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Sample records for host cell kinomes

  1. Chemical interrogation of malarial host and parasite kinomes

    PubMed Central

    Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Magalhães, Andreia D.; Kato, Nobutaka; Sanschagrin, Paul C.; Wang, Jinhua; Zhou, Wenjun; Miduturu, Chandrasekhar V.; Mazitschek, Ralph; Sliz, Piotr; Mota, Maria M.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, an infectious disease caused by eukaryotic parasites from the genus Plasmodium, afflicts hundreds of millions of people every year. Both the parasite and its host utilize protein kinases to regulate essential cellular processes. Bioinformatic analyses of parasite genomes predict at least 65 protein kinases, but their biological functions and therapeutic potential are largely unknown. We profiled 1,358 small molecule kinase inhibitors to evaluate the role of both the human and malaria kinomes in Plasmodium infection of liver cells, the parasites’ obligatory but transient developmental stage that precedes the symptomatic blood stage. The screen identified several small molecules that inhibit parasite load in liver cells, some with nanomolar efficacy, and each compound was subsequently assessed for activity against blood stage malaria. Most of the screening hits inhibited both liver and blood stage malaria parasites, which have dissimilar gene expression profiles and infect different host cells. Evaluation of existing kinase activity profiling data for the library members suggests several kinases are essential to malaria parasites, including cyclin-dependent kinases, glycogen synthase kinases, and phosphoinositide-3-kinases. CDK inhibitors were found to bind to Plasmodium protein kinase 5, but it is likely that these compounds target multiple parasite kinases. The dual stage inhibition of the identified kinase inhibitors makes them useful chemical probes and promising starting points for antimalarial development. PMID:25111632

  2. Kinome-Wide RNAi Screen Implicates at Least 5 Host Hepatocyte Kinases in Plasmodium Sporozoite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hannus, Michael; Martin, Cécilie; Real, Eliana; Gonçalves, Lígia A.; Carret, Céline; Dorkin, Robert; Röhl, Ingo; Jahn-Hoffmann, Kerstin; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Sauerwein, Robert; Echeverri, Christophe J.; Mota, Maria M.

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites, the causative agent of malaria, are injected into their vertebrate host through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito, homing to the liver where they invade hepatocytes to proliferate and develop into merozoites that, upon reaching the bloodstream, give rise to the clinical phase of infection. To investigate how host cell signal transduction pathways affect hepatocyte infection, we used RNAi to systematically test the entire kinome and associated genes in human Huh7 hepatoma cells for their potential roles during infection by P. berghei sporozoites. The three-phase screen covered 727 genes, which were tested with a total of 2,307 individual siRNAs using an automated microscopy assay to quantify infection rates and qRT-PCR to assess silencing levels. Five protein kinases thereby emerged as top hits, all of which caused significant reductions in infection when silenced by RNAi. Follow-up validation experiments on one of these hits, PKCς (PKCzeta), confirmed the physiological relevance of our findings by reproducing the inhibitory effect on P. berghei infection in adult mice treated systemically with liposome-formulated PKCς-targeting siRNAs. Additional cell-based analyses using a pseudo-substrate inhibitor of PKCς added further RNAi-independent support, indicating a role for host PKCς on the invasion of hepatocytes by sporozoites. This study represents the first comprehensive, functional genomics-driven identification of novel host factors involved in Plasmodium sporozoite infection. PMID:18989463

  3. Characterization of the Host Response to Pichinde Virus Infection in the Syrian Golden Hamster by Species-Specific Kinome Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Falcinelli, Shane; Gowen, Brian B.; Trost, Brett; Napper, Scott; Kusalik, Anthony; Johnson, Reed F.; Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kindrachuk, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The Syrian golden hamster has been increasingly used to study viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) pathogenesis and countermeasure efficacy. As VHFs are a global health concern, well-characterized animal models are essential for both the development of therapeutics and vaccines as well as for increasing our understanding of the molecular events that underlie viral pathogenesis. However, the paucity of reagents or platforms that are available for studying hamsters at a molecular level limits the ability to extract biological information from this important animal model. As such, there is a need to develop platforms/technologies for characterizing host responses of hamsters at a molecular level. To this end, we developed hamster-specific kinome peptide arrays to characterize the molecular host response of the Syrian golden hamster. After validating the functionality of the arrays using immune agonists of defined signaling mechanisms (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α), we characterized the host response in a hamster model of VHF based on Pichinde virus (PICV1) infection by performing temporal kinome analysis of lung tissue. Our analysis revealed key roles for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL) responses, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in the response to PICV infection. These findings were validated through phosphorylation-specific Western blot analysis. Overall, we have demonstrated that hamster-specific kinome arrays are a robust tool for characterizing the species-specific molecular host response in a VHF model. Further, our results provide key insights into the hamster host response to PICV infection and will inform future studies with high-consequence VHF pathogens. PMID:25573744

  4. Characterization of the host response to pichinde virus infection in the Syrian golden hamster by species-specific kinome analysis.

    PubMed

    Falcinelli, Shane; Gowen, Brian B; Trost, Brett; Napper, Scott; Kusalik, Anthony; Johnson, Reed F; Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Jahrling, Peter B; Kindrachuk, Jason

    2015-03-01

    The Syrian golden hamster has been increasingly used to study viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) pathogenesis and countermeasure efficacy. As VHFs are a global health concern, well-characterized animal models are essential for both the development of therapeutics and vaccines as well as for increasing our understanding of the molecular events that underlie viral pathogenesis. However, the paucity of reagents or platforms that are available for studying hamsters at a molecular level limits the ability to extract biological information from this important animal model. As such, there is a need to develop platforms/technologies for characterizing host responses of hamsters at a molecular level. To this end, we developed hamster-specific kinome peptide arrays to characterize the molecular host response of the Syrian golden hamster. After validating the functionality of the arrays using immune agonists of defined signaling mechanisms (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α), we characterized the host response in a hamster model of VHF based on Pichinde virus (PICV(1)) infection by performing temporal kinome analysis of lung tissue. Our analysis revealed key roles for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL) responses, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in the response to PICV infection. These findings were validated through phosphorylation-specific Western blot analysis. Overall, we have demonstrated that hamster-specific kinome arrays are a robust tool for characterizing the species-specific molecular host response in a VHF model. Further, our results provide key insights into the hamster host response to PICV infection and will inform future studies with high-consequence VHF pathogens.

  5. Whipworm kinomes reflect a unique biology and adaptation to the host animal.

    PubMed

    Stroehlein, Andreas J; Young, Neil D; Korhonen, Pasi K; Chang, Bill C H; Nejsum, Peter; Pozio, Edoardo; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B

    2017-06-10

    Roundworms belong to a diverse phylum (Nematoda) which is comprised of many parasitic species including whipworms (genus Trichuris). These worms have adapted to a biological niche within the host and exhibit unique morphological characteristics compared with other nematodes. Although these adaptations are known, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The availability of genomes and transcriptomes of some whipworms now enables detailed studies of their molecular biology. Here, we defined and curated the full complement of an important class of enzymes, the protein kinases (kinomes) of two species of Trichuris, using an advanced and integrated bioinformatic pipeline. We investigated the transcription of Trichuris suis kinase genes across developmental stages, sexes and tissues, and reveal that selectively transcribed genes can be linked to central roles in developmental and reproductive processes. We also classified and functionally annotated the curated kinomes by integrating evidence from structural modelling and pathway analyses, and compared them with other curated kinomes of phylogenetically diverse nematode species. Our findings suggest unique adaptations in signalling processes governing worm morphology and biology, and provide an important resource that should facilitate experimental investigations of kinases and the biology of signalling pathways in nematodes. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Targeted Quantitative Proteomics Strategy for Global Kinome Profiling of Cancer Cells and Tissues*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-01-01

    Kinases are among the most intensively pursued enzyme superfamilies as targets for anti-cancer drugs. Large data sets on inhibitor potency and selectivity for more than 400 human kinases became available recently, offering the opportunity to design rationally novel kinase-based anti-cancer therapies. However, the expression levels and activities of kinases are highly heterogeneous among different types of cancer and even among different stages of the same cancer. The lack of effective strategy for profiling the global kinome hampers the development of kinase-targeted cancer chemotherapy. Here, we introduced a novel global kinome profiling method, based on our recently developed isotope-coded ATP-affinity probe and a targeted proteomic method using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM), for assessing simultaneously the expression of more than 300 kinases in human cells and tissues. This MRM-based assay displayed much better sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy than the discovery-based shotgun proteomic method. Approximately 250 kinases could be routinely detected in the lysate of a single cell line. Additionally, the incorporation of iRT into MRM kinome library rendered our MRM kinome assay easily transferrable across different instrument platforms and laboratories. We further employed this approach for profiling kinase expression in two melanoma cell lines, which revealed substantial kinome reprogramming during cancer progression and demonstrated an excellent correlation between the anti-proliferative effects of kinase inhibitors and the expression levels of their target kinases. Therefore, this facile and accurate kinome profiling assay, together with the kinome-inhibitor interaction map, could provide invaluable knowledge to predict the effectiveness of kinase inhibitor drugs and offer the opportunity for individualized cancer chemotherapy. PMID:24520089

  7. A targeted quantitative proteomics strategy for global kinome profiling of cancer cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-04-01

    Kinases are among the most intensively pursued enzyme superfamilies as targets for anti-cancer drugs. Large data sets on inhibitor potency and selectivity for more than 400 human kinases became available recently, offering the opportunity to design rationally novel kinase-based anti-cancer therapies. However, the expression levels and activities of kinases are highly heterogeneous among different types of cancer and even among different stages of the same cancer. The lack of effective strategy for profiling the global kinome hampers the development of kinase-targeted cancer chemotherapy. Here, we introduced a novel global kinome profiling method, based on our recently developed isotope-coded ATP-affinity probe and a targeted proteomic method using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM), for assessing simultaneously the expression of more than 300 kinases in human cells and tissues. This MRM-based assay displayed much better sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy than the discovery-based shotgun proteomic method. Approximately 250 kinases could be routinely detected in the lysate of a single cell line. Additionally, the incorporation of iRT into MRM kinome library rendered our MRM kinome assay easily transferrable across different instrument platforms and laboratories. We further employed this approach for profiling kinase expression in two melanoma cell lines, which revealed substantial kinome reprogramming during cancer progression and demonstrated an excellent correlation between the anti-proliferative effects of kinase inhibitors and the expression levels of their target kinases. Therefore, this facile and accurate kinome profiling assay, together with the kinome-inhibitor interaction map, could provide invaluable knowledge to predict the effectiveness of kinase inhibitor drugs and offer the opportunity for individualized cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Kinome Profiling of Regulatory T Cells: A Closer Look into a Complex Intracellular Network

    PubMed Central

    Tuettenberg, Andrea; Hahn, Susanne A.; Mazur, Johanna; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Scholma, Jetse; Marg, Iris; Ulges, Alexander; Satoh, Kazuki; Bopp, Tobias; Joore, Jos; Jonuleit, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are essential for T cell homeostasis and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. They prevent activation of auto-reactive T effector cells (Teff) in the context of autoimmunity and allergy. Otherwise, Treg also inhibit effective immune responses against tumors. Besides a number of Treg-associated molecules such as Foxp3, CTLA-4 or GARP, known to play critical roles in Treg differentiation, activation and function, the involvement of additional regulatory elements is suggested. Herein, kinase activities seem to play an important role in Treg fine tuning. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the complex intracellular signaling pathways controlling phenotype and function of Treg is still limited and based on single kinase cascades so far. To gain a more comprehensive insight into the pathways determining Treg function we performed kinome profiling using a phosphorylation-based kinome array in human Treg at different activation stages compared to Teff. Here we have determined intriguing quantitative differences in both populations. Resting and activated Treg showed an altered pattern of CD28-dependent kinases as well as of those involved in cell cycle progression. Additionally, significant up-regulation of distinct kinases such as EGFR or CK2 in activated Treg but not in Teff not only resemble data we obtained in previous studies in the murine system but also suggest that those specific molecular activation patterns can be used for definition of the activation and functional state of human Treg. Taken together, detailed investigation of kinome profiles opens the possibility to identify novel molecular mechanisms for a better understanding of Treg biology but also for development of effective immunotherapies against unwanted T cell responses in allergy, autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:26881744

  9. Profiling Global Kinome Signatures of the Radioresistant MCF-7/C6 Breast Cancer Cells Using MRM-based Targeted Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is widely used in cancer therapy; however, cancer cells often develop radioresistance, which compromises the efficacy of cancer radiation therapy. Quantitative assessment of the alteration of the entire kinome in radioresistant cancer cells relative to their radiosensitive counterparts may provide important knowledge to define the mechanism(s) underlying tumor adaptive radioresistance and uncover novel target(s) for effective prevention and treatment of tumor radioresistance. By employing a scheduled multiple-reaction monitoring analysis in conjunction with isotope-coded ATP affinity probes, we assessed the global kinome of radioresistant MCF-7/C6 cells and their parental MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We rigorously quantified 120 kinases, of which 1/3 exhibited significant differences in expression levels or ATP binding affinities. Several kinases involved in cell cycle progression and DNA damage response were found to be overexpressed or hyperactivated, including checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2 (CDK1 and CDK2), and the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase. The elevated expression of CHK1, CDK1, and CDK2 in MCF-7/C6 cells was further validated by Western blot analysis. Thus, the altered kinome profile of radioresistant MCF-7/C6 cells suggests the involvement of kinases on cell cycle progression and DNA repair in tumor adaptive radioresistance. The unique kinome profiling results also afforded potential effective targets for resensitizing radioresistant cancer cells and counteracting deleterious effects of ionizing radiation exposure. PMID:25341124

  10. Chicken-Specific Kinome Array Reveals that Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Modulates Host Immune Signaling Pathways in the Cecum to Establish a Persistence Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Michael H.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Byrd, James Allen; Selvaraj, Ramesh; Arsenault, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induces an early, short-lived pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are only beginning to be elucidated. We hypothesize that alteration of host signaling pathways mediate the induction of a tolerance response. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune peptide arrays and quantitative RT-PCR of infected cecal tissue, we have previously evaluated the development of disease tolerance in chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in a persistent infection model (4–14 days post infection). Here, we have further outlined the induction of an tolerance defense strategy in the cecum of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis beginning around four days post-primary infection. The response is characterized by alterations in the activation of T cell signaling mediated by the dephosphorylation of phospholipase c-γ1 (PLCG1) that inhibits NF-κB signaling and activates nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling and blockage of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production through the disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway (dephosphorylation of JAK2, JAK3, and STAT4). Further, we measured a significant down-regulation reduction in IFN-γ mRNA expression. These studies, combined with our previous findings, describe global phenotypic changes in the avian cecum of Salmonella Enteritidis-infected chickens that decreases the host responsiveness resulting in the establishment of persistent colonization. The identified tissue protein kinases also represent potential targets for future antimicrobial compounds for decreasing Salmonella loads in the intestines of food animals before going to market. PMID:27472318

  11. EZH2 modifies sunitinib resistance in renal cell carcinoma by kinome reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Adelaiye-Ogala, Remi; Budka, Justin; Damayanti, Nur P; Arrington, Justine; Ferris, Mary W; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chintala, Sreenivasulu; Orillion, Ashley R; Miles, Kiersten Marie; Shen, Li; Elbanna, May; Ciamporcero, Eric; Arisa, Sreevani; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Draetta, Giulio F; Seshadri, Mukund; Hancock, Bradley A; Radovich, Milan; Kota, Janaiah; Buck, Michael; Keilhack, Heike; McCarthy, Brian P; Persohn, Scott A; Territo, Paul R; Zang, Yong; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Tao, Andy W; Hollenhorst, Peter; Pili, Roberto

    2017-10-04

    Acquired and intrinsic resistance to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKi) represent a major hurdle in improving the management of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Recent reports suggest that drug resistance is driven by tumor adaptation via epigenetic mechanisms that activate alternative survival pathways. The histone methyl transferase EZH2 is frequently altered in many cancers including ccRCC. To evaluate its role in ccRCC resistance to RTKi, we established and characterized a spontaneously metastatic, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model that is intrinsically resistant to the RTKI sunitinib but not to the VEGF therapeutic antibody bevacizumab. Sunitinib maintained its anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activity but lost its direct anti-tumor effects due to kinome reprogramming, which resulted in suppression of pro-apoptotic and cell cycle regulatory target genes. Modulating EZH2 expression or activity suppressed phosphorylation of certain RTK, restoring the anti-tumor effects of sunitnib in models of acquired or intrinsically resistant ccRCC. Overall, our results highlight EZH2 as a rational target for therapeutic intervention in sunitinib-resistant ccRCC as well as a predictive marker for RTKi response in this disease. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Time-Resolved Human Kinome RNAi Screen Identifies a Network Regulating Mitotic-Events as Early Regulators of Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Stephanie; Bender, Christian; Keklikoglou, Ioanna; Schmidt, Christian; Irsigler, Anja; Ernst, Ute; Sahin, Özgür; Wiemann, Stefan; Tschulena, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of biological processes is frequently performed with the help of phenotypic assays where data is mostly acquired in single end-point analysis. Alternative phenotypic profiling techniques are desired where time-series information is essential to the biological question, for instance to differentiate early and late regulators of cell proliferation in loss-of-function studies. So far there is no study addressing this question despite of high unmet interests, mostly due to the limitation of conventional end-point assaying technologies. We present the first human kinome screen with a real-time cell analysis system (RTCA) to capture dynamic RNAi phenotypes, employing time-resolved monitoring of cell proliferation via electrical impedance. RTCA allowed us to investigate the dynamics of phenotypes of cell proliferation instead of using conventional end-point analysis. By introducing data transformation with first-order derivative, i.e. the cell-index growth rate, we demonstrate this system suitable for high-throughput screenings (HTS). The screen validated previously identified inhibitor genes and, additionally, identified activators of cell proliferation. With the information of time kinetics available, we could establish a network of mitotic-event related genes to be among the first displaying inhibiting effects after RNAi knockdown. The time-resolved screen captured kinetics of cell proliferation caused by RNAi targeting human kinome, serving as a resource for researchers. Our work establishes RTCA technology as a novel robust tool with biological and pharmacological relevance amenable for high-throughput screening. PMID:21765947

  13. Application of Adenosine Triphosphate Affinity Probe and Scheduled Multiple-Reaction Monitoring Analysis for Profiling Global Kinome in Human Cells in Response to Arsenite Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of cellular components catalyzed by kinases plays important roles in cell signaling and proliferation. Quantitative assessment of perturbation in global kinome may provide crucial knowledge for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of environmental toxicants. Here, we utilized an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) affinity probe coupled with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to assess quantitatively the arsenite-induced alteration of global kinome in human cells. We constructed a SILAC-compatible kinome library for scheduled multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis and adopted on-the-fly recalibration of retention time shift, which provided better throughput of the analytical method and enabled the simultaneous quantification of the expression of ∼300 kinases in two LC-MRM runs. With this improved analytical method, we conducted an in-depth quantitative analysis of the perturbation of kinome of GM00637 human skin fibroblast cells induced by arsenite exposure. Several kinases involved in cell cycle progression, including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1 and CDK4) and Aurora kinases A, B, and C, were found to be hyperactivated, and the altered expression of CDK1 was further validated by Western analysis. In addition, treatment with a CDK inhibitor, flavopiridol, partially restored the arsenite-induced growth inhibition of human skin fibroblast cells. Thus, sodium arsenite may confer its cytotoxic effect partly through the aberrant activation of CDKs and the resultant perturbation of cell cycle progression. Together, we developed a high-throughput, SILAC-compatible, and MRM-based kinome profiling method and demonstrated that the method is powerful in deciphering the molecular modes of action of a widespread environmental toxicant. The method should be generally applicable for uncovering the cellular pathways triggered by other extracellular stimuli. PMID:25301106

  14. Divergent Immune Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Correlate with Kinome Responses at the Site of Intestinal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Määttänen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID

  15. Regulators of Trypanosoma brucei Cell Cycle Progression and Differentiation Identified Using a Kinome-Wide RNAi Screen

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nathaniel G.; Thomas, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Elaine; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Hammarton, Tansy C.; Mottram, Jeremy C.

    2014-01-01

    The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, maintains an integral link between cell cycle regulation and differentiation during its intricate life cycle. Whilst extensive changes in phosphorylation have been documented between the mammalian bloodstream form and the insect procyclic form, relatively little is known about the parasite's protein kinases (PKs) involved in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. To address this, a T. brucei kinome-wide RNAi cell line library was generated, allowing independent inducible knockdown of each of the parasite's 190 predicted protein kinases. Screening of this library using a cell viability assay identified ≥42 PKs that are required for normal bloodstream form proliferation in culture. A secondary screen identified 24 PKs whose RNAi-mediated depletion resulted in a variety of cell cycle defects including in G1/S, kinetoplast replication/segregation, mitosis and cytokinesis, 15 of which are novel cell cycle regulators. A further screen identified for the first time two PKs, named repressor of differentiation kinase (RDK1 and RDK2), depletion of which promoted bloodstream to procyclic form differentiation. RDK1 is a membrane-associated STE11-like PK, whilst RDK2 is a NEK PK that is essential for parasite proliferation. RDK1 acts in conjunction with the PTP1/PIP39 phosphatase cascade to block uncontrolled bloodstream to procyclic form differentiation, whilst RDK2 is a PK whose depletion efficiently induces differentiation in the absence of known triggers. Thus, the RNAi kinome library provides a valuable asset for functional analysis of cell signalling pathways in African trypanosomes as well as drug target identification and validation. PMID:24453978

  16. Clinical and kinomic analysis identifies peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a potential pharmacodynamic biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Schoemann, Audrey; Rangarajan, Savithri; Naji, Faris; Puszkiel, Alicja; Huillard, Olivier; Saidu, Nathaniel; Golmard, Lisa; Alexandre, Jerome; Goldwasser, Francois; Blanchet, Benoit; Vidal, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sunitinib is a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor that has immune-modulating properties. In this context, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), mainly constituted by lymphocytes, could be a perfect surrogate tissue for identifying and assaying pharmacodynamic biomarkers of sunitinib. In this study, we investigated the changes in lymphocytes count as pharmacodynamic biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients under sunitinib therapy. Thereafter, we studied the ex vivo effect of sunitinib and SU12262 (active metabolite) on PBMC from naïve mRCC patients using a high throughput kinomic profiling method. Methods The prognostic value of total lymphocytes count between Day 0 and Day 21 (expressed as a ratio D21/D0) was retrospectively investigated in 88 mRCC patients under sunitinib therapy. PTK PamChip® microarrays were used to explore prospectively the ex vivo effect of sunitinib and SU12662 on PTK activity in PBMC from 21 naïve mRCC patients. Results In this retrospective study, D21/D0 lymphocytes ratio (Hazard Ratio, 1.83; CI95%, 1.24-2.71; p=0.0023) was independently associated with PFS. Interestingly, kinomic analysis showed that D21/D0 lymphocytes ratio and Heng prognostic model was statistically associated with the ex vivo sunitinib and SU12662 effect in PBMC. Conclusion The present study highlights that D21/D0 total lymphocytes ratio could be a promising pharmacodynamic biomarker in mRCC patients treated with sunitinib. Additionally, it paves the way to investigate the kinomic profile in PBMC as a prognostic factor in a larger cohort of mRCC patients under sunitinib therapy. PMID:27589830

  17. Clinical and kinomic analysis identifies peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a potential pharmacodynamic biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with sunitinib.

    PubMed

    Noé, Gaёlle; Bellesoeur, Audrey; Thomas-Schoemann, Audrey; Rangarajan, Savithri; Naji, Faris; Puszkiel, Alicja; Huillard, Olivier; Saidu, Nathaniel; Golmard, Lisa; Alexandre, Jerome; Goldwasser, Francois; Blanchet, Benoit; Vidal, Michel

    2016-10-11

    Sunitinib is a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor that has immune-modulating properties. In this context, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), mainly constituted by lymphocytes, could be a perfect surrogate tissue for identifying and assaying pharmacodynamic biomarkers of sunitinib. In this study, we investigated the changes in lymphocytes count as pharmacodynamic biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients under sunitinib therapy. Thereafter, we studied the ex vivo effect of sunitinib and SU12262 (active metabolite) on PBMC from naïve mRCC patients using a high throughput kinomic profiling method. The prognostic value of total lymphocytes count between Day 0 and Day 21 (expressed as a ratio D21/D0) was retrospectively investigated in 88 mRCC patients under sunitinib therapy. PTK PamChip® microarrays were used to explore prospectivelythe ex vivo effect of sunitinib and SU12662 on PTK activity in PBMC from 21 naïve mRCC patients. In this retrospective study, D21/D0 lymphocytes ratio (Hazard Ratio, 1.83; CI95%, 1.24-2.71; p=0.0023) was independently associated with PFS. Interestingly, kinomic analysis showed that D21/D0 lymphocytes ratio and Heng prognostic model was statistically associated with the ex vivo sunitinib and SU12662 effect in PBMC. The present study highlights that D21/D0 total lymphocytes ratio could be a promising pharmacodynamic biomarker in mRCC patients treated with sunitinib. Additionally, it paves the way to investigate the kinomic profile in PBMC as a prognostic factor in a larger cohort of mRCC patients under sunitinib therapy.

  18. Identification of WEE1 as a potential molecular target in cancer cells by RNAi screening of the human tyrosine kinome

    PubMed Central

    Murrow, Lyndsay M.; Garimella, Sireesha V.; Jones, Tamara L.; Caplen, Natasha J.; Lipkowitz, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancers can be classified into those that express the estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, those with ERBB2 (HER-2/Neu) amplification, and those without expression of ER, PR, or amplification of ERBB2 (referred to as triple-negative or basal-like breast cancer). In order to identify potential molecular targets in breast cancer, we performed a synthetic siRNA-mediated RNAi screen of the human tyrosine kinome. A primary RNAi screen conducted in the triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 followed by secondary RNAi screens and further studies in this cell line and two additional triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer cell lines, BT20 and HCC1937, identified the G2/M checkpoint protein, WEE1, as a potential therapeutic target. Similar sensitivity to WEE1 inhibition was observed in cell lines from all subtypes of breast cancer. RNAi-mediated silencing or small compound inhibition of WEE1 in breast cancer cell lines resulted in an increase in γH2AX levels, arrest in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and a significant decrease in cell proliferation. WEE1-inhibited cells underwent apoptosis as demonstrated by positive Annexin V staining, increased sub-G1 DNA content, apoptotic morphology, caspase activation, and rescue by the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. In contrast, the non-transformed mammary epithelial cell line, MCF10A, did not exhibit any of these downstream effects following WEE1 silencing or inhibition. These results identify WEE1 as a potential molecular target in breast cancer. PMID:19821025

  19. Kinome Render: a stand-alone and web-accessible tool to annotate the human protein kinome tree.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Matthieu; Chénard, Thierry; Barker, Jonathan; Najmanovich, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Human protein kinases play fundamental roles mediating the majority of signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells as well as a multitude of other processes involved in metabolism, cell-cycle regulation, cellular shape, motility, differentiation and apoptosis. The human protein kinome contains 518 members. Most studies that focus on the human kinome require, at some point, the visualization of large amounts of data. The visualization of such data within the framework of a phylogenetic tree may help identify key relationships between different protein kinases in view of their evolutionary distance and the information used to annotate the kinome tree. For example, studies that focus on the promiscuity of kinase inhibitors can benefit from the annotations to depict binding affinities across kinase groups. Images involving the mapping of information into the kinome tree are common. However, producing such figures manually can be a long arduous process prone to errors. To circumvent this issue, we have developed a web-based tool called Kinome Render (KR) that produces customized annotations on the human kinome tree. KR allows the creation and automatic overlay of customizable text or shape-based annotations of different sizes and colors on the human kinome tree. The web interface can be accessed at: http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca/kinomerender. A stand-alone version is also available and can be run locally.

  20. A Kinome-Wide Small Interfering RNA Screen Identifies Proviral and Antiviral Host Factors in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication, Including Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Protein Kinase and Early Secretory Pathway Proteins

    PubMed Central

    de Wilde, Adriaan H.; Wannee, Kazimier F.; Scholte, Florine E. M.; Goeman, Jelle J.; ten Dijke, Peter; Snijder, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To identify host factors relevant for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication, we performed a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library screen targeting the human kinome. Protein kinases are key regulators of many cellular functions, and the systematic knockdown of their expression should provide a broad perspective on factors and pathways promoting or antagonizing coronavirus replication. In addition to 40 proteins that promote SARS-CoV replication, our study identified 90 factors exhibiting an antiviral effect. Pathway analysis grouped subsets of these factors in specific cellular processes, including the innate immune response and the metabolism of complex lipids, which appear to play a role in SARS-CoV infection. Several factors were selected for in-depth validation in follow-up experiments. In cells depleted for the β2 subunit of the coatomer protein complex (COPB2), the strongest proviral hit, we observed reduced SARS-CoV protein expression and a >2-log reduction in virus yield. Knockdown of the COPB2-related proteins COPB1 and Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1) also suggested that COPI-coated vesicles and/or the early secretory pathway are important for SARS-CoV replication. Depletion of the antiviral double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) enhanced virus replication in the primary screen, and validation experiments confirmed increased SARS-CoV protein expression and virus production upon PKR depletion. In addition, cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) was identified as a novel antiviral host factor in SARS-CoV replication. The inventory of pro- and antiviral host factors and pathways described here substantiates and expands our understanding of SARS-CoV replication and may contribute to the identification of novel targets for antiviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Replication of all viruses, including SARS-CoV, depends on and is influenced by cellular pathways. Although

  1. The Cryptosporidium parvum Kinome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hundreds of millions of people are infected with cryptosporidiosis annually, with immunocompromised individuals suffering debilitating symptoms and children in socioeconomically challenged regions at risk of repeated infections. There is currently no effective drug available. In order to facilitate the pursuit of anti-cryptosporidiosis targets and compounds, our study spans the classification of the Cryptosporidium parvum kinome and the structural and biochemical characterization of representatives from the CDPK family and a MAP kinase. Results The C. parvum kinome comprises over 70 members, some of which may be promising drug targets. These C. parvum protein kinases include members in the AGC, Atypical, CaMK, CK1, CMGC, and TKL groups; however, almost 35% could only be classified as OPK (other protein kinases). In addition, about 25% of the kinases identified did not have any known orthologues outside of Cryptosporidium spp. Comparison of specific kinases with their Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii orthologues revealed some distinct characteristics within the C. parvum kinome, including potential targets and opportunities for drug design. Structural and biochemical analysis of 4 representatives of the CaMK group and a MAP kinase confirms features that may be exploited in inhibitor design. Indeed, screening CpCDPK1 against a library of kinase inhibitors yielded a set of the pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives (PP1-derivatives) with IC50 values of < 10 nM. The binding of a PP1-derivative is further described by an inhibitor-bound crystal structure of CpCDPK1. In addition, structural analysis of CpCDPK4 identified an unprecedented Zn-finger within the CDPK kinase domain that may have implications for its regulation. Conclusions Identification and comparison of the C. parvum protein kinases against other parasitic kinases shows how orthologue- and family-based research can be used to facilitate characterization of promising drug targets and the search

  2. Kinome sequencing reveals RET G691S polymorphism in human neuroendocrine lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Hong, Seung-Keun; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) lung tumors comprise 20–25% of all invasive lung malignancies. Currently, no effective treatments are available to cure these tumors, and it is necessary to identify a molecular alteration(s) that characterizes NE lung tumor cells. We aimed to identify a kinase mutation(s) associated with NE lung tumor by screening 517 kinase-encoding genes in human lung cancer cell lines. Our next-generation sequencing analysis of six NE lung tumor cell lines (four small cell lung cancer lines and two non-small cell lung cancer lines) and three non-NE lung tumor lines revealed various kinase mutations, including a nonsynonymous mutation in the proto-oncogene RET (c.2071G>A; p.G691S). Further evaluation of the RET polymorphism in total 15 lung cancer cell lines by capillary sequencing suggested that the frequency of the minor allele (A-allele) in NE lung tumor lines was significantly higher than its frequency in a reference population (p = 0.0001). However, no significant difference between non-NE lung tumor lines and a reference group was detected (p = 1.0). Nevertheless, neither RET expression levels were correlated with the levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a key NE marker, nor vandetanib and cabozantinib, small molecule compounds that inhibit RET, affected NSE levels in lung cancer cells. Our data suggest a potential association of G691S RET polymorphism with NE lung tumor, proposing the necessity of more thorough evaluation of this possibility. The dataset of kinase mutation profiles in this report may help choosing cell line models for study of lung cancer. PMID:25530832

  3. Kinome-wide shRNA screen identifies the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL as a key regulator for mesenchymal glioblastoma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Phillips, Emma; Kim, Sung-Hak; Taylor, David; Hielscher, Thomas; Puccio, Laura; Hjelmeland, Anita B; Lichter, Peter; Nakano, Ichiro; Goidts, Violaine

    2015-05-12

    Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES) and proneural (PN). To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  4. Kinome and mRNA expression profiling of high-grade osteosarcoma cell lines implies Akt signaling as possible target for therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-grade osteosarcoma is a primary malignant bone tumor mostly occurring in adolescents and young adults, with a second peak at middle age. Overall survival is approximately 60%, and has not significantly increased since the introduction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the 1970s. The genomic profile of high-grade osteosarcoma is complex and heterogeneous. Integration of different types of genome-wide data may be advantageous in extracting relevant information from the large number of aberrations detected in this tumor. Methods We analyzed genome-wide gene expression data of osteosarcoma cell lines and integrated these data with a kinome screen. Data were analyzed in statistical language R, using LIMMA for detection of differential expression/phosphorylation. We subsequently used Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to determine deregulated pathways in both data types. Results Gene set enrichment indicated that pathways important in genomic stability are highly deregulated in these tumors, with many genes showing upregulation, which could be used as a prognostic marker, and with kinases phosphorylating peptides in these pathways. Akt and AMPK signaling were identified as active and inactive, respectively. As these pathways have an opposite role on mTORC1 signaling, we set out to inhibit Akt kinases with the allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206. This resulted in inhibition of proliferation of osteosarcoma cell lines U-2 OS and HOS, but not of 143B, which harbors a KRAS oncogenic transformation. Conclusions We identified both overexpression and hyperphosphorylation in pathways playing a role in genomic stability. Kinome profiling identified active Akt signaling, which could inhibit proliferation in 2/3 osteosarcoma cell lines. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling may be effective in osteosarcoma, but further studies are required to determine whether this pathway is active in a substantial subgroup of this heterogeneous tumor. PMID:24447333

  5. A Kinome RNAi Screen in Drosophila Identifies Novel Genes Interacting with Lgl, aPKC, and Crb Cell Polarity Genes in Epithelial Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Linda M.; Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Amaratunga, Kasun; Burke, Peter; Quinn, Leonie M.; Richardson, Helena E.

    2017-01-01

    In both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian systems, epithelial structure and underlying cell polarity are essential for proper tissue morphogenesis and organ growth. Cell polarity interfaces with multiple cellular processes that are regulated by the phosphorylation status of large protein networks. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarity with tissue growth, we screened a boutique collection of RNAi stocks targeting the kinome for their capacity to modify Drosophila “cell polarity” eye and wing phenotypes. Initially, we identified kinase or phosphatase genes whose depletion modified adult eye phenotypes associated with the manipulation of cell polarity complexes (via overexpression of Crb or aPKC). We next conducted a secondary screen to test whether these cell polarity modifiers altered tissue overgrowth associated with depletion of Lgl in the wing. These screens identified Hippo, Jun kinase (JNK), and Notch signaling pathways, previously linked to cell polarity regulation of tissue growth. Furthermore, novel pathways not previously connected to cell polarity regulation of tissue growth were identified, including Wingless (Wg/Wnt), Ras, and lipid/Phospho-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways. Additionally, we demonstrated that the “nutrient sensing” kinases Salt Inducible Kinase 2 and 3 (SIK2 and 3) are potent modifiers of cell polarity phenotypes and regulators of tissue growth. Overall, our screen has revealed novel cell polarity-interacting kinases and phosphatases that affect tissue growth, providing a platform for investigating molecular mechanisms coordinating cell polarity and tissue growth during development. PMID:28611255

  6. A Kinome RNAi Screen in Drosophila Identifies Novel Genes Interacting with Lgl, aPKC, and Crb Cell Polarity Genes in Epithelial Tissues.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Linda M; Grzeschik, Nicola A; Amaratunga, Kasun; Burke, Peter; Quinn, Leonie M; Richardson, Helena E

    2017-08-07

    In both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian systems, epithelial structure and underlying cell polarity are essential for proper tissue morphogenesis and organ growth. Cell polarity interfaces with multiple cellular processes that are regulated by the phosphorylation status of large protein networks. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarity with tissue growth, we screened a boutique collection of RNAi stocks targeting the kinome for their capacity to modify Drosophila "cell polarity" eye and wing phenotypes. Initially, we identified kinase or phosphatase genes whose depletion modified adult eye phenotypes associated with the manipulation of cell polarity complexes (via overexpression of Crb or aPKC). We next conducted a secondary screen to test whether these cell polarity modifiers altered tissue overgrowth associated with depletion of Lgl in the wing. These screens identified Hippo, Jun kinase (JNK), and Notch signaling pathways, previously linked to cell polarity regulation of tissue growth. Furthermore, novel pathways not previously connected to cell polarity regulation of tissue growth were identified, including Wingless (Wg/Wnt), Ras, and lipid/Phospho-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways. Additionally, we demonstrated that the "nutrient sensing" kinases Salt Inducible Kinase 2 and 3 (SIK2 and 3) are potent modifiers of cell polarity phenotypes and regulators of tissue growth. Overall, our screen has revealed novel cell polarity-interacting kinases and phosphatases that affect tissue growth, providing a platform for investigating molecular mechanisms coordinating cell polarity and tissue growth during development. Copyright © 2017 Parsons et al.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Phosphoinositide Kinome from Two Ciliates Reveals Novel Evolutionary Links for Phosphoinositide Kinases in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leondaritis, George; Siokos, John; Skaripa, Irini; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2013-01-01

    Background The complexity of phosphoinositide signaling in higher eukaryotes is partly due to expansion of specific families and types of phosphoinositide kinases (PIKs) that can generate all phosphoinositides via multiple routes. This is particularly evident in the PI3Ks and PIPKs, and it is considered an evolutionary trait associated with metazoan diversification. Yet, there are limited comprehensive studies on the PIK repertoire of free living unicellular organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a genome-wide analysis of putative PIK genes in two free living ciliated cells, Tetrahymena and Paramecium. The Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia genomes were probed with representative kinases from all families and types. Putative homologs were verified by EST, microarray and deep RNA sequencing database searches and further characterized for domain structure, catalytic efficiency, expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships. In total, we identified and characterized 22 genes in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome and 62 highly homologues genes in Paramecium tetraurelia suggesting a tight evolutionary conservation in the ciliate lineage. Comparison to the kinome of fungi reveals a significant expansion of PIK genes in ciliates. Conclusions/Significance Our study highlights four important aspects concerning ciliate and other unicellular PIKs. First, ciliate-specific expansion of PI4KIII-like genes. Second, presence of class I PI3Ks which, at least in Tetrahymena, are associated with a metazoan-type machinery for PIP3 signaling. Third, expansion of divergent PIPK enzymes such as the recently described type IV transmembrane PIPKs. Fourth, presence of possible type II PIPKs and presumably inactive PIKs (hence, pseudo-PIKs) not previously described. Taken together, our results provide a solid framework for future investigation of the roles of PIKs in ciliates and indicate that novel functions and novel regulatory pathways of

  8. Chicken-specific kinome array reveals that Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis modulates host immune signaling pathways in the cecum to establish a persistence infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early, short-lived, pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The und...

  9. Protein aggregation profile of the human kinome

    PubMed Central

    Graña-Montes, Ricardo; Sant'Anna de Oliveira, Ricardo; Ventura, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils is associated with the onset of an increasing number of human disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. The ability to form toxic amyloids appears to be a property of most polypeptides. Accordingly, it has been proposed that reducing aggregation and its effect in cell fitness is a driving force in the evolution of proteins sequences. This control of protein solubility should be especially important for regulatory hubs in biological networks, like protein kinases. These enzymes are implicated in practically all processes in normal and abnormal cell physiology, and phosphorylation is one of the most frequent protein modifications used to control protein activity. Here, we use the AGGRESCAN algorithm to study the aggregation propensity of kinase sequences. We compared them with the rest of globular proteins to decipher whether they display differential aggregation properties. In addition, we compared the human kinase complement with the kinomes of other organisms to see if we can identify any evolutionary trend in the aggregational properties of this protein superfamily. Our analysis indicates that kinase domains display significant aggregation propensity, a property that decreases with increasing organism complexity. PMID:23181023

  10. Host cells and cell banking.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Glyn N; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy based on the use of viral vectors is entirely dependent on the use of animal cell lines, mainly of mammalian origin, but also of insect origin. As for any biotechnology product for clinical use, viral -vectors have to be produced with cells derived from an extensively characterized cell bank to maintain the appropriate standard for assuring the lowest risk for the patients to be treated. Although many different cell types and lines have been used for the production of viral vectors, HEK293 cells or their derivatives have been extensively used for production of different vector types: adenovirus, oncorectrovirus, lentivirus, and AAV vectors, because of their easy handling and the possibility to grow them adherently in serum-containing medium as well as in suspension in serum-free culture medium. Despite this, these cells are not necessarily the best for the production of a given viral vector, and there are many other cell lines with significant advantages including superior growth and/or production characteristics, which have been tested and also used for the production of clinical vector batches. This chapter presents basic -considerations concerning the characterization of cell banks, in the first part, and, in the second part, practically all cell lines (at least when public information was available) established and developed for the production of the most important viral vectors (adenoviral, oncoretroviral, lentiviral, AAV, baculovirus).

  11. Profiling the kinome: current capabilities and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Knight, James D R; Pawson, Tony; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2013-04-09

    Protein kinases are the second largest human protein family, but in terms of research interest, both basic and applied, they are surely the most popular. Over the past decade, many techniques and approaches for studying the kinome have been described and the pace of development is ever increasing. Presently, a molecular biologist can approach the kinome from many different angles: what kinases are active during a specific cell state of interest or become activated in response to a specific stimulus? What are the effects of controlling the activation status of an individual kinase? What substrates are targeted by a particular kinase, either in general or under particular conditions? And what kinase is responsible for targeting a specific phosphorylation site of interest? These are some of the more commonly asked questions during any kinase-centric research project and different strategies have been devised for answering such queries. In this review, we outline the most promising of these approaches, particularly those with a capacity for high-throughput studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From protein structures to clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modified host cells with efflux pumps

    DOEpatents

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous expression of an efflux pump capable of transporting an organic molecule out of the host cell wherein the organic molecule at a sufficiently high concentration reduces the growth rate of or is lethal to the host cell.

  13. Host cell invasion by medically important fungi.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Donald C; Filler, Scott G

    2014-11-03

    To infect the host and cause disease, many medically important fungi invade normally nonphagocytic host cells, such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Host cell invasion is a two-step process consisting of adherence followed by invasion. There are two general mechanisms of host cell invasion, induced endocytosis and active penetration. Furthermore, fungi can traverse epithelial or endothelial cell barriers either by proteolytic degradation of intercellular tight junctions or via a Trojan horse mechanism in which they are transported by leukocytes. Although these mechanisms of host cell invasion have been best studied using Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, it is probable that other invasive fungi also use one or more of these mechanisms to invade host cells. Identification of these invasion mechanisms holds promise to facilitate the development of new approaches to inhibit fungal invasion and thereby prevent disease. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. Host Cell Invasion by Medically Important Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    To infect the host and cause disease, many medically important fungi invade normally nonphagocytic host cells, such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Host cell invasion is a two-step process consisting of adherence followed by invasion. There are two general mechanisms of host cell invasion, induced endocytosis and active penetration. Furthermore, fungi can traverse epithelial or endothelial cell barriers either by proteolytic degradation of intercellular tight junctions or via a Trojan horse mechanism in which they are transported by leukocytes. Although these mechanisms of host cell invasion have been best studied using Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, it is probable that other invasive fungi also use one or more of these mechanisms to invade host cells. Identification of these invasion mechanisms holds promise to facilitate the development of new approaches to inhibit fungal invasion and thereby prevent disease. PMID:25367974

  15. Large-scale integration of small molecule-induced genome-wide transcriptional responses, Kinome-wide binding affinities and cell-growth inhibition profiles reveal global trends characterizing systems-level drug action.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Dušica; Koleti, Amar; Schürer, Stephan C

    2014-01-01

    The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project is a large-scale coordinated effort to build a comprehensive systems biology reference resource. The goals of the program include the generation of a very large multidimensional data matrix and informatics and computational tools to integrate, analyze, and make the data readily accessible. LINCS data include genome-wide transcriptional signatures, biochemical protein binding profiles, cellular phenotypic response profiles and various other datasets for a wide range of cell model systems and molecular and genetic perturbations. Here we present a partial survey of this data facilitated by data standards and in particular a robust compound standardization workflow; we integrated several types of LINCS signatures and analyzed the results with a focus on mechanism of action (MoA) and chemical compounds. We illustrate how kinase targets can be related to disease models and relevant drugs. We identified some fundamental trends that appear to link Kinome binding profiles and transcriptional signatures to chemical information and biochemical binding profiles to transcriptional responses independent of chemical similarity. To fill gaps in the datasets we developed and applied predictive models. The results can be interpreted at the systems level as demonstrated based on a large number of signaling pathways. We can identify clear global relationships, suggesting robustness of cellular responses to chemical perturbation. Overall, the results suggest that chemical similarity is a useful measure at the systems level, which would support phenotypic drug optimization efforts. With this study we demonstrate the potential of such integrated analysis approaches and suggest prioritizing further experiments to fill the gaps in the current data.

  16. Stable Phenotypic Changes of the Host T Cells Are Essential to the Long-Term Stability of Latent HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Seu, Lillian; Sabbaj, Steffanie; Duverger, Alexandra; Wagner, Frederic; Anderson, Joshua C; Davies, Elizabeth; Wolschendorf, Frank; Willey, Christopher D; Saag, Michael S; Goepfert, Paul; Kutsch, Olaf

    2015-07-01

    The extreme stability of the latent HIV-1 reservoir in the CD4(+) memory T cell population prevents viral eradication with current antiretroviral therapy. It has been demonstrated that homeostatic T cell proliferation and clonal expansion of latently infected T cells due to viral integration into specific genes contribute to this extraordinary reservoir stability. Nevertheless, given the constant exposure of the memory T cell population to specific antigen or bystander activation, this reservoir stability seems remarkable, unless it is assumed that latent HIV-1 resides exclusively in memory T cells that recognize rare antigens. Another explanation for the stability of the reservoir could be that the latent HIV-1 reservoir is associated with an unresponsive T cell phenotype. We demonstrate here that host cells of latent HIV-1 infection events were functionally altered in ways that are consistent with the idea of an anergic, unresponsive T cell phenotype. Manipulations that induced or mimicked an anergic T cell state promoted latent HIV-1 infection. Kinome analysis data reflected this altered host cell phenotype at a system-wide level and revealed how the stable kinase activity changes networked to stabilize latent HIV-1 infection. Protein-protein interaction networks generated from kinome data could further be used to guide targeted genetic or pharmacological manipulations that alter the stability of latent HIV-1 infection. In summary, our data demonstrate that stable changes to the signal transduction and transcription factor network of latently HIV-1 infected host cells are essential to the ability of HIV-1 to establish and maintain latent HIV-1 infection status. The extreme stability of the latent HIV-1 reservoir allows the infection to persist for the lifetime of a patient, despite completely suppressive antiretroviral therapy. This extreme reservoir stability is somewhat surprising, since the latently HIV-1 infected CD4(+) memory T cells that form the

  17. Salmonella - at home in the host cell.

    PubMed

    Malik-Kale, Preeti; Jolly, Carrie E; Lathrop, Stephanie; Winfree, Seth; Luterbach, Courtney; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica has developed an array of sophisticated tools to manipulate the host cell and establish an intracellular niche, for successful propagation as a facultative intracellular pathogen. While Salmonella exerts diverse effects on its host cell, only the cell biology of the classic "trigger"-mediated invasion process and the subsequent development of the Salmonella-containing vacuole have been investigated extensively. These processes are dependent on cohorts of effector proteins translocated into host cells by two type III secretion systems (T3SS), although T3SS-independent mechanisms of entry may be important for invasion of certain host cell types. Recent studies into the intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella have provided new insights into the mechanisms used by this pathogen to modulate its intracellular environment. Here we discuss current knowledge of Salmonella-host interactions including invasion and establishment of an intracellular niche within the host.

  18. Functional kinomics identifies candidate therapeutic targets in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Russell; Xu, Chang; Kao, Michael; Annis, James; Lerma, Luisa Angelica; Schaupp, Christopher M.; Gurley, Kay E.; Jang, In Sock; Biktasova, Asel; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Margolin, Adam A.; Grandori, Carla; Kemp, Christopher J.; Méndez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify novel therapeutic drug targets for p53 mutant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Experimental Design RNAi kinome viability screens were performed on HNSCC cells including autologous pairs from primary tumor and recurrent/metastatic lesions, and in parallel on murine squamous cell carcinoma (MSCC) cells derived from tumors of inbred mice bearing germline mutations in Trp53, and p53 regulatory genes: Atm, Prkdc, and p19Arf. Cross-species analysis of cell lines stratified by p53 mutational status and metastatic phenotype was utilized to select 38 kinase targets. Both primary and secondary RNAi validation assays were performed on additional HNSCC cell lines to credential these kinase targets utilizing multiple phenotypic endpoints. Kinase targets were also examined via chemical inhibition utilizing a panel of kinase inhibitors. A preclinical study was conducted on the WEE1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. Results Our functional kinomics approach identified novel survival kinases in HNSCC involved in G2/M cell cycle checkpoint, SFK, PI3K and FAK pathways. RNAi mediated knockdown and chemical inhibition of the WEE1 kinase with a specific inhibitor, MK-1775, had a significant effect on both viability and apoptosis. Sensitivity to the MK-1775 kinase inhibitor is in part determined by p53 mutational status, and due to unscheduled mitotic entry. MK-1775 displays single-agent activity and potentiates the efficacy of cisplatin in a p53 mutant HNSCC xenograft model. Conclusions WEE1 kinase is a potential therapeutic drug target for HNSCC. This study supports the application of a functional kinomics strategy to identify novel therapeutic targets for cancer. PMID:25125259

  19. Contrasting Lifestyles Within the Host Cell

    PubMed Central

    Case, Elizabeth Di Russo; Samuel, James E.

    2015-01-01

    CHAPTER SUMMARY Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved to exploit the protected niche provided within the boundaries of a eukaryotic host cell. Upon entering a host cell, some bacteria can evade the adaptive immune response of its host, and replicate in a relatively nutrient-rich environment devoid of competition from other host flora. Growth within a host cell is not without its hazards, however. Many pathogens enter their hosts through receptor-mediated endocytosis or phagocytosis, two intracellular trafficking pathways that terminate in a highly degradative organelle, the phagolysosome. This usually deadly compartment is maintained at a low pH, and contains degradative enzymes, and reactive oxygen species resulting in an environment to which few bacterial species are adapted. Some intracellular pathogens, like Shigella, Listeria, Francisella, and Rickettsia escape the phagosome to replicate within the cytosol of the host cell. Bacteria that remain within a vacuole either alter the trafficking of their initial phagosomal compartment or adapt to survive within the harsh environment it will soon become. In this chapter, we focus on the mechanisms by which different vacuolar pathogens either evade lysosomal fusion, as in the case of Mycobacterium and Chlamydia, or allow interaction with lysosomes to varying degrees, such as Brucella and Coxiella, and their specific adaptations to inhabit a replicative niche. PMID:26999394

  20. Kinome-Wide Functional Genomics Screen Reveals a Novel Mechanism of TNFα-Induced Nuclear Accumulation of the HIF-1α Transcription Factor in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schoolmeesters, Angela; Brown, Daniel D.; Fedorov, Yuriy

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its most important subunit, HIF-1α, plays a central role in tumor progression by regulating genes involved in cancer cell survival, proliferation and metastasis. HIF-1α activity is associated with nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor and regulated by several mechanisms including modulation of protein stability and degradation. Among recent advances are the discoveries that inflammation-induced cytokines and growth factors affect protein accumulation of HIF-1α under normoxia conditions. TNFα, a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that promotes tumorigenesis is known as a stimulator of HIF-1α activity. To improve our understanding of TNFα-mediated regulation of HIF-1α nuclear accumulation we screened a kinase-specific siRNA library using a cell imaging–based HIF-1α-eGFP chimera reporter assay. Interestingly, this systematic analysis determined that depletion of kinases involved in conventional TNFα signaling (IKK/NFκB and JNK pathways) has no detrimental effect on HIF-1α accumulation. On the other hand, depletion of PRKAR2B, ADCK2, TRPM7, and TRIB2 significantly decreases the effect of TNFα on HIF-1α stability in osteosarcoma and prostate cancer cell lines. These newly discovered regulators conveyed their activity through a non-conventional RELB-depended NFκB signaling pathway and regulation of superoxide activity. Taken together our data allow us to conclude that TNFα uses a distinct and complex signaling mechanism to induce accumulation of HIF-1α in cancer cells. In summary, our results illuminate a novel mechanism through which cancer initiation and progression may be promoted by inflammatory cytokines, highlighting new potential avenues for fighting this disease. PMID:22355351

  1. Peptide Arrays for Kinome Analysis of Livestock Species

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Joanna; Van Wyk, Brenden; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Arsenault, Ryan; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip John; Napper, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a central mechanism for both the transfer of intracellular information and the initiation of cellular responses. Within human medicine, considerable emphasis is placed on understanding and controlling the enzymes (kinases) that are responsible for catalyzing these modifications. This is evident in the prominent use of kinase inhibitors as drugs as well as the trend to understand complex biology and identify biomarkers via characterizations of global kinase (kinome) activity. Despite the demonstrated value of focusing on kinome activity, the application of this perspective to livestock has been restricted by the absence of appropriate research tools. In this review, we discuss the development of software platforms that facilitate the development and application of species-specific peptide arrays for kinome analysis of livestock. Examples of the application of kinomic approaches to a number of priority species (cattle, pigs, and chickens) in a number of biological contexts (infections, biomarker discovery, and food quality) are presented as are emerging trends for kinome analysis of livestock. PMID:26664912

  2. Bartonella entry mechanisms into mammalian host cells.

    PubMed

    Eicher, Simone C; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The Gram-negative genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that typically infect mammals in a host-specific manner. Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella quintana are human-specific pathogens, while several zoonotic bartonellae specific for diverse animal hosts infect humans as an incidental host. Clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections range from mild symptoms to life-threatening disease. Following transmission by blood-sucking arthropods or traumatic contact with infected animals, bartonellae display sequential tropisms towards endothelial and possibly other nucleated cells and erythrocytes, the latter in a host-specific manner. Attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to nucleated cells is mediated by surface-exposed bacterial adhesins, in particular trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). The subsequent engulfment of the pathogen into a vacuolar structure follows a unique series of events whereby the pathogen avoids the endolysosomal compartments. For Bartonella henselae and assumingly most other species, the infection process is aided at different steps by Bartonella effector proteins (Beps). They are injected into host cells through the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB/D4 and subvert host cellular functions to favour pathogen uptake. Bacterial binding to erythrocytes is mediated by Trw, another T4SS, in a strictly host-specific manner, followed by pathogen-forced uptake involving the IalB invasin and subsequent replication and persistence within a membrane-bound intra-erythrocytic compartment.

  3. Analyses of Compact Trichinella Kinomes Reveal a MOS-Like Protein Kinase with a Unique N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Stroehlein, Andreas J.; Young, Neil D.; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Chang, Bill C. H.; Sternberg, Paul W.; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Pozio, Edoardo; Gasser, Robin B.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic worms of the genus Trichinella (phylum Nematoda; class Enoplea) represent a complex of at least twelve taxa that infect a range of different host animals, including humans, around the world. They are foodborne, intracellular nematodes, and their life cycles differ substantially from those of other nematodes. The recent characterization of the genomes and transcriptomes of all twelve recognized taxa of Trichinella now allows, for the first time, detailed studies of their molecular biology. In the present study, we defined, curated, and compared the protein kinase complements (kinomes) of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis using an integrated bioinformatic workflow employing transcriptomic and genomic data sets. We examined how variation in the kinome might link to unique aspects of Trichinella morphology, biology, and evolution. Furthermore, we utilized in silico structural modeling to discover and characterize a novel, MOS-like kinase with an unusual, previously undescribed N-terminal domain. Taken together, the present findings provide a basis for comparative investigations of nematode kinomes, and might facilitate the identification of Enoplea-specific intervention and diagnostic targets. Importantly, the in silico modeling approach assessed here provides an exciting prospect of being able to identify and classify currently unknown (orphan) kinases, as a foundation for their subsequent structural and functional investigation. PMID:27412987

  4. Th17 cells and Mucosal Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Aujla, Shean J.; Dubin, Patricia J.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2008-01-01

    Th17 cells are a new lineage of T-cells that are controlled by the transcription factor RORγt and develop independent of GATA-3, T-bet, Stat 4 and Stat 6. Novel effector molecules produced by these cells include IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-26. IL-17RA binds IL-17A and IL-17F and is critical for host defense against extracellular planktonic bacteria by regulating chemokine gradients for neutrophil emigration into infected tissue sites as well as host granulopoiesis. Moreover IL-17 and IL-22 regulate the production of antimicrobial proteins in mucosal epithelium. Although TGF-β1 and IL-6 have been shown to be critical for development of Th17 cells from naïve precursors, IL-23 is also important in regulating IL-17 release in mucosal tissues in response to infectious stimuli. Compared to Th1 cells, IL-23 and IL-17 show limited roles in controlling host defense against primary infections with intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggesting a predominate role of the Th17 lineage in host defense against extracellular pathogens. However in the setting of chronic biofilm infections, as that occurs with Cystic Fibrosis or bronchetctasis, Th17 cells may be key contributors of tissue injury. PMID:18054248

  5. Interactions between Bdellovibrio and its host cell.

    PubMed

    Stolp, H

    1979-04-11

    The bdellovibrios are extremely small bacteria with the unique property of being parasites of other (gram-negative) bacteria. In the presence of viable and susceptible bacteria a Bdellovibrio cell physically 'attacks' an individual host cell, attaches to its surface, penetrates the cell wall, and multiples within the periplasmic (intramural) space of its prey. The invading Bdellovibrio and its progeny degrade and consume the cellular constituents of the invaded host bacterium. This process finally results in complete lysis of the host cell and release of the Bdellovibrio progeny. From a population of parasitic bdellovibrios, derivatives can be selected that grow on complex nutrient media. Currently, none of the different nutritional types can be propagated in a fully defined synthetic medium. By degradation of the cellular constituents of the host the Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasmic space has available all the monomeric subunits needed to synthesis of the macromolecules. Peculiarities of Bdellovibrio metabolism with respect to uptake of preformed molecules and energy efficiency are discussed.

