sources [1.77 (95 % CI 1.59–1.98)], patient’s ZIP Code with a median household income in bottom quartile versus other quartiles [1.54 (95 % CI 1.41, 1.69)], and C-section versus vaginal delivery [3.36 (95 % CI 3.10–3.64)]. Correlates of GDM at delivery were similar. Among U.S. delivery hospitalizations, the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. In 2009, the prevalence of diabetes was higher among women in older age groups, living in ZIP codes with lower household incomes, or with public insurance. PMID:24996952

  17. Hospital charges and length of stay associated with septicemia among children hospitalized for leukemia treatment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Rampa, Sankeerth; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2012-08-01

    This study examines hospital charges and length of stay (LOS) associated with septicemia during hospitalization for leukemia treatment among children aged ≤18 years. Nationwide Inpatient Sample (year 2008) was used. All hospitalizations (regardless of their discharge status following hospitalization) among children aged ≤18 years with a primary diagnosis of leukemia were selected. Leukemia was identified using ICD-9-CM codes in the primary diagnosis field. The presence of septicemia during hospitalization was identified using ICD-9-CM codes in the secondary diagnosis field. Multivariable linear regression analyses were made to examine the effect of septicemia on hospitalization charges and LOS. Totally 6220 hospitalizations were attributed to leukemia treatment. Among these, 787 had septicemia. The mean hospitalization charge for those with septicemia was $279,137 and for those without septicemia was $113,530. The average LOS for those with septicemia was 33.18 days while the LOS for those without septicemia was 13.79 days. Septicemia was associated with increased hospitalization charges and a prolonged duration of stay in hospital after adjustments for confounders (P<0.0001). Septicemia is associated with adverse outcomes among children hospitalized for leukemia treatment.

  18. Estimating the unit costs of public hospitals and primary healthcare centers.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa Z; Jaber, Samer; Mawson, Anthony R; Hartmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many factors have affected the rise of health expenditures, such as high-cost medical technologies, changes in disease patterns and increasing demand for health services. All countries allocate a significant portion of resources to the health sector. In 2008, the gross domestic product of Palestine was estimated to be at $6.108bn (current price) or about $1697 per capita. Health expenditures are estimated at 15.6% of the gross domestic product, almost as much as those of Germany, Japan and other developed countries. The numbers of hospitals, hospital beds and primary healthcare centers in the country have all increased. The Ministry of Health (MOH) currently operates 27 of 76 hospitals, with a total of 3074 beds, which represent 61% of total beds of all hospitals in the Palestinian Authorities area. Also, the MOH is operating 453 of 706 Primary Health Care facilities. By 2007, about 40 000 people were employed in different sectors of the health system, with 33% employed by the MOH. This purpose of this study was to develop a financing strategy to help cover some or all of the costs involved in operating such institutions and to estimate the unit cost of primary and secondary programs and departments. A retrospective study was carried out on data from government hospitals and primary healthcare centers to identify and analyze the costs and output (patient-related services) and to estimate the unit cost of health services provided by hospitals and PHCs during the year 2008. All operating costs are assigned and allocated to the departments at MOH hospitals and primary health care centers (PPHCs) and are identified as overhead departments, intermediate-service and final-service departments. Intermediate-service departments provide procedures and services to patients in the final-service departments. The costs of the overhead departments are distributed to the intermediate-service and final-service departments through a step-down method, according to allocation

  19. Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Suppression Among Foreign-Born HIV-Infected Persons Receiving Medical Care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Tanya R.; Lin, Xia; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Immigrants to the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared with native-born persons. Navigating access to healthcare in the United States can be challenging for foreign-born persons, and HIV treatment outcomes may be suboptimal for these persons. We compared characteristics of and assessed disparities in clinical outcomes of foreign-born persons in care for HIV in the United States. The Medical Monitoring Project is a complex sample, cross-sectional survey designed to be nationally representative of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. Using data from 2009, 2010, and 2011, we conducted descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression to assess associations between foreign-born status and antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription, and between foreign-born status and viral suppression. In all, 13.4% of HIV-infected persons were self-identified as foreign-born; the most common regions of birth were Central America and Mexico (45.4%) and the Caribbean (16.0%). Nearly 90% of foreign-born persons were diagnosed with HIV after entry into the United States. Compared with US-born persons, foreign-born persons were more likely to be younger, Hispanic, less educated, and uninsured. The prevalence of ART prescription (prevalence ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.98–1.02) was not significantly different between foreign-born and US-born persons. A higher percentage of foreign-born persons achieved viral suppression compared with US-born persons (prevalence ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.09). No major disparities in ART prescription and viral suppression were found between foreign-born and US-born HIV-infected persons receiving medical care, despite higher percentages being uninsured. PMID:26986128

  20. [Clinical audit on drug prescriptions for elderly patients hospitalized in a unit of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Humaraut, C; Caron, J; Bayonne, L; Moalic, Y

    2016-02-01

    The elderly are particularly vulnerable to the iatrogenic effects of drugs that are a major public health problem. In a geriatric care unit of a psychiatric hospital, the pharmacist, in close cooperation with the various health professionals, takes part in the optimization of drug therapy of these patients during cross-professional consultation meetings. From 2009 to 2011, an evaluation of professional practices was run through a targeted clinical audit on the theme of "prescription drugs at the age of 75 and over". The main objective of this study is to measure the differences between the practices and the guidelines for prescription drugs concerning the elderly, and then to analyze and amend these differences. The secondary objective is to gather data on the prescription drugs for the elderly in the particular context of a psychiatric unit. The evaluation was performed using two standards: the evaluation chart of prescriptions of the Professional College of French Geriatrics (CPGF) and the French National Authority for Health and the list of Laroche et al. In the first round, after analyzing the prescriptions of 105 patients, the gap between practice and accepted standards led to the definition of three areas of improvement on the associations of neuroleptics, on the use of anticholinergic drugs and on the prescription of benzodiazepines, the latter being subject of another communication. After reassessment, the prescriptions of 101 patients were thereafter analyzed in relation to the identified areas of improvement. Patient samples of both phases were statistically homogeneous. Between the two evaluations, the percentage of prescriptions with at least two neuroleptics remained stable, the decline was not significant (18.1% to 13.9%, P≥0.05). However, it was observed that the second suggested a "conditional" decline with dosages less than or equal to those recommended for the elderly dosages. The proportion of patients who did not take anticholinergic drugs