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Sample records for host cell translational

  1. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2015-12-08

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR.

  2. Legionella pneumophila type IV effectors hijack the transcription and translation machinery of the host cell.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Monica; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens modulate the host response to persist and replicate inside a eukaryotic cell and cause disease. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is present in freshwater environments and represents one of these pathogens. During coevolution with protozoan cells, L. pneumophila has acquired highly sophisticated and diverse strategies to hijack host cell processes. It secretes hundreds of effectors into the host cell, and these manipulate host signaling pathways and key cellular processes. Recently it has been shown that L. pneumophila is also able to alter the transcription and translation machinery of the host and to exploit epigenetic mechanisms in the cells it resides in to counteract host responses.

  3. Protein Translation Activity: A New Measure of Host Immune Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Seedhom, Mina O.; Hickman, Heather D.; Wei, Jiajie; David, Alexandre; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the in vivo ribopuromycylation method (RPM), which uses a puromycin-specific antibody to fluorescently label ribosome-bound puromycylated nascent chains, enabling measurement of translational activity via immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry. Tissue staining provides a unique view of virus-induced activation of adaptive, innate, and stromal immune cells. RPM flow precisely quantitates virus-induced activation of lymphocytes and innate immune cells, and provides a unique measure of immune cell deactivation and quiescence. Using RPM we find that high endothelial cells in draining lymph nodes rapidly increase translation in the first day of vaccinia virus infection. We also find a population of constitutively activated splenic T cells in naïve mice and further, that most bone marrow (BM) T cells activate 3 days post-vaccinia virus infection. BM T cell activation is non-specific, IL-12-dependent, and induces innate memory T cell phenotypic markers. Thus, RPM measures translational activity to uniquely identify cell populations that participate in the immune response to pathogens, other foreign substances, and auto-antigens. PMID:27385780

  4. Hijacked then lost in translation: the plight of the recombinant host cell in membrane protein structural biology projects.

    PubMed

    Bill, Roslyn M; von der Haar, Tobias

    2015-06-01

    Membrane protein structural biology is critically dependent upon the supply of high-quality protein. Over the last few years, the value of crystallising biochemically characterised, recombinant targets that incorporate stabilising mutations has been established. Nonetheless, obtaining sufficient yields of many recombinant membrane proteins is still a major challenge. Solutions are now emerging based on an improved understanding of recombinant host cells; as a 'cell factory' each cell is tasked with managing limited resources to simultaneously balance its own growth demands with those imposed by an expression plasmid. This review examines emerging insights into the role of translation and protein folding in defining high-yielding recombinant membrane protein production in a range of host cells.

  5. Inhibition of host translation by virus infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Toribio, René; Ventoso, Iván

    2010-01-01

    Infection of cultured cells with lytic animal viruses often results in the selective inhibition of host protein synthesis, whereas viral mRNA is efficiently translated under these circumstances. This phenomenon, known as “shut off,” has been well described at the molecular level for some viruses, but there is not yet any direct or indirect evidence supporting the idea that it also should operate in animals infected with viruses. To address this issue, we constructed recombinant Sindbis virus (SV)-expressing reporter mRNA, the translation of which is sensitive or resistant to virus-induced shut off. As found in cultured cells, replication of SV in mouse brain was associated with a strong phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2) that prevented translation of reporter mRNA (luciferase and EGFP). Translation of these reporters was restored in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo when a viral RNA structure, termed downstream hairpin loop, present in viral 26S mRNA, was placed at the 5′ end of reporter mRNAs. By comparing the expression of shut off-sensitive and -resistant reporters, we unequivocally concluded that replication of SV in animal tissues is associated with a profound inhibition of nonviral mRNA translation. A strategy as simple as that followed here might be applicable to other viruses to evaluate their interference on host translation in infected animals. PMID:20457920

  6. RNA virus harnesses microRNAs to seize host translation control.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Teresa M; Sarnow, Peter

    2011-01-20

    Picornaviruses have evolved elaborate strategies to subvert host translation. In this issue of Cell Host and Microbe, Ho et al. (2011) report that enterovirus infection induces the synthesis of a transcription factor that enhances the synthesis of microRNA-141, which suppresses translation of the cap-binding protein, eIF4E, mRNA to inhibit cap-dependent translation.

  7. Regulation of host translational machinery by African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Alfredo; Quintas, Ana; Sánchez, Elena G; Sabina, Prado; Nogal, Marisa; Carrasco, Luis; Revilla, Yolanda

    2009-08-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV), like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively), whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis, facilitating ASFV

  8. Regulation of Host Translational Machinery by African Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, Alfredo; Quintas, Ana; Sánchez, Elena G.; Sabina, Prado; Nogal, Marisa; Carrasco, Luis; Revilla, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV), like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively), whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2α, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis, facilitating ASFV

  9. Modulation of host immune responses following non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Translational implications in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Giulio; Bernstock, Joshua D; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Pluchino, Stefano

    2016-12-15

    There exists an urgent need for effective treatments for those patients suffering from chronic/progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Accordingly, it has become readily apparent that different classes of stem cell-based therapies must be explored at both the basic science and clinical levels. Herein, we provide an overview of the basic mechanisms underlying the pre-clinical benefits of exogenously delivered non-hematopoietic stem cells (nHSCs) in animal models of MS. Further, we highlight a number of early clinical trials in which nHSCs have been used to treat MS. Finally, we identify a series of challenges that must be met and ultimately overcome if such promising therapeutics are to be advanced from the bench to the bedside. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Leishmania parasites act as a Trojan horse that paralyzes the translation system of host macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Michal; Zinoviev, Alexandra

    2011-04-21

    GP63 is an abundant GPI-anchored surface metalloprotease of Leishmania. Jaramillo et al. (2011) show that GP63 manipulates the translation system of host macrophages by cleaving mTOR, which leads to 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation. This study pioneers the observation that Leishmania parasites metabolically paralyze their host cells using an elegant translation shutoff mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of de novo translation of host cells by manipulation of PERK/PKR and GADD34-PP1 activity during Newcastle disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ying; Gu, Feng; Mao, Xiang; Niu, Qiaona; Wang, Huaxia; Sun, Yingjie; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Tan, Lei; Ding, Chan

    2016-04-01

    Viral infections result in cellular stress responses, which can trigger protein translation shutoff via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe disease in poultry and selectively kills human tumour cells. In this report, we determined that infection of HeLa human cervical cancer cells and DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells with NDV maintained protein at early infection times, 0-12 h post-infection (p.i.), and gradually inhibited global protein translation at late infection times, 12-24 h p.i. Mechanistic studies showed that translation inhibition at late infection times was accompanied by phosphorylation of eIF2α, a checkpoint of translation initiation. Meanwhile, the eIF2α kinase, PKR, was upregulated and activated by phosphorylation and another eIF2α kinase, PERK, was phosphorylated and cleaved into two fragments. Pharmacological inhibition experiments revealed that only PKR activity was required for eIF2α phosphorylation, suggesting that recognition of viral dsRNA by PKR was responsible for translation shutoff. High levels of phospho-eIF2α led to preferential translation of the transcription factor ATF4 and an increase in GADD34 expression. Functionally, GADD34, in conjunction with PP1, dephosphorylated eIF2a and restored protein translation, benefiting virus protein synthesis. However, PP1 was degraded at late infection times, functionally counteracting the upregulation of GADD34. Taken together, our data support that NDV-induced translation shutoff at late infection times was attributed to sustaining phosphorylation of eIF2α, which is mediated by continual activation of PKR and degradation of PP1.

  12. Dysbiosis May Trigger Autoimmune Diseases via Inappropriate Post-Translational Modification of Host Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Aaron; Aminov, Rustam; Matthias, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The gut ecosystem with myriads of microorganisms and the high concentration of immune system cells can be considered as a separate organ on its own. The balanced interaction between the host and microbial cells has been shaped during the long co-evolutionary process. In dysbiotic conditions, however, this balance is compromised and results in abnormal interaction between the host and microbiota. It is hypothesize here that the changed spectrum of microbial enzymes involved in post-translational modification of proteins (PTMP) may contribute to the aberrant modification of host proteins thus generating autoimmune responses by the host, resulting in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26903965

  13. Re-localization of cellular protein SRp20 during poliovirus infection: bridging a viral IRES to the host cell translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kerry D; Semler, Bert L

    2011-07-01

    Poliovirus IRES-mediated translation requires the functions of certain canonical as well as non-canonical factors for the recruitment of ribosomes to the viral RNA. The interaction of cellular proteins PCBP2 and SRp20 in extracts from poliovirus-infected cells has been previously described, and these two proteins were shown to function synergistically in viral translation. To further define the mechanism of ribosome recruitment for the initiation of poliovirus IRES-dependent translation, we focused on the role of the interaction between cellular proteins PCBP2 and SRp20. Work described here demonstrates that SRp20 dramatically re-localizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of poliovirus-infected neuroblastoma cells during the course of infection. Importantly, SRp20 partially co-localizes with PCBP2 in the cytoplasm of infected cells, corroborating our previous in vitro interaction data. In addition, the data presented implicate the presence of these two proteins in viral translation initiation complexes. We show that in extracts from poliovirus-infected cells, SRp20 is associated with PCBP2 bound to poliovirus RNA, indicating that this interaction occurs on the viral RNA. Finally, we generated a mutated version of SRp20 lacking the RNA recognition motif (SRp20ΔRRM) and found that this protein is localized similar to the full length SRp20, and also partially co-localizes with PCBP2 during poliovirus infection. Expression of this mutated version of SRp20 results in a ∼100 fold decrease in virus yield for poliovirus when compared to expression of wild type SRp20, possibly via a dominant negative effect. Taken together, these results are consistent with a model in which SRp20 interacts with PCBP2 bound to the viral RNA, and this interaction functions to recruit ribosomes to the viral RNA in a direct or indirect manner, with the participation of additional protein-protein or protein-RNA interactions.

  14. Norovirus-mediated modification of the translational landscape via virus and host-induced cleavage of translation initiation factors.

    PubMed

    Emmott, Edward; Sorgeloos, Frederic; Caddy, Sarah L; Vashist, Surender; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav; Lloyd, Richard; Heesom, Kate; Locker, Nicolas; Goodfellow, Ian

    2017-01-13

    Noroviruses produce viral RNAs lacking a 5' cap structure and instead use a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to viral RNA to interact with translation initiation factors and drive viral protein synthesis. Norovirus infection results in the induction of the innate response leading to interferon stimulated gene (ISG) transcription. However the translation of the induced ISG mRNAs is suppressed. A SILAC-based mass spectrometry approach was employed to analyse changes to protein abundance in both whole cell and m7GTP-enriched samples to demonstrate that diminished host mRNA translation correlates with changes to the composition of the eukaryotic initiation factor complex. The suppression of host ISG translation correlates with the activity of the viral protease (NS6) and the activation of cellular caspases leading to the establishment of an apoptotic environment. These results indicate that noroviruses exploit the differences between viral VPg-dependent and cellular cap-dependent translation in order to diminish the host response to infection.

  15. Hepatitis C virus 3'UTR regulates viral translation through direct interactions with the host translation machinery.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun; Zhou, Kaihong; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    The 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) messenger RNA stimulates viral translation by an undetermined mechanism. We identified a high affinity interaction, conserved among different HCV genotypes, between the HCV 3'UTR and the host ribosome. The 3'UTR interacts with 40S ribosomal subunit proteins residing primarily in a localized region on the 40S solvent-accessible surface near the messenger RNA entry and exit sites. This region partially overlaps with the site where the HCV internal ribosome entry site was found to bind, with the internal ribosome entry site-40S subunit interaction being dominant. Despite its ability to bind to 40S subunits independently, the HCV 3'UTR only stimulates translation in cis, without affecting the first round translation rate. These observations support a model in which the HCV 3'UTR retains ribosome complexes during translation termination to facilitate efficient initiation of subsequent rounds of translation.

  16. Tinkering with Translation: Protein Synthesis in Virus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Derek; Mathews, Michael B.; Mohr, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, and their replication requires host cell functions. Although the size, composition, complexity, and functions encoded by their genomes are remarkably diverse, all viruses rely absolutely on the protein synthesis machinery of their host cells. Lacking their own translational apparatus, they must recruit cellular ribosomes in order to translate viral mRNAs and produce the protein products required for their replication. In addition, there are other constraints on viral protein production. Crucially, host innate defenses and stress responses capable of inactivating the translation machinery must be effectively neutralized. Furthermore, the limited coding capacity of the viral genome needs to be used optimally. These demands have resulted in complex interactions between virus and host that exploit ostensibly virus-specific mechanisms and, at the same time, illuminate the functioning of the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. PMID:23209131

  17. Rewiring host activities for synthetic circuit production: a translation view.

    PubMed

    Avcilar-Kucukgoze, Irem; Ignatova, Zoya

    2017-01-01

    The expression of synthetic circuits in host organisms, or chassis, is a key aspect of synthetic biology. Design adjustments made for maximal production may negatively affect the central metabolism and biosynthetic activities of the chassis host. Here, we review recent attempts to modulate synthetic circuit design for optimal production and present models that precisely capture the trade-off between circuit production and chassis growth. We also present emerging concepts for full orthogonalization of synthetic productivity and its decoupling from the endogenous biosynthetic activities of the cell, opening new routes towards robust synthetic circuit expression.

  18. Monensin and nigericin prevent the inhibition of host translation by poliovirus, without affecting p220 cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Irurzun, A; Sánchez-Palomino, S; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-01-01

    Addition of monensin or nigericin after poliovirus entry into HeLa cells prevents the inhibition of host protein synthesis by poliovirus. The infected cells continue to synthesize cellular proteins at control levels for at least 8 h after infection in the presence of the ionophore. Cleavage of p220 (gamma subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 [eIF-4 gamma]), a component of the translation initiation factor eIF-4F, occurs to the same extent in poliovirus-infected cells whether or not they are treated with monensin. Two hours after infection there is no detectable intact p220, but the cells continue to translate cellular mRNAs for several hours at levels similar to those in uninfected cells. Nigericin or monensin prevented the arrest of host translation at all the multiplicities of poliovirus infection tested. At high multiplicities of infection, an unprecedented situation was found: cells synthesized poliovirus and cellular proteins simultaneously. Superinfection of vesicular stomatitis virus-infected HeLa cells with poliovirus led to a profound inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus protein synthesis, while nigericin partially prevented this blockade. Drastic inhibition of translation also took place in influenza virus-infected Vero cells treated with nigericin and infected with poliovirus. These findings suggest that the translation of newly synthesized mRNAs is dependent on the integrity of p220, while ongoing cellular protein synthesis does not require an intact p220. The target of ionophore action during the poliovirus life cycle was also investigated. Addition of nigericin at any time postinfection profoundly blocked the synthesis of virus RNA, whereas viral protein synthesis was not affected if nigericin was added at 4 h postinfection. These results agree well with previous findings indicating that inhibitors of phospholipid synthesis or vesicular traffic interfere with poliovirus genome replication. Therefore, the action of nigericin on the vesicular

  19. Monensin and nigericin prevent the inhibition of host translation by poliovirus, without affecting p220 cleavage.

    PubMed

    Irurzun, A; Sánchez-Palomino, S; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-12-01

    Addition of monensin or nigericin after poliovirus entry into HeLa cells prevents the inhibition of host protein synthesis by poliovirus. The infected cells continue to synthesize cellular proteins at control levels for at least 8 h after infection in the presence of the ionophore. Cleavage of p220 (gamma subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 [eIF-4 gamma]), a component of the translation initiation factor eIF-4F, occurs to the same extent in poliovirus-infected cells whether or not they are treated with monensin. Two hours after infection there is no detectable intact p220, but the cells continue to translate cellular mRNAs for several hours at levels similar to those in uninfected cells. Nigericin or monensin prevented the arrest of host translation at all the multiplicities of poliovirus infection tested. At high multiplicities of infection, an unprecedented situation was found: cells synthesized poliovirus and cellular proteins simultaneously. Superinfection of vesicular stomatitis virus-infected HeLa cells with poliovirus led to a profound inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus protein synthesis, while nigericin partially prevented this blockade. Drastic inhibition of translation also took place in influenza virus-infected Vero cells treated with nigericin and infected with poliovirus. These findings suggest that the translation of newly synthesized mRNAs is dependent on the integrity of p220, while ongoing cellular protein synthesis does not require an intact p220. The target of ionophore action during the poliovirus life cycle was also investigated. Addition of nigericin at any time postinfection profoundly blocked the synthesis of virus RNA, whereas viral protein synthesis was not affected if nigericin was added at 4 h postinfection. These results agree well with previous findings indicating that inhibitors of phospholipid synthesis or vesicular traffic interfere with poliovirus genome replication. Therefore, the action of nigericin on the vesicular

  20. Adaptive changes in alphavirus mRNA translation allowed colonization of vertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Ventoso, Iván

    2012-09-01

    Members of the Alphavirus genus are arboviruses that alternate replication in mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. In vertebrate cells, the alphavirus resists the activation of antiviral RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) by the presence of a prominent RNA structure (downstream loop [DLP]) located in viral 26S transcripts, which allows an eIF2-independent translation initiation of these mRNAs. This article shows that DLP structure is essential for replication of Sindbis virus (SINV) in vertebrate cell lines and animals but is dispensable for replication in insect cells, where no ortholog of the vertebrate PKR gene has been found. Sequence comparisons and structural RNA analysis revealed the evolutionary conservation of DLP in SINV and predicted the existence of equivalent DLP structures in many members of the Alphavirus genus. A mutant SINV lacking the DLP structure evolved in murine cells to recover a wild-type phenotype by creating an alternative structure in the RNA that restored the translational independence for eIF2. Genetic, phylogenetic, and biochemical data presented here support an evolutionary scenario for the natural history of alphaviruses, in which the acquisition of DLP structure in their mRNAs probably allowed the colonization of vertebrate host and the consequent geographic expansion of some of these viruses worldwide.

  1. Adaptive Changes in Alphavirus mRNA Translation Allowed Colonization of Vertebrate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Members of the Alphavirus genus are arboviruses that alternate replication in mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. In vertebrate cells, the alphavirus resists the activation of antiviral RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) by the presence of a prominent RNA structure (downstream loop [DLP]) located in viral 26S transcripts, which allows an eIF2-independent translation initiation of these mRNAs. This article shows that DLP structure is essential for replication of Sindbis virus (SINV) in vertebrate cell lines and animals but is dispensable for replication in insect cells, where no ortholog of the vertebrate PKR gene has been found. Sequence comparisons and structural RNA analysis revealed the evolutionary conservation of DLP in SINV and predicted the existence of equivalent DLP structures in many members of the Alphavirus genus. A mutant SINV lacking the DLP structure evolved in murine cells to recover a wild-type phenotype by creating an alternative structure in the RNA that restored the translational independence for eIF2. Genetic, phylogenetic, and biochemical data presented here support an evolutionary scenario for the natural history of alphaviruses, in which the acquisition of DLP structure in their mRNAs probably allowed the colonization of vertebrate host and the consequent geographic expansion of some of these viruses worldwide. PMID:22761388

  2. Host cells and cell banking.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Glyn N; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy based on the use of viral vectors is entirely dependent on the use of animal cell lines, mainly of mammalian origin, but also of insect origin. As for any biotechnology product for clinical use, viral -vectors have to be produced with cells derived from an extensively characterized cell bank to maintain the appropriate standard for assuring the lowest risk for the patients to be treated. Although many different cell types and lines have been used for the production of viral vectors, HEK293 cells or their derivatives have been extensively used for production of different vector types: adenovirus, oncorectrovirus, lentivirus, and AAV vectors, because of their easy handling and the possibility to grow them adherently in serum-containing medium as well as in suspension in serum-free culture medium. Despite this, these cells are not necessarily the best for the production of a given viral vector, and there are many other cell lines with significant advantages including superior growth and/or production characteristics, which have been tested and also used for the production of clinical vector batches. This chapter presents basic -considerations concerning the characterization of cell banks, in the first part, and, in the second part, practically all cell lines (at least when public information was available) established and developed for the production of the most important viral vectors (adenoviral, oncoretroviral, lentiviral, AAV, baculovirus).