  6. Microsporidia infection impacts the host cell's cycle and reduces host cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; Sagastume, Soledad; Juarranz, Ángeles; Dias-Almeida, Joyce; Budge, Giles E; Meana, Aránzazu; Boonham, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular parasites can alter the cellular machinery of host cells to create a safe haven for their survival. In this regard, microsporidia are obligate intracellular fungal parasites with extremely reduced genomes and hence, they are strongly dependent on their host for energy and resources. To date, there are few studies into host cell manipulation by microsporidia, most of which have focused on morphological aspects. The microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are worldwide parasites of honey bees, infecting their ventricular epithelial cells. In this work, quantitative gene expression and histology were studied to investigate how these two parasites manipulate their host's cells at the molecular level. Both these microsporidia provoke infection-induced regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and the cell cycle. The up-regulation of buffy (which encodes a pro-survival protein) and BIRC5 (belonging to the Inhibitor Apoptosis protein family) was observed after infection, shedding light on the pathways that these pathogens use to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Curiously, different routes related to cell cycle were modified after infection by each microsporidia. In the case of N. apis, cyclin B1, dacapo and E2F2 were up-regulated, whereas only cyclin E was up-regulated by N. ceranae, in both cases promoting the G1/S phase transition. This is the first report describing molecular pathways related to parasite-host interactions that are probably intended to ensure the parasite's survival within the cell.

  7. Acanthamoeba induces cell-cycle arrest in host cells.

    PubMed

    Sissons, James; Alsam, Selwa; Jayasekera, Samantha; Kim, Kwang Sik; Stins, Monique; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2004-08-01

    Acanthamoeba can cause fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and eye keratitis. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of these emerging diseases remain unclear. In this study, the effects of Acanthamoeba on the host cell cycle using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) were determined. Two isolates of Acanthamoeba belonging to the T1 genotype (GAE isolate) and T4 genotype (keratitis isolate) were used, which showed severe cytotoxicity on HBMEC and HCEC, respectively. No tissue specificity was observed in their ability to exhibit binding to the host cells. To determine the effects of Acanthamoeba on the host cell cycle, a cell-cycle-specific gene array was used. This screened for 96 genes specific for host cell-cycle regulation. It was observed that Acanthamoeba inhibited expression of genes encoding cyclins F and G1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6, which are proteins important for cell-cycle progression. Moreover, upregulation was observed of the expression of genes such as GADD45A and p130 Rb, associated with cell-cycle arrest, indicating cell-cycle inhibition. Next, the effect of Acanthamoeba on retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation was determined. pRb is a potent inhibitor of G1-to-S cell-cycle progression; however, its function is inhibited upon phosphorylation, allowing progression into S phase. Western blotting revealed that Acanthamoeba abolished pRb phosphorylation leading to cell-cycle arrest at the G1-to-S transition. Taken together, these studies demonstrated for the first time that Acanthamoeba inhibits the host cell cycle at the transcriptional level, as well as by modulating pRb phosphorylation using host cell-signalling mechanisms. A complete understanding of Acanthamoeba-host cell interactions may help in developing novel strategies to treat Acanthamoeba infections.

  8. Microsporidia infection impacts the host cell's cycle and reduces host cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Higes, Mariano; Sagastume, Soledad; Juarranz, Ángeles; Dias-Almeida, Joyce; Budge, Giles E.; Meana, Aránzazu; Boonham, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular parasites can alter the cellular machinery of host cells to create a safe haven for their survival. In this regard, microsporidia are obligate intracellular fungal parasites with extremely reduced genomes and hence, they are strongly dependent on their host for energy and resources. To date, there are few studies into host cell manipulation by microsporidia, most of which have focused on morphological aspects. The microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are worldwide parasites of honey bees, infecting their ventricular epithelial cells. In this work, quantitative gene expression and histology were studied to investigate how these two parasites manipulate their host’s cells at the molecular level. Both these microsporidia provoke infection-induced regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and the cell cycle. The up-regulation of buffy (which encodes a pro-survival protein) and BIRC5 (belonging to the Inhibitor Apoptosis protein family) was observed after infection, shedding light on the pathways that these pathogens use to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Curiously, different routes related to cell cycle were modified after infection by each microsporidia. In the case of N. apis, cyclin B1, dacapo and E2F2 were up-regulated, whereas only cyclin E was up-regulated by N. ceranae, in both cases promoting the G1/S phase transition. This is the first report describing molecular pathways related to parasite-host interactions that are probably intended to ensure the parasite’s survival within the cell. PMID:28152065

  9. Cryptococcal Cell Morphology Affects Host Cell Interactions and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Judith N.; Charlier, Caroline; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Chrétien, Fabrice; Heitman, Joseph; Dromer, Françoise; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 µm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 µm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to oxidative and nitrosative stress, and correlated with reduced penetration of the central nervous system. Cell enlargement was stimulated by coinfection with strains of opposite mating type, and ste3aΔ pheromone receptor mutant strains had reduced cell enlargement. Finally, analysis of DNA content in this novel cell type revealed that these enlarged cells were polyploid, uninucleate, and produced daughter cells in vivo. These results describe a novel mechanism by which C. neoformans evades host phagocytosis to allow survival of a subset of the population at early stages of infection. Thus, morphological changes play unique and specialized roles during infection. PMID:20585559

  10. Concepts of papillomavirus entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    Day, Patricia M; Schelhaas, Mario

    2014-02-01

    Papillomaviruses enter basal cells of stratified epithelia. Assembly of new virions occurs in infected cells during terminal differentiation. This unique biology is reflected in the mechanism of entry. Extracellularly, the interaction of nonenveloped capsids with several host cell proteins, after binding, results in discrete conformational changes. Asynchronous internalization occurs over several hours by an endocytic mechanism related to, but distinct from macropinocytosis. Intracellular trafficking leads virions through the endosomal system, and from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi-network, before nuclear delivery. Here, we discuss the existing data with the aim to synthesize an integrated model of the stepwise process of entry, thereby highlighting key open questions. Additionally, we relate data from experiments with cultured cells to in vivo results.

  11. Plant cell proliferation inside an inorganic host.

    PubMed

    Perullini, Mercedes; Rivero, María Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Bilmes, Sara A

    2007-01-10

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to plant cell culture as a tool for the production of secondary metabolites and the expression of recombinant proteins. Plant cell immobilization offers many advantages for biotechnological processes. However, the most extended matrices employed, such as calcium-alginate, cannot fully protect entrapped cells. Sol-gel chemistry of silicates has emerged as an outstanding strategy to obtain biomaterials in which living cells are truly protected. This field of research is rapidly developing and a large number of bacteria and yeast-entrapping ceramics have already been designed for different applications. But even mild thermal and chemical conditions employed in sol-gel synthesis may result harmful to cells of higher organisms. Here we present a method for the immobilization of plant cells that allows cell growth at cavities created inside a silica matrix. Plant cell proliferation was monitored for a 6-month period, at the end of which plant calli of more than 1 mm in diameter were observed inside the inorganic host. The resulting hybrid device had good mechanical stability and proved to be an effective barrier against biological contamination, suggesting that it could be employed for long-term plant cell entrapment applications.

  12. Mechanistic Parameterization of the Kinomic Signal in Peptide Arrays.

    PubMed

    Dussaq, Alex; Anderson, Joshua C; Willey, Christopher D; Almeida, Jonas S

    2016-05-01

    Kinases play a role in every cellular process involved in tumorigenesis ranging from proliferation, migration, and protein synthesis to DNA repair. While genetic sequencing has identified most kinases in the human genome, it does not describe the 'kinome' at the level of activity of kinases against their substrate targets. An attempt to address that limitation and give researchers a more direct view of cellular kinase activity is found in the PamGene PamChip® system, which records and compares the phosphorylation of 144 tyrosine or serine/threonine peptides as they are phosphorylated by cellular kinases. Accordingly, the kinetics of this time dependent kinomic signal needs to be well understood in order to transduce a parameter set into an accurate and meaningful mathematical model. Here we report the analysis and mathematical modeling of kinomic time series, which achieves a more accurate description of the accumulation of phosphorylated product than the current model, which assumes first order enzyme-substrate kinetics. Reproducibility of the proposed solution was of particular attention. Specifically, the non-linear parameterization procedure is delivered as a public open source web application where kinomic time series can be accurately decomposed into the model's two parameter values measuring phosphorylation rate and capacity. The ability to deliver model parameterization entirely as a client side web application is an important result on its own given increasing scientific preoccupation with reproducibility. There is also no need for a potentially transitory and opaque server-side component maintained by the authors, nor of exchanging potentially sensitive data as part of the model parameterization process since the code is transferred to the browser client where it can be inspected and executed.

  13. Counting Legionella cells within single amoeba host cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we present the first attempt to quantify L. pneumophila cell numbers within individual amoebae hosts that may be released into engineered water systems. The maximum numbers of culturable L. pneumophila cells grown within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri were 134...

  14. Counting Legionella cells within single amoeba host cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we present the first attempt to quantify L. pneumophila cell numbers within individual amoebae hosts that may be released into engineered water systems. The maximum numbers of culturable L. pneumophila cells grown within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri were 134...

  15. Neurons Are Host Cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Philippa J.; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M.; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system. PMID:24566619

  16. Neurons are host cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system.

  17. Analysis of kinase gene expression patterns across 5681 human tissue samples reveals functional genomic taxonomy of the kinome.

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Sami; Ojala, Kalle; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2010-12-03

    Kinases play key roles in cell signaling and represent major targets for drug development, but the regulation of their activation and their associations with health and disease have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we carried out a bioinformatic analysis of the expression levels of 459 human kinase genes in 5681 samples consisting of 44 healthy and 55 malignant human tissues. Defining the tissues where the kinase genes were transcriptionally active led to a functional genomic taxonomy of the kinome and a classification of human tissues and disease types based on the similarity of their kinome gene expression. The co-expression network around each of the kinase genes was defined in order to determine the functional context, i.e. the biological processes that were active in the cells and tissues where the kinase gene was expressed. Strong associations for individual kinases were found for mitosis (69 genes, including AURKA and BUB1), cell cycle control (73 genes, including PLK1 and AURKB), DNA repair (49 genes, including CHEK1 and ATR), immune response (72 genes, including MATK), neuronal (131 genes, including PRKCE) and muscular (72 genes, including MYLK2) functions. We then analyzed which kinase genes gain or lose transcriptional activity in the development of prostate and lung cancers and elucidated the functional associations of individual cancer associated kinase genes. In summary, we report here a systematic classification of kinases based on the bioinformatic analysis of their expression in human tissues and diseases, as well as grouping of tissues and tumor types according to the similarity of their kinome transcription.

  18. Analysis of Kinase Gene Expression Patterns across 5681 Human Tissue Samples Reveals Functional Genomic Taxonomy of the Kinome

    PubMed Central

    Kilpinen, Sami; Ojala, Kalle; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Kinases play key roles in cell signaling and represent major targets for drug development, but the regulation of their activation and their associations with health and disease have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we carried out a bioinformatic analysis of the expression levels of 459 human kinase genes in 5681 samples consisting of 44 healthy and 55 malignant human tissues. Defining the tissues where the kinase genes were transcriptionally active led to a functional genomic taxonomy of the kinome and a classification of human tissues and disease types based on the similarity of their kinome gene expression. The co-expression network around each of the kinase genes was defined in order to determine the functional context, i.e. the biological processes that were active in the cells and tissues where the kinase gene was expressed. Strong associations for individual kinases were found for mitosis (69 genes, including AURKA and BUB1), cell cycle control (73 genes, including PLK1 and AURKB), DNA repair (49 genes, including CHEK1 and ATR), immune response (72 genes, including MATK), neuronal (131 genes, including PRKCE) and muscular (72 genes, including MYLK2) functions. We then analyzed which kinase genes gain or lose transcriptional activity in the development of prostate and lung cancers and elucidated the functional associations of individual cancer associated kinase genes. In summary, we report here a systematic classification of kinases based on the bioinformatic analysis of their expression in human tissues and diseases, as well as grouping of tissues and tumor types according to the similarity of their kinome transcription. PMID:21151926

  19. Global tyrosine kinome profiling of human thyroid tumors identifies Src as a promising target for invasive cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Nancy L.; Lin, Chi-Iou; Du, Jinyan; Whang, Edward E.; Ito, Hiromichi; Moore, Francis D.; Ruan, Daniel T.

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinome profiling is a novel technique for identifying activated kinases in human cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Src activity is increased in invasive thyroid cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Src activity decreased proliferation and invasion in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further investigation of Src targeted therapies in thyroid cancer is warranted. -- Abstract: Background: Novel therapies are needed for the treatment of invasive thyroid cancers. Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinases plays an important role in thyroid oncogenesis. Because current targeted therapies are biased toward a small subset of tyrosine kinases, we conducted a study to reveal novel therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer using a bead-based, high-throughput system. Methods: Thyroid tumors and matched normal tissues were harvested from twenty-six patients in the operating room. Protein lysates were analyzed using the Luminex immunosandwich, a bead-based kinase phosphorylation assay. Data was analyzed using GenePattern 3.0 software and clustered according to histology, demographic factors, and tumor status regarding capsular invasion, size, lymphovascular invasion, and extrathyroidal extension. Survival and invasion assays were performed to determine the effect of Src inhibition in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells. Results: Tyrosine kinome profiling demonstrated upregulation of nine tyrosine kinases in tumors relative to matched normal thyroid tissue: EGFR, PTK6, BTK, HCK, ABL1, TNK1, GRB2, ERK, and SRC. Supervised clustering of well-differentiated tumors by histology, gender, age, or size did not reveal significant differences in tyrosine kinase activity. However, supervised clustering by the presence of invasive disease showed increased Src activity in invasive tumors relative to non-invasive tumors (60% v. 0%, p < 0.05). In vitro, we found that Src inhibition in PTC cells decreased cell invasion and proliferation

  20. Eimeria bovis: an update on parasite-host cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Ruiz, Antonio; Taubert, Anja

    2012-10-01

    Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular protozoans and are well recognized modulators of the host cell machinery on varying levels such as host cell metabolism, MHC expression, cell cycle, or apoptosis in order to guarantee their intracellular development and survival. One of the most thoroughly examined apicomplexan pathogens demonstrating a potent manipulative capacity with respect to various host cell functions is Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoon exhibiting rapid intracellular development with small meronts in any nucleated cell, almost irrespective of the cell type or host origin. In contrast, Eimeria bovis merogony I is host- and cell type-restricted and occurs exclusively in bovine endothelial host cells. Furthermore, as a peculiarity, intracellular E. bovis meront I development is a long-lasting process (up to 3 weeks), leading to the formation of huge macromeronts of up to 300 μm in size, containing up to 120,000 merozoites I as offspring. In consequence, the necessity for intense host cell modulation to support this particular development appears even more pressing than in other apicomplexan parasite cases. Here we review the data currently available on E. bovis-host cell interactions, indicating the intriguing capacity of this protozoan to exploit and utilize its host cell for its own benefit.

  1. Mechanistic Parameterization of the Kinomic Signal in Peptide Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Dussaq, Alex; Anderson, Joshua C; Willey, Christopher D; Almeida, Jonas S

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a role in every cellular process involved in tumorigenesis ranging from proliferation, migration, and protein synthesis to DNA repair. While genetic sequencing has identified most kinases in the human genome, it does not describe the ‘kinome’ at the level of activity of kinases against their substrate targets. An attempt to address that limitation and give researchers a more direct view of cellular kinase activity is found in the PamGene PamChip® system, which records and compares the phosphorylation of 144 tyrosine or serine/threonine peptides as they are phosphorylated by cellular kinases. Accordingly, the kinetics of this time dependent kinomic signal needs to be well understood in order to transduce a parameter set into an accurate and meaningful mathematical model. Here we report the analysis and mathematical modeling of kinomic time series, which achieves a more accurate description of the accumulation of phosphorylated product than the current model, which assumes first order enzyme-substrate kinetics. Reproducibility of the proposed solution was of particular attention. Specifically, the non-linear parameterization procedure is delivered as a public open source web application where kinomic time series can be accurately decomposed into the model’s two parameter values measuring phosphorylation rate and capacity. The ability to deliver model parameterization entirely as a client side web application is an important result on its own given increasing scientific preoccupation with reproducibility. There is also no need for a potentially transitory and opaque server-side component maintained by the authors, nor of exchanging potentially sensitive data as part of the model parameterization process since the code is transferred to the browser client where it can be inspected and executed. PMID:27601856

  2. Soybean kinome: functional classification and gene expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyi; Chen, Nana; Grant, Joshua N; Cheng, Zong-Ming Max; Stewart, C Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    The protein kinase (PK) gene family is one of the largest and most highly conserved gene families in plants and plays a role in nearly all biological functions. While a large number of genes have been predicted to encode PKs in soybean, a comprehensive functional classification and global analysis of expression patterns of this large gene family is lacking. In this study, we identified the entire soybean PK repertoire or kinome, which comprised 2166 putative PK genes, representing 4.67% of all soybean protein-coding genes. The soybean kinome was classified into 19 groups, 81 families, and 122 subfamilies. The receptor-like kinase (RLK) group was remarkably large, containing 1418 genes. Collinearity analysis indicated that whole-genome segmental duplication events may have played a key role in the expansion of the soybean kinome, whereas tandem duplications might have contributed to the expansion of specific subfamilies. Gene structure, subcellular localization prediction, and gene expression patterns indicated extensive functional divergence of PK subfamilies. Global gene expression analysis of soybean PK subfamilies revealed tissue- and stress-specific expression patterns, implying regulatory functions over a wide range of developmental and physiological processes. In addition, tissue and stress co-expression network analysis uncovered specific subfamilies with narrow or wide interconnected relationships, indicative of their association with particular or broad signalling pathways, respectively. Taken together, our analyses provide a foundation for further functional studies to reveal the biological and molecular functions of PKs in soybean. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. The Type III Secretion Translocation Pore Senses Host Cell Contact

    PubMed Central

    Armentrout, Erin I.; Rietsch, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are nano-syringes used by a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens to promote infection by directly injecting effector proteins into targeted host cells. Translocation of effectors is triggered by host-cell contact and requires assembly of a pore in the host-cell plasma membrane, which consists of two translocator proteins. Our understanding of the translocation pore, how it is assembled in the host cell membrane and its precise role in effector translocation, is extremely limited. Here we use a genetic technique to identify protein-protein contacts between pore-forming translocator proteins, as well as the T3SS needle-tip, that are critical for translocon function. The data help establish the orientation of the translocator proteins in the host cell membrane. Analysis of translocon function in mutants that break these contacts demonstrates that an interaction between the pore-forming translocator PopD and the needle-tip is required for sensing host cell contact. Moreover, tethering PopD at a dimer interface also specifically prevents host-cell sensing, arguing that the translocation pore is actively involved in detecting host cell contact. The work presented here therefore establishes a signal transduction pathway for sensing host cell contact that is initiated by a conformational change in the translocation pore, and is subsequently transmitted to the base of the apparatus via a specific contact between the pore and the T3SS needle-tip. PMID:27022930

  4. Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Tamara R.; Clarke, Megan A.; Dean, Michael; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements. HPV-associated cancers have recurrent somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), human leukocyte antigen A and B (HLA-A and HLA-B)-A/B, and the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, and rarely have mutations in the tumor protein p53 (TP53) and RB transcriptional corepressor 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor genes. There are some variations by tumor site, such as NOTCH1 mutations which are primarily found in head and neck cancers. Understanding the somatic events following HPV infection and persistence can aid the development of early detection biomarkers, particularly when mutations in precancers are characterized. Somatic mutations may also influence prognosis and treatment decisions. PMID:28771191

  5. Subversion of Cell-Autonomous Host Defense by Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Annette; Rudel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Obligate intracellular bacteria entirely depend on the metabolites of their host cell for survival and generation of progeny. Due to their lifestyle inside a eukaryotic cell and the lack of any extracellular niche, they have to perfectly adapt to compartmentalized intracellular environment of the host cell and counteract the numerous defense strategies intrinsically present in all eukaryotic cells. This so-called cell-autonomous defense is present in all cell types encountering Chlamydia infection and is in addition closely linked to the cellular innate immune defense of the mammalian host. Cell type and chlamydial species-restricted mechanisms point a long-term evolutionary adaptation that builds the basis of the currently observed host and cell-type tropism among different Chlamydia species. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the strategies pathogenic Chlamydia species have developed to subvert and overcome the multiple mechanisms by which eukaryotic cells defend themselves against intracellular pathogens.

  6. Characterization of the novel broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor CTx-0294885 as an affinity reagent for mass spectrometry-based kinome profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luxi; Holmes, Ian P; Hochgräfe, Falko; Walker, Scott R; Ali, Naveid A; Humphrey, Emily S; Wu, Jianmin; de Silva, Melanie; Kersten, Wilhelmus J A; Connor, Theresa; Falk, Hendrik; Allan, Lynda; Street, Ian P; Bentley, John D; Pilling, Patricia A; Monahan, Brendon J; Peat, Thomas S; Daly, Roger J

    2013-07-05

    Kinase enrichment utilizing broad-spectrum kinase inhibitors enables the identification of large proportions of the expressed kinome by mass spectrometry. However, the existing inhibitors are still inadequate in covering the entire kinome. Here, we identified a novel bisanilino pyrimidine, CTx-0294885, exhibiting inhibitory activity against a broad range of kinases in vitro, and further developed it into a Sepharose-supported kinase capture reagent. Use of a quantitative proteomics approach confirmed the selectivity of CTx-0294885-bound beads for kinase enrichment. Large-scale CTx-0294885-based affinity purification followed by LC-MS/MS led to the identification of 235 protein kinases from MDA-MB-231 cells, including all members of the AKT family that had not been previously detected by other broad-spectrum kinase inhibitors. Addition of CTx-0294885 to a mixture of three kinase inhibitors commonly used for kinase-enrichment increased the number of kinase identifications to 261, representing the largest kinome coverage from a single cell line reported to date. Coupling phosphopeptide enrichment with affinity purification using the four inhibitors enabled the identification of 799 high-confidence phosphosites on 183 kinases, ∼10% of which were localized to the activation loop, and included previously unreported phosphosites on BMP2K, MELK, HIPK2, and PRKDC. Therefore, CTx-0294885 represents a powerful new reagent for analysis of kinome signaling networks that may facilitate development of targeted therapeutic strategies. Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium ( http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org ) via the PRIDE partner repository with the data set identifier PXD000239.

  7. Interaction of chlamydiae and host cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, J W

    1991-01-01

    The obligately intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia, which is only remotely related to other eubacterial genera, cause many diseases of humans, nonhuman mammals, and birds. Interaction of chlamydiae with host cells in vitro has been studied as a model of infection in natural hosts and as an example of the adaptation of an organism to an unusual environment, the inside of another living cell. Among the novel adaptations made by chlamydiae have been the substitution of disulfide-bond-cross-linked polypeptides for peptidoglycans and the use of host-generated nucleotide triphosphates as sources of metabolic energy. The effect of contact between chlamydiae and host cells in culture varies from no effect at all to rapid destruction of either chlamydiae or host cells. When successful infection occurs, it is usually followed by production of large numbers of progeny and destruction of host cells. However, host cells containing chlamydiae sometimes continue to divide, with or without overt signs of infection, and chlamydiae may persist indefinitely in cell cultures. Some of the many factors that influence the outcome of chlamydia-host cell interaction are kind of chlamydiae, kind of host cells, mode of chlamydial entry, nutritional adequacy of the culture medium, presence of antimicrobial agents, and presence of immune cells and soluble immune factors. General characteristics of chlamydial multiplication in cells of their natural hosts are reproduced in established cell lines, but reproduction in vitro of the subtle differences in chlamydial behavior responsible for the individuality of the different chlamydial diseases will require better in vitro models. PMID:2030670

  8. Methods for production of proteins in host cells

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2004-01-13

    The present invention provides methods for the production of proteins, particularly toxic proteins, in host cells. The invention provides methods which use a fusion protein comprising a chaperonin binding domain in host cells induced or regulated to have increased levels of chaperonin which binds the chaperonin binding domain.

  9. Host cells and methods for production of isobutanol

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Larry Cameron; He, Hongxian; Huang, Lixuan Lisa; Okeefe, Daniel P.; Kruckeberg, Arthur Leo; Li, Yougen; Maggio-Hall, Lori Ann; McElvain, Jessica; Nelson, Mark J.; Patnaik, Ranjan; Rothman, Steven Cary

    2016-08-23

    Provided herein are recombinant yeast host cells and methods for their use for production of isobutanol. Yeast host cells provided comprise an isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and at least one of reduced or eliminated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, reduced or eliminated acetolactate reductase activity; or a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide having ketol-acid reductoisomerase activity.

  10. Host cells and methods for production of isobutanol

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Larry Cameron; He, Hongxian; Huang, Lixuan Lisa; Okeefe, Daniel P.; Kruckeberg, Arthur Leo; Li, Yougen; Maggio-Hall, Lori Ann; McElvain, Jessica; Nelson, Mark J.; Patnaik, Ranjan; Rothman, Steven Cary

    2016-08-23

    Provided herein are recombinant yeast host cells and methods for their use for production of isobutanol. Yeast host cells provided comprise an isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and at least one of reduced or eliminated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, reduced or eliminated acetolactate reductase activity; or a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide having ketol-acid reductoisomerase activity.

  11. Hijacking Host Cell Highways: Manipulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton by Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Colonne, Punsiri M; Winchell, Caylin G; Voth, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems. A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. Cytoskeletal rearrangement promotes numerous events that are beneficial to the pathogen, including internalization of bacteria, structural support for bacteria-containing vacuoles, altered vesicular trafficking, actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that manipulate the host cytoskeleton to thrive within eukaryotic cells and discusses underlying molecular mechanisms that promote these dynamic host-pathogen interactions.

  12. Inhibition of Plasmodium sporozoites infection by targeting the host cell

    PubMed Central

    Leitao, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Ana

    2010-01-01

    There is a great need of new drugs against malaria because of the increasing spread of parasite resistance against the most commonly used drugs in the field. We found that monensin, a common veterinary antibiotic, has a strong inhibitory effect in Plasmodium berghei and P. yoelii sporozoites hepatocyte infection in vitro. Infection of host cells by another apicomplexan parasite with a similar mechanism of host cell invasion, Toxoplasma tachyzoites, was also inhibited. Treatment of mice with monensin abrogates liver infection with P. berghei sporozoites in vivo. We also found that at low concentrations monensin inhibits the infection of Plasmodium sporozoites by rendering host cells resistant to infection, rather than having a direct effect on sporozoites. Monensin effect is targeted to the initial stages of parasite invasion of the host cell with little or no effect on development, suggesting that this antibiotic affects an essential host cell component that is required for Plasmodium sporozoite invasion. PMID:20493847

  13. Simultaneous inhibition of aberrant cancer kinome using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Parwathy; Gupta, Neha; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Keechilat, Pavithran; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2013-11-01

    Simultaneous inhibition of deregulated cancer kinome using rationally designed nanomedicine is an advanced therapeutic approach. Herein, we have developed a polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine to inhibit critically aberrant pro-survival kinases (mTOR, MAPK and STAT5) in primitive (CD34(+)/CD38(-)) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cells. The nanomedicine consists of poly-lactide-co-glycolide core (~250 nm) loaded with mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, and albumin shell (~25 nm thick) loaded with MAPK/STAT5 inhibitor, sorafenib and the whole construct was surface conjugated with monoclonal antibody against CD33 receptor overexpressed in AML. Electron microscopy confirmed formation of core-shell nanostructure (~290 nm) and flow cytometry and confocal studies showed enhanced cellular uptake of targeted nanomedicine. Simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells, was demonstrated using immunoblotting, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays. This cell receptor plus multi-kinase targeted core-shell nanomedicine was found better specific and tolerable compared to current clinical regime of cytarabine and daunorubicin. These authors demonstrate simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells by using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine, provoding an advanced method to eliminate cancer cells, with the hope of future therapeutic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2015-12-08

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR.

  15. Host manipulation by cancer cells: Expectations, facts, and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Tissot, Tazzio; Arnal, Audrey; Jacqueline, Camille; Poulin, Robert; Lefèvre, Thierry; Mery, Frédéric; Renaud, François; Roche, Benjamin; Massol, François; Salzet, Michel; Ewald, Paul; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Ujvari, Beata; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Similar to parasites, cancer cells depend on their hosts for sustenance, proliferation and reproduction, exploiting the hosts for energy and resources, and thereby impairing their health and fitness. Because of this lifestyle similarity, it is predicted that cancer cells could, like numerous parasitic organisms, evolve the capacity to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts to increase their own fitness. We claim that the extent of this phenomenon and its therapeutic implications are, however, underappreciated. Here, we review and discuss what can be regarded as cases of host manipulation in the context of cancer development and progression. We elaborate on how acknowledging the applicability of these principles can offer novel therapeutic and preventive strategies. The manipulation of host phenotype by cancer cells is one more reason to adopt a Darwinian approach in cancer research.

  16. Determining Cysteines Available for Covalent Inhibition Across the Human Kinome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng; Liu, Qingsong; Bliven, Spencer; Xie, Lei; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-04-13

    Covalently bound protein kinase inhibitors have been frequently designed to target noncatalytic cysteines at the ATP binding site. Thus, it is important to know if a given cysteine can form a covalent bond. Here we combine a function-site interaction fingerprint method and DFT calculations to determine the potential of cysteines to form a covalent interaction with an inhibitor. By harnessing the human structural kinome, a comprehensive structure-based binding site cysteine data set was assembled. The orientation of the cysteine thiol group indicates which cysteines can potentially form covalent bonds. These covalent inhibitor easy-available cysteines are located within five regions: P-loop, roof of pocket, front pocket, catalytic-2 of the catalytic loop, and DFG-3 close to the DFG peptide. In an independent test set these cysteines covered 95% of covalent kinase inhibitors. This study provides new insights into cysteine reactivity and preference which is important for the prospective development of covalent kinase inhibitors.

  17. Specific nature of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitism of host cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alderete, J F; Garza, G E

    1985-12-01

    The adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to host cells was evaluated by using monolayer cultures of HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells and human fibroblast cell lines. Saturation of sites on HeLa cells was achieved, yielding a maximal T. vaginalis NYH 286-to-cell ratio of two. The ability of radiolabeled NYH 286 to compete with unlabeled trichomonads for attachment and the time, temperature, and pH-dependent nature of host cell parasitism reinforced the idea of specific parasite-cell associations. Other trichomonal isolates (JH31A, RU375, and JHHR) were also found to adhere to cell monolayers, albeit to different degrees, and all isolates produced maximal contact-dependent HeLa cell cytotoxicity. The avirulent trichomonad, Trichomonas tenax, did not adhere to cell monolayers and did not cause host cell damage. Interestingly, parasite cytadherence was greater with HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells than with fibroblast cells. In addition, cytotoxicity with fibroblast cells never exceeded 20% of the level of cell killing observed for epithelial cells. Elucidation of properties of the pathogenic human trichomonads that allowed for host cell surface parasitism was also attempted. Treatment of motile T. vaginalis NYH 286 with trypsin diminished cell parasitism. Incubation of trypsinized organisms in growth medium allowed for regeneration of trichomonal adherence, and cycloheximide inhibited the regeneration of attachment. Organisms poisoned with metronidazole or iodoacetate failed to attach to host cells, and adherent trichomonads exposed to metronidazole or iodoacetate were readily released from parasitized cells. Coincubation experiments with polycationic proteins and sugars and pretreatment of parasites or cells with neuraminidase or periodate had no effect on host cell parasitism. Colchicine and cytochalasin B, however, did produce some inhibition of adherence to HeLa cells. The data suggest that metabolizing T. vaginalis adheres to host cells via parasite surface

  18. Specific nature of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitism of host cell surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, J F; Garza, G E

    1985-01-01

    The adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to host cells was evaluated by using monolayer cultures of HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells and human fibroblast cell lines. Saturation of sites on HeLa cells was achieved, yielding a maximal T. vaginalis NYH 286-to-cell ratio of two. The ability of radiolabeled NYH 286 to compete with unlabeled trichomonads for attachment and the time, temperature, and pH-dependent nature of host cell parasitism reinforced the idea of specific parasite-cell associations. Other trichomonal isolates (JH31A, RU375, and JHHR) were also found to adhere to cell monolayers, albeit to different degrees, and all isolates produced maximal contact-dependent HeLa cell cytotoxicity. The avirulent trichomonad, Trichomonas tenax, did not adhere to cell monolayers and did not cause host cell damage. Interestingly, parasite cytadherence was greater with HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells than with fibroblast cells. In addition, cytotoxicity with fibroblast cells never exceeded 20% of the level of cell killing observed for epithelial cells. Elucidation of properties of the pathogenic human trichomonads that allowed for host cell surface parasitism was also attempted. Treatment of motile T. vaginalis NYH 286 with trypsin diminished cell parasitism. Incubation of trypsinized organisms in growth medium allowed for regeneration of trichomonal adherence, and cycloheximide inhibited the regeneration of attachment. Organisms poisoned with metronidazole or iodoacetate failed to attach to host cells, and adherent trichomonads exposed to metronidazole or iodoacetate were readily released from parasitized cells. Coincubation experiments with polycationic proteins and sugars and pretreatment of parasites or cells with neuraminidase or periodate had no effect on host cell parasitism. Colchicine and cytochalasin B, however, did produce some inhibition of adherence to HeLa cells. The data suggest that metabolizing T. vaginalis adheres to host cells via parasite surface

  19. Metabolic adaptation of Chlamydia trachomatis to mammalian host cells.

    PubMed

    Mehlitz, Adrian; Eylert, Eva; Huber, Claudia; Lindner, Buko; Vollmuth, Nadine; Karunakaran, Karthika; Goebel, Werner; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Rudel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic adaptation is a key feature for the virulence of pathogenic intracellular bacteria. Nevertheless, little is known about the pathways in adapting the bacterial metabolism to multiple carbon sources available from the host cell. To analyze the metabolic adaptation of the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, we labeled infected HeLa or Caco-2 cells with (13) C-marked glucose, glutamine, malate or a mix of amino acids as tracers. Comparative GC-MS-based isotopologue analysis of protein-derived amino acids from the host cell and the bacterial fraction showed that C. trachomatis efficiently imported amino acids from the host cell for protein biosynthesis. FT-ICR-MS analyses also demonstrated that label from exogenous (13) C-glucose was efficiently shuffled into chlamydial lipopolysaccharide probably via glucose 6-phosphate of the host cell. Minor fractions of bacterial Ala, Asp, and Glu were made de novo probably using dicarboxylates from the citrate cycle of the host cell. Indeed, exogenous (13) C-malate was efficiently taken up by C. trachomatis and metabolized into fumarate and succinate when the bacteria were kept in axenic medium containing the malate tracer. Together, the data indicate co-substrate usage of intracellular C. trachomatis in a stream-lined bipartite metabolism with host cell-supplied amino acids for protein biosynthesis, host cell-provided glucose 6-phosphate for cell wall biosynthesis, and, to some extent, one or more host cell-derived dicarboxylates, e.g. malate, feeding the partial TCA cycle of the bacterium. The latter flux could also support the biosynthesis of meso-2,6-diaminopimelate required for the formation of chlamydial peptidoglycan.

  20. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Shu, Shaohua; Zhu, Wenjun; Xiong, Ying; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs) play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction, and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE, and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologs in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  1. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Shu, Shaohua; Zhu, Wenjun; Xiong, Ying; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs) play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction, and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE, and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologs in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds. PMID:27708635

  2. Induction of Macrophage Function in Human THP-1 Cells Is Associated with Rewiring of MAPK Signaling and Activation of MAP3K7 (TAK1) Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Erik; Ventz, Katharina; Harms, Manuela; Mostertz, Jörg; Hochgräfe, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent the primary human host response to pathogen infection and link the immediate defense to the adaptive immune system. Mature tissue macrophages convert from circulating monocyte precursor cells by terminal differentiation in a process that is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the protein kinases of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 before and after induction of macrophage differentiation by using kinomics and phosphoproteomics. When comparing the macrophage-like state with the monocytic precursor, 50% of the kinome was altered in expression and even 71% of covered kinase phosphorylation sites were affected. Kinome rearrangements are for example characterized by a shift of overrepresented cyclin-dependent kinases associated with cell cycle control in monocytes to calmodulin-dependent kinases and kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. Eventually, we show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with major rewiring of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks and demonstrate that protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1) acts as the key signaling hub in bacterial killing, chemokine production and differentiation. Our study proves the fundamental role of protein kinases and cellular signaling as major drivers of macrophage differentiation and function. The finding that MAP3K7 is central to macrophage function suggests MAP3K7 and its networking partners as promising targets in host-directed therapy for macrophage-associated disease. PMID:27066479

  3. Inhibition of host cell apoptosis by Eimeria bovis sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Lang, Mirjam; Kann, Michael; Zahner, Horst; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2009-03-09

    Sophisticated evasion strategies of obligate intracellular parasites, in particular prevention of host cell apoptosis, are necessary to ensure successful replication. To study the ability of Eimeria bovis in this regard, in vitro experiments were performed applying bovine foetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC) and African green monkey kidney cells (VERO) as host cells. BUVEC and BFGC allow maturation of sporozoites to macromeronts, in VERO cells sporozoites survive for weeks without showing further development. In highly infected BUVEC monolayers, infected cells survived until merozoite release whereas uninfected cells underwent apoptosis. Light microscopy and TUNEL assays performed 3-10 days p.i. showed that, within infected BFGC and VERO cell monolayers, uninfected cells underwent programmed cell death after application of various inducers of apoptosis, whereas infected cells survived. Incidentally, the anti-apoptotic efficacies in infected cells were independent of the drugs and the host cell type. We could not demonstrate significant differences between infected and uninfected cells after colchicin treatment in terms of translation of phosphatidylserines to the host cell surface, caspase 3 activity and cytochrome c release, probably since obtainable infection rates were too low. However, we could show by laser scanning confocal microscopy on single cell levels that the expression of the anti-apoptotic factors cellular Flice inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and cellular inhibition of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1) were enhanced in E. bovis infected cells after application of colchicin, in the latter case also in non-infected cells directly neighbouring infected ones. Our data show that E. bovis protects its host cell from apoptosis by increasing expression of c-IAP1 and c-FLIP.

  4. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC1): Functional Landscape of the Human Kinome in MYCN Amplified and Non-amplified Neuroblastoma | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    In order to identify candidate drugs targets that exhibit lethality only in the context of MYCN amplification, we carried out a set of siRNA screens focused on the kinome, targeting ~713 kinases, utilizing human neuroblastoma cells lines with or without MYCN amplification. The neuroblastoma cell lines were: SK-N-BE2 (MYCN amplified) and SK-N-AS (non-amplified).  The kinase Hits for the MYCN amplified cell line were selected using a combination of their differential activity when compared to the non-MYCN amplified cells and also ranked by P-values, based on the replicates.

  5. Coral host cells acidify symbiotic algal microenvironment to promote photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barott, Katie L.; Venn, Alexander A.; Perez, Sidney O.; Tambutté, Sylvie; Tresguerres, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the algae abundantly expresses vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA), which acidifies the symbiosome space down to pH ∼4. Inhibition of VHA results in a significant decrease in average H+ activity in the symbiosome of up to 75% and a significant reduction in O2 production rate, a measure of photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that host VHA is part of a previously unidentified carbon concentrating mechanism for algal photosynthesis and provide mechanistic evidence that coral host cells can actively modulate the physiology of their symbionts. PMID:25548188

  6. Coral host cells acidify symbiotic algal microenvironment to promote photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Venn, Alexander A; Perez, Sidney O; Tambutté, Sylvie; Tresguerres, Martin

    2015-01-13

    Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the algae abundantly expresses vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA), which acidifies the symbiosome space down to pH ∼ 4. Inhibition of VHA results in a significant decrease in average H(+) activity in the symbiosome of up to 75% and a significant reduction in O2 production rate, a measure of photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that host VHA is part of a previously unidentified carbon concentrating mechanism for algal photosynthesis and provide mechanistic evidence that coral host cells can actively modulate the physiology of their symbionts.

  7. Capacitive immunosensor for the detection of host cell proteins.

    PubMed

    Teeparuksapun, Kosin; Hedström, Martin; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Mattiasson, Bo

    2012-01-01

    A new analysis for monitoring host cell proteins in preparations of transgenically produced protein pharmaceuticals is described. A capacitive biosensor with a very high sensitivity is used to monitor trace amounts of host cell proteins. The sensor consists of a gold electrode, the surface of which is well insulated and on which a preparation of a population of polyclonal antibodies raised against the complete protein set-up of the host cell are immobilized. Host cell proteins are present at very low concentrations during the production of a transgenic protein. The system studied here is a model system with an enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Due to the high sensitivity, it may even be possible to dilute the samples to be analyzed, thereby reducing a negative influence from non-specific binding to the sensor surface.

  8. Fungal Invasion of Normally Non-Phagocytic Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Filler, Scott G; Sheppard, Donald C

    2006-01-01

    Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research. PMID:17196036

  9. Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells.

    PubMed

    Filler, Scott G; Sheppard, Donald C

    2006-12-01

    Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research.

  10. Host cells and methods for producing isoprenyl alkanoates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taek Soon; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-12-01

    The invention provides for a method of producing an isoprenyl alkanoate in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses an enzyme capable of catalyzing the esterification of an isoprenol and a straight-chain fatty acid, such as an alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) or lipase, under a suitable condition so that the isoprenyl alkanoate is produced.

  11. Hierarchies of Host Factor Dynamics at the Entry Site of Shigella flexneri during Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Soudeh; Santos, José Carlos; Rodrigues, Cristina D.; Henriques, Ricardo; Audry, Laurent; Zimmer, Christophe; Sansonetti, Philippe; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, induces massive cytoskeletal rearrangement, resulting in its entry into nonphagocytic epithelial cells. The bacterium-engulfing membrane ruffles are formed by polymerizing actin, a process activated through injected bacterial effectors that target host small GTPases and tyrosine kinases. Once inside the host cell, S. flexneri escapes from the endocytic vacuole within minutes to move intra- and intercellularly. We quantified the fluorescence signals from fluorescently tagged host factors that are recruited to the site of pathogen entry and vacuolar escape. Quantitative time lapse fluorescence imaging revealed simultaneous recruitment of polymerizing actin, small GTPases of the Rho family, and tyrosine kinases. In contrast, we found that actin surrounding the vacuole containing bacteria dispersed first from the disassembling membranes, whereas other host factors remained colocalized with the membrane remnants. Furthermore, we found that the disassembly of the membrane remnants took place rapidly, within minutes after bacterial release into the cytoplasm. Superresolution visualization of galectin 3 through photoactivated localization microscopy characterized these remnants as small, specular, patchy structures between 30 and 300 nm in diameter. Using our experimental setup to track the time course of infection, we identified the S. flexneri effector IpgB1 as an accelerator of the infection pace, specifically targeting the entry step, but not vacuolar progression or escape. Together, our studies show that bacterial entry into host cells follows precise kinetics and that this time course can be targeted by the pathogen. PMID:22526677

  12. Listeria monocytogenes induces host DNA damage and delays the host cell cycle to promote infection

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Elsa; Costa, Ana Catarina; Brito, Cláudia; Costa, Lionel; Pombinho, Rita; Cabanes, Didier; Sousa, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a human intracellular pathogen widely used to uncover the mechanisms evolved by pathogens to establish infection. However, its capacity to perturb the host cell cycle was never reported. We show that Lm infection affects the host cell cycle progression, increasing its overall duration but allowing consecutive rounds of division. A complete Lm infectious cycle induces a S-phase delay accompanied by a slower rate of DNA synthesis and increased levels of host DNA strand breaks. Additionally, DNA damage/replication checkpoint responses are triggered in an Lm dose-dependent manner through the phosphorylation of DNA-PK, H2A.X, and CDC25A and independently from ATM/ATR. While host DNA damage induced exogenously favors Lm dissemination, the override of checkpoint pathways limits infection. We propose that host DNA replication disturbed by Lm infection culminates in DNA strand breaks, triggering DNA damage/replication responses, and ensuring a cell cycle delay that favors Lm propagation. PMID:24552813

  13. The Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Kinome Is Essential for Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Barbara A.; Rommereim, Leah M.; Guevara, Rebekah B.; Falla, Alejandra; Hortua Triana, Miryam Andrea; Sun, Yanbo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT    Ingestion of the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes an acute infection that leads to chronic infection of the host. To facilitate the acute phase of the infection, T. gondii manipulates the host response by secreting rhoptry organelle proteins (ROPs) into host cells during its invasion. A few key ROP proteins with signatures of kinases or pseudokinases (ROPKs) act as virulence factors that enhance parasite survival against host gamma interferon-stimulated innate immunity. However, the roles of these and other ROPK proteins in establishing chronic infection have not been tested. Here, we deleted 26 ROPK gene loci encoding 31 unique ROPK proteins of type II T. gondii and show that numerous ROPK proteins influence the development of chronic infection. Cyst burdens were increased in the Δrop16 knockout strain or moderately reduced in 11 ROPK knockout strains. In contrast, deletion of ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35, or ROP38/29/19 (ROP38, ROP29, and ROP19) severely reduced cyst burdens. Δrop5 and Δrop18 knockout strains were less resistant to host immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and exhibited >100-fold-reduced virulence. ROP18 kinase activity and association with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane were necessary for resistance to host IRGs. The Δrop17 strain exhibited a >12-fold defect in virulence; however, virulence was not affected in the Δrop35 or Δrop38/29/19 strain. Resistance to host IRGs was not affected in the Δrop17, Δrop35, or Δrop38/29/19 strain. Collectively, these findings provide the first definitive evidence that the type II T. gondii ROPK proteome functions as virulence factors and facilitates additional mechanisms of host manipulation that are essential for chronic infection and transmission of T. gondii. PMID:27165797

  14. Kinome-wide Decoding of Network-Attacking Mutations Rewiring Cancer Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin M.; Simpson, Craig D.; Longden, James; Miller, Chad J.; Lou, Hua Jane; Perryman, Lara; Cox, Thomas R.; Zivanovic, Nevena; Palmeri, Antonio; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Erler, Janine T.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Linding, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cancer cells acquire pathological phenotypes through accumulation of mutations that perturb signaling networks. However, global analysis of these events is currently limited. Here, we identify six types of network-attacking mutations (NAMs), including changes in kinase and SH2 modulation, network rewiring, and the genesis and extinction of phosphorylation sites. We developed a computational platform (ReKINect) to identify NAMs and systematically interpreted the exomes and quantitative (phospho-)proteomes of five ovarian cancer cell lines and the global cancer genome repository. We identified and experimentally validated several NAMs, including PKCγ M501I and PKD1 D665N, which encode specificity switches analogous to the appearance of kinases de novo within the kinome. We discover mutant molecular logic gates, a drift toward phospho-threonine signaling, weakening of phosphorylation motifs, and kinase-inactivating hotspots in cancer. Our method pinpoints functional NAMs, scales with the complexity of cancer genomes and cell signaling, and may enhance our capability to therapeutically target tumor-specific networks. PMID:26388441

  15. Similarity in viral and host promoters couples viral reactivation with host cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Bohn-Wippert, Kathrin; Tevonian, Erin N.; Megaridis, Melina R.; Dar, Roy D.

    2017-01-01

    Viral–host interactomes map the complex architecture of an evolved arms race during host cell invasion. mRNA and protein interactomes reveal elaborate targeting schemes, yet evidence is lacking for genetic coupling that results in the co-regulation of promoters. Here we compare viral and human promoter sequences and expression to test whether genetic coupling exists and investigate its phenotypic consequences. We show that viral–host co-evolution is imprinted within promoter gene sequences before transcript or protein interactions. Co-regulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) facilitates migration of infected cells. Upon infection, HIV can actively replicate or remain dormant. Migrating infected cells reactivate from dormancy more than non-migrating cells and exhibit differential migration–reactivation responses to drugs. Cells producing virus pose a risk for reinitiating infection within niches inaccessible to drugs, and tuning viral control of migration and reactivation improves strategies to eliminate latent HIV. Viral–host genetic coupling establishes a mechanism for synchronizing transcription and guiding potential therapies. PMID:28462923

  16. Functional kinomics establishes a critical node of volume-sensitive cation-Cl− cotransporter regulation in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinwei; Gao, Geng; Begum, Gulnaz; Wang, Jinhua; Khanna, Arjun R.; Shmukler, Boris E.; Daubner, Gerrit M.; de los Heros, Paola; Davies, Paul; Varghese, Joby; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Iqbal H.; Duan, Jinjing; Zhang, Jin; Duran, Daniel; Alper, Seth L.; Sun, Dandan; Elledge, Stephen J.; Alessi, Dario R.; Kahle, Kristopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Cell volume homeostasis requires the dynamically regulated transport of ions across the plasmalemma. While the ensemble of ion transport proteins involved in cell volume regulation is well established, the molecular coordinators of their activities remain poorly characterized. We utilized a functional kinomics approach including a kinome-wide siRNA-phosphoproteomic screen, a high-content kinase inhibitor screen, and a kinase trapping-Orbitrap mass spectroscopy screen to systematically identify essential kinase regulators of KCC3 Thr991/Thr1048 phosphorylation – a key signaling event in cell swelling-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In the mammalian brain, we found the Cl−-sensitive WNK3-SPAK kinase complex, required for cell shrinkage-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVI) via the stimulatory phosphorylation of NKCC1 (Thr203/Thr207/Thr212), is also essential for the inhibitory phosphorylation of KCC3 (Thr991/Thr1048). This is mediated in vivo by an interaction between the CCT domain in SPAK and RFXV/I domains in WNK3 and NKCC1/KCC3. Accordingly, genetic or pharmacologic WNK3-SPAK inhibition prevents cell swelling in response to osmotic stress and ameliorates post-ischemic brain swelling through a simultaneous inhibition of NKCC1-mediated Cl− uptake and stimulation of KCC3-mediated Cl− extrusion. We conclude that WNK3-SPAK is an integral component of the long-sought “Cl−/volume-sensitive kinase” of the cation-Cl− cotransporters, and functions as a molecular rheostat of cell volume in the mammalian brain. PMID:27782176

  17. Host Cell Factors in Filovirus Entry: Novel Players, New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Kaup, Franziska; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Filoviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with high case-fatality rates. The cellular factors exploited by filoviruses for their spread constitute potential targets for intervention, but are incompletely defined. The viral glycoprotein (GP) mediates filovirus entry into host cells. Recent studies revealed important insights into the host cell molecules engaged by GP for cellular entry. The binding of GP to cellular lectins was found to concentrate virions onto susceptible cells and might contribute to the early and sustained infection of macrophages and dendritic cells, important viral targets. Tyrosine kinase receptors were shown to promote macropinocytic uptake of filoviruses into a subset of susceptible cells without binding to GP, while interactions between GP and human T cell Ig mucin 1 (TIM-1) might contribute to filovirus infection of mucosal epithelial cells. Moreover, GP engagement of the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1 was demonstrated to be essential for GP-mediated fusion of the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Finally, mutagenic and structural analyses defined GP domains which interact with these host cell factors. Here, we will review the recent progress in elucidating the molecular interactions underlying filovirus entry and discuss their implications for our understanding of the viral cell tropism. PMID:23342362

  18. Hijacking Host Cell Highways: Manipulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton by Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Colonne, Punsiri M.; Winchell, Caylin G.; Voth, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems. A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. Cytoskeletal rearrangement promotes numerous events that are beneficial to the pathogen, including internalization of bacteria, structural support for bacteria-containing vacuoles, altered vesicular trafficking, actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that manipulate the host cytoskeleton to thrive within eukaryotic cells and discusses underlying molecular mechanisms that promote these dynamic host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27713866

  19. Immunometabolism and the Kinome Peptide Array: A New Perspective and Tool for the Study of Gut Health

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Ryan J.; Kogut, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Immunometabolism is a relatively new research perspective, focusing on both metabolism and immunology and the cross-talk between these biological processes. Immunometabolism can be considered from two perspectives; 1) the role that immune cells play in organ metabolism and metabolic disease, and 2) the metabolic processes that occur within immune cells and how they affect overall immunity. The gut may be the prototypical organ of immunometabolism. The gut is the site of nutrient absorption and is a major, if not the major, immune organ. We also describe the integration of kinomics and the species-specific peptide array to the study of the gut. This unique immunometabolic tool combined with the unique immunometabolic nature of the gut provides significant research potential to many animal health applications. PMID:26664971

  20. Immunometabolism and the Kinome Peptide Array: A New Perspective and Tool for the Study of Gut Health.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Ryan J; Kogut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Immunometabolism is a relatively new research perspective, focusing on both metabolism and immunology and the cross-talk between these biological processes. Immunometabolism can be considered from two perspectives; 1) the role that immune cells play in organ metabolism and metabolic disease, and 2) the metabolic processes that occur within immune cells and how they affect overall immunity. The gut may be the prototypical organ of immunometabolism. The gut is the site of nutrient absorption and is a major, if not the major, immune organ. We also describe the integration of kinomics and the species-specific peptide array to the study of the gut. This unique immunometabolic tool combined with the unique immunometabolic nature of the gut provides significant research potential to many animal health applications.

  1. The minimal kinome of Giardia lamblia illuminates early kinase evolution and unique parasite biology.

    PubMed

    Manning, Gerard; Reiner, David S; Lauwaet, Tineke; Dacre, Michael; Smith, Alias; Zhai, Yufeng; Svard, Staffan; Gillin, Frances D

    2011-07-25

    The major human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a very early branching eukaryote with a minimal genome of broad evolutionary and biological interest. To explore early kinase evolution and regulation of Giardia biology, we cataloged the kinomes of three sequenced strains. Comparison with published kinomes and those of the excavates Trichomonas vaginalis and Leishmania major shows that Giardia's 80 core kinases constitute the smallest known core kinome of any eukaryote that can be grown in pure culture, reflecting both its early origin and secondary gene loss. Kinase losses in DNA repair, mitochondrial function, transcription, splicing, and stress response reflect this reduced genome, while the presence of other kinases helps define the kinome of the last common eukaryotic ancestor. Immunofluorescence analysis shows abundant phospho-staining in trophozoites, with phosphotyrosine abundant in the nuclei and phosphothreonine and phosphoserine in distinct cytoskeletal organelles. The Nek kinase family has been massively expanded, accounting for 198 of the 278 protein kinases in Giardia. Most Neks are catalytically inactive, have very divergent sequences and undergo extensive duplication and loss between strains. Many Neks are highly induced during development. We localized four catalytically active Neks to distinct parts of the cytoskeleton and one inactive Nek to the cytoplasm. The reduced kinome of Giardia sheds new light on early kinase evolution, and its highly divergent sequences add to the definition of individual kinase families as well as offering specific drug targets. Giardia's massive Nek expansion may reflect its distinctive lifestyle, biphasic life cycle and complex cytoskeleton.

  2. The minimal kinome of Giardia lamblia illuminates early kinase evolution and unique parasite biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The major human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a very early branching eukaryote with a minimal genome of broad evolutionary and biological interest. Results To explore early kinase evolution and regulation of Giardia biology, we cataloged the kinomes of three sequenced strains. Comparison with published kinomes and those of the excavates Trichomonas vaginalis and Leishmania major shows that Giardia's 80 core kinases constitute the smallest known core kinome of any eukaryote that can be grown in pure culture, reflecting both its early origin and secondary gene loss. Kinase losses in DNA repair, mitochondrial function, transcription, splicing, and stress response reflect this reduced genome, while the presence of other kinases helps define the kinome of the last common eukaryotic ancestor. Immunofluorescence analysis shows abundant phospho-staining in trophozoites, with phosphotyrosine abundant in the nuclei and phosphothreonine and phosphoserine in distinct cytoskeletal organelles. The Nek kinase family has been massively expanded, accounting for 198 of the 278 protein kinases in Giardia. Most Neks are catalytically inactive, have very divergent sequences and undergo extensive duplication and loss between strains. Many Neks are highly induced during development. We localized four catalytically active Neks to distinct parts of the cytoskeleton and one inactive Nek to the cytoplasm. Conclusions The reduced kinome of Giardia sheds new light on early kinase evolution, and its highly divergent sequences add to the definition of individual kinase families as well as offering specific drug targets. Giardia's massive Nek expansion may reflect its distinctive lifestyle, biphasic life cycle and complex cytoskeleton. PMID:21787419

  3. Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Archana; Hendricks, Matthew R.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) binds to claudin receptors, e.g., claudin-4, and then forms a pore that triggers cell death. Pure cultures of host cells that do not express claudin receptors, e.g., fibroblasts, are unaffected by pathophysiologically relevant CPE concentrations in vitro. However, both CPE-insensitive and CPE-sensitive host cells are present in vivo. Therefore, this study tested whether CPE treatment might affect fibroblasts when cocultured with CPE-sensitive claudin-4 fibroblast transfectants or Caco-2 cells. Under these conditions, immunofluorescence microscopy detected increased death of fibroblasts. This cytotoxic effect involved release of a toxic factor from the dying CPE-sensitive cells, since it could be reproduced using culture supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells, particularly Caco-2 cells, were found to contain high levels of membrane vesicles, often containing a CPE species. However, most cytotoxic activity remained in those supernatants even after membrane vesicle depletion, and CPE was not detected in fibroblasts treated with supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Instead, characterization studies suggest that a major cytotoxic factor present in supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells may be a 10- to 30-kDa host serine protease or require the action of that host serine protease. Induction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis was found to be important for triggering release of the cytotoxic factor(s) from CPE-treated sensitive host cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factor(s) in these supernatants was shown to induce a caspase-3-mediated killing of fibroblasts. This bystander killing effect due to release of cytotoxic factors from CPE-treated sensitive cells could contribute to CPE-mediated disease. PMID:27965452

  4. Alterations of host cell ubiquitination machinery by pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alomairi, Jaafar; Bonacci, Thomas; Ghigo, Eric; Soubeyran, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Response of immune and non-immune cells to pathogens infections is a very dynamic process. It involves the activation/modulation of many pathways leading to actin remodeling, membrane engulfing, phagocytosis, vesicle trafficking, phagolysosome formation, aiming at the destruction of the intruder. These sophisticated and rapid mechanisms rely on post-translational modifications (PTMs) of key host cells' factors, and bacteria have developed various strategies to manipulate them to favor their survival. Among these important PTMs, ubiquitination has emerged as a major mediator/modulator/regulator of host cells response to infections that pathogens have also learned to use for their own benefit. In this mini-review, we summarize our current knowledge about the normal functions of ubiquitination during host cell infection, and we detail its hijacking by model pathogens to escape clearance and to proliferate.

  5. Viroporins Customize Host Cells for Efficient Viral Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Giorda, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are intracellular parasites that must access the host cell machinery to propagate. Viruses hijack the host cell machinery to help with entry, replication, packaging, and release of progeny to infect new cells. To carry out these diverse functions, viruses often transform the cellular environment using viroporins, a growing class of viral-encoded membrane proteins that promote viral proliferation. Viroporins modify the integrity of host membranes, thereby stimulating the maturation of viral infection, and are critical for virus production and dissemination. Significant advances in molecular and cell biological approaches have helped to uncover some of the roles that viroporins serve in the various stages of the viral life cycle. In this study, the ability of viroporins to modify the cellular environment will be discussed, with particular emphasis on their role in the stepwise progression of the viral life cycle. PMID:23945006

  6. Host epithelial geometry regulates breast cancer cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Boghaert, Eline; Gleghorn, Jason P; Lee, KangAe; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Radisky, Derek C; Nelson, Celeste M

    2012-11-27

    Breast tumor development is regulated in part by cues from the local microenvironment, including interactions with neighboring nontumor cells as well as the ECM. Studies using homogeneous populations of breast cancer cell lines cultured in 3D ECM have shown that increased ECM stiffness stimulates tumor cell invasion. However, at early stages of breast cancer development, malignant cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells, which have been shown to exert a tumor-suppressive effect on cocultured cancer cells. Here we explored how the biophysical characteristics of the host microenvironment affect the proliferative and invasive tumor phenotype of the earliest stages of tumor development, by using a 3D microfabrication-based approach to engineer ducts composed of normal mammary epithelial cells that contained a single tumor cell. We found that the phenotype of the tumor cell was dictated by its position in the duct: proliferation and invasion were enhanced at the ends and blocked when the tumor cell was located elsewhere within the tissue. Regions of invasion correlated with high endogenous mechanical stress, as shown by finite element modeling and bead displacement experiments, and modulating the contractility of the host epithelium controlled the subsequent invasion of tumor cells. Combining microcomputed tomographic analysis with finite element modeling suggested that predicted regions of high mechanical stress correspond to regions of tumor formation in vivo. This work suggests that the mechanical tone of nontumorigenic host epithelium directs the phenotype of tumor cells and provides additional insight into the instructive role of the mechanical tumor microenvironment.

  7. Aquatic viruses induce host cell death pathways and its application.

    PubMed

    Reshi, Latif; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-01-04

    Virus infections of mammalian and animal cells consist of a series of events. As intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the use of host cellular machinery. Through the use of cell culture and molecular approaches over the past decade, our knowledge of the biology of aquatic viruses has grown exponentially. The increase in aquaculture operations worldwide has provided new approaches for the transmission of aquatic viruses that include RNA and DNA viruses. Therefore, the struggle between the virus and the host for control of the cell's death machinery is crucial for survival. Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites and, as such, must modulate apoptotic pathways to control the lifespan of their host to complete their replication cycle. This paper updates the discussion on the detailed mechanisms of action that various aquatic viruses use to induce cell death pathways in the host, such as Bad-mediated, mitochondria-mediated, ROS-mediated and Fas-mediated cell death circuits. Understanding how viruses exploit the apoptotic pathways of their hosts may provide great opportunities for the development of future potential therapeutic strategies and pathogenic insights into different aquatic viral diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of host cell traversal by malaria sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Annie S P; Boddey, Justin A

    2017-02-01

    Malaria is a pernicious infectious disease caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Each year, malaria afflicts over 200million people, causing considerable morbidity, loss to gross domestic product of endemic countries, and more than 420,000 deaths. A central feature of the virulence of malaria parasites is the ability of sporozoite forms injected by a mosquito to navigate from the inoculation site in the skin through host tissues to infect the liver. The ability for sporozoites to traverse through different host cell types is very important for the successful development of parasites within the mammalian host. Over the past decade, our understanding of the role of host cell traversal has become clearer through important studies with rodent models of malaria. However, we still do not understand the stepwise process of host cell entry and exit or know the molecular mechanisms governing each step. We know even less about cell traversal by malaria parasite species that infect humans. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the role and molecular mechanisms of sporozoite cell traversal and highlight recent advances that prompt new ways of thinking about this important process. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Invasion of Host Cells and Tissues by Uropathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Adam J.; Richards, Amanda C.; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Within the mammalian urinary tract uropathogenic bacteria face many challenges, including the shearing flow of urine, numerous antibacterial molecules, the bactericidal effects of phagocytes, and a scarcity of nutrients. These problems may be circumvented in part by the ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and several other uropathogens to invade the epithelial cells that line the urinary tract. By entering host cells, uropathogens can gain access to additional nutrients and protection from both host defenses and antibiotic treatments. Translocation through host cells can facilitate bacterial dissemination within the urinary tract, while the establishment of stable intracellular bacterial populations may create reservoirs for relapsing and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). Here we review the mechanisms and consequences of host cell invasion by uropathogenic bacteria, with consideration of the defenses that are brought to bear against facultative intracellular pathogens within the urinary tract. The relevance of host cell invasion to the pathogenesis of UTIs in human patients is also assessed, along with some of the emerging treatment options that build upon our growing understanding of the infectious life cycle of UPEC and other uropathogenic bacteria. PMID:28087946

  10. Host NKT cells can prevent graft-versus-host disease and permit graft antitumor activity after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Asha B; George, Tracy I; Dutt, Suparna; Teo, Pearline; Strober, Samuel

    2007-05-15

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is a curative treatment for leukemia and lymphoma, but graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) remains a major complication. Using a GVHD protective nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen of total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte serum (TLI/ATS) in mice that has been recently adapted to clinical studies, we show that regulatory host NKT cells prevent the expansion and tissue inflammation induced by donor T cells, but allow retention of the killing activity of donor T cells against the BCL1 B cell lymphoma. Whereas wild-type hosts given transplants from wild-type donors were protected against progressive tumor growth and lethal GVHD, NKT cell-deficient CD1d-/- and Jalpha-18-/- host mice given wild-type transplants cleared the tumor cells but died of GVHD. In contrast, wild-type hosts given transplants from CD8-/- or perforin-/- donors had progressive tumor growth without GVHD. Injection of host-type NKT cells into Jalpha-18-/- host mice conditioned with TLI/ATS markedly reduced the early expansion and colon injury induced by donor T cells. In conclusion, after TLI/ATS host conditioning and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, host NKT cells can separate the proinflammatory and tumor cytolytic functions of donor T cells.

  11. Modification of Bacterial Effector Proteins Inside Eukaryotic Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Popa, Crina M; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria manipulate their hosts by delivering a number of virulence proteins -called effectors- directly into the plant or animal cells. Recent findings have shown that such effectors can suffer covalent modifications inside the eukaryotic cells. Here, we summarize the recent reports where effector modifications by the eukaryotic machinery have been described. We restrict our focus on proteins secreted by the type III or type IV systems, excluding other bacterial toxins. We describe the known examples of effectors whose enzymatic activity is triggered by interaction with plant and animal cell factors, including GTPases, E2-Ubiquitin conjugates, cyclophilin and thioredoxins. We focus on the structural interactions with these factors and their influence on effector function. We also review the described examples of host-mediated post-translational effector modifications which are required for proper subcellular location and function. These host-specific covalent modifications include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and lipidations such as prenylation, fatty acylation and phospholipid binding.

  12. Modification of Bacterial Effector Proteins Inside Eukaryotic Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Crina M.; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria manipulate their hosts by delivering a number of virulence proteins -called effectors- directly into the plant or animal cells. Recent findings have shown that such effectors can suffer covalent modifications inside the eukaryotic cells. Here, we summarize the recent reports where effector modifications by the eukaryotic machinery have been described. We restrict our focus on proteins secreted by the type III or type IV systems, excluding other bacterial toxins. We describe the known examples of effectors whose enzymatic activity is triggered by interaction with plant and animal cell factors, including GTPases, E2-Ubiquitin conjugates, cyclophilin and thioredoxins. We focus on the structural interactions with these factors and their influence on effector function. We also review the described examples of host-mediated post-translational effector modifications which are required for proper subcellular location and function. These host-specific covalent modifications include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and lipidations such as prenylation, fatty acylation and phospholipid binding. PMID:27489796

  13. Dissection of Francisella-Host Cell Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Elisabeth O.; Brenz, Yannick; Herrmann, Lydia; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Zingmark, Carl; Sjöstedt, Anders; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella bacteria cause severe disease in both vertebrates and invertebrates and include one of the most infectious human pathogens. Mammalian cell lines have mainly been used to study the mechanisms by which Francisella manipulates its host to replicate within a large variety of hosts and cell types, including macrophages. Here, we describe the establishment of a genetically and biochemically tractable infection model: the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum combined with the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Phagocytosed F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the endosomal pathway and escapes further phagosomal maturation by translocating into the host cell cytosol. F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis lacking IglC, a known virulence determinant required for Francisella intracellular replication, follows the normal phagosomal maturation and does not grow in Dictyostelium. The attenuation of the F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC mutant was confirmed in a zebrafish embryo model, where growth of F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC was restricted. In Dictyostelium, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the autophagic machinery. The intracellular bacteria colocalize with autophagic markers, and when autophagy is impaired (Dictyostelium Δatg1), F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis accumulates within Dictyostelium cells. Altogether, the Dictyostelium-F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infection model recapitulates the course of infection described in other host systems. The genetic and biochemical tractability of the system allows new approaches to elucidate the dynamic interactions between pathogenic Francisella and its host organism. PMID:26712555

  14. Dissection of Francisella-Host Cell Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Elisabeth O; Brenz, Yannick; Herrmann, Lydia; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Zingmark, Carl; Sjöstedt, Anders; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Hagedorn, Monica

    2015-12-28

    Francisella bacteria cause severe disease in both vertebrates and invertebrates and include one of the most infectious human pathogens. Mammalian cell lines have mainly been used to study the mechanisms by which Francisella manipulates its host to replicate within a large variety of hosts and cell types, including macrophages. Here, we describe the establishment of a genetically and biochemically tractable infection model: the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum combined with the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Phagocytosed F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the endosomal pathway and escapes further phagosomal maturation by translocating into the host cell cytosol. F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis lacking IglC, a known virulence determinant required for Francisella intracellular replication, follows the normal phagosomal maturation and does not grow in Dictyostelium. The attenuation of the F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC mutant was confirmed in a zebrafish embryo model, where growth of F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC was restricted. In Dictyostelium, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the autophagic machinery. The intracellular bacteria colocalize with autophagic markers, and when autophagy is impaired (Dictyostelium Δatg1), F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis accumulates within Dictyostelium cells. Altogether, the Dictyostelium-F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infection model recapitulates the course of infection described in other host systems. The genetic and biochemical tractability of the system allows new approaches to elucidate the dynamic interactions between pathogenic Francisella and its host organism.

  15. Host cell infiltration into PDT-treated tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd; Dougherty, Graeme J.; Chaplin, David J.

    1992-06-01

    C3H mice bearing SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) 24 hours after receiving Photofrin (25 mg/kg, i.v.). Single cell suspensions obtained by the enzymatic digestion of tumors excised either 30 minutes or 4 hours after PDT were analyzed for the content of host immune cells and colony forming ability of malignant cells. The results were compared to the data obtained with non-treated tumors. It is shown that there is a marked increase in the content of cells expressing Mac-1 (monocytes/macrophages or granulocytes) in the tumor 30 minutes post PDT, while a high level of other leucocytes are found within the tumors by 4 hours after PDT. As elaborated in Discussion, the infiltration rate of host immune cells, dying of malignant tumor cells, and yet unknown death rate of host cells originally present in PDT treated tumor occurring concomitantly during this time period complicates this analysis. The results of this study suggest a massive infiltration of macrophages and other leucocytes in PDT treated SCCVII tumor, supporting the suggestion that a potent immune reaction is one of the main characteristics of PDT action in solid tumors. It remains to be determined to what extent is the activity of tumor infiltrating immune cells responsible for its eradication by PDT.

  16. Early Bunyavirus-Host Cell Interactions.

    PubMed

    Albornoz, Amelina; Hoffmann, Anja B; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-05-24

    The Bunyaviridae is the largest family of RNA viruses, with over 350 members worldwide. Several of these viruses cause severe diseases in livestock and humans. With an increasing number and frequency of outbreaks, bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to public health and agricultural productivity globally. Yet, the receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely uncharacterized. The focus of this review is on the early steps of bunyavirus infection, from virus binding to penetration from endosomes. We address current knowledge and advances for members from each genus in the Bunyaviridae family regarding virus receptors, uptake, intracellular trafficking and fusion.

  17. Early Bunyavirus-Host Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Albornoz, Amelina; Hoffmann, Anja B.; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae is the largest family of RNA viruses, with over 350 members worldwide. Several of these viruses cause severe diseases in livestock and humans. With an increasing number and frequency of outbreaks, bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to public health and agricultural productivity globally. Yet, the receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely uncharacterized. The focus of this review is on the early steps of bunyavirus infection, from virus binding to penetration from endosomes. We address current knowledge and advances for members from each genus in the Bunyaviridae family regarding virus receptors, uptake, intracellular trafficking and fusion. PMID:27213430

  18. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-16

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP{sub 2} and PIP{sub 3} to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  19. Mechanisms of outer membrane vesicle entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Eloise J; Krachler, Anne Marie

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized compartments consisting of a lipid bilayer that encapsulates periplasm-derived, luminal content. OMVs, which pinch off of Gram-negative bacteria, are now recognized as a generalized secretion pathway which provides a means to transfer cargo to other bacterial cells as well as eukaryotic cells. Compared with other secretion systems, OMVs can transfer a chemically extremely diverse range of cargo, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to proximal cells. Although it is well recognized that OMVs can enter and release cargo inside host cells during infection, the mechanisms of host association and uptake are not well understood. This review highlights existing studies focusing on OMV-host cell interactions and entry mechanisms, and how these entry routes affect cargo processing within the host. It further compares the wide range of methods currently used to dissect uptake mechanisms, and discusses potential sources of discrepancy regarding the mechanism of OMV uptake across different studies. © 2016 The Authors Cellular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mechanisms of outer membrane vesicle entry into host cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Donoghue, Eloise J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano‐sized compartments consisting of a lipid bilayer that encapsulates periplasm‐derived, luminal content. OMVs, which pinch off of Gram‐negative bacteria, are now recognized as a generalized secretion pathway which provides a means to transfer cargo to other bacterial cells as well as eukaryotic cells. Compared with other secretion systems, OMVs can transfer a chemically extremely diverse range of cargo, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to proximal cells. Although it is well recognized that OMVs can enter and release cargo inside host cells during infection, the mechanisms of host association and uptake are not well understood. This review highlights existing studies focusing on OMV‐host cell interactions and entry mechanisms, and how these entry routes affect cargo processing within the host. It further compares the wide range of methods currently used to dissect uptake mechanisms, and discusses potential sources of discrepancy regarding the mechanism of OMV uptake across different studies. PMID:27529760

  1. Toxoplasma Co-opts Host Cells It Does Not Invade

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Anita A.; Dietrich, Hans K.; Christian, David A.; Melehani, Jason H.; Shastri, Anjali J.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Boothroyd, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Like many intracellular microbes, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii injects effector proteins into cells it invades. One group of these effector proteins is injected from specialized organelles called the rhoptries, which have previously been described to discharge their contents only during successful invasion of a host cell. In this report, using several reporter systems, we show that in vitro the parasite injects rhoptry proteins into cells it does not productively invade and that the rhoptry effector proteins can manipulate the uninfected cell in a similar manner to infected cells. In addition, as one of the reporter systems uses a rhoptry:Cre recombinase fusion protein, we show that in Cre-reporter mice infected with an encysting Toxoplasma-Cre strain, uninfected-injected cells, which could be derived from aborted invasion or cell-intrinsic killing after invasion, are actually more common than infected-injected cells, especially in the mouse brain, where Toxoplasma encysts and persists. This phenomenon has important implications for how Toxoplasma globally affects its host and opens a new avenue for how other intracellular microbes may similarly manipulate the host environment at large. PMID:22910631

  2. Host cell targets for African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Galindo, Inmaculada; Cuesta-Geijo, Miguel Ángel; Barrado-Gil, Lucía; Alonso, Covadonga

    2015-11-02

    Viruses are strict intracellular pathogens that require the cellular environment to complete a successful infection. Among them, African swine fever virus (ASFV) is an evolutionary ancient DNA virus, endemic in Africa, which is nowadays causing an emergent disease in Europe with a potential high economic impact in the pig industry. It is well known that host-cell components are critical crossroads mapping the virus path for a productive infection, some of them at the endocytic pathway. Considering that ASFV infectious cycle strongly relies in several factors from the host cell, the study of virus-host interactions remains crucial as they will reveal the obstacles, routes and tracks, hints and the target waypoint in the virus journey to destination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Host cell modulation by human, animal and plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Siv G E; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2004-04-01

    Members of the alpha-proteobacteria display a broad range of interactions with higher eukaryotes. Some are pathogens of humans, such as Rickettsia and Bartonella that are associated with diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. Others like the Brucella cause abortions in pregnant animals. Yet other species have evolved elaborate interactions with plants; in this group we find both plant symbionts and parasites. Despite radically different host preferences, extreme genome size variations and the absence of toxin genes, similarities in survival strategies and host cell interactions can be recognized among members of the alpha-proteobacteria. Here, we review some of these similarities, with a focus on strategies for modulation of the host target cell.

  4. The tomato kinome and the tomato kinase library ORFeome: novel resources for the study of kinases and signal transduction in tomato and solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra K; Calviño, Mauricio; Brauer, Elizabeth K; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Strickler, Susan; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Stratmann, Johannes W; Popescu, George V; Mueller, Lukas A; Popescu, Sorina C

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase-driven phosphorylation constitutes the core of cellular signaling. Kinase components of signal transduction pathways are often targeted for inactivation by pathogens. The study of kinases and immune signal transduction in the model crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) would benefit from the availability of community-wide resources for large scale and systems-level experimentation. Here, we defined the tomato kinome and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the tomato kinome and 15 other plant species. We constructed a tomato kinase library (TOKN 1.0) of over 300 full-length open reading frames (ORF) cloned into a recombination-based vector. We developed a high-throughput pipeline to isolate and transform tomato protoplasts. A subset of the TOKN 1.0 library kinases were expressed in planta, were purified, and were used to generate a functional tomato protein microarray. All resources created were utilized to test known and novel associations between tomato kinases and Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effectors in a large-scale format. Bsk7 was identified as a component of the plant immune response and a candidate effector target. These resources will enable comprehensive investigations of signaling pathways and host-pathogen interactions in tomato and other Solanaceae spp.

  5. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    PubMed

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection.

  6. Th9 cells drive host immunity against gastrointestinal worm infection

    PubMed Central

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejía, Jorge; Temann, Angela U.; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De’Broski R.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4), -5, -9, and -13 drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial and the importance of IL-9 vs. IL-4 producing CD4+ effector T cells in Type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9 deficient and IL-9 fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early Type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas Th9 cells and Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC2) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and non-redundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host protective Type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection. PMID:24138883

  7. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  8. Host cell factors as antiviral targets in arenavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Linero, Florencia N; Sepúlveda, Claudia S; Giovannoni, Federico; Castilla, Viviana; García, Cybele C; Scolaro, Luis A; Damonte, Elsa B

    2012-09-01

    Among the members of the Arenaviridae family, Lassa virus and Junin virus generate periodic annual outbreaks of severe human hemorrhagic fever (HF) in endemic areas of West Africa and Argentina, respectively. Given the human health threat that arenaviruses represent and the lack of a specific and safe chemotherapy, the search for effective antiviral compounds is a continuous demanding effort. Since diverse host cell pathways and enzymes are used by RNA viruses to fulfill their replicative cycle, the targeting of a host process has turned an attractive antiviral approach in the last years for many unrelated virus types. This strategy has the additional benefit to reduce the serious challenge for therapy of RNA viruses to escape from drug effects through selection of resistant variants triggered by their high mutation rate. This article focuses on novel strategies to identify inhibitors for arenavirus therapy, analyzing the potential for antiviral developments of diverse host factors essential for virus infection.

  9. Toxoplasma exports dense granule proteins beyond the vacuole to the host cell nucleus and rewires the host genome expression.

    PubMed

    Bougdour, Alexandre; Tardieux, Isabelle; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the most widespread apicomplexan parasite and occupies a large spectrum of niches by infecting virtually any warm-blooded animals. As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma has evolved a repertoire of strategies to fine-tune the cellular environment in an optimal way to promote growth and persistence in host tissues hence increasing the chance to be transmitted to new hosts. Short and long-term intracellular survival is associated with Toxoplasma ability to both evade the host deleterious immune defences and to stimulate a beneficial immune balance by governing host cell gene expression. It is only recently that parasite proteins responsible for driving these transcriptional changes have been identified. While proteins contained in the apical secretory Rhoptry organelle have already been identified as bona fide secreted effectors that divert host signalling pathways, recent findings revealed that dense granule proteins should be added to the growing list of effectors as they reach the host cell cytoplasm and nucleus and target various host cell pathways in the course of cell infection. Herein, we emphasize on a novel subfamily of dense granule residentproteins, exemplified with the GRA16 and GRA24 members we recently discovered as both are exported beyond the vacuole-containing parasites and reach the host cell nucleus to reshape the host genome expression. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sendai virus utilizes specific sialyloligosaccharides as host cell receptor determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Markwell, M A; Paulson, J C

    1980-01-01

    Purified sialyltransferases (CMP-N-acetyl-neuraminate:D-galactosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylneuraminyl-transferase, EC 2.4.99.1) in conjunction with neuraminidase (acylneuraminyl hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.18) were used to produce cell surface sialyloligosaccharides of defined sequence to investigate their role in paramyxovirus infection of host cells. Infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells by Sendai virus was monitored by hemagglutination titer of the virus produced and by changes in morphological characteristics. By either criterion, treatment of the cells with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase to remove cell surface sialic acids rendered them resistant to infection by Sendai virus. Endogenous replacement of receptors by the cell occurred slowly but supported maximal levels of infection within 6 hr. In contrast, sialylation during a 20-min incubation with CMP-sialic acid and beta-galactoside alpha 2,3-sialytransferase restored full susceptibility to infection. This enzyme elaborates the NeuAc alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,3GalNAc (NeuAc, N-acetylneuraminic acid) sequence on glycoproteins and glycolipids. No restoration of infectivity was observed when neuraminidase-treated cells were sialylated by using beta-galactoside alpha 2,6-sialytransferase, which elaborates the NeuAc-alpha 2,6Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc sequence. These results suggest that sialyloligosaccharide receptor determinants of defined sequence are required for Sendai virus infection of host cells. Images PMID:6255459

  11. Protein kinases of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: the kinome of a divergent eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Pauline; Equinet, Leila; Packer, Jeremy; Doerig, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Background Malaria, caused by the parasitic protist Plasmodium falciparum, represents a major public health problem in the developing world. The P. falciparum genome has been sequenced, which provides new opportunities for the identification of novel drug targets. Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) form a large family of enzymes with crucial roles in most cellular processes; hence malarial ePKS represent potential drug targets. We report an exhaustive analysis of the P. falciparum genomic database (PlasmoDB) aimed at identifying and classifying all ePKs in this organism. Results Using a variety of bioinformatics tools, we identified 65 malarial ePK sequences and constructed a phylogenetic tree to position these sequences relative to the seven established ePK groups. Predominant features of the tree were: (i) that several malarial sequences did not cluster within any of the known ePK groups; (ii) that the CMGC group, whose members are usually involved in the control of cell proliferation, had the highest number of malarial ePKs; and (iii) that no malarial ePK clustered with the tyrosine kinase (TyrK) or STE groups, pointing to the absence of three-component MAPK modules in the parasite. A novel family of 20 ePK-related sequences was identified and called FIKK, on the basis of a conserved amino acid motif. The FIKK family seems restricted to Apicomplexa, with 20 members in P. falciparum and just one member in some other Apicomplexan species. Conclusion The considerable phylogenetic distance between Apicomplexa and other Eukaryotes is reflected by profound divergences between the kinome of malaria parasites and that of yeast or mammalian cells. PMID:15479470

  12. Expanding the Kinome World: A New Protein Kinase Family Widely Conserved in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien-Anh; El Khoury, Takla; Guiral, Sébastien; Laaberki, Maria-Halima; Candusso, Marie-Pierre; Galisson, Frédéric; Foucher, Anne-Emmanuelle; Kesraoui, Salsabil; Ballut, Lionel; Vallet, Sylvain; Orelle, Cédric; Zucchini, Laure; Martin, Juliette; Page, Adeline; Attieh, Jihad; Aghajari, Nushin; Grangeasse, Christophe; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2017-10-13

    Fine tuning of signaling pathways is essential for cells to cope with sudden environmental variations. This delicate balance is maintained in particular by protein kinases that control the activity of target proteins by reversible phosphorylation. In addition to homologous eukaryotic enzymes, bacteria have evolved some specific Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases without any structural resemblance to their eukaryotic counterparts. Here, we show that a previously identified family of ATPases, broadly conserved among bacteria, is in fact a new family of protein kinases with a Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase activity. A prototypic member of this family, YdiB from Bacillus subtilis, is able to autophosphorylate and to phosphorylate a surrogate substrate, the myelin basic protein. Two crystal structures of YdiB were solved (1.8 and 2.0Å) that display a unique ATP-binding fold unrelated to known protein kinases, although a conserved HxD motif is reminiscent of that found in Hanks-type protein kinases. The effect of mutations of conserved residues further highlights the unique nature of this new protein kinase family that we name ubiquitous bacterial kinase. We investigated the cellular role of YdiB and showed that a ∆ydiB mutant was more sensitive to paraquat treatment than the wild type, with ~13% of cells with an aberrant morphology. In addition, YdiE, which is known to participate with both YdiC and YdiB in an essential chemical modification of some specific tRNAs, is phosphorylated in vitro by YdiB. These results expand the boundaries of the bacterial kinome and support the involvement of YdiB in protein translation and resistance to oxidative stress in B. subtilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel HIV-1 Therapeutics through Targeting Altered Host Cell Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Coley, William; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Van Duyne, Rachel; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) strains presents a challenge for the design of new drugs. Anti-HIV compounds currently in use are the subject of advanced clinical trials using either HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase, viral protease, or integrase inhibitors. Recent studies show an increase in the number of HIV-1 variants resistant to anti-retroviral agents in newly infected individuals. Targeting host cell factors involved in the regulation of HIV-1 replication might be one way to combat HIV-1 resistance to the currently available anti-viral agents. A specific inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression could be expected from the development of compounds targeting host cell factors that participate in the activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Here we will discuss how targeting the host can be accomplished either by using small molecules to alter the function of the host’s proteins such as p53 or cdk9, or by utilizing new advances in siRNA therapies to knock down essential host factors such as CCR5 and CXCR4. Finally, we will discuss how the viral protein interactomes should be performed to better design therapeutics against HIV-1. PMID:19732026

  14. Host cell kinases and the hepatitis C virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Che C; Lupberger, Joachim; Doerig, Christian; Baumert, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection relies on virus-host interactions with human hepatocytes, a context in which host cell kinases play critical roles in every step of the HCV life cycle. During viral entry, cellular kinases, including EGFR, EphA2 and PKA, regulate the localization of host HCV entry factors and induce receptor complex assembly. Following virion internalization, viral genomes replicate on endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranous webs. The formation of membranous webs depends on interactions between the HCV NS5a protein and PI4KIIIα. The phosphorylation status of NS5a, regulated by PI4KIIIα, CKI and other kinases, also acts as a molecular switch to virion assembly, which takes place on lipid droplets. The formation of lipid droplets is enhanced by HCV activation of IKKα. In view of the multiple crucial steps in the viral life cycle that are mediated by host cell kinases, these enzymes also represent complementary targets for antiviral therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  16. Cancer Cell Discrimination Using Host-Guest "Doubled" Arrays.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc D B; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Mout, Rubul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Wille, Marcos E; Rana, Subinoy; Dunphy, Karen A; Jerry, D Joseph; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rotello, Caren M; Rotello, Vincent M

    2017-06-14

    We report a nanosensor that uses cell lysates to rapidly profile the tumorigenicity of cancer cells. This sensing platform uses host-guest interactions between cucurbit[7]uril and the cationic headgroup of a gold nanoparticle to non-covalently modify the binding of three fluorescent proteins of a multi-channel sensor in situ. This approach doubles the number of output channels to six, providing single-well identification of cell lysates with 100% accuracy. Significantly, this classification could be extended beyond the training set, determining the invasiveness of novel cell lines. The unique fingerprint of these cell lysates required minimal sample quantity (200 ng, ∼1000 cells), making the methodology compatible with microbiopsy technology.

  17. RELATION OF TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS TO THE HOST CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Esau, Katherine; Cronshaw, James

    1967-01-01

    The relation of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to host cells was studied in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. systemically infected with the virus. The typical TMV inclusions, striate or crystalline material and ameboid or X-bodies, which are discernible with the light microscope, and/or particles of virus, which are identifiable with the electron microscope, were observed in epidermal cells, mesophyll cells, parenchyma cells of the vascular bundles, differentiating and mature tracheary elements, and immature and mature sieve elements. Virus particles were observed in the nuclei and the chloroplasts of parenchyma cells as well as in the ground cytoplasm, the vacuole, and between the plasma membrane and the cell wall. The nature of the conformations of the particle aggregates in the chloroplasts was compatible with the concept that some virus particles may be assembled in these organelles. The virus particles in the nuclei appeared to be complete particles. Under the electron microscope the X-body constitutes a membraneless assemblage of endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, virus particles, and of virus-related material in the form of wide filaments indistinctly resolvable as bundles of tubules. Some parenchyma cells contained aggregates of discrete tubules in parallel arrangement. These groups of tubules were relatively free from components of host protoplasts. PMID:6036529

  18. Infection Strategies of Intestinal Parasite Pathogens and Host Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Di Genova, Bruno M.; Tonelli, Renata R.

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading causes worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these three pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite–host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases’ pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways, and cell death. PMID:26973630

  19. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  20. Brucella T4SS: the VIP pass inside host cells.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Thais Lourdes Santos; Salcedo, Suzana Pinto; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    For many Gram-negative bacteria, like Brucella, the type IV secretion system (T4SS) has a critical role in bacterial virulence. In Brucella, the VirB T4SS permits the injection of bacterial effectors inside host cells, leading to subversion of signaling pathways and favoring bacterial growth and pathogenesis. The virB operon promoter is tightly regulated by a combination of transcriptional activators and repressors that are expressed according to the environmental conditions encountered by Brucella. Recent advances have shed light on the Brucella T4SS regulatory mechanisms and also its substrates. Characterization of the targets and functions of these translocated effectors is underway and will help understand the role of the T4SS in the establishment of a replication niche inside host cells.

  1. Host cell autophagy in immune response to zoonotic infections.

    PubMed

    Skendros, Panagiotis; Mitroulis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a fundamental homeostatic process in which cytoplasmic targets are sequestered within double-membraned autophagosomes and subsequently delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Accumulating evidence supports the pivotal role of autophagy in host defense against intracellular pathogens implicating both innate and adaptive immunity. Many of these pathogens cause common zoonotic infections worldwide. The induction of the autophagic machinery by innate immune receptors signaling, such as TLRs, NOD1/2, and p62/SQSTM1 in antigen-presenting cells results in inhibition of survival and elimination of invading pathogens. Furthermore, Th1 cytokines induce the autophagic process, whereas autophagy also contributes to antigen processing and MHC class II presentation, linking innate to adaptive immunity. However, several pathogens have developed strategies to avoid autophagy or exploit autophagic machinery to their advantage. This paper focuses on the role of host cell autophagy in the regulation of immune response against intracellular pathogens, emphasizing on selected bacterial and protozoan zoonoses.

  2. Centrality of host cell death in plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Martin B; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for proper growth, development, and cellular homeostasis in all eukaryotes. The regulation of PCD is of central importance in plant-microbe interactions; notably, PCD and features associated with PCD are observed in many host resistance responses. Conversely, pathogen induction of inappropriate cell death in the host results in a susceptible phenotype and disease. Thus, the party in control of PCD has a distinct advantage in these battles. PCD processes appear to be of ancient origin, as indicated by the fact that many features of cell death strategy are conserved between animals and plants; however, some of the details of death execution differ. Mammalian core PCD genes, such as caspases, are not present in plant genomes. Similarly, pro- and antiapoptotic mammalian regulatory elements are absent in plants, but, remarkably, when expressed in plants, successfully impact plant PCD. Thus, subtle structural similarities independent of sequence homology appear to sustain operational equivalence. The vacuole is emerging as a key organelle in the modulation of plant PCD. Under different signals for cell death, the vacuole either fuses with the plasmalemma membrane or disintegrates. Moreover, the vacuole appears to play a key role in autophagy; evidence suggests a prosurvival function for autophagy, but other studies propose a prodeath phenotype. Here, we describe and discuss what we know and what we do not know about various PCD pathways and how the host integrates signals to activate salicylic acid and reactive oxygen pathways that orchestrate cell death. We suggest that it is not cell death as such but rather the processes leading to cell death that contribute to the outcome of a given plant-pathogen interaction.

  3. Toxoplasma Actin Is Required for Efficient Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drewry, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apicomplexan parasites actively invade host cells using a mechanism predicted to be powered by a parasite actin-dependent myosin motor. In the model apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii, inducible knockout of the actin gene, ACT1, was recently demonstrated to limit but not completely abolish invasion. This observation has led to the provocative suggestion that T. gondii possesses alternative, ACT1-independent invasion pathways. Here, we dissected the residual invasive ability of Δact1 parasites. Surprisingly, we were able to detect residual ACT1 protein in inducible Δact1 parasites as long as 5 days after ACT1 deletion. We further found that the longer Δact1 parasites were propagated after ACT1 deletion, the more severe an invasion defect was observed. Both findings are consistent with the quantity of residual ACT1 retained in Δact1 parasites being responsible for their invasive ability. Furthermore, invasion by the Δact1 parasites was also sensitive to the actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D. Finally, there was no clear defect in attachment to host cells or moving junction formation by Δact1 parasites. However, Δact1 parasites often exhibited delayed entry into host cells, suggesting a defect specific to the penetration stage of invasion. Overall, our results support a model where residual ACT1 protein retained in inducible Δact1 parasites facilitates their limited invasive ability and confirm that parasite actin is essential for efficient penetration into host cells during invasion. PMID:26081631

  4. Baculovirus Infection Influences Host Protein Expression in Two Established Insect Cell Lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We identified host proteins that changed in response to host cell susceptibility to baculovirus infection. We used three baculovirus–host cell systems utilizing two cell lines derived from pupal ovaries, Hz-AM1 (from Helicoverpa zea) and Hv-AM1 (from Heliothis virescens). Hv-AM1 cells are permissive...

  5. Legionella pneumophila type IV effectors hijack the transcription and translation machinery of the host cell.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Monica; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens modulate the host response to persist and replicate inside a eukaryotic cell and cause disease. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is present in freshwater environments and represents one of these pathogens. During coevolution with protozoan cells, L. pneumophila has acquired highly sophisticated and diverse strategies to hijack host cell processes. It secretes hundreds of effectors into the host cell, and these manipulate host signaling pathways and key cellular processes. Recently it has been shown that L. pneumophila is also able to alter the transcription and translation machinery of the host and to exploit epigenetic mechanisms in the cells it resides in to counteract host responses.

  6. Variation in RNA Virus Mutation Rates across Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Combe, Marine; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that RNA viruses exhibit higher rates of spontaneous mutation than DNA viruses and microorganisms. However, their mutation rates vary amply, from 10−6 to 10−4 substitutions per nucleotide per round of copying (s/n/r) and the causes of this variability remain poorly understood. In addition to differences in intrinsic fidelity or error correction capability, viral mutation rates may be dependent on host factors. Here, we assessed the effect of the cellular environment on the rate of spontaneous mutation of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which has a broad host range and cell tropism. Luria-Delbrück fluctuation tests and sequencing showed that VSV mutated similarly in baby hamster kidney, murine embryonic fibroblasts, colon cancer, and neuroblastoma cells (approx. 10−5 s/n/r). Cell immortalization through p53 inactivation and oxygen levels (1–21%) did not have a significant impact on viral replication fidelity. This shows that previously published mutation rates can be considered reliable despite being based on a narrow and artificial set of laboratory conditions. Interestingly, we also found that VSV mutated approximately four times more slowly in various insect cells compared with mammalian cells. This may contribute to explaining the relatively slow evolution of VSV and other arthropod-borne viruses in nature. PMID:24465205

  7. Host Cell Invasion in Mucormycosis: Role of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical hallmarks of mucormycosis infections include the unique susceptibility of patients with increased available serum iron, the propensity of the organism to invade blood vessels, and defective phagocytic function. These hallmarks underscore the critical roles of iron metabolism, phagocyte function, and interactions with endothelial cells lining blood vessels, in the organism’s virulence strategy. In an attempt to understand how Mucorales invade the host, we will review the current knowledge about interactions between Mucorales and the host while evading phagocyte-mediated killing. Additionally, since iron is an important determinant of the disease, we will focus on the role of iron on these interactions. Ultimately, a superior understanding of the pathogenesis of mucormycosis will enable development of novel therapies for this disease. PMID:21807554

  8. HIV-Induced Epigenetic Alterations in Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, Enass A; Ji, Hong; Shata, Mohamed Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a member of the Retroviridae family, is a positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus. HIV, the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has two major types, HIV-1 and HIV-2 In HIV-infected cells the single stranded viral RNA genome is reverse transcribed and the double-stranded viral DNA integrates into the cellular DNA, forming a provirus. The proviral HIV genome is controlled by the host epigenetic regulatory machinery. Cellular epigenetic regulators control HIV latency and reactivation by affecting the chromatin state in the vicinity of the viral promoter located to the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence. In turn, distinct HIV proteins affect the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of the host cells. HIV-1 infection of CD4(+) T cells in vitro upregulated DNMT activity and induced hypermethylation of distinct cellular promoters. In contrast, in the colon mucosa and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients demethylation of the FOXP3 promoter was observed, possibly due to the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. For a curative therapy of HIV infected individuals and AIDS patients, a combination of antiretroviral drugs with epigenetic modifying compounds have been suggested for the reactivation of latent HIV-1 genomes. These epigenetic drugs include histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI), histone methyltransferase inhibitors (HMTI), histone demethylase inhibitors, and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTI).

  9. Identifying Francisella tularensis Genes Required for Growth in Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, J.; Steele, S.; Miller, C.; Lovullo, E.; Taft-Benz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative intracellular pathogen capable of infecting a vast diversity of hosts, ranging from amoebae to humans. A hallmark of F. tularensis virulence is its ability to quickly grow to high densities within a diverse set of host cells, including, but not limited to, macrophages and epithelial cells. We developed a luminescence reporter system to facilitate a large-scale transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes required for growth in macrophage and epithelial cell lines. We screened 7,454 individual mutants, 269 of which exhibited reduced intracellular growth. Transposon insertions in the 269 growth-defective strains mapped to 68 different genes. FTT_0924, a gene of unknown function but highly conserved among Francisella species, was identified in this screen to be defective for intracellular growth within both macrophage and epithelial cell lines. FTT_0924 was required for full Schu S4 virulence in a murine pulmonary infection model. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant bacterial membrane is permeable when replicating in hypotonic solution and within macrophages, resulting in strongly reduced viability. The permeability and reduced viability were rescued when the mutant was grown in a hypertonic solution, indicating that FTT_0924 is required for resisting osmotic stress. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant was also significantly more sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics than Schu S4. Taken together, the data strongly suggest that FTT_0924 is required for maintaining peptidoglycan integrity and virulence. PMID:25987704

  10. Identifying Francisella tularensis genes required for growth in host cells.

    PubMed

    Brunton, J; Steele, S; Miller, C; Lovullo, E; Taft-Benz, S; Kawula, T

    2015-08-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative intracellular pathogen capable of infecting a vast diversity of hosts, ranging from amoebae to humans. A hallmark of F. tularensis virulence is its ability to quickly grow to high densities within a diverse set of host cells, including, but not limited to, macrophages and epithelial cells. We developed a luminescence reporter system to facilitate a large-scale transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes required for growth in macrophage and epithelial cell lines. We screened 7,454 individual mutants, 269 of which exhibited reduced intracellular growth. Transposon insertions in the 269 growth-defective strains mapped to 68 different genes. FTT_0924, a gene of unknown function but highly conserved among Francisella species, was identified in this screen to be defective for intracellular growth within both macrophage and epithelial cell lines. FTT_0924 was required for full Schu S4 virulence in a murine pulmonary infection model. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant bacterial membrane is permeable when replicating in hypotonic solution and within macrophages, resulting in strongly reduced viability. The permeability and reduced viability were rescued when the mutant was grown in a hypertonic solution, indicating that FTT_0924 is required for resisting osmotic stress. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant was also significantly more sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics than Schu S4. Taken together, the data strongly suggest that FTT_0924 is required for maintaining peptidoglycan integrity and virulence.

  11. Inkjet printing of silk nest arrays for cell hosting.

    PubMed

    Suntivich, Rattanon; Drachuk, Irina; Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2014-04-14

    An inkjet printing approach is presented for the facile fabrication of microscopic arrays of biocompatible silk "nests" capable of hosting live cells for prospective biosensors. The patterning of silk fibroin nests were constructed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of silk polyelectrolytes chemically modified with poly-(l-lysine) and poly-(l-glutamic acid) side chains. The inkjet-printed silk circular regions with a characteristic "nest" shape had diameters of 70-100 μm and a thickness several hundred nanometers were stabilized by ionic pairing and by the formation of the silk II crystalline secondary structure. These "locked-in" silk nests remained anchored to the substrate during incubation in cell growth media to provide a biotemplated platform for printing-in, immobilization, encapsulation and growth of cells. The process of inkjet-assisted printing is versatile and can be applied on any type of substrate, including rigid and flexible, with scalability and facile formation.

  12. Depletion of host cell riboflavin reduces Wolbachia levels in cultured mosquito cells

    PubMed Central

    Baldridge, Gerald D.; Carroll, Elissa M.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium that occurs in arthropod and nematode hosts. Wolbachia presumably provides a fitness benefit to its hosts, but the basis for its retention and spread in host populations remains unclear. Wolbachia genomes retain biosynthetic pathways for some vitamins, and the possibility that these vitamins benefit host cells provides a potential means of selecting for Wolbachia-infected cell lines. To explore whether riboflavin produced by Wolbachia is available to its host cell, we established that growth of uninfected C7–10 mosquito cells decreases in riboflavin-depleted culture medium. A well studied inhibitor of riboflavin uptake, lumiflavin, further inhibits growth of uninfected C7–10 cells with an LC50 of approximately 12 µg/ml. Growth of C/wStr1 mosquito cells, infected with Wolbachia from the planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, was enhanced in medium containing low levels of lumiflavin, but Wolbachia levels decreased. Lumiflavin-enhanced growth thus resembled the improved growth that accompanies treatment with antibiotics that deplete Wolbachia, rather than a metabolic advantage provided by the Wolbachia infection. We used the polymerase chain reaction to validate the decrease in Wolbachia abundance and evaluated our results in the context of a proteomic analysis in which we detected nearly 800 wStr proteins. Our data indicate that Wolbachia converts riboflavin to FMN and FAD for its own metabolic needs, and does not provide a source of riboflavin for its host cell. PMID:24789726

  13. Depletion of host cell riboflavin reduces Wolbachia levels in cultured mosquito cells.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Ann M; Baldridge, Gerald D; Carroll, Elissa M; Kurtz, Cassandra M

    2014-09-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium that occurs in arthropod and nematode hosts. Wolbachia presumably provides a fitness benefit to its hosts, but the basis for its retention and spread in host populations remains unclear. Wolbachia genomes retain biosynthetic pathways for some vitamins, and the possibility that these vitamins benefit host cells provides a potential means of selecting for Wolbachia-infected cell lines. To explore whether riboflavin produced by Wolbachia is available to its host cell, we established that growth of uninfected C7-10 mosquito cells decreases in riboflavin-depleted culture medium. A well-studied inhibitor of riboflavin uptake, lumiflavin, further inhibits growth of uninfected C7-10 cells with an LC50 of approximately 12 μg/ml. Growth of C/wStr1 mosquito cells, infected with Wolbachia from the planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, was enhanced in medium containing low levels of lumiflavin, but Wolbachia levels decreased. Lumiflavin-enhanced growth thus resembled the improved growth that accompanies treatment with antibiotics that deplete Wolbachia, rather than a metabolic advantage provided by the Wolbachia infection. We used the polymerase chain reaction to validate the decrease in Wolbachia abundance and evaluated our results in the context of a proteomic analysis in which we detected nearly 800 wStr proteins. Our data indicate that Wolbachia converts riboflavin to FMN and FAD for its own metabolic needs, and does not provide a source of riboflavin for its host cell.

  14. Exosomes Secreted by Toxoplasma gondii-Infected L6 Cells: Their Effects on Host Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Changes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Song, Hyemi; Pyo, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Min-Kyung; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces alteration of the host cell cycle and cell proliferation. These changes are not only seen in directly invaded host cells but also in neighboring cells. We tried to identify whether this alteration can be mediated by exosomes secreted by T. gondii-infected host cells. L6 cells, a rat myoblast cell line, and RH strain of T. gondii were selected for this study. L6 cells were infected with or without T. gondii to isolate exosomes. The cellular growth patterns were identified by cell counting with trypan blue under confocal microscopy, and cell cycle changes were investigated by flow cytometry. L6 cells infected with T. gondii showed decreased proliferation compared to uninfected L6 cells and revealed a tendency to stay at S or G2/M cell phase. The treatment of exosomes isolated from T. gondii-infected cells showed attenuation of cell proliferation and slight enhancement of S phase in L6 cells. The cell cycle alteration was not as obvious as reduction of the cell proliferation by the exosome treatment. These changes were transient and disappeared at 48 hr after the exosome treatment. Microarray analysis and web-based tools indicated that various exosomal miRNAs were crucial for the regulation of target genes related to cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the exosomes originating from T. gondii could change the host cell proliferation and alter the host cell cycle.

  15. Lassa Virus Cell Entry Reveals New Aspects of Virus-Host Cell Interaction.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Giulia; Galan-Navarro, Clara; Kunz, Stefan

    2017-02-15

    Viral entry represents the first step of every viral infection and is a determinant for the host range and disease potential of a virus. Here, we review the latest developments on cell entry of the highly pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus, providing novel insights into the complex virus-host cell interaction of this important human pathogen. We will cover new discoveries on the molecular mechanisms of receptor recognition, endocytosis, and the use of late endosomal entry factors.

  16. Interaction of Human Tumor Viruses with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Georgia; Blumenthal, Melissa J.; Katz, Arieh A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, seven viruses, namely Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), have been described to be consistently associated with different types of human cancer. These oncogenic viruses belong to distinct viral families, display diverse cell tropism and cause different malignancies. A key to their pathogenicity is attachment to the host cell and entry in order to replicate and complete their life cycle. Interaction with the host cell during viral entry is characterized by a sequence of events, involving viral envelope and/or capsid molecules as well as cellular entry factors that are critical in target cell recognition, thereby determining cell tropism. Most oncogenic viruses initially attach to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, followed by conformational change and transfer of the viral particle to secondary high-affinity cell- and virus-specific receptors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the host cell surface factors and molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic virus binding and uptake by their cognate host cell(s) with the aim to provide a concise overview of potential target molecules for prevention and/or treatment of oncogenic virus infection. PMID:26008702

  17. Interaction of human tumor viruses with host cell surface receptors and cell entry.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Georgia; Blumenthal, Melissa J; Katz, Arieh A

    2015-05-22

    Currently, seven viruses, namely Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), have been described to be consistently associated with different types of human cancer. These oncogenic viruses belong to distinct viral families, display diverse cell tropism and cause different malignancies. A key to their pathogenicity is attachment to the host cell and entry in order to replicate and complete their life cycle. Interaction with the host cell during viral entry is characterized by a sequence of events, involving viral envelope and/or capsid molecules as well as cellular entry factors that are critical in target cell recognition, thereby determining cell tropism. Most oncogenic viruses initially attach to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, followed by conformational change and transfer of the viral particle to secondary high-affinity cell- and virus-specific receptors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the host cell surface factors and molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic virus binding and uptake by their cognate host cell(s) with the aim to provide a concise overview of potential target molecules for prevention and/or treatment of oncogenic virus infection.

  18. The interactions of intracellular Protista and their host cells, with special reference to heterotrophic organisms.

    PubMed

    Bannister, L H

    1979-04-11

    Intracellular genera are found in all the major groups of Protista, but are particularly common among the dinoflagellates, trypanosomatid zooflagellates and suctorian ciliates; the Sporozoa are nearly all intracellular at some stage of their life, and the Microspora entirely so. Intracellular forms can dwell in the nucleus, within phagosomal or other vacuoles or may lie free in the hyaloplasm of their host cells. Organisms tend to select their hosts from a restricted taxonomic range although there are some notable exceptions. There is also great variation in the types of host cell inhabited. There are various reasons for both host and cell selectivity including recognition phenomena at the cell surfaces. Invasion of host cells is usually preceded by surface interactions with the invader. Some organisms depend upon phagocytosis for entry, but others induce host cells to engulf them by non-phagocytic means or invade by microinjection through the host plasma membrane. Protista avoid lysosomal destruction by their resistance to enzyme attack, by surrounding themselves with lysosome-inhibiting vacuoles, by escaping from the phagosomal system into the hyaloplasm and by choosing host cells which lack lysosomes. Nutrition of intracellular heterotrophic organisms involves some degree of competition with the host cell's metabolism as well as erosion of host cell cytoplasm. In Plasmodium infections, red cells are made more permeable to required nutrients by the action of the parasite on the host cell membrane. The parasite is often dependent upon the host cell for complex nutrients which it cannot synthesize for itself. Intracellular forms often profoundly modify the structure and metabolism of the host cell or interfere with its growth and multiplication. This may result in the final lysis of the host cell at the end of the intracellular phase or before the infection of other cells. Certain types of intracellular organisms may have arisen initially as forms attached to the

  19. Role of myeloid cells in HIV-1-host interplay.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The AIDS research field has embarked on a bold mission to cure HIV-1-infected individuals of the virus. To do so, scientists are attempting to identify the reservoirs that support viral persistence in patients on therapy, to understand how viral persistence is regulated and to come up with strategies that interrupt viral persistence and that eliminate the viral reservoirs. Most of the attention regarding the cure of HIV-1 infection has focused on the CD4+ T cell reservoir. Investigators are developing tools to probe the CD4+ T cell reservoirs as well as in vitro systems that provide clues on how to perturb them. By comparison, the myeloid cell, and in particular, the macrophage has received far less attention. As a consequence, there is very little understanding as to the role played by myeloid cells in viral persistence in HIV-1-infected individuals on suppressive therapy. As such, should myeloid cells constitute a viral reservoir, unique strategies may be required for their elimination. This article will overview research that is examining the role of macrophage in virus-host interplay and will discuss features of this interplay that could impact efforts to eliminate myeloid cell reservoirs.

  20. Innate lymphoid cells in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Konya, V; Mjösberg, J

    2015-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are lymphocytes lacking rearranged antigen receptors such as those expressed by T and B cells. ILC are important effector and regulatory cells of the innate immune system, controlling lymphoid organogenesis, tissue inflammation, and homeostasis. The family of ILC consists of cytotoxic NK cells and the more recently described noncytotoxic group 1, 2, and 3 ILC. The classification of noncytotoxic ILC-in many aspects-mirrors that of T helper cells, which is based on the expression of master transcription factors and signature cytokines specific for each subset. The IL-22 producing RORγt(+) ILC3 subset was recently found to be critical in the prevention of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) via strengthening the intestinal mucosal barrier. In this review, we summarize the current view of the immunological functions of human noncytotoxic ILC subsets and discuss the potentially beneficial features of IL-22 producing ILC3 in improving allo-HCT efficacy by attenuating susceptibility to GVHD. In addition, we explore the possibility of other ILC subsets playing a role in GVHD. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. The Haemonchus contortus kinome--a resource for fundamental molecular investigations and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Stroehlein, Andreas J; Young, Neil D; Korhonen, Pasi K; Jabbar, Abdul; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-08

    Protein kinases regulate a plethora of essential signalling and other biological pathways in all eukaryotic organisms, but very little is known about them in most parasitic nematodes. Here, we defined, for the first time, the entire complement of protein kinases (kinome) encoded in the barber's pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) through an integrated analysis of transcriptomic and genomic datasets using an advanced bioinformatic workflow. We identified, curated and classified 432 kinases representing ten groups, 103 distinct families and 98 subfamilies. A comparison of the kinomes of H. contortus and Caenorhabditis elegans (a related, free-living nematode) revealed considerable variation in the numbers of casein kinases, tyrosine kinases and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, which likely relate to differences in biology, habitat and life cycle between these worms. Moreover, a suite of kinase genes was selectively transcribed in particular developmental stages of H. contortus, indicating central roles in developmental and reproductive processes. In addition, using a ranking system, drug targets (n = 13) and associated small-molecule effectors (n = 1517) were inferred. The H. contortus kinome will provide a useful resource for fundamental investigations of kinases and signalling pathways in this nematode, and should assist future anthelmintic discovery efforts; this is particularly important, given current drug resistance problems in parasitic nematodes.

  2. Pathogen Cell-to-cell Variability Drives Heterogeneity In Host Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Roi; Haseley, Nathan; Brown, Douglas; Penaranda, Cristina; Jijon, Humberto B; Trombetta, John J; Satija, Rahul; Shalek, Alex K; Xavier, Ramnik; Regev, Aviv; Hung, Deborah T

    2015-01-01

    Summary Encounters between immune cells and invading bacteria ultimately determine the course of infection. These interactions are usually measured in populations of cells, masking cell-to-cell variation that may be important for infection outcome. To characterize gene expression variation that underlies distinct infection outcomes, we developed an experimental system that combines single-cell RNA-seq with fluorescent markers, monitoring infection phenotypes. Probing the responses of individual macrophages to invading Salmonella, we find that variation between individual infected host cells is determined by the heterogeneous activity of bacterial factors in individual infecting bacteria. We illustrate how variable PhoPQ activity in the population of invading bacteria drives variable host Type I IFN responses by modifying LPS in a subset of bacteria. This work demonstrates a causative link between host and bacterial variability, with cell-to-cell variation between different bacteria being sufficient to drive radically different host immune responses. This co-variation has implications for host-pathogen dynamics in vivo. PMID:26343579

  3. Homeostatic expansion and repertoire regeneration of donor T cells during graft versus host disease is constrained by the host environment

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Jack; Chen, Xiao; Gendelman, Mariya; Yassai, Maryam; Krueger, Ashley; Tivol, Elizabeth; Logan, Brent; Komorowski, Richard; Vodanovic-Jankovic, Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) typically results in impaired T-cell reconstitution characterized by lymphopenia and repertoire skewing. One of the major causes of inadequate T-cell reconstitution is that T-cell survival and expansion in the periphery are impaired. In this report, we have performed adoptive transfer studies to determine whether the quantitative reduction in T-cell numbers is due to an intrinsic T-cell defect or whether the environmental milieu deleteriously affects T-cell expansion. These studies demonstrate that T cells obtained from animals with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are capable of significant expansion and renormalization of an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio when they are removed from this environment. Moreover, these cells can generate complex T-cell repertoires early after transplantation and are functionally competent to respond to third-party alloantigens. Our data indicate that T cells from mice undergoing GVHD can respond to homeostatic signals in the periphery and are not intrinsically compromised once they are removed from the GVHD environment. We thereby conclude that the host environment and not an intrinsic T-cell defect is primarily responsible for the lack of effective T-cell expansion and diversification of complex T-cell repertoires that occurs during GVHD. PMID:17347406

  4. Dynamic flux of microvesicles modulate parasite-host cell interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, M I; Deolindo, P; de Messias-Reason, I J; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, H; Almeida, I C; Evans-Osses, I

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles released from pathogens may alter host cell functions. We previously demonstrated the involvement of host cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) during early interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote (META) stage and THP-1 cells. Here, we aim to understand the contribution of different parasite stages and their extracellular vesicles in the interaction with host cells. First, we observed that infective host cell-derived trypomastigote (tissue culture-derived trypomastigote [TCT]), META, and noninfective epimastigote (EPI) stages were able to induce different levels of MV release from THP-1 cells; however, only META and TCT could increase host cell invasion. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy revealed that THP-1-derived MVs can fuse with parasite-derived MVs. Furthermore, MVs derived from the TCT-THP-1 interaction showed a higher fusogenic capacity than those from META- or EPI-THP-1 interaction. However, a higher presence of proteins from META (25%) than TCT (12%) or EPI (5%) was observed in MVs from parasite-THP-1 interaction, as determined by proteomics. Finally, sera from patients with chronic Chagas disease at the indeterminate or cardiac phase differentially recognized antigens in THP-1-derived MVs resulting only from interaction with infective stages. The understanding of intracellular trafficking and the effect of MVs modulating the immune system may provide important clues about Chagas disease pathophysiology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Intracellular Voyeurism: Examining the Modulation of Host Cell Activities bySalmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Jason; Brumell, John H

    2005-11-01

    Salmonella spp. can infect host cells by gaining entry through phagocytosis or by inducing host cell membrane ruffling that facilitates bacterial uptake. With its wide host range, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has proven to be an important model organism for studying intracellular bacterial pathogenesis. Upon entry into host cells, serovar Typhimurium typically resides within a membrane-bound compartment termed the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). From the SCV, serovar Typhimurium can inject several effector proteins that subvert many normal host cell systems, including endocytic trafficking, cytoskeletal rearrangements, lipid signaling and distribution, and innate and adaptive host defenses. The study of these intracellular events has been made possible through the use of various imaging techniques, ranging from classic methods of transmission electron microscopy to advanced livecell fluorescence confocal microscopy. In addition, DNA microarrays have now been used to provide a "snapshot" of global gene expression in serovar Typhimurium residing within the infected host cell. This review describes key aspects of Salmonella-induced subversion of host cell activities, providing examples of imaging that have been used to elucidate these events. Serovar Typhimurium engages specific host cell machinery from initial contact with the host cell to replication within the SCV. This continuous interaction with the host cell has likely contributed to the extensive arsenal that serovar Typhimurium now possesses, including two type III secretion systems, a range of ammunition in the form of TTSS effectors, and a complex genetic regulatory network that coordinates the expression of hundreds of virulence factors.

  6. Emerging functions as host cell factors - an encyclopedia of annexin-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Kuehnl, Alexander; Musiol, Agnes; Raabe, Carsten A; Rescher, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases and drug-resistant infectious agents call for the development of innovative antimicrobial strategies. With pathogenicity now considered to arise from the complex and bi-directional interplay between a microbe and the host, host cell factor targeting has emerged as a promising approach that might overcome the limitations of classical antimicrobial drug development and could open up novel and efficient therapeutic strategies. Interaction with and modulation of host cell membranes is a recurrent theme in the host-microbe relationship. In this review, we provide an overview of what is currently known about the role of the Ca2+ dependent, membrane-binding annexin protein family in pathogen-host interactions, and discuss their emerging functions as host cell derived auxiliary proteins in microbe-host interactions and host cell targets.

  7. Fierce Competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for Host Cell Structures in Dually Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Julia D.; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A.; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M.

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients. PMID:23243063

  8. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    PubMed

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  9. Inhibition of host cell catalase by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a possible mechanism for cell injury.

    PubMed Central

    Almagor, M; Yatziv, S; Kahane, I

    1983-01-01

    This study demonstrates that viable Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells inhibit catalase activity in several types of intact human cells as well as in solution. Human erythrocyte catalase was inhibited up to 72%, and the inhibition of catalase in human cultured skin fibroblasts, lung carcinoma epithelial cells, and ciliated epithelial cells from human nasal polyps ranged between 75 and 80%. UV light-killed mycoplasmas failed to inhibit catalase activity both in intact cells and in vitro. After M. pneumoniae infection of human cultured skin fibroblasts, the level of malonyldialdehyde, an indicator for membrane lipid peroxidation, was 3.5 times higher than in control fibroblasts. Virulent M. pneumoniae completely inhibited catalase activity in solution, whereas the nonvirulent strains had a lesser ability to inhibit catalase activity. These findings suggest that as a result of host cell catalase inhibition by M. pneumoniae, the toxicity of the hydrogen peroxide generated by the microorganism and the affected cell is enhanced, thereby inducing host cell damage. PMID:6407999

  10. Laser-mediated rupture of chlamydial inclusions triggers pathogen egress and host cell necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Markus C.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Ferguson, Charles; Tanzer, Maria C.; Murphy, James M.; Yap, Alpha S.; Parton, Robert G.; Huston, Wilhelmina M.; Teasdale, Rohan D

    2017-01-01

    Remarkably little is known about how intracellular pathogens exit the host cell in order to infect new hosts. Pathogenic chlamydiae egress by first rupturing their replicative niche (the inclusion) before rapidly lysing the host cell. Here we apply a laser ablation strategy to specifically disrupt the chlamydial inclusion, thereby uncoupling inclusion rupture from the subsequent cell lysis and allowing us to dissect the molecular events involved in each step. Pharmacological inhibition of host cell calpains inhibits inclusion rupture, but not subsequent cell lysis. Further, we demonstrate that inclusion rupture triggers a rapid necrotic cell death pathway independent of BAK, BAX, RIP1 and caspases. Both processes work sequentially to efficiently liberate the pathogen from the host cytoplasm, promoting secondary infection. These results reconcile the pathogen's known capacity to promote host cell survival and induce cell death. PMID:28281536

  11. A microfluidic cell-trapping device for single-cell tracking of host-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Delincé, Matthieu J; Bureau, Jean-Baptiste; López-Jiménez, Ana Teresa; Cosson, Pierre; Soldati, Thierry; McKinney, John D

    2016-08-16

    The impact of cellular individuality on host-microbe interactions is increasingly appreciated but studying the temporal dynamics of single-cell behavior in this context remains technically challenging. Here we present a microfluidic platform, InfectChip, to trap motile infected cells for high-resolution time-lapse microscopy. This approach allows the direct visualization of all stages of infection, from bacterial uptake to death of the bacterium or host cell, over extended periods of time. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by co-culturing an established host-cell model, Dictyostelium discoideum, with the extracellular pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae or the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium marinum. We show that the outcome of such infections is surprisingly heterogeneous, ranging from abortive infection to death of the bacterium or host cell. InfectChip thus provides a simple method to dissect the time-course of host-microbe interactions at the single-cell level, yielding new insights that could not be gleaned from conventional population-based measurements.

  12. The Kinome of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas, Its Expression during Development and in Response to Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Epelboin, Yanouk; Quintric, Laure; Guévélou, Eric; Boudry, Pierre; Pichereau, Vianney; Corporeau, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Oysters play an important role in estuarine and coastal marine habitats, where the majority of humans live. In these ecosystems, environmental degradation is substantial, and oysters must cope with highly dynamic and stressful environmental constraints during their lives in the intertidal zone. The availability of the genome sequence of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas represents a unique opportunity for a comprehensive assessment of the signal transduction pathways that the species has developed to deal with this unique habitat. We performed an in silico analysis to identify, annotate and classify protein kinases in C. gigas, according to their kinase domain taxonomy classification, and compared with kinome already described in other animal species. The C. gigas kinome consists of 371 protein kinases, making it closely related to the sea urchin kinome, which has 353 protein kinases. The absence of gene redundancy in some groups of the C. gigas kinome may simplify functional studies of protein kinases. Through data mining of transcriptomes in C. gigas, we identified part of the kinome which may be central during development and may play a role in response to various environmental factors. Overall, this work contributes to a better understanding of key sensing pathways that may be central for adaptation to a highly dynamic marine environment. PMID:27231950

  13. Mast cells impair host defense during murine Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; Brands, Xanthe; Roelofs, Joris J T H; de Beer, Regina; de Boer, Onno J; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Mast cells (MCs) are located mainly at the host-environment interface where they function as sentinels. Our goal was to study the role of MCs during pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae. Lung tissue of patients who had died from pneumococcal pneumonia or a nonpulmonary cause was stained for MCs and tryptase. Wild-type (WT) and MC-deficient (Kit(W-sh/W-sh)) mice were observed or sacrificed after induction of pneumonia by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae. In separate experiments, WT mice were treated with doxantrazole or cromoglycate, which are MC stabilizing agents. The constitutive presence of tryptase-positive MCs was reduced in affected lungs from pneumonia patients. Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice showed a prolonged survival during the first few days after median lethal dose (LD)100 and LD50 infection, while overall mortality did not differ from that in WT mice. Relative to WT mice, Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice showed reduced bacterial counts with less bacterial dissemination to distant organs and less inflammation. Neither doxantrazole nor cromoglycate influenced antibacterial defense or inflammatory responses after airway infection with S. pneumoniae. MCs exhibit an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism independent of degranulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Some aspects of oncogenic virus-host cell and virus-tumor cell antigenic relationships.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E

    1982-01-01

    Some viewpoints are presented as regards the virus-host cell relationship within the framework of carcinogenesis. Data are reviewed which point out the possibility of the transfer of cellular antigenic fractions from the tumor cell to the virus that grows in it, as well as of a hybridization between the virus genome and the genome of the tumoral host cell. Such a hybridization may have multiple consequences, among which the appearance of new oncogenic variants of viruses so far known to be nononcogenic ones.

  15. Bacterial Colonization of Host Cells in the Absence of Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Gilk, Stacey D.; Cockrell, Diane C.; Luterbach, Courtney; Hansen, Bryan; Knodler, Leigh A.; Ibarra, J. Antonio; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Reports implicating important roles for cholesterol and cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in host-pathogen interactions have largely employed sterol sequestering agents and biosynthesis inhibitors. Because the pleiotropic effects of these compounds can complicate experimental interpretation, we developed a new model system to investigate cholesterol requirements in pathogen infection utilizing DHCR24−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). DHCR24−/− MEFs lack the Δ24 sterol reductase required for the final enzymatic step in cholesterol biosynthesis, and consequently accumulate desmosterol into cellular membranes. Defective lipid raft function by DHCR24−/− MEFs adapted to growth in cholesterol-free medium was confirmed by showing deficient uptake of cholera-toxin B and impaired signaling by epidermal growth factor. Infection in the absence of cholesterol was then investigated for three intracellular bacterial pathogens: Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Invasion by S. Typhimurium and C. trachomatis was unaltered in DHCR24−/− MEFs. In contrast, C. burnetii entry was significantly decreased in −cholesterol MEFs, and also in +cholesterol MEFs when lipid raft-associated αVβ3 integrin was blocked, suggesting a role for lipid rafts in C. burnetii uptake. Once internalized, all three pathogens established their respective vacuolar niches and replicated normally. However, the C. burnetii-occupied vacuole within DHCR24−/− MEFs lacked the CD63-postive material and multilamellar membranes typical of vacuoles formed in wild type cells, indicating cholesterol functions in trafficking of multivesicular bodies to the pathogen vacuole. These data demonstrate that cholesterol is not essential for invasion and intracellular replication by S. Typhimurium and C. trachomatis, but plays a role in C. burnetii-host cell interactions. PMID:23358892

  16. shRNA kinome screen identifies TBK1 as a therapeutic target for HER2+ breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tao; Liu, Jeff C; Chung, Philip E D; Uehling, David; Aman, Ahmed; Joseph, Babu; Ketela, Troy; Jiang, Zhe; Schachter, Nathan F; Rottapel, Robert; Egan, Sean E; Al-Awar, Rima; Moffat, Jason; Zacksenhaus, Eldad

    2014-04-01

    HER2(+) breast cancer is currently treated with chemotherapy plus anti-HER2 inhibitors. Many patients do not respond or relapse with aggressive metastatic disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutics that can target HER2(+) breast cancer and potentiate the effect of anti-HER2 inhibitors, in particular those that can target tumor-initiating cells (TIC). Here, we show that MMTV-Her2/Neu mammary tumor cells cultured as nonadherent spheres or as adherent monolayer cells select for stabilizing mutations in p53 that "immortalize" the cultures and that, after serial passages, sphere conditions maintain TICs, whereas monolayer cells gradually lose these tumorigenic cells. Using tumorsphere formation as surrogate for TICs, we screened p53-mutant Her2/Neu(+) tumorsphere versus monolayer cells with a lentivirus short hairpin RNA kinome library. We identified kinases such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase and the TGFβR protein family, previously implicated in HER2(+) breast cancer, as well as autophagy factor ATG1/ULK1 and the noncanonical IκB kinase (IKK), TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which have not been previously linked to HER2(+) breast cancer. Knockdown of TBK1 or pharmacologic inhibition of TBK1 and the related protein, IKKε, suppressed growth of both mouse and human HER2(+) breast cancer cells. TBK1/IKKε inhibition promoted cellular senescence by suppressing p65-NF-κB and inducing p16(Ink4a). In addition, TBK1/IKKε inhibition cooperated with lapatinib, a HER2/EGFR1-targeted drug, to accelerate apoptosis and kill HER2(+) breast cancer cells both in culture and in xenografts. Our results suggest that patients with HER2(+) breast cancer may benefit from anti-TBK1/IKKε plus anti-HER2 combination therapies and establish conditions that can be used to screen for additional TIC-specific inhibitors of HER2(+) breast cancer.

  17. Kinome-wide functional screen identifies role of PLK1 in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhola, Neil E; Jansen, Valerie M; Bafna, Sangeeta; Giltnane, Jennifer M; Balko, Justin M; Estrada, Mónica V; Meszoely, Ingrid; Mayer, Ingrid; Abramson, Vandana; Ye, Fei; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C; Allen, Eliezer V; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-01-15

    Estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive breast cancers initially respond to antiestrogens but eventually become estrogen independent and recur. ER(+) breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) exhibit hormone-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth. A kinome-wide siRNA screen using a library targeting 720 kinases identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as one of the top genes whose downregulation resulted in inhibition of estrogen-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth of LTED cells. High PLK1 mRNA and protein correlated with a high Ki-67 score in primary ER(+) breast cancers after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PLK1 inhibited ER expression, estrogen-independent growth, and ER transcription in MCF7 and HCC1428 LTED cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of PLK1 with volasertib, a small-molecule ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor, decreased LTED cell growth, ER transcriptional activity, and ER expression. Volasertib in combination with the ER antagonist, fulvestrant, decreased MCF7 xenograft growth in ovariectomized mice more potently than each drug alone. JUNB, a component of the AP-1 complex, was expressed 16-fold higher in MCF7/LTED compared with parental MCF7 cells. Furthermore, JUNB and BCL2L1 (which encodes antiapoptotic BCL-xL) mRNA levels were markedly reduced upon volasertib treatment in MCF7/LTED cells, while they were increased in parental MCF7 cells. Finally, JUNB knockdown decreased ER expression and transcriptional activity in MCF7/LTED cells, suggesting that PLK1 drives ER expression and estrogen-independent growth via JUNB. These data support a critical role of PLK1 in acquired hormone-independent growth of ER(+) human breast cancer and is therefore a promising target in tumors that have escaped estrogen deprivation therapy. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. The Transforming Parasite Theileria Co-opts Host Cell Mitotic and Central Spindles to Persist in Continuously Dividing Cells

    PubMed Central

    von Schubert, Conrad; Xue, Gongda; Schmuckli-Maurer, Jacqueline; Woods, Kerry L.; Nigg, Erich A.; Dobbelaere, Dirk A. E.

    2010-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Theileria inhabits the host cell cytoplasm and possesses the unique capacity to transform the cells it infects, inducing continuous proliferation and protection against apoptosis. The transforming schizont is a multinucleated syncytium that resides free in the host cell cytoplasm and is strictly intracellular. To maintain transformation, it is crucial that this syncytium is divided over the two daughter cells at each host cell cytokinesis. This process was dissected using different cell cycle synchronization methods in combination with the targeted application of specific inhibitors. We found that Theileria schizonts associate with newly formed host cell microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles, positioning the parasite at the equatorial region of the mitotic cell where host cell chromosomes assemble during metaphase. During anaphase, the schizont interacts closely with host cell central spindle. As part of this process, the schizont recruits a host cell mitotic kinase, Polo-like kinase 1, and we established that parasite association with host cell central spindles requires Polo-like kinase 1 catalytic activity. Blocking the interaction between the schizont and astral as well as central spindle microtubules prevented parasite segregation between the daughter cells during cytokinesis. Our findings provide a striking example of how an intracellular eukaryotic pathogen that evolved ways to induce the uncontrolled proliferation of the cells it infects usurps the host cell mitotic machinery, including Polo-like kinase 1, one of the pivotal mitotic kinases, to ensure its own persistence and survival. PMID:20927361

  19. Adhesion to the host cell surface is sufficient to mediate Listeria monocytogenes entry into epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Fabian E; Rengarajan, Michelle; Chavez, Natalie; Radhakrishnan, Prathima; Gloerich, Martijn; Bianchini, Julie; Siemers, Kathleen; Luckett, William S; Lauer, Peter; Nelson, W James; Theriot, Julie A

    2017-09-06

    An intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier breached by the Gram-positive facultative pathogen Listeria monocytogenes during an in vivo infection. L. monocytogenes binds to the epithelial host cell receptor E-cadherin, which mediates a physical link between the bacterium and filamentous actin (F-actin). However, the importance of anchoring the bacterium to F-actin through E-cadherin for bacterial invasion has not been tested directly in epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that depleting αE-catenin, which indirectly links E-cadherin to F-actin, did not decrease L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells in tissue culture. Instead, invasion increased due to increased bacterial adhesion to epithelial monolayers with compromised cell-cell junctions. Furthermore, expression of a mutant E-cadherin lacking the intracellular domain was sufficient for efficient L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells. Importantly, direct biotin-mediated binding of bacteria to surface lipids in the plasma membrane of host epithelial cells was sufficient for uptake. Our results indicate that the only requirement for L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells is adhesion to the host cell surface, and that E-cadherin-mediated coupling of the bacterium to F-actin is not required. © 2017 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  20. The cell cycle of symbiotic Chlorella. I. The relationship between host feeding and algal cell growth and division.

    PubMed

    McAuley, P J

    1985-08-01

    When green hydra were starved, cell division of the symbiotic algae within their digestive cells was inhibited, but algal cell growth, measured as increase in either mean volume or protein content per cell, was not. Therefore, control of algal division by the host digestive cells must be effected by direct inhibition of algal mitosis rather than by controlling algal cell growth. The number of algae per digestive cell increased slightly during starvation, eventually reaching a new stable level. A number of experiments demonstrated that although there was a relationship between host cell and algal mitosis, this was not causal: the apparent entrainment of algal mitosis to that of the host cells could be disrupted. Thus, there was a delay in algal but not host cell mitosis when hydra were fed after prolonged starvation, and algae repopulated starved hydra with lower than normal numbers of algae (reinfected aposymbionts or hydra transferred to light after growth in continuous darkness). Two experiments demonstrated a direct stimulation of algal cell division by host feeding. Relationships of algal and host cell mitosis to numbers of Artemia digested per hydra were different, and in hydra fed extracted Artemia algal, but not host cell, mitosis was reduced in comparison to that in control hydra fed live shrimp. It is proposed that algal division may be dependent on a division factor, derived from host digestion of prey, whose supply is controlled by the host cells. Numbers of algae per cell would be regulated by competition for division factor, except at host cell mitosis, when the algae may have temporarily uncontrolled access to host pools of division factor. The identity of the division factor is not known, but presumably is a metabolite needed by both host cells and algae.

  1. Studying host cell protein interactions with monoclonal antibodies using high throughput protein A chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sisodiya, Vikram N; Lequieu, Joshua; Rodriguez, Maricel; McDonald, Paul; Lazzareschi, Kathlyn P

    2012-10-01

    Protein A chromatography is typically used as the initial capture step in the purification of monoclonal antibodies produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although exploiting an affinity interaction for purification, the level of host cell proteins in the protein A eluent varies significantly with different feedstocks. Using a batch binding chromatography method, we performed a controlled study to assess host cell protein clearance across both MabSelect Sure and Prosep vA resins. We individually spiked 21 purified antibodies into null cell culture fluid generated with a non-producing cell line, creating mock cell culture fluids for each antibody with an identical composition of host cell proteins and antibody concentration. We demonstrated that antibody-host cell protein interactions are primarily responsible for the variable levels of host cell proteins in the protein A eluent for both resins when antibody is present. Using the additives guanidine HCl and sodium chloride, we demonstrated that antibody-host cell protein interactions may be disrupted, reducing the level of host cell proteins present after purification on both resins. The reduction in the level of host cell proteins differed between antibodies suggesting that the interaction likely varies between individual antibodies but encompasses both an electrostatic and hydrophobic component.

  2. Eimeria bovis-induced modulation of the host cell proteome at the meront I stage.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Kathleen; Schmitt, Sigrid; Linder, Monica; Hermosilla, Carlos; Zahner, Horst; Taubert, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The proteome of Eimeria bovis meront I-carrying host cells was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) at 14 days p.i. and compared to non-infected control cells. A total of 221 protein spots were modulated in their abundance in E. bovis-infected host cells and were subsequently analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). These analyses identified 104 proteins in total with 25 host cell proteins being up-regulated and 79 proteins being down-regulated in E. bovis-infected host cells. Moreover, 20 newly expressed proteins were identified exclusively in E. bovis-infected host cells and were most likely of parasite origin. Parasite-induced differences in protein abundance concerned distinct functional categories, with most proteins being involved in host cell metabolism, cell structure, protein fate and gene transcription. Some of the modulated molecules also indicated regulatory processes on the level of host cell stress response (HSP70, HSP90), host cell apoptosis (caspase 8) and actin elongation/depolymerization (α-actinin-1, gelsonin, tropomodulin-3, transgelin). Since merozoites I were already released shortly after cell sampling, the current data reflect the situation at the end of first merogony. This is the first proteomic approach on E. bovis-infected host cells that was undertaken to gain a rather broad insight into Eimeria-induced host cell modulation. The data processed in this investigation should provide a useful basis for more detailed analyses concerning Eimeria-host cell interactions.

  3. Host cell capable of producing enzymes useful for degradation of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Los, Alrik Pieter; Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2015-08-18

    The invention relates to a host cell comprising at least four different heterologous polynucleotides chosen from the group of polynucleotides encoding cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is capable of producing the at least four different enzymes chosen from the group of cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is a filamentous fungus and is capable of secretion of the at least four different enzymes. This host cell can suitably be used for the production of an enzyme composition that can be used in a process for the saccharification of cellulosic material.

  4. Host cell capable of producing enzymes useful for degradation of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Los, Alrik Pieter; Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2017-08-22

    The invention relates to a host cell comprising at least four different heterologous polynucleotides chosen from the group of polynucleotides encoding cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is capable of producing the at least four different enzymes chosen from the group of cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is a filamentous fungus and is capable of secretion of the at least four different enzymes. This host cell can suitably be used for the production of an enzyme composition that can be used in a process for the saccharification of cellulosic material.

  5. Hypomethylation of host cell DNA synthesized after infection or transformation of cells by herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Macnab, J.C.M.; Adams, R.L.P.; Rinaldi, A.; Orr, A.; Clark, L.

    1988-04-01

    Infection of rat embryo cells with herpes simplex virus type 2 caused undermethylation of host cell DNA synthesized during infection. DNA made prior to infection was not demethylated, but some of its degradation products, including methyl dCMP, were incorporated into viral DNA. The use of mutant virus showed that some viral DNA synthesis appears to be required for the inhibition of methylation. Inhibition of methylation cannot be explained by an absence of DNA methyltransferase as the activity of this enzyme did not change during the early period of infection. Inhibition of host cell DNA methylation may be an important step in the transformation of cells by herpesviruses, and various transformed cell lines tested showed reduced levels of DNA methylation.

  6. Host Cell Interactions Are a Significant Barrier to the Clinical Utility of Peptide Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Starr, Charles G; He, Jing; Wimley, William C

    2016-12-16

    Despite longstanding promise and many known examples, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have failed, thus far, to impact human medicine. On the basis of the physical chemistry and mechanism of action of AMPs, we hypothesized that host cell interactions could contribute to a loss of activity in vivo where host cells are highly concentrated. To test this idea, we characterized AMP activity in the presence of human red blood cells (RBC). Indeed, we show that most of a representative set of natural and synthetic AMPs tested are significantly inhibited by preincubation with host cells and would be effectively inactive at physiological cell density. We studied an example broad-spectrum AMP, ARVA (RRGWALRLVLAY), in a direct, label-free binding assay. We show that weak binding to host cells, coupled with their high concentration, is sufficient to account for a loss of useful activity, for at least some AMPs, because >1 × 10(8) peptides must be bound to each bacterial cell to achieve sterilization. The effect of host cell preincubation on AMP activity is comparable to that of serum protein binding. Feasible changes in host cell binding could lead to AMPs that do not lose activity through interaction with host cells. We suggest that the intentional identification of AMPs that are active in the presence of concentrated host cells can be achieved with a paradigm shift in the way AMPs are discovered.

  7. Cutaneous graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplant - a review*

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Cesar Daniel Villarreal; Alanis, Julio Cesar Salas; Pérez, Jose Carlos Jaime; Candiani, Jorge Ocampo

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT) associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The earliest and most common manifestation is cutaneous graft-versus-host disease. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical features, prevention and treatment of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease. We discuss various insights into the disease's mechanisms and the different treatments for acute and chronic skin graft-versus-host disease. PMID:27438202

  8. Host cell protein adsorption characteristics during protein A chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Richard D R; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Tait, Andrew S; Smales, C Mark; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2012-07-01

    Protein A chromatography is a critical and 'gold-standard' step in the purification of monoclonal antibody (mAb) products. Its ability to remove >98% of impurities in a single step alleviates the burden on subsequent process steps and facilitates the implementation of platform processes, with a minimal number of chromatographic steps. Here, we have evaluated four commercially available protein A chromatography matrices in terms of their ability to remove host cell proteins (HCPs), a complex group of process related impurities that must be removed to minimal levels. SELDI-TOF MS was used as a screening tool to generate an impurity profile fingerprint for each resin and indicated a number of residual impurities present following protein A chromatography, agreeing with HCP ELISA. Although many of these were observed for all matrices there was a significantly elevated level of impurity binding associated with the resin based on controlled pore glass under standard conditions. Use of null cell line supernatant with and without spiked purified mAb demonstrated the interaction of HCPs to be not only with the resin back-bone but also with the bound mAb. A null cell line column overload and sample enrichment method before 2D-PAGE was then used to determine individual components associated with resin back-bone adsorption. The methods shown allow for a critical analysis of HCP removal during protein A chromatography. Taken together they provide the necessary process understanding to allow process engineers to identify rational approaches for the removal of prominent HCPs.

  9. Kinomic Profiling of Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy Specimens: A New Approach for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joshua C.; Minnich, Douglas J.; Dobelbower, M. Christian; Denton, Alexander J.; Dussaq, Alex M.; Gilbert, Ashley N.; Rohrbach, Timothy D.; Arafat, Waleed; Welaya, Karim; Bonner, James A.; Willey, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Researchers are currently seeking relevant lung cancer biomarkers in order to make informed decisions regarding therapeutic selection for patients in so-called “precision medicine.” However, there are challenges to obtaining adequate lung cancer tissue for molecular analyses. Furthermore, current molecular testing of tumors at the genomic or transcriptomic level are very indirect measures of biological response to a drug, particularly for small molecule inhibitors that target kinases. Kinase activity profiling is therefore theorized to be more reflective of in vivo biology than many current molecular analysis techniques. As a result, this study seeks to prove the feasibility of combining a novel minimally invasive biopsy technique that expands the number of lesions amenable for biopsy with subsequent ex vivo kinase activity analysis. Methods Eight patients with lung lesions of varying location and size were biopsied using the novel electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) technique. Basal kinase activity (kinomic) profiles and ex vivo interrogation of samples in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib, crizotinib, and lapatinib were performed by PamStation 12 microarray analysis. Results Kinomic profiling qualitatively identified patient specific kinase activity profiles as well as patient and drug specific changes in kinase activity profiles following exposure to inhibitor. Thus, the study has verified the feasibility of ENB as a method for obtaining tissue in adequate quantities for kinomic analysis and has demonstrated the possible use of this tissue acquisition and analysis technique as a method for future study of lung cancer biomarkers. Conclusions We demonstrate the feasibility of using ENB-derived biopsies to perform kinase activity assessment in lung cancer patients. PMID:25549342

  10. How Stem Cells Speak with Host Immune Cells in Inflammatory Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Stefano; Cossetti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised great expectations that diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) may be ameliorated by the development of non-hematopoietic stem cell medicines. Yet, the application of adult stem cells as CNS therapeutics is challenging and the interpretation of some of the outcomes ambiguous. In fact, the initial idea that stem cell transplants work only via structural cell replacement has been challenged by the observation of consistent cellular signaling between the graft and the host. Cellular signaling is the foundation of coordinated actions and flexible responses, and arises via networks of exchanging and interacting molecules that transmit patterns of information between cells. Sustained stem cell graft-to-host communication leads to remarkable trophic effects on endogenous brain cells and beneficial modulatory actions on innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo, ultimately promoting the healing of the injured CNS. Among a number of adult stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are being extensively investigated for their ability to signal to the immune system upon transplantation in experimental CNS diseases. Here, we focus on the main cellular signaling pathways that grafted MSCs and NPCs use to establish a therapeutically relevant cross talk with host immune cells, while examining the role of inflammation in regulating some of the bidirectionality of these communications. We propose that the identification of the players involved in stem cell signaling might contribute to the development of innovative, high clinical impact therapeutics for inflammatory CNS diseases. PMID:23633288

  11. Bacterial effectors target the plant cell nucleus to subvert host transcription

    PubMed Central

    Canonne, Joanne; Rivas, Susana

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote virulence, Gram-negative bacteria have evolved the ability to inject so-called type III effector proteins into host cells. The plant cell nucleus appears to be a subcellular compartment repeatedly targeted by bacterial effectors. In agreement with this observation, mounting evidence suggests that manipulation of host transcription is a major strategy developed by bacteria to counteract plant defense responses. It has been suggested that bacterial effectors may adopt at least three alternative, although not mutually exclusive, strategies to subvert host transcription. T3Es may (1) act as transcription factors that directly activate transcription in host cells, (2) affect histone packing and chromatin configuration, and/or (3) directly target host transcription factor activity. Here, we provide an overview on how all these strategies may lead to host transcriptional re-programming and, as a result, to improved bacterial multiplication inside plant cells. PMID:22353865

  12. Life in cells, hosts, and vectors: parasite evolution across scales.

    PubMed

    Mideo, Nicole; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Aebischer, Toni; Brown, Mark J F; Fenton, Andy; Friman, Ville-Petri; Restif, Olivier; Reece, Sarah E; Webster, Joanne P; Brown, Sam P

    2013-01-01

    Parasite evolution is increasingly being recognized as one of the most important issues in applied evolutionary biology. Understanding how parasites maximize fitness whilst facing the diverse challenges of living in cells, hosts, and vectors, is central to disease control and offers a novel testing ground for evolutionary theory. The Centre for Immunity, Infection, and Evolution at the University of Edinburgh recently held a symposium to address the question "How do parasites maximise fitness across a range of biological scales?" The symposium brought together researchers whose work looks across scales and environments to understand why and how parasites 'do what they do', tying together mechanism, evolutionary explanations, and public health implications. With a broad range of speakers, our aim was to define and encourage more holistic approaches to studying parasite evolution. Here, we present a synthesis of the current state of affairs in parasite evolution, the research presented at the symposium, and insights gained through our discussions. We demonstrate that such interdisciplinary approaches are possible and identify key areas for future progress. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Host Cell Invasion and Virulence Mediated by Candida albicans Ssa1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianing N.; Solis, Norma V.; Phan, Quynh T.; Bajwa, Jashanjot S.; Kashleva, Helena; Thompson, Angela; Liu, Yaoping; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna; Edgerton, Mira; Filler, Scott G.

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans Ssa1 and Ssa2 are members of the HSP70 family of heat shock proteins that are expressed on the cell surface and function as receptors for antimicrobial peptides such as histatins. We investigated the role of Ssa1 and Ssa2 in mediating pathogenic host cell interactions and virulence. A C. albicans ssa1Δ/Δ mutant had attenuated virulence in murine models of disseminated and oropharyngeal candidiasis, whereas an ssa2Δ/Δ mutant did not. In vitro studies revealed that the ssa1Δ/Δ mutant caused markedly less damage to endothelial cells and oral epithelial cell lines. Also, the ssa1Δ/Δ mutant had defective binding to endothelial cell N-cadherin and epithelial cell E-cadherin, receptors that mediate host cell endocytosis of C. albicans. As a result, this mutant had impaired capacity to induce its own endocytosis by endothelial cells and oral epithelial cells. Latex beads coated with recombinant Ssa1 were avidly endocytosed by both endothelial cells and oral epithelial cells, demonstrating that Ssa1 is sufficient to induce host cell endocytosis. These results indicate that Ssa1 is a novel invasin that binds to host cell cadherins, induces host cell endocytosis, and is critical for C. albicans to cause maximal damage to host cells and induce disseminated and oropharyngeal disease. PMID:21085601

  14. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits bacterial virulence and invasion of host cells.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Lun K; Yount, Jacob S; Hang, Howard C

    2017-03-10

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and beneficial effects of host microbiota has motivated the search for anti-infective agents that attenuate bacterial virulence rather than growth. For example, we discovered that specific flavonoids such as baicalein and quercetin from traditional medicinal plant extracts could attenuate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III protein secretion and invasion of host cells. Here, we show epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea extracts also inhibits the activity of S. Typhimurium type III protein effectors and significantly reduces bacterial invasion into host cells. These results reveal additional dietary plant metabolites that can attenuate bacterial virulence and infection of host cells.

  15. Identifying Francisella tularensis genes required for growth in host cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram negative intracellular pathogen capable of infecting a vast diversity of hosts, ranging from amoebae to humans. A hallmark of F. tularensis virulence is its ability to quickly grow to high densities within a diverse set of host cel...

  16. The Cell Wall Lipid PDIM Contributes to Phagosomal Escape and Host Cell Exit of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Jeff; Hughitt, V. Keith; Velikovsky, Carlos A.; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is composed of unique lipids that are important for pathogenesis. Indeed, the first-ever genetic screen in M. tuberculosis identified genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of the cell wall lipid PDIM (phthiocerol dimycocerosates) as crucial for the survival of M. tuberculosis in mice. Here we show evidence for a novel molecular mechanism of the PDIM-mediated virulence in M. tuberculosis. We characterized the DNA interaction and the regulon of Rv3167c, a transcriptional repressor that is involved in virulence regulation of M. tuberculosis, and discovered that it controls the PDIM operon. A loss-of-function genetic approach showed that PDIM levels directly correlate with the capacity of M. tuberculosis to escape the phagosome and induce host cell necrosis and macroautophagy. In conclusion, our study attributes a novel role of the cell wall lipid PDIM in intracellular host cell modulation, which is important for host cell exit and dissemination of M. tuberculosis. PMID:28270579

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells in stem cell transplant recipients are damaged and remain of host origin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Kaiyan; Lu, Dao-Pei

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expansion capacity and origin of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in 34 patients who received a sex-mismatched stem cell transplant (SCT). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the amelogenin gene (AMEL) was used to detect donor-derived MSCs. Cultured MSCs were hybridized with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for chromosomes X and Y to distinguish cells of donor origin from those of host origin. The MSCs of 31 of the 34 patients showed confluent stroma, and the MSCs from 24 of these 31 patients were successfully passaged more than 5 times and were able to be used for PCR and FISH analyses. The colony-forming unit-fibroblast, confluence time, and passage numbers of the MSCs and the colony-forming capacity of the hematopoietic progenitor cells of the patients were significantly different from those of 30 healthy control subjects. Flow cytometry results showed that the proportion of CD14(+)CD45(+) cells, which are regarded as monocytes/macrophages, in cultured MSCs (fifth passage) was less than 0.04%. PCR and FISH analyses revealed that the MSC-derived cells in all 24 patients were from the host. In conclusion, the expansion capacity of MSCs in patients who receive an SCT is damaged, and the MSCs originate from the host.

  18. Host cell protein dynamics in recombinant CHO cells: impacts from harvest to purification and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hogwood, Catherine Em; Bracewell, Daniel G; Smales, C Mark

    2013-01-01

    During the production of recombinant protein products, such as monoclonal antibodies, manufacturers must demonstrate clearance of host cell impurities and contaminants to appropriate levels prior to use in the clinic. These include host cell DNA and RNA, product related contaminants such as aggregates, and importantly host cell proteins (HCPs). Despite the importance of HCP removal, the identity and dynamics of these proteins during cell culture and downstream processing (DSP) are largely unknown. Improvements in technologies such as SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry alongside the gold standard technique of ELISA has allowed semi-quantification of the total HCPs present. However, only recently have techniques been utilized in order to identify those HCPs present and align this with the development of approaches to monitor the dynamics of HCPs during both fermentation and downstream processing. In order to enable knowledge based decisions with regards to improving HCP clearance it is vital to identify potential problematic HCPs on a cell line and product specific basis. Understanding the HCP dynamics will in the future help provide a platform to rationally manipulate and engineer and/or select suitable recombinant CHO cell lines and downstream processing steps to limit problematic HCPs.

  19. Sheep primary cells as in vitro models to investigate Mycoplasma agalactiae host cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shrilakshmi; Gabriel, Cordula; Kragl, Martin; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2015-10-01

    Appropriate infection models are imperative for the understanding of pathogens like mycoplasmas that are known for their strict host and tissue specificity, and lack of suitable cell and small animal models has hindered pathogenicity studies. This is particularly true for the economically important group of ruminant mycoplasmas whose virulence factors need to be elucidated for designing effective intervention strategies. Mycoplasma agalactiae serves as a useful role model especially because it is phylogenetically very close to M. bovis and causes similar symptoms by as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we successfully prepared and characterized four different primary sheep cell lines, namely the epithelial and stromal cells from the mammary gland and uterus, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry, we identified vimentin and cytokeratin as specific markers to confirm the typical cell phenotypes of these primary cells. Furthermore, M. agalactiae's consistent adhesion and invasion into these primary cells proves the reliability of these cell models. Mimicking natural infections, mammary epithelial and stromal cells showed higher invasion and adhesion rates compared to the uterine cells as also seen via double immunofluorescence staining. Altogether, we have generated promising in vitro cell models to study host-pathogen interactions of M. agalactiae and related ruminant pathogens in a more authentic manner.

  20. Host cell subversion by Toxoplasma GRA16, an exported dense granule protein that targets the host cell nucleus and alters gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bougdour, Alexandre; Durandau, Eric; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Ortet, Philippe; Barakat, Mohamed; Kieffer, Sylvie; Curt-Varesano, Aurélie; Curt-Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bastien, Olivier; Coute, Yohann; Pelloux, Hervé; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2013-04-17

    After invading host cells, Toxoplasma gondii multiplies within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that is maintained by parasite proteins secreted from organelles called dense granules. Most dense granule proteins remain within the PV, and few are known to access the host cell cytosol. We identify GRA16 as a dense granule protein that is exported through the PV membrane and reaches the host cell nucleus, where it positively modulates genes involved in cell-cycle progression and the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. GRA16 binds two host enzymes, the deubiquitinase HAUSP and PP2A phosphatase, which exert several functions, including regulation of p53 and the cell cycle. GRA16 alters p53 levels in a HAUSP-dependent manner and induces nuclear translocation of the PP2A holoenzyme. Additionally, certain GRA16-deficient strains exhibit attenuated virulence, indicating the importance of these host alterations in pathogenesis. Therefore, GRA16 represents a potentially emerging subfamily of exported dense granule proteins that modulate host function.

  1. Predicting bacteriophage proteins located in host cell with feature selection technique.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Liang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Feng-Biao; Huang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Lin, Hao

    2016-04-01

    A bacteriophage is a virus that can infect a bacterium. The fate of an infected bacterium is determined by the bacteriophage proteins located in the host cell. Thus, reliably identifying bacteriophage proteins located in the host cell is extremely important to understand their functions and discover potential anti-bacterial drugs. Thus, in this paper, a computational method was developed to recognize bacteriophage proteins located in host cells based only on their amino acid sequences. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with incremental feature selection (IFS) was proposed to optimize the feature set. Using a jackknife cross-validation, our method can discriminate between bacteriophage proteins located in a host cell and the bacteriophage proteins not located in a host cell with a maximum overall accuracy of 84.2%, and can further classify bacteriophage proteins located in host cell cytoplasm and in host cell membranes with a maximum overall accuracy of 92.4%. To enhance the value of the practical applications of the method, we built a web server called PHPred (〈http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/PHPred〉). We believe that the PHPred will become a powerful tool to study bacteriophage proteins located in host cells and to guide related drug discovery.

  2. How do cell-free HIV virions avoid infecting dead-end host cells and cell fragments?

    PubMed

    Lyengar, Sujatha; Schwartz, David H

    2004-01-01

    HIV faces the challenge of identifying and entering suitable host cells (i.e. activated and viable) among a wide array of receptor-positive but unsuitable targets. Lymph nodes contain resting cells, activated cells destined for apoptosis within 24 h, and cell fragments, all of which represent replicative dead ends. We postulate that 1) HIV virions have evolved the ability to probe the internal status of potential host cells from the external cell membrane by assessing the ability of cells to co-cap CD4 and chemokine receptors, and 2) the requirement for dual receptor binding in a concerted manner by three gp120 molecules is the molecular mechanism by which virions stochastically ensure high density co-capping of receptors. Cell-associated HIV accomplishes the same selective process by targeting cells capable of participating in immunological synapse formation.

  3. Cyanobacterium sp. host cell and vector for production of chemical compounds in Cyanobacterial cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Piven, Irina; Friedrich, Alexandra; Duhring, Ulf; Uliczka, Frank; Baier, Kerstin; Inaba, Masami; Shi, Tuo; Wang, Kui; Enke, Heike; Kramer, Dan

    2016-04-19

    A cyanobacterial host cell, Cyanobacterium sp., that harbors at least one recombinant gene for the production of a chemical compounds is provided, as well as vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid isolated from the cell.

  4. Cyanobacterium sp. host cell and vector for production of chemical compounds in cyanobacterial cultures

    DOEpatents

    Piven, Irina; Friedrich, Alexandra; Duhring, Ulf; Uliczka, Frank; Baier, Kerstin; Inaba, Masami; Shi, Tuo; Wang, Kui; Enke, Heike; Kramer, Dan

    2014-09-30

    A cyanobacterial host cell, Cyanobacterium sp., that harbors at least one recombinant gene for the production of a chemical compounds is provided, as well as vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid isolated from the cell.

  5. Legionella pneumophila infection activates bystander cells differentially by bacterial and host cell vesicles.

    PubMed

    Jung, Anna Lena; Herkt, Christina Elena; Schulz, Christine; Bolte, Kathrin; Seidel, Kerstin; Scheller, Nicoletta; Sittka-Stark, Alexandra; Bertrams, Wilhelm; Schmeck, Bernd

    2017-07-24

    Extracellular vesicles from eukaryotic cells and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from gram-negative bacteria have been described as mediators of pathogen-host interaction and intercellular communication. Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is a causative agent of severe pneumonia. The differential effect of bacterial and host cell vesicles in L. pneumophila infection is unknown so far. We infected THP-1-derived or primary human macrophages with L. pneumophila and isolated supernatant vesicles by differential centrifugation. We observed an increase of exosomes in the 100 k pellet by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, and protein markers. This fraction additionally contained Legionella LPS, indicating also the presence of OMVs. In contrast, vesicles in the 16 k pellet, representing microparticles, decreased during infection. The 100 k vesicle fraction activated uninfected primary human alveolar epithelial cells, A549 cells, and THP-1 cells. Epithelial cell activation was reduced by exosome depletion (anti-CD63, or GW4869), or blocking of IL-1β in the supernatant. In contrast, the response of THP-1 cells to vesicles was reduced by a TLR2-neutralizing antibody, UV-inactivation of bacteria, or - partially - RNase-treatment of vesicles. Taken together, we found that during L. pneumophila infection, neighbouring epithelial cells were predominantly activated by exosomes and cytokines, whereas myeloid cells were activated by bacterial OMVs.

  6. Host cell reactivation studies with epidermal cells of mice sensitive and resistant to carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.E.; Strickland, A.G.

    1984-03-01

    Primary epidermal cells from AKR, BALB/c, CD-1, and SENCAR mice, listed in order of least to most sensitive to epidermal carcinogenesis by initiation and promotion protocols, were found to be equally competent to ''reactivate'' herpes simplex virus type 1 irradiated by germicidal ultraviolet radiation. Nontumorigenic BALB/c epidermal cell lines selected in vitro for resistance to terminal differentiation after in vivo or in vitro treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens showed virus survival curves similar to those of primary cells. Similarly, primary cultures which were allowed to grow to confluency following a single treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (100 ng/ml) retained normal host cell reactivation. Host cell reactivation studies with mouse dermal fibroblasts could not be done because of the failure of the herpes simplex virus to infect these cells and produce plaques. These results demonstrate that survival of ultraviolet light-damaged virus in primary epidermal cells in culture is unrelated to whether the cells are derived from mice sensitive or resistant to epidermal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, virus survival is not changed by tumor promoter treatment or by treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens which results in differentiation-resistant cells.

  7. Cross-reactivity virtual profiling of the human kinome by X-react(KIN): a chemical systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, Michal; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2010-12-06

    Many drug candidates fail in clinical development due to their insufficient selectivity that may cause undesired side effects. Therefore, modern drug discovery is routinely supported by computational techniques, which can identify alternate molecular targets with a significant potential for cross-reactivity. In particular, the development of highly selective kinase inhibitors is complicated by the strong conservation of the ATP-binding site across the kinase family. In this paper, we describe X-React(KIN), a new machine learning approach that extends the modeling and virtual screening of individual protein kinases to a system level in order to construct a cross-reactivity virtual profile for the human kinome. To maximize the coverage of the kinome, X-React(KIN) relies solely on the predicted target structures and employs state-of-the-art modeling techniques. Benchmark tests carried out against available selectivity data from high-throughput kinase profiling experiments demonstrate that, for almost 70% of the inhibitors, their alternate molecular targets can be effectively identified in the human kinome with a high (>0.5) sensitivity at the expense of a relatively low false positive rate (<0.5). Furthermore, in a case study, we demonstrate how X-React(KIN) can support the development of selective inhibitors by optimizing the selection of kinase targets for small-scale counter-screen experiments. The constructed cross-reactivity profiles for the human kinome are freely available to the academic community at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/kinomelhm/ .

  8. Kinome-wide activity modeling from diverse public high-quality data sets.

    PubMed

    Schürer, Stephan C; Muskal, Steven M

    2013-01-28

    Large corpora of kinase small molecule inhibitor data are accessible to public sector research from thousands of journal article and patent publications. These data have been generated employing a wide variety of assay methodologies and experimental procedures by numerous laboratories. Here we ask the question how applicable these heterogeneous data sets are to predict kinase activities and which characteristics of the data sets contribute to their utility. We accessed almost 500,000 molecules from the Kinase Knowledge Base (KKB) and after rigorous aggregation and standardization generated over 180 distinct data sets covering all major groups of the human kinome. To assess the value of the data sets, we generated hundreds of classification and regression models. Their rigorous cross-validation and characterization demonstrated highly predictive classification and quantitative models for the majority of kinase targets if a minimum required number of active compounds or structure-activity data points were available. We then applied the best classifiers to compounds most recently profiled in the NIH Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program and found good agreement of profiling results with predicted activities. Our results indicate that, although heterogeneous in nature, the publically accessible data sets are exceedingly valuable and well suited to develop highly accurate predictors for practical Kinome-wide virtual screening applications and to complement experimental kinase profiling.

  9. From the research laboratory to the database: the Caenorhabditis elegans kinome in UniProtKB

    PubMed Central

    Magrane, Michele; O'Donovan, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinases form one of the largest protein families and are found in all species, from viruses to humans. They catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of proteins, often modifying their activity and localization. They are implicated in virtually all cellular processes and are one of the most intensively studied protein families. In recent years, they have become key therapeutic targets in drug development as natural mutations affecting kinase genes are the cause of many diseases. The vast amount of data contained in the primary literature and across a variety of biological data collections highlights the need for a repository where this information is stored in a concise and easily accessible manner. The UniProt Knowledgebase meets this need by providing the scientific community with a comprehensive, high-quality and freely accessible resource of protein sequence and functional information. Here, we describe the expert curation process for kinases, focusing on the Caenorhabditis elegans kinome. The C. elegans kinome is composed of 438 kinases and almost half of them have been functionally characterized, highlighting that C. elegans is a valuable and versatile model organism to understand the role of kinases in biological processes. PMID:28159896

  10. Elimination of allogeneic multipotent stromal cells by host macrophages in different models of regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Arutyunyan, Irina; Elchaninov, Andrey; Fatkhudinov, Timur; Makarov, Andrey; Kananykhina, Evgeniya; Usman, Natalia; Bolshakova, Galina; Glinkina, Valeria; Goldshtein, Dmitry; Sukhikh, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic multipotent stromal cells were previously thought to be poorly recognized by host immune system; the prolonged survival in host environments was explained by their immune privileged status. As long as the concept is currently reconsidered, the routes of elimination of allogeneic multipotent stromal cells by host immunity must be taken into account. This is necessary for correct comprehension of their therapeutic action. The study was focused upon survival of umbilical cord-derived allogeneic multipotent stromal cells in different rat models of tissue regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy or by critical limb ischemia. The observations were carried out by means of vital labeling of the cells with PKH26 prior to injection, in combination with differential immunostaining of host macrophages with anti-CD68 antibody. According to the results, allogeneic multipotent stromal cells are specifically eliminated by host immune system; the efficacy can reach 100%. Massive clearance of transplanted cells by host macrophages is accompanied by appropriation of the label by the latter, and this is a pronounced case of misleading presentation of exogenous label by host cells. The study emphasizes the role of macrophages in host response and also the need of additional criteria for correct data interpretation. PMID:26191137

  11. Cytoskeletal changes in Eimeria bovis-infected host endothelial cells during first merogony.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Schröpfer, Elmar; Stowasser, Michael; Eckstein-Ludwig, Ursula; Behrendt, Jan Hillern; Zahner, Horst

    2008-10-01

    The first merogony of Eimeria bovis takes place in lymphatic endothelial cells of the ileum, resulting in the formation of macromeronts up to 250 microm. In this study, we investigated the host cell cytoskeleton (actin filaments, microtubules, spectrin, vimentin intermediate filaments) associated with parasitic development in vitro by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC) and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells (BSLEC) as host cells. No prominent changes in the host cell cytoskeleton were detected 1-3 days after E. bovis sporozoite invasion. With ongoing meront maturation a significant increase in microtubules and actin filaments close to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) was found. Mature macromeronts within the PV were completely enclosed by these cytoskeletal elements. Our findings suggest, that in order to guarantee the survival of the host cell on the enlargement of macromeronts, E. bovis needs not only to augment but also to rearrange its cytoskeletal system.

  12. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M C; Brum, Felipe L; da Silva, Camila C; Zuma, Aline A; Elias, Maria C; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number.

  13. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M. C.; Brum, Felipe L.; da Silva, Camila C.; Zuma, Aline A.; Elias, Maria C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number. PMID:26082757

  14. Natural variation in populations of persistently colonizing bacteria affect human host cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Aras, Rahul A; Lee, Yongchan; Kim, Sung-Kook; Israel, Dawn; Peek, Richard M; Blaser, Martin J

    2003-08-15

    The highly diverse bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which persistently colonizes the human stomach, provides models to study the role of genome plasticity in host adaptation. Within H. pylori populations from 2 colonized individuals, intragenomic recombination between cagA DNA repeat sequences leads to deletion or duplication of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the CagA protein, which is injected by a type IV secretion system into host cells. Experimental coculture of gastric epithelial cells with the strains containing these naturally occurring CagA phosphorylation site variants induced markedly divergent host cell morphologic responses. Mutants were constructed in which a phosphorylation site was either added or deleted in the expressed CagA protein; coculture studies confirmed that the naturally occurring differences in CagA phosphorylation are responsible for the observed phenotypic variation. These findings indicate that within an individual host, intragenomic recombination between H. pylori repetitive DNA produces strain variants differing in their signals to host cells.

  15. Natural Killer Cells in Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Simonetta, Federico; Alvarez, Maite; Negrin, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a well-established therapeutic modality effective for a variety of hematological malignancies but, unfortunately, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to cancer relapse as well as to transplant-related complications including graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). Natural killer (NK) cells are the first donor-derived lymphocyte subset to recover after HCT, and their crucial role in protection against cancer relapse and infections is well established. Conversely, the role played by NK cells in GvHD is still controversial. Early studies suggested a participation of NK cells in GvHD induction or exacerbation. Subsequently, experimental evidence obtained in mice as well observational studies performed in humans led to a model in which NK cells play a regulatory role in GvHD by repressing alloreactive T cell responses. This widely accepted model has been recently challenged by clinical evidence indicating that NK cells can in some cases promote GvHD. In this review, we summarize available knowledge about the role of NK cells in GVHD pathogenesis. We review studies uncovering cellular mechanisms through which NK cells interact with other immune cell subsets during GvHD leading to a model in which NK cells naturally suppress GvHD through their cytotoxic ability to inhibit T cell activation unless exogenous hyperactivation lead them to produce proinflammatory cytokines that can conversely sustain T cell-mediated GvHD induction. PMID:28487696

  16. Interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi Secreted Proteins and Host Cell Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe Costa, Renata; da Silveira, Jose F.; Bahia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6–7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here, we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion. PMID:27065960

  17. Donor Satellite Cell Engraftment is Significantly Augmented When the Host Niche is Preserved and Endogenous Satellite Cells are Incapacitated

    PubMed Central

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Stem Cells2012;30:1971–1984 PMID:22730231

  18. Reassortment of NS Segments Modifies Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Interaction with Avian Hosts and Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Henning; Wang, Zhongfang; Lenz, Eva; Pleschka, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 have caused numerous outbreaks in diverse poultry species and rising numbers of human infections. Both HPAIV subtypes support a growing concern of a pandemic outbreak, specifically via the avian-human link. Natural reassortment of both HPAIV subtypes is a possible event with unpredictable outcome for virulence and host specificity of the progeny virus for avian and mammalian species. NS reassortment of H5N1 HPAIV viruses in the background of A/FPV/Rostock/1934 (H7N1) HPAIV has been shown to change virus replication kinetics and host cell responses in mammalian cells. However, not much is known about the virus-host interaction of such viruses in avian species. In the present study, we show that the NS segment of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (FPV NS VN, H5N1) HPAIV significantly altered the characteristics of the H7 prototype HPAIV in tracheal organ cultures (TOC) of chicken and turkey in vitro, with decreased replication efficiency accompanied by increased induction of type I interferon (IFN) and apoptosis. Furthermore, species-specific differences between chicken and turkey were demonstrated. Interestingly, NS-reassortant FPV NS VN showed an overall highly pathogenic phenotype, with increased virulence and replication potential compared to the wild-type virus after systemic infection of chicken and turkey embryos. Our data demonstrate that single reassortment of an H5-type NS into an H7-type HPAIV significantly changed virus replication abilities and influenced the avian host cell response without prior adaptation. PMID:23468508

  19. Cellular Aspects of Shigella Pathogenesis: Focus on the Manipulation of Host Cell Processes

    PubMed Central

    Killackey, Samuel A.; Sorbara, Matthew T.; Girardin, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for shigellosis. Over the years, the study of Shigella has provided a greater understanding of how the host responds to bacterial infection, and how bacteria have evolved to effectively counter the host defenses. In this review, we provide an update on some of the most recent advances in our understanding of pivotal processes associated with Shigella infection, including the invasion into host cells, the metabolic changes that occur within the bacterium and the infected cell, cell-to-cell spread mechanisms, autophagy and membrane trafficking, inflammatory signaling and cell death. This recent progress sheds a new light into the mechanisms underlying Shigella pathogenesis, and also more generally provides deeper understanding of the complex interplay between host cells and bacterial pathogens in general. PMID:27066460

  20. Cellular Aspects of Shigella Pathogenesis: Focus on the Manipulation of Host Cell Processes.

    PubMed

    Killackey, Samuel A; Sorbara, Matthew T; Girardin, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for shigellosis. Over the years, the study of Shigella has provided a greater understanding of how the host responds to bacterial infection, and how bacteria have evolved to effectively counter the host defenses. In this review, we provide an update on some of the most recent advances in our understanding of pivotal processes associated with Shigella infection, including the invasion into host cells, the metabolic changes that occur within the bacterium and the infected cell, cell-to-cell spread mechanisms, autophagy and membrane trafficking, inflammatory signaling and cell death. This recent progress sheds a new light into the mechanisms underlying Shigella pathogenesis, and also more generally provides deeper understanding of the complex interplay between host cells and bacterial pathogens in general.

  1. Mouse host unlicensed NK cells promote donor allogeneic bone marrow engraftment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maite; Sun, Kai; Murphy, William J

    2016-03-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells exist as subsets based on expression of inhibitory receptors that recognize major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) molecules. NK cell subsets bearing MHCI binding receptors for self-MHCI have been termed as "licensed" and exhibit a higher ability to respond to stimuli. In the context of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), host licensed-NK (L-NK) cells have also been demonstrated to be responsible for the acute rejection of allogeneic and MHCI-deficient BM cells (BMCs) in mice after lethal irradiation. However, the role of recipient unlicensed-NK (U-NK) cells has not been well established with regard to allogeneic BMC resistance. After NK cell stimulation, the prior depletion of host L-NK cells resulted in a marked increase of donor engraftment compared with the untreated group. Surprisingly, this increased donor engraftment was reduced after total host NK cell depletion, indicating that U-NK cells can actually promote donor allogeneic BMC engraftment. Furthermore, direct coculture of U-NK cells with allogeneic but not syngeneic BMCs resulted in increased colony-forming unit cell growth in vitro, which was at least partially mediated by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production. These data demonstrate that host NK cell subsets exert markedly different roles in allogeneic BMC engraftment where host L- and U-NK cells reject or promote donor allogeneic BMC engraftment, respectively.

  2. Graft-infiltrating host dendritic cells play a key role in organ transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Quan; Liu, Quan; Divito, Sherrie J.; Zeng, Qiang; Yatim, Karim M.; Hughes, Andrew D.; Rojas-Canales, Darling M.; Nakao, A.; Shufesky, William J.; Williams, Amanda L.; Humar, Rishab; Hoffman, Rosemary A.; Shlomchik, Warren D.; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Lakkis, Fadi G.; Morelli, Adrian E.

    2016-01-01

    Successful engraftment of organ transplants has traditionally relied on preventing the activation of recipient (host) T cells. Once T-cell activation has occurred, however, stalling the rejection process becomes increasingly difficult, leading to graft failure. Here we demonstrate that graft-infiltrating, recipient (host) dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in driving the rejection of transplanted organs by activated (effector) T cells. We show that donor DCs that accompany heart or kidney grafts are rapidly replaced by recipient DCs. The DCs originate from non-classical monocytes and form stable, cognate interactions with effector T cells in the graft. Eliminating recipient DCs reduces the proliferation and survival of graft-infiltrating T cells and abrogates ongoing rejection or rejection mediated by transferred effector T cells. Therefore, host DCs that infiltrate transplanted organs sustain the alloimmune response after T-cell activation has already occurred. Targeting these cells provides a means for preventing or treating rejection. PMID:27554168

  3. Analysis of Host Gene Expression Profile in HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected T-Cells.

    PubMed

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Wood, Owen; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication is closely regulated by a complex pathway of host factors, many of them being determinants of cell tropism and host susceptibility to HIV infection. These host factors are known to exert a positive or negative influence on the replication of the two major types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2, thereby modulating virus infectivity, host response to infection and ultimately disease progression profiles characteristic of these two types. Understanding the differential regulation of host cellular factors in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections will help us to understand the apparent differences in rates of disease progression and pathogenesis. This knowledge would aid in the discovery of new biomarkers that may serve as novel targets for therapy and diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the differential expression of host genes in response to HIV-1/HIV-2 infection. To achieve this, we analyzed the effects of HIV-1 (MN) and HIV-2 (ROD) infection on the expression of host factors in PBMC at the RNA level using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were identified and their biological functions determined. Host gene expression profiles were significantly changed. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a subset of differentially expressed genes in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Genes involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, immune cell proliferation and activation, cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors were differentially expressed in HIV-1 infected cells. Relatively few genes were differentially expressed in cells infected with HIV-2.

  4. Interspecies communication in the gut, from bacterial delivery to host-cell response

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Kim; Hecht, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal pathogens have a wide variety of strategies for communicating with host epithelial cells. This review highlights a few key examples of those strategies. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to alter host ion transport through both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Salmonella use a similar T3SS to invade host cells and modify an intracellular vacuole, which also impacts host vesicle trafficking. Helicobacter pylori use host cell integrins to provide a conformational change which drives the type IV secretion system into the host cell for delivery of CagA. The novel type VI section systems are phage-like apparati that deliver VgrG-1, which causes actin cross-linking and fluid accumulation in a suckling mouse model. An entirely different delivery mechanism is the outer membrane vesicle (OMV) which is composed of bacterial outer membrane wrapped around contents of the periplamsic space. Enterotoxigenic E. coli use OMVs to deliver bundles of heat labile enterotoxin to host cells. Finally we discuss the host responses to these varied methods of communication. PMID:22106176

  5. Analysis of Host Gene Expression Profile in HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Wood, Owen; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication is closely regulated by a complex pathway of host factors, many of them being determinants of cell tropism and host susceptibility to HIV infection. These host factors are known to exert a positive or negative influence on the replication of the two major types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2, thereby modulating virus infectivity, host response to infection and ultimately disease progression profiles characteristic of these two types. Understanding the differential regulation of host cellular factors in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections will help us to understand the apparent differences in rates of disease progression and pathogenesis. This knowledge would aid in the discovery of new biomarkers that may serve as novel targets for therapy and diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the differential expression of host genes in response to HIV-1/HIV-2 infection. To achieve this, we analyzed the effects of HIV-1 (MN) and HIV-2 (ROD) infection on the expression of host factors in PBMC at the RNA level using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were identified and their biological functions determined. Host gene expression profiles were significantly changed. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a subset of differentially expressed genes in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Genes involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, immune cell proliferation and activation, cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors were differentially expressed in HIV-1 infected cells. Relatively few genes were differentially expressed in cells infected with HIV-2. PMID:26821323

  6. Donor satellite cell engraftment is significantly augmented when the host niche is preserved and endogenous satellite cells are incapacitated.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-09-01

    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy.

  7. Hostile Takeover by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver Stage Egress

    PubMed Central

    Graewe, Stefanie; Rankin, Kathleen E.; Lehmann, Christine; Deschermeier, Christina; Hecht, Leonie; Froehlke, Ulrike; Stanway, Rebecca R.; Heussler, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Plasmodium is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes and undergoes obligatory development within a parasitophorous vacuole in hepatocytes before it is released into the bloodstream. The transition to the blood stage was previously shown to involve the packaging of exoerythrocytic merozoites into membrane-surrounded vesicles, called merosomes, which are delivered directly into liver sinusoids. However, it was unclear whether the membrane of these merosomes was derived from the parasite membrane, the parasitophorous vacuole membrane or the host cell membrane. This knowledge is required to determine how phagocytes will be directed against merosomes. Here, we fluorescently label the candidate membranes and use live cell imaging to show that the merosome membrane derives from the host cell membrane. We also demonstrate that proteins in the host cell membrane are lost during merozoite liberation from the parasitophorous vacuole. Immediately after the breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, the host cell mitochondria begin to degenerate and protein biosynthesis arrests. The intact host cell plasma membrane surrounding merosomes allows Plasmodium to mask itself from the host immune system and bypass the numerous Kupffer cells on its way into the bloodstream. This represents an effective strategy for evading host defenses before establishing a blood stage infection. PMID:21909271

  8. A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Huston, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, initiation of phagocytosis, and engulfment. This paper presents recent advances in the cytolytic and phagocytic processes of Entamoeba histolytica in context of the sequential model. PMID:21331284

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis as a Model Organism for Assessing Interaction of Anaerobic Bacteria with Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Christopher M; Lewis, Janina P

    2015-12-17

    Anaerobic bacteria far outnumber aerobes in many human niches such as the gut, mouth, and vagina. Furthermore, anaerobic infections are common and frequently of indigenous origin. The ability of some anaerobic pathogens to invade human cells gives them adaptive measures to escape innate immunity as well as to modulate host cell behavior. However, ensuring that the anaerobic bacteria are live during experimental investigation of the events may pose challenges. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is capable of invading a variety of eukaryotic non-phagocytic cells. This article outlines how to successfully culture and assess the ability of P. gingivalis to invade human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Two protocols were developed: one to measure bacteria that can successfully invade and survive within the host, and the other to visualize bacteria interacting with host cells. These techniques necessitate the use of an anaerobic chamber to supply P. gingivalis with an anaerobic environment for optimal growth. The first protocol is based on the antibiotic protection assay, which is largely used to study the invasion of host cells by bacteria. However, the antibiotic protection assay is limited; only intracellular bacteria that are culturable following antibiotic treatment and host cell lysis are measured. To assess all bacteria interacting with host cells, both live and dead, we developed a protocol that uses fluorescent microscopy to examine host-pathogen interaction. Bacteria are fluorescently labeled with 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) and used to infect eukaryotic cells under anaerobic conditions. Following fixing with paraformaldehyde and permeabilization with 0.2% Triton X-100, host cells are labeled with TRITC phalloidin and DAPI to label the cell cytoskeleton and nucleus, respectively. Multiple images taken at different focal points (Z-stack) are obtained for temporal

  10. Transcriptional adaptation of Mycosphaerella graminicola to programmed cell death (PCD) of its susceptible wheat host.

    PubMed

    Keon, John; Antoniw, John; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Deller, Siân; Ward, Jane L; Baker, John M; Beale, Michael H; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Rudd, Jason J

    2007-02-01

    Many important fungal pathogens of plants spend long periods (days to weeks) of their infection cycle in symptomless association with living host tissue, followed by a sudden transition to necrotrophic feeding as host tissue death occurs. Little is known about either the host responses associated with this sudden transition or the specific adaptations made by the pathogen to invoke or tolerate it. We are studying a major host-specific fungal pathogen of cultivated wheat, Septoria tritici (teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola). Here, we describe the host responses of wheat leaves infected with M. graminicola during the development of disease symptoms and use microarray transcription profiling to identify adaptive responses of the fungus to its changing environment. We show that symptom development on a susceptible host genotype has features reminiscent of the hypersensitive response, a rapid and strictly localized form of host programmed cell death (PCD) more commonly associated with disease-resistance mechanisms. The initiation and advancement of this host response is associated with a loss of cell-membrane integrity and dramatic increases in apoplastic metabolites and the rate of fungal growth. Microarray analysis of the fungal genes differentially expressed before and after the onset of host PCD supports a transition to more rapid growth. Specific physiological adaptation of the fungus is also revealed with respect to membrane transport, chemical and oxidative stress mechanisms, and metabolism. Our data support the hypothesis that host plant PCD plays an important role in susceptibility towards fungal pathogens with necrotrophic lifestyles.

  11. Intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage cell death leads to serial killing of host cells.

    PubMed

    Mahamed, Deeqa; Boulle, Mikael; Ganga, Yashica; Mc Arthur, Chanelle; Skroch, Steven; Oom, Lance; Catinas, Oana; Pillay, Kelly; Naicker, Myshnee; Rampersad, Sanisha; Mathonsi, Colisile; Hunter, Jessica; Wong, Emily B; Suleman, Moosa; Sreejit, Gopalkrishna; Pym, Alexander S; Lustig, Gila; Sigal, Alex

    2017-01-28

    A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis is the formation of macrophage-rich granulomas. These may restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, or progress to central necrosis and cavitation, facilitating pathogen growth. To determine factors leading to Mtb proliferation and host cell death, we used live cell imaging to track Mtb infection outcomes in individual primary human macrophages. Internalization of Mtb aggregates caused macrophage death, and phagocytosis of large aggregates was more cytotoxic than multiple small aggregates containing similar numbers of bacilli. Macrophage death did not result in clearance of Mtb. Rather, it led to accelerated intracellular Mtb growth regardless of prior activation or macrophage type. In contrast, bacillary replication was controlled in live phagocytes. Mtb grew as a clump in dead cells, and macrophages which internalized dead infected cells were very likely to die themselves, leading to a cell death cascade. This demonstrates how pathogen virulence can be achieved through numbers and aggregation states.

  12. Endosymbiosis of Chlorella species to the ciliate Paramecium bursaria alters the distribution of the host's trichocysts beneath the host cell cortex.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuuki; Fujishima, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Each symbiotic Chlorella of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria is enclosed in a perialgal vacuole membrane derived from the host digestive vacuole membrane. Alga-free paramecia and symbiotic algae can grow independently. Mixing them experimentally can cause reinfection. Earlier, we reported that the symbiotic algae appear to push the host trichocysts aside to become fixed beneath the host cell cortex during the algal reinfection process. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy with a monoclonal antibody against the trichocysts demonstrates that the trichocysts change their locality to form algal attachment sites and decrease their density beneath the host cell cortex through algal reinfection. Transmission electron microscopy to detect acid phosphatase activity showed that some trichocysts near the host cell cortex are digested by the host lysosomal fusion during algal reinfection. Removal of algae from the host cell using cycloheximide recovers the trichocyst's arrangement and number near the host cell cortex. These results indicate that symbiotic algae compete for their attachment sites with preexisting trichocysts and that the algae have the ability to ensure algal attachment sites beneath the host cell cortex.

  13. Dissecting the membrane cholesterol requirement for mycobacterial entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Jafurulla, Md; Kumar, G Aditya; Raghunand, Tirumalai R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages, and are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The molecular mechanism involved in the internalization of mycobacteria is poorly understood. In this work, we have explored the role of host membrane cholesterol in the entry of the avirulent surrogate mycobacterial strain Mycobacterium smegmatis into THP-1 macrophages. Our results show that depletion of host membrane cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin results in a significant reduction in the entry of M. smegmatis into host cells. More importantly, we show that the inhibition in the ability of M. smegmatis to enter host macrophages could be reversed upon replenishment of membrane cholesterol. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the first report showing that membrane cholesterol replenishment can reverse the inhibition in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells. In addition, we demonstrate that cholesterol complexation using amphotericin B (without physical depletion) is sufficient to inhibit mycobacterial entry. Importantly, we observed a significant reduction in mycobacterial entry upon enrichment of host membrane cholesterol. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that an optimum host plasma membrane cholesterol is necessary for the entry of mycobacteria. These results assume relevance in the context of developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting cholesterol-mediated mycobacterial host cell entry.

  14. Chew on this: Amoebic trogocytosis and host cell killing by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica was named “histolytica” (histo-: tissue; lytic-: dissolving) for its ability to destroy host tissues. Direct killing of host cells by the amoebae is likely to be the driving factor that underlies tissue destruction, but the mechanism was unclear. We recently showed that after attaching to host cells, amoebae bite off and ingest distinct host cell fragments, and that this contributes to cell killing. Here we review this process, termed “amoebic trogocytosis” (trogo-: nibble), and how this process interplays with phagocytosis, or whole cell ingestion, in this organism. “Nibbling” processes have been described in other microbes and in multicellular organisms. The discovery of amoebic trogocytosis in E. histolytica may also shed light on an evolutionarily conserved process for intercellular exchange. PMID:26070402

  15. In situ regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue through host cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young Min; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J; Lee, Sang Jin

    2014-10-01

    Standard reconstructive procedures for restoring normal function after skeletal muscle defects involve the use of existing host tissues such as muscular flaps. In many instances, this approach is not feasible and delays the rehabilitation process and restoration of tissue function. Currently, cell-based tissue engineering strategies have been used for reconstruction; however, donor tissue biopsy and ex vivo cell manipulation are required prior to implantation. The present study aimed to overcome these limitations by demonstrating mobilization of muscle cells into a target-specific site for in situ muscle regeneration. First, we investigated whether host muscle cells could be mobilized into an implanted scaffold. Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds were implanted in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats, and the retrieved scaffolds were characterized by examining host cell infiltration in the scaffolds. The host cell infiltrates, including Pax7+ cells, gradually increased with time. Second, we demonstrated that host muscle cells could be enriched by a myogenic factor released from the scaffolds. Gelatin-based scaffolds containing a myogenic factor were implanted in the TA muscle of rats, and the Pax7+ cell infiltration and newly formed muscle fibers were examined. By the second week after implantation, the Pax7+ cell infiltrates and muscle formation were significantly accelerated within the scaffolds containing insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Our data suggest an ability of host stem cells to be recruited into the scaffolds with the capability of differentiating to muscle cells. In addition, the myogenic factor effectively promoted host cell recruitment, which resulted in accelerating muscle regeneration in situ.

  16. Enteropathogenic E. coli-induced barrier function alteration is not a consequence of host cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Weflen, Andrew; Koutsouris, Athanasia; Roxas, Jennifer L.; Hecht, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that perturbs intestinal epithelial function. Many of the alterations in the host cells are mediated by effector molecules that are secreted directly into epithelial cells by the EPEC type III secretion system. The secreted effector molecule EspF plays a key role in redistributing tight junction proteins and altering epithelial barrier function. EspF has also been shown to localize to mitochondria and trigger membrane depolarization and eventual host cell death. The relationship, if any, between EspF-induced host cell death and epithelial barrier disruption is presently not known. Site-directed mutation of leucine 16 (L16E) of EspF impairs both mitochondrial localization and consequent host cell death. Although the mutation lies within a region critical for type III secretion, EspF(L16E) is secreted efficiently from EPEC. Despite its inability to promote cell death, EspF(L16E) was not impaired for tight junction alteration or barrier disruption. Consistent with this, the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH, despite reducing EPEC-induced host cell death, had no effect on infection-mediated barrier function alteration. Thus EPEC alters the epithelial barrier independent of its ability to induce host cell death. PMID:18356531

  17. Protein kinase CK2: a newcomer in the 'druggable kinome'.

    PubMed

    Pagano, M A; Cesaro, L; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    2006-12-01

    The acronym CK2 (derived from the misnomer 'casein kinase' 2) denotes one of the most pleiotropic members of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, characterized by an acidic consensus sequence in which a carboxylic acid (or pre-phosphorylated) side chain at position n+3 relative to the target serine/threonine residue plays a crucial role. The latest repertoire of CK2 substrates includes approx. 300 proteins, but the analysis of available phosphopeptide databases from different sources suggests that CK2 alone may be responsible for the generation of a much larger proportion (10-20%) of the eukaryotic phosphoproteome. Although for the time being CK2 is not included among protein kinases whose inhibitors are in clinical practice or in advanced clinical trials, evidence is accumulating that elevated CK2 constitutive activity co-operates to induce a number of pathological conditions, including cancer, infectious diseases, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular pathologies. The development and usage of cell-permeant, selective inhibitors discloses a scenario whereby CK2 plays a global anti-apoptotic role, which under special circumstances may lead to untimely and pathogenic cell survival.

  18. Kinomic profiling approach identifies Trk as a novel radiation modulator

    PubMed Central

    Jarboe, John S.; Jaboin, Jerry J.; Anderson, Joshua C.; Nowsheen, Somaira; Stanley, Jennifer A.; Naji, Faris; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Tu, Tianxiang; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Yang, Eddy S.; Bonner, James A.; Willey, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation treatment is used in over half of all cancer patients, thus determining the mechanisms of response or resistance is critical for the development of novel treatment approaches. Materials and methods In this report, we utilize a high-content peptide array platform that performs multiplex kinase assays with real-time kinetic readout to investigate the mechanism of radiation response in vascular endothelial cells. We applied this technology to irradiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Results We identified 49 specific tyrosine phosphopeptides that were differentially affected by irradiation over a time course of one hour. In one example, the Tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) family members, TrkA and TrkB, showed transient activation between 2–15 minutes following irradiation. When we targeted TrkA and TrkB using small molecule inhibitors, HUVEC were protected from radiation damage. Conversely, stimulation of TrkA using gambogic amide promoted radiation enhancement. Conclusions Thus, we show that our approach not only can identify rapid changes in kinase activity but also identify novel targets such as TrkA. TrkA inhibition resulted in radioprotection that correlated with enhanced repair of radiation-induced damage while TrkA stimulation by gambogic amide produced radiation sensitization. PMID:22561027

  19. Kinomic profiling approach identifies Trk as a novel radiation modulator.

    PubMed

    Jarboe, John S; Jaboin, Jerry J; Anderson, Joshua C; Nowsheen, Somaira; Stanley, Jennifer A; Naji, Faris; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Tu, Tianxiang; Hallahan, Dennis E; Yang, Eddy S; Bonner, James A; Willey, Christopher D

    2012-06-01

    Ionizing radiation treatment is used in over half of all cancer patients, thus determining the mechanisms of response or resistance is critical for the development of novel treatment approaches. In this report, we utilize a high-content peptide array platform that performs multiplex kinase assays with real-time kinetic readout to investigate the mechanism of radiation response in vascular endothelial cells. We applied this technology to irradiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We identified 49 specific tyrosine phosphopeptides that were differentially affected by irradiation over a time course of 1h. In one example, the Tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) family members, TrkA and TrkB, showed transient activation between 2 and 15 min following irradiation. When we targeted TrkA and TrkB using small molecule inhibitors, HUVEC were protected from radiation damage. Conversely, stimulation of TrkA using gambogic amide promoted radiation enhancement. Thus, we show that our approach not only can identify rapid changes in kinase activity but also identify novel targets such as TrkA. TrkA inhibition resulted in radioprotection that correlated with enhanced repair of radiation-induced damage while TrkA stimulation by gambogic amide produced radiation sensitization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling of Eimeria bovis-infected bovine endothelial host cells.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Anja; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Jimenez, Cristina Arce; Zahner, Horst; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Within its life cycle Eimeria bovis undergoes a long lasting intracellular development into large macromeronts in endothelial cells. Since little is known about the molecular basis of E. bovis-triggered host cell regulation we applied a microarray-based approach to define transcript variation in bovine endothelial cells early after sporozoite invasion (4 h post inoculation (p.i.)), during trophozoite establishment (4 days p.i.), during early parasite proliferation (8 days p.i.) and towards macromeront maturation (14 days p.i.). E. bovis infection led to significant changes in the abundance of many host cell gene transcripts. As infection progressed, the number of regulated genes increased such that 12, 45, 175 and 1184 sequences were modulated at 4 h, 4, 8 and 14 days p.i., respectively. These genes significantly interfered with several host cell functions, networks and canonical pathways, especially those involved in cellular development, cell cycle, cell death, immune response and metabolism. The correlation between stage of infection and the number of regulated genes involved in different aspects of metabolism suggest parasite-derived exploitation of host cell nutrients. The modulation of genes involved in cell cycle arrest and host cell apoptosis corresponds to morphological in vitro findings and underline the importance of these aspects for parasite survival. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of modulated transcripts associated with immune responses also demonstrate the defensive capacity of the endothelial host cell. Overall, this work reveals a panel of novel candidate genes involved in E. bovis-triggered host cell modulation, providing a valuable tool for future work on this topic.

  1. Diversity in host clone performance within a Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Peter M; Berthelot, Maud E; Young, Robert J; Graham, James W A; Racher, Andrew J; Aldana, Dulce

    2015-01-01

    Much effort has been expended to improve the capabilities of individual Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell lines to synthesize recombinant therapeutic proteins (rPs). However, given the increasing variety in rP molecular types and formats it may be advantageous to employ a toolbox of CHO host cell lines in biomanufacturing. Such a toolbox would contain a panel of hosts with specific capabilities to synthesize certain molecular types at high volumetric concentrations and with the correct product quality (PQ). In this work, we examine a panel of clonally derived host cell lines isolated from CHOK1SV for the ability to manufacture two model proteins, an IgG4 monoclonal antibody (Mab) and an Fc-fusion protein (etanercept). We show that these host cell lines vary in their relative ability to synthesize these proteins in transient and stable pool production format. Furthermore, we examined the PQ attributes of the stable pool-produced Mab and etanercept (by N-glycan ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively), and uncovered substantial variation between the host cell lines in Mab N-glycan micro-heterogeneity and etanercept N and O-linked macro-heterogeneity. To further investigate the capabilities of these hosts to act as cell factories, we examined the glycosylation pathway gene expression profiles as well as the levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in the untransfected hosts. We uncovered a moderate correlation between ER mass and the volumetric product concentration in transient and stable pool Mab production. This work demonstrates the utility of leveraging diversity within the CHOK1SV pool to identify new host cell lines with different performance characteristics. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Stealing the Keys to the Kitchen: Viral Manipulation of the Host Cell Metabolic Network.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Christopher M; Xu, Shihao; Munger, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Host cells possess the metabolic assets required for viral infection. Recent studies indicate that control of the host's metabolic resources is a core host-pathogen interaction. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to usurp the host's metabolic resources, funneling them towards the production of virion components as well as the organization of specialized compartments for replication, maturation, and dissemination. Consequently, hosts have developed a variety of metabolic countermeasures to sense and resist these viral changes. The complex interplay between virus and host over metabolic control has only just begun to be deconvoluted. However, it is clear that virally induced metabolic reprogramming can substantially impact infectious outcomes, highlighting the promise of targeting these processes for antiviral therapeutic development.

  3. Involvement of DNA polymerase alpha in host cell reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Maeno, K.

    1984-02-01

    Aphidicolin is a potent inhibitor of both host cell DNA polymerase alpha and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced DNA polymerase but has no effect on DNA polymerases beta and gamma of host cells. By using an aphidicolin-resistant mutant (Aphr) of HSV, a possible involvement of DNA polymerase alpha in host cell reactivation of UV-damaged HSV was studied. Plaque formation by UV-irradiated Aphr was markedly inhibited by 1 microgram of aphidicolin per ml, which did not affect the plating efficiency of nonirradiated Aphr. Aphidicolin added before 12 h postinfection inhibited plaque formation by irradiated Aphr, which became aphidicolin insensitive after 36 h postinfection. The results strongly suggest that host cell DNA polymerase alpha is involved in the repair of UV-irradiated HSV DNA.

  4. Brucella abortus Choloylglycine Hydrolase Affects Cell Envelope Composition and Host Cell Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C.; Mujer, Cesar V.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization. PMID:22174816

  5. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C; Mujer, Cesar V; DelVecchio, Vito G; Comerci, Diego J

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  6. Bacterial Cell-Cell Communication in the Host via RRNPP Peptide-Binding Regulators.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pascual, David; Monnet, Véronique; Gardan, Rozenn

    2016-01-01

    Human microbiomes are composed of complex and dense bacterial consortia. In these environments, bacteria are able to react quickly to change by coordinating their gene expression at the population level via small signaling molecules. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication is mostly mediated by peptides that are released into the extracellular environment. Cell-cell communication based on these peptides is especially widespread in the group Firmicutes, in which they regulate a wide array of biological processes, including functions related to host-microbe interactions. Among the different agents of communication, the RRNPP family of cytoplasmic transcriptional regulators, together with their cognate re-internalized signaling peptides, represents a group of emerging importance. RRNPP members that have been studied so far are found mainly in species of bacilli, streptococci, and enterococci. These bacteria are characterized as both human commensal and pathogenic, and share different niches in the human body with other microorganisms. The goal of this mini-review is to present the current state of research on the biological relevance of RRNPP mechanisms in the context of the host, highlighting their specific roles in commensalism or virulence.

  7. HIV–host interactome revealed directly from infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yang; Jacobs, Erica Y.; Greco, Todd M.; Mohammed, Kevin D.; Tong, Tommy; Keegan, Sarah; Binley, James M.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P.; Chait, Brian T.; Muesing, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Although genetically compact, HIV-1 commandeers vast arrays of cellular machinery to sustain and protect it during cycles of viral outgrowth. Transposon-mediated saturation linker scanning mutagenesis was used to isolate fully replication-competent viruses harbouring a potent foreign epitope tag. Using these viral isolates, we performed differential isotopic labelling and affinity-capture mass spectrometric analyses on samples obtained from cultures of human lymphocytes to classify the vicinal interactomes of the viral Env and Vif proteins as they occur during natural infection. Importantly, interacting proteins were recovered without bias, regardless of their potential for positive, negative or neutral impact on viral replication. We identified specific host associations made with trimerized Env during its biosynthesis, at virological synapses, with innate immune effectors (such as HLA-E) and with certain cellular signalling pathways (for example, Notch1). We also defined Vif associations with host proteins involved in the control of nuclear transcription and nucleoside biosynthesis as well as those interacting stably or transiently with the cytoplasmic protein degradation apparatus. Our approach is broadly applicable to elucidating pathogen–host interactomes, providing high-certainty identification of interactors by their direct access during cycling infection. Understanding the pathophysiological consequences of these associations is likely to provide strategic targets for antiviral intervention. PMID:27375898

  8. Impact of protozoan cell death on parasite-host interactions and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    PCD in protozoan parasites has emerged as a fascinating field of parasite biology. This not only relates to the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary implications but also to the impact on the parasite-host interactions within mammalian hosts and arthropod vectors. During recent years, common functions of apoptosis and autophagy in protozoa and during parasitic infections have emerged. Here, we review how distinct cell death pathways in Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium or Toxoplasma may contribute to regulation of parasite cell densities in vectors and mammalian hosts, to differentiation of parasites, to stress responses, and to modulation of the host immunity. The examples provided indicate crucial roles of PCD in parasite biology. The existence of PCD pathways in these organisms and the identification as being critical for parasite biology and parasite-host interactions could serve as a basis for developing new anti-parasitic drugs that take advantage of these pathways. PMID:21126352

  9. Role of molecular chaperones in biogenesis of the protein kinome.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Atin K; Theodoraki, Maria A; Nillegoda, Nadinath B; Caplan, Avrom J

    2011-01-01

    Molecular chaperones promote polypeptide folding in cells by protecting newly made and otherwise misfolded proteins against aggregation or degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. The roles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc37 and Ydj1 molecular chaperones are described in this chapter. We focus on biogenesis of protein kinases that require several different molecular chaperones for their proper folding. Specific among these is Cdc37, which binds directly to its kinase clients either during or shortly after translation and protects them against rapid proteasomal degradation. Ydj1 has a similar role, but is less specific for protein kinases in its role as a molecular chaperone. The method that we describe uses pulse chase and immunoprecipitation to analyze the fate of newly made proteins. Two kinetically distinct pathways of degradation can be discerned using this methodology that is dependent on the presence of an Hsp90 inhibitor or occurs in mutants of the molecular chaperones under study. The first is "zero-point" degradation that occurs either during or immediately after translation. The second is a slower pathway, where the half-life of kinase is approximately 20 min after translation.

  10. Unmasking Determinants of Specificity in the Human Kinome

    PubMed Central

    Creixell, Pau; Palmeri, Antonio; Miller, Chad J.; Lou, Hua Jane; Santini, Cristina C.; Nielsen, Morten; Turk, Benjamin E.; Linding, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Summary Protein kinases control cellular responses to environmental cues by swift and accurate signal processing. Breakdowns in this high-fidelity capability are a driving force in cancer and other diseases. Thus, our limited understanding of which amino acids in the kinase domain encode substrate specificity, the so-called determinants of specificity (DoS), constitutes a major obstacle in cancer signaling. Here, we systematically discover several DoS and experimentally validate three of them, named the αC1, αC3, and APE-7 residues. We demonstrate that DoS form sparse networks of non-conserved residues spanning distant regions. Our results reveal a likely role for inter-residue allostery in specificity and an evolutionary decoupling of kinase activity and specificity, which appear loaded on independent groups of residues. Finally, we uncover similar properties driving SH2 domain specificity and demonstrate how the identification of DoS can be utilized to elucidate a greater understanding of the role of signaling networks in cancer (Creixell et al., 2015 [this issue of Cell]). PMID:26388442

  11. Fibroblasts—a key host cell type in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Strell, Carina; Rundqvist, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Tumor initiation, growth, invasion, and metastasis occur as a consequence of a complex interplay between the host environment and cancer cells. Fibroblasts are now recognized as a key host cell type involved in host–cancer signaling. This review discusses some recent studies that highlight the roles of fibroblasts in tumor initiation, early progression, invasion, and metastasis. Some clinical studies describing the prognostic significance of fibroblast-derived markers and signatures are also discussed. PMID:22509805

  12. Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease: analysis of dendritic cells subpopulations*

    PubMed Central

    Botari, Clara Marino Espricigo; Nunes, Adauto José Ferreira; de Souza, Mair Pedro; Orti-Raduan, Érica Sinara Lenharo; Salvio, Ana Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The graft-versus-host disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Aiming at contributing to the understanding of the role of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and natural killer cells in chronic graft-versus-host disease, we examined biopsies of jugal mucosa of 26 patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Half of these patients developed oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. Microscopic sections were immunohistochemically stained for anti-CD1a, anti-CD123 and anti-CD56. We calculated the number of immunostained cells in the corium per square millimeter and applied the Mann-Whitney test. Results showed a statistically significant increase of myeloid dendritic cells (CD1a+; p=0,02) and natural killer cells (CD56; p=0,04) in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. CD123 immunostaining showed no statistical difference between groups. It was concluded that myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells participate in the development of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. PMID:25054751

  13. Natural killer cells in host defense against veterinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Yang, Xi

    2015-11-15

    Natural Killer (NK) cells constitute a major subset of innate lymphoid cells that do not express the T- and B-cell receptors and play an important role in antimicrobial defense. NK cells not only induce early and rapid innate immune responses, but also communicate with dendritic cells to shape the adaptive immunity, thus bridging innate and adaptive immunity. Although the functional biology of NK cells is well-documented in a variety of infections in humans and mice, their role in protecting domestic animals from infectious agents is only beginning to be understood. In this article, we summarize the current state of knowledge about the contribution of NK cells in pathogen defense in domestic animals, especially cattle and pigs. Understanding the immunobiology of NK cells will translate into strategies to manipulate these cells for preventive and therapeutic purposes.

  14. Interleukin-7 Modulates Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Responses via Its Action on Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deiser, Katrin; Stoycheva, Diana; Bank, Ute; Blankenstein, Thomas; Schüler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells is a promising approach for the treatment of chronic viral and malignant diseases. In order to improve adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) of cancer, recent strategies aim at the antibody-based blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways in CD8+ T cells. Alternatively, adjuvant effects of immunostimulatory cytokines might be exploited to improve therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses. For example, Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent growth, activation and survival factor for CD8+ T cells that can be used to improve virus- and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Although direct IL-7 effects on CD8+ T cells were studied extensively in numerous models, the contribution of IL-7 receptor-competent (IL-7R+) host cells remained unclear. In the current study we provide evidence that CD8+ T cell-mediated tumor rejection in response to recombinant IL-7 (rIL-7) therapy is strictly dependent on IL-7R+ host cells. On the contrary, CD8+ T cell expansion is independent of host IL-7R expression. If, however, rIL-7 therapy and peptide vaccination are combined, host IL-7R signaling is crucial for CD8+ T cell expansion. Unexpectedly, maximum CD8+ T cell expansion relies mainly on IL-7R signaling in non-hematopoietic host cells, similar to the massive accumulation of dendritic cells and granulocytes. In summary, we provide evidence that IL-7R+ host cells are major targets of rIL-7 that modulate therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses and the outcome of rIL-7-assisted ATT. This knowledge may have important implications for the design and optimization of clinical ATT protocols. PMID:27447484

  15. CotH3 mediates fungal invasion of host cells during mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Liu, Mingfu; Luo, Guanpingsheng; Bruno, Vincent; Phan, Quynh T; Waring, Alan J; Edwards, John E; Filler, Scott G; Yeaman, Michael R; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2014-01-01

    Angioinvasion is a hallmark of mucormycosis. Previously, we identified endothelial cell glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as a receptor for Mucorales that mediates host cell invasion. Here we determined that spore coat protein homologs (CotH) of Mucorales act as fungal ligands for GRP78. CotH proteins were widely present in Mucorales and absent from noninvasive pathogens. Heterologous expression of CotH3 and CotH2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae conferred the ability to invade host cells via binding to GRP78. Homology modeling and computational docking studies indicated structurally compatible interactions between GRP78 and both CotH3 and CotH2. A mutant of Rhizopus oryzae, the most common cause of mucormycosis, with reduced CotH expression was impaired for invading and damaging endothelial cells and CHO cells overexpressing GRP78. This strain also exhibited reduced virulence in a diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA) mouse model of mucormycosis. Treatment with anti-CotH Abs abolished the ability of R. oryzae to invade host cells and protected DKA mice from mucormycosis. The presence of CotH in Mucorales explained the specific susceptibility of DKA patients, who have increased GRP78 levels, to mucormycosis. Together, these data indicate that CotH3 and CotH2 function as invasins that interact with host cell GRP78 to mediate pathogenic host-cell interactions and identify CotH as a promising therapeutic target for mucormycosis.

  16. COS-1 cells as packaging host for production of lentiviruses.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Crystal J; Shioda, Toshi

    2011-03-01

    We present a protocol for in vitro production of recombinant lentiviruses using COS-1 African green monkey kidney epithelial cells and HEK293T human embryonic kidney epithelial cells as packaging cells. COS-1 and HEK293T express SV40 large T antigen, amplifying transfected circular plasmids harboring SV40 replication origin. Support protocols for evaluation of transfection efficiency by in situ β-galactosidase enzyme activity assay and titer of infection-capable virions are also provided. Advantages of using COS-1 packaging cells over the standard HEK293T cells for contamination-sensitive applications or automated processing are discussed.

  17. Cif type III effector protein: a smart hijacker of the host cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Taieb, Frédéric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Oswald, Eric

    2009-09-01

    During coevolution with their hosts, bacteria have developed functions that allow them to interfere with the mechanisms controlling the proliferation of eukaryotic cells. Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is one of these cyclomodulins, the family of bacterial effectors that interfere with the host cell cycle. Acquired early during evolution by bacteria isolated from vertebrates and invertebrates, Cif is an effector protein of type III secretion machineries. Cif blocks the host cell cycle in G1 and G2 by inducing the accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1). The x-ray crystal structure of Cif reveals it to be a divergent member of a superfamily of enzymes including cysteine proteases and acetyltransferases. This review summarizes and discusses what we know about Cif, from the bacterial gene to the host target.

  18. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence.

    PubMed

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R

    2015-09-15

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton--actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement--have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence.

  19. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence

    PubMed Central

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton — actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement — have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence. PMID:26292640

  20. A statistical approach to determining criticality of residual host cell DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Harry; Wei, Ziping; Schenerman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for determining the criticality of residual host cell DNA, which is characterized through two attributes, namely the size and amount of residual DNA in biopharmaceutical product. By applying a mechanistic modeling approach to the problem, we establish the linkage between residual DNA and product safety measured in terms of immunogenicity, oncogenicity, and infectivity. Such a link makes it possible to establish acceptable ranges of residual DNA size and amount. Application of the method is illustrated through two real-life examples related to a vaccine manufactured in Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell line and a monoclonal antibody using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line as host cells.

  1. The Influence of Programmed Cell Death in Myeloid Cells on Host Resilience to Infection with Legionella pneumophila or Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Gamradt, Pia; Xu, Yun; Gratz, Nina; Duncan, Kellyanne; Kobzik, Lester; Högler, Sandra; Decker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen clearance and host resilience/tolerance to infection are both important factors in surviving an infection. Cells of the myeloid lineage play important roles in both of these processes. Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells all have important roles in initiation of the immune response and clearance of bacterial pathogens. If these cells are not properly regulated they can result in excessive inflammation and immunopathology leading to decreased host resilience. Programmed cell death (PCD) is one possible mechanism that myeloid cells may use to prevent excessive inflammation. Myeloid cell subsets play roles in tissue repair, immune response resolution, and maintenance of homeostasis, so excessive PCD may also influence host resilience in this way. In addition, myeloid cell death is one mechanism used to control pathogen replication and dissemination. Many of these functions for PCD have been well defined in vitro, but the role in vivo is less well understood. We created a mouse that constitutively expresses the pro-survival B-cell lymphoma (bcl)-2 protein in myeloid cells (CD68(bcl2tg), thus decreasing PCD specifically in myeloid cells. Using this mouse model we explored the impact that decreased cell death of these cells has on infection with two different bacterial pathogens, Legionella pneumophila and Streptococcus pyogenes. Both of these pathogens target multiple cell death pathways in myeloid cells, and the expression of bcl2 resulted in decreased PCD after infection. We examined both pathogen clearance and host resilience and found that myeloid cell death was crucial for host resilience. Surprisingly, the decreased myeloid PCD had minimal impact on pathogen clearance. These data indicate that the most important role of PCD during infection with these bacteria is to minimize inflammation and increase host resilience, not to aid in the clearance or prevent the spread of the pathogen. PMID:27973535

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi: Entry into Mammalian Host Cells and Parasitophorous Vacuole Formation

    PubMed Central

    Barrias, Emile Santos; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; De Souza, Wanderley

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. This protozoan is an obligate intracellular parasite. The infective forms of the parasite are the metacyclic trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and bloodstream trypomastigotes. The recognition between the parasite and mammalian host cell, involves numerous molecules present in both cell types, and similar to several intracellular pathogens, T. cruzi is internalized by host cells via multiple endocytic pathways. Morphological studies demonstrated that after the interaction of the infective forms of T. cruzi with phagocytic or non-phagocytic cell types, plasma membrane (PM) protrusions can form, showing similarity with those observed during canonical phagocytosis or macropinocytic events. Additionally, several molecules known to be molecular markers of membrane rafts, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis have been demonstrated to be present at the invasion site. These events may or may not depend on the host cell lysosomes and cytoskeleton. In addition, after penetration, components of the host endosomal-lysosomal system, such as early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes, participate in the formation of the nascent parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Dynamin, a molecule involved in vesicle formation, has been shown to be involved in the PV release from the host cell PM. This review focuses on the multiple pathways that T. cruzi can use to enter the host cells until complete PV formation. We will describe different endocytic processes, such as phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, and endocytosis using membrane microdomains and clathrin-dependent endocytosis and show results that are consistent with their use by this smart parasite. We will also discuss others mechanisms that have been described, such as active penetration and the process that takes advantage of cell membrane wound repair. PMID:23914186

  3. Comprehensive structural and functional characterization of the human kinome by protein structure modeling and ligand virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The growing interest in the identification of kinase inhibitors, promising therapeutics in the treatment of many diseases, has created a demand for the structural characterization of the entire human kinome. At the outset of the drug development process, the lead-finding stage, approaches that enrich the screening library with bioactive compounds are needed. Here, protein structure-based methods can play an important role, but despite structural genomics efforts, it is unlikely that the three-dimensional structures of the entire kinome will be available soon. Therefore, at the proteome level, structure-based approaches must rely on predicted models, with a key issue being their utility in virtual ligand screening. In this study, we employ the recently developed FINDSITE/Q-Dock Ligand Homology Modeling approach, which is well suited for proteome-scale applications using predicted structures, to provide extensive structural and functional characterization of the human kinome. Specifically, we construct structure models for the human kinome; these are subsequently subject to virtual screening against a library of more than 2 million compounds. To rank the compounds, we employ a hierarchical approach that combines ligand- and structure-based filters. Modeling accuracy is carefully validated using available experimental data with particularly encouraging results found for the ability to identify, without prior knowledge, specific kinase inhibitors. More generally, the modeling procedure results in a large number of predicted molecular interactions between kinases and small ligands that should be of practical use in the development of novel inhibitors. The dataset is freely available to the academic community a user-friendly web interface at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/kinomelhm/as well as the ZINC website (http://zinc.docking.org/applications/2010Apr/Brylinski-2010.tar.gz). PMID:20853887

  4. Functional Characterization of Rhoptry Kinome in the Virulent Toxoplasma gondii RH Strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Elsheikha, Hany M; Chen, Kai; Zhu, Wei-Ning; Yue, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Huang, Si-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular apicomplexan protozoan which can infect any warm-blooded animal and causes severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals or infants infected in utero. The survival and success of this parasite require that it colonizes the host cell, avoids host immune defenses, replicates within an appropriate niche, and exits the infected host cell to spread to neighboring non-infected cells. All of these processes depend on the parasite ability to synthesis and export secreted proteins. Amongst the secreted proteins, rhoptry organelle proteins (ROPs) are essential for the parasite invasion and host cell manipulation. Even though the functions of most ROPs have been elucidated in the less virulent T. gondii (type II), the roles of ROPs in the highly virulent type I strain remain largely un-characterized. Herein, we investigated the contributions of 15 ROPs (ROP10, ROP11, ROP15, ROP20, ROP23, ROP31, ROP32, ROP33, ROP34, ROP35, ROP36, ROP40, ROP41, ROP46, and ROP47) to the infectivity of the high virulent type I T. gondii (RH strain). Using CRISPR-Cas9, these 15 ROPs genes were successfully disrupted and the effects of gene knockout on the parasite's ability to infect cells in vitro and BALB/c mice in vivo were investigated. These results showed that deletions of these ROPs did not interfere with the parasite ability to grow in cultured human foreskin fibroblast cells and did not significantly alter parasite pathogenicity for BALB/c mice. Although these ROPs did not seem to be essential for the acute infectious stage of type I T. gondii in the mouse model, they might have different functions in other intermediate hosts or play different roles in other life cycle forms of this parasite due to the different expression patterns; this warrants further investigations.

  5. Functional Characterization of Rhoptry Kinome in the Virulent Toxoplasma gondii RH Strain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Chen, Kai; Zhu, Wei-Ning; Yue, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Huang, Si-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular apicomplexan protozoan which can infect any warm-blooded animal and causes severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals or infants infected in utero. The survival and success of this parasite require that it colonizes the host cell, avoids host immune defenses, replicates within an appropriate niche, and exits the infected host cell to spread to neighboring non-infected cells. All of these processes depend on the parasite ability to synthesis and export secreted proteins. Amongst the secreted proteins, rhoptry organelle proteins (ROPs) are essential for the parasite invasion and host cell manipulation. Even though the functions of most ROPs have been elucidated in the less virulent T. gondii (type II), the roles of ROPs in the highly virulent type I strain remain largely un-characterized. Herein, we investigated the contributions of 15 ROPs (ROP10, ROP11, ROP15, ROP20, ROP23, ROP31, ROP32, ROP33, ROP34, ROP35, ROP36, ROP40, ROP41, ROP46, and ROP47) to the infectivity of the high virulent type I T. gondii (RH strain). Using CRISPR-Cas9, these 15 ROPs genes were successfully disrupted and the effects of gene knockout on the parasite’s ability to infect cells in vitro and BALB/c mice in vivo were investigated. These results showed that deletions of these ROPs did not interfere with the parasite ability to grow in cultured human foreskin fibroblast cells and did not significantly alter parasite pathogenicity for BALB/c mice. Although these ROPs did not seem to be essential for the acute infectious stage of type I T. gondii in the mouse model, they might have different functions in other intermediate hosts or play different roles in other life cycle forms of this parasite due to the different expression patterns; this warrants further investigations. PMID:28174572

  6. Autophagy Controls an Intrinsic Host Defense to Bacteria by Promoting Epithelial Cell Survival: A Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sun-Young; Lee, Se-Na; Yang, Jin-Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Ogawa, Michinaga; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2013-01-01

    Cell death is a critical host response to regulate the fate of bacterial infections, innate immune responses, and ultimately, disease outcome. Shigella spp. invade and colonize gut epithelium in human and nonhuman primates but adult mice are naturally resistant to intra-gastric Shigella infection. In this study, however, we found Shigella could invade the terminal ileum of the mouse small intestine by 1 hour after infection and be rapidly cleared within 24 h. These early phase events occurred shortly after oral infection resulting in epithelial shedding, degranulation of Paneth cells, and cell death in the intestine. During this process, autophagy proceeded without any signs of inflammation. In contrast, blocking autophagy in epithelial cells enhanced host cell death, leading to tissue destruction and to inflammation, suggesting that autophagic flow relieves cellular stress associated with host cell death and inflammation. Herein we propose a new concept of “epithelial barrier turnover” as a general intrinsic host defense mechanism that increases survival of host cells and inhibits inflammation against enteric bacterial infections, which is regulated by autophagy. PMID:24260541

  7. Apicomplexans pulling the strings: manipulation of the host cell cytoskeleton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Helena; Hemphill, Andrew; Leitão, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Invasive stages of apicomplexan parasites require a host cell to survive, proliferate and advance to the next life cycle stage. Once invasion is achieved, apicomplexans interact closely with the host cell cytoskeleton, but in many cases the different species have evolved distinct mechanisms and pathways to modulate the structural organization of cytoskeletal filaments. The host cell cytoskeleton is a complex network, largely, but not exclusively, composed of microtubules, actin microfilaments and intermediate filaments, all of which are modulated by associated proteins, and it is involved in diverse functions including maintenance of cell morphology and mechanical support, migration, signal transduction, nutrient uptake, membrane and organelle trafficking and cell division. The ability of apicomplexans to modulate the cytoskeleton to their own advantage is clearly beneficial. We here review different aspects of the interactions of apicomplexans with the three main cytoskeletal filament types, provide information on the currently known parasite effector proteins and respective host cell targets involved, and how these interactions modulate the host cell physiology. Some of these findings could provide novel targets that could be exploited for the development of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies.

  8. Intracellular Theileria annulata Promote Invasive Cell Motility through Kinase Regulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Min; Baumgartner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular, protozoan Theileria species parasites are the only eukaryotes known to transform another eukaryotic cell. One consequence of this parasite-dependent transformation is the acquisition of motile and invasive properties of parasitized cells in vitro and their metastatic dissemination in the animal, which causes East Coast Fever (T. parva) or Tropical Theileriosis (T. annulata). These motile and invasive properties of infected host cells are enabled by parasite-dependent, poorly understood F-actin dynamics that control host cell membrane protrusions. Herein, we dissected functional and structural alterations that cause acquired motility and invasiveness of T. annulata-infected cells, to understand the molecular basis driving cell dissemination in Tropical Theileriosis. We found that chronic induction of TNFα by the parasite contributes to motility and invasiveness of parasitized host cells. We show that TNFα does so by specifically targeting expression and function of the host proto-oncogenic ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. Blocking either TNFα secretion or MAP4K4 expression dampens the formation of polar, F-actin-rich invasion structures and impairs cell motility in 3D. We identified the F-actin binding ERM family proteins as MAP4K4 downstream effectors in this process because TNFα-induced ERM activation and cell invasiveness are sensitive to MAP4K4 depletion. MAP4K4 expression in infected cells is induced by TNFα-JNK signalling and maintained by the inhibition of translational repression, whereby both effects are parasite dependent. Thus, parasite-induced TNFα promotes invasive motility of infected cells through the activation of MAP4K4, an evolutionary conserved kinase that controls cytoskeleton dynamics and cell motility. Hence, MAP4K4 couples inflammatory signaling to morphodynamic processes and cell motility, a process exploited by the intracellular Theileria parasite to increase its host cell's dissemination capabilities. PMID:24626571

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Development of Its Replicative Niche: in Its Host Cell and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens can replicate efficiently only after they manipulate and modify their host cells to create an environment conducive to replication. While diverse cellular pathways are targeted by different pathogens, metabolism, membrane and cytoskeletal architecture formation, and cell death are the three primary cellular processes that are modified by infections. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that infects ∼30% of the world's population and causes severe and life-threatening disease in developing fetuses, in immune-comprised patients, and in certain otherwise healthy individuals who are primarily found in South America. The high prevalence of Toxoplasma in humans is in large part a result of its ability to modulate these three host cell processes. Here, we highlight recent work defining the mechanisms by which Toxoplasma interacts with these processes. In addition, we hypothesize why some processes are modified not only in the infected host cell but also in neighboring uninfected cells. PMID:24951442

  10. Knockdown of ERM family member moesin in host cells increases HIV type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Capalbo, Gianni; Mueller-Kuller, Thea; Markovic, Sandra; Klein, Stefan A; Dietrich, Ursula; Hoelzer, Dieter; Ottmann, Oliver G; Scheuring, Urban J

    2011-12-01

    Moesin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of cytoskeleton/membrane structure organizing and signal transduction proteins. Previously, we found an increased expression of moesin during HIV-1 infection. Moesin was also reported to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. To analyze whether moesin is a host factor affecting the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we used small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to evaluate the effect of moesin knockdown on HIV-1 replication in P4-CCR5 cells. Moesin's knockdown did not affect the cell viability or cell phenotype. Interestingly, we observed a marked increase in viral replication, as demonstrated by enhanced HIV-1 RNA, p24 antigen, and ß-galactosidase reporter expression. Moesin-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 replication was confirmed in lymphocytic host cells (Jurkat). These results suggest an overall rather restrictive role of moesin for HIV-1 replication in host cells in vitro.

  11. Entry of enveloped viruses into host cells: membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Más, Vicente; Melero, José A

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are intracellular parasites that hijack the cellular machinery for their own replication. Therefore, an obligatory step in the virus life cycle is the delivery of the viral genome inside the cell. Enveloped viruses (i.e., viruses with a lipid envelope) use a two-step procedure to release their genetic material into the cell: (i) they first bind to specific surface receptors of the target cell membrane and then, (ii) they fuse the viral and cell membranes. This last step may occur at the cell surface or after internalization of the virus particle by endocytosis or by some other route (e.g., macropinocytosis). Remarkably, the virus-cell membrane fusion process goes essentially along the same intermediate steps as other membrane fusions that occur for instance in vesicular fusion at the nerve synapsis or cell-cell fusion in yeast mating. Specialized viral proteins, fusogens, promote virus-cell membrane fusion. The viral fusogens experience drastic structural rearrangements during fusion, liberating the energy required to overcome the repulsive forces that prevent spontaneous fusion of the two membranes. This chapter describes the different types of viral fusogens and their mode of action, as are currently known.

  12. Kinome Screen Identifies PFKFB3 and Glucose Metabolism as Important Regulators of the Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Trefely, Sophie; Khoo, Poh-Sim; Krycer, James R.; Chaudhuri, Rima; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Parker, Benjamin L.; Sultani, Ghazal; Lee, James; Stephan, Jean-Philippe; Torres, Eric; Jung, Kenneth; Kuijl, Coenraad; James, David E.; Junutula, Jagath R.; Stöckli, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling pathway (ISP) plays a fundamental role in long term health in a range of organisms. Protein kinases including Akt and ERK are intimately involved in the ISP. To identify other kinases that may participate in this pathway or intersect with it in a regulatory manner, we performed a whole kinome (779 kinases) siRNA screen for positive or negative regulators of the ISP, using GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface as an output for pathway activity. We identified PFKFB3, a positive regulator of glycolysis that is highly expressed in cancer cells and adipocytes, as a positive ISP regulator. Pharmacological inhibition of PFKFB3 suppressed insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation, and Akt signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In contrast, overexpression of PFKFB3 in HEK293 cells potentiated insulin-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and Akt substrates. Furthermore, pharmacological modulation of glycolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes affected Akt phosphorylation. These data add to an emerging body of evidence that metabolism plays a central role in regulating numerous biological processes including the ISP. Our findings have important implications for diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cancer that are characterized by marked disruption of both metabolism and growth factor signaling. PMID:26342081

  13. The effect of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore on apoptosis in Eimeria tenella host cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Yong; Zheng, Ming-Xue; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Xiao-Zhen; Yang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Rui-Li; Li, Shan; Lv, Qiang-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Long; Bai, Rui

    2016-10-01

    Although the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is associated with cellular apoptosis and necrosis, its effect in host response to Eimeria infections is not well understood. In an effort to better understand the effect of MPTP on apoptosis in Eimeria tenella host cells, an MPTP inhibitor (cyclosporin A) was used to inhibit MPTP opening in vitro. Cecal epithelial cells from chick embryos, which were either treated or non-treated with cyclosporin A, were used as Eimeria tenella host cells. In addition, primary chick embryo cecum epithelial cell culture techniques and flow cytometry were used to detect the dynamic changes in MPTP opening, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and cell apoptosis rate of Eimeria tenella host cells. Compared with the control group, cytometric techniques showed that untreated host cells exhibited a significantly higher (P < 0.01) degree of MPTP opening but lower (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Moreover, untreated group cells had less apoptosis (P < 0.01) at 4 h and more apoptosis (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) at 24 to 120 h as compared with control group cells. After the application of cyclosporin A, the degree of MPTP opening in the treated group was significantly lower (P < 0.01) at 4 to 120 h compared to the untreated group, whereas the treated group had higher (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) mitochondrial transmembrane potentials at 24 to 120 h. Flow cytometry assays also showed that there was less (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) apoptosis after 24 h in the treated group than in the untreated group. Taken together, these observations indicate that MPTP is a key node that plays a predominant role in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in the host cell induced by Eimeria tenella.

  14. Quantitative network mapping of the human kinome interactome reveals new clues for rational kinase inhibitor discovery and individualized cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feixiong; Jia, Peilin; Wang, Quan; Zhao, Zhongming

    2014-01-01

    The human kinome is gaining importance through its promising cancer therapeutic targets, yet no general model to address the kinase inhibitor resistance has emerged. Here, we constructed a systems biology-based framework to catalogue the human kinome, including 538 kinase genes, in the broader context of the human interactome. Specifically, we constructed three networks: a kinase-substrate interaction network containing 7,346 pairs connecting 379 kinases to 36,576 phosphorylation sites in 1,961 substrates, a protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) containing 92,699 pairs, and an atomic resolution PPIN containing 4,278 pairs. We identified the conserved regulatory phosphorylation motifs (e.g., Ser/Thr-Pro) using a sequence logo analysis. We found the typical anticancer target selection strategy that uses network hubs as drug targets, might lead to a high adverse drug reaction risk. Furthermore, we found the distinct network centrality of kinases creates a high anticancer drug resistance risk by feedback or crosstalk mechanisms within cellular networks. This notion is supported by the systematic network and pathway analyses that anticancer drug resistance genes are significantly enriched as hubs and heavily participate in multiple signaling pathways. Collectively, this comprehensive human kinome interactome map sheds light on anticancer drug resistance mechanisms and provides an innovative resource for rational kinase inhibitor design. PMID:25003367

  15. Delivery of host cell-directed therapeutics for intracellular pathogen clearance

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Michael A.; Gallovic, Matthew D.; Peine, Kevin J.; Duong, Anthony D.; Bachelder, Eric M.; Gunn, John S.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Ainslie, Kristy M.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens present a major health risk because of their innate ability to evade clearance. Their location within host cells and ability to react to the host environment by mutation or transcriptional changes often enables survival mechanisms to resist standard therapies. Host-directed drugs do not target the pathogen, minimizing the potential development of drug resistance; however, they can be difficult to deliver efficiently to intracellular sites. Vehicle delivery of host-mediated response drugs not only improves drug distribution and toxicity profiles, but can reduce the total amount of drug necessary to clear infection. In this article, we will review some host-directed drugs and current drug delivery techniques that can be used to efficiently clear intracellular infections. PMID:24134600

  16. Bacterial toxins can inhibit host cell autophagy through cAMP generation.

    PubMed

    Shahnazari, Shahab; Namolovan, Anton; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kim, Peter K; Brumell, John H

    2011-09-01

    Autophagy plays a significant role in innate and adaptive immune responses to microbial infection. Some pathogenic bacteria have developed strategies to evade killing by host autophagy. These include the use of 'camouflage' proteins to block targeting to the autophagy pathway and the use of pore-forming toxins to block autophagosome maturation. However, general inhibition of host autophagy by bacterial pathogens has not been observed to date. Here we demonstrate that bacterial cAMP-elevating toxins from B. anthracis and V. cholera can inhibit host anti-microbial autophagy, including autophagic targeting of S. Typhimurium and latex bead phagosomes. Autophagy inhibition required the cAMP effector protein kinase A. Formation of autophagosomes in response to rapamycin and the endogenous turnover of peroxisomes was also inhibited by cAMP-elevating toxins. These findings demonstrate that cAMP-elevating toxins, representing a large group of bacterial virulence factors, can inhibit host autophagy to suppress immune responses and modulate host cell physiology.

  17. A paradigm for endosymbiotic life: cell differentiation of Rhizobium bacteria provoked by host plant factors.

    PubMed

    Kondorosi, Eva; Mergaert, Peter; Kereszt, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Symbiosis between Rhizobium bacteria and legumes leads to the formation of the root nodule. The endosymbiotic bacteria reside in polyploid host cells as membrane-surrounded vesicles where they reduce atmospheric nitrogen to support plant growth by supplying ammonia in exchange for carbon sources and energy. The morphology and physiology of endosymbionts, despite their common function, are highly divergent in different hosts. In galegoid plants, the endosymbionts are terminally differentiated, uncultivable polyploid cells, with remarkably elongated and even branched Y-shaped cells. Bacteroid differentiation is controlled by host peptides, many of which have antibacterial activity and require the bacterial function of BacA. Although the precise and combined action of several hundred host peptides and BacA has yet to be discovered, similarities, especially to certain insect-bacterium symbioses involving likewise host peptides for manipulation of endosymbionts, suggest convergent evolution. Rhizobium-legume symbiosis provides a rich source of information for understanding host-controlled endosymbiotic life in eukaryotic cells.

  18. An aspartyl protease defines a novel pathway for export of Toxoplasma proteins into the host cell

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Michael J; Sleebs, Brad E; Uboldi, Alessandro D; Garnham, Alexandra; Franco, Magdalena; Marino, Nicole D; Panas, Michael W; Ferguson, David JP; Enciso, Marta; O'Neill, Matthew T; Lopaticki, Sash; Stewart, Rebecca J; Dewson, Grant; Smyth, Gordon K; Smith, Brian J; Masters, Seth L; Boothroyd, John C; Boddey, Justin A; Tonkin, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Infection by Toxoplasma gondii leads to massive changes to the host cell. Here, we identify a novel host cell effector export pathway that requires the Golgi-resident aspartyl protease 5 (ASP5). We demonstrate that ASP5 cleaves a highly constrained amino acid motif that has similarity to the PEXEL-motif of Plasmodium parasites. We show that ASP5 matures substrates at both the N- and C-terminal ends of proteins and also controls trafficking of effectors without this motif. Furthermore, ASP5 controls establishment of the nanotubular network and is required for the efficient recruitment of host mitochondria to the vacuole. Assessment of host gene expression reveals that the ASP5-dependent pathway influences thousands of the transcriptional changes that Toxoplasma imparts on its host cell. All these changes result in attenuation of virulence of Δasp5 tachyzoites in vivo. This work characterizes the first identified machinery required for export of Toxoplasma effectors into the infected host cell. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10809.001 PMID:26576949

  19. An aspartyl protease defines a novel pathway for export of Toxoplasma proteins into the host cell.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Michael J; Sleebs, Brad E; Uboldi, Alessandro D; Garnham, Alexandra; Franco, Magdalena; Marino, Nicole D; Panas, Michael W; Ferguson, David Jp; Enciso, Marta; O'Neill, Matthew T; Lopaticki, Sash; Stewart, Rebecca J; Dewson, Grant; Smyth, Gordon K; Smith, Brian J; Masters, Seth L; Boothroyd, John C; Boddey, Justin A; Tonkin, Christopher J

    2015-11-18

    Infection by Toxoplasma gondii leads to massive changes to the host cell. Here, we identify a novel host cell effector export pathway that requires the Golgi-resident aspartyl protease 5 (ASP5). We demonstrate that ASP5 cleaves a highly constrained amino acid motif that has similarity to the PEXEL-motif of Plasmodium parasites. We show that ASP5 matures substrates at both the N- and C-terminal ends of proteins and also controls trafficking of effectors without this motif. Furthermore, ASP5 controls establishment of the nanotubular network and is required for the efficient recruitment of host mitochondria to the vacuole. Assessment of host gene expression reveals that the ASP5-dependent pathway influences thousands of the transcriptional changes that Toxoplasma imparts on its host cell. All these changes result in attenuation of virulence of Δasp5 tachyzoites in vivo. This work characterizes the first identified machinery required for export of Toxoplasma effectors into the infected host cell.

  20. Insect Gut Symbiont Susceptibility to Host Antimicrobial Peptides Caused by Alteration of the Bacterial Cell Envelope*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Son, Dae Woo; Kim, Chan-Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Marchetti, Roberta; Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Park, Ha Young; Huh, Ye Rang; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    The molecular characterization of symbionts is pivotal for understanding the cross-talk between symbionts and hosts. In addition to valuable knowledge obtained from symbiont genomic studies, the biochemical characterization of symbionts is important to fully understand symbiotic interactions. The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) has been recognized as a useful experimental insect gut symbiosis model system because of its cultivatable Burkholderia symbionts. This system is greatly advantageous because it allows the acquisition of a large quantity of homogeneous symbionts from the host midgut. Using these naïve gut symbionts, it is possible to directly compare in vivo symbiotic cells with in vitro cultured cells using biochemical approaches. With the goal of understanding molecular changes that occur in Burkholderia cells as they adapt to the Riptortus gut environment, we first elucidated that symbiotic Burkholderia cells are highly susceptible to purified Riptortus antimicrobial peptides. In search of the mechanisms of the increased immunosusceptibility of symbionts, we found striking differences in cell envelope structures between cultured and symbiotic Burkholderia cells. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigen was absent from symbiotic cells examined by gel electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses, and their membranes were more sensitive to detergent lysis. These changes in the cell envelope were responsible for the increased susceptibility of the Burkholderia symbionts to host innate immunity. Our results suggest that the symbiotic interactions between the Riptortus host and Burkholderia gut symbionts induce bacterial cell envelope changes to achieve successful gut symbiosis. PMID:26116716

  1. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in the Trypanosoma cruzi/Host Cell Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Patricia Silvia; Cueto, Juan Agustín; Casassa, Ana Florencia; Vanrell, María Cristina; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Colombo, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Summary The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has a complex bi-ological cycle that involves vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In mammals, the infective trypomastigote form of this parasite can invade several cell types by exploiting phagocytic-like or non-phagocytic mechanisms depending on the class of cell involved. Morphological studies showed that when trypomastigotes contact macrophages, they induce the formation of plasma membrane protrusions that differ from the canonical phagocytosis that occurs in the case of noninfective epimastigotes. In contrast, when trypomastigotes infect epithelial or muscle cells, the cell surface is minimally modified, suggesting the induction of a different class of process. Lysosomal-dependent or -independent T. cruzi invasion of host cells are two different models that describe the molecular and cellular events activated during parasite entry into nonphagocytic cells. In this context, we have previously shown that induction of autophagy in host cells before infection favors T. cruzi invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that autophagosomes and the autophagosomal protein LC3 are recruited to the T. cruzi entry sites and that the newly formed T. cruzi parasitophorous vacuole has characteristics of an autophagolysosome. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of T. cruzi invasion in nonphagocytic cells. Based on our findings, we propose a new model in which T. cruzi takes advantage of the up-regulation of autophagy during starvation to increase its successful colonization of host cells. PMID:22454195

  2. Molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the Trypanosoma cruzi/host cell interplay.

    PubMed

    Romano, Patricia Silvia; Cueto, Juan Agustín; Casassa, Ana Florencia; Vanrell, María Cristina; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Colombo, María Isabel

    2012-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has a complex biological cycle that involves vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In mammals, the infective trypomastigote form of this parasite can invade several cell types by exploiting phagocytic-like or nonphagocytic mechanisms depending on the class of cell involved. Morphological studies showed that when trypomastigotes contact macrophages, they induce the formation of plasma membrane protrusions that differ from the canonical phagocytosis that occurs in the case of noninfective epimastigotes. In contrast, when trypomastigotes infect epithelial or muscle cells, the cell surface is minimally modified, suggesting the induction of a different class of process. Lysosomal-dependent or -independent T. cruzi invasion of host cells are two different models that describe the molecular and cellular events activated during parasite entry into nonphagocytic cells. In this context, we have previously shown that induction of autophagy in host cells before infection favors T. cruzi invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that autophagosomes and the autophagosomal protein LC3 are recruited to the T. cruzi entry sites and that the newly formed T. cruzi parasitophorous vacuole has characteristics of an autophagolysosome. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of T. cruzi invasion in nonphagocytic cells. Based on our findings, we propose a new model in which T. cruzi takes advantage of the upregulation of autophagy during starvation to increase its successful colonization of host cells. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Host cell proteins in biotechnology-derived products: A risk assessment framework.

    PubMed

    de Zafra, Christina L Zuch; Quarmby, Valerie; Francissen, Kathleen; Vanderlaan, Martin; Zhu-Shimoni, Judith

    2015-11-01

    To manufacture biotechnology products, mammalian or bacterial cells are engineered for the production of recombinant therapeutic human proteins including monoclonal antibodies. Host cells synthesize an entire repertoire of proteins which are essential for their own function and survival. Biotechnology manufacturing processes are designed to produce recombinant therapeutics with a very high degree of purity. While there is typically a low residual level of host cell protein in the final drug product, under some circumstances a host cell protein(s) may copurify with the therapeutic protein and, if it is not detected and removed, it may become an unintended component of the final product. The purpose of this article is to enumerate and discuss factors to be considered in an assessment of risk of residual host cell protein(s) detected and identified in the drug product. The consideration of these factors and their relative ranking will lead to an overall risk assessment that informs decision-making around how to control the levels of host cell proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. RNA-Seq unveils new attributes of the heterogeneous Salmonella-host cell communication.

    PubMed

    García-Del Portillo, Francisco; Pucciarelli, M Graciela

    2017-01-03

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has uncovered hundreds of small RNAs and complex modes of RNA regulation in every bacterium analyzed to date. This complexity agrees with the adaptability of most bacteria to varied environments including, in the case of pathogens, the new niches encountered in the host. Recent RNA-Seq studies have analyzed simultaneously gene expression in the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica and infected host cells at population and single-cell level. Distinct polarization states or interferon responses in the infected macrophage were linked to variable growth rates or activities of defined virulence regulators in intra-phagosomal bacteria. Intracellular Salmonella, however, exhibit disparate intracellular lifestyles depending the host cell, ranging from a hyper-replicative cytosolic state in epithelial cells to a non-replicative intra-phagosomal condition in varied host cell types. The basis of such diverse pathogen-host communications could be examined by RNA-Seq studies in single intracellular Salmonella cells, certainly a challenge for future investigations.

  5. A Bovine Lymphosarcoma Cell Line Infected with Theileria annulata Exhibits an Irreversible Reconfiguration of Host Cell Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Durrani, Zeeshan; Pillai, Sreerekha S.; Baird, Margaret; Shiels, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Theileria annulata, an intracellular parasite of bovine lymphoid cells, induces substantial phenotypic alterations to its host cell including continuous proliferation, cytoskeletal changes and resistance to apoptosis. While parasite induced modulation of host cell signal transduction pathways and NFκB activation are established, there remains considerable speculation on the complexities of the parasite directed control mechanisms that govern these radical changes to the host cell. Our objectives in this study were to provide a comprehensive analysis of the global changes to host cell gene expression with emphasis on those that result from direct intervention by the parasite. By using comparative microarray analysis of an uninfected bovine cell line and its Theileria infected counterpart, in conjunction with use of the specific parasitacidal agent, buparvaquone, we have identified a large number of host cell gene expression changes that result from parasite infection. Our results indicate that the viable parasite can irreversibly modify the transformed phenotype of a bovine cell line. Fifty percent of genes with altered expression failed to show a reversible response to parasite death, a possible contributing factor to initiation of host cell apoptosis. The genes that did show an early predicted response to loss of parasite viability highlighted a sub-group of genes that are likely to be under direct control by parasite infection. Network and pathway analysis demonstrated that this sub-group is significantly enriched for genes involved in regulation of chromatin modification and gene expression. The results provide evidence that the Theileria parasite has the regulatory capacity to generate widespread change to host cell gene expression in a complex and largely irreversible manner. PMID:23840536

  6. A Bovine Lymphosarcoma Cell Line Infected with Theileria annulata Exhibits an Irreversible Reconfiguration of Host Cell Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Kinnaird, Jane H; Weir, William; Durrani, Zeeshan; Pillai, Sreerekha S; Baird, Margaret; Shiels, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Theileria annulata, an intracellular parasite of bovine lymphoid cells, induces substantial phenotypic alterations to its host cell including continuous proliferation, cytoskeletal changes and resistance to apoptosis. While parasite induced modulation of host cell signal transduction pathways and NFκB activation are established, there remains considerable speculation on the complexities of the parasite directed control mechanisms that govern these radical changes to the host cell. Our objectives in this study were to provide a comprehensive analysis of the global changes to host cell gene expression with emphasis on those that result from direct intervention by the parasite. By using comparative microarray analysis of an uninfected bovine cell line and its Theileria infected counterpart, in conjunction with use of the specific parasitacidal agent, buparvaquone, we have identified a large number of host cell gene expression changes that result from parasite infection. Our results indicate that the viable parasite can irreversibly modify the transformed phenotype of a bovine cell line. Fifty percent of genes with altered expression failed to show a reversible response to parasite death, a possible contributing factor to initiation of host cell apoptosis. The genes that did show an early predicted response to loss of parasite viability highlighted a sub-group of genes that are likely to be under direct control by parasite infection. Network and pathway analysis demonstrated that this sub-group is significantly enriched for genes involved in regulation of chromatin modification and gene expression. The results provide evidence that the Theileria parasite has the regulatory capacity to generate widespread change to host cell gene expression in a complex and largely irreversible manner.

  7. Eimeria bovis infection modulates endothelial host cell cholesterol metabolism for successful replication.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Penny H; Hirzmann, Joerg; Kerner, Katharina; Gimpl, Gerald; Lochnit, Guenter; Hermosilla, Carlos R; Taubert, Anja

    2015-09-23

    During first merogony Eimeria bovis forms large macromeronts in endothelial host cells containing >120 000 merozoites I. During multiplication, large amounts of cholesterol are indispensable for the enormous offspring membrane production. Cholesterol auxotrophy was proven for other apicomplexan parasites. Consequently they scavenge cholesterol from their host cell apparently in a parasite-specific manner. We here analyzed the influence of E. bovis infection on endothelial host cell cholesterol metabolism and found considerable differences to other coccidian parasites. Overall, free cholesterol significantly accumulated in E. bovis infected host cells. Furthermore, a striking increase of lipid droplet formation was observed within immature macromeronts. Artificial host cell lipid droplet enrichment significantly improved E. bovis merozoite I production confirming the key role of lipid droplet contents for optimal parasite proliferation. The transcription of several genes being involved in both, cholesterol de novo biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein-(LDL) mediated uptake, was significantly up-regulated at a time in infected cells suggesting a simultaneous exploitation of these two cholesterol acquisition pathways. E. bovis scavenges LDL-derived cholesterol apparently through significantly increased levels of surface LDL receptor abundance and LDL binding to infected cells. Consequently, LDL supplementation significantly improved parasite replication. The up-regulation of the oxidized LDL receptor 1 furthermore identified this scavenger receptor as a key molecule in parasite-triggered LDL uptake. Moreover, cellular cholesterol processing was altered in infected cells as indicated by up-regulation of cholesterol-25-hydroxylase and sterol O-acyltransferase. Overall, these results show that E. bovis considerably exploits the host cell cholesterol metabolism to guarantee its massive intracellular growth and replication.

  8. Immune inhibition of virus release from human and nonhuman cells by antibody to viral and host cell determinants.

    PubMed

    Shariff, D M; Davies, J; Desperbasques, M; Billstrom, M; Geerligs, H J; Welling, G W; Welling-Wester, S; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R

    1991-01-01

    Immune inhibition of release of the DNA viruses, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus by anti-viral and anti-host cell sera occurred while two RNA viruses, influenza and encephalomyocarditis, were inhibited only by anti-viral sera (not anti-host cell sera). Simian virus 40 and surprisingly two herpes viruses, bovine mamillitis and equine abortion, were not inhibited by either anti-viral or anti-host sera. Using the herpes simplex virus model, inhibition of virus release was detected in different cells of human and nonhuman origin with cross-inhibition between cell lines of different origin; thus, this form of immunotherapy may not require antibody to be tissue or organ specific. Evidence of inhibition of virus release from neoplastic and leukemic cell lines suggests possible application of this approach to control of virus-mediated leukoproliferative pathology (e.g. Burkitt's lymphoma or adult T cell leukemia).

  9. Assessing Host-Virus Codivergence for Close Relatives of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infecting African Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Madinda, Nadège F; Ehlers, Bernhard; Wertheim, Joel O; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Bergl, Richard A; Boesch, Christophe; Akonkwa, Dieudonné Boji Mungu; Eckardt, Winnie; Fruth, Barbara; Gillespie, Thomas R; Gray, Maryke; Hohmann, Gottfried; Karhemere, Stomy; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nishuli, Radar; Pauly, Maude; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Robbins, Martha M; Todd, Angelique; Schubert, Grit; Stoinski, Tara S; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Peeters, Martine; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    It has long been hypothesized that polyomaviruses (PyV; family Polyomaviridae) codiverged with their animal hosts. In contrast, recent analyses suggested that codivergence may only marginally influence the evolution of PyV. We reassess this question by focusing on a single lineage of PyV infecting hominine hosts, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) lineage. By characterizing the genetic diversity of these viruses in seven African great ape taxa, we show that they exhibit very strong host specificity. Reconciliation analyses identify more codivergence than noncodivergence events. In addition, we find that a number of host and PyV divergence events are synchronous. Collectively, our results support codivergence as the dominant process at play during the evolution of the MCPyV lineage. More generally, our results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting an ancient and stable association of PyV and their animal hosts. The processes involved in viral evolution and the interaction of viruses with their hosts are of great scientific interest and public health relevance. It has long been thought that the genetic diversity of double-stranded DNA viruses was generated over long periods of time, similar to typical host evolutionary timescales. This was also hypothesized for polyomaviruses (family Polyomaviridae), a group comprising several human pathogens, but this remains a point of controversy. Here, we investigate this question by focusing on a single lineage of polyomaviruses that infect both humans and their closest relatives, the African great apes. We show that these viruses exhibit considerable host specificity and that their evolution largely mirrors that of their hosts, suggesting that codivergence with their hosts played a major role in their diversification. Our results provide statistical evidence in favor of an association of polyomaviruses and their hosts over millions of years. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Assessing Host-Virus Codivergence for Close Relatives of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infecting African Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    Madinda, Nadège F.; Ehlers, Bernhard; Wertheim, Joel O.; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Bergl, Richard A.; Boesch, Christophe; Akonkwa, Dieudonné Boji Mungu; Eckardt, Winnie; Fruth, Barbara; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Gray, Maryke; Hohmann, Gottfried; Karhemere, Stomy; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nishuli, Radar; Pauly, Maude; Petrzelkova, Klara J.; Robbins, Martha M.; Todd, Angelique; Schubert, Grit; Stoinski, Tara S.; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Peeters, Martine; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has long been hypothesized that polyomaviruses (PyV; family Polyomaviridae) codiverged with their animal hosts. In contrast, recent analyses suggested that codivergence may only marginally influence the evolution of PyV. We reassess this question by focusing on a single lineage of PyV infecting hominine hosts, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) lineage. By characterizing the genetic diversity of these viruses in seven African great ape taxa, we show that they exhibit very strong host specificity. Reconciliation analyses identify more codivergence than noncodivergence events. In addition, we find that a number of host and PyV divergence events are synchronous. Collectively, our results support codivergence as the dominant process at play during the evolution of the MCPyV lineage. More generally, our results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting an ancient and stable association of PyV and their animal hosts. IMPORTANCE The processes involved in viral evolution and the interaction of viruses with their hosts are of great scientific interest and public health relevance. It has long been thought that the genetic diversity of double-stranded DNA viruses was generated over long periods of time, similar to typical host evolutionary timescales. This was also hypothesized for polyomaviruses (family Polyomaviridae), a group comprising several human pathogens, but this remains a point of controversy. Here, we investigate this question by focusing on a single lineage of polyomaviruses that infect both humans and their closest relatives, the African great apes. We show that these viruses exhibit considerable host specificity and that their evolution largely mirrors that of their hosts, suggesting that codivergence with their hosts played a major role in their diversification. Our results provide statistical evidence in favor of an association of polyomaviruses and their hosts over millions of years. PMID:27440885

  11. Intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage cell death leads to serial killing of host cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahamed, Deeqa; Boulle, Mikael; Ganga, Yashica; Mc Arthur, Chanelle; Skroch, Steven; Oom, Lance; Catinas, Oana; Pillay, Kelly; Naicker, Myshnee; Rampersad, Sanisha; Mathonsi, Colisile; Hunter, Jessica; Wong, Emily B; Suleman, Moosa; Sreejit, Gopalkrishna; Pym, Alexander S; Lustig, Gila; Sigal, Alex

    2017-01-01

    A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis is the formation of macrophage-rich granulomas. These may restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, or progress to central necrosis and cavitation, facilitating pathogen growth. To determine factors leading to Mtb proliferation and host cell death, we used live cell imaging to track Mtb infection outcomes in individual primary human macrophages. Internalization of Mtb aggregates caused macrophage death, and phagocytosis of large aggregates was more cytotoxic than multiple small aggregates containing similar numbers of bacilli. Macrophage death did not result in clearance of Mtb. Rather, it led to accelerated intracellular Mtb growth regardless of prior activation or macrophage type. In contrast, bacillary replication was controlled in live phagocytes. Mtb grew as a clump in dead cells, and macrophages which internalized dead infected cells were very likely to die themselves, leading to a cell death cascade. This demonstrates how pathogen virulence can be achieved through numbers and aggregation states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22028.001 PMID:28130921

  12. Alphavirus Infection: Host Cell Shut-Off and Inhibition of Antiviral Responses.

    PubMed

    Fros, Jelke J; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2016-06-11

    Alphaviruses cause debilitating disease in humans and animals and are transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods, typically mosquitoes. With a traditional focus on two models, Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus, alphavirus research has significantly intensified in the last decade partly due to the re-emergence and dramatic expansion of chikungunya virus in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. As a consequence, alphavirus-host interactions are now understood in much more molecular detail, and important novel mechanisms have been elucidated. It has become clear that alphaviruses not only cause a general host shut-off in infected vertebrate cells, but also specifically suppress different host antiviral pathways using their viral nonstructural proteins, nsP2 and nsP3. Here we review the current state of the art of alphavirus host cell shut-off of viral transcription and translation, and describe recent insights in viral subversion of interferon induction and signaling, the unfolded protein response, and stress granule assembly.

  13. Cycle inhibiting factors (cifs): cyclomodulins that usurp the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway of host cells.

    PubMed

    Taieb, Frédéric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Oswald, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are type III secreted effectors produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria. Cifs are "cyclomodulins" that inhibit the eukaryotic host cell cycle and also hijack other key cellular processes such as those controlling the actin network and apoptosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on Cif since its first characterization in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, the identification of several xenologues in distant pathogenic bacteria, to its structure elucidation and the recent deciphering of its mode of action. Cif impairs the host ubiquitin proteasome system through deamidation of ubiquitin or the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 that regulates Cullin-Ring-ubiquitin Ligase (CRL) complexes. The hijacking of the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway of host cells results in the modulation of various cellular functions such as epithelium renewal, apoptosis and immune response. Cif is therefore a powerful weapon in the continuous arm race that characterizes host-bacteria interactions.

  14. Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs): Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taieb, Frédéric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Oswald, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are type III secreted effectors produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria. Cifs are “cyclomodulins” that inhibit the eukaryotic host cell cycle and also hijack other key cellular processes such as those controlling the actin network and apoptosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on Cif since its first characterization in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, the identification of several xenologues in distant pathogenic bacteria, to its structure elucidation and the recent deciphering of its mode of action. Cif impairs the host ubiquitin proteasome system through deamidation of ubiquitin or the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 that regulates Cullin-Ring-ubiquitin Ligase (CRL) complexes. The hijacking of the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway of host cells results in the modulation of various cellular functions such as epithelium renewal, apoptosis and immune response. Cif is therefore a powerful weapon in the continuous arm race that characterizes host-bacteria interactions. PMID:22069713

  15. Rapid Functional Decline of Activated and Memory Graft-versus-Host-Reactive T Cells Encountering Host Antigens in the Absence of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao Wei; Andreola, Giovanna; Carlson, Alicia L; Shao, Steven; Lin, Charles P; Zhao, Guiling; Sykes, Megan

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation in the priming host environment has critical effects on the graft-versus-host (GVH) responses mediated by naive donor T cells. However, it is unclear how a quiescent or inflammatory environment impacts the activity of GVH-reactive primed T and memory cells. We show in this article that GVH-reactive primed donor T cells generated in irradiated recipients had diminished ability compared with naive T cells to increase donor chimerism when transferred to quiescent mixed allogeneic chimeras. GVH-reactive primed T cells showed marked loss of cytotoxic function and activation, and delayed but not decreased proliferation or accumulation in lymphoid tissues when transferred to quiescent mixed chimeras compared with freshly irradiated secondary recipients. Primed CD4 and CD8 T cells provided mutual help to sustain these functions in both subsets. CD8 help for CD4 cells was largely IFN-γ dependent. TLR stimulation after transfer of GVH-reactive primed T cells to mixed chimeras restored their cytotoxic effector function and permitted the generation of more effective T cell memory in association with reduced PD-1 expression on CD4 memory cells. Our data indicate that an inflammatory host environment is required for the maintenance of GVH-reactive primed T cell functions and the generation of memory T cells that can rapidly acquire effector functions. These findings have important implications for graft-versus-host disease and T cell-mediated immunotherapies.

  16. Host cell cytotoxicity, cellular repopulation dynamics, and phase-specific cell survival in X-irradiated rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S. ); Kavanau, K.S.; Afzal, S.M.J.; Curtis, S.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Postirradiation tumor volume response, cellular repopulation dynamics, cell-cycle perturbations, and phase-specific cell survival were characterized in rat rhabdomyosarcoma R-1 tumors (the R2C5 subline) following an in situ 10-Gy dose of 225-kVp X rays. This X-ray dose produced a 7.5-day delay in tumor growth to twice the volume measured at the time of irradiation, and reduced the initial surviving fraction of R2C5 cells to 0.17 as measured by the excision assay procedure. The surviving fraction of R2C5 cells returned to unity by the 16th day after tumor irradiation. On the basis of flow cytometry measurements of DNA content in tumor cells stained with a noncytotoxic concentration of Hoechst 33342, a transient G{sub 2} block was observed 1 day after irradiation. Flow cytometry measurements also demonstrated that the tetraploid R2C5 cells constituted only 30% of the total tumor cell population, with the remainder being diploid host cells comprised of macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes. Large numbers of host cells infiltrated the irradiated tumors, leading to an increase in the percentage of diploid cells by Day 2 and reaching a level of more than 80% of the total tumor cell population by 4 to 8 days after irradiation. The influx of host cells into irradiated tumors was correlated temporally with a significant 12-fold decrease in the surviving fraction of R2C5 cells that occurred between Days 2 and 4 postirradiation. When the diploid host cell population was removed by cell sorting procedures, the surviving fraction of R2C5 cells at Day 4 substantially greater than that in the presence of the host cells. Experiments involving the mixing of 4/1 and 12/1 ratios of diploid host cells and tetraploid tumor cells isolated from irradiated and unirradiated tumors demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of the host cells was specific for the irradiated tumor cells.

  17. IFN-inducible GTPases in host cell defense.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bae-Hoon; Shenoy, Avinash R; Kumar, Pradeep; Bradfield, Clinton J; MacMicking, John D

    2012-10-18

    From plants to humans, the ability to control infection at the level of an individual cell-a process termed cell-autonomous immunity-equates firmly with survival of the species. Recent work has begun to unravel this programmed cell-intrinsic response and the central roles played by IFN-inducible GTPases in defending the mammalian cell's interior against a diverse group of invading pathogens. These immune GTPases regulate vesicular traffic and protein complex assembly to stimulate oxidative, autophagic, membranolytic, and inflammasome-related antimicrobial activities within the cytosol, as well as on pathogen-containing vacuoles. Moreover, human genome-wide association studies and disease-related transcriptional profiling have linked mutations in the Immunity-Related GTPase M (IRGM) locus and altered expression of guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) with tuberculosis susceptibility and Crohn's colitis.

  18. Programmed cell death in host-symbiont associations, viewed through the Gene Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Collmer, Candace W; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Gwinn-Giglio, Michelle; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Li, Donghui; Tyler, Brett M

    2009-01-01

    Manipulation of programmed cell death (PCD) is central to many host microbe interactions. Both plant and animal cells use PCD as a powerful weapon against biotrophic pathogens, including viruses, which draw their nutrition from living tissue. Thus, diverse biotrophic pathogens have evolved many mechanisms to suppress programmed cell death, and mutualistic and commensal microbes may employ similar mechanisms. Necrotrophic pathogens derive their nutrition from dead tissue, and many produce toxins specifically to trigger programmed cell death in their hosts. Hemibiotrophic pathogens manipulate PCD in a most exquisite way, suppressing PCD during the biotrophic phase and stimulating it during the necrotrophic phase. This mini-review will summarize the mechanisms that have evolved in diverse microbes and hosts for controlling PCD and the Gene Ontology terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium for describing those mechanisms. PMID:19278553

  19. Platelet-activating Factor Receptor Initiates Contact of Acinetobacter baumannii Expressing Phosphorylcholine with Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smani, Younes; Docobo-Pérez, Fernando; López-Rojas, Rafael; Domínguez-Herrera, Juan; Ibáñez-Martínez, José; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion is an initial and important step in Acinetobacter baumannii causing infections. However, the exact molecular mechanism of such a step between A. baumannii and the host cells remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the phosphorylcholine (ChoP)-containing outer membrane protein of A. baumannii binds to A549 cells through platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR), resulting in activation of G protein and intracellular calcium. Upon A. baumannii expressing ChoP binding to PAFR, clathrin and β-arrestins, proteins involved in the direction of the vacuolar movement, are activated during invasion of A. baumannii. PAFR antagonism restricts the dissemination of A. baumannii in the pneumonia model. These results define a role for PAFR in A. baumannii interaction with host cells and suggest a mechanism for the entry of A. baumannii into the cytoplasm of host cells. PMID:22689572

  20. Membrane traffic and synaptic cross-talk during host cell entry by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Claire E; Tyler, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that Trypanosoma cruzi can exploit the natural exocytic response of the host to cell damage, utilizing host cell lysosomes as important effectors. It is, though, increasingly clear that the parasite also exploits endocytic mechanisms which allow for incorporation of plasma membrane into the parasitophorous vacuole. Further, that these endocytic mechanisms are involved in cross-talk with the exocytic machinery, in the recycling of vesicles and in the manipulation of the cytoskeleton. Here we review the mechanisms by which T. cruzi exploits features of the exocytic and endocytic pathways in epithelial and endothelial cells and the evidence for cross-talk between these pathways. PMID:22646288

  1. Active penetration of Trypanosoma cruzi into host cells: historical considerations and current concepts

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Wanderley; de Carvalho, Tecia M. Ulisses

    2013-01-01

    In the present short review, we analyze past experiments that addressed the interactions of intracellular pathogenic protozoa (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Plasmodium) with host cells and the initial use of the term active penetration to indicate that a protozoan “crossed the host cell membrane, penetrating into the cytoplasm.” However, the subsequent use of transmission electron microscopy showed that, for all of the protozoans and cell types examined, endocytosis, classically defined as involving the formation of a membrane-bound vacuole, took place during the interaction process. As a consequence, the recently penetrated parasites are always within a vacuole, designated the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). PMID:23355838

  2. Stem cell-paved biobridges facilitate stem transplant and host brain cell interactions for stroke therapy.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kelsey; Gonzales-Portillo, Gabriel S; Acosta, Sandra A; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V; Tajiri, Naoki

    2015-10-14

    Distinguished by an infarct core encased within a penumbra, stroke remains a primary source of mortality within the United States. While our scientific knowledge regarding the pathology of stroke continues to improve, clinical treatment options for patients suffering from stroke are extremely limited. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the sole FDA-approved drug proven to be helpful following stroke. However, due to the need to administer the drug within 4.5h of stroke onset its usefulness is constrained to less than 5% of all patients suffering from ischemic stroke. One experimental therapy for the treatment of stroke involves the utilization of stem cells. Stem cell transplantation has been linked to therapeutic benefit by means of cell replacement and release of growth factors; however the precise means by which this is accomplished has not yet been clearly delineated. Using a traumatic brain injury model, we recently demonstrated the ability of transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to form a biobridge connecting the area of injury to the neurogenic niche within the brain. We hypothesize that MSCs may also have the capacity to create a similar biobridge following stroke; thereby forming a conduit between the neurogenic niche and the stroke core and peri-infarct area. We propose that this biobridge could assist and promote interaction of host brain cells with transplanted stem cells and offer more opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of stem cell therapy in stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Cell Interactions In Stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of the host cell in bacteriophage T4 development. II. Characterization of host mutants that have pleiotropic effects on T4 growth.

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, B L; Revel, H R; Lielausis, I; Wood, W B

    1980-01-01

    Mutant host-defective Escherichi coli that fail to propagate bacteriophage T4 and have a pleiotropic effect on T4 development have been isolated and characterized. In phage-infected mutant cells, specific early phage proteins are absent or reduced in amount, phage DNA synthesis is depressed by about 50%, specific structural phage proteins, including some tail and collar components, are deficient or missing, and host-cell lysis is delayed and slow. Almost all phage that can overcome the host block carry mutantions that map in functionally undefined 'nonessential' regions of the T4 genome, most near gene 39. The mutant host strains are temperature sensitive for growth and show simultaneous reversion of the ts phenotype and the inability to propagate T4+. The host mutations are cotransduced with ilv (83 min) and may lie in the gene for transcription termination factor rho. Images PMID:6999171

  4. Recruitment of BAD by the Chlamydia trachomatis vacuole correlates with host-cell survival.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Philippe; Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Ying, Songmin; Hansen, Jon; Häcker, Georg; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2006-05-01

    Chlamydiae replicate intracellularly in a vacuole called an inclusion. Chlamydial-infected host cells are protected from mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis, partly due to degradation of BH3-only proteins. The host-cell adapter protein 14-3-3beta can interact with host-cell apoptotic signaling pathways in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. In Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells, 14-3-3beta co-localizes to the inclusion via direct interaction with a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion membrane protein. We therefore explored the possibility that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway may contribute to resistance of infected cells to apoptosis. We found that inhibition of PI3K renders C. trachomatis-infected cells sensitive to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, which is accompanied by mitochondrial cytochrome c release. 14-3-3beta does not associate with the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion, and inhibition of PI3K does not affect protection against apoptosis of C. pneumoniae-infected cells. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, the PI3K pathway activates AKT/protein kinase B, which leads to maintenance of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD in a phosphorylated state. Phosphorylated BAD is sequestered via 14-3-3beta to the inclusion, but it is released when PI3K is inhibited. Depletion of AKT through short-interfering RNA reverses the resistance to apoptosis of C. trachomatis-infected cells. BAD phosphorylation is not maintained and it is not recruited to the inclusion of Chlamydia muridarum, which protects poorly against apoptosis. Thus, sequestration of BAD away from mitochondria provides C. trachomatis with a mechanism to protect the host cell from apoptosis via the interaction of a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion protein with a host-cell phosphoserine-binding protein.

  5. Relationship between Eimeria tenella development and host cell apoptosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Ming-xue; Xu, Zhi-yong; Xu, Huan-cheng; Cui, Xiao-zhen; Yang, Sha-sha; Zhao, Wen-long; Li, Shan; Lv, Qiang-hua; Bai, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Coccidiosis causes considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. At present, the pathology of coccidiosis is preventable with anticoccidials and vaccination, although at considerable cost to the international poultry industry. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between Eimeria tenella development and host cell apoptosis in chickens, which provides a theoretical basis for further study of the injury mechanism of E. tenella and the prevention and treatment of coccidiosis. Cecal epithelial cells from chick embryo were used as host cells in vitro. In addition, flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling, and histopathological assays were used to detect the dynamic changes in E. tenella infection rates, DNA injury rates, and apoptosis rates in groups treated with and without the caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK. Following E. tenella infection, we demonstrated that untreated cells had less apoptosis at 4 h and, inversely, more apoptosis at 24 to 120 h compared with control cells. Furthermore, after the application of Z-LEHD-FMK, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assays, and translation of phosphatidyl serines to the host cell plasma membrane surface, the treated group chick embryo cecal epithelial cells exhibited decreased apoptosis and DNA injuries (P<0.01) at 24 to 120 h. However, light microscopy showed that E. tenella infection rates of treated cells were higher (P<0.01) than untreated cells during the whole experimental period. Together, these observations suggest that E. tenella can protect host cells from apoptosis at early stages of development but can promote apoptosis during the middle to late stages. In addition, the inhibition of host cell apoptosis can be beneficial to the intracellular growth and development of E. tenella.

  6. Ammonium secretion by Colletotrichum coccodes activates host NADPH oxidase activity enhancing host cell death and fungal virulence in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Davydov, Olga; Sagi, Moshe; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2009-12-01

    Colletotrichum pathogens of fruit and leaves are known ammonium secretors. Here, we show that Colletotrichum coccodes virulence, as measured by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Motelle) fruit tissue necrosis, correlates with the amount of ammonium secreted. Ammonium application to fruit tissue induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation. To examine whether the tomato NADPH oxidase, SlRBOH, is a source for the ammonium-induced H(2)O(2), wild-type and antisense lines abrogated for SlRBOH (SlRBOH-AS) were examined. Wild-type lines produced 7.5-fold more reactive oxygen species when exposed to exogenous ammonium than did SlRBOH-AS lines. C. coccodes colonization of wild-type tomato lines resulted in higher H(2)O(2) production and faster fungal growth rate compared with colonization in the SlRBOH-AS mutant, although the amount of ammonium secreted by the fungi was similar in both cases. Enhanced ion leakage and cell death of fruit tissue were correlated with H(2)O(2) accumulation, and treatment with the reactive oxygen scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine decreased H(2)O(2) production, ion leakage, and cell death. Importantly, the activation of reactive oxygen species production by ammonium was positively affected by an extracellular pH increase from 4 to 9, implying that ammonium exerts its control via membrane penetration. Our results show that C. coccodes activates host reactive oxygen species and H(2)O(2) production through ammonium secretion. The resultant enhancement in host tissue decay is an important step in the activation of the necrotrophic process needed for colonization.

  7. Host actin polymerization tunes the cell division cycle of an intracellular pathogen.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, M Sloan; Aditham, Arjun K; Espaillat, Akbar; Cameron, Todd A; Whiteside, Sarah A; Cava, Felipe; Portnoy, Daniel A; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2015-04-28

    Growth and division are two of the most fundamental capabilities of a bacterial cell. While they are well described for model organisms growing in broth culture, very little is known about the cell division cycle of bacteria replicating in more complex environments. Using a D-alanine reporter strategy, we found that intracellular Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) spend a smaller proportion of their cell cycle dividing compared to Lm growing in broth culture. This alteration to the cell division cycle is independent of bacterial doubling time. Instead, polymerization of host-derived actin at the bacterial cell surface extends the non-dividing elongation period and compresses the division period. By decreasing the relative proportion of dividing Lm, actin polymerization biases the population toward cells with the highest propensity to form actin tails. Thus, there is a positive-feedback loop between the Lm cell division cycle and a physical interaction with the host cytoskeleton.

  8. Global analysis of fungal morphology exposes mechanisms of host cell escape.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Teresa R; Veri, Amanda O; Ketela, Troy; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry; Cowen, Leah E

    2015-03-31

    Developmental transitions between single-cell yeast and multicellular filaments underpin virulence of diverse fungal pathogens. For the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, filamentation is thought to be required for immune cell escape via induction of an inflammatory programmed cell death. Here we perform a genome-scale analysis of C. albicans morphogenesis and identify 102 negative morphogenetic regulators and 872 positive regulators, highlighting key roles for ergosterol biosynthesis and N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate that C. albicans filamentation is not required for escape from host immune cells; instead, macrophage pyroptosis is driven by fungal cell-wall remodelling and exposure of glycosylated proteins in response to the macrophage phagosome. The capacity of killed, previously phagocytized cells to drive macrophage lysis is also observed with the distantly related fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. This study provides a global view of morphogenetic circuitry governing a key virulence trait, and illuminates a new mechanism by which fungi trigger host cell death.

  9. Hosting the plant cells in vitro: recent trends in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Milen I; Eibl, Regine; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Biotechnological production of high-value metabolites and therapeutic proteins by plant in vitro systems has been considered as an attractive alternative of classical technologies. Numerous proof-of-concept studies have illustrated the feasibility of scaling up plant in vitro system-based processes while keeping their biosynthetic potential. Moreover, several commercial processes have been established so far. Though the progress on the field is still limited, in the recent years several bioreactor configurations has been developed (e.g., so-called single-use bioreactors) and successfully adapted for growing plant cells in vitro. This review highlights recent progress and limitations in the bioreactors for plant cells and outlines future perspectives for wider industrialization of plant in vitro systems as "green cell factories" for sustainable production of value-added molecules.

  10. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, immune stimulation and host defence against infection

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Jared H; Ertelt, James M; Way, Sing Sing

    2012-01-01

    The immune system is intricately regulated allowing potent effectors to expand and become rapidly mobilized after infection, while simultaneously silencing potentially detrimental responses that averts immune-mediated damage to host tissues. This relies in large part on the delicate interplay between immune suppressive regulatory CD4+ T (Treg) cells and immune effectors that without active suppression by Treg cells cause systemic and organ-specific autoimmunity. Although these beneficial roles have been classically described as counterbalanced by impaired host defence against infection, newfound protective roles for Treg cells against specific viral pathogens (e.g. herpes simplex virus 2, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, West Nile virus) have been uncovered using transgenic mice that allow in vivo Treg-cell ablation based on Foxp3 expression. In turn, Foxp3+ Treg cells also provide protection against some parasitic (Plasmodium sp., Toxoplasma gondii) and fungal (Candida albicans) pathogens. By contrast, for bacterial and mycobacterial infections (e.g. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Mycobacterium tuberculosis), experimental manipulation of Foxp3+ cells continues to indicate detrimental roles for Treg cells in host defence. This variance is probably related to functional plasticity in Treg cell suppression that shifts discordantly following infection with different types of pathogens. Furthermore, the efficiency whereby Treg cells silence immune activation coupled with the plasticity in Foxp3+ cell activity suggest that overriding Treg-mediated suppression represents a prerequisite ‘signal zero’ that together with other stimulation signals [T-cell receptor (signal 1), co-stimulation (signal 2), inflammatory cytokines (signal 3)] are essential for T-cell activation in vivo. Herein, the importance of Foxp3+ Treg cells in host defence against infection, and the significance of infection-induced shifts in Treg-cell suppression are summarized. PMID

  11. The Human Kinome Targeted by FDA Approved Multi-Target Drugs and Combination Products: A Comparative Study from the Drug-Target Interaction Network Perspective.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying Hong; Wang, Pan Pan; Li, Xiao Xu; Yu, Chun Yan; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Jin; Xue, Wei Wei; Tan, Jun; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human kinome is one of the most productive classes of drug target, and there is emerging necessity for treating complex diseases by means of polypharmacology (multi-target drugs and combination products). However, the advantages of the multi-target drugs and the combination products are still under debate. A comparative analysis between FDA approved multi-target drugs and combination products, targeting the human kinome, was conducted by mapping targets onto the phylogenetic tree of the human kinome. The approach of network medicine illustrating the drug-target interactions was applied to identify popular targets of multi-target drugs and combination products. As identified, the multi-target drugs tended to inhibit target pairs in the human kinome, especially the receptor tyrosine kinase family, while the combination products were able to against targets of distant homology relationship. This finding asked for choosing the combination products as a better solution for designing drugs aiming at targets of distant homology relationship. Moreover, sub-networks of drug-target interactions in specific disease were generated, and mechanisms shared by multi-target drugs and combination products were identified. In conclusion, this study performed an analysis between approved multi-target drugs and combination products against the human kinome, which could assist the discovery of next generation polypharmacology.

  12. The Human Kinome Targeted by FDA Approved Multi-Target Drugs and Combination Products: A Comparative Study from the Drug-Target Interaction Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chun Yan; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Jin; Xue, Wei Wei; Tan, Jun; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human kinome is one of the most productive classes of drug target, and there is emerging necessity for treating complex diseases by means of polypharmacology (multi-target drugs and combination products). However, the advantages of the multi-target drugs and the combination products are still under debate. A comparative analysis between FDA approved multi-target drugs and combination products, targeting the human kinome, was conducted by mapping targets onto the phylogenetic tree of the human kinome. The approach of network medicine illustrating the drug-target interactions was applied to identify popular targets of multi-target drugs and combination products. As identified, the multi-target drugs tended to inhibit target pairs in the human kinome, especially the receptor tyrosine kinase family, while the combination products were able to against targets of distant homology relationship. This finding asked for choosing the combination products as a better solution for designing drugs aiming at targets of distant homology relationship. Moreover, sub-networks of drug-target interactions in specific disease were generated, and mechanisms shared by multi-target drugs and combination products were identified. In conclusion, this study performed an analysis between approved multi-target drugs and combination products against the human kinome, which could assist the discovery of next generation polypharmacology. PMID:27828998

  13. Identification of a Peptide-Pheromone that Enhances Listeria monocytogenes Escape from Host Cell Vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Alonzo, Francis; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades mammalian cells and escapes from membrane-bound vacuoles to replicate within the host cell cytosol. Gene products required for intracellular bacterial growth and bacterial spread to adjacent cells are regulated by a transcriptional activator known as PrfA. PrfA becomes activated following L. monocytogenes entry into host cells, however the signal that stimulates PrfA activation has not yet been defined. Here we provide evidence for L. monocytogenes secretion of a small peptide pheromone, pPplA, which enhances the escape of L. monocytogenes from host cell vacuoles and may facilitate PrfA activation. The pPplA pheromone is generated via the proteolytic processing of the PplA lipoprotein secretion signal peptide. While the PplA lipoprotein is dispensable for pathogenesis, bacteria lacking the pPplA pheromone are significantly attenuated for virulence in mice and have a reduced efficiency of bacterial escape from the vacuoles of nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Mutational activation of PrfA restores virulence and eliminates the need for pPplA-dependent signaling. Experimental evidence suggests that the pPplA peptide may help signal to L. monocytogenes its presence within the confines of the host cell vacuole, stimulating the expression of gene products that contribute to vacuole escape and facilitating PrfA activation to promote bacterial growth within the cytosol. PMID:25822753

  14. p53 Is a Host Cell Regulator during Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Maruzuru, Yuhei; Koyanagi, Naoto; Takemura, Naoki; Uematsu, Satoshi; Matsubara, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yutaka; Arii, Jun; Kato, Akihisa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT p53 is a critical host cell factor in the cellular response to a broad range of stress factors. We recently reported that p53 is required for efficient herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication in cell culture. However, a defined role for p53 in HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis in vivo remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effects of p53 on HSV-1 infection in vivo using p53-deficient mice. Following intracranial inoculation, p53 knockout reduced viral replication in the brains of mice and led to significantly reduced rates of mortality due to herpes simplex encephalitis. These results suggest that p53 is an important host cell regulator of HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). IMPORTANCE HSV-1 causes sporadic cases of encephalitis, which, even with antiviral therapy, can result in severe neurological defects and even death. Many host cell factors involved in the regulation of CNS HSV-1 infection have been investigated using genetically modified mice. However, most of these factors are immunological regulators and act via immunological pathways in order to restrict CNS HSV-1 infection. They therefore provide limited information on intrinsic host cell regulators that may be involved in the facilitation of CNS HSV-1 infection. Here we demonstrate that a host cell protein, p53, which has generally been considered a host cell restriction factor for various viral infections, is required for efficient HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis in the CNS of mice. This is the first report showing that p53 positively regulates viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo and provides insights into its molecular mechanism, which may suggest novel clinical treatment options for herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27170756

  15. p53 Is a Host Cell Regulator during Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Maruzuru, Yuhei; Koyanagi, Naoto; Takemura, Naoki; Uematsu, Satoshi; Matsubara, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yutaka; Arii, Jun; Kato, Akihisa; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2016-08-01

    p53 is a critical host cell factor in the cellular response to a broad range of stress factors. We recently reported that p53 is required for efficient herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication in cell culture. However, a defined role for p53 in HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis in vivo remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effects of p53 on HSV-1 infection in vivo using p53-deficient mice. Following intracranial inoculation, p53 knockout reduced viral replication in the brains of mice and led to significantly reduced rates of mortality due to herpes simplex encephalitis. These results suggest that p53 is an important host cell regulator of HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). HSV-1 causes sporadic cases of encephalitis, which, even with antiviral therapy, can result in severe neurological defects and even death. Many host cell factors involved in the regulation of CNS HSV-1 infection have been investigated using genetically modified mice. However, most of these factors are immunological regulators and act via immunological pathways in order to restrict CNS HSV-1 infection. They therefore provide limited information on intrinsic host cell regulators that may be involved in the facilitation of CNS HSV-1 infection. Here we demonstrate that a host cell protein, p53, which has generally been considered a host cell restriction factor for various viral infections, is required for efficient HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis in the CNS of mice. This is the first report showing that p53 positively regulates viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo and provides insights into its molecular mechanism, which may suggest novel clinical treatment options for herpes simplex encephalitis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The Legionella pneumophila replication vacuole: making a cosy niche inside host cells.

    PubMed

    Isberg, Ralph R; O'Connor, Tamara J; Heidtman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Legionella pneumophila is derived from its growth within lung macrophages after aerosols are inhaled from contaminated water sources. Interest in this bacterium stems from its ability to manipulate host cell vesicular-trafficking pathways and establish a membrane-bound replication vacuole, making it a model for intravacuolar pathogens. Establishment of the replication compartment requires a specialized translocation system that transports a large cadre of protein substrates across the vacuolar membrane. These substrates regulate vesicle traffic and survival pathways in the host cell. This Review focuses on the strategies that L. pneumophila uses to establish intracellular growth and evaluates why this microorganism has accumulated an unprecedented number of translocated substrates that are targeted at host cells.

  17. The Legionella pneumophila replication vacuole: making a cozy niche inside host cells

    PubMed Central

    Isberg, Ralph R.; O'Connor, Tamara; Heidtman, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Legionella pneumophila results from growth of the bacterium within lung macrophages after aerosols are inhaled from contaminated water sources. Interest in this microorganism stems from its ability to manipulate host cell vesicular trafficking pathways and to establish a membrane-bound replication vacuole, making it a model for intravacuolar pathogens. Establishment of the replication compartment requires a specialized translocation system that transports a large cadre of protein substrates across the vacuolar membrane. These substrates regulate vesicle traffic and survival pathways in the host cell. This review focuses on the strategies that L. pneumophila uses to establish intracellular growth and evaluates why the microorganism has accumulated an unprecedented number of translocated substrates targeted at host cells. PMID:19011659

  18. Host-parasite interactions that guide red blood cell invasion by malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Paul, Aditya S; Egan, Elizabeth S; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2015-05-01

    Malaria is caused by the infection and proliferation of parasites from the genus Plasmodium in red blood cells (RBCs). A free Plasmodium parasite, or merozoite, released from an infected RBC must invade another RBC host cell to sustain a blood-stage infection. Here, we review recent advances on RBC invasion by Plasmodium merozoites, focusing on specific molecular interactions between host and parasite. Recent work highlights the central role of host-parasite interactions at virtually every stage of RBC invasion by merozoites. Biophysical experiments have for the first time measured the strength of merozoite-RBC attachment during invasion. For P. falciparum, there have been many key insights regarding the invasion ligand PfRh5 in particular, including its influence on host species tropism, a co-crystal structure with its RBC receptor basigin, and its suitability as a vaccine target. For P. vivax, researchers identified the origin and emergence of the parasite from Africa, demonstrating a natural link to the Duffy-negative RBC variant in African populations. For the simian parasite P. knowlesi, zoonotic invasion into human cells is linked to RBC age, which has implications for parasitemia during an infection and thus malaria. New studies of the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing RBC invasion by Plasmodium parasites have shed light on various aspects of parasite biology and host cell tropism, and indicate opportunities for malaria control.

  19. Host-parasite interactions that guide red blood cell invasion by malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Aditya S.; Egan, Elizabeth S.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Malaria is caused by the infection and proliferation of parasites from the genus Plasmodium in red blood cells (RBCs). A free Plasmodium parasite, or merozoite, released from an infected RBC must invade another RBC host cell to sustain a blood-stage infection. Here, we review recent advances on RBC invasion by Plasmodium merozoites, focusing on specific molecular interactions between host and parasite. Recent findings Recent work highlights the central role of host-parasite interactions at virtually every stage of RBC invasion by merozoites. Biophysical experiments have for the first time measured the strength of merozoite-RBC attachment during invasion. For P. falciparum, there have been many key insights regarding the invasion ligand PfRh5 in particular, including its influence on host species tropism, a co-crystal structure with its RBC receptor basigin, and its suitability as a vaccine target. For P. vivax, researchers identified the origin and emergence of the parasite from Africa, demonstrating a natural link to the Duffy-negative RBC variant in African populations. For the simian parasite P. knowlesi, zoonotic invasion into human cells is linked to RBC age, which has implications for parasitemia during an infection and thus malaria. Summary New studies of the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing RBC invasion by Plasmodium parasites have shed light on various aspects of parasite biology and host cell tropism; and indicate opportunities for malaria control. PMID:25767956

  20. The bacterium endosymbiont of Crithidia deanei undergoes coordinated division with the host cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; Schenkman, Sergio; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cezar; Miranda, Kildare; de Souza, Wanderley; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2010-08-26

    In trypanosomatids, cell division involves morphological changes and requires coordinated replication and segregation of the nucleus, kinetoplast and flagellum. In endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids, like Crithidia deanei, this process is more complex, as each daughter cell contains only a single symbiotic bacterium, indicating that the prokaryote must replicate synchronically with the host protozoan. In this study, we used light and electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction approaches to observe the endosymbiont shape and division during C. deanei cell cycle. We found that the bacterium replicates before the basal body and kinetoplast segregations and that the nucleus is the last organelle to divide, before cytokinesis. In addition, the endosymbiont is usually found close to the host cell nucleus, presenting different shapes during the protozoan cell cycle. Considering that the endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids is a mutualistic relationship, which resembles organelle acquisition during evolution, these findings establish an excellent model for the understanding of mechanisms related with the establishment of organelles in eukaryotic cells.

  1. Immune Reconstitution and Graft-Versus-Host Reactions in Rat Models of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zinöcker, Severin; Dressel, Ralf; Wang, Xiao-Nong; Dickinson, Anne M.; Rolstad, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) extends the lives of thousands of patients who would otherwise succumb to hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemias and lymphomas, aplastic anemia, and disorders of the immune system. In alloHCT, different immune cell types mediate beneficial graft-versus-tumor (GvT) effects, regulate detrimental graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and are required for protection against infections. Today, the “good” (GvT effector cells and memory cells conferring protection) cannot be easily separated from the “bad” (GvHD-causing cells), and alloHCT remains a hazardous medical modality. The transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells into an immunosuppressed patient creates a delicate environment for the reconstitution of donor blood and immune cells in co-existence with host cells. Immunological reconstitution determines to a large extent the immune status of the allo-transplanted host against infections and the recurrence of cancer, and is critical for long-term protection and survival after clinical alloHCT. Animal models continue to be extremely valuable experimental tools that widen our understanding of, for example, the dynamics of post-transplant hematopoiesis and the complexity of immune reconstitution with multiple ways of interaction between host and donor cells. In this review, we discuss the rat as an experimental model of HCT between allogeneic individuals. We summarize our findings on lymphocyte reconstitution in transplanted rats and illustrate the disease pathology of this particular model. We also introduce the rat skin explant assay, a feasible alternative to in vivo transplantation studies. The skin explant assay can be used to elucidate the biology of graft-versus-host reactions, which are known to have a major impact on immune reconstitution, and to perform genome-wide gene expression studies using controlled combinations of minor and major histocompatibility between the donor and the recipient

  2. African swine fever virus uses macropinocytosis to enter host cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elena G; Quintas, Ana; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Nogal, Marisa; Barroso, Susana; Carrascosa, Ángel L; Revilla, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved.

  3. African Swine Fever Virus Uses Macropinocytosis to Enter Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elena G.; Quintas, Ana; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Nogal, Marisa; Barroso, Susana; Carrascosa, Ángel L.; Revilla, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved. PMID:22719252

  4. Donor T-cell alloreactivity against host thymic epithelium limits T-cell development after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hauri-Hohl, Mathias M; Keller, Marcel P; Gill, Jason; Hafen, Katrin; Pachlatko, Esther; Boulay, Thomas; Peter, Annick; Holländer, Georg A; Krenger, Werner

    2007-05-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) impairs thymus-dependent T-cell regeneration in recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants through yet to be defined mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate in mice that MHC-mismatched donor T cells home into the thymus of unconditioned recipients. There, activated donor T cells secrete IFN-gamma, which in turn stimulates the programmed cell death of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Because TECs themselves are competent and sufficient to prime naive allospecific T cells and to elicit their effector function, the elimination of host-type professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) does not prevent donor T-cell activation and TEC apoptosis, thus precluding normal thymopoiesis in transplant recipients. Hence, strategies that protect TECs may be necessary to improve immune reconstitution following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  5. Entamoeba histolytica Cell Surface Calreticulin Binds Human C1q and Functions in Amebic Phagocytosis of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaithilingam, Archana; Teixeira, Jose E.; Miller, Peter J.; Heron, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis of host cells is characteristic of tissue invasion by the intestinal ameba Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. Entamoeba histolytica induces host cell apoptosis and uses ligands, including C1q, on apoptotic cells to engulf them. Two mass spectrometry analyses identified calreticulin in amebic phagosome preparations, and, in addition to its function as an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, calreticulin is believed to be the macrophage receptor for C1q. The purpose of this study was to determine if calreticulin functions as an E. histolytica C1q receptor during phagocytosis of host cells. Calreticulin was localized to the surface of E. histolytica during interaction with both Jurkat lymphocytes and erythrocytes and was present in over 75% of phagocytic cups during amebic erythrophagocytosis. Presence of calreticulin on the cell surface was further demonstrated using a method that selectively biotinylated cell surface proteins and by flow cytometry using trophozoites overexpressing epitope-tagged calreticulin. Regulated overexpression of calreticulin increased E. histolytica's ability to phagocytose apoptotic lymphocytes and calcium ionophore-treated erythrocytes but had no effect on amebic adherence to or destruction of cell monolayers or surface expression of the GalNAc lectin and serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) receptors. Finally, E. histolytica calreticulin bound specifically to apoptotic lymphocytes and to human C1q. Collectively, these data implicate cell surface calreticulin as a receptor for C1q during E. histolytica phagocytosis of host cells. PMID:22473608

  6. Relationships between host and symbiont cell cycles in sea anemones and their symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Dimond, James L; Pineda, Rea R; Ramos-Ascherl, Zullaylee; Bingham, Brian L

    2013-10-01

    The processes by which cnidarians and their algal endosymbionts achieve balanced growth and biomass could include coordination of host and symbiont cell cycles. We evaluated this theory with natural populations of sea anemones hosting symbiotic dinoflagellates, focusing on the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima symbiotic with Symbiodinium muscatinei in Washington State, USA, and the tropical anemone Stichodactyla helianthus associating with unknown Symbiodinium spp. in Belize. By extruding symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells from the relatively large tentacles of these species and using nuclear staining and flow cytometry, we selectively analyzed cell cycle distributions of the symbionts and the host gastrodermal cells that house them. We found no indications of diel synchrony in host and symbiont G2/M phases, and we observed evidence of diel periodicity only in Symbiodinium spp. associated with S. helianthus but not in the anemone itself. Seasonally, S. muscatinei showed considerable G2/M phase variability among samples collected quarterly over an annual period, while the G2/M phase of its host varied much less. Within samples taken at different times of the year, correlations between host and symbiont G2/M phases ranged from very weakly to very strongly positive, with significant correlations in only half of the samples (two of four A. elegantissima samples and one of two S. helianthus samples). Overall, the G2/M phase relationships across species and sampling periods were positive. Thus, while we found no evidence of close cell cycle coupling, our results suggest a loose, positive relationship between cell cycle processes of the symbiotic partners.

  7. Role of host cell polarity and leading edge properties in Pseudomonas type III secretion

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Dacie R.; Novotny, Matthew J.; Moore, Elizabeth R.; Olson, Joan C.

    2010-01-01

    Type III secretion (T3S) functions in establishing infections in a large number of Gram-negative bacteria, yet little is known about how host cell properties might function in this process. We used the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the ability to alter host cell sensitivity to Pseudomonas T3S to explore this problem. HT-29 epithelial cells were used to study cellular changes associated with loss of T3S sensitivity, which could be induced by treatment with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or perfringolysin O. HL-60 promyelocytic cells are innately resistant to Pseudomonas T3S and were used to study cellular changes occurring in response to induction of T3S sensitivity, which occurred following treatment with phorbol esters. Using both cell models, a positive correlation was observed between eukaryotic cell adherence to tissue culture wells and T3S sensitivity. In examining the type of adhesion process linked to T3S sensitivity in HT-29 cells, a hierarchical order of protein involvement was identified that paralleled the architecture of leading edge (LE) focal complexes. Conversely, in HL-60 cells, induction of T3S sensitivity coincided with the onset of LE properties and the development of actin-rich projections associated with polarized cell migration. When LE architecture was examined by immunofluorescent staining for actin, Rac1, IQ-motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase), intact LE structure was found to closely correlate with host cell sensitivity to P. aeruginosa T3S. Our model for host cell involvement in Pseudomonas T3S proposes that cortical actin polymerization at the LE alters membrane properties to favour T3S translocon function and the establishment of infections, which is consistent with Pseudomonas infections targeting wounded epithelial barriers undergoing cell migration. PMID:19910414

  8. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dirk, Brennan S; Van Nynatten, Logan R; Dikeakos, Jimmy D

    2016-10-19

    Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell-cell transmission and cell-free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle.

  9. Kinome wide functional screen identifies role of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Neil; Jansen, Valerie M.; Bafna, Sangeeta; Giltnane, Jennifer M.; Balko, Justin M.; Estrada, Mónica V.; Meszoely, Ingrid; Mayer, Ingrid; Abramson, Vandana; Ye, Fei; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C.; Van Allen, Eliezer; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancers initially respond to antiestrogens but eventually become estrogen-independent and recur. ER+ breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) exhibit hormone-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth. A kinome-wide siRNA screen using a library targeting 720 kinases identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as one of the top genes whose downregulation resulted in inhibition of estrogen-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth of LTED cells. High PLK1 mRNA and protein correlated with a high Ki67 score in primary ER+ breast cancers after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PLK1 inhibited ER expression, estrogen-independent growth and ER transcription in MCF7 and HCC1428 LTED cells. Pharmacological inhibition of PLK1 with volasertib, a small molecule ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor, decreased LTED cell growth, ER transcriptional activity and ER expression. Volasertib in combination with the ER antagonist, fulvestrant, decreased MCF7 xenograft growth in ovariectomized mice more potently than each drug alone. JUNB, a component of the AP-1 complex, was expressed 16-fold higher in MCF7/LTED compared to parental MCF7 cells. Further, JUNB and BCL2L1 (which encodes anti-apoptotic BCL-xL) mRNA levels were markedly reduced upon volasertib treatment in MCF7/LTED cells while they were increased in parental MCF7 cells. Finally, JUNB knockdown decreased ER expression and transcriptional activity in MCF7/LTED cells, suggesting that PLK1 drives ER expression and estrogen-independent growth via JUNB. These data support a critical role of PLK1 in acquired hormone-independent growth of ER+ human breast cancer and is therefore a promising target in tumors that have escaped estrogen deprivation therapy. PMID:25480943

  10. Multiple and Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity After Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiuhong; Xing, Yuzhen; Cheng, Bo

    2017-02-22

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common secondary solid tumors in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, according to previous reports, multiple and recurrent OSCC is very rare. The presented case shows the susceptibility to the development of secondary malignancies, particularly oral cancer, of patients who present with chronic graft-versus-host disease after HSCT. OSCC after HSCT appears to be more invasive and has a tendency to recur, with a poor prognosis. Therefore, regular and thorough evaluations of the oral mucosa are recommended for all patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation and have chronic graft-versus-host disease.

  11. Th22 cells are an important source of IL-22 for host protection against enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Basu, Rajatava; O'Quinn, Darrell B; Silberger, Daniel J; Schoeb, Trenton R; Fouser, Lynette; Ouyang, Wenjun; Hatton, Robin D; Weaver, Casey T

    2012-12-14

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is central to host protection against bacterial infections at barrier sites. Both innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and T cells produce IL-22. However, the specific contributions of CD4(+) T cells and their developmental origins are unclear. We found that the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium induced sequential waves of IL-22-producing ILCs and CD4(+) T cells that were each critical to host defense during a primary infection. Whereas IL-22 production by ILCs was strictly IL-23 dependent, development of IL-22-producing CD4(+) T cells occurred via an IL-6-dependent mechanism that was augmented by, but not dependent on, IL-23 and was dependent on both transcription factors T-bet and AhR. Transfer of CD4(+) T cells differentiated with IL-6 in the absence of TGF-β ("Th22" cells) conferred complete protection of infected IL-22-deficient mice whereas transferred Th17 cells did not. These findings establish Th22 cells as an important component of mucosal antimicrobial host defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Th22 Cells are an Important Source of IL-22 for Host Protection against Enteropathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rajatava; O’Quinn, Darrell B.; Silberger, Daniel J.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Fouser, Lynette; Ouyang, Wenjun; Hatton, Robin D.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is central to host protection against bacterial infections at barrier sites. Both innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and T cells produce IL-22. However, the specific contributions of CD4+ T cells and their developmental origins are unclear. We found that the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium induced sequential waves of IL-22 producing ILCs and CD4+ T cells that were each critical to host defense during a primary infection. Whereas IL-22 production by ILCs was strictly IL-23–dependent, development of IL-22 producing CD4+ T cells occurred via an IL-6–dependent mechanism that was augmented by, but not dependent on, IL-23, and was dependent on both transcription factors T-bet and AhR. Transfer of CD4+ T cells differentiated with IL-6 in the absence of TGF-β (“Th22” cells) conferred protection of infected IL-22-deficient mice whereas transferred Th17 cells did not. These findings establish Th22 cells as an important component of mucosal anti-microbial host defense. PMID:23200827

  13. Systems approach to characterizing cell signaling in host-pathogen response to staphylococcus toxin.

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, J. J.; Gupta, G.; Gray, P. C.; Hush, D. R.; Fugate, M. L.; Cleland, T. J.; Roberts, R. M.; Hlavacek, W. S.; Smith, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is capable of highly sensitive and specific responses when challenged by pathogens. It is believed that the human immune repertoire - the total number of distinct antigens that can be recognized - is between 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 11}. The most specific responses are cell mediated and involve complex and subtle communications among the immune cells via small proteins known as cytokines. The details of host-pathogen response are exceedingly complex, involving both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms. These include the presentation of antigen by B cells to helper T cells and subsequent stimulation of signal transduction pathways and gene expression within both B and T-cell populations. These in turn lead to the secretion of cytokines and receptor expression. Intercellular cytokine signaling can trigger a host of immune responses including the proliferation and specialization of naive immune cells and the marshaling of effector cells to combat infection. In the ever-evolving game of threat and countermeasure played out by pathogens and their intended hosts, there are direct assaults aimed at subverting the immune system's ability to recognize antigens and respond effectively to challenge by pathogens. Staphylococcus is one of these. Staph bacteria secrete a variety of toxins known generically as superantigens. Superantigen molecules bind simultaneously to the MHC receptors of antigen presenting cells and the TCR receptors of helper T cells, locking them in place and leading to overstimulation. This strategy can effectively burn out the immune system in a matter of days.

  14. The graft-versus-host reaction and immune function. I. T helper cell immunodeficiency associated with graft-versus-host-induced thymic epithelial cell damage

    SciTech Connect

    Seddik, M.; Seemayer, T.A.; Lapp, W.S.

    1984-03-01

    The injection of parental A strain lymphoid cells into adrenalectomized CBAxA F1 (BAF1) mice induced a chronic graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction resulting in T cell and B cell immunosuppression as well as thymic epithelial cell injury, but not stress-related thymic involution. Thymocytes from BAF1 mice undergoing a GVH reaction were studied for their ability to reconstitute T helper cell (TH) function and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) mitogen responses in thymectomized, irradiated, BAF1 mice reconstituted with normal syngeneic bone marrow (ATxBM). Thymocytes from BAF1 mice early after the induction of a GVH reaction (days 10-12) were as effective as normal thymocytes in reconstituting TH and mitogen responses. Thymocytes from BAF1 mice 40 or more days after the induction of a GVH reaction did not reconstitute either the TH function or PHA and Con A responses in ATxBM mice. The inability to reconstitute ATxBM mice was not due to the presence of suppressor cells contained in the thymocyte inoculum. It is proposed that GVH-induced thymic epithelial cell injury blocks or arrests normal T cell differentiation, resulting in a population of thymocytes that lack the potential to become competent T helper cells or mitogen-responsive cells when transferred into ATxBM mice. This thymic functional defect results in a permanent TH immunodeficiency in mice experiencing a chronic GVH reaction.

  15. New evidence that deformed wing virus and black queen cell virus are multi-host pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; He, S Y; Evans, J D; Pettis, J S; Yin, G F; Chen, Y P

    2012-01-01

    The host-range breadth of pathogens can have important consequences for pathogens' long term evolution and virulence, and play critical roles in the emergence and spread of the new diseases. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are the two most common and prevalent viruses in European honey bees, Apis mellifera. Here we provide the evidence that BQCV and DWV infect wild species of honey bees, Apis florea and Apis dorsata. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these viruses might have moved from A. mellifera to wild bee species and that genetic relatedness as well as the geographical proximity of host species likely play an important role in host range of the viruses. The information obtained from this present study can have important implication for understanding the population structure of bee virus as well as host-virus interactions.

  16. Modulation of host cell signaling pathways as a therapeutic approach in periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, João Antonio Chaves; ROSSA JUNIOR, Carlos; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier; NOGUEIRA, Andressa Vilas Boas; CIRELLI, Joni Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Recently, new treatment approaches have been developed to target the host component of periodontal disease. This review aims at providing updated information on host-modulating therapies, focusing on treatment strategies for inhibiting signal transduction pathways involved in inflammation. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK, NFκB and JAK/STAT pathways are being developed to manage rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease and other inflammatory diseases. Through these agents, inflammatory mediators can be inhibited at cell signaling level, interfering on transcription factors activation and inflammatory gene expression. Although these drugs offer great potential to modulate host response, their main limitations are lack of specificity and developments of side effects. After overcoming these limitations, adjunctive host modulating drugs will provide new therapeutic strategies for periodontal treatment. PMID:22666826

  17. Know your neighbor: Microbiota and host epithelial cells interact locally to control intestinal function and physiology.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Felix; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between the host and its associated microbiota differ spatially and the local cross talk determines organ function and physiology. Animals and their organs are not uniform but contain several functional and cellular compartments and gradients. In the intestinal tract, different parts of the gut carry out different functions, tissue structure varies accordingly, epithelial cells are differentially distributed and gradients exist for several physicochemical parameters such as nutrients, pH, or oxygen. Consequently, the microbiota composition also differs along the length of the gut, but also between lumen and mucosa of the same intestinal segment, and even along the crypt-villus axis in the epithelium. Thus, host-microbiota interactions are highly site-specific and the local cross talk determines intestinal function and physiology. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of site-specific host-microbiota interactions and discuss their functional relevance for host physiology.

  18. Stealing the Keys to the Kitchen: Viral Manipulation of the Host Cell Metabolic Network

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Christopher M.; Xu, Shihao; Munger, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Host cells possess the metabolic assets required for viral infection. Recent studies indicate that control of the host’s metabolic resources is a core host-pathogen interaction. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to usurp the host’s metabolic resources, funneling them towards the production of virion components as well as the organization of specialized compartments for replication, maturation, and dissemination. Consequently, hosts have developed a variety of metabolic countermeasures to sense and resist these viral changes. The complex interplay between virus and host over metabolic control has only just begun to be deconvoluted. However, it is clear that virally induced metabolic reprogramming can substantially impact infectious outcomes, highlighting the promise of targeting these processes for antiviral therapeutic development. PMID:26439298

  19. Binding of Host Factors Influences Internalization and Intracellular Trafficking of Streptococcus uberis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Raul A.; Dunlap, John R.; Oliver, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    We showed that internalization of Streptococcus uberis into bovine mammary epithelial cells occurred through receptor- (RME) and caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CME). We reported also that treatment of S. uberis with host proteins including lactoferrin (LF) enhanced its internalization into host cells. Since the underlying mechanism(s) involved in such enhancement was unknown we investigated if preincubation of S. uberis with host proteins drives internalization of this pathogen into host cells through CME. Thus, experiments involving coculture of collagen-, fibronectin-, and LF-pretreated S. uberis with bovine mammary epithelial cells treated with RME and CME inhibitors were conducted. Results showed that internalization of host proteins-pretreated S. uberis into mammary epithelial cells treated with RME inhibitors was higher than that of untreated controls. These results suggest that pretreatment with selected host proteins commits S. uberis to CME, thus avoiding intracellular bactericidal mechanisms and allowing its persistence into bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:20614000

  20. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter; Huston, Christopher D

    2016-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment.

  1. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment. PMID:26810036

  2. Exploitation of host cell cytoskeleton and signalling during Listeria monocytogenes entry into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-02-01

    Deciphering how Listeria monocytogenes exploits the host cell machinery to invade mammalian cells during infection is a key issue for the understanding how this food-borne pathogen causes a pleiotropic disease ranging from gastro-enteritis to meningitis and abortions. Using multidisciplinary approaches, essentially combining bacterial genetics and cell biology, we have identified two bacterial proteins critical for entry into target cells, InlA and InlB. Their cellular ligands have been also identified: InlA interacts with the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, while InlB interacts with the receptor for the globular head of the complement factor C1q (gC1q-R), with the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) and with glycosaminoglycans (including heparan sulphate). The dynamic interaction between these cellular receptors and the actin cytoskeleton is currently under investigation. Several intracellular molecules have been recognized as key effectors for Listeria entry into target cells, including catenins (implicated in the connection of E-cadherin to actin) and the actin depolymerising factor/cofilin (involved in the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in the InlB-dependent internalisation pathway). At the organism level, species specificity has been discovered concerning the interaction between InlA and E-cadherin, leading to the generation of transgenic mice expressing the human E-cadherin, in which the critical role of InlA in the crossing of the intestinal barrier has been clearly determined. Listeria appears as an instrumental model for addressing critical questions concerning both the complex process of bacterial pathogenesis and also fundamental molecular processes, such as phagocytosis.

  3. Exploitation of host cell cytoskeleton and signalling during Listeria monocytogenes entry into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-06-01

    Deciphering how Listeria monocytogenes exploits the host cell machinery to invade mammalian cells during infection isa key issue for the understanding how this food-borne pathogen causes a pleiotropic disease ranging from gastro-enteritis to meningitis and abortions. Using multidisciplinary approaches, essentially combining bacterial genetics and cell biology, we have identified two bacterial proteins critical for entry into target cells, InlA and InlB. Their cellular ligands have been also identified: InlA interacts with the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, while InlB interacts with the receptor for the globular head of the complement factor Clq (gClq-R), with the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) and with glycosaminoglycans(including heparan sulphate). The dynamic interaction between these cellular receptors and the actin cytoskeleton is currently under investigation. Several intracellular molecules have been recognized as key effectors for Listeria entry into target cells,including catenins (implicated in the connection of E-cadherin to actin) and the actin depolymerising factor/cofilin (involved in the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in the InlB-dependent internalisation pathway). At the organism level, species specificity has been discovered concerning the interaction between InlA and E-cadherin, leading to the generation of transgenic mice expressing the human E-cadherin, in which the critical role of InlA in the crossing of the intestinal barrier has been clearly determined. Listeria appears as an instrumental model for addressing critical questions concerning both the complex process of bacterial pathogenesis and also fundamental molecular processes, such as phagocytosis.

  4. Pixuna virus modifies host cell cytoskeleton to secure infection.

    PubMed

    Gil, Pedro Ignacio; Albrieu-Llinás, Guillermo; Mlewski, Estela Cecilia; Monetti, Marina; Fozzatti, Laura; Cuffini, Cecilia; Fernández Romero, José; Kunda, Patricia; Paglini, María Gabriela

    2017-07-18

    Pixuna virus (PIXV) is an enzootic member of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus complex and belongs to the New World cluster of alphaviruses. Herein we explore the role of the cellular cytoskeleton during PIXV replication. We first identified that PIXV undergoes an eclipse phase consisting of 4 h followed by 20 h of an exponential phase in Vero cells. The infected cells showed morphological changes due to structural modifications in actin microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs). Cytoskeleton-binding agents, that alter the architecture and dynamics of MFs and MTs, were used to study the role of cytoskeleton on PIXV replication. The virus production was significantly affected (p < 0.05) after treatment with paclitaxel or nocodazole due to changes in the MTs network. Interestingly, disassembly of MFs with cytochalasin D, at early stage of PIXV replication cycle, significantly increased the virus yields in the extracellular medium (p < 0.005). Furthermore, the stabilization of actin network with jasplakinolide had no effect on virus yields. Our results demonstrate that PIXV relies not only on intact MTs for the efficient production of virus, but also on a dynamic actin network during the early steps of viral replication.

  5. Tracking single viruses infecting their host cells using quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Lin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-03-07

    Single-virus tracking (SVT) technique, which uses microscopy to monitor the behaviors of viruses, is a vital tool to study the real-time and in situ infection dynamics and virus-related interactions in live cells. To make SVT a more versatile tool in biological research, the researchers have developed a quantum dot (QD)-based SVT technique, which can be utilized for long-term and highly sensitive tracking in live cells. In this review, we describe the development of a QD-based SVT technique and its biological applications. We first discuss the advantage of QDs as tags in the SVT field by comparing the conventional tags, and then focus on the implementation of QD-based SVT experiments, including the QD labeling strategy, instrumentation, and image analysis method. Next, we elaborate the recent advances of QD-based SVT in the biological field, and mainly emphasize the representative examples to show how to use this technique to acquire more meaningful biological information.

  6. In Vivo Imaging of Differences in Early Donor Cell Proliferation in Graft-Versus-Host Disease Hosts with Different Pre-Conditioning Doses

    PubMed Central

    Song, Myung Geun; Kang, Bora; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Chang, Jun; Lee, Seungbok; Min, Chang-Ki; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) results from immune-mediated attacks on recipient tissues by donor-originated cells through the recognition of incompatible antigens expressed on host cells. The pre-conditioning irradiation dose is a risk factor influencing GVHD severity. In this study, using newly generated luciferase transgenic mice on a B6 background (B6.LucTg) as bone marrow and splenocyte donors, we explored the effects of irradiation doses on donor cell dynamics in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched allogeneic GVHD hosts via bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Results from BLI of GVHD hosts showed higher emission intensities of luminescence signals from hosts irradiated with 900 cGy as compared with those irradiated with 400 cGy. In particular, BLI signals from target organs, such as the spleen, liver, and lung, and several different lymph nodes fluctuated with similar time kinetics soon after transplantation, reflecting the synchronous proliferation of donor cells in the different organs in hosts irradiated with 900 cGy. The kinetic curves of the BLI signals were not synchronized between the target organs and the secondary organs in hosts irradiated with 400 cGy. These results demonstrate that pre-conditioning doses influence the kinetics and degree of proliferation in the target organs soon after transplantation. The results from this study are the first describing donor cell dynamics in MHC-matched allogeneic GVHD hosts and the influence of irradiation doses on proliferation dynamics, and will provide spatiotemporal information to help understand GVHD pathophysiology. PMID:22228184

  7. Rapid Functional Decline of Activated and Memory Graft-vs-Host-Reactive T Cells Encountering Host Antigens in the Absence of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao Wei; Andreola, Giovanna; Carlson, Alicia; Shao, Steven; Lin, Charles; Zhao, Guiling; Sykes, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation in the priming host environment has critical effects on the graft-vs-host (GVH) responses mediated by naïve donor T cells. However, it is unclear how a quiescent or inflammatory environment impacts the activity of GVH-reactive primed T and memory cells. We show here that GVH-reactive primed donor T cells generated in irradiated recipients had diminished ability compared to naïve T cells to increase donor chimerism when transferred to quiescent mixed allogeneic chimeras. GVH-reactive primed T cells showed marked loss of cytotoxic function and activation and delayed but not decreased proliferation or accumulation in lymphoid tissues when transferred to quiescent mixed chimeras compared to freshly irradiated secondary recipients. Primed CD4 and CD8 T cells provided mutual help to sustain these functions in both subsets. CD8 help for CD4 cells was largely IFN-γ-dependent. Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation following transfer of GVH-reactive primed T cells to mixed chimeras restored their cytotoxic effector function and permitted the generation of more effective T cell memory in association with reduced PD-1 expression on CD4 memory cells. Our data indicate that an inflammatory host environment is required for the maintenance of GVH-reactive primed T cell functions and the generation of memory T cells that can rapidly acquire effector functions. These findings have important implications for GVHD and T cell-mediated immunotherapies. PMID:26085679

  8. Kinome-Wide RNA Interference Screen Reveals a Role for PDK1 in Acquired Resistance to CDK4/6 Inhibition in ER-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Valerie M; Bhola, Neil E; Bauer, Joshua A; Formisano, Luigi; Lee, Kyung-Min; Hutchinson, Katherine E; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Moore, Preston D; Estrada, Mónica Valéria; Sánchez, Violeta; Ericsson, Paula G; Sanders, Melinda E; Pohlmann, Paula R; Pishvaian, Michael J; Riddle, David A; Dugger, Teresa C; Wei, Wenyi; Knudsen, Erik S; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2017-05-01

    Acquired resistance to cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) small-molecule inhibitors in breast cancer arises through mechanisms that are yet uncharacterized. In this study, we used a kinome-wide siRNA screen to identify kinases that, when downregulated, yield sensitivity to the CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib. In this manner, we identified 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) as a key modifier of ribociclib sensitivity in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of PDK1 with GSK2334470 in combination with ribociclib or palbociclib, another CDK4/6 inhibitor, synergistically inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis in a panel of ER-positive breast cancer cell lines. Ribociclib-resistant breast cancer cells selected by chronic drug exposure displayed a relative increase in the levels of PDK1 and activation of the AKT pathway. Analysis of these cells revealed that CDK4/6 inhibition failed to induce cell-cycle arrest or senescence. Mechanistic investigations showed that resistant cells coordinately upregulated expression of cyclins A, E, and D1, activated phospho-CDK2, and phospho-S477/T479 AKT. Treatment with GSK2334470 or the CDK2 inhibitor dinaciclib was sufficient to reverse these events and to restore the sensitivity of ribociclib-resistant cells to CDK4/6 inhibitors. Ribociclib, in combination with GSK2334470 or the PI3Kα inhibitor alpelisib, decreased xenograft tumor growth more potently than each drug alone. Taken together, our results highlight a role for the PI3K-PDK1 signaling pathway in mediating acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors. Cancer Res; 77(9); 2488-99. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Yersinia outer proteins: role in modulation of host cell signaling responses and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Viboud, Gloria I; Bliska, James B

    2005-01-01

    A type III secretion system (TTSS) is encoded on a virulence plasmid that is common to three pathogenic Yersinia species: Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis. Pathogenic Yersinia species require this TTSS to survive and replicate within lymphoid tissues of their animal or human hosts. A set of pathogenicity factors, including those known as Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), is exported by this system upon bacterial infection of host cells. Two translocator Yops (YopB and YopD) insert into the host plasma membrane and function to transport six effector Yops (YopO, YopH, YopM, YopT, YopJ, and YopE) into the cytosol of the host cell. Effector Yops function to counteract multiple signaling responses in the infected host cell. The signaling responses counteracted by Yops are initiated by phagocytic receptors, Toll-like receptors, translocator Yops, and additional mechanisms. Innate and adaptive immune responses are thwarted as a consequence of Yop activities. A biochemical function for each effector Yop has been established, and the importance of these proteins for the pathogenesis process is being elucidated. This review focuses on the biochemical functions of Yops, the signaling pathways they modulate, and the role of these proteins in Yersinia virulence.

  10. Single-cell sequencing provides clues about the host interactions of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB).

    PubMed

    Pamp, Sünje J; Harrington, Eoghan D; Quake, Stephen R; Relman, David A; Blainey, Paul C

    2012-06-01

    Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are host-specific intestinal symbionts that comprise a distinct clade within the Clostridiaceae, designated Candidatus Arthromitus. SFB display a unique life cycle within the host, involving differentiation into multiple cell types. The latter include filaments that attach intimately to intestinal epithelial cells, and from which "holdfasts" and spores develop. SFB induce a multifaceted immune response, leading to host protection from intestinal pathogens. Cultivation resistance has hindered characterization of these enigmatic bacteria. In the present study, we isolated five SFB filaments from a mouse using a microfluidic device equipped with laser tweezers, generated genome sequences from each, and compared these sequences with each other, as well as to recently published SFB genome sequences. Based on the resulting analyses, SFB appear to be dependent on the host for a variety of essential nutrients. SFB have a relatively high abundance of predicted proteins devoted to cell cycle control and to envelope biogenesis, and have a group of SFB-specific autolysins and a dynamin-like protein. Among the five filament genomes, an average of 8.6% of predicted proteins were novel, including a family of secreted SFB-specific proteins. Four ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) sequence types, and a myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein were discovered; we hypothesize that they are involved in modulation of host responses. The presence of polymorphisms among mouse SFB genomes suggests the evolution of distinct SFB lineages. Overall, our results reveal several aspects of SFB adaptation to the mammalian intestinal tract.

  11. Single-cell sequencing provides clues about the host interactions of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB)

    PubMed Central

    Pamp, Sünje J.; Harrington, Eoghan D.; Quake, Stephen R.; Relman, David A.; Blainey, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are host-specific intestinal symbionts that comprise a distinct clade within the Clostridiaceae, designated Candidatus Arthromitus. SFB display a unique life cycle within the host, involving differentiation into multiple cell types. The latter include filaments that attach intimately to intestinal epithelial cells, and from which “holdfasts” and spores develop. SFB induce a multifaceted immune response, leading to host protection from intestinal pathogens. Cultivation resistance has hindered characterization of these enigmatic bacteria. In the present study, we isolated five SFB filaments from a mouse using a microfluidic device equipped with laser tweezers, generated genome sequences from each, and compared these sequences with each other, as well as to recently published SFB genome sequences. Based on the resulting analyses, SFB appear to be dependent on the host for a variety of essential nutrients. SFB have a relatively high abundance of predicted proteins devoted to cell cycle control and to envelope biogenesis, and have a group of SFB-specific autolysins and a dynamin-like protein. Among the five filament genomes, an average of 8.6% of predicted proteins were novel, including a family of secreted SFB-specific proteins. Four ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) sequence types, and a myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein were discovered; we hypothesize that they are involved in modulation of host responses. The presence of polymorphisms among mouse SFB genomes suggests the evolution of distinct SFB lineages. Overall, our results reveal several aspects of SFB adaptation to the mammalian intestinal tract. PMID:22434425

  12. FGF treatment of host embryos injected with ES cells increases rates of chimaerism.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Cathérine; Loos, Friedemann; Kong-A-San, John; Gribnau, Joost

    2017-04-01

    In spite of the emergence of genome editing tools, ES cell mediated transgenesis remains the most controllable way of creating genetically modified animals. Although tetraploid (4N) complementation of 4N host embryos and ES cells, is the only method guaranteeing that offspring are entirely ES cell derived, this technique is challenging, not always successful and difficult to implement in some laboratory settings. The current study shows that pretreatment of host blastocysts with FGF4 prior to ES cell injection can provide an alternative method for the generation of animals displaying high rates of chimaerism. Chimaerism assessment in E11 fetuses and born pups shows that a large percentage of resulting conceptuses show a high ES cell contribution from implantation onwards and that developing pups do not necessitate c-section for delivery.

  13. The mechanism of HCV entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    Douam, Florian; Lavillette, Dimitri; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped, positive strand RNA virus classified within the Flaviviridae family and is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. HCV life cycle and propagation are tightly linked to several aspects of lipid metabolism. HCV propagation depends on and also shapes several aspects of lipid metabolism such as cholesterol uptake and efflux through different lipoprotein receptors during its entry into cells, lipid metabolism modulating HCV genome replication, lipid droplets acting as a platform for recruitment of viral components, and very low density lipoprotein assembly pathway resulting in incorporation of neutral lipids and apolipoproteins into viral particles. During the first steps of infection, HCV enters hepatocytes through a multistep and slow process. The initial capture of HCV particles by glycosaminoglycans and/or lipoprotein receptors is followed by coordinated interactions with the scavenger receptor class B type I, a major receptor of high-density lipoprotein, the CD81 tetraspanin, and the tight junction proteins Claudin-1 and Occludin. This tight concert of receptor interactions ultimately leads to uptake and cellular internalization of HCV through a process of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Over the years, the identification of the HCV entry receptors and cofactors has led to a better understanding of HCV entry and of the narrow tropism of HCV for the liver. Yet, the role of the two HCV envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, remains ill-defined, particularly concerning their involvement in the membrane fusion process. Here, we review the current knowledge and advances addressing the mechanism of HCV cell entry within hepatocytes and we highlight the challenges that remain to be addressed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Importance of Physiologically Relevant Cell Lines for Studying Virus–Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hare, David; Collins, Susan; Cuddington, Breanne; Mossman, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Viruses interact intimately with the host cell at nearly every stage of replication, and the cell model that is chosen to study virus infection is critically important. Although primary cells reflect the phenotype of healthy cells in vivo better than cell lines, their limited lifespan makes experimental manipulation challenging. However, many tumor-derived and artificially immortalized cell lines have defects in induction of interferon-stimulated genes and other antiviral defenses. These defects can affect virus replication, especially when cells are infected at lower, more physiologically relevant, multiplicities of infection. Understanding the selective pressures and mechanisms underlying the loss of innate signaling pathways is helpful to choose immortalized cell lines without impaired antiviral defense. We describe the trials and tribulations we encountered while searching for an immortalized cell line with intact innate signaling, and how directed immortalization of primary cells avoids many of the pitfalls of spontaneous immortalization. PMID:27809273

  15. Signalome-wide assessment of host cell response to hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Haqshenas, Gholamreza; Wu, Jianmin; Simpson, Kaylene J; Daly, Roger J; Netter, Hans J; Baumert, Thomas F; Doerig, Christian

    2017-05-08

    Host cell signalling during infection with intracellular pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we report on the use of antibody microarray technology to detect variations in the expression levels and phosphorylation status of host cell signalling proteins during hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Following transfection with HCV RNA, the JNK and NF-κB pathways are suppressed, while the JAK/STAT5 pathway is activated; furthermore, components of the apoptosis and cell cycle control machineries are affected in the expression and/or phosphorylation status. RNAi-based hit validation identifies components of the JAK/STAT, NF-κB, MAPK and calcium-induced pathways as modulators of HCV replication. Selective chemical inhibition of one of the identified targets, the JNK activator kinase MAP4K2, does impair HCV replication. Thus this study provides a comprehensive picture of host cell pathway mobilization by HCV and uncovers potential therapeutic targets. The strategy of identifying targets for anti-infective intervention within the host cell signalome can be applied to any intracellular pathogen.

  16. Signalome-wide assessment of host cell response to hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Haqshenas, Gholamreza; Wu, Jianmin; Simpson, Kaylene J.; Daly, Roger J.; Netter, Hans J.; Baumert, Thomas F.; Doerig, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Host cell signalling during infection with intracellular pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we report on the use of antibody microarray technology to detect variations in the expression levels and phosphorylation status of host cell signalling proteins during hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Following transfection with HCV RNA, the JNK and NF-κB pathways are suppressed, while the JAK/STAT5 pathway is activated; furthermore, components of the apoptosis and cell cycle control machineries are affected in the expression and/or phosphorylation status. RNAi-based hit validation identifies components of the JAK/STAT, NF-κB, MAPK and calcium-induced pathways as modulators of HCV replication. Selective chemical inhibition of one of the identified targets, the JNK activator kinase MAP4K2, does impair HCV replication. Thus this study provides a comprehensive picture of host cell pathway mobilization by HCV and uncovers potential therapeutic targets. The strategy of identifying targets for anti-infective intervention within the host cell signalome can be applied to any intracellular pathogen. PMID:28480889

  17. Apical membrane antigen 1 mediates apicomplexan parasite attachment but is dispensable for host cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Bargieri, Daniel Y.; Andenmatten, Nicole; Lagal, Vanessa; Thiberge, Sabine; Whitelaw, Jamie A.; Tardieux, Isabelle; Meissner, Markus; Ménard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites invade host cells by forming a ring-like junction with the cell surface and actively sliding through the junction inside an intracellular vacuole. Apical membrane antigen 1 is conserved in apicomplexans and a long-standing malaria vaccine candidate. It is considered to have multiple important roles during host cell penetration, primarily in structuring the junction by interacting with the rhoptry neck 2 protein and transducing the force generated by the parasite motor during internalization. Here, we generate Plasmodium sporozoites and merozoites and Toxoplasma tachyzoites lacking apical membrane antigen 1, and find that the latter two are impaired in host cell attachment but the three display normal host cell penetration through the junction. Therefore, apical membrane antigen 1, rather than an essential invasin, is a dispensable adhesin of apicomplexan zoites. These genetic data have implications on the use of apical membrane antigen 1 or the apical membrane antigen 1–rhoptry neck 2 interaction as targets of intervention strategies against malaria or other diseases caused by apicomplexans. PMID:24108241

  18. [Molecular mechanism of ORFV intervention strategies based on the UPS of host cell: a review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Zhong; Tong, Chun-Yu; Song, Bai-Fen; An, Hong-Boi; Yu, Li-Yun; Yu, Li; Cui, Yu-Dong

    2013-11-01

    In order to compete the antiviral effects of the host cell in the process of infection, ORFV(known as Orf virus) relies on a series of functional genes developed through long-term population evolution, such as interferon resistance genes, Bcl-2 protein genes and cell cycle inhibitor gene and so on, with these weapons this virus is able to effectively counteract immune clearance and immune regulation from a host cell. Concurrently, ORFV also focuses on exploiting signal transduction pathways of the ubiquitin-proteasome system(UPS), circumvents the intracellular signal transduction and CD8+ T activation, for shielding virus particles towards maturation and releasing outside. This review introduced inner link between the UPS of host cell and intervention mechanism by virus, and analyzed the key roles of certains components in UPS, these all together showed the evolution tendency of ORFV that was involved in the designing of inhibition to immune response and for intracellular immune escape upon the selection pressure in host cell infected.

  19. IL-1R signaling enables bystander cells to overcome bacterial blockade of host protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Copenhaver, Alan M.; Casson, Cierra N.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Duda, Matthew M.; Shin, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system is critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet many pathogens express virulence factors that impair immune function. Here, we used the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila to understand how the immune system successfully overcomes pathogen subversion mechanisms. L. pneumophila replicates within macrophages by using a type IV secretion system to translocate bacterial effectors into the host cell cytosol. As a consequence of effector delivery, host protein synthesis is blocked at several steps, including translation initiation and elongation. Despite this translation block, infected cells robustly produce proinflammatory cytokines, but the basis for this is poorly understood. By using a reporter system that specifically discriminates between infected and uninfected cells within a population, we demonstrate here that infected macrophages produced IL-1α and IL-1β, but were poor producers of IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, which are critical mediators of host protection. Uninfected bystander cells robustly produced IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, and this bystander response required IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling during early pulmonary infection. Our data demonstrate functional heterogeneity in production of critical protective cytokines and suggest that collaboration between infected and uninfected cells enables the immune system to bypass pathogen-mediated translation inhibition to generate an effective immune response. PMID:26034289

  20. IL-1R signaling enables bystander cells to overcome bacterial blockade of host protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Copenhaver, Alan M; Casson, Cierra N; Nguyen, Hieu T; Duda, Matthew M; Shin, Sunny

    2015-06-16

    The innate immune system is critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet many pathogens express virulence factors that impair immune function. Here, we used the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila to understand how the immune system successfully overcomes pathogen subversion mechanisms. L. pneumophila replicates within macrophages by using a type IV secretion system to translocate bacterial effectors into the host cell cytosol. As a consequence of effector delivery, host protein synthesis is blocked at several steps, including translation initiation and elongation. Despite this translation block, infected cells robustly produce proinflammatory cytokines, but the basis for this is poorly understood. By using a reporter system that specifically discriminates between infected and uninfected cells within a population, we demonstrate here that infected macrophages produced IL-1α and IL-1β, but were poor producers of IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, which are critical mediators of host protection. Uninfected bystander cells robustly produced IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, and this bystander response required IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling during early pulmonary infection. Our data demonstrate functional heterogeneity in production of critical protective cytokines and suggest that collaboration between infected and uninfected cells enables the immune system to bypass pathogen-mediated translation inhibition to generate an effective immune response.

  1. Exploitation of the host cell ubiquitin machinery by microbial effector proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Han; Machner, Matthias P

    2017-06-15

    Pathogenic bacteria are in a constant battle for survival with their host. In order to gain a competitive edge, they employ a variety of sophisticated strategies that allow them to modify conserved host cell processes in ways that favor bacterial survival and growth. Ubiquitylation, the covalent attachment of the small modifier ubiquitin to target proteins, is such a pathway. Ubiquitylation profoundly alters the fate of a myriad of cellular proteins by inducing changes in their stability or function, subcellular localization or interaction with other proteins. Given the importance of ubiquitylation in cell development, protein homeostasis and innate immunity, it is not surprising that this post-translational modification is exploited by a variety of effector proteins from microbial pathogens. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the many ways microbes take advantage of host ubiquitylation, along with some surprising deviations from the canonical theme. The lessons learned from the in-depth analyses of these host-pathogen interactions provide a fresh perspective on an ancient post-translational modification that we thought was well understood.This article is part of a Minifocus on Ubiquitin Regulation and Function. For further reading, please see related articles: 'Mechanisms of regulation and diversification of deubiquitylating enzyme function' by Pawel Leznicki and Yogesh Kulathu (J. Cell Sci.130, 1997-2006). 'Cell scientist to watch - Mads Gyrd-Hansen' (J. Cell Sci.130, 1981-1983). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. A Novel Secreted Protein, MYR1, Is Central to Toxoplasma’s Manipulation of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Magdalena; Panas, Michael W.; Marino, Nicole D.; Lee, Mei-Chong Wendy; Buchholz, Kerry R.; Kelly, Felice D.; Bednarski, Jeffrey J.; Sleckman, Barry P.; Pourmand, Nader

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii dramatically reprograms the transcriptome of host cells it infects, including substantially up-regulating the host oncogene c-myc. By applying a flow cytometry-based selection to infected mouse cells expressing green fluorescent protein fused to c-Myc (c-Myc–GFP), we isolated mutant tachyzoites defective in this host c-Myc up-regulation. Whole-genome sequencing of three such mutants led to the identification of MYR1 (Myc regulation 1; TGGT1_254470) as essential for c-Myc induction. MYR1 is a secreted protein that requires TgASP5 to be cleaved into two stable portions, both of which are ultimately found within the parasitophorous vacuole and at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Deletion of MYR1 revealed that in addition to its requirement for c-Myc up-regulation, the MYR1 protein is needed for the ability of Toxoplasma tachyzoites to modulate several other important host pathways, including those mediated by the dense granule effectors GRA16 and GRA24. This result, combined with its location at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, suggested that MYR1 might be a component of the machinery that translocates Toxoplasma effectors from the parasitophorous vacuole into the host cytosol. Support for this possibility was obtained by showing that transit of GRA24 to the host nucleus is indeed MYR1-dependent. As predicted by this pleiotropic phenotype, parasites deficient in MYR1 were found to be severely attenuated in a mouse model of infection. We conclude, therefore, that MYR1 is a novel protein that plays a critical role in how Toxoplasma delivers effector proteins to the infected host cell and that this is crucial to virulence. PMID:26838724

  3. Dynamic Quantification of Host Schwann Cell Migration into Peripheral Nerve Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Elizabeth L.; Myckatyn, Terence M.; Tong, Alice Y.; Yee, Andrew; Yan, Ying; Magill, Christina K.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Host Schwann cell (SC) migration into nerve allografts is the limiting factor in the duration of immunosuppression following peripheral nerve allotransplantation, and may be affected by different immunosuppressive regimens. Our objective was to compare SC migration patterns between clinical and experimental immunosuppression regimens both over time and at the harvest endpoint. Eighty mice that express GFP under the control of the Schwann cell specific S100 promoter were engrafted with allogeneic, nonfluorescent sciatic nerve grafts. Mice received immunosuppression with either tacrolimus (FK506), or experimental T-cell triple costimulation blockade (CSB), consisting of CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion protein, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, and anti-inducible costimulator monoclonal antibody. Migration of GFP-expressing host SCs into wild-type allografts was assessed in vivo every 3 weeks until 15 weeks postoperatively, and explanted allografts were evaluated for immunohistochemical staining patterns to differentiate graft from host SCs. Immunosuppression with tacrolimus exhibited a plateau of SC migration, characterized by significant early migration (< 3 weeks) followed by a constant level of host SCs in the graft (15 weeks). At the endpoint, graft fluorescence was decreased relative to surrounding host nerve, and donor SCs persisted within the graft. CSB-treated mice displayed gradually increasing migration of host SCs into the graft, without the plateau noted in tacrolimus-treated mice, and also maintained a population of donor SCs at the 15-week endpoint. SC migration patterns are affected by immunosuppressant choice, particularly in the immediate postoperative period, and the use of a single treatment of CSB may allow for gradual population of nerve allografts with host SCs. PMID:20633557

  4. Role of Fibronectin in the Adhesion of Acinetobacter baumannii to Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smani, Younes; McConnell, Michael J.; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells is an initial and important step in Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis. However, there is relatively little information on the mechanisms by which A. baumannii binds to and interacts with host cells. Adherence to extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, affords pathogens with a mechanism to invade epithelial cells. Here, we found that A. baumannii adheres more avidly to immobilized fibronectin than to control protein. Free fibronectin used as a competitor resulted in dose-dependent decreased binding of A. baumannii to fibronectin. Three outer membrane preparations (OMPs) were identified as fibronectin binding proteins (FBPs): OMPA, TonB-dependent copper receptor, and 34 kDa OMP. Moreover, we demonstrated that fibronectin inhibition and neutralization by specific antibody prevented significantly the adhesion of A. baumannii to human lung epithelial cells (A549 cells). Similarly, A. baumannii OMPA neutralization by specific antibody decreased significantly the adhesion of A. baumannii to A549 cells. These data indicate that FBPs are key adhesins that mediate binding of A. baumannii to human lung epithelial cells through interaction with fibronectin on the surface of these host cells. PMID:22514602

  5. Obtaining control of cell surface functionalizations via Pre-targeting and Supramolecular host guest interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Mark T. M.; Spa, Silvia J.; Welling, Mick M.; ten Hove, Jan Bart; van Willigen, Danny M.; Buckle, Tessa; Velders, Aldrik H.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2017-01-01

    The use of mammalian cells for therapeutic applications is finding its way into modern medicine. However, modification or “training” of cells to make them suitable for a specific application remains complex. By envisioning a chemical toolbox that enables specific, but straight-forward and generic cellular functionalization, we investigated how membrane-receptor (pre)targeting could be combined with supramolecular host-guest interactions based on β-cyclodextrin (CD) and adamantane (Ad). The feasibility of this approach was studied in cells with membranous overexpression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). By combining specific targeting of CXCR4, using an adamantane (Ad)-functionalized Ac-TZ14011 peptide (guest; KD = 56 nM), with multivalent host molecules that entailed fluorescent β-CD-Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic-anhydride)-polymers with different fluorescent colors and number of functionalities, host-guest cell-surface modifications could be studied in detail. A second set of Ad-functionalized entities enabled introduction of additional surface functionalities. In addition, the attraction between CD and Ad could be used to drive cell-cell interactions. Combined we have shown that supramolecular interactions, that are based on specific targeting of an overexpressed membrane-receptor, allow specific and stable, yet reversible, surface functionalization of viable cells and how this approach can be used to influence the interaction between cells and their surroundings. PMID:28057918

  6. Obtaining control of cell surface functionalizations via Pre-targeting and Supramolecular host guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Rood, Mark T M; Spa, Silvia J; Welling, Mick M; Ten Hove, Jan Bart; van Willigen, Danny M; Buckle, Tessa; Velders, Aldrik H; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2017-01-06

    The use of mammalian cells for therapeutic applications is finding its way into modern medicine. However, modification or "training" of cells to make them suitable for a specific application remains complex. By envisioning a chemical toolbox that enables specific, but straight-forward and generic cellular functionalization, we investigated how membrane-receptor (pre)targeting could be combined with supramolecular host-guest interactions based on β-cyclodextrin (CD) and adamantane (Ad). The feasibility of this approach was studied in cells with membranous overexpression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). By combining specific targeting of CXCR4, using an adamantane (Ad)-functionalized Ac-TZ14011 peptide (guest; KD = 56 nM), with multivalent host molecules that entailed fluorescent β-CD-Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic-anhydride)-polymers with different fluorescent colors and number of functionalities, host-guest cell-surface modifications could be studied in detail. A second set of Ad-functionalized entities enabled introduction of additional surface functionalities. In addition, the attraction between CD and Ad could be used to drive cell-cell interactions. Combined we have shown that supramolecular interactions, that are based on specific targeting of an overexpressed membrane-receptor, allow specific and stable, yet reversible, surface functionalization of viable cells and how this approach can be used to influence the interaction between cells and their surroundings.

  7. Obtaining control of cell surface functionalizations via Pre-targeting and Supramolecular host guest interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, Mark T. M.; Spa, Silvia J.; Welling, Mick M.; Ten Hove, Jan Bart; van Willigen, Danny M.; Buckle, Tessa; Velders, Aldrik H.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2017-01-01

    The use of mammalian cells for therapeutic applications is finding its way into modern medicine. However, modification or “training” of cells to make them suitable for a specific application remains complex. By envisioning a chemical toolbox that enables specific, but straight-forward and generic cellular functionalization, we investigated how membrane-receptor (pre)targeting could be combined with supramolecular host-guest interactions based on β-cyclodextrin (CD) and adamantane (Ad). The feasibility of this approach was studied in cells with membranous overexpression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). By combining specific targeting of CXCR4, using an adamantane (Ad)-functionalized Ac-TZ14011 peptide (guest; KD = 56 nM), with multivalent host molecules that entailed fluorescent β-CD-Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic-anhydride)-polymers with different fluorescent colors and number of functionalities, host-guest cell-surface modifications could be studied in detail. A second set of Ad-functionalized entities enabled introduction of additional surface functionalities. In addition, the attraction between CD and Ad could be used to drive cell-cell interactions. Combined we have shown that supramolecular interactions, that are based on specific targeting of an overexpressed membrane-receptor, allow specific and stable, yet reversible, surface functionalization of viable cells and how this approach can be used to influence the interaction between cells and their surroundings.

  8. Characterization of DNA variants in the human kinome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Divyansh; Qi, Yuan; Jiang, Tingting; Liu, Xiuping; Shi, Weiwei; Wali, Vikram B.; Turk, Benjamin; Ross, Jeffrey S; Fraser Symmans, W; Pusztai, Lajos; Hatzis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Kinases play a key role in cancer biology, and serve as potential clinically useful targets for designing cancer therapies. We examined nucleic acid variations in the human kinome and several known cancer-related genes in breast cancer. DNA was extracted from fine needle biopsies of 73 primary breast cancers and 19 metastatic lesions. Targeted sequencing of 518 kinases and 68 additional cancer related genes was performed using the SOLiD sequencing platform. We detected 1561 unique, non-synonymous variants in kinase genes in the 92 cases, and 74 unique variants in 43 kinases that were predicted to have major functional impact on the protein. Three kinase groups—CMGC, STE and TKL—showed greater mutational load in metastatic compared to primary cancer samples, however, after correction for multiple testing the difference was significant only for the TKL group (P = 0.04). We also observed that a higher proportion of histologic grade 1 and 2 cases had high functional impact variants in the SCYL2 gene compared with grade 3 cases. Our findings indicate that individual breast cancers harbor a substantial number of potentially functionally important nucleotide variations in kinase genes, most of which are present in unique combinations and include both somatic and germline functional variants. PMID:26420498

  9. Characterization of DNA variants in the human kinome in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Divyansh; Qi, Yuan; Jiang, Tingting; Liu, Xiuping; Shi, Weiwei; Wali, Vikram B.; Turk, Benjamin; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Fraser Symmans, W.; Pusztai, Lajos; Hatzis, Christos

    2015-09-01

    Kinases play a key role in cancer biology, and serve as potential clinically useful targets for designing cancer therapies. We examined nucleic acid variations in the human kinome and several known cancer-related genes in breast cancer. DNA was extracted from fine needle biopsies of 73 primary breast cancers and 19 metastatic lesions. Targeted sequencing of 518 kinases and 68 additional cancer related genes was performed using the SOLiD sequencing platform. We detected 1561 unique, non-synonymous variants in kinase genes in the 92 cases, and 74 unique variants in 43 kinases that were predicted to have major functional impact on the protein. Three kinase groups—CMGC, STE and TKL—showed greater mutational load in metastatic compared to primary cancer samples, however, after correction for multiple testing the difference was significant only for the TKL group (P = 0.04). We also observed that a higher proportion of histologic grade 1 and 2 cases had high functional impact variants in the SCYL2 gene compared with grade 3 cases. Our findings indicate that individual breast cancers harbor a substantial number of potentially functionally important nucleotide variations in kinase genes, most of which are present in unique combinations and include both somatic and germline functional variants.

  10. ProKinO: A Unified Resource for Mining the Cancer Kinome

    PubMed Central

    McSkimming, Daniel Ian; Dastgheib, Shima; Talevich, Eric; Narayanan, Anish; Katiyar, Samiksha; Taylor, Susan S; Kochut, Krys; Kannan, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent a large and diverse family of evolutionarily related proteins that are abnormally regulated in human cancers. Although genome sequencing studies have revealed thousands of variants in protein kinases, translating “big” genomic data into biological knowledge remains a challenge. Here, we describe an ontological framework for integrating and conceptualizing diverse forms of information related to kinase activation and regulatory mechanisms in a machine readable, human understandable form. We demonstrate the utility of this framework in analyzing the cancer kinome, and in generating testable hypotheses for experimental studies. Through the iterative process of aggregate ontology querying, hypothesis generation and experimental validation, we identify a novel mutational hotspot in the αC-β4 loop of the kinase domain and demonstrate the functional impact of the identified variants in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) constitutive activity and inhibitor sensitivity. We provide a unified resource for the kinase and cancer community, ProKinO, housed at http://vulcan.cs.uga.edu/prokino. PMID:25382819

  11. Delineation of Polypharmacology across the Human Structural Kinome Using a Functional Site Interaction Fingerprint Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zheng; Xie, Li; Xie, Lei; Bourne, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted polypharmacology of kinases has emerged as a promising strategy to design efficient and safe therapeutics. Here, we perform a systematic study of kinase–ligand binding modes for the human structural kinome at scale (208 kinases, 1777 unique ligands, and their complexes) by integrating chemical genomics and structural genomics data and by introducing a functional site interaction fingerprint (Fs-IFP) method. New insights into kinase–ligand binding modes were obtained. We establish relationships between the features of binding modes, the ligands, and the binding pockets, respectively. We also drive the intrinsic binding specificity and which correlation with amino acid conservation. Third, we explore the landscape of the binding modes and highlight the regions of “selectivity pocket” and “selectivity entrance”. Finally, we demonstrate that Fs-IFP similarity is directly correlated to the experimentally determined profile. These improve our understanding of kinase–ligand interactions and contribute to the design of novel polypharmacological therapies targeting kinases. PMID:26929980

  12. Giant Host Red Blood Cell Membrane Mimicking Polymersomes Bind Parasite Proteins and Malaria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Najer, Adrian; Thamboo, Sagana; Palivan, Cornelia G; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease that needs to be addressed using innovative approaches to counteract spread of drug resistance and to establish or optimize vaccination strategies. With our approach, we aim for a dual action with drug- and 'vaccine-like' activity against malaria. By inhibiting entry of malaria parasites into host red blood cells (RBCs) - using polymer vesicle-based (polymersome) nanomimics of RBC membranes - the life cycle of the parasite is interrupted and the exposed parasites are accessible to the host immune system. Here, we describe how host cell-sized RBC membrane mimics, formed with the same block copolymers as nanomimics, also bind the corresponding malaria parasite ligand and whole malaria parasites, similar to nanomimics. This was demonstrated using fluorescence imaging techniques and confirms the suitability of giant polymersomes (GUVs) as simple mimics for RBC membranes.

  13. Hijacking of host cell IKK signalosomes by the transforming parasite Theileria.

    PubMed

    Heussler, Volker T; Rottenberg, Sven; Schwab, Rebekka; Küenzi, Peter; Fernandez, Paula C; McKellar, Susan; Shiels, Brian; Chen, Zhijian J; Orth, Kim; Wallach, David; Dobbelaere, Dirk A E

    2002-11-01

    Parasites have evolved a plethora of mechanisms to ensure their propagation and evade antagonistic host responses. The intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria is the only eukaryote known to induce uncontrolled host cell proliferation. Survival of Theileria-transformed leukocytes depends strictly on constitutive nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity. We found that this was mediated by recruitment of the multisubunit IkappaB kinase (IKK) into large, activated foci on the parasite surface. IKK signalosome assembly was specific for the transforming schizont stage of the parasite and was down-regulated upon differentiation into the nontransforming merozoite stage. Our findings provide insights into IKK activation and how pathogens subvert host-cell signaling pathways.

  14. Kinome-wide RNAi studies in human multiple myeloma identify vulnerable kinase targets, including a lymphoid-restricted kinase, GRK6

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Schmidt, Jessica; Yin, Hongwei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Que, Qiang; Basu, Gargi; Azorsa, David; Perkins, Louise M.; Braggio, Esteban; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Mousses, Spyro; Stewart, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    A paucity of validated kinase targets in human multiple myeloma has delayed clinical deployment of kinase inhibitors in treatment strategies. We therefore conducted a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) lethality study in myeloma tumor lines bearing common t(4;14), t(14;16), and t(11;14) translocations to identify critically vulnerable kinases in myeloma tumor cells without regard to preconceived mechanistic notions. Fifteen kinases were repeatedly vulnerable in myeloma cells, including AKT1, AK3L1, AURKA, AURKB, CDC2L1, CDK5R2, FES, FLT4, GAK, GRK6, HK1, PKN1, PLK1, SMG1, and TNK2. Whereas several kinases (PLK1, HK1) were equally vulnerable in epithelial cells, others and particularly G protein–coupled receptor kinase, GRK6, appeared selectively vulnerable in myeloma. GRK6 inhibition was lethal to 6 of 7 myeloma tumor lines but was tolerated in 7 of 7 human cell lines. GRK6 exhibits lymphoid-restricted expression, and from coimmunoprecipitation studies we demonstrate that expression in myeloma cells is regulated via direct association with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone. GRK6 silencing causes suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation associated with reduction in MCL1 levels and phosphorylation, illustrating a potent mechanism for the cytotoxicity of GRK6 inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. As mice that lack GRK6 are healthy, inhibition of GRK6 represents a uniquely targeted novel therapeutic strategy in human multiple myeloma. PMID:19996089

  15. Single-cell genomics-based analysis of virus–host interactions in marine surface bacterioplankton

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Jessica M; Swan, Brandon K; Poulos, Bonnie; Luo, Haiwei; Koren, Sergey; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B; Woyke, Tanja; Eric Wommack, K; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections dynamically alter the composition and metabolic potential of marine microbial communities and the evolutionary trajectories of host populations with resulting feedback on biogeochemical cycles. It is quite possible that all microbial populations in the ocean are impacted by viral infections. Our knowledge of virus–host relationships, however, has been limited to a minute fraction of cultivated host groups. Here, we utilized single-cell sequencing to obtain genomic blueprints of viruses inside or attached to individual bacterial and archaeal cells captured in their native environment, circumventing the need for host and virus cultivation. A combination of comparative genomics, metagenomic fragment recruitment, sequence anomalies and irregularities in sequence coverage depth and genome recovery were utilized to detect viruses and to decipher modes of virus–host interactions. Members of all three tailed phage families were identified in 20 out of 58 phylogenetically and geographically diverse single amplified genomes (SAGs) of marine bacteria and archaea. At least four phage–host interactions had the characteristics of late lytic infections, all of which were found in metabolically active cells. One virus had genetic potential for lysogeny. Our findings include first known viruses of Thaumarchaeota, Marinimicrobia, Verrucomicrobia and Gammaproteobacteria clusters SAR86 and SAR92. Viruses were also found in SAGs of Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A high fragment recruitment of viral metagenomic reads confirmed that most of the SAG-associated viruses are abundant in the ocean. Our study demonstrates that single-cell genomics, in conjunction with sequence-based computational tools, enable in situ, cultivation-independent insights into host–virus interactions in complex microbial communities. PMID:25848873

  16. Single-cell genomics-based analysis of virus–host interactions in marine surface bacterioplankton

    DOE PAGES

    Labonté, Jessica M.; Swan, Brandon K.; Poulos, Bonnie; ...

    2015-04-07

    Viral infections dynamically alter the composition and metabolic potential of marine microbial communities and the evolutionary trajectories of host populations with resulting feedback on biogeochemical cycles. It is quite possible that all microbial populations in the ocean are impacted by viral infections. Our knowledge of virus–host relationships, however, has been limited to a minute fraction of cultivated host groups. Here, we utilized single-cell sequencing to obtain genomic blueprints of viruses inside or attached to individual bacterial and archaeal cells captured in their native environment, circumventing the need for host and virus cultivation. Furthermore, a combination of comparative genomics, metagenomic fragmentmore » recruitment, sequence anomalies and irregularities in sequence coverage depth and genome recovery were utilized to detect viruses and to decipher modes of virus–host interactions. Members of all three tailed phage families were identified in 20 out of 58 phylogenetically and geographically diverse single amplified genomes (SAGs) of marine bacteria and archaea. At least four phage–host interactions had the characteristics of late lytic infections, all of which were found in metabolically active cells. One virus had genetic potential for lysogeny. Our findings include first known viruses of Thaumarchaeota, Marinimicrobia, Verrucomicrobia and Gammaproteobacteria clusters SAR86 and SAR92. Viruses were also found in SAGs of Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A high fragment recruitment of viral metagenomic reads confirmed that most of the SAG-associated viruses are abundant in the ocean. This study demonstrates that single-cell genomics, in conjunction with sequence-based computational tools, enable in situ, cultivation-independent insights into host–virus interactions in complex microbial communities.« less

  17. Single-cell genomics-based analysis of virus–host interactions in marine surface bacterioplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Labonté, Jessica M.; Swan, Brandon K.; Poulos, Bonnie; Luo, Haiwei; Koren, Sergey; Hallam, Steven J.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Woyke, Tanja; Eric Wommack, K.; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2015-04-07

    Viral infections dynamically alter the composition and metabolic potential of marine microbial communities and the evolutionary trajectories of host populations with resulting feedback on biogeochemical cycles. It is quite possible that all microbial populations in the ocean are impacted by viral infections. Our knowledge of virus–host relationships, however, has been limited to a minute fraction of cultivated host groups. Here, we utilized single-cell sequencing to obtain genomic blueprints of viruses inside or attached to individual bacterial and archaeal cells captured in their native environment, circumventing the need for host and virus cultivation. Furthermore, a combination of comparative genomics, metagenomic fragment recruitment, sequence anomalies and irregularities in sequence coverage depth and genome recovery were utilized to detect viruses and to decipher modes of virus–host interactions. Members of all three tailed phage families were identified in 20 out of 58 phylogenetically and geographically diverse single amplified genomes (SAGs) of marine bacteria and archaea. At least four phage–host interactions had the characteristics of late lytic infections, all of which were found in metabolically active cells. One virus had genetic potential for lysogeny. Our findings include first known viruses of Thaumarchaeota, Marinimicrobia, Verrucomicrobia and Gammaproteobacteria clusters SAR86 and SAR92. Viruses were also found in SAGs of Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A high fragment recruitment of viral metagenomic reads confirmed that most of the SAG-associated viruses are abundant in the ocean. This study demonstrates that single-cell genomics, in conjunction with sequence-based computational tools, enable in situ, cultivation-independent insights into host–virus interactions in complex microbial communities.

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus: interaction with fibroblasts and muscle cells - new insights into parasite-mediated host cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2012-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic, flagellated protists that inhabit the urogenital tract of humans and bovines, respectively. T. vaginalis causes the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide and has been associated with an increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in humans. Infections by T. foetus cause significant losses to the beef industry worldwide due to infertility and spontaneous abortion in cows. Several studies have shown a close association between trichomonads and the epithelium of the urogenital tract. However, little is known concerning the interaction of trichomonads with cells from deeper tissues, such as fibroblasts and muscle cells. Published parasite-host cell interaction studies have reported contradictory results regarding the ability of T. foetus and T. vaginalis to interact with and damage cells of different tissues. In this study, parasite-host cell interactions were examined by culturing primary human fibroblasts obtained from abdominal biopsies performed during plastic surgeries with trichomonads. In addition, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, primary chick embryo myogenic cells and L6 muscle cells were also used as models of target cells. The parasite-host cell cultures were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were tested for cell viability and cell death. JC-1 staining, which measures mitochondrial membrane potential, was used to determine whether the parasites induced target cell damage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling staining was used as an indicator of chromatin damage. The colorimetric crystal violet assay was performed to ana-lyse the cytotoxicity induced by the parasite. The results showed that T. foetus and T. vaginalis adhered to and were cytotoxic to both fibroblasts and muscle cells, indicating that trichomonas infection of the connective and muscle tissues is likely to occur; such infections could cause

  19. Host basophils are dispensable for induction of donor T helper 2 cell differentiation and severity of experimental graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Tawara, Isao; Nieves, Evelyn; Liu, Chen; Evers, Rebecca; Toubai, Tomomi; Sun, Yaping; Alrubaie, Mariem; Reddy, Pavan

    2011-12-01

    Host hematopoietic-derived antigen-presenting cells are important for induction of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The relative importance of various subsets of hematopoietic-derived antigen-presenting cells is not well understood. Recent data suggest that basophils can function as antigen-presenting cells and induce T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte responses. We investigated the role of host basophils in the induction of donor T cell responses and GVHD after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Elimination of host basophils did not alter the severity of GVHD-induced mortality across multiple clinically relevant models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, induction of donor T cell proliferation and Th2 polarization was not altered significantly after depletion of host basophils. Our results demonstrate that, in contrast to their role in inducing Th2 responses in certain contexts, basophils are dispensable for the induction of donor Th2 responses and for the severity of GVHD. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pore-Forming Exolysin and Type IV Pili Cooperate To Induce Host Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Pauline; Ragno, Michel; Elsen, Sylvie; Reboud, Emeline; Golovkine, Guillaume; Bouillot, Stephanie; Huber, Philippe; Lory, Stephen; Faudry, Eric

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking the type III secretion system genes employ a toxin, exolysin (ExlA), for host cell membrane disruption. Here, we demonstrated that ExlA export requires a predicted outer membrane protein, ExlB, showing that ExlA and ExlB define a new active two-partner secretion (TPS) system of P. aeruginosa. In addition to the TPS signals, ExlA harbors several distinct domains, which include one hemagglutinin domain, five arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs, and a C-terminal region lacking any identifiable sequence motifs. However, this C-terminal region is important for the toxic activity, since its deletion abolishes host cell lysis. Using lipid vesicles and eukaryotic cells, including red blood cells, we demonstrated that ExlA has a pore-forming activity which precedes cell membrane disruption of nucleated cells. Finally, we developed a high-throughput cell-based live-dead assay and used it to screen a transposon mutant library of an ExlA-producing P. aeruginosa clinical strain for bacterial factors required for ExlA-mediated toxicity. The screen resulted in the identification of proteins involved in the formation of type IV pili as being required for ExlA to exert its cytotoxic activity by promoting close contact between bacteria and the host cell. These findings represent the first example of cooperation between a pore-forming toxin of the TPS family and surface appendages in host cell intoxication. PMID:28119472

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pore-Forming Exolysin and Type IV Pili Cooperate To Induce Host Cell Lysis.

    PubMed

    Basso, Pauline; Ragno, Michel; Elsen, Sylvie; Reboud, Emeline; Golovkine, Guillaume; Bouillot, Stephanie; Huber, Philippe; Lory, Stephen; Faudry, Eric; Attrée, Ina

    2017-01-24

    Clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking the type III secretion system genes employ a toxin, exolysin (ExlA), for host cell membrane disruption. Here, we demonstrated that ExlA export requires a predicted outer membrane protein, ExlB, showing that ExlA and ExlB define a new active two-partner secretion (TPS) system of P. aeruginosa In addition to the TPS signals, ExlA harbors several distinct domains, which include one hemagglutinin domain, five arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs, and a C-terminal region lacking any identifiable sequence motifs. However, this C-terminal region is important for the toxic activity, since its deletion abolishes host cell lysis. Using lipid vesicles and eukaryotic cells, including red blood cells, we demonstrated that ExlA has a pore-forming activity which precedes cell membrane disruption of nucleated cells. Finally, we developed a high-throughput cell-based live-dead assay and used it to screen a transposon mutant library of an ExlA-producing P. aeruginosa clinical strain for bacterial factors required for ExlA-mediated toxicity. The screen resulted in the identification of proteins involved in the formation of type IV pili as being required for ExlA to exert its cytotoxic activity by promoting close contact between bacteria and the host cell. These findings represent the first example of cooperation between a pore-forming toxin of the TPS family and surface appendages in host cell intoxication.

  2. Virus-Host Coevolution in a Persistently Coxsackievirus B3-Infected Cardiomyocyte Cell Line ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pinkert, Sandra; Klingel, Karin; Lindig, Vanessa; Dörner, Andrea; Zeichhardt, Heinz; Spiller, O. Brad; Fechner, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Coevolution of virus and host is a process that emerges in persistent virus infections. Here we studied the coevolutionary development of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and cardiac myocytes representing the major target cells of CVB3 in the heart in a newly established persistently CVB3-infected murine cardiac myocyte cell line, HL-1CVB3. CVB3 persistence in HL-1CVB3 cells represented a typical carrier-state infection with high levels (106 to 108 PFU/ml) of infectious virus produced from only a small proportion (approximately 10%) of infected cells. CVB3 persistence was characterized by the evolution of a CVB3 variant (CVB3-HL1) that displayed strongly increased cytotoxicity in the naive HL-1 cell line and showed increased replication rates in cultured primary cardiac myocytes of mouse, rat, and naive HL-1 cells in vitro, whereas it was unable to establish murine cardiac infection in vivo. Resistance of HL-1CVB3 cells to CVB3-HL1 was associated with reduction of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression. Decreasing host cell CAR expression was partially overcome by the CVB3-HL1 variant through CAR-independent entry into resistant cells. Moreover, CVB3-HL1 conserved the ability to infect cells via CAR. The employment of a soluble CAR variant resulted in the complete cure of HL-1CVB3 cells with respect to the adapted virus. In conclusion, this is the first report of a CVB3 carrier-state infection in a cardiomyocyte cell line, revealing natural coevolution of CAR downregulation with CAR-independent viral entry in resistant host cells as an important mechanism of induction of CVB3 persistence. PMID:21976640

  3. Interrelations between the Parasitophorous Vacuole of Toxoplasma gondii and Host Cell Organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso Magno, Rodrigo; Cobra Straker, Lorian; de Souza, Wanderley; Attias, Marcia

    2005-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is capable of actively penetrating and multiplying in any nucleated cell of warm-blooded animals. Its survival strategies include escape from fusion of the parasitophorous vacuole with host cell lysosomes and rearrangement of host cell organelles in relation to the parasitophorous vacuole. In this article we report the rearrangement of host cell organelles and elements of the cytoskeleton of LLCMK2 cells, a lineage derived from green monkey kidney epithelial cells, in response to infection by T. gondii tachyzoites. Transmission electron microscopy made on flat embedded monolayers cut horizontally to the apical side of the cells or field emission scanning electron microscopy of monolayers scraped with scotch tape before sputtering showed that association of mitochondria to the vacuole is much less frequent than previously described. On the other hand, all parasitophorous vacuoles were surrounded by elements of the endoplasmic reticulum. These data were complemented by observations by laser scanning microscopy using fluorescent probes from mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and reinforced by three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections observed by transmission electron microscopy and labeling of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum by fluorescent probes.

  4. Growth inhibition of cytosolic Salmonella by caspase-1 and caspase-11 precedes host cell death

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Teresa L. M.; Matthews, Sophie A.; Jennings, Elliott; Alix, Eric; Shao, Feng; Shenoy, Avinash R.; Birrell, Mark A.; Holden, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Sensing bacterial products in the cytosol of mammalian cells by NOD-like receptors leads to the activation of caspase-1 inflammasomes, and the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-1β. In addition, mouse caspase-11 (represented in humans by its orthologs, caspase-4 and caspase-5) detects cytosolic bacterial LPS directly. Activation of caspase-1 and caspase-11 initiates pyroptotic host cell death that releases potentially harmful bacteria from the nutrient-rich host cell cytosol into the extracellular environment. Here we use single cell analysis and time-lapse microscopy to identify a subpopulation of host cells, in which growth of cytosolic Salmonella Typhimurium is inhibited independently or prior to the onset of cell death. The enzymatic activities of caspase-1 and caspase-11 are required for growth inhibition in different cell types. Our results reveal that these proteases have important functions beyond the direct induction of pyroptosis and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in the control of growth and elimination of cytosolic bacteria. PMID:27808091

  5. Synchronous induction of detachment and reattachment of symbiotic Chlorella spp. from the cell cortex of the host Paramecium bursaria.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuuki; Fujishima, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Paramecium bursaria harbor several hundred symbiotic Chlorella spp. Each alga is enclosed in a perialgal vacuole membrane, which can attach to the host cell cortex. How the perialgal vacuole attaches beneath the host cell cortex remains unknown. High-speed centrifugation (> 1000×g) for 1min induces rapid detachment of the algae from the host cell cortex and concentrates the algae to the posterior half of the host cell. Simultaneously, most of the host acidosomes and lysosomes accumulate in the anterior half of the host cell. Both the detached algae and the dislocated acidic vesicles recover their original positions by host cyclosis within 10min after centrifugation. These recoveries were inhibited if the host cytoplasmic streaming was arrested by nocodazole. Endosymbiotic algae during the early reinfection process also show the capability of desorption after centrifugation. These results demonstrate that adhesion of the perialgal vacuole beneath the host cell cortex is repeatedly inducible, and that host cytoplasmic streaming facilitates recovery of the algal attachment. This study is the first report to illuminate the mechanism of the induction to desorb for symbiotic algae and acidic vesicles, and will contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of algal and organelle arrangements in Paramecium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of a Transcription Factor That Regulates Host Cell Exit and Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Lalitha; Gurses, Serdar A.; Hurley, Benjamin E.; Miller, Jessica L.; Karakousis, Petros C.; Briken, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with host cell death signaling pathways is characterized by an initial anti-apoptotic phase followed by a pro-necrotic phase to allow for host cell exit of the bacteria. The bacterial modulators regulating necrosis induction are poorly understood. Here we describe the identification of a transcriptional repressor, Rv3167c responsible for regulating the escape of Mtb from the phagosome. Increased cytosolic localization of MtbΔRv3167c was accompanied by elevated levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and reduced activation of the protein kinase Akt, and these events were critical for the induction of host cell necrosis and macroautophagy. The increase in necrosis led to an increase in bacterial virulence as reflected in higher bacterial burden and reduced survival of mice infected with MtbΔRv3167c. The regulon of Rv3167c thus contains the bacterial mediators involved in escape from the phagosome and host cell necrosis induction, both of which are crucial steps in the intracellular lifecycle and virulence of Mtb. PMID:27191591

  7. Rickettsial entry into host cells: finding the keys to unlock the doors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this issue of Infection and Immunity, Ojogun et al. present compelling evidence that A. phagocytophilum outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is required for efficient entry into host myeloid cells. Using classical approaches, this team of investigators led by Jason Carlyon shows that entry can be bloc...

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi Invasion into Host Cells: A Complex Molecular Targets Interplay.

    PubMed

    Campo, Vanessa Leiria; Martins-Teixeira, Maristela Braga; Carvalho, Ivone

    2016-01-01

    Chagas' disease is still a worldwide threat, with estimated from 6 to 7 million infected people, mainly in Latin America. Despite all efforts, especially from international consortia (DNDi, NMTrypI), to develop an innovative therapeutic strategy against this disease, no candidate has achieved full requirements for clinical use yet. In this review, we point out the general molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in T. cruzi cell invasion and elucidate the roles of specific parasite and host targets in the progress of Chagas' disease. Among these molecular targets are Gp85/transsialidase, mucins, cruzipain and oligopeptidase B, found in parasite cell surface, and Galectin-3 and Toll-like receptors present in host cells. Thus, the deep understanding of their interplay and involvement on T. cruzi host cell adhesion, invasion and evasion from host immune may expand the chances for discovering new therapeutic agents against this neglected disease. Additionally, these targets may represent a remarkable strategy to block parasite invasion in the early stages of infection.

  9. Host Cell P-glycoprotein Is Essential for Cholesterol Uptake and Replication of Toxoplasma gondii*

    PubMed Central

    Bottova, Iveta; Hehl, Adrian B.; Štefanić, Saša; Fabriàs, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Schraner, Elisabeth; Pieters, Jean; Sonda, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound efflux pump that actively exports a wide range of compounds from the cell and is associated with the phenomenon of multidrug resistance. However, the role of P-gp in normal physiological processes remains elusive. Using P-gp-deficient fibroblasts, we showed that P-gp was critical for the replication of the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii but was not involved in invasion of host cells by the parasite. Importantly, we found that the protein participated in the transport of host-derived cholesterol to the intracellular parasite. T. gondii replication in P-gp-deficient host cells not only resulted in reduced cholesterol content in the parasite but also altered its sphingolipid metabolism. In addition, we found that different levels of P-gp expression modified the cholesterol metabolism in uninfected fibroblasts. Collectively our findings reveal a key and previously undocumented role of P-gp in host-parasite interaction and suggest a physiological role for P-gp in cholesterol trafficking in mammalian cells. PMID:19389707

  10. New evidence that Deformed Wing Virus and Black Queen Cell Virus are Multi-host pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The host-range breadth of pathogens can have important consequences for pathogens’ long term evolution and virulence, and play critical roles in the emergence and spread of the new diseases. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are the two most common and prevalent viruses in...

  11. Recombinant host cells and nucleic acid constructs encoding polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    DOEpatents

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2017-03-28

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Organization of ETRAMPs and EXP-1 at the parasite-host cell interface of malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Tobias; Gardiner, Donald L; Beck, Hans-Peter; Trenholme, Katharine R; Kemp, David J

    2006-02-01

    The parasite-host cell interface is a key compartment of vacuolated intracellular pathogens but little is known about its molecular composition and architecture. We used in vivo cross-linking to analyse the parasite-host cell interface of asexual stages of the most virulent human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the integral membrane protein members of the early transcribed membrane protein (ETRAMP) family and exported protein 1 (EXP-1), which are components of the parasite-host cell interface, form complexes of oligomeric arrays in this compartment. The most notable feature is that each ETRAMP member and EXP-1 define separate arrays, demonstrating that the protein distribution in this membrane is non-random. Each of three recombinant ETRAMPs readily oligomerized in bacterial membranes, confirming that these arrays can form independently of other Plasmodium proteins. We propose that the malaria parasite-host cell interface contains patches of integral membrane proteins forming a mosaic of different microdomains in this membrane.

  13. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dirk, Brennan S.; Van Nynatten, Logan R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell–cell transmission and cell–free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle. PMID:27775563

  14. Optimizing eukaryotic cell hosts for protein production through systems biotechnology and genome-scale modeling.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jahir M; Lewis, Nathan E

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic cell lines, including Chinese hamster ovary cells, yeast, and insect cells, are invaluable hosts for the production of many recombinant proteins. With the advent of genomic resources, one can now leverage genome-scale computational modeling of cellular pathways to rationally engineer eukaryotic host cells. Genome-scale models of metabolism include all known biochemical reactions occurring in a specific cell. By describing these mathematically and using tools such as flux balance analysis, the models can simulate cell physiology and provide targets for cell engineering that could lead to enhanced cell viability, titer, and productivity. Here we review examples in which metabolic models in eukaryotic cell cultures have been used to rationally select targets for genetic modification, improve cellular metabolic capabilities, design media supplementation, and interpret high-throughput omics data. As more comprehensive models of metabolism and other cellular processes are developed for eukaryotic cell culture, these will enable further exciting developments in cell line engineering, thus accelerating recombinant protein production and biotechnology in the years to come. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A Novel Mechanism of Bacterial Toxin Transfer within Host Blood Cell-Derived Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ståhl, Anne-lie; Arvidsson, Ida; Johansson, Karl E.; Chromek, Milan; Rebetz, Johan; Loos, Sebastian; Kristoffersson, Ann-Charlotte; Békássy, Zivile D.; Mörgelin, Matthias; Karpman, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which are non-invasive strains that can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), associated with renal failure and death. Although bacteremia does not occur, bacterial virulence factors gain access to the circulation and are thereafter presumed to cause target organ damage. Stx was previously shown to circulate bound to blood cells but the mechanism by which it would potentially transfer to target organ cells has not been elucidated. Here we show that blood cell-derived microvesicles, shed during HUS, contain Stx and are found within patient renal cortical cells. The finding was reproduced in mice infected with Stx-producing Escherichia coli exhibiting Stx-containing blood cell-derived microvesicles in the circulation that reached the kidney where they were transferred into glomerular and peritubular capillary endothelial cells and further through their basement membranes followed by podocytes and tubular epithelial cells, respectively. In vitro studies demonstrated that blood cell-derived microvesicles containing Stx undergo endocytosis in glomerular endothelial cells leading to cell death secondary to inhibited protein synthesis. This study demonstrates a novel virulence mechanism whereby bacterial toxin is transferred within host blood cell-derived microvesicles in which it may evade the host immune system. PMID:25719452

  16. A novel mechanism of bacterial toxin transfer within host blood cell-derived microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Ståhl, Anne-lie; Arvidsson, Ida; Johansson, Karl E; Chromek, Milan; Rebetz, Johan; Loos, Sebastian; Kristoffersson, Ann-Charlotte; Békássy, Zivile D; Mörgelin, Matthias; Karpman, Diana

    2015-02-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which are non-invasive strains that can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), associated with renal failure and death. Although bacteremia does not occur, bacterial virulence factors gain access to the circulation and are thereafter presumed to cause target organ damage. Stx was previously shown to circulate bound to blood cells but the mechanism by which it would potentially transfer to target organ cells has not been elucidated. Here we show that blood cell-derived microvesicles, shed during HUS, contain Stx and are found within patient renal cortical cells. The finding was reproduced in mice infected with Stx-producing Escherichia coli exhibiting Stx-containing blood cell-derived microvesicles in the circulation that reached the kidney where they were transferred into glomerular and peritubular capillary endothelial cells and further through their basement membranes followed by podocytes and tubular epithelial cells, respectively. In vitro studies demonstrated that blood cell-derived microvesicles containing Stx undergo endocytosis in glomerular endothelial cells leading to cell death secondary to inhibited protein synthesis. This study demonstrates a novel virulence mechanism whereby bacterial toxin is transferred within host blood cell-derived microvesicles in which it may evade the host immune system.

  17. Exogenous TNFR2 activation protects from acute GvHD via host T reg cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Martin; Brandl, Andreas; Amich, Jorge; Mottok, Anja; Jordán-Garrote, Ana-Laura; Bäuerlein, Carina A.; Brede, Christian; Ribechini, Eliana; Fick, Andrea; Polz, Johannes; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Mattenheimer, Katharina; Schwinn, Stefanie; Winter, Thorsten; Krappmann, Sven; Einsele, Hermann; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Lutz, Manfred B.

    2016-01-01

    Donor CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (T reg cells) suppress graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT [allo-HCT]). Current clinical study protocols rely on the ex vivo expansion of donor T reg cells and their infusion in high numbers. In this study, we present a novel strategy for inhibiting GvHD that is based on the in vivo expansion of recipient T reg cells before allo-HCT, exploiting the crucial role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) in T reg cell biology. Expanding radiation-resistant host T reg cells in recipient mice using a mouse TNFR2-selective agonist before allo-HCT significantly prolonged survival and reduced GvHD severity in a TNFR2- and T reg cell–dependent manner. The beneficial effects of transplanted T cells against leukemia cells and infectious pathogens remained unaffected. A corresponding human TNFR2-specific agonist expanded human T reg cells in vitro. These observations indicate the potential of our strategy to protect allo-HCT patients from acute GvHD by expanding T reg cells via selective TNFR2 activation in vivo. PMID:27526711

  18. In vivo kinetics and nonradioactive imaging of rapidly proliferating cells in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Nataliya P; Farthing, Donald E; Maglakelidze, Natella; Lizak, Martin; Merkle, Hellmut; Carpenter, Andrea C; Oliver, Brittany U; Kapoor, Veena; Castro, Ehydel; Swan, Gregory A; Dos Santos, Liliane M; Bouladoux, Nicolas J; Bare, Catherine V; Flomerfelt, Francis A; Eckhaus, Michael A; Telford, William G; Belkaid, Yasmine; Bosselut, Remy J; Gress, Ronald E

    2017-06-15

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a cure for cancers that are refractory to chemotherapy and radiation. Most HSCT recipients develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), a systemic alloimmune attack on host organs. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms, as biopsies are risky. T cells are central to the biology of cGVHD. We found that a low Treg/CD4+ T effector memory (Tem) ratio in circulation, lymphoid, and target organs identified early and established mouse cGVHD. Using deuterated water labeling to measure multicompartment in vivo kinetics of these subsets, we show robust Tem and Treg proliferation in lymphoid and target organs, while Tregs undergo apoptosis in target organs. Since deuterium enrichment into DNA serves as a proxy for cell proliferation, we developed a whole-body clinically relevant deuterium MRI approach to nonradioactively detect cGVHD and potentially allow imaging of other diseases characterized by rapidly proliferating cells.

  19. In vivo kinetics and nonradioactive imaging of rapidly proliferating cells in graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, Nataliya P.; Farthing, Donald E.; Maglakelidze, Natella; Lizak, Martin; Merkle, Hellmut; Carpenter, Andrea C.; Oliver, Brittany U.; Kapoor, Veena; Castro, Ehydel; Swan, Gregory A.; dos Santos, Liliane M.; Bouladoux, Nicolas J.; Bare, Catherine V.; Flomerfelt, Francis A.; Eckhaus, Michael A.; Telford, William G.; Belkaid, Yasmine; Bosselut, Remy J.; Gress, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a cure for cancers that are refractory to chemotherapy and radiation. Most HSCT recipients develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), a systemic alloimmune attack on host organs. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms, as biopsies are risky. T cells are central to the biology of cGVHD. We found that a low Treg/CD4+ T effector memory (Tem) ratio in circulation, lymphoid, and target organs identified early and established mouse cGVHD. Using deuterated water labeling to measure multicompartment in vivo kinetics of these subsets, we show robust Tem and Treg proliferation in lymphoid and target organs, while Tregs undergo apoptosis in target organs. Since deuterium enrichment into DNA serves as a proxy for cell proliferation, we developed a whole-body clinically relevant deuterium MRI approach to nonradioactively detect cGVHD and potentially allow imaging of other diseases characterized by rapidly proliferating cells. PMID:28614804

  20. Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of

  1. Host cell responses to persistent mycoplasmas--different stages in infection of HeLa cells with Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed

    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of

  2. An Emerging Approach for Parallel Quantification of Intracellular Protozoan Parasites and Host Cell Characterization Using TissueFAXS Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Maximilian; Dufner, Bianca; Dürk, Julius; Bedal, Konstanze; Stricker, Kristina; Prokoph, Lukas Ali; Koch, Christoph; Wege, Anja K; Zirpel, Henner; van Zandbergen, Ger; Ecker, Rupert; Boghiu, Bogdan; Ritter, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of host-pathogen interactions is a fundamental approach in microbiological and immunological oriented disciplines. It is commonly accepted that host cells start to change their phenotype after engulfing pathogens. Techniques such as real time PCR or ELISA were used to characterize the genes encoding proteins that are associated either with pathogen elimination or immune escape mechanisms. Most of such studies were performed in vitro using primary host cells or cell lines. Consequently, the data generated with such approaches reflect the global RNA expression or protein amount recovered from all cells in culture. This is justified when all host cells harbor an equal amount of pathogens under experimental conditions. However, the uptake of pathogens by phagocytic cells is not synchronized. Consequently, there are host cells incorporating different amounts of pathogens that might result in distinct pathogen-induced protein biosynthesis. Therefore, we established a technique able to detect and quantify the number of pathogens in the corresponding host cells using immunofluorescence-based high throughput analysis. Paired with multicolor staining of molecules of interest it is now possible to analyze the infection profile of host cell populations and the corresponding phenotype of the host cells as a result of parasite load.

  3. Novel insights into host-fungal pathogen interactions derived from live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Bain, Judith; Gow, Neil A R; Erwig, Lars-Peter

    2015-03-01

    The theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman outlined in his 1959 lecture, "There's plenty of room at the bottom", the enormous possibility of producing and visualising things at smaller scales. The advent of advanced scanning and transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution microscopy has begun to open the door to visualise host-pathogen interactions at smaller scales, and spinning disc confocal and two-photon microscopy has improved our ability to study these events in real time in three dimensions. The aim of this review is to illustrate some of the advances in understanding host-fungal interactions that have been made in recent years in particular those relating to the interactions of live fungal pathogens with phagocytes. Dynamic imaging of host-pathogen interactions has recently revealed novel detail and unsuspected mechanistic insights, facilitating the dissection of the phagocytic process into its component parts. Here, we will highlight advances in our knowledge of host-fungal pathogen interactions, including the specific effects of fungal cell viability, cell wall composition and morphogenesis on the phagocytic process and try to define the relative contributions of neutrophils and macrophages to the clearance of fungal pathogens in vitro and the infected host.

  4. Host-compound foraging by intestinal microbiota revealed by single-cell stable isotope probing

    PubMed Central

    Berry, David; Stecher, Bärbel; Schintlmeister, Arno; Reichert, Jochen; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Wild, Birgit; Wanek, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The animal and human intestinal mucosa secretes an assortment of compounds to establish a physical barrier between the host tissue and intestinal contents, a separation that is vital for health. Some pathogenic microorganisms as well as members of the commensal intestinal microbiota have been shown to be able to break down these secreted compounds. Our understanding of host-compound degradation by the commensal microbiota has been limited to knowledge about simplified model systems because of the difficulty in studying the complex intestinal ecosystem in vivo. In this study, we introduce an approach that overcomes previous technical limitations and allows us to observe which microbial cells in the intestine use host-derived compounds. We added stable isotope-labeled threonine i.v. to mice and combined fluorescence in situ hybridization with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging to characterize utilization of host proteins by individual bacterial cells. We show that two bacterial species, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila, are important host-protein foragers in vivo. Using gnotobiotic mice we show that microbiota composition determines the magnitude and pattern of foraging by these organisms, demonstrating that a complex microbiota is necessary in order for this niche to be fully exploited. These results underscore the importance of in vivo studies of intestinal microbiota, and the approach presented in this study will be a powerful tool to address many other key questions in animal and human microbiome research. PMID:23487774

  5. Population Structure of Endomicrobia in Single Host Cells of Termite Gut Flagellates (Trichonympha spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hao; Dietrich, Carsten; Thompson, Claire L.; Meuser, Katja; Brune, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota of many phylogenetically lower termites is dominated by the cellulolytic flagellates of the genus Trichonympha, which are consistently associated with bacterial symbionts. In the case of Endomicrobia, an unusual lineage of endosymbionts of the Elusimicrobia phylum that is also present in other gut flagellates, previous studies have documented strict host specificity, leading to the cospeciation of “Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae” with their respective flagellate hosts. However, it currently remains unclear whether one Trichonympha species is capable of harboring more than one Endomicrobia phylotype. In the present study, we selected single Trichonympha cells from the guts of Zootermopsis nevadensis and Reticulitermes santonensis and characterized their Endomicrobia populations based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences. We found that each host cell harbored a homogeneous population of symbionts that were specific to their respective host species, but phylogenetically distinct between each host lineage, corroborating cospeciation being caused by vertical inheritance. The experimental design of the present study also allowed for the identification of an unexpectedly large amount of tag-switching between samples, which indicated that any high-resolution analysis of microbial community structures using the pyrosequencing technique has to be interpreted with great caution. PMID:25739443

  6. Host-compound foraging by intestinal microbiota revealed by single-cell stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Stecher, Bärbel; Schintlmeister, Arno; Reichert, Jochen; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Wild, Birgit; Wanek, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael

    2013-03-19

    The animal and human intestinal mucosa secretes an assortment of compounds to establish a physical barrier between the host tissue and intestinal contents, a separation that is vital for health. Some pathogenic microorganisms as well as members of the commensal intestinal microbiota have been shown to be able to break down these secreted compounds. Our understanding of host-compound degradation by the commensal microbiota has been limited to knowledge about simplified model systems because of the difficulty in studying the complex intestinal ecosystem in vivo. In this study, we introduce an approach that overcomes previous technical limitations and allows us to observe which microbial cells in the intestine use host-derived compounds. We added stable isotope-labeled threonine i.v. to mice and combined fluorescence in situ hybridization with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging to characterize utilization of host proteins by individual bacterial cells. We show that two bacterial species, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila, are important host-protein foragers in vivo. Using gnotobiotic mice we show that microbiota composition determines the magnitude and pattern of foraging by these organisms, demonstrating that a complex microbiota is necessary in order for this niche to be fully exploited. These results underscore the importance of in vivo studies of intestinal microbiota, and the approach presented in this study will be a powerful tool to address many other key questions in animal and human microbiome research.

  7. Conventional NK cells can produce IL-22 and promote host defense in Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Weiss, Ido D; Zhang, Hongwei H; Singh, Satya P; Wynn, Thomas A; Wilson, Mark S; Farber, Joshua M

    2014-02-15

    It was reported that host defense against pulmonary Klebsiella pneumoniae infection requires IL-22, which was proposed to be of T cell origin. Supporting a role for IL-22, we found that Il22(-/-) mice had decreased survival compared with wild-type mice after intratracheal infection with K. pneumoniae. Surprisingly, however, Rag2(-/-) mice did not differ from wild-type mice in survival or levels of IL-22 in the lungs postinfection with K. pneumoniae. In contrast, K. pneumoniae-infected Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice failed to produce IL-22. These data suggested a possible role for NK cells or other innate lymphoid cells in host defense and production of IL-22. Unlike NK cell-like innate lymphoid cells that produce IL-22 and display a surface phenotype of NK1.1(-)NKp46(+)CCR6(+), lung NK cells showed the conventional phenotype, NK1.1(+)NKp46(+)CCR6(-). Mice depleted of NK cells using anti-asialo GM1 showed decreased survival and higher lung bacterial counts, as well as increased dissemination of K. pneumoniae to blood and liver, compared with control-treated mice. NK cell depletion also led to decreased production of IL-22 in the lung. Within 1 d postinfection, although there was no increase in the number of lung NK cells, a subset of lung NK cells became competent to produce IL-22, and such cells were found in both wild-type and Rag2(-/-) mice. Our data suggest that, during pulmonary infection of mice with K. pneumoniae, conventional NK cells are required for optimal host defense, which includes the production of IL-22.

  8. Color-Coded Imaging of Syngeneic Orthotopic Malignant Lymphoma Interacting with Host Stromal Cells During Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuro; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Shimizu, Masahito; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    The EL4 cell line was previously derived from a lymphoma induced in a C57/BL6 mouse by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. In a previous study, EL4 lymphoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (EL4-RFP) were established and injected into the tail vein of C57/BL6 green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. Metastasis was observed at multiple sites which were also enriched with host GFP-expressing stromal cells. In the present study, our aim was to establish an orthotopic model of EL4-RFP. In the present study, EL4-RFP lymphoma cells were injected in the spleen of C57/BL6 GFP transgenic mice as an orthotopic model of lymphoma. Resultant primary tumor and metastases were imaged with the Olympus FV1000 scanning laser confocal microscope. EL4-RFP metastasis was observed 21 days later. EL4-RFP tumors in the spleen (primary injection site), liver, supra-mediastinum lymph nodes, abdominal lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung were visualized by color-coded imaging. EL4-RFP metastases in the liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow in C57/BL6 GFP mice were rich in GFP stromal cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and normal lymphocytes derived from the host animal. Small tumors were observed in the spleen, which were rich in host stromal cells. In the lung, no mass formation of lymphoma cells occurred, but lymphoma cells circulated in lung peripheral blood vessels. Phagocytosis of EL4-RFP lymphoma cells by macrophages, as well as dendritic cells and fibroblasts, were observed in culture. Color-coded imaging of the lymphoma microenvironment suggests an important role of stromal cells in lymphoma progression and metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Stress, Coping, and Infectious Illness: Persistently Low Natural Killer Cell Activity as a Host Risk Factor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-14

    Persistently Low Natural Killer Cell Activity as a Host Risk Factor " 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Sandra M. Levy, Ph.D., Ronald B. Herberman, M.D., Theresa...killer (NK) cell activity. In this prevbus work, a subgroup of individuals characterized by persistently low NK activity, and self-reported depression and... depression and chronic anxiety. In a very preliminary fashion, we have also found a trend of association between this low NK activity pattern, and some

  10. Host plant peptides elicit a transcriptional response to control the Sinorhizobium meliloti cell cycle during symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Penterman, Jon; Abo, Ryan P; De Nisco, Nicole J; Arnold, Markus F F; Longhi, Renato; Zanda, Matteo; Walker, Graham C

    2014-03-04

    The α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti establishes a chronic intracellular infection during the symbiosis with its legume hosts. Within specialized host cells, S. meliloti differentiates into highly polyploid, enlarged nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. This differentiation is driven by host cells through the production of defensin-like peptides called "nodule-specific cysteine-rich" (NCR) peptides. Recent research has shown that synthesized NCR peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity at high concentrations but cause bacterial endoreduplication at sublethal concentrations. We leveraged synchronized S. meliloti populations to determine how treatment with a sublethal NCR peptide affects the cell cycle and physiology of bacteria at the molecular level. We found that at sublethal levels a representative NCR peptide specifically blocks cell division and antagonizes Z-ring function. Gene-expression profiling revealed that the cell division block was produced, in part, through the substantial transcriptional response elicited by sublethal NCR treatment that affected ∼15% of the genome. Expression of critical cell-cycle regulators, including ctrA, and cell division genes, including genes required for Z-ring function, were greatly attenuated in NCR-treated cells. In addition, our experiments identified important symbiosis functions and stress responses that are induced by sublethal levels of NCR peptides and other antimicrobial peptides. Several of these stress-response pathways also are found in related α-proteobacterial pathogens and might be used by S. meliloti to sense host cues during infection. Our data suggest a model in which, in addition to provoking stress responses, NCR peptides target intracellular regulatory pathways to drive S. meliloti endoreduplication and differentiation during symbiosis.

  11. Different host cell proteases activate the SARS-coronavirus spike-protein for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Graham; Bertram, Stephanie; Glowacka, Ilona; Steffen, Imke; Chaipan, Chawaree; Agudelo, Juliet; Lu, Kai; Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Hofmann, Heike; Bates, Paul; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) poses a considerable threat to human health. Activation of the viral spike (S)-protein by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity. However, the cleavage sites in SARS-S and the protease(s) activating SARS-S are incompletely defined. We found that R667 was dispensable for SARS-S-driven virus-cell fusion and for SARS-S-activation by trypsin and cathepsin L in a virus-virus fusion assay. Mutation T760R, which optimizes the minimal furin consensus motif 758-RXXR-762, and furin overexpression augmented SARS-S-activity, but did not result in detectable SARS-S cleavage. Finally, SARS-S-driven cell-cell fusion was independent of cathepsin L, a protease essential for virus-cell fusion. Instead, a so far unknown leupeptin-sensitive host cell protease activated cellular SARS-S for fusion with target cells expressing high levels of ACE2. Thus, different host cell proteases activate SARS-S for virus-cell and cell-cell fusion and SARS-S cleavage at R667 and 758-RXXR-762 can be dispensable for SARS-S activation. PMID:21435673

  12. Different host cell proteases activate the SARS-coronavirus spike-protein for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Graham; Bertram, Stephanie; Glowacka, Ilona; Steffen, Imke; Chaipan, Chawaree; Agudelo, Juliet; Lu, Kai; Rennekamp, Andrew J; Hofmann, Heike; Bates, Paul; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2011-05-10

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) poses a considerable threat to human health. Activation of the viral spike (S)-protein by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity. However, the cleavage sites in SARS-S and the protease(s) activating SARS-S are incompletely defined. We found that R667 was dispensable for SARS-S-driven virus-cell fusion and for SARS-S-activation by trypsin and cathepsin L in a virus-virus fusion assay. Mutation T760R, which optimizes the minimal furin consensus motif 758-RXXR-762, and furin overexpression augmented SARS-S activity, but did not result in detectable SARS-S cleavage. Finally, SARS-S-driven cell-cell fusion was independent of cathepsin L, a protease essential for virus-cell fusion. Instead, a so far unknown leupeptin-sensitive host cell protease activated cellular SARS-S for fusion with target cells expressing high levels of ACE2. Thus, different host cell proteases activate SARS-S for virus-cell and cell-cell fusion and SARS-S cleavage at R667 and 758-RXXR-762 can be dispensable for SARS-S activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Different host cell proteases activate the SARS-coronavirus spike-protein for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Graham; Bertram, Stephanie; Glowacka, Ilona; Steffen, Imke; Chaipan, Chawaree; Agudelo, Juliet; Lu Kai; Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Hofmann, Heike; Bates, Paul; Poehlmann, Stefan

    2011-05-10

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) poses a considerable threat to human health. Activation of the viral spike (S)-protein by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity. However, the cleavage sites in SARS-S and the protease(s) activating SARS-S are incompletely defined. We found that R667 was dispensable for SARS-S-driven virus-cell fusion and for SARS-S-activation by trypsin and cathepsin L in a virus-virus fusion assay. Mutation T760R, which optimizes the minimal furin consensus motif 758-RXXR-762, and furin overexpression augmented SARS-S activity, but did not result in detectable SARS-S cleavage. Finally, SARS-S-driven cell-cell fusion was independent of cathepsin L, a protease essential for virus-cell fusion. Instead, a so far unknown leupeptin-sensitive host cell protease activated cellular SARS-S for fusion with target cells expressing high levels of ACE2. Thus, different host cell proteases activate SARS-S for virus-cell and cell-cell fusion and SARS-S cleavage at R667 and 758-RXXR-762 can be dispensable for SARS-S activation.

  14. IgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly “maladaptive” immune response develop in evolution, and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms. PMID:27225312

  15. Host carbon sources modulate cell wall architecture, drug resistance and virulence in a fungal pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Ene, Iuliana V; Adya, Ashok K; Wehmeier, Silvia; Brand, Alexandra C; MacCallum, Donna M; Gow, Neil A R; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-01-01

    The survival of all microbes depends upon their ability to respond to environmental challenges. To establish infection, pathogens such as Candida albicans must mount effective stress responses to counter host defences while adapting to dynamic changes in nutrient status within host niches. Studies of C. albicans stress adaptation have generally been performed on glucose-grown cells, leaving the effects of alternative carbon sources upon stress resistance largely unexplored. We have shown that growth on alternative carbon sources, such as lactate, strongly influence the resistance of C. albicans to antifungal drugs, osmotic and cell wall stresses. Similar trends were observed in clinical isolates and other pathogenic Candida species. The increased stress resistance of C. albicans was not dependent on key stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1) signalling pathways. Instead, increased stress resistance was promoted by major changes in the architecture and biophysical properties of the cell wall. Glucose- and lactate-grown cells displayed significant differences in cell wall mass, ultrastructure, elasticity and adhesion. Changes in carbon source also altered the virulence of C. albicans in models of systemic candidiasis and vaginitis, confirming the importance of alternative carbon sources within host niches during C. albicans infections. PMID:22587014

  16. Canine and feline host ranges of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus: distinct host cell tropisms of each virus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Truyen, U; Parrish, C R

    1992-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as an apparently new virus during the mid-1970s. The origin of CPV is unknown, but a variation from feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) or another closely related parvovirus is suspected. Here we examine the in vitro and in vivo canine and feline host ranges of CPV and FPV. Examination of three canine and six feline cell lines and mitogen-stimulated canine and feline peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that CPV replicates in both canine and feline cells, whereas FPV replicates efficiently only in feline cells. The in vivo host ranges were unexpectedly complex and distinct from the in vitro host ranges. Inoculation of dogs with FPV revealed efficient replication in the thymus and, to some degree, in the bone marrow, as shown by virus isolation, viral DNA recovery, and Southern blotting and by strand-specific in situ hybridization. FPV replication could not be demonstrated in mesenteric lymph nodes or in the small intestine, which are important target tissues in CPV infection. Although CPV replicated well in all the feline cells tested in vitro, it did not replicate in any tissue of cats after intramuscular or intravenous inoculation. These results indicate that these viruses have complex and overlapping host ranges and that distinct tissue tropisms exist in the homologous and heterologous hosts. Images PMID:1323703

  17. The central role of the host cell in symbiotic nitrogen metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Sandy J.; Lin, George G.; Russell, Calum W.; Thomas, Gavin H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen recycling enables animals to thrive on nitrogen-poor diets and environments. It traditionally refers to the utilization of animal waste nitrogen by symbiotic micro-organisms to synthesize essential amino acids (EAAs), which are translocated back to the animal host. We applied metabolic modelling and complementary metabolite profiling to investigate nitrogen recycling in the symbiosis between the pea aphid and the intracellular bacterium Buchnera, which synthesizes EAAs. The results differ from traditional notions of nitrogen recycling in two important respects. First, aphid waste ammonia is recycled predominantly by the host cell (bacteriocyte) and not Buchnera. Host cell recycling is mediated by shared biosynthetic pathways for four EAAs, in which aphid transaminases incorporate ammonia-derived nitrogen into carbon skeletons synthesized by Buchnera to generate EAAs. Second, the ammonia substrate for nitrogen recycling is derived from bacteriocyte metabolism, such that the symbiosis is not a sink for nitrogenous waste from other aphid organs. Host cell-mediated nitrogen recycling may be general among insect symbioses with shared EAA biosynthetic pathways generated by the loss of symbiont genes mediating terminal reactions in EAA synthesis. PMID:22513857

  18. The cyclomodulin Cif of Photorhabdus luminescens inhibits insect cell proliferation and triggers host cell death by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Carolina Varela; Jubelin, Grégory; Courties, Gabriel; Gomard, Aurélie; Ginibre, Nadège; Pages, Sylvie; Taïeb, Frédéric; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Oswald, Eric; Givaudan, Alain; Zumbihl, Robert; Escoubas, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    Cycle inhibiting factors (Cif) constitute a broad family of cyclomodulins present in bacterial pathogens of invertebrates and mammals. Cif proteins are thought to be type III effectors capable of arresting the cell cycle at G(2)/M phase transition in human cell lines. We report here the first direct functional analysis of Cif(Pl), from the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, in its insect host. The cif(Pl) gene was expressed in P. luminescens cultures in vitro. The resulting protein was released into the culture medium, unlike the well characterized type III effector LopT. During locust infection, cif(Pl) was expressed in both the hemolymph and the hematopoietic organ, but was not essential for P. luminescens virulence. Cif(Pl) inhibited proliferation of the insect cell line Sf9, by blocking the cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase transition. It also triggered host cell death by apoptosis. The integrity of the Cif(Pl) catalytic triad is essential for the cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptotic activities of this protein. These results highlight, for the first time, the dual role of Cif in the control of host cell proliferation and apoptotic death in a non-mammalian cell line. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Mycobacterium-Host Cell Relationships in Granulomatous Lesions in a Mouse Model of Latent Tuberculous Infection.

    PubMed

    Ufimtseva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a dangerous infectious disease characterized by a tight interplay between mycobacteria and host cells in granulomatous lesions (granulomas) during the latent, asymptomatic stage of infection. Mycobacterium-host cell relationships were analyzed in granulomas obtained from various organs of BALB/c mice with chronic TB infection caused by in vivo exposure to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria were found to be morphologically and functionally heterogeneous (in size, shape, and replication rates in colonies) in granuloma macrophages, dendritic cells, and multinucleate Langhans giant cells. Cord formation by BCG-mycobacteria in granuloma cells has been observed. Granuloma macrophages retained their ability to ingest damaged lymphocytes and thrombocytes in the phagosomes; however, their ability to destroy BCG-mycobacteria contained in these cells was compromised. No colocalization of BCG-mycobacteria and the LysoTracker dye was observed in the mouse cells. Various relationships between granuloma cells and BCG-mycobacteria were observed in different mice belonging to the same line. Several mice totally eliminated mycobacterial infection. Granulomas in the other mice had mycobacteria actively replicating in cells of different types and forming cords, which is an indicator of mycobacterial virulence and, probably, a marker of the activation of tuberculous infection in animals.

  20. Dynamic analysis of pathogen-infected host cells using quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungrag; Kim, Young Ran; Lee, Ji Yong; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Park, Chang-Soo; Kim, Dug Young

    2011-03-01

    We present the real-time quantitative analysis of Vibrio vulnificus-infected host cells using quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) based on interferometric techniques. This provides the ability to retrieve the phase or optical path-length distribution over the cell with nanometer path-length sensitivity from a single interferogram image. We have used QPM to study dynamic cell morphologic changes and to noninvasively quantify the cell volumes of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells infected with V. vulnificus strains: wild type (MO6-24/O) and RtxA1 toxin mutant (CMM770). During the process of V. vulnificus infection in RBL-2H3 cells, the dynamic changes of quantitative phase images, cell volumes, and areas were observed in real time using QPM. In contrast, dramatic changes were not detected in RBL-2H3 cells infected with the noncytotoxic RtxA1 toxin mutant. The results showed good correlation between QPM analysis and biochemical assays, such as lactate dehydrogenase assay or β-hexosaminidase release assay. We suggest that QPM is a powerful quantitative method to study the dynamic process of host cells infected with pathogens in a noninvasive manner.

  1. Dynamic phase imaging of host cells attacked by Vibrio vulnificus using quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungrag; Yang, Wenzhong; Lee, Ji Yong; Cha, Mi Hye; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Dug Young

    2010-02-01

    We present the real time quantitative analysis of Vibrio vulnificus-infected host cells using high stability quantitative phase microscopy (HSQPM). It provides the ability to retrieve the phase or optical path length distribution over the cell from a single interferogram image, which has been measured with nanometer path length sensitivity for long periods of time. We have applied HSQPM to study dynamic cell morphologic changes and to quantify noninvasively cell volumes of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells infected with pathogenic bacteria V. vulnificus strains, wild type (MO6-24/O) and RTX toxin mutant (CMM770). During the process of V. vulnificus wild type infection to RBL-2H3 cells, the dynamic changes of quantitative phase images, cell volumes and areas were observed in real time using HSQPM. In contrast, the dramatic changes were not detected in RBL-2H3 cells infected with RTX toxin mutant. The results showed the good correlation between HSQPM analysis and biochemical assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and β-hexosaminidase release assay. We suggest that HSQPM is useful real time quantitative method to study the dynamic process of host cells infected with pathogen in a noninvasive manner.

  2. Mycobacterium-Host Cell Relationships in Granulomatous Lesions in a Mouse Model of Latent Tuberculous Infection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a dangerous infectious disease characterized by a tight interplay between mycobacteria and host cells in granulomatous lesions (granulomas) during the latent, asymptomatic stage of infection. Mycobacterium-host cell relationships were analyzed in granulomas obtained from various organs of BALB/c mice with chronic TB infection caused by in vivo exposure to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria were found to be morphologically and functionally heterogeneous (in size, shape, and replication rates in colonies) in granuloma macrophages, dendritic cells, and multinucleate Langhans giant cells. Cord formation by BCG-mycobacteria in granuloma cells has been observed. Granuloma macrophages retained their ability to ingest damaged lymphocytes and thrombocytes in the phagosomes; however, their ability to destroy BCG-mycobacteria contained in these cells was compromised. No colocalization of BCG-mycobacteria and the LysoTracker dye was observed in the mouse cells. Various relationships between granuloma cells and BCG-mycobacteria were observed in different mice belonging to the same line. Several mice totally eliminated mycobacterial infection. Granulomas in the other mice had mycobacteria actively replicating in cells of different types and forming cords, which is an indicator of mycobacterial virulence and, probably, a marker of the activation of tuberculous infection in animals. PMID:26064970

  3. Modulation of activation-associated host cell gene expression by the apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata

    PubMed Central

    Durrani, Zeeshan; Weir, William; Pillai, Sreerekha; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Summary Infection of bovine leucocytes by Theileria annulata results in establishment of transformed, infected cells. Infection of the host cell is known to promote constitutive activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors that have the potential to be beneficial or detrimental. In this study we have compared the effect of LPS activation on uninfected bovine leucocytes (BL20 cells) and their Theileria-infected counterpart (TBL20). Gene expression profiles representing activated uninfected BL20 relative to TBL20 cells were also compared. The results show that while prolonged stimulation with LPS induces cell death and activation of NF-κB in BL20 cells, the viability of Theileria-infected cells was unaffected. Analysis of gene expression networks provided evidence that the parasite establishes tight control over pathways associated with cellular activation by modulating reception of extrinsic stimuli and by significantly altering the expression outcome of genes targeted by infection-activated transcription factors. Pathway analysis of the data set identified novel candidate genes involved in manipulation of cellular functions associated with the infected transformed cell. The data indicate that the T. annulata parasite can irreversibly reconfigure host cell gene expression networks associated with development of inflammatory disease and cancer to generate an outcome thatis beneficial to survival and propagation of the infected leucocyte. PMID:22533473

  4. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten; Menge, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains.

  5. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains. PMID:27021246

  6. Signaling pathways in aged T cells – a reflection of T cell differentiation, cell senescence and host environment

    PubMed Central

    Goronzy, Jörg J.; Li, Guangjin; Yu, Mingcan; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing age, the ability of the immune system to protect against new antigenic challenges or to control chronic infections erodes. Decline in thymic function and cumulating antigenic experiences of acute and chronic infections threaten T cell homeostasis, but insufficiently explain the failing immune competence and the increased susceptibility for autoimmunity. Alterations in signaling pathways in the aging T cells account for many of the age-related defects. Signaling threshold calibrations seen with aging frequently built on mechanisms that are operational in T cell development and T cell differentiation or are adaptations to the changing environment in the aging host. Age-related changes in transcription of receptors and signaling molecules shift the balance towards inhibitory pathways, most dominantly seen in CD8 T cells and to a lesser degree in CD4 T cells. Prominent examples are the expression of negative regulatory receptors of the CD28 and the TNF receptor superfamilies as well the expression of various cytoplasmic and nuclear dual-specific phosphatases. PMID:22560928

  7. Cell Differentiation in a Bacillus thuringiensis Population during Planktonic Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Host Infection.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Emilie; Slamti, Leyla; Gohar, Michel; Lereclus, Didier

    2015-04-28

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is armed to complete a full cycle in its insect host. During infection, virulence factors are expressed under the control of the quorum sensor PlcR to kill the host. After the host's death, the quorum sensor NprR controls a necrotrophic lifestyle, allowing the vegetative cells to use the insect cadaver as a bioincubator and to survive. Only a part of the Bt population sporulates in the insect cadaver, and the precise composition of the whole population and its evolution over time are unknown. Using fluorescent reporters to record gene expression at the single-cell level, we have determined the differentiation course of a Bt population and explored the lineage existing among virulent, necrotrophic, and sporulating cells. The dynamics of cell differentiation were monitored during growth in homogenized medium, biofilm formation, and colonization of insect larvae. We demonstrated that in the insect host and in planktonic culture in rich medium, the virulence, necrotrophism, and sporulation regulators are successively activated in the same cell. In contrast, in biofilms, activation of PlcR is dispensable for NprR activation and we observed a greater heterogeneity than under the other two growth conditions. We also showed that sporulating cells arise almost exclusively from necrotrophic cells. In biofilm and in the insect cadaver, we identified an as-yet-uncharacterized category of cells that do not express any of the reporters used. Overall, we showed that PlcR, NprR, and Spo0A act as interconnected integrators to allow finely tuned adaptation of the pathogen to its environment. Bt is an entomopathogen found ubiquitously in the environment and is a widely used biopesticide. Studies performed at the population level suggest that the infection process of Bt includes three successive steps (virulence, necrotrophism, and sporulation) controlled by different regulators. This study aimed to determine how these phenotypes are activated at the

  8. Lymphotoxin organizes contributions to host defense and metabolic illness from innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-04-01

    The lymphotoxin (LT)-pathway is a unique constituent branch of the Tumor Necrosis Superfamily (TNFSF). Use of LT is a critical mechanism by which fetal innate lymphoid cells regulate lymphoid organogenesis. Within recent years, adult innate lymphoid cells have been discovered to utilize this same pathway to regulate IL-22 and IL-23 production for host defense. Notably, genetic studies have linked polymorphisms in the genes encoding LTα to several phenotypes contributing to metabolic syndrome. The role of the LT-pathway may lay the foundation for a bridge between host immune response, microbiota, and metabolic syndrome. The contribution of the LT-pathway to innate lymphoid cell function and metabolic syndrome will be visited in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Host Cell Entry of Ebola Virus From Sierra Leone, 2014, and Zaire, 1976.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Gnirß, Kerstin; Wrensch, Florian; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) epidemic in Western Africa is the largest EVD outbreak recorded to date and requires the rapid development and deployment of antiviral measures. The viral glycoprotein (GP) facilitates host cell entry and, jointly with cellular interaction partners, constitutes a potential target for antiviral intervention. However, it is unknown whether the GPs of the currently and previously circulating EBOVs use the same mechanisms for cellular entry and are thus susceptible to inhibition by the same antivirals and cellular defenses. Here, we show that the GPs of the EBOVs circulating in 1976 and 2014 transduce the same spectrum of target cells, use the same cellular factors for host cell entry, and are comparably susceptible to blockade by antiviral interferon-induced transmembrane proteins and neutralizing antibody KZ52. Thus, the viruses responsible for the ongoing EVD epidemic should be fully susceptible to established antiviral strategies targeting GP and cellular entry factors.

  10. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, L; Corona, S; Gajadhar, A A; Pozio, E

    2001-06-01

    The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear), T. spiralis (horses and humans), T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse) and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse) were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Host Cell Entry of Ebola Virus From Sierra Leone, 2014, and Zaire, 1976