  3. The frustrated host response to Legionella pneumophila is bypassed by MyD88-dependent translation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Asrat, Seblewongel; Dugan, Aisling S; Isberg, Ralph R

    2014-07-01

    Many pathogens, particularly those that require their host for survival, have devised mechanisms to subvert the host immune response in order to survive and replicate intracellularly. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, promotes intracellular growth by translocating proteins into its host cytosol through its type IV protein secretion machinery. At least 5 of the bacterial translocated effectors interfere with the function of host cell elongation factors, blocking translation and causing the induction of a unique host cell transcriptional profile. In addition, L. pneumophila also interferes with translation initiation, by preventing cap-dependent translation in host cells. We demonstrate here that protein translation inhibition by L. pneumophila leads to a frustrated host MAP kinase response, where genes involved in the pathway are transcribed but fail to be translated due to the bacterium-induced protein synthesis inhibition. Surprisingly, few pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α and IL-1β, bypass this inhibition and get synthesized in the presence of Legionella effectors. We show that the selective synthesis of these genes requires MyD88 signaling and takes place in both infected cells that harbor bacteria and neighboring bystander cells. Our findings offer a perspective of how host cells are able to cope with pathogen-encoded activities that disrupt normal cellular process and initiate a successful inflammatory response.

  4. The Transcription and Translation Landscapes during Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveal Novel Host-Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shitrit, Alina; Shani, Odem; Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Trilling, Mirko; Friedlander, Gilgi; Tanenbaum, Marvin; Stern-Ginossar, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are by definition fully dependent on the cellular translation machinery, and develop diverse mechanisms to co-opt this machinery for their own benefit. Unlike many viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) does suppress the host translation machinery, and the extent to which translation machinery contributes to the overall pattern of viral replication and pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we combine RNA sequencing and ribosomal profiling analyses to systematically address this question. By simultaneously examining the changes in transcription and translation along HCMV infection, we uncover extensive transcriptional control that dominates the response to infection, but also diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. We were also able to show that, at late time points in infection, translation of viral mRNAs is higher than that of cellular mRNAs. Lastly, integration of our translation measurements with recent measurements of protein abundance enabled comprehensive identification of dozens of host proteins that are targeted for degradation during HCMV infection. Since targeted degradation indicates a strong biological importance, this approach should be applicable for discovering central host functions during viral infection. Our work provides a framework for studying the contribution of transcription, translation and degradation during infection with any virus. PMID:26599541

  5. Modified host cells with efflux pumps

    DOEpatents

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous expression of an efflux pump capable of transporting an organic molecule out of the host cell wherein the organic molecule at a sufficiently high concentration reduces the growth rate of or is lethal to the host cell.

  6. Host Translational Inhibition by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exotoxin A Triggers an Immune Response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Deborah L.; Kirienko, Natalia V.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to both innocuous and pathogenic microbes, which need to be distinguished to mount an effective immune response. To understand the mechanisms underlying pathogen recognition, we investigated how Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers intestinal innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans, a process independent of Toll-like pattern recognition receptors. We show that the P. aeruginosa translational inhibitor Exotoxin A (ToxA), which ribosylates elongation factor 2 (EF2), upregulates a significant subset of genes normally induced by P. aeruginosa. Moreover, immune pathways involving the ATF-7 and ZIP-2 transcription factors, which protect C. elegans from P. aeruginosa, are required for preventing ToxA-mediated lethality. ToxA-responsive genes are not induced by enzymatically inactive ToxA protein but can be upregulated independently of ToxA by disruption of host protein translation. Thus, C. elegans has a surveillance mechanism to recognize ToxA through its effect on protein translation rather than by direct recognition of either ToxA or ribosylated EF2. PMID:22520464

  7. Transient translational quiescence in primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Swartz, S Zachary; Laird, Jessica; Mascaro, Alexandra; Wessel, Gary

    2017-02-24

    Stem cells in animals often exhibit a slow cell cycle and/or low transcriptional activity referred to as quiescence. Here we report that the translational activity in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the sea urchin embryo (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) is quiescent. We measured new protein synthesis with O-propargyl-puromycin, and L-homopropargylglycine, Click-iT technologies and determined that these cells synthesize protein at only 6% the level of their adjacent somatic cells. Knock-down of translation of the RNA-binding protein Nanos2 by morpholino anti-sense oligonucleotides, or knock-out of the Nanos2 gene by CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in a significant, but partial increase (47%) in general translation specifically in the PGCs. We found that the mRNA of the translation factor eEF1A is excluded from the PGCs in a Nanos2-dependent manner, a consequence of a Nanos/Pumilio response element (PRE) in its 3'UTR. In addition to eEF1A, the cytoplasmic pH of the PGCs appears to repress translation and simply increasing the pH also significantly restores translation selectively in the PGCs. We conclude that the PGCs of this sea urchin institute parallel pathways to quiesce translation thoroughly but transiently.

  8. Progeria: translational insights from cell biology.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Leslie B; Cao, Kan; Collins, Francis S

    2012-10-01

    Cell biologists love to think outside the box, pursuing many surprising twists and unexpected turns in their quest to unravel the mysteries of how cells work. But can cell biologists think outside the bench? We are certain that they can, and clearly some already do. To encourage more cell biologists to venture into the realm of translational research on a regular basis, we would like to share a handful of the many lessons that we have learned in our effort to develop experimental treatments for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an endeavor that many view as a "poster child" for how basic cell biology can be translated to the clinic.

  9. Translational control by negative-strand RNA viruses: methods for the study of a crucial virus/host interaction.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Erin N; Connor, John H

    2013-02-01

    Protein synthesis is a vital step in the successful replication of negative-strand RNA viruses. Protein synthesis is also a critical step in the development of a successful antiviral response from the host. This makes understanding the interplay between host and viral translation an important aspect of defining the virus/host interaction. For the negative-strand RNA viruses there are disparate mechanism of how viruses interact with the host protein synthesis apparatus, ranging from the complete takeover of all protein synthesis to the subtle insertion of viral mRNAs into an otherwise unchanged protein synthesis pattern. In this article, we discuss different ways to investigate protein synthesis in virus-infected cells, ranging from the use of metabolic labeling for the study of general translation changes to using fluorescence-coupled labeling techniques that allow the pinpointing of any subcellular localization of protein synthesis during virus replication. We also discuss methods for analyzing the translation initiation factors that are frequently modified in virus-infected cells.

  10. Host cell invasion by medically important fungi.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Donald C; Filler, Scott G

    2014-11-03

    To infect the host and cause disease, many medically important fungi invade normally nonphagocytic host cells, such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Host cell invasion is a two-step process consisting of adherence followed by invasion. There are two general mechanisms of host cell invasion, induced endocytosis and active penetration. Furthermore, fungi can traverse epithelial or endothelial cell barriers either by proteolytic degradation of intercellular tight junctions or via a Trojan horse mechanism in which they are transported by leukocytes. Although these mechanisms of host cell invasion have been best studied using Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, it is probable that other invasive fungi also use one or more of these mechanisms to invade host cells. Identification of these invasion mechanisms holds promise to facilitate the development of new approaches to inhibit fungal invasion and thereby prevent disease. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Host Cell Invasion by Medically Important Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    To infect the host and cause disease, many medically important fungi invade normally nonphagocytic host cells, such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Host cell invasion is a two-step process consisting of adherence followed by invasion. There are two general mechanisms of host cell invasion, induced endocytosis and active penetration. Furthermore, fungi can traverse epithelial or endothelial cell barriers either by proteolytic degradation of intercellular tight junctions or via a Trojan horse mechanism in which they are transported by leukocytes. Although these mechanisms of host cell invasion have been best studied using Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, it is probable that other invasive fungi also use one or more of these mechanisms to invade host cells. Identification of these invasion mechanisms holds promise to facilitate the development of new approaches to inhibit fungal invasion and thereby prevent disease. PMID:25367974

  12. Coordinated destruction of cellular messages in translation complexes by the gammaherpesvirus host shutoff factor and the mammalian exonuclease Xrn1.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Sergio; Gaglia, Marta M; Kumar, G Renuka; Wong, Wesley; Jackson, Andrew O; Glaunsinger, Britt A

    2011-10-01

    Several viruses encode factors that promote host mRNA degradation to silence gene expression. It is unclear, however, whether cellular mRNA turnover pathways are engaged to assist in this process. In Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus this phenotype is enacted by the host shutoff factor SOX. Here we show that SOX-induced mRNA turnover is a two-step process, in which mRNAs are first cleaved internally by SOX itself then degraded by the cellular exonuclease Xrn1. SOX therefore bypasses the regulatory steps of deadenylation and decapping normally required for Xrn1 activation. SOX is likely recruited to translating mRNAs, as it cosediments with translation initiation complexes and depletes polysomes. Cleaved mRNA intermediates accumulate in the 40S fraction, indicating that recognition occurs at an early stage of translation. This is the first example of a viral protein commandeering cellular mRNA turnover pathways to destroy host mRNAs, and suggests that Xrn1 is poised to deplete messages undergoing translation in mammalian cells.

  13. Translational Control of Host Gene Expression by a Cys-Motif Protein Encoded in a Bracovirus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunseong; Kim, Yonggyun

    2016-01-01

    Translational control is a strategy that various viruses use to manipulate their hosts to suppress acute antiviral response. Polydnaviruses, a group of insect double-stranded DNA viruses symbiotic to some endoparasitoid wasps, are divided into two genera: ichnovirus (IV) and bracovirus (BV). In IV, some Cys-motif genes are known as host translation-inhibitory factors (HTIF). The genome of endoparasitoid wasp Cotesia plutellae contains a Cys-motif gene (Cp-TSP13) homologous to an HTIF known as teratocyte-secretory protein 14 (TSP14) of Microplitis croceipes. Cp-TSP13 consists of 129 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 13.987 kDa and pI value of 7.928. Genomic DNA region encoding its open reading frame has three introns. Cp-TSP13 possesses six conserved cysteine residues as other Cys-motif genes functioning as HTIF. Cp-TSP13 was expressed in Plutella xylostella larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) was purified and injected into non-parasitized P. xylostella that expressed Cp-TSP13. Cp-TSP13 was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and used to infect Sf9 cells to transiently express Cp-TSP13. The synthesized Cp-TSP13 protein was detected in culture broth. An overlaying experiment showed that the purified Cp-TSP13 entered hemocytes. It was localized in the cytosol. Recombinant Cp-TSP13 significantly inhibited protein synthesis of secretory proteins when it was added to in vitro cultured fat body. In addition, the recombinant Cp-TSP13 directly inhibited the translation of fat body mRNAs in in vitro translation assay using rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Moreover, the recombinant Cp-TSP13 significantly suppressed cellular immune responses by inhibiting hemocyte-spreading behavior. It also exhibited significant insecticidal activities by both injection and feeding routes. These results indicate that Cp-TSP13 is a viral HTIF. PMID:27598941

  14. Alterations of host cell ubiquitination machinery by pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alomairi, Jaafar; Bonacci, Thomas; Ghigo, Eric; Soubeyran, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Response of immune and non-immune cells to pathogens infections is a very dynamic process. It involves the activation/modulation of many pathways leading to actin remodeling, membrane engulfing, phagocytosis, vesicle trafficking, phagolysosome formation, aiming at the destruction of the intruder. These sophisticated and rapid mechanisms rely on post-translational modifications (PTMs) of key host cells' factors, and bacteria have developed various strategies to manipulate them to favor their survival. Among these important PTMs, ubiquitination has emerged as a major mediator/modulator/regulator of host cells response to infections that pathogens have also learned to use for their own benefit. In this mini-review, we summarize our current knowledge about the normal functions of ubiquitination during host cell infection, and we detail its hijacking by model pathogens to escape clearance and to proliferate.

  15. Cell-free translation of biofuel enzymes.

    PubMed

    Takasuka, Taichi E; Walker, Johnnie A; Bergeman, Lai F; Vander Meulen, Kirk A; Makino, Shin-ichi; Elsen, Nathaniel L; Fox, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    In nature, bacteria and fungi are able to utilize recalcitrant plant materials by secreting a diverse set of enzymes. While genomic sequencing efforts offer exhaustive lists of genes annotated as potential polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, biochemical and functional characterizations of the encoded proteins are still needed to realize the full potential of this natural genomic diversity. This chapter outlines an application of wheat germ cell-free translation to the study of biofuel enzymes using genes from Clostridium thermocellum, a model cellulolytic organism. Since wheat germ extract lacks enzymatic activities that can hydrolyze insoluble polysaccharide substrates and is likewise devoid of enzymes that consume the soluble sugar products, the cell-free translation reactions provide a clean background for production and study of the reactions of biofuel enzymes. Examples of assays performed with individual enzymes or with small sets of enzymes obtained directly from cell-free translation are provided.

  16. Inhibition of host cell apoptosis by Eimeria bovis sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Lang, Mirjam; Kann, Michael; Zahner, Horst; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2009-03-09

    Sophisticated evasion strategies of obligate intracellular parasites, in particular prevention of host cell apoptosis, are necessary to ensure successful replication. To study the ability of Eimeria bovis in this regard, in vitro experiments were performed applying bovine foetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC) and African green monkey kidney cells (VERO) as host cells. BUVEC and BFGC allow maturation of sporozoites to macromeronts, in VERO cells sporozoites survive for weeks without showing further development. In highly infected BUVEC monolayers, infected cells survived until merozoite release whereas uninfected cells underwent apoptosis. Light microscopy and TUNEL assays performed 3-10 days p.i. showed that, within infected BFGC and VERO cell monolayers, uninfected cells underwent programmed cell death after application of various inducers of apoptosis, whereas infected cells survived. Incidentally, the anti-apoptotic efficacies in infected cells were independent of the drugs and the host cell type. We could not demonstrate significant differences between infected and uninfected cells after colchicin treatment in terms of translation of phosphatidylserines to the host cell surface, caspase 3 activity and cytochrome c release, probably since obtainable infection rates were too low. However, we could show by laser scanning confocal microscopy on single cell levels that the expression of the anti-apoptotic factors cellular Flice inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and cellular inhibition of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1) were enhanced in E. bovis infected cells after application of colchicin, in the latter case also in non-infected cells directly neighbouring infected ones. Our data show that E. bovis protects its host cell from apoptosis by increasing expression of c-IAP1 and c-FLIP.

  17. Salmonella - at home in the host cell.

    PubMed

    Malik-Kale, Preeti; Jolly, Carrie E; Lathrop, Stephanie; Winfree, Seth; Luterbach, Courtney; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica has developed an array of sophisticated tools to manipulate the host cell and establish an intracellular niche, for successful propagation as a facultative intracellular pathogen. While Salmonella exerts diverse effects on its host cell, only the cell biology of the classic "trigger"-mediated invasion process and the subsequent development of the Salmonella-containing vacuole have been investigated extensively. These processes are dependent on cohorts of effector proteins translocated into host cells by two type III secretion systems (T3SS), although T3SS-independent mechanisms of entry may be important for invasion of certain host cell types. Recent studies into the intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella have provided new insights into the mechanisms used by this pathogen to modulate its intracellular environment. Here we discuss current knowledge of Salmonella-host interactions including invasion and establishment of an intracellular niche within the host.

  18. Translation in cell-free systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jagus, R.

    1987-01-01

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination.

  19. Progeria: Translational insights from cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Leslie B.; Cao, Kan

    2012-01-01

    Cell biologists love to think outside the box, pursuing many surprising twists and unexpected turns in their quest to unravel the mysteries of how cells work. But can cell biologists think outside the bench? We are certain that they can, and clearly some already do. To encourage more cell biologists to venture into the realm of translational research on a regular basis, we would like to share a handful of the many lessons that we have learned in our effort to develop experimental treatments for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an endeavor that many view as a “poster child” for how basic cell biology can be translated to the clinic. PMID:23027899

  20. Modification of Bacterial Effector Proteins Inside Eukaryotic Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Popa, Crina M; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria manipulate their hosts by delivering a number of virulence proteins -called effectors- directly into the plant or animal cells. Recent findings have shown that such effectors can suffer covalent modifications inside the eukaryotic cells. Here, we summarize the recent reports where effector modifications by the eukaryotic machinery have been described. We restrict our focus on proteins secreted by the type III or type IV systems, excluding other bacterial toxins. We describe the known examples of effectors whose enzymatic activity is triggered by interaction with plant and animal cell factors, including GTPases, E2-Ubiquitin conjugates, cyclophilin and thioredoxins. We focus on the structural interactions with these factors and their influence on effector function. We also review the described examples of host-mediated post-translational effector modifications which are required for proper subcellular location and function. These host-specific covalent modifications include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and lipidations such as prenylation, fatty acylation and phospholipid binding.

  1. Modification of Bacterial Effector Proteins Inside Eukaryotic Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Crina M.; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria manipulate their hosts by delivering a number of virulence proteins -called effectors- directly into the plant or animal cells. Recent findings have shown that such effectors can suffer covalent modifications inside the eukaryotic cells. Here, we summarize the recent reports where effector modifications by the eukaryotic machinery have been described. We restrict our focus on proteins secreted by the type III or type IV systems, excluding other bacterial toxins. We describe the known examples of effectors whose enzymatic activity is triggered by interaction with plant and animal cell factors, including GTPases, E2-Ubiquitin conjugates, cyclophilin and thioredoxins. We focus on the structural interactions with these factors and their influence on effector function. We also review the described examples of host-mediated post-translational effector modifications which are required for proper subcellular location and function. These host-specific covalent modifications include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and lipidations such as prenylation, fatty acylation and phospholipid binding. PMID:27489796

  2. Translational Control of Germ Cell Decisions.

    PubMed

    Pushpa, Kumari; Kumar, Ganga Anil; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2017-01-01

    Germline poses unique challenges to gene expression control at the transcriptional level. While the embryonic germline maintains a global hold on new mRNA transcription, the female adult germline produces transcripts that are not translated into proteins until embryogenesis of subsequent generation. As a consequence, translational control plays a central role in governing various germ cell decisions including the formation of primordial germ cells, self-renewal/differentiation decisions in the adult germline, onset of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation. Mechanistically, several common themes such as asymmetric localization of mRNAs, conserved RNA-binding proteins that control translation by 3' UTR binding, translational activation by the cytoplasmic elongation of the polyA tail and the assembly of mRNA-protein complexes called mRNPs have emerged from the studies on Caenorhabditis elegans, Xenopus and Drosophila. How mRNPs assemble, what influences their dynamics, and how a particular 3' UTR-binding protein turns on the translation of certain mRNAs while turning off other mRNAs at the same time and space are key challenges for future work.

  3. Differential regulation of host mRNA translation during obligate pathogen-plant interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virus infection reprograms the plant messenger RNA (mRNA) transcriptome by activating or interfering with a variety of signaling pathways, but the effects on host mRNA translation have not been explored on a genome-wide scale. To address this issue, Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA transcripts were quantif...

  4. 5' sequences of rubella virus RNA stimulate translation of chimeric RNAs and specifically interact with two host-encoded proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, G P; Cao, X Q; Singh, N K; Nakhasi, H L

    1993-01-01

    Sequences at the 5' and 3' ends of the rubella virus (RV) genomic RNA can potentially form stable stem-loop (SL) structures that are postulated to be involved in virus replication. We have analyzed the function of these putative SL structures in RNA translation by constructing chimeric chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) RNAs, flanked either by both 5'- and 3'-terminal sequence domains from the RV genome or several deletion derivatives of the same sequences. After in vitro transcription of chimeric RNAs, the translational efficiencies of these RNAs were compared by the rabbit reticulocyte lysate translation system. For in vivo translation studies, the level of CAT activity was measured for chimeric RV/CAT RNAs expressed in transfected cells by the adenovirus major late promoter. Both in vivo and in vitro translation activities of the chimeric RNAs revealed that the presence of 5' and 3' SL sequences of RV RNA, in correct (+) orientation and context [5'(+)SL and 3'(+)SL, respectively] was necessary for efficient translation of chimeric RV/CAT RNAs. The presence of the RV 5'(+)SL sequence had the primary enhancing effect on translation. To identify host proteins which interact with the 5'(+)SL which may be involved in RV RNA translation, RNA gel-shift and UV cross-linking assays were employed. Two host proteins 59 and 52 kDa in size, present in cytosolic extracts from both uninfected and RV-infected cells, specifically interacted with the RV 5'(+)SL RNA. Direct binding comparisons between wild-type and mutant 5'(+)SL RNAs demonstrated that sequences in and around the bulge region of the terminal stem domain of this structure constituted a protein binding determinant. Human serum, qualified for anti-Ro/SS-A antigen specificity, immunoprecipitated 59- and 52-kDa protein-RNA complexes containing the RV 5'(+)SL RNA. However, poly- and monoclonal antisera raised against the recombinant 60- and 52-kDa Ro proteins failed to precipitate complexes containing the 5'(+)SL

  5. Translational Control of Cell Division by Elongator

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Fanelie; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Candiracci, Julie; Dieu, Marc; Scheliga, Judith; Wolf, Dieter A.; Yoshida, Minoru; Hermand, Damien

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Elongator is required for the synthesis of the mcm5s2 modification found on tRNAs recognizing AA-ending codons. In order to obtain a global picture of the role of Elongator in translation, we used reverse protein arrays to screen the fission yeast proteome for translation defects. Unexpectedly, this revealed that Elongator inactivation mainly affected three specific functional groups including proteins implicated in cell division. The absence of Elongator results in a delay in mitosis onset and cytokinesis defects. We demonstrate that the kinase Cdr2, which is a central regulator of mitosis and cytokinesis, is under translational control by Elongator due to the Lysine codon usage bias of the cdr2 coding sequence. These findings uncover a mechanism by which the codon usage, coupled to tRNA modifications, fundamentally contributes to gene expression and cellular functions. PMID:22768388

  6. Translating Stem Cell Biology Into Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Singeç, Ilyas; Simeonov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell research has made extraordinary progress over the last decade. The robustness of nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has created entirely novel opportunities for drug discovery and personalized regenerative medicine. Patient- and disease-specific iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated into relevant cell types of different organ systems. As the utilization of iPSCs is becoming a key enabling technology across various scientific disciplines, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed. Here we review the current state and reflect on the issues that the stem cell and translational communities are facing in bringing iPSCs closer to clinical application. PMID:27774310

  7. Translational control in germline stem cell development

    PubMed Central

    Slaidina, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells give rise to tissues and organs during development and maintain their integrity during adulthood. They have the potential to self-renew or differentiate at each division. To ensure proper organ growth and homeostasis, self-renewal versus differentiation decisions need to be tightly controlled. Systematic genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster are revealing extensive regulatory networks that control the switch between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in the germline. These networks, which are based primarily on mutual translational repression, act via interlocked feedback loops to provide robustness to this important fate decision. PMID:25313405

  8. Contrasting Lifestyles Within the Host Cell

    PubMed Central

    Case, Elizabeth Di Russo; Samuel, James E.

    2015-01-01

    CHAPTER SUMMARY Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved to exploit the protected niche provided within the boundaries of a eukaryotic host cell. Upon entering a host cell, some bacteria can evade the adaptive immune response of its host, and replicate in a relatively nutrient-rich environment devoid of competition from other host flora. Growth within a host cell is not without its hazards, however. Many pathogens enter their hosts through receptor-mediated endocytosis or phagocytosis, two intracellular trafficking pathways that terminate in a highly degradative organelle, the phagolysosome. This usually deadly compartment is maintained at a low pH, and contains degradative enzymes, and reactive oxygen species resulting in an environment to which few bacterial species are adapted. Some intracellular pathogens, like Shigella, Listeria, Francisella, and Rickettsia escape the phagosome to replicate within the cytosol of the host cell. Bacteria that remain within a vacuole either alter the trafficking of their initial phagosomal compartment or adapt to survive within the harsh environment it will soon become. In this chapter, we focus on the mechanisms by which different vacuolar pathogens either evade lysosomal fusion, as in the case of Mycobacterium and Chlamydia, or allow interaction with lysosomes to varying degrees, such as Brucella and Coxiella, and their specific adaptations to inhabit a replicative niche. PMID:26999394

  9. Bartonella entry mechanisms into mammalian host cells.

    PubMed

    Eicher, Simone C; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The Gram-negative genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that typically infect mammals in a host-specific manner. Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella quintana are human-specific pathogens, while several zoonotic bartonellae specific for diverse animal hosts infect humans as an incidental host. Clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections range from mild symptoms to life-threatening disease. Following transmission by blood-sucking arthropods or traumatic contact with infected animals, bartonellae display sequential tropisms towards endothelial and possibly other nucleated cells and erythrocytes, the latter in a host-specific manner. Attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to nucleated cells is mediated by surface-exposed bacterial adhesins, in particular trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). The subsequent engulfment of the pathogen into a vacuolar structure follows a unique series of events whereby the pathogen avoids the endolysosomal compartments. For Bartonella henselae and assumingly most other species, the infection process is aided at different steps by Bartonella effector proteins (Beps). They are injected into host cells through the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB/D4 and subvert host cellular functions to favour pathogen uptake. Bacterial binding to erythrocytes is mediated by Trw, another T4SS, in a strictly host-specific manner, followed by pathogen-forced uptake involving the IalB invasin and subsequent replication and persistence within a membrane-bound intra-erythrocytic compartment.

  10. Resveratrol Inhibits Protein Translation in Hepatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Boylan, Joan M.; Tatar, Marc; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that extends lifespan and healthspan in model organism. Despite extensive investigation, the biological processes mediating resveratrol's effects have yet to be elucidated. Because repression of translation shares many of resveratrol's beneficial effects, we hypothesized that resveratrol was a modulator of protein synthesis. We studied the effect of the drug on the H4-II-E rat hepatoma cell line. Initial studies showed that resveratrol inhibited global protein synthesis. Given the role of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in regulating protein synthesis, we examined the effect of resveratrol on mTOR signaling. Resveratrol inhibited mTOR self-phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of mTOR targets S6K1 and eIF4E-BP1. It attenuated the formation of the translation initiation complex eIF4F and increased the phosphorylation of eIF2α. The latter event, also a mechanism for translation inhibition, was not recapitulated by mTOR inhibitors. The effects on mTOR signaling were independent of effects on AMP-activated kinase or AKT. We conclude that resveratrol is an inhibitor of global protein synthesis, and that this effect is mediated through modulation of mTOR-dependent and independent signaling. PMID:22242130

  11. Clinical translation of human neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human neural stem cell transplants have potential as therapeutic candidates to treat a vast number of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). StemCells, Inc. has purified human neural stem cells and developed culture conditions for expansion and banking that preserve their unique biological properties. The biological activity of these human central nervous system stem cells (HuCNS-SC®) has been analyzed extensively in vitro and in vivo. When formulated for transplantation, the expanded and cryopreserved banked cells maintain their stem cell phenotype, self-renew and generate mature oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes, cells normally found in the CNS. In this overview, the rationale and supporting data for pursuing neuroprotective strategies and clinical translation in the three components of the CNS (brain, spinal cord and eye) are described. A phase I trial for a rare myelin disorder and phase I/II trial for spinal cord injury are providing intriguing data relevant to the biological properties of neural stem cells, and the early clinical outcomes compel further development. PMID:23987648

  12. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation of bona fide stress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingjie; Dong, Luna; Yu, Shengqing; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Hang; Zhang, Pin; Meng, Chunchun; Zhan, Yuan; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Wang, Guijun; Liao, Ying; Ding, Chan

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian cells respond to various environmental stressors to form stress granules (SGs) by arresting cytoplasmic mRNA, protein translation element, and RNA binding proteins. Virus-induced SGs function in different ways, depending on the species of virus; however, the mechanism of SG regulation of virus replication is not well understood. In this study, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) triggered stable formation of bona fide SGs on HeLa cells through activating the protein kinase R (PKR)/eIF2α pathway. NDV-induced SGs contained classic SG markers T-cell internal antigen (TIA)-1, Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein (G3BP)-1, eukaryotic initiation factors, and small ribosomal subunit, which could be disassembled in the presence of cycloheximide. Treatment with nocodazole, a microtubule disruption drug, led to the formation of relatively small and circular granules, indicating that NDV infection induces canonical SGs. Furthermore, the role of SGs on NDV replication was investigated by knockdown of TIA-1 and TIA-1-related (TIAR) protein, the 2 critical components involved in SG formation from the HeLa cells, followed by NDV infection. Results showed that depletion of TIA-1 or TIAR inhibited viral protein synthesis, reduced extracellular virus yields, but increased global protein translation. FISH revealed that NDV-induced SGs contained predominantly cellular mRNA rather than viral mRNA. Deletion of TIA-1 or TIAR reduced NP mRNA levels in polysomes. These results demonstrate that NDV triggers stable formation of bona fide SGs, which benefit viral protein translation and virus replication by arresting cellular mRNA.-Sun, Y., Dong, L., Yu, S., Wang, X., Zheng, H., Zhang, P., Meng, C., Zhan, Y., Tan, L., Song, C., Qiu, X., Wang, G., Liao, Y., Ding, C. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation of bona fide stress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation.

  13. Therapeutic cell encapsulation: ten steps towards clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Edorta; Pedraz, José Luis; Hernández, Rosa María; Orive, Gorka

    2013-08-28

    Since the conception of cell microencapsulation, many scientists bet on this biotechnology as they saw in it a promising alternative to protect transplanted cells from host immunoresponse. Some decades later, this initial enthusiasm is giving rise to a phase of certain conformism and lack of novel advances in the field. This perspective critically discusses current challenges needed to help this approach become a realistic clinical proposal. Alginate seems to be well established as the biomaterial of choice, but additional efforts are needed regarding current cross-linkers and coatings. Biofunctionalization of the matrices may provide the necessary biomimetic microenvironment to control cell behavior. Different alginate degradation rates would allow widening the applications of this biotechnology from drug delivery to cell delivery. In this sense, stem cells from stromal tissues could be the most suitable cell source due to their intrinsic hypoimmunogenicity, their immunomodulatory effects and their capacity to cell homing. The incorporation of suicide and reporter genes in the genome of enclosed cells may overcome some of the existing biosafety concerns. Administration and extraction by means of less invasive procedures also need to be developed to succeed in clinical translation. Finally, improving cost-effectiveness for the scale-up, together with establishing and fulfilling a series of strict regulatory aspects will be indispensable to make the final step to the clinic.

  14. Th17 cells and Mucosal Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Aujla, Shean J.; Dubin, Patricia J.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2008-01-01

    Th17 cells are a new lineage of T-cells that are controlled by the transcription factor RORγt and develop independent of GATA-3, T-bet, Stat 4 and Stat 6. Novel effector molecules produced by these cells include IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-26. IL-17RA binds IL-17A and IL-17F and is critical for host defense against extracellular planktonic bacteria by regulating chemokine gradients for neutrophil emigration into infected tissue sites as well as host granulopoiesis. Moreover IL-17 and IL-22 regulate the production of antimicrobial proteins in mucosal epithelium. Although TGF-β1 and IL-6 have been shown to be critical for development of Th17 cells from naïve precursors, IL-23 is also important in regulating IL-17 release in mucosal tissues in response to infectious stimuli. Compared to Th1 cells, IL-23 and IL-17 show limited roles in controlling host defense against primary infections with intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggesting a predominate role of the Th17 lineage in host defense against extracellular pathogens. However in the setting of chronic biofilm infections, as that occurs with Cystic Fibrosis or bronchetctasis, Th17 cells may be key contributors of tissue injury. PMID:18054248

  15. Interactions between Bdellovibrio and its host cell.

    PubMed

    Stolp, H

    1979-04-11

    The bdellovibrios are extremely small bacteria with the unique property of being parasites of other (gram-negative) bacteria. In the presence of viable and susceptible bacteria a Bdellovibrio cell physically 'attacks' an individual host cell, attaches to its surface, penetrates the cell wall, and multiples within the periplasmic (intramural) space of its prey. The invading Bdellovibrio and its progeny degrade and consume the cellular constituents of the invaded host bacterium. This process finally results in complete lysis of the host cell and release of the Bdellovibrio progeny. From a population of parasitic bdellovibrios, derivatives can be selected that grow on complex nutrient media. Currently, none of the different nutritional types can be propagated in a fully defined synthetic medium. By degradation of the cellular constituents of the host the Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasmic space has available all the monomeric subunits needed to synthesis of the macromolecules. Peculiarities of Bdellovibrio metabolism with respect to uptake of preformed molecules and energy efficiency are discussed.

  16. The Herpes Simplex Virus Virion Host Shutoff Protein Enhances Translation of Viral True Late mRNAs Independently of Suppressing Protein Kinase R and Stress Granule Formation.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Bianca; Poon, David; Dos Santos, Theodore; Duguay, Brett A; Mehta, Ninad; Saffran, Holly A; Smiley, James R

    2016-07-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (vhs) RNase destabilizes cellular and viral mRNAs, suppresses host protein synthesis, dampens antiviral responses, and stimulates translation of viral mRNAs. vhs mutants display a host range phenotype: translation of viral true late mRNAs is severely impaired and stress granules accumulate in HeLa cells, while translation proceeds normally in Vero cells. We found that vhs-deficient virus activates the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) much more strongly than the wild-type virus does in HeLa cells, while PKR is not activated in Vero cells, raising the possibility that PKR might play roles in stress granule induction and/or inhibiting translation in restrictive cells. We tested this possibility by evaluating the effects of inactivating PKR. Eliminating PKR in HeLa cells abolished stress granule formation but had only minor effects on viral true late protein levels. These results document an essential role for PKR in stress granule formation by a nuclear DNA virus, indicate that induction of stress granules is the consequence rather than the cause of the translational defect, and are consistent with our previous suggestion that vhs promotes translation of viral true late mRNAs by preventing mRNA overload rather than by suppressing eIF2α phosphorylation. The herpes simplex virus vhs RNase plays multiple roles during infection, including suppressing PKR activation, inhibiting the formation of stress granules, and promoting translation of viral late mRNAs. A key question is the extent to which these activities are mechanistically connected. Our results demonstrate that PKR is essential for stress granule formation in the absence of vhs, but at best, it plays a secondary role in suppressing translation of viral mRNAs. Thus, the ability of vhs to promote translation of viral mRNAs can be largely uncoupled from PKR suppression, demonstrating that this viral RNase modulates at least two distinct aspects

  17. The Herpes Simplex Virus Virion Host Shutoff Protein Enhances Translation of Viral True Late mRNAs Independently of Suppressing Protein Kinase R and Stress Granule Formation

    PubMed Central

    Dauber, Bianca; Poon, David; dos Santos, Theodore; Duguay, Brett A.; Mehta, Ninad; Saffran, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (vhs) RNase destabilizes cellular and viral mRNAs, suppresses host protein synthesis, dampens antiviral responses, and stimulates translation of viral mRNAs. vhs mutants display a host range phenotype: translation of viral true late mRNAs is severely impaired and stress granules accumulate in HeLa cells, while translation proceeds normally in Vero cells. We found that vhs-deficient virus activates the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) much more strongly than the wild-type virus does in HeLa cells, while PKR is not activated in Vero cells, raising the possibility that PKR might play roles in stress granule induction and/or inhibiting translation in restrictive cells. We tested this possibility by evaluating the effects of inactivating PKR. Eliminating PKR in HeLa cells abolished stress granule formation but had only minor effects on viral true late protein levels. These results document an essential role for PKR in stress granule formation by a nuclear DNA virus, indicate that induction of stress granules is the consequence rather than the cause of the translational defect, and are consistent with our previous suggestion that vhs promotes translation of viral true late mRNAs by preventing mRNA overload rather than by suppressing eIF2α phosphorylation. IMPORTANCE The herpes simplex virus vhs RNase plays multiple roles during infection, including suppressing PKR activation, inhibiting the formation of stress granules, and promoting translation of viral late mRNAs. A key question is the extent to which these activities are mechanistically connected. Our results demonstrate that PKR is essential for stress granule formation in the absence of vhs, but at best, it plays a secondary role in suppressing translation of viral mRNAs. Thus, the ability of vhs to promote translation of viral mRNAs can be largely uncoupled from PKR suppression, demonstrating that this viral RNase modulates at least

  18. Microsporidia infection impacts the host cell's cycle and reduces host cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; Sagastume, Soledad; Juarranz, Ángeles; Dias-Almeida, Joyce; Budge, Giles E; Meana, Aránzazu; Boonham, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular parasites can alter the cellular machinery of host cells to create a safe haven for their survival. In this regard, microsporidia are obligate intracellular fungal parasites with extremely reduced genomes and hence, they are strongly dependent on their host for energy and resources. To date, there are few studies into host cell manipulation by microsporidia, most of which have focused on morphological aspects. The microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are worldwide parasites of honey bees, infecting their ventricular epithelial cells. In this work, quantitative gene expression and histology were studied to investigate how these two parasites manipulate their host's cells at the molecular level. Both these microsporidia provoke infection-induced regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and the cell cycle. The up-regulation of buffy (which encodes a pro-survival protein) and BIRC5 (belonging to the Inhibitor Apoptosis protein family) was observed after infection, shedding light on the pathways that these pathogens use to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Curiously, different routes related to cell cycle were modified after infection by each microsporidia. In the case of N. apis, cyclin B1, dacapo and E2F2 were up-regulated, whereas only cyclin E was up-regulated by N. ceranae, in both cases promoting the G1/S phase transition. This is the first report describing molecular pathways related to parasite-host interactions that are probably intended to ensure the parasite's survival within the cell.

  19. Acanthamoeba induces cell-cycle arrest in host cells.

    PubMed

    Sissons, James; Alsam, Selwa; Jayasekera, Samantha; Kim, Kwang Sik; Stins, Monique; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2004-08-01

    Acanthamoeba can cause fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and eye keratitis. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of these emerging diseases remain unclear. In this study, the effects of Acanthamoeba on the host cell cycle using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) were determined. Two isolates of Acanthamoeba belonging to the T1 genotype (GAE isolate) and T4 genotype (keratitis isolate) were used, which showed severe cytotoxicity on HBMEC and HCEC, respectively. No tissue specificity was observed in their ability to exhibit binding to the host cells. To determine the effects of Acanthamoeba on the host cell cycle, a cell-cycle-specific gene array was used. This screened for 96 genes specific for host cell-cycle regulation. It was observed that Acanthamoeba inhibited expression of genes encoding cyclins F and G1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6, which are proteins important for cell-cycle progression. Moreover, upregulation was observed of the expression of genes such as GADD45A and p130 Rb, associated with cell-cycle arrest, indicating cell-cycle inhibition. Next, the effect of Acanthamoeba on retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation was determined. pRb is a potent inhibitor of G1-to-S cell-cycle progression; however, its function is inhibited upon phosphorylation, allowing progression into S phase. Western blotting revealed that Acanthamoeba abolished pRb phosphorylation leading to cell-cycle arrest at the G1-to-S transition. Taken together, these studies demonstrated for the first time that Acanthamoeba inhibits the host cell cycle at the transcriptional level, as well as by modulating pRb phosphorylation using host cell-signalling mechanisms. A complete understanding of Acanthamoeba-host cell interactions may help in developing novel strategies to treat Acanthamoeba infections.

  20. Mechanisms employed by retroviruses to exploit host factors for translational control of a complicated proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bolinger, Cheryl; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Retroviruses have evolved multiple strategies to direct the synthesis of a complex proteome from a single primary transcript. Their mechanisms are modulated by a breadth of virus-host interactions, which are of significant fundamental interest because they ultimately affect the efficiency of virus replication and disease pathogenesis. Motifs located within the untranslated region (UTR) of the retroviral RNA have established roles in transcriptional trans-activation, RNA packaging, and genome reverse transcription; and a growing literature has revealed a necessary role of the UTR in modulating the efficiency of viral protein synthesis. Examples include a 5' UTR post-transcriptional control element (PCE), present in at least eight retroviruses, that interacts with cellular RNA helicase A to facilitate cap-dependent polyribosome association; and 3' UTR constitutive transport element (CTE) of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus that interacts with Tap/NXF1 and SR protein 9G8 to facilitate RNA export and translational utilization. By contrast, nuclear protein hnRNP E1 negatively modulates HIV-1 Gag, Env, and Rev protein synthesis. Alternative initiation strategies by ribosomal frameshifting and leaky scanning enable polycistronic translation of the cap-dependent viral transcript. Other studies posit cap-independent translation initiation by internal ribosome entry at structural features of the 5' UTR of selected retroviruses. The retroviral armamentarium also commands mechanisms to counter cellular post-transcriptional innate defenses, including protein kinase R, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and the small RNA pathway. This review will discuss recent and historically-recognized insights into retrovirus translational control. The expanding knowledge of retroviral post-transcriptional control is vital to understanding the biology of the retroviral proteome. In a broad perspective, each new insight offers a prospective target for antiviral therapy and strategic improvement of gene

  1. Coupled transcription and translation within nuclei of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Iborra, F J; Jackson, D A; Cook, P R

    2001-08-10

    It is widely assumed that the vital processes of transcription and translation are spatially separated in eukaryotes and that no translation occurs in nuclei. We localized translation sites by incubating permeabilized mammalian cells with [3H]lysine or lysyl-transfer RNA tagged with biotin or BODIPY; although most nascent polypeptides were cytoplasmic, some were found in discrete nuclear sites known as transcription "factories." Some of this nuclear translation also depends on concurrent transcription by RNA polymerase II. This coupling is simply explained if nuclear ribosomes translate nascent transcripts as those transcripts emerge from still-engaged RNA polymerases, much as they do in bacteria.

  2. Microsporidia infection impacts the host cell's cycle and reduces host cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Higes, Mariano; Sagastume, Soledad; Juarranz, Ángeles; Dias-Almeida, Joyce; Budge, Giles E.; Meana, Aránzazu; Boonham, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular parasites can alter the cellular machinery of host cells to create a safe haven for their survival. In this regard, microsporidia are obligate intracellular fungal parasites with extremely reduced genomes and hence, they are strongly dependent on their host for energy and resources. To date, there are few studies into host cell manipulation by microsporidia, most of which have focused on morphological aspects. The microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are worldwide parasites of honey bees, infecting their ventricular epithelial cells. In this work, quantitative gene expression and histology were studied to investigate how these two parasites manipulate their host’s cells at the molecular level. Both these microsporidia provoke infection-induced regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and the cell cycle. The up-regulation of buffy (which encodes a pro-survival protein) and BIRC5 (belonging to the Inhibitor Apoptosis protein family) was observed after infection, shedding light on the pathways that these pathogens use to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Curiously, different routes related to cell cycle were modified after infection by each microsporidia. In the case of N. apis, cyclin B1, dacapo and E2F2 were up-regulated, whereas only cyclin E was up-regulated by N. ceranae, in both cases promoting the G1/S phase transition. This is the first report describing molecular pathways related to parasite-host interactions that are probably intended to ensure the parasite’s survival within the cell. PMID:28152065

  3. Mammalian Orthoreovirus Escape from Host Translational Shutoff Correlates with Stress Granule Disruption and Is Independent of eIF2α Phosphorylation and PKR▿

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qingsong; Carroll, Kate; Hastings, Craig; Miller, Cathy L.

    2011-01-01

    In response to mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) infection, cells initiate a stress response that includes eIF2α phosphorylation and protein synthesis inhibition. We have previously shown that early in infection, MRV activation of eIF2α phosphorylation results in the formation of cellular stress granules (SGs). In this work, we show that as infection proceeds, MRV disrupts SGs despite sustained levels of phosphorylated eIF2α and, further, interferes with the induction of SGs by other stress inducers. MRV interference with SG formation occurs downstream of eIF2α phosphorylation, suggesting the virus uncouples the cellular stress signaling machinery from SG formation. We additionally examined mRNA translation in the presence of SGs induced by eIF2α phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We found that irrespective of eIF2α phosphorylation status, the presence of SGs in cells correlated with inhibition of viral and cellular translation. In contrast, MRV disruption of SGs correlated with the release of viral mRNAs from translational inhibition, even in the presence of phosphorylated eIF2α. Viral mRNAs were also translated in the presence of phosphorylated eIF2α in PKR−/− cells. These results suggest that MRV escape from host cell translational shutoff correlates with virus-induced SG disruption and occurs in the presence of phosphorylated eIF2α in a PKR-independent manner. PMID:21715487

  4. An Update on Translating Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke from Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Travis; Metcalf, Christopher; Mosley, Yusef I.; Sullivan, Robert; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Tajiri, Naoki; Pabon, Mibel; Acosta, Sandra; Kaneko, Yuji; van Loveren, Harry; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    With a constellation of stem cell sources available, researchers hope to utilize their potential for cellular repair as a therapeutic target for disease. However, many lab-to-clinic translational considerations must be given in determining their efficacy, variables such as the host response, effects on native tissue, and potential for generating tumors. This review will discuss the current knowledge of stem cell research in neurological disease, mainly stroke, with a focus on the benefits, limitations, and clinical potential. PMID:25177494

  5. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-06-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins.

  6. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag–Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins. PMID:27329342

  7. Cryptococcal Cell Morphology Affects Host Cell Interactions and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Judith N.; Charlier, Caroline; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Chrétien, Fabrice; Heitman, Joseph; Dromer, Françoise; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 µm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 µm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to oxidative and nitrosative stress, and correlated with reduced penetration of the central nervous system. Cell enlargement was stimulated by coinfection with strains of opposite mating type, and ste3aΔ pheromone receptor mutant strains had reduced cell enlargement. Finally, analysis of DNA content in this novel cell type revealed that these enlarged cells were polyploid, uninucleate, and produced daughter cells in vivo. These results describe a novel mechanism by which C. neoformans evades host phagocytosis to allow survival of a subset of the population at early stages of infection. Thus, morphological changes play unique and specialized roles during infection. PMID:20585559

  8. Concepts of papillomavirus entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    Day, Patricia M; Schelhaas, Mario

    2014-02-01

    Papillomaviruses enter basal cells of stratified epithelia. Assembly of new virions occurs in infected cells during terminal differentiation. This unique biology is reflected in the mechanism of entry. Extracellularly, the interaction of nonenveloped capsids with several host cell proteins, after binding, results in discrete conformational changes. Asynchronous internalization occurs over several hours by an endocytic mechanism related to, but distinct from macropinocytosis. Intracellular trafficking leads virions through the endosomal system, and from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi-network, before nuclear delivery. Here, we discuss the existing data with the aim to synthesize an integrated model of the stepwise process of entry, thereby highlighting key open questions. Additionally, we relate data from experiments with cultured cells to in vivo results.

  9. Plant cell proliferation inside an inorganic host.

    PubMed

    Perullini, Mercedes; Rivero, María Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Bilmes, Sara A

    2007-01-10

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to plant cell culture as a tool for the production of secondary metabolites and the expression of recombinant proteins. Plant cell immobilization offers many advantages for biotechnological processes. However, the most extended matrices employed, such as calcium-alginate, cannot fully protect entrapped cells. Sol-gel chemistry of silicates has emerged as an outstanding strategy to obtain biomaterials in which living cells are truly protected. This field of research is rapidly developing and a large number of bacteria and yeast-entrapping ceramics have already been designed for different applications. But even mild thermal and chemical conditions employed in sol-gel synthesis may result harmful to cells of higher organisms. Here we present a method for the immobilization of plant cells that allows cell growth at cavities created inside a silica matrix. Plant cell proliferation was monitored for a 6-month period, at the end of which plant calli of more than 1 mm in diameter were observed inside the inorganic host. The resulting hybrid device had good mechanical stability and proved to be an effective barrier against biological contamination, suggesting that it could be employed for long-term plant cell entrapment applications.

  10. Counting Legionella cells within single amoeba host cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we present the first attempt to quantify L. pneumophila cell numbers within individual amoebae hosts that may be released into engineered water systems. The maximum numbers of culturable L. pneumophila cells grown within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri were 134...

  11. Counting Legionella cells within single amoeba host cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we present the first attempt to quantify L. pneumophila cell numbers within individual amoebae hosts that may be released into engineered water systems. The maximum numbers of culturable L. pneumophila cells grown within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri were 134...

  12. Tissue Morphodynamics: Translating Planar Polarity Cues into Polarized Cell Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Devenport, Danelle

    2016-01-01

    The ability of cells to collectively orient and align their behaviors is essential in multicellular organisms for unidirectional cilia beating, collective cell movements, oriented cell divisions, and asymmetric cell fate specification. The planar cell polarity pathway coordinates a vast and diverse array of collective cell behaviors by intersecting with downstream pathways that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and intercellular signaling. How the planar polarity pathway translates directional cues to produce polarized cell behaviors is the focus of this review. PMID:26994528

  13. Tissue morphodynamics: Translating planar polarity cues into polarized cell behaviors.

    PubMed

    Devenport, Danelle

    2016-07-01

    The ability of cells to collectively orient and align their behaviors is essential in multicellular organisms for unidirectional cilia beating, collective cell movements, oriented cell divisions, and asymmetric cell fate specification. The planar cell polarity pathway coordinates a vast and diverse array of collective cell behaviors by intersecting with downstream pathways that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and intercellular signaling. How the planar polarity pathway translates directional cues to produce polarized cell behaviors is the focus of this review.

  14. Dynamic translation regulation in Caulobacter cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Jared M; Li, Gene-Wei; Childers, W Seth; Perez, Adam M; Weissman, Jonathan S; Shapiro, Lucy; McAdams, Harley H

    2016-11-01

    Progression of the Caulobacter cell cycle requires temporal and spatial control of gene expression, culminating in an asymmetric cell division yielding distinct daughter cells. To explore the contribution of translational control, RNA-seq and ribosome profiling were used to assay global transcription and translation levels of individual genes at six times over the cell cycle. Translational efficiency (TE) was used as a metric for the relative rate of protein production from each mRNA. TE profiles with similar cell cycle patterns were found across multiple clusters of genes, including those in operons or in subsets of operons. Collections of genes associated with central cell cycle functional modules (e.g., biosynthesis of stalk, flagellum, or chemotaxis machinery) have consistent but different TE temporal patterns, independent of their operon organization. Differential translation of operon-encoded genes facilitates precise cell cycle-timing for the dynamic assembly of multiprotein complexes, such as the flagellum and the stalk and the correct positioning of regulatory proteins to specific cell poles. The cell cycle-regulatory pathways that produce specific temporal TE patterns are separate from-but highly coordinated with-the transcriptional cell cycle circuitry, suggesting that the scheduling of translational regulation is organized by the same cyclical regulatory circuit that directs the transcriptional control of the Caulobacter cell cycle.

  15. Neurons Are Host Cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Philippa J.; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M.; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system. PMID:24566619

  16. Neurons are host cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system.

  17. IL-1R signaling enables bystander cells to overcome bacterial blockade of host protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Copenhaver, Alan M.; Casson, Cierra N.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Duda, Matthew M.; Shin, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system is critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet many pathogens express virulence factors that impair immune function. Here, we used the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila to understand how the immune system successfully overcomes pathogen subversion mechanisms. L. pneumophila replicates within macrophages by using a type IV secretion system to translocate bacterial effectors into the host cell cytosol. As a consequence of effector delivery, host protein synthesis is blocked at several steps, including translation initiation and elongation. Despite this translation block, infected cells robustly produce proinflammatory cytokines, but the basis for this is poorly understood. By using a reporter system that specifically discriminates between infected and uninfected cells within a population, we demonstrate here that infected macrophages produced IL-1α and IL-1β, but were poor producers of IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, which are critical mediators of host protection. Uninfected bystander cells robustly produced IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, and this bystander response required IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling during early pulmonary infection. Our data demonstrate functional heterogeneity in production of critical protective cytokines and suggest that collaboration between infected and uninfected cells enables the immune system to bypass pathogen-mediated translation inhibition to generate an effective immune response. PMID:26034289

  18. IL-1R signaling enables bystander cells to overcome bacterial blockade of host protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Copenhaver, Alan M; Casson, Cierra N; Nguyen, Hieu T; Duda, Matthew M; Shin, Sunny

    2015-06-16

    The innate immune system is critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet many pathogens express virulence factors that impair immune function. Here, we used the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila to understand how the immune system successfully overcomes pathogen subversion mechanisms. L. pneumophila replicates within macrophages by using a type IV secretion system to translocate bacterial effectors into the host cell cytosol. As a consequence of effector delivery, host protein synthesis is blocked at several steps, including translation initiation and elongation. Despite this translation block, infected cells robustly produce proinflammatory cytokines, but the basis for this is poorly understood. By using a reporter system that specifically discriminates between infected and uninfected cells within a population, we demonstrate here that infected macrophages produced IL-1α and IL-1β, but were poor producers of IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, which are critical mediators of host protection. Uninfected bystander cells robustly produced IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, and this bystander response required IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling during early pulmonary infection. Our data demonstrate functional heterogeneity in production of critical protective cytokines and suggest that collaboration between infected and uninfected cells enables the immune system to bypass pathogen-mediated translation inhibition to generate an effective immune response.

  19. Interspecies communication in the gut, from bacterial delivery to host-cell response

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Kim; Hecht, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal pathogens have a wide variety of strategies for communicating with host epithelial cells. This review highlights a few key examples of those strategies. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to alter host ion transport through both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Salmonella use a similar T3SS to invade host cells and modify an intracellular vacuole, which also impacts host vesicle trafficking. Helicobacter pylori use host cell integrins to provide a conformational change which drives the type IV secretion system into the host cell for delivery of CagA. The novel type VI section systems are phage-like apparati that deliver VgrG-1, which causes actin cross-linking and fluid accumulation in a suckling mouse model. An entirely different delivery mechanism is the outer membrane vesicle (OMV) which is composed of bacterial outer membrane wrapped around contents of the periplamsic space. Enterotoxigenic E. coli use OMVs to deliver bundles of heat labile enterotoxin to host cells. Finally we discuss the host responses to these varied methods of communication. PMID:22106176

  20. Stem cell hype: media portrayal of therapy translation.

    PubMed

    Kamenova, Kalina; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-03-11

    In this Perspective, we examine the portrayal of translational stem cell research in major daily newspapers in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom between 2010 and 2013, focusing on how timelines for stem cell therapies were represented before and after Geron terminated its pioneering stem cell program. Our content analysis reveals that press coverage has shifted from ethical, legal, and social issues to clinical translation issues, and highly optimistic timelines were provided with no substantial change in representation over time. Scientists were the dominant voice with respect to translation timelines. The findings raise questions about the degree to which the media's overly optimistic slant fosters unrealistic expectations regarding the speed of clinical translation and highlight the ethical responsibility of stem cell researchers as public communicators. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. The herpes simplex virus 1 virion host shutoff protein enhances translation of viral late mRNAs by preventing mRNA overload.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Bianca; Saffran, Holly A; Smiley, James R

    2014-09-01

    We recently demonstrated that the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein, an mRNA-specific endonuclease, is required for efficient herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication and translation of viral true-late mRNAs, but not other viral and cellular mRNAs, in many cell types (B. Dauber, J. Pelletier, and J. R. Smiley, J. Virol. 85:5363-5373, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00115-11). Here, we evaluated whether the structure of true-late mRNAs or the timing of their transcription is responsible for the poor translation efficiency in the absence of vhs. To test whether the highly structured 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the true-late gC mRNA is the primary obstacle for translation initiation, we replaced it with the less structured 5'UTR of the γ-actin mRNA. However, this mutation did not restore translation in the context of a vhs-deficient virus. We then examined whether the timing of transcription affects translation efficiency at late times. To this end, we engineered a vhs-deficient virus mutant that transcribes the true-late gene US11 with immediate-early kinetics (IEUS11-ΔSma). Interestingly, IEUS11-ΔSma showed increased translational activity on the US11 transcript at late times postinfection, and US11 protein levels were restored to wild-type levels. These results suggest that mRNAs can maintain translational activity throughout the late stage of infection if they are present before translation factors and/or ribosomes become limiting. Taken together, these results provide evidence that in the absence of the mRNA-destabilizing function of vhs, accumulation of viral mRNAs overwhelms the capacity of the host translational machinery, leading to functional exclusion of the last mRNAs that are made during infection. The process of mRNA translation accounts for a significant portion of a cell's energy consumption. To ensure efficient use of cellular resources, transcription, translation, and mRNA decay are tightly linked and highly regulated. However, during

  2. At the Edge of Translation – Materials to Program Cells for Directed Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Arany, Praveen R; Mooney, David J

    2010-01-01

    The rapid advancement in basic biology knowledge, especially in the stem cell field, has created new opportunities to develop biomaterials capable of orchestrating the behavior of transplanted and host cells. Based on our current understanding of cellular differentiation, a conceptual framework for the use of materials to program cells in situ is presented, namely a domino versus a switchboard model, to highlight the use of single versus multiple cues in a controlled manner to modulate biological processes. Further, specific design principles of material systems to present soluble and insoluble cues that are capable of recruiting, programming and deploying host cells for various applications are presented. The evolution of biomaterials from simple inert substances used to fill defects, to the recent development of sophisticated material systems capable of programming cells in situ is providing a platform to translate our understanding of basic biological mechanisms to clinical care. PMID:20860763

  3. A Tale of Two RNAs during Viral Infection: How Viruses Antagonize mRNAs and Small Non-Coding RNAs in The Host Cell

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Kristina M.; Nag, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Viral infection initiates an array of changes in host gene expression. Many viruses dampen host protein expression and attempt to evade the host anti-viral defense machinery. Host gene expression is suppressed at several stages of host messenger RNA (mRNA) formation including selective degradation of translationally competent messenger RNAs. Besides mRNAs, host cells also express a variety of noncoding RNAs, including small RNAs, that may also be subject to inhibition upon viral infection. In this review we focused on different ways viruses antagonize coding and noncoding RNAs in the host cell to its advantage. PMID:27271653

  4. A Tale of Two RNAs during Viral Infection: How Viruses Antagonize mRNAs and Small Non-Coding RNAs in The Host Cell.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Kristina M; Nag, Anita

    2016-06-02

    Viral infection initiates an array of changes in host gene expression. Many viruses dampen host protein expression and attempt to evade the host anti-viral defense machinery. Host gene expression is suppressed at several stages of host messenger RNA (mRNA) formation including selective degradation of translationally competent messenger RNAs. Besides mRNAs, host cells also express a variety of noncoding RNAs, including small RNAs, that may also be subject to inhibition upon viral infection. In this review we focused on different ways viruses antagonize coding and noncoding RNAs in the host cell to its advantage.

  5. Eimeria bovis: an update on parasite-host cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Ruiz, Antonio; Taubert, Anja

    2012-10-01

    Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular protozoans and are well recognized modulators of the host cell machinery on varying levels such as host cell metabolism, MHC expression, cell cycle, or apoptosis in order to guarantee their intracellular development and survival. One of the most thoroughly examined apicomplexan pathogens demonstrating a potent manipulative capacity with respect to various host cell functions is Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoon exhibiting rapid intracellular development with small meronts in any nucleated cell, almost irrespective of the cell type or host origin. In contrast, Eimeria bovis merogony I is host- and cell type-restricted and occurs exclusively in bovine endothelial host cells. Furthermore, as a peculiarity, intracellular E. bovis meront I development is a long-lasting process (up to 3 weeks), leading to the formation of huge macromeronts of up to 300 μm in size, containing up to 120,000 merozoites I as offspring. In consequence, the necessity for intense host cell modulation to support this particular development appears even more pressing than in other apicomplexan parasite cases. Here we review the data currently available on E. bovis-host cell interactions, indicating the intriguing capacity of this protozoan to exploit and utilize its host cell for its own benefit.

  6. Translational aspects of cardiac cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Han; Sereti, Konstantina-Ioanna; Wu, Benjamin M; Ardehali, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy has been intensely studied for over a decade as a potential treatment for ischaemic heart disease. While initial trials using skeletal myoblasts, bone marrow cells and peripheral blood stem cells showed promise in improving cardiac function, benefits were found to be short-lived likely related to limited survival and engraftment of the delivered cells. The discovery of putative cardiac ‘progenitor’ cells as well as the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells has led to the delivery of cells potentially capable of electromechanical integration into existing tissue. An alternative strategy involving either direct reprogramming of endogenous cardiac fibroblasts or stimulation of resident cardiomyocytes to regenerate new myocytes can potentially overcome the limitations of exogenous cell delivery. Complimentary approaches utilizing combination cell therapy and bioengineering techniques may be necessary to provide the proper milieu for clinically significant regeneration. Clinical trials employing bone marrow cells, mesenchymal stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells have demonstrated safety of catheter based cell delivery, with suggestion of limited improvement in ventricular function and reduction in infarct size. Ongoing trials are investigating potential benefits to outcome such as morbidity and mortality. These and future trials will clarify the optimal cell types and delivery conditions for therapeutic effect. PMID:26119413

  7. Re-programming of translation following cell stress allows IRES-mediated translation to predominate.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Keith A; Stoneley, Mark; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E

    2008-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence to suggest that internal ribosome entry is required to maintain the expression of specific proteins during patho-physiological situations when cap-dependent translation is compromised, for example, following heat shock or during mitosis, hypoxia, differentiation and apoptosis. Translational profiling has been used by several groups to assess the extent to which alternative mechanisms of translation initiation selectively recruit mRNAs to polysomes during cell stress. The data from these studies have shown that under each condition 3-5% of coding mRNAs remain associated with the polysomes. Importantly, the genes identified in each of these studies do not show a significant amount of overlap, suggesting that 10-15% of all mRNAs have the capability for their initiation to occur via alternative mechanism(s).

  8. Alphavirus Infection: Host Cell Shut-Off and Inhibition of Antiviral Responses.

    PubMed

    Fros, Jelke J; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2016-06-11

    Alphaviruses cause debilitating disease in humans and animals and are transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods, typically mosquitoes. With a traditional focus on two models, Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus, alphavirus research has significantly intensified in the last decade partly due to the re-emergence and dramatic expansion of chikungunya virus in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. As a consequence, alphavirus-host interactions are now understood in much more molecular detail, and important novel mechanisms have been elucidated. It has become clear that alphaviruses not only cause a general host shut-off in infected vertebrate cells, but also specifically suppress different host antiviral pathways using their viral nonstructural proteins, nsP2 and nsP3. Here we review the current state of the art of alphavirus host cell shut-off of viral transcription and translation, and describe recent insights in viral subversion of interferon induction and signaling, the unfolded protein response, and stress granule assembly.

  9. Translational research of adult stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Gen

    2015-11-26

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to chronic coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Its prevalence is increasing despite advances in medical and device therapies. Cell based therapies generating new cardiomyocytes and vessels have emerged as a promising treatment to reverse functional deterioration and prevent the progression to CHF. Functional efficacy of progenitor cells isolated from the bone marrow and the heart have been evaluated in preclinical large animal models. Furthermore, several clinical trials using autologous and allogeneic stem cells and progenitor cells have demonstrated their safety in humans yet their clinical relevance is inconclusive. This review will discuss the clinical therapeutic applications of three specific adult stem cells that have shown particularly promising regenerative effects in preclinical studies, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell, heart derived cardiosphere-derived cell and cardiac stem cell. We will also discuss future therapeutic approaches.

  10. Translational Profiling of Clock Cells Reveals Circadianly Synchronized Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanmei; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Reijmers, Leon G.; Jackson, F. Rob

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide studies of circadian transcription or mRNA translation have been hindered by the presence of heterogeneous cell populations in complex tissues such as the nervous system. We describe here the use of a Drosophila cell-specific translational profiling approach to document the rhythmic “translatome” of neural clock cells for the first time in any organism. Unexpectedly, translation of most clock-regulated transcripts—as assayed by mRNA ribosome association—occurs at one of two predominant circadian phases, midday or mid-night, times of behavioral quiescence; mRNAs encoding similar cellular functions are translated at the same time of day. Our analysis also indicates that fundamental cellular processes—metabolism, energy production, redox state (e.g., the thioredoxin system), cell growth, signaling and others—are rhythmically modulated within clock cells via synchronized protein synthesis. Our approach is validated by the identification of mRNAs known to exhibit circadian changes in abundance and the discovery of hundreds of novel mRNAs that show translational rhythms. This includes Tdc2, encoding a neurotransmitter synthetic enzyme, which we demonstrate is required within clock neurons for normal circadian locomotor activity. PMID:24348200

  11. The Type III Secretion Translocation Pore Senses Host Cell Contact

    PubMed Central

    Armentrout, Erin I.; Rietsch, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are nano-syringes used by a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens to promote infection by directly injecting effector proteins into targeted host cells. Translocation of effectors is triggered by host-cell contact and requires assembly of a pore in the host-cell plasma membrane, which consists of two translocator proteins. Our understanding of the translocation pore, how it is assembled in the host cell membrane and its precise role in effector translocation, is extremely limited. Here we use a genetic technique to identify protein-protein contacts between pore-forming translocator proteins, as well as the T3SS needle-tip, that are critical for translocon function. The data help establish the orientation of the translocator proteins in the host cell membrane. Analysis of translocon function in mutants that break these contacts demonstrates that an interaction between the pore-forming translocator PopD and the needle-tip is required for sensing host cell contact. Moreover, tethering PopD at a dimer interface also specifically prevents host-cell sensing, arguing that the translocation pore is actively involved in detecting host cell contact. The work presented here therefore establishes a signal transduction pathway for sensing host cell contact that is initiated by a conformational change in the translocation pore, and is subsequently transmitted to the base of the apparatus via a specific contact between the pore and the T3SS needle-tip. PMID:27022930

  12. Clinical Translation of Stem Cells in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lindvall, Olle; Barker, Roger A.; Brüstle, Oliver; Isacson, Ole; Svendsen, Clive N.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells and their derivatives show tremendous potential for treating many disorders, including neurode-generative diseases. We discuss here the challenges and potential for the translation of stem-cell-based approaches into treatments for Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:22305565

  13. Exploitation of the host cell ubiquitin machinery by microbial effector proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Han; Machner, Matthias P

    2017-06-15

    Pathogenic bacteria are in a constant battle for survival with their host. In order to gain a competitive edge, they employ a variety of sophisticated strategies that allow them to modify conserved host cell processes in ways that favor bacterial survival and growth. Ubiquitylation, the covalent attachment of the small modifier ubiquitin to target proteins, is such a pathway. Ubiquitylation profoundly alters the fate of a myriad of cellular proteins by inducing changes in their stability or function, subcellular localization or interaction with other proteins. Given the importance of ubiquitylation in cell development, protein homeostasis and innate immunity, it is not surprising that this post-translational modification is exploited by a variety of effector proteins from microbial pathogens. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the many ways microbes take advantage of host ubiquitylation, along with some surprising deviations from the canonical theme. The lessons learned from the in-depth analyses of these host-pathogen interactions provide a fresh perspective on an ancient post-translational modification that we thought was well understood.This article is part of a Minifocus on Ubiquitin Regulation and Function. For further reading, please see related articles: 'Mechanisms of regulation and diversification of deubiquitylating enzyme function' by Pawel Leznicki and Yogesh Kulathu (J. Cell Sci.130, 1997-2006). 'Cell scientist to watch - Mads Gyrd-Hansen' (J. Cell Sci.130, 1981-1983). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Infrastructure development for human cell therapy translation.

    PubMed

    Dietz, A B; Padley, D J; Gastineau, D A

    2007-09-01

    The common conception of a drug is that of a chemical with defined medicinal effect. However, cells used as drugs remain critical to patient care. Cell therapy's origins began with the realization that complex tissues such as blood can retain function when transplanted to the patient. More complex transplantation followed, culminating with the understanding that transplantation of some tissues such as bone marrow may act medicinally. Administration of cells with an intended therapeutic effect is a hallmark of cellular therapy. While cells have been used as drugs for decades, testing a specific therapeutic effect of cells has begun clinical testing relatively recently. Lessons learned during the establishment of blood banking (including the importance of quality control, process control, sterility, and product tracking) are key components in the assurance of the safety and potency of cell therapy preparations. As more academic medical centers and private companies move toward exploiting the full potential of cells as drugs, needs arise for the development of the infrastructure necessary to support these investigations. Careful consideration of the design of the structure used to manufacture is important in terms of the significant capital outlay involved and the facility's role in achieving regulatory compliance. This development perspective describes the regulatory environment surrounding the infrastructure support for cell therapy and practical aspects for design consideration with particular focus on those activities associated with early clinical trials.

  15. Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Tamara R.; Clarke, Megan A.; Dean, Michael; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements. HPV-associated cancers have recurrent somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), human leukocyte antigen A and B (HLA-A and HLA-B)-A/B, and the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, and rarely have mutations in the tumor protein p53 (TP53) and RB transcriptional corepressor 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor genes. There are some variations by tumor site, such as NOTCH1 mutations which are primarily found in head and neck cancers. Understanding the somatic events following HPV infection and persistence can aid the development of early detection biomarkers, particularly when mutations in precancers are characterized. Somatic mutations may also influence prognosis and treatment decisions. PMID:28771191

  16. Subversion of Cell-Autonomous Host Defense by Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Annette; Rudel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Obligate intracellular bacteria entirely depend on the metabolites of their host cell for survival and generation of progeny. Due to their lifestyle inside a eukaryotic cell and the lack of any extracellular niche, they have to perfectly adapt to compartmentalized intracellular environment of the host cell and counteract the numerous defense strategies intrinsically present in all eukaryotic cells. This so-called cell-autonomous defense is present in all cell types encountering Chlamydia infection and is in addition closely linked to the cellular innate immune defense of the mammalian host. Cell type and chlamydial species-restricted mechanisms point a long-term evolutionary adaptation that builds the basis of the currently observed host and cell-type tropism among different Chlamydia species. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the strategies pathogenic Chlamydia species have developed to subvert and overcome the multiple mechanisms by which eukaryotic cells defend themselves against intracellular pathogens.

  17. Ethical clinical translation of stem cell interventions for neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Cote, David J; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Smith, Timothy R; Ammirati, Mario; Brennum, Jannick; Mendez, Ivar; Ammar, Ahmed S; Balak, Naci; Bolles, Gene; Esene, Ignatius Ngene; Mathiesen, Tiit; Broekman, Marike L

    2017-01-17

    The application of stem cell transplants in clinical practice has increased in frequency in recent years. Many of the stem cell transplants in neurologic diseases, including stroke, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, and demyelinating diseases, are unproven-they have not been tested in prospective, controlled clinical trials and have not become accepted therapies. Stem cell transplant procedures currently being carried out have therapeutic aims, but are frequently experimental and unregulated, and could potentially put patients at risk. In some cases, patients undergoing such operations are not included in a clinical trial, and do not provide genuinely informed consent. For these reasons and others, some current stem cell interventions for neurologic diseases are ethically dubious and could jeopardize progress in the field. We provide discussion points for the evaluation of new stem cell interventions for neurologic disease, based primarily on the new Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation released by the International Society for Stem Cell Research in May 2016. Important considerations in the ethical translation of stem cells to clinical practice include regulatory oversight, conflicts of interest, data sharing, the nature of investigation (e.g., within vs outside of a clinical trial), informed consent, risk-benefit ratios, the therapeutic misconception, and patient vulnerability. To help guide the translation of stem cells from the laboratory into the neurosurgical clinic in an ethically sound manner, we present an ethical discussion of these major issues at stake in the field of stem cell clinical research for neurologic disease. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Cell-based therapy technology classifications and translational challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Natalie M.; Ward, Stephen J.; Kefalas, Panos; Hyllner, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapies offer the promise of treating and altering the course of diseases which cannot be addressed adequately by existing pharmaceuticals. Cell therapies are a diverse group across cell types and therapeutic indications and have been an active area of research for many years but are now strongly emerging through translation and towards successful commercial development and patient access. In this article, we present a description of a classification of cell therapies on the basis of their underlying technologies rather than the more commonly used classification by cell type because the regulatory path and manufacturing solutions are often similar within a technology area due to the nature of the methods used. We analyse the progress of new cell therapies towards clinical translation, examine how they are addressing the clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and reimbursement requirements, describe some of the remaining challenges and provide perspectives on how the field may progress for the future. PMID:26416686

  19. Optimizing cell sourcing for clinical translation of tissue engineered ears.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kerry A; Cohen, Benjamin P; Asanbe, Ope; Dong, Xue; Harper, Alice; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Spector, Jason A

    2016-12-05

    Background . Currently, the major impediment to clinical translation of our previously described platform for the fabrication of high fidelity, patient-specific tissue engineered ears is the development of a clinically optimal cell sourcing strategy. A limited autologous auricular chondrocyte (AuC) supply in conjunction with rapid chondrocyte de-differentiation during in vitro expansion currently makes clinical translation more challenging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant promise due to their inherent chondrogenic potential, and large availability through minimally invasive procedures. Herein, we demonstrate the promise of AuC/MSC co-culture to fabricate elastic cartilage using 50% fewer AuC than standard approaches.

  20. Spectroscopic translation of cell-material interactions.

    PubMed

    Allen, Josephine; Liu, Yang; Kim, Young L; Turzhitsky, Vladimir M; Backman, Vadim; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of cellular interactions with a biomaterial surface is important to the development of novel biomaterials. Traditional methods used to characterize processes such as cellular adhesion and differentiation on biomaterials can be time consuming, and destructive, and are not amenable to quantitative assessment in situ. As the development of novel biomaterials shifts towards small-scale, combinatorial, and high throughput approaches, new techniques will be required to rapidly screen and characterize cell/biomaterial interactions. Towards this goal, we assessed the feasibility of using 4-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprinting (4D-ELF) to describe the differentiation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), as well as the adhesion, and apoptotic processes of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), in a quantitative and non-perturbing manner. HASMC and HAEC were cultured under conditions to induce cell differentiation, attachment, and apoptosis which were evaluated via immunohistochemistry, microscopy, biochemistry, and 4D-ELF. The results show that 4D-ELF detected changes in the size distributions of subcellular organelles and structures that were associated with these specific cellular processes. 4D-ELF is a novel way to assess cell phenotype, strength of adhesion, and the onset of apoptosis on a biomaterial surface and could potentially be used as a rapid and quantitative screening tool to provide a more in-depth understanding of cell/biomaterial interactions.

  1. Interaction of chlamydiae and host cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, J W

    1991-01-01

    The obligately intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia, which is only remotely related to other eubacterial genera, cause many diseases of humans, nonhuman mammals, and birds. Interaction of chlamydiae with host cells in vitro has been studied as a model of infection in natural hosts and as an example of the adaptation of an organism to an unusual environment, the inside of another living cell. Among the novel adaptations made by chlamydiae have been the substitution of disulfide-bond-cross-linked polypeptides for peptidoglycans and the use of host-generated nucleotide triphosphates as sources of metabolic energy. The effect of contact between chlamydiae and host cells in culture varies from no effect at all to rapid destruction of either chlamydiae or host cells. When successful infection occurs, it is usually followed by production of large numbers of progeny and destruction of host cells. However, host cells containing chlamydiae sometimes continue to divide, with or without overt signs of infection, and chlamydiae may persist indefinitely in cell cultures. Some of the many factors that influence the outcome of chlamydia-host cell interaction are kind of chlamydiae, kind of host cells, mode of chlamydial entry, nutritional adequacy of the culture medium, presence of antimicrobial agents, and presence of immune cells and soluble immune factors. General characteristics of chlamydial multiplication in cells of their natural hosts are reproduced in established cell lines, but reproduction in vitro of the subtle differences in chlamydial behavior responsible for the individuality of the different chlamydial diseases will require better in vitro models. PMID:2030670

  2. Translating stem cell research: challenges at the research frontier.

    PubMed

    Magnus, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper will address the translation of basic stem cell research into clinical research. While "stem cell" trials are sometimes used to describe established practices of bone marrow transplantation or transplantation of primary cells derived from bone marrow, for the purposes of this paper, I am primarily focusing on stem cell trials which are far less established, including use of hESC derived stem cells. The central ethical challenges in stem cell clinical trials arise in frontier research, not in standard, well-established areas of research.

  3. Methods for production of proteins in host cells

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2004-01-13

    The present invention provides methods for the production of proteins, particularly toxic proteins, in host cells. The invention provides methods which use a fusion protein comprising a chaperonin binding domain in host cells induced or regulated to have increased levels of chaperonin which binds the chaperonin binding domain.

  4. Host cells and methods for production of isobutanol

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Larry Cameron; He, Hongxian; Huang, Lixuan Lisa; Okeefe, Daniel P.; Kruckeberg, Arthur Leo; Li, Yougen; Maggio-Hall, Lori Ann; McElvain, Jessica; Nelson, Mark J.; Patnaik, Ranjan; Rothman, Steven Cary

    2016-08-23

    Provided herein are recombinant yeast host cells and methods for their use for production of isobutanol. Yeast host cells provided comprise an isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and at least one of reduced or eliminated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, reduced or eliminated acetolactate reductase activity; or a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide having ketol-acid reductoisomerase activity.

  5. Host cells and methods for production of isobutanol

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Larry Cameron; He, Hongxian; Huang, Lixuan Lisa; Okeefe, Daniel P.; Kruckeberg, Arthur Leo; Li, Yougen; Maggio-Hall, Lori Ann; McElvain, Jessica; Nelson, Mark J.; Patnaik, Ranjan; Rothman, Steven Cary

    2016-08-23

    Provided herein are recombinant yeast host cells and methods for their use for production of isobutanol. Yeast host cells provided comprise an isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and at least one of reduced or eliminated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, reduced or eliminated acetolactate reductase activity; or a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide having ketol-acid reductoisomerase activity.

  6. Hijacking Host Cell Highways: Manipulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton by Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Colonne, Punsiri M; Winchell, Caylin G; Voth, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems. A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. Cytoskeletal rearrangement promotes numerous events that are beneficial to the pathogen, including internalization of bacteria, structural support for bacteria-containing vacuoles, altered vesicular trafficking, actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that manipulate the host cytoskeleton to thrive within eukaryotic cells and discusses underlying molecular mechanisms that promote these dynamic host-pathogen interactions.

  7. Translating cell survival and cell longevity into treatment strategies with SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Maiese, K; Chong, Z Z; Shang, Yan Chen; Wang, S

    2011-01-01

    The sirtuin SIRT1, a class III NAD(+)-dependent protein histone deacetylase, is present throughout the body that involves cells of the central nervous system, immune system, cardiovascular system, and the musculoskeletal system. SIRT1 has broad biological effects that affect cellular metabolism as well as cellular survival and longevity that can impact both acute and chronic disease processes that involve neurodegenerative disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Given the intricate relationship SIRT1 holds with a host of signal transduction pathways ranging from transcription factors, such as forkhead, to cytokines and growth factors, such as erythropoietin, it becomes critical to elucidate the cellular pathways of SIRT1 to safely and effectively develop and translate novel avenues of treatment for multiple disease entities.

  8. Inhibition of Plasmodium sporozoites infection by targeting the host cell

    PubMed Central

    Leitao, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Ana

    2010-01-01

    There is a great need of new drugs against malaria because of the increasing spread of parasite resistance against the most commonly used drugs in the field. We found that monensin, a common veterinary antibiotic, has a strong inhibitory effect in Plasmodium berghei and P. yoelii sporozoites hepatocyte infection in vitro. Infection of host cells by another apicomplexan parasite with a similar mechanism of host cell invasion, Toxoplasma tachyzoites, was also inhibited. Treatment of mice with monensin abrogates liver infection with P. berghei sporozoites in vivo. We also found that at low concentrations monensin inhibits the infection of Plasmodium sporozoites by rendering host cells resistant to infection, rather than having a direct effect on sporozoites. Monensin effect is targeted to the initial stages of parasite invasion of the host cell with little or no effect on development, suggesting that this antibiotic affects an essential host cell component that is required for Plasmodium sporozoite invasion. PMID:20493847

  9. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4G Is Targeted for Proteolytic Cleavage by Caspase 3 during Inhibition of Translation in Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marissen, Wilfred E.; Lloyd, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    Although much is known about the multiple mechanisms which induce apoptosis, comparatively little is understood concerning the execution phase of apoptosis and the mechanism(s) of cell killing. Several reports have demonstrated that cellular translation is shut off during apoptosis; however, details of the mechanism of translation inhibition are lacking. Translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) is a crucial protein required for binding cellular mRNA to ribosomes and is known to be cleaved as the central part of the mechanism of host translation shutoff exerted by several animal viruses. Treatment of HeLa cells with the apoptosis inducers cisplatin and etoposide resulted in cleavage of eIF4G, and the extent of its cleavage correlated with the onset and extent of observed inhibition of cellular translation. The eIF4G-specific cleavage activity could be measured in cell lysates in vitro and was inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO at nanomolar concentrations. A combination of in vivo and in vitro inhibitor studies suggest the involvement of one or more caspases in the activation and execution of eIF4G cleavage. Furthermore recombinant human caspase 3 was expressed in bacteria, and when incubated with HeLa cell lysates, was shown to produce the same eIF4G cleavage products as those observed in apoptotic cells. In addition, purified caspase 3 caused cleavage of purified eIF4G, demonstrating that eIF4G could serve as a substrate for caspase 3. Taken together, these data suggest that cellular translation is specifically inhibited during apoptosis by a mechanism involving cleavage of eIF4G, an event dependent on caspase activity. PMID:9819442

  10. Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, K.; Lokugamage, K.G.; Makino, S.

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5′ capped and 3′ polyadenylated. The 5′-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15–16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3′-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5′ leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. This chapter describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in coronavirus mRNA translation and changes in host mRNA translation observed in coronavirus-infected cells. PMID:27712623

  11. Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Lokugamage, K G; Makino, S

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated. The 5'-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15-16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3'-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5' leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. This chapter describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in coronavirus mRNA translation and changes in host mRNA translation observed in coronavirus-infected cells.

  12. Intracellular Theileria annulata Promote Invasive Cell Motility through Kinase Regulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Min; Baumgartner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular, protozoan Theileria species parasites are the only eukaryotes known to transform another eukaryotic cell. One consequence of this parasite-dependent transformation is the acquisition of motile and invasive properties of parasitized cells in vitro and their metastatic dissemination in the animal, which causes East Coast Fever (T. parva) or Tropical Theileriosis (T. annulata). These motile and invasive properties of infected host cells are enabled by parasite-dependent, poorly understood F-actin dynamics that control host cell membrane protrusions. Herein, we dissected functional and structural alterations that cause acquired motility and invasiveness of T. annulata-infected cells, to understand the molecular basis driving cell dissemination in Tropical Theileriosis. We found that chronic induction of TNFα by the parasite contributes to motility and invasiveness of parasitized host cells. We show that TNFα does so by specifically targeting expression and function of the host proto-oncogenic ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. Blocking either TNFα secretion or MAP4K4 expression dampens the formation of polar, F-actin-rich invasion structures and impairs cell motility in 3D. We identified the F-actin binding ERM family proteins as MAP4K4 downstream effectors in this process because TNFα-induced ERM activation and cell invasiveness are sensitive to MAP4K4 depletion. MAP4K4 expression in infected cells is induced by TNFα-JNK signalling and maintained by the inhibition of translational repression, whereby both effects are parasite dependent. Thus, parasite-induced TNFα promotes invasive motility of infected cells through the activation of MAP4K4, an evolutionary conserved kinase that controls cytoskeleton dynamics and cell motility. Hence, MAP4K4 couples inflammatory signaling to morphodynamic processes and cell motility, a process exploited by the intracellular Theileria parasite to increase its host cell's dissemination capabilities. PMID:24626571

  13. Cell fate determination by ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Achim; Iwasaki, Shintaro; McGourty, Colleen; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Teerikorpi, Nia; Fedrigo, Indro; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Rape, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan development depends on accurate execution of differentiation programs that allow pluripotent stem cells to adopt specific fates 1. Differentiation requires changes to chromatin architecture and transcriptional networks, yet whether other regulatory events support cell fate determination is less well understood. Here, we have identified the vertebrate-specific ubiquitin ligase CUL3KBTBD8 as an essential regulator of neural crest specification. CUL3KBTBD8 monoubiquitylates NOLC1 and its paralog TCOF1, whose mutation underlies the neurocristopathy Treacher Collins Syndrome 2,3. Ubiquitylation drives formation of a TCOF1-NOLC1 platform that connects RNA polymerase I with ribosome modification enzymes and remodels the translational program of differentiating cells in favor of neural crest specification. We conclude that ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation is an important feature of cell fate determination. PMID:26399832

  14. Aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methyltransferases block endogenous methylation, affect translation efficiency and fitness of the host

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Goussard, Sylvie; Guerineau, Vincent; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Courvalin, Patrice; Galimand, Marc; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, acquired 16S rRNA methyltransferases ArmA and NpmA confer high-level resistance to all clinically useful aminoglycosides by modifying, respectively, G1405 and A1408 in the A-site. These enzymes must coexist with several endogenous methyltransferases that are essential for fine-tuning of the decoding center, such as RsmH and RsmI in Escherichia coli, which methylate C1402 and RsmF C1407. The resistance methyltransferases have a contrasting distribution—ArmA has spread worldwide, whereas a single clinical isolate producing NpmA has been reported. The rate of dissemination of resistance depends on the fitness cost associated with its expression. We have compared ArmA and NpmA in isogenic Escherichia coli harboring the corresponding structural genes and their inactive point mutants cloned under the control of their native constitutive promoter in the stable plasmid pGB2. Growth rate determination and competition experiments showed that ArmA had a fitness cost due to methylation of G1405, whereas NpmA conferred only a slight disadvantage to the host due to production of the enzyme. MALDI MS indicated that ArmA impeded one of the methylations at C1402 by RsmI, and not at C1407 as previously proposed, whereas NpmA blocked the activity of RsmF at C1407. A dual luciferase assay showed that methylation at G1405 and A1408 and lack of methylation at C1407 affect translation accuracy. These results indicate that resistance methyltransferases impair endogenous methylation with different consequences on cell fitness. PMID:24398977

  15. An efficient in vitro translation system from mammalian cells lacking the translational inhibition caused by eIF2 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zeenko, Vladimir V.; Wang, Chuanping; Majumder, Mithu; Komar, Anton A.; Snider, Martin D.; Merrick, William C.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In vitro translation systems are used to investigate translational mechanisms and to synthesize proteins for characterization. Most available mammalian cell-free systems have reduced efficiency due to decreased translation initiation caused by phosphorylation of the initiation factor eIF2α on Ser51. We describe here a novel cell-free protein synthesis system using extracts from cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts that are homozygous for the Ser51 to- Ala mutation in eIF2α (A/A cells). The translation efficiency of a capped and polyadenylated firefly luciferase mRNA in A/A cell extracts was 30-fold higher than in wild-type extracts. Protein synthesis in extracts from A/A cells was active for at least 2 h and generated up to 20 μg/mL of luciferase protein. Additionally, the A/A cell-free system faithfully recapitulated the selectivity of in vivo translation for mRNA features; translation was stimulated by a 5′-end cap (m7GpppN) and a 3′-end poly(A) tail in a synergistic manner. The system also showed similar efficiencies of cap-dependent and IRES-mediated translation (EMCV IRES). Significantly, the A/A cell-free system supported the post-translational modification of proteins, as shown by glycosylation of the HIV type-1 gp120 and cleavage of the signal peptide from β-lactamase. We propose that cell-free systems from A/A cells can be a useful tool for investigating mechanisms of mammalian mRNA translation and for the production of recombinant proteins for molecular studies. In addition, cell-free systems from differentiated cells with the Ser51Ala mutation should provide a means for investigating cell type-specific features of protein synthesis. PMID:18230759

  16. Safeguarding clinical translation of pluripotent stem cells with suicide genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2013-01-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) opens a new avenue in regenerative medicine. However, transplantation of hiPSC-derived cells carries a risk of tumor formation by residual pluripotent stem cells. Numerous adaptive strategies have been developed to prevent or minimize adverse events and control the in vivo behavior of transplanted stem cells and their progeny. Among them, the application of suicide gene modifications, which is conceptually similar to cancer gene therapy, is considered an ideal means to control wayward stem cell progeny in vivo. In this review, the choices of vectors, promoters, and genes for use in suicide gene approaches for improving the safety of hiPSCs-based cell therapy are introduced and possible new strategies for improvements are discussed. Safety-enhancing strategies that can selectively ablate undifferentiated cells without inducing virus infection or insertional mutations may greatly aid in translating human pluripotent stem cells into cell therapies in the future.

  17. Determinants of Initiation Codon Selection during Translation in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Daiki; Mauro, Vincent P.

    2010-01-01

    Factors affecting translation of mRNA contribute to the complexity of eukaryotic proteomes. In some cases, translation of a particular mRNA can generate multiple proteins. However, the factors that determine whether ribosomes initiate translation from the first AUG codon in the transcript, from a downstream codon, or from multiple sites are not completely understood. Various mRNA properties, including AUG codon-accessibility and 5′ leader length have been proposed as potential determinants that affect where ribosomes initiate translation. To explore this issue, we performed studies using synthetic mRNAs with two in-frame AUG codons−both in excellent context. Open reading frames initiating at AUG1 and AUG2 encode large and small isoforms of a reporter protein, respectively. Translation of such an mRNA in COS-7 cells was shown to be 5′ cap-dependent and to occur efficiently from both AUG codons. AUG codon-accessibility was modified by using two different elements: an antisense locked nucleic acid oligonucleotide and an exon-junction complex. When either element was used to mask AUG1, the ratio of the proteins synthesized changed, favoring the smaller (AUG2-initiated) protein. In addition, we observed that increased leader length by itself changed the ratio of the proteins and favored initiation at AUG1. These observations demonstrate that initiation codon selection is affected by various factors, including AUG codon-accessibility and 5′ leader length, and is not necessarily determined by the order of AUG codons (5′→3′). The modulation of AUG codon accessibility may provide a powerful means of translation regulation in eukaryotic cells. PMID:21124832

  18. Host manipulation by cancer cells: Expectations, facts, and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Tissot, Tazzio; Arnal, Audrey; Jacqueline, Camille; Poulin, Robert; Lefèvre, Thierry; Mery, Frédéric; Renaud, François; Roche, Benjamin; Massol, François; Salzet, Michel; Ewald, Paul; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Ujvari, Beata; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Similar to parasites, cancer cells depend on their hosts for sustenance, proliferation and reproduction, exploiting the hosts for energy and resources, and thereby impairing their health and fitness. Because of this lifestyle similarity, it is predicted that cancer cells could, like numerous parasitic organisms, evolve the capacity to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts to increase their own fitness. We claim that the extent of this phenomenon and its therapeutic implications are, however, underappreciated. Here, we review and discuss what can be regarded as cases of host manipulation in the context of cancer development and progression. We elaborate on how acknowledging the applicability of these principles can offer novel therapeutic and preventive strategies. The manipulation of host phenotype by cancer cells is one more reason to adopt a Darwinian approach in cancer research.

  19. The cis-acting replication element of the Hepatitis C virus genome recruits host factors that influence viral replication and translation

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Marco, Pablo; Romero-López, Cristina; Berzal-Herranz, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The cis-acting replication element (CRE) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome is a region of conserved sequence and structure at the 3′ end of the open reading frame. It participates in a complex and dynamic RNA-RNA interaction network involving, among others, essential functional domains of the 3′ untranslated region and the internal ribosome entry site located at the 5′ terminus of the viral genome. A proper balance between all these contacts is critical for the control of viral replication and translation, and is likely dependent on host factors. Proteomic analyses identified a collection of proteins from a hepatoma cell line as CRE-interacting candidates. A large fraction of these were RNA-binding proteins sharing highly conserved RNA recognition motifs. The vast majority of these proteins were validated by bioinformatics tools that consider RNA-protein secondary structure. Further characterization of representative proteins indicated that hnRNPA1 and HMGB1 exerted negative effects on viral replication in a subgenomic HCV replication system. Furthermore DDX5 and PARP1 knockdown reduced the HCV IRES activity, suggesting an involvement of these proteins in HCV translation. The identification of all these host factors provides new clues regarding the function of the CRE during viral cycle progression. PMID:27165399

  20. Specific nature of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitism of host cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alderete, J F; Garza, G E

    1985-12-01

    The adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to host cells was evaluated by using monolayer cultures of HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells and human fibroblast cell lines. Saturation of sites on HeLa cells was achieved, yielding a maximal T. vaginalis NYH 286-to-cell ratio of two. The ability of radiolabeled NYH 286 to compete with unlabeled trichomonads for attachment and the time, temperature, and pH-dependent nature of host cell parasitism reinforced the idea of specific parasite-cell associations. Other trichomonal isolates (JH31A, RU375, and JHHR) were also found to adhere to cell monolayers, albeit to different degrees, and all isolates produced maximal contact-dependent HeLa cell cytotoxicity. The avirulent trichomonad, Trichomonas tenax, did not adhere to cell monolayers and did not cause host cell damage. Interestingly, parasite cytadherence was greater with HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells than with fibroblast cells. In addition, cytotoxicity with fibroblast cells never exceeded 20% of the level of cell killing observed for epithelial cells. Elucidation of properties of the pathogenic human trichomonads that allowed for host cell surface parasitism was also attempted. Treatment of motile T. vaginalis NYH 286 with trypsin diminished cell parasitism. Incubation of trypsinized organisms in growth medium allowed for regeneration of trichomonal adherence, and cycloheximide inhibited the regeneration of attachment. Organisms poisoned with metronidazole or iodoacetate failed to attach to host cells, and adherent trichomonads exposed to metronidazole or iodoacetate were readily released from parasitized cells. Coincubation experiments with polycationic proteins and sugars and pretreatment of parasites or cells with neuraminidase or periodate had no effect on host cell parasitism. Colchicine and cytochalasin B, however, did produce some inhibition of adherence to HeLa cells. The data suggest that metabolizing T. vaginalis adheres to host cells via parasite surface

  1. Specific nature of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitism of host cell surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, J F; Garza, G E

    1985-01-01

    The adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to host cells was evaluated by using monolayer cultures of HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells and human fibroblast cell lines. Saturation of sites on HeLa cells was achieved, yielding a maximal T. vaginalis NYH 286-to-cell ratio of two. The ability of radiolabeled NYH 286 to compete with unlabeled trichomonads for attachment and the time, temperature, and pH-dependent nature of host cell parasitism reinforced the idea of specific parasite-cell associations. Other trichomonal isolates (JH31A, RU375, and JHHR) were also found to adhere to cell monolayers, albeit to different degrees, and all isolates produced maximal contact-dependent HeLa cell cytotoxicity. The avirulent trichomonad, Trichomonas tenax, did not adhere to cell monolayers and did not cause host cell damage. Interestingly, parasite cytadherence was greater with HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells than with fibroblast cells. In addition, cytotoxicity with fibroblast cells never exceeded 20% of the level of cell killing observed for epithelial cells. Elucidation of properties of the pathogenic human trichomonads that allowed for host cell surface parasitism was also attempted. Treatment of motile T. vaginalis NYH 286 with trypsin diminished cell parasitism. Incubation of trypsinized organisms in growth medium allowed for regeneration of trichomonal adherence, and cycloheximide inhibited the regeneration of attachment. Organisms poisoned with metronidazole or iodoacetate failed to attach to host cells, and adherent trichomonads exposed to metronidazole or iodoacetate were readily released from parasitized cells. Coincubation experiments with polycationic proteins and sugars and pretreatment of parasites or cells with neuraminidase or periodate had no effect on host cell parasitism. Colchicine and cytochalasin B, however, did produce some inhibition of adherence to HeLa cells. The data suggest that metabolizing T. vaginalis adheres to host cells via parasite surface

  2. Metabolic adaptation of Chlamydia trachomatis to mammalian host cells.

    PubMed

    Mehlitz, Adrian; Eylert, Eva; Huber, Claudia; Lindner, Buko; Vollmuth, Nadine; Karunakaran, Karthika; Goebel, Werner; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Rudel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic adaptation is a key feature for the virulence of pathogenic intracellular bacteria. Nevertheless, little is known about the pathways in adapting the bacterial metabolism to multiple carbon sources available from the host cell. To analyze the metabolic adaptation of the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, we labeled infected HeLa or Caco-2 cells with (13) C-marked glucose, glutamine, malate or a mix of amino acids as tracers. Comparative GC-MS-based isotopologue analysis of protein-derived amino acids from the host cell and the bacterial fraction showed that C. trachomatis efficiently imported amino acids from the host cell for protein biosynthesis. FT-ICR-MS analyses also demonstrated that label from exogenous (13) C-glucose was efficiently shuffled into chlamydial lipopolysaccharide probably via glucose 6-phosphate of the host cell. Minor fractions of bacterial Ala, Asp, and Glu were made de novo probably using dicarboxylates from the citrate cycle of the host cell. Indeed, exogenous (13) C-malate was efficiently taken up by C. trachomatis and metabolized into fumarate and succinate when the bacteria were kept in axenic medium containing the malate tracer. Together, the data indicate co-substrate usage of intracellular C. trachomatis in a stream-lined bipartite metabolism with host cell-supplied amino acids for protein biosynthesis, host cell-provided glucose 6-phosphate for cell wall biosynthesis, and, to some extent, one or more host cell-derived dicarboxylates, e.g. malate, feeding the partial TCA cycle of the bacterium. The latter flux could also support the biosynthesis of meso-2,6-diaminopimelate required for the formation of chlamydial peptidoglycan.

  3. Relationship between Eimeria tenella development and host cell apoptosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Ming-xue; Xu, Zhi-yong; Xu, Huan-cheng; Cui, Xiao-zhen; Yang, Sha-sha; Zhao, Wen-long; Li, Shan; Lv, Qiang-hua; Bai, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Coccidiosis causes considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. At present, the pathology of coccidiosis is preventable with anticoccidials and vaccination, although at considerable cost to the international poultry industry. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between Eimeria tenella development and host cell apoptosis in chickens, which provides a theoretical basis for further study of the injury mechanism of E. tenella and the prevention and treatment of coccidiosis. Cecal epithelial cells from chick embryo were used as host cells in vitro. In addition, flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling, and histopathological assays were used to detect the dynamic changes in E. tenella infection rates, DNA injury rates, and apoptosis rates in groups treated with and without the caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK. Following E. tenella infection, we demonstrated that untreated cells had less apoptosis at 4 h and, inversely, more apoptosis at 24 to 120 h compared with control cells. Furthermore, after the application of Z-LEHD-FMK, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assays, and translation of phosphatidyl serines to the host cell plasma membrane surface, the treated group chick embryo cecal epithelial cells exhibited decreased apoptosis and DNA injuries (P<0.01) at 24 to 120 h. However, light microscopy showed that E. tenella infection rates of treated cells were higher (P<0.01) than untreated cells during the whole experimental period. Together, these observations suggest that E. tenella can protect host cells from apoptosis at early stages of development but can promote apoptosis during the middle to late stages. In addition, the inhibition of host cell apoptosis can be beneficial to the intracellular growth and development of E. tenella.

  4. Translating microfluidics: Cell separation technologies and their barriers to commercialization.

    PubMed

    Shields, C Wyatt; Ohiri, Korine A; Szott, Luisa M; López, Gabriel P

    2017-03-01

    Advances in microfluidic cell sorting have revolutionized the ways in which cell-containing fluids are processed, now providing performances comparable to, or exceeding, traditional systems, but in a vastly miniaturized format. These technologies exploit a wide variety of physical phenomena to manipulate cells and fluid flow, such as magnetic traps, sound waves and flow-altering micropatterns, and they can evaluate single cells by immobilizing them onto surfaces for chemotherapeutic assessment, encapsulate cells into picoliter droplets for toxicity screenings and examine the interactions between pairs of cells in response to new, experimental drugs. However, despite the massive surge of innovation in these high-performance lab-on-a-chip devices, few have undergone successful commercialization, and no device has been translated to a widely distributed clinical commodity to date. Persistent challenges such as an increasingly saturated patent landscape as well as complex user interfaces are among several factors that may contribute to their slowed progress. In this article, we identify several of the leading microfluidic technologies for sorting cells that are poised for clinical translation; we examine the principal barriers preventing their routine clinical use; finally, we provide a prospectus to elucidate the key criteria that must be met to overcome those barriers. Once established, these tools may soon transform how clinical labs study various ailments and diseases by separating cells for downstream sequencing and enabling other forms of advanced cellular or sub-cellular analysis. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. Coral host cells acidify symbiotic algal microenvironment to promote photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barott, Katie L.; Venn, Alexander A.; Perez, Sidney O.; Tambutté, Sylvie; Tresguerres, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the algae abundantly expresses vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA), which acidifies the symbiosome space down to pH ∼4. Inhibition of VHA results in a significant decrease in average H+ activity in the symbiosome of up to 75% and a significant reduction in O2 production rate, a measure of photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that host VHA is part of a previously unidentified carbon concentrating mechanism for algal photosynthesis and provide mechanistic evidence that coral host cells can actively modulate the physiology of their symbionts. PMID:25548188

  6. Coral host cells acidify symbiotic algal microenvironment to promote photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Venn, Alexander A; Perez, Sidney O; Tambutté, Sylvie; Tresguerres, Martin

    2015-01-13

    Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the algae abundantly expresses vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA), which acidifies the symbiosome space down to pH ∼ 4. Inhibition of VHA results in a significant decrease in average H(+) activity in the symbiosome of up to 75% and a significant reduction in O2 production rate, a measure of photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that host VHA is part of a previously unidentified carbon concentrating mechanism for algal photosynthesis and provide mechanistic evidence that coral host cells can actively modulate the physiology of their symbionts.

  7. Capacitive immunosensor for the detection of host cell proteins.

    PubMed

    Teeparuksapun, Kosin; Hedström, Martin; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Mattiasson, Bo

    2012-01-01

    A new analysis for monitoring host cell proteins in preparations of transgenically produced protein pharmaceuticals is described. A capacitive biosensor with a very high sensitivity is used to monitor trace amounts of host cell proteins. The sensor consists of a gold electrode, the surface of which is well insulated and on which a preparation of a population of polyclonal antibodies raised against the complete protein set-up of the host cell are immobilized. Host cell proteins are present at very low concentrations during the production of a transgenic protein. The system studied here is a model system with an enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Due to the high sensitivity, it may even be possible to dilute the samples to be analyzed, thereby reducing a negative influence from non-specific binding to the sensor surface.

  8. Fungal Invasion of Normally Non-Phagocytic Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Filler, Scott G; Sheppard, Donald C

    2006-01-01

    Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research. PMID:17196036

  9. Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells.

    PubMed

    Filler, Scott G; Sheppard, Donald C

    2006-12-01

    Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research.

  10. Host cells and methods for producing isoprenyl alkanoates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taek Soon; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-12-01

    The invention provides for a method of producing an isoprenyl alkanoate in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses an enzyme capable of catalyzing the esterification of an isoprenol and a straight-chain fatty acid, such as an alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) or lipase, under a suitable condition so that the isoprenyl alkanoate is produced.

  11. Hierarchies of Host Factor Dynamics at the Entry Site of Shigella flexneri during Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Soudeh; Santos, José Carlos; Rodrigues, Cristina D.; Henriques, Ricardo; Audry, Laurent; Zimmer, Christophe; Sansonetti, Philippe; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, induces massive cytoskeletal rearrangement, resulting in its entry into nonphagocytic epithelial cells. The bacterium-engulfing membrane ruffles are formed by polymerizing actin, a process activated through injected bacterial effectors that target host small GTPases and tyrosine kinases. Once inside the host cell, S. flexneri escapes from the endocytic vacuole within minutes to move intra- and intercellularly. We quantified the fluorescence signals from fluorescently tagged host factors that are recruited to the site of pathogen entry and vacuolar escape. Quantitative time lapse fluorescence imaging revealed simultaneous recruitment of polymerizing actin, small GTPases of the Rho family, and tyrosine kinases. In contrast, we found that actin surrounding the vacuole containing bacteria dispersed first from the disassembling membranes, whereas other host factors remained colocalized with the membrane remnants. Furthermore, we found that the disassembly of the membrane remnants took place rapidly, within minutes after bacterial release into the cytoplasm. Superresolution visualization of galectin 3 through photoactivated localization microscopy characterized these remnants as small, specular, patchy structures between 30 and 300 nm in diameter. Using our experimental setup to track the time course of infection, we identified the S. flexneri effector IpgB1 as an accelerator of the infection pace, specifically targeting the entry step, but not vacuolar progression or escape. Together, our studies show that bacterial entry into host cells follows precise kinetics and that this time course can be targeted by the pathogen. PMID:22526677

  12. Listeria monocytogenes induces host DNA damage and delays the host cell cycle to promote infection

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Elsa; Costa, Ana Catarina; Brito, Cláudia; Costa, Lionel; Pombinho, Rita; Cabanes, Didier; Sousa, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a human intracellular pathogen widely used to uncover the mechanisms evolved by pathogens to establish infection. However, its capacity to perturb the host cell cycle was never reported. We show that Lm infection affects the host cell cycle progression, increasing its overall duration but allowing consecutive rounds of division. A complete Lm infectious cycle induces a S-phase delay accompanied by a slower rate of DNA synthesis and increased levels of host DNA strand breaks. Additionally, DNA damage/replication checkpoint responses are triggered in an Lm dose-dependent manner through the phosphorylation of DNA-PK, H2A.X, and CDC25A and independently from ATM/ATR. While host DNA damage induced exogenously favors Lm dissemination, the override of checkpoint pathways limits infection. We propose that host DNA replication disturbed by Lm infection culminates in DNA strand breaks, triggering DNA damage/replication responses, and ensuring a cell cycle delay that favors Lm propagation. PMID:24552813

  13. Similarity in viral and host promoters couples viral reactivation with host cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Bohn-Wippert, Kathrin; Tevonian, Erin N.; Megaridis, Melina R.; Dar, Roy D.

    2017-01-01

    Viral–host interactomes map the complex architecture of an evolved arms race during host cell invasion. mRNA and protein interactomes reveal elaborate targeting schemes, yet evidence is lacking for genetic coupling that results in the co-regulation of promoters. Here we compare viral and human promoter sequences and expression to test whether genetic coupling exists and investigate its phenotypic consequences. We show that viral–host co-evolution is imprinted within promoter gene sequences before transcript or protein interactions. Co-regulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) facilitates migration of infected cells. Upon infection, HIV can actively replicate or remain dormant. Migrating infected cells reactivate from dormancy more than non-migrating cells and exhibit differential migration–reactivation responses to drugs. Cells producing virus pose a risk for reinitiating infection within niches inaccessible to drugs, and tuning viral control of migration and reactivation improves strategies to eliminate latent HIV. Viral–host genetic coupling establishes a mechanism for synchronizing transcription and guiding potential therapies. PMID:28462923

  14. Viral and host cellular transcription in Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus-infected gypsy moth cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Guzo, D; Rathburn, H; Guthrie, K; Dougherty, E

    1992-01-01

    Infection of two gypsy moth cell lines (IPLB-Ld652Y and IPLB-LdFB) by the Autographa californica multiple-enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) is characterized by extremely attenuated viral protein synthesis followed by a total arrest of all viral and cellular protein production. In this study, AcMNPV- and host cell-specific transcription were examined. Overall levels of viral RNAs in infected gypsy moth cells were, at most measured times, comparable to RNA levels from an infected cell line (TN-368) permissive for AcMNPV replication. Northern blot (RNA) analyses using viral and host gene-specific probes revealed predominantly normal-length virus- and cell-specific transcripts postinfection. Transport of viral RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and transcript stability in infected gypsy moth cells also appeared normal compared with similar parameters for AcMNPV-infected TN-368 cells. Host cellular and viral mRNAs extracted from gypsy moth and TN-368 cells at various times postinfection and translated in vitro yielded similar spectra of host and viral proteins. Treatment of infected gypsy moth cells with the DNA synthesis inhibitor aphidicolin eliminated the total protein synthesis shutoff in infected IPLB-LdFB cells but had no effect on protein synthesis inhibition in infected IPLB-Ld652Y cells. The apparent selective block in the translation of viral transcripts early in infection and the absence of normal translation or transcription of host cellular genes at later times is discussed. Images PMID:1560533

  15. Blood stem cell products: toward sustainable benchmarks for clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Csaszar, Elizabeth; Cohen, Sandra; Zandstra, Peter W

    2013-03-01

    Robust ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) should enable the widespread use of UCB as a source of cells to treat hematologic and immune diseases. Novel approaches for HSPC expansion have recently been developed, setting the stage for the production of blood stem cell derived products that fulfill our current best known criteria of clinical relevance. Translating these technologies into clinical use requires bioengineering strategies to overcome challenges of scale-up, reproducibility, and product quality assurance. Clinical-scale implementation should also define criteria and targets for cost-effective cell manufacturing. As production strategies become more effective, new opportunities in the therapeutic use of ex vivo expanded hematopoietic cell products will emerge. Herein we examine key technological milestones that need to be met in order to move ex vivo expanded HSPC therapies from the bench-top to the bedside in a robust and reliable manner.

  16. Host Cell Factors in Filovirus Entry: Novel Players, New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Kaup, Franziska; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Filoviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with high case-fatality rates. The cellular factors exploited by filoviruses for their spread constitute potential targets for intervention, but are incompletely defined. The viral glycoprotein (GP) mediates filovirus entry into host cells. Recent studies revealed important insights into the host cell molecules engaged by GP for cellular entry. The binding of GP to cellular lectins was found to concentrate virions onto susceptible cells and might contribute to the early and sustained infection of macrophages and dendritic cells, important viral targets. Tyrosine kinase receptors were shown to promote macropinocytic uptake of filoviruses into a subset of susceptible cells without binding to GP, while interactions between GP and human T cell Ig mucin 1 (TIM-1) might contribute to filovirus infection of mucosal epithelial cells. Moreover, GP engagement of the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1 was demonstrated to be essential for GP-mediated fusion of the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Finally, mutagenic and structural analyses defined GP domains which interact with these host cell factors. Here, we will review the recent progress in elucidating the molecular interactions underlying filovirus entry and discuss their implications for our understanding of the viral cell tropism. PMID:23342362

  17. Combinatorial biomatrix/cell-based therapies for restoration of host tissue architecture and function

    PubMed Central

    Cantu, David Antonio; Kao, W. John

    2014-01-01

    This Progress Report reviews recent advances in the utility of extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimic biomaterials in presenting and delivering therapeutic cells to promote tissue healing. This overview gives a brief introduction of different cell types being used in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering while addressing critical issues that must be overcome before cell-based approaches can be routinely employed in the clinic. A selection of 5 commonly used cell-associated, biomaterial platforms (collagen, hyaluronic acid, fibrin, alginate, and poly(ethylene glycol)) are reviewed for treatment of a number of acute injury or diseases with emphasis on animal models and clinical trials. This article concludes with current challenges and future perspectives regarding foreign body host response to biomaterials and immunological reactions to allogeneic or xenogeneic cells, vascularization and angiogenesis, matching mechanical strength and anisotropy of native tissues, as well as other non-technical issues regarding the clinical translation of biomatrix/cell-based therapies. PMID:23828863

  18. Hijacking Host Cell Highways: Manipulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton by Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Colonne, Punsiri M.; Winchell, Caylin G.; Voth, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems. A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. Cytoskeletal rearrangement promotes numerous events that are beneficial to the pathogen, including internalization of bacteria, structural support for bacteria-containing vacuoles, altered vesicular trafficking, actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that manipulate the host cytoskeleton to thrive within eukaryotic cells and discusses underlying molecular mechanisms that promote these dynamic host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27713866

  19. Parallel measurement of dynamic changes in translation rates in single cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyuho; Jaimovich, Ariel; Dey, Gautam; Ruggero, Davide; Meyuhas, Oded; Sonenberg, Nahum; Meyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Protein concentrations are often regulated by dynamic changes in translation rates. Nevertheless, it has been challenging to directly monitor changes in translation in living cells. We have developed a reporter system to measure real-time changes of translation rates in human or mouse individual cells by conjugating translation regulatory motifs to sequences encoding a nuclear targeted fluorescent protein and a controllable destabilization domain. Application of the method showed that individual cells undergo marked fluctuations in the translation rate of mRNAs whose 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (5' TOP) motif regulates the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that small reductions in amino acid levels signal through different mTOR-dependent pathways to control TOP mRNA translation, whereas larger reductions in amino acid levels control translation through eIF2A. Our study demonstrates that dynamic measurements of single-cell activities of translation regulatory motifs can be used to identify and investigate fundamental principles of translation.

  20. Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Archana; Hendricks, Matthew R.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) binds to claudin receptors, e.g., claudin-4, and then forms a pore that triggers cell death. Pure cultures of host cells that do not express claudin receptors, e.g., fibroblasts, are unaffected by pathophysiologically relevant CPE concentrations in vitro. However, both CPE-insensitive and CPE-sensitive host cells are present in vivo. Therefore, this study tested whether CPE treatment might affect fibroblasts when cocultured with CPE-sensitive claudin-4 fibroblast transfectants or Caco-2 cells. Under these conditions, immunofluorescence microscopy detected increased death of fibroblasts. This cytotoxic effect involved release of a toxic factor from the dying CPE-sensitive cells, since it could be reproduced using culture supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells, particularly Caco-2 cells, were found to contain high levels of membrane vesicles, often containing a CPE species. However, most cytotoxic activity remained in those supernatants even after membrane vesicle depletion, and CPE was not detected in fibroblasts treated with supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Instead, characterization studies suggest that a major cytotoxic factor present in supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells may be a 10- to 30-kDa host serine protease or require the action of that host serine protease. Induction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis was found to be important for triggering release of the cytotoxic factor(s) from CPE-treated sensitive host cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factor(s) in these supernatants was shown to induce a caspase-3-mediated killing of fibroblasts. This bystander killing effect due to release of cytotoxic factors from CPE-treated sensitive cells could contribute to CPE-mediated disease. PMID:27965452

  1. Long live the stem cell: the use of stem cells isolated from post mortem tissues for translational strategies.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Stuart I; Stagg, Kelda; Sturm, Marian; Edel, Michael; Blancafort, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    The "stem cell" has become arguably one of the most important biological tools in the arsenal of translational research directed at regeneration and repair. It remains to be seen whether every tissue has its own stem cell niche, although relatively recently a large amount of research has focused on isolating and characterizing tissue-specific stem cell populations, as well as those that are able to be directed to transdifferentiate into a variety of different lineages. Traditionally, stem cells are isolated from the viable tissue of embryonic, fetal, or adult living hosts; from "fresh" donated tissues that have been surgically or otherwise removed (biopsies), or obtained directly from tissues within minutes to several hours post mortem (PM). These human progenitor/stem cell sources remain potentially highly controversial, since they are accompanied by various still-unresolved ethical, social, moral and legal challenges. Due to the limited number of "live" donors, the small amount of material obtained from biopsies and difficulties during purification processes, harvesting from cadaveric material presents itself as an alternative strategy that could provide a hitherto untapped source of stem cells. However, PM stem cells are not without their own unique set of limitations including difficulty of obtaining samples, limited supply of material, variations in delay between death and sample collection, possible lack of medication history and suboptimal retrospective assignment of diagnostic and demographic data. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: The challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Translational prospects for human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Csete, Marie

    2010-07-01

    The pace of research on human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is frantic worldwide, based on the enormous therapeutic potential of patient-specific pluripotent cells free of the ethical and political issues that plagued human embryonic stem cell research. iPS cells are now relatively easy to isolate from somatic cells and reprogramming can be accomplished using nonmutagenic technologies. Access to iPS cells is already paying dividends in the form of new disease-in-a-dish models for drug discovery and as scalable sources of cells for toxicology. For translation of cell therapies, the major advantage of iPS cells is that they are autologous, but for many reasons, perfect immunologic tolerance of iPS-based grafts should not be assumed. This article focuses on the functional identity of iPS cells, anticipated safety and technical issues in their application, as well as a survey of the progress likely to be realized in clinical applications in the next decade.

  3. Specific requirement for translation initiation factor 4E or its isoform drives plant host susceptibility to Tobacco etch virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In plants, eIF4E translation initiation factors and their eIFiso4E isoforms are essential susceptibility factors for many RNA viruses, including potyviruses. Mutations altering these factors are a major source of resistance to the viruses. The eIF4E allelic series is associated with specific resistance spectra in crops such as Capsicum annum. Genetic evidence shows that potyviruses have a specific requirement for a given 4E isoform that depends on the host plant. For example, Tobacco etch virus (TEV) uses eIF4E1 to infect Capsicum annuum but uses eIFiso4E to infect Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we investigated how TEV exploits different translation initiation factor isoforms to infect these two plant species. Results A complementation system was set up in Arabidopsis to test the restoration of systemic infection by TEV. Using this system, Arabidopsis susceptibility to TEV was complemented with a susceptible pepper eIF4E1 allele but not with a resistant allele. Therefore, in Arabidopsis, TEV can use the pepper eIF4E1 instead of the endogenous eIFiso4E isoform so is able to switch between translation initiation factor 4E isoform to infect the same host. Moreover, we show that overexpressing the pepper eIF4E1 alleles is sufficient to make Arabidopsis susceptible to an otherwise incompatible TEV strain. Lastly, we show that the resistant eIF4E1 allele is similarly overcome by a resistance-breaking TEV strain as in pepper, confirming that this Arabidopsis TEV-susceptibility complementation system is allele-specific. Conclusion We report here a complementation system in Arabidopsis that makes it possible to assess the role of pepper pvr2-eIF4E alleles in susceptibility to TEV. Heterologous complementation experiments showed that the idiosyncratic properties of the 4E and iso4E proteins create a major checkpoint for viral infection of different hosts. This system could be used to screen natural or induced eIF4E alleles to find and study alleles of interest for

  4. Viroporins Customize Host Cells for Efficient Viral Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Giorda, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are intracellular parasites that must access the host cell machinery to propagate. Viruses hijack the host cell machinery to help with entry, replication, packaging, and release of progeny to infect new cells. To carry out these diverse functions, viruses often transform the cellular environment using viroporins, a growing class of viral-encoded membrane proteins that promote viral proliferation. Viroporins modify the integrity of host membranes, thereby stimulating the maturation of viral infection, and are critical for virus production and dissemination. Significant advances in molecular and cell biological approaches have helped to uncover some of the roles that viroporins serve in the various stages of the viral life cycle. In this study, the ability of viroporins to modify the cellular environment will be discussed, with particular emphasis on their role in the stepwise progression of the viral life cycle. PMID:23945006

  5. Host epithelial geometry regulates breast cancer cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Boghaert, Eline; Gleghorn, Jason P; Lee, KangAe; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Radisky, Derek C; Nelson, Celeste M

    2012-11-27

    Breast tumor development is regulated in part by cues from the local microenvironment, including interactions with neighboring nontumor cells as well as the ECM. Studies using homogeneous populations of breast cancer cell lines cultured in 3D ECM have shown that increased ECM stiffness stimulates tumor cell invasion. However, at early stages of breast cancer development, malignant cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells, which have been shown to exert a tumor-suppressive effect on cocultured cancer cells. Here we explored how the biophysical characteristics of the host microenvironment affect the proliferative and invasive tumor phenotype of the earliest stages of tumor development, by using a 3D microfabrication-based approach to engineer ducts composed of normal mammary epithelial cells that contained a single tumor cell. We found that the phenotype of the tumor cell was dictated by its position in the duct: proliferation and invasion were enhanced at the ends and blocked when the tumor cell was located elsewhere within the tissue. Regions of invasion correlated with high endogenous mechanical stress, as shown by finite element modeling and bead displacement experiments, and modulating the contractility of the host epithelium controlled the subsequent invasion of tumor cells. Combining microcomputed tomographic analysis with finite element modeling suggested that predicted regions of high mechanical stress correspond to regions of tumor formation in vivo. This work suggests that the mechanical tone of nontumorigenic host epithelium directs the phenotype of tumor cells and provides additional insight into the instructive role of the mechanical tumor microenvironment.

  6. Aquatic viruses induce host cell death pathways and its application.

    PubMed

    Reshi, Latif; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-01-04

    Virus infections of mammalian and animal cells consist of a series of events. As intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the use of host cellular machinery. Through the use of cell culture and molecular approaches over the past decade, our knowledge of the biology of aquatic viruses has grown exponentially. The increase in aquaculture operations worldwide has provided new approaches for the transmission of aquatic viruses that include RNA and DNA viruses. Therefore, the struggle between the virus and the host for control of the cell's death machinery is crucial for survival. Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites and, as such, must modulate apoptotic pathways to control the lifespan of their host to complete their replication cycle. This paper updates the discussion on the detailed mechanisms of action that various aquatic viruses use to induce cell death pathways in the host, such as Bad-mediated, mitochondria-mediated, ROS-mediated and Fas-mediated cell death circuits. Understanding how viruses exploit the apoptotic pathways of their hosts may provide great opportunities for the development of future potential therapeutic strategies and pathogenic insights into different aquatic viral diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of host cell traversal by malaria sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Annie S P; Boddey, Justin A

    2017-02-01

    Malaria is a pernicious infectious disease caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Each year, malaria afflicts over 200million people, causing considerable morbidity, loss to gross domestic product of endemic countries, and more than 420,000 deaths. A central feature of the virulence of malaria parasites is the ability of sporozoite forms injected by a mosquito to navigate from the inoculation site in the skin through host tissues to infect the liver. The ability for sporozoites to traverse through different host cell types is very important for the successful development of parasites within the mammalian host. Over the past decade, our understanding of the role of host cell traversal has become clearer through important studies with rodent models of malaria. However, we still do not understand the stepwise process of host cell entry and exit or know the molecular mechanisms governing each step. We know even less about cell traversal by malaria parasite species that infect humans. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the role and molecular mechanisms of sporozoite cell traversal and highlight recent advances that prompt new ways of thinking about this important process. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Invasion of Host Cells and Tissues by Uropathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Adam J.; Richards, Amanda C.; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Within the mammalian urinary tract uropathogenic bacteria face many challenges, including the shearing flow of urine, numerous antibacterial molecules, the bactericidal effects of phagocytes, and a scarcity of nutrients. These problems may be circumvented in part by the ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and several other uropathogens to invade the epithelial cells that line the urinary tract. By entering host cells, uropathogens can gain access to additional nutrients and protection from both host defenses and antibiotic treatments. Translocation through host cells can facilitate bacterial dissemination within the urinary tract, while the establishment of stable intracellular bacterial populations may create reservoirs for relapsing and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). Here we review the mechanisms and consequences of host cell invasion by uropathogenic bacteria, with consideration of the defenses that are brought to bear against facultative intracellular pathogens within the urinary tract. The relevance of host cell invasion to the pathogenesis of UTIs in human patients is also assessed, along with some of the emerging treatment options that build upon our growing understanding of the infectious life cycle of UPEC and other uropathogenic bacteria. PMID:28087946

  9. Global Analysis of mRNA, Translation, and Protein Localization: Local Translation Is a Key Regulator of Cell Protrusions.

    PubMed

    Mardakheh, Faraz K; Paul, Angela; Kümper, Sandra; Sadok, Amine; Paterson, Hugh; Mccarthy, Afshan; Yuan, Yinyin; Marshall, Christopher J

    2015-11-09

    Polarization of cells into a protrusive front and a retracting cell body is the hallmark of mesenchymal-like cell migration. Many mRNAs are localized to protrusions, but it is unclear to what degree mRNA localization contributes toward protrusion formation. We performed global quantitative analysis of the distributions of mRNAs, proteins, and translation rates between protrusions and the cell body by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative proteomics. Our results reveal local translation as a key determinant of protein localization to protrusions. Accordingly, inhibition of local translation destabilizes protrusions and inhibits mesenchymal-like morphology. Interestingly, many mRNAs localized to protrusions are translationally repressed. Specific cis-regulatory elements within mRNA UTRs define whether mRNAs are locally translated or repressed. Finally, RNAi screening of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in protrusions revealed trans-regulators of localized translation that are functionally important for protrusions. We propose that by deciphering the localized mRNA UTR code, these proteins regulate protrusion stability and mesenchymal-like morphology.

  10. Mimics of Host Defense Proteins; Strategies for Translation to Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Scott, Richard W; Tew, Gregory N

    2017-01-01

    New infection treatments are urgently needed to combat the rising threat of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Despite early clinical set-backs attention has re-focused on host defense proteins (HDPs), as potential sources for new and effective antimicrobial treatments. HDPs appear to act at multiple targets and their repertoire includes disruptive membrane and intracellular activities against numerous types of pathogens as well as immune modulatory functions in the host. Importantly, these novel activities are associated with a low potential for emergence of resistance and little crossresistance with other antimicrobial agents. Based on these properties, HDPs appear to be ideal candidates for new antibiotics; however, their development has been plagued by the many therapeutic limitations associated with natural peptidic agents. This review focuses on HDP mimetic approaches aimed to improve metabolic stability, pharmacokinetics, safety and manufacturing processes. Early efforts with β-peptide or peptoid analogs focused on recreating stable facially amphiphilic structures but demonstrated that antimicrobial activity was modulated by more, complex structural properties. Several approaches have used lipidation to increase the hydrophobicity and membrane activity. One lead compound, LTX-109, has entered clinical study as a topical agent to treat impetigo and nasal decolonization. In a more significant departure from the amino acid like peptidomimetics, considerable effort has been directed at developing amphiphilic compounds that recapitulate the structural and biological properties of HDPs on small abiotic scaffolds. The lead compound from this approach, brilacidin, has completed two phase 2 studies as an intravenous agent for skin infections.

  11. Improving translation success of cell-based therapies in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Bara, Jennifer J; Herrmann, Marietta; Evans, Christopher H; Miclau, Theodore; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Richards, R Geoff

    2016-01-01

    There is a clear discrepancy between the growth of cell therapy and tissue engineering research in orthopaedics over the last two decades and the number of approved clinical therapies and products available to patients. At the 2015 annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, a workshop was held to highlight important considerations from the perspectives of an academic scientist, clinical researcher, and industry representative with the aim of helping researchers to successfully translate their ideas into clinical and commercial reality. Survey data acquired from workshop participants indicated an overall positive opinion on the future potential of cell-based therapies to make a significant contribution to orthopaedic medicine. The survey also indicated an agreement on areas requiring improvement in the development of new therapies, specifically; increased support for fundamental research and education and improved transparency of regulatory processes. This perspectives article summarises the content and conclusions of the workshop and puts forward suggestions on how translational success of cell-based therapies in orthopaedics may be achieved.

  12. Cap-independent translation by DAP5 controls cell fate decisions in human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoffe, Yael; David, Maya; Kalaora, Rinat; Povodovski, Lital; Friedlander, Gilgi; Feldmesser, Ester; Ainbinder, Elena; Saada, Ann; Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes drive differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This study unveils an additional level of gene expression regulation involving noncanonical, cap-independent translation of a select group of mRNAs. This is driven by death-associated protein 5 (DAP5/eIF4G2/NAT1), a translation initiation factor mediating IRES-dependent translation. We found that the DAP5 knockdown from human ESCs (hESCs) resulted in persistence of pluripotent gene expression, delayed induction of differentiation-associated genes in different cell lineages, and defective embryoid body formation. The latter involved improper cellular organization, lack of cavitation, and enhanced mislocalized apoptosis. RNA sequencing of polysome-associated mRNAs identified candidates with reduced translation efficiency in DAP5-depleted hESCs. These were enriched in mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative respiration, a pathway essential for differentiation, the significance of which was confirmed by the aberrant mitochondrial morphology and decreased oxidative respiratory activity in DAP5 knockdown cells. Further analysis identified the chromatin modifier HMGN3 as a cap-independent DAP5 translation target whose knockdown resulted in defective differentiation. Thus, DAP5-mediated translation of a specific set of proteins is critical for the transition from pluripotency to differentiation, highlighting the importance of cap-independent translation in stem cell fate decisions. PMID:27664238

  13. Host NKT cells can prevent graft-versus-host disease and permit graft antitumor activity after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Asha B; George, Tracy I; Dutt, Suparna; Teo, Pearline; Strober, Samuel

    2007-05-15

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is a curative treatment for leukemia and lymphoma, but graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) remains a major complication. Using a GVHD protective nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen of total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte serum (TLI/ATS) in mice that has been recently adapted to clinical studies, we show that regulatory host NKT cells prevent the expansion and tissue inflammation induced by donor T cells, but allow retention of the killing activity of donor T cells against the BCL1 B cell lymphoma. Whereas wild-type hosts given transplants from wild-type donors were protected against progressive tumor growth and lethal GVHD, NKT cell-deficient CD1d-/- and Jalpha-18-/- host mice given wild-type transplants cleared the tumor cells but died of GVHD. In contrast, wild-type hosts given transplants from CD8-/- or perforin-/- donors had progressive tumor growth without GVHD. Injection of host-type NKT cells into Jalpha-18-/- host mice conditioned with TLI/ATS markedly reduced the early expansion and colon injury induced by donor T cells. In conclusion, after TLI/ATS host conditioning and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, host NKT cells can separate the proinflammatory and tumor cytolytic functions of donor T cells.

  14. Dissection of Francisella-Host Cell Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Elisabeth O.; Brenz, Yannick; Herrmann, Lydia; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Zingmark, Carl; Sjöstedt, Anders; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella bacteria cause severe disease in both vertebrates and invertebrates and include one of the most infectious human pathogens. Mammalian cell lines have mainly been used to study the mechanisms by which Francisella manipulates its host to replicate within a large variety of hosts and cell types, including macrophages. Here, we describe the establishment of a genetically and biochemically tractable infection model: the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum combined with the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Phagocytosed F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the endosomal pathway and escapes further phagosomal maturation by translocating into the host cell cytosol. F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis lacking IglC, a known virulence determinant required for Francisella intracellular replication, follows the normal phagosomal maturation and does not grow in Dictyostelium. The attenuation of the F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC mutant was confirmed in a zebrafish embryo model, where growth of F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC was restricted. In Dictyostelium, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the autophagic machinery. The intracellular bacteria colocalize with autophagic markers, and when autophagy is impaired (Dictyostelium Δatg1), F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis accumulates within Dictyostelium cells. Altogether, the Dictyostelium-F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infection model recapitulates the course of infection described in other host systems. The genetic and biochemical tractability of the system allows new approaches to elucidate the dynamic interactions between pathogenic Francisella and its host organism. PMID:26712555

  15. Dissection of Francisella-Host Cell Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Elisabeth O; Brenz, Yannick; Herrmann, Lydia; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Zingmark, Carl; Sjöstedt, Anders; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Hagedorn, Monica

    2015-12-28

    Francisella bacteria cause severe disease in both vertebrates and invertebrates and include one of the most infectious human pathogens. Mammalian cell lines have mainly been used to study the mechanisms by which Francisella manipulates its host to replicate within a large variety of hosts and cell types, including macrophages. Here, we describe the establishment of a genetically and biochemically tractable infection model: the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum combined with the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Phagocytosed F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the endosomal pathway and escapes further phagosomal maturation by translocating into the host cell cytosol. F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis lacking IglC, a known virulence determinant required for Francisella intracellular replication, follows the normal phagosomal maturation and does not grow in Dictyostelium. The attenuation of the F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC mutant was confirmed in a zebrafish embryo model, where growth of F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis ΔiglC was restricted. In Dictyostelium, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis interacts with the autophagic machinery. The intracellular bacteria colocalize with autophagic markers, and when autophagy is impaired (Dictyostelium Δatg1), F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis accumulates within Dictyostelium cells. Altogether, the Dictyostelium-F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infection model recapitulates the course of infection described in other host systems. The genetic and biochemical tractability of the system allows new approaches to elucidate the dynamic interactions between pathogenic Francisella and its host organism.

  16. Natural killer cells in host defense against veterinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Yang, Xi

    2015-11-15

    Natural Killer (NK) cells constitute a major subset of innate lymphoid cells that do not express the T- and B-cell receptors and play an important role in antimicrobial defense. NK cells not only induce early and rapid innate immune responses, but also communicate with dendritic cells to shape the adaptive immunity, thus bridging innate and adaptive immunity. Although the functional biology of NK cells is well-documented in a variety of infections in humans and mice, their role in protecting domestic animals from infectious agents is only beginning to be understood. In this article, we summarize the current state of knowledge about the contribution of NK cells in pathogen defense in domestic animals, especially cattle and pigs. Understanding the immunobiology of NK cells will translate into strategies to manipulate these cells for preventive and therapeutic purposes.

  17. Three-Dimensional Rotating Wall Vessel-Derived Cell Culture Models for Studying Virus-Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Jameson K.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    The key to better understanding complex virus-host interactions is the utilization of robust three-dimensional (3D) human cell cultures that effectively recapitulate native tissue architecture and model the microenvironment. A lack of physiologically-relevant animal models for many viruses has limited the elucidation of factors that influence viral pathogenesis and of complex host immune mechanisms. Conventional monolayer cell cultures may support viral infection, but are unable to form the tissue structures and complex microenvironments that mimic host physiology and, therefore, limiting their translational utility. The rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor was designed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to model microgravity and was later found to more accurately reproduce features of human tissue in vivo. Cells grown in RWV bioreactors develop in a low fluid-shear environment, which enables cells to form complex 3D tissue-like aggregates. A wide variety of human tissues (from neuronal to vaginal tissue) have been grown in RWV bioreactors and have been shown to support productive viral infection and physiological meaningful host responses. The in vivo-like characteristics and cellular features of the human 3D RWV-derived aggregates make them ideal model systems to effectively recapitulate pathophysiology and host responses necessary to conduct rigorous basic science, preclinical and translational studies. PMID:27834891

  18. Genome-wide host RNA signatures of infectious diseases: discovery and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, Harriet D; Herberg, Jethro A; Levin, Michael; Kaforou, Myrsini

    2017-09-16

    The use of whole blood gene expression to derive diagnostic biomarkers capable of distinguishing between phenotypically similar diseases holds great promise but remains a challenge. Differential gene expression analysis is used to identify the key genes that undergo changes in expression relative to healthy individuals, as well as to patients with other diseases. These key genes can act as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers of disease. Gene expression 'signatures' in the blood hold potential to be used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases, where current diagnostics are unreliable, ineffective or of limited potential. For diagnostic tests based on RNA signatures to be useful clinically, the first step is to identify the minimum set of gene transcripts that accurately identify the disease in question. The second requirement is rapid and cost effective detection of the gene expression levels. Whilst signatures have been described for a number of infectious diseases, 'clinic-ready' technologies for RNA detection from clinical samples are limited, though existing methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are likely to be superseded by a number of emerging technologies, which may form the basis of the translation of gene expression signatures into routine diagnostic tests for a range of disease states. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Host cell infiltration into PDT-treated tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd; Dougherty, Graeme J.; Chaplin, David J.

    1992-06-01

    C3H mice bearing SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) 24 hours after receiving Photofrin (25 mg/kg, i.v.). Single cell suspensions obtained by the enzymatic digestion of tumors excised either 30 minutes or 4 hours after PDT were analyzed for the content of host immune cells and colony forming ability of malignant cells. The results were compared to the data obtained with non-treated tumors. It is shown that there is a marked increase in the content of cells expressing Mac-1 (monocytes/macrophages or granulocytes) in the tumor 30 minutes post PDT, while a high level of other leucocytes are found within the tumors by 4 hours after PDT. As elaborated in Discussion, the infiltration rate of host immune cells, dying of malignant tumor cells, and yet unknown death rate of host cells originally present in PDT treated tumor occurring concomitantly during this time period complicates this analysis. The results of this study suggest a massive infiltration of macrophages and other leucocytes in PDT treated SCCVII tumor, supporting the suggestion that a potent immune reaction is one of the main characteristics of PDT action in solid tumors. It remains to be determined to what extent is the activity of tumor infiltrating immune cells responsible for its eradication by PDT.

  20. Early Bunyavirus-Host Cell Interactions.

    PubMed

    Albornoz, Amelina; Hoffmann, Anja B; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-05-24

    The Bunyaviridae is the largest family of RNA viruses, with over 350 members worldwide. Several of these viruses cause severe diseases in livestock and humans. With an increasing number and frequency of outbreaks, bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to public health and agricultural productivity globally. Yet, the receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely uncharacterized. The focus of this review is on the early steps of bunyavirus infection, from virus binding to penetration from endosomes. We address current knowledge and advances for members from each genus in the Bunyaviridae family regarding virus receptors, uptake, intracellular trafficking and fusion.

  1. Early Bunyavirus-Host Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Albornoz, Amelina; Hoffmann, Anja B.; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae is the largest family of RNA viruses, with over 350 members worldwide. Several of these viruses cause severe diseases in livestock and humans. With an increasing number and frequency of outbreaks, bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to public health and agricultural productivity globally. Yet, the receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely uncharacterized. The focus of this review is on the early steps of bunyavirus infection, from virus binding to penetration from endosomes. We address current knowledge and advances for members from each genus in the Bunyaviridae family regarding virus receptors, uptake, intracellular trafficking and fusion. PMID:27213430

  2. Murine norovirus 1 (MNV1) replication induces translational control of the host by regulating eIF4E activity during infection.

    PubMed

    Royall, Elizabeth; Doyle, Nicole; Abdul-Wahab, Azimah; Emmott, Ed; Morley, Simon J; Goodfellow, Ian; Roberts, Lisa O; Locker, Nicolas

    2015-02-20

    Protein synthesis is a tightly controlled process responding to several stimuli, including viral infection. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses depend on the translation machinery of the host and can manipulate it by affecting the availability and function of specific eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Human norovirus is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks. Previous studies on feline calicivirus and murine norovirus 1 (MNV1) demonstrated that the viral protein, genome-linked (VPg), acts to direct translation by hijacking the host protein synthesis machinery. Here we report that MNV1 infection modulates the MAPK pathway to activate eIF4E phosphorylation. Our results show that the activation of p38 and Mnk during MNV1 infection is important for MNV1 replication. Furthermore, phosphorylated eIF4E relocates to the polysomes, and this contributes to changes in the translational state of specific host mRNAs. We propose that global translational control of the host by eIF4E phosphorylation is a key component of the host-pathogen interaction. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Murine Norovirus 1 (MNV1) Replication Induces Translational Control of the Host by Regulating eIF4E Activity during Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Elizabeth; Doyle, Nicole; Abdul-Wahab, Azimah; Emmott, Ed; Morley, Simon J.; Goodfellow, Ian; Roberts, Lisa O.; Locker, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a tightly controlled process responding to several stimuli, including viral infection. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses depend on the translation machinery of the host and can manipulate it by affecting the availability and function of specific eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Human norovirus is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks. Previous studies on feline calicivirus and murine norovirus 1 (MNV1) demonstrated that the viral protein, genome-linked (VPg), acts to direct translation by hijacking the host protein synthesis machinery. Here we report that MNV1 infection modulates the MAPK pathway to activate eIF4E phosphorylation. Our results show that the activation of p38 and Mnk during MNV1 infection is important for MNV1 replication. Furthermore, phosphorylated eIF4E relocates to the polysomes, and this contributes to changes in the translational state of specific host mRNAs. We propose that global translational control of the host by eIF4E phosphorylation is a key component of the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25561727

  4. High avidity autoreactive CD4+ T cells induce host CTL, overcome Tregs and mediate tumor destruction

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andrew G.; Leitner, Wolfgang W.; Ha, Sung P.; Sidney, John; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Touloukian, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress made over the past 25 years, existing immunotherapies have limited clinical effectiveness in patients with cancer. Immune tolerance consistently blunts the generated immune response, and the largely solitary focus on CD8+ T cell immunity has proven ineffective in the absence of CD4+ T cell help. To address these twin-tier deficiencies, we developed a translational model of melanoma immunotherapy focused on the exploitation of high avidity CD4+ T cells that become generated in germline antigen deficient mice. We had previously identified a TRP-1 specific HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted epitope. Using this epitope in conjunction with a newly described TRP-1 germline-knockout, we demonstrate that endogenous TRP-1 expression alters the functionality of the auto-reactive T cell repertoire. More importantly, we show, by using MHC-mismatched combinations, that CD4+ T cells derived from the self-antigen deficient host indirectly triggers the eradication of established B16 lung metastases. We demonstrate that the treatment effect is mediated entirely by endogenous CD8+ T cells and is not affected by the depletion of host Tregs. These findings suggest that high avidity CD4+ T cells can overcome endogenous conditions and mediate their anti-tumor effects exclusively through the elicitation of CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:19561540

  5. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-16

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP{sub 2} and PIP{sub 3} to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  6. Mechanisms of outer membrane vesicle entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Eloise J; Krachler, Anne Marie

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized compartments consisting of a lipid bilayer that encapsulates periplasm-derived, luminal content. OMVs, which pinch off of Gram-negative bacteria, are now recognized as a generalized secretion pathway which provides a means to transfer cargo to other bacterial cells as well as eukaryotic cells. Compared with other secretion systems, OMVs can transfer a chemically extremely diverse range of cargo, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to proximal cells. Although it is well recognized that OMVs can enter and release cargo inside host cells during infection, the mechanisms of host association and uptake are not well understood. This review highlights existing studies focusing on OMV-host cell interactions and entry mechanisms, and how these entry routes affect cargo processing within the host. It further compares the wide range of methods currently used to dissect uptake mechanisms, and discusses potential sources of discrepancy regarding the mechanism of OMV uptake across different studies. © 2016 The Authors Cellular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mechanisms of outer membrane vesicle entry into host cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Donoghue, Eloise J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano‐sized compartments consisting of a lipid bilayer that encapsulates periplasm‐derived, luminal content. OMVs, which pinch off of Gram‐negative bacteria, are now recognized as a generalized secretion pathway which provides a means to transfer cargo to other bacterial cells as well as eukaryotic cells. Compared with other secretion systems, OMVs can transfer a chemically extremely diverse range of cargo, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to proximal cells. Although it is well recognized that OMVs can enter and release cargo inside host cells during infection, the mechanisms of host association and uptake are not well understood. This review highlights existing studies focusing on OMV‐host cell interactions and entry mechanisms, and how these entry routes affect cargo processing within the host. It further compares the wide range of methods currently used to dissect uptake mechanisms, and discusses potential sources of discrepancy regarding the mechanism of OMV uptake across different studies. PMID:27529760

  8. Toxoplasma Co-opts Host Cells It Does Not Invade

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Anita A.; Dietrich, Hans K.; Christian, David A.; Melehani, Jason H.; Shastri, Anjali J.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Boothroyd, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Like many intracellular microbes, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii injects effector proteins into cells it invades. One group of these effector proteins is injected from specialized organelles called the rhoptries, which have previously been described to discharge their contents only during successful invasion of a host cell. In this report, using several reporter systems, we show that in vitro the parasite injects rhoptry proteins into cells it does not productively invade and that the rhoptry effector proteins can manipulate the uninfected cell in a similar manner to infected cells. In addition, as one of the reporter systems uses a rhoptry:Cre recombinase fusion protein, we show that in Cre-reporter mice infected with an encysting Toxoplasma-Cre strain, uninfected-injected cells, which could be derived from aborted invasion or cell-intrinsic killing after invasion, are actually more common than infected-injected cells, especially in the mouse brain, where Toxoplasma encysts and persists. This phenomenon has important implications for how Toxoplasma globally affects its host and opens a new avenue for how other intracellular microbes may similarly manipulate the host environment at large. PMID:22910631

  9. Imaging Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy: Translations to Human Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wendy Y.; Ebert, Antje D.; Narula, Jagat; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy promises to open exciting new options in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Although feasible and clinically safe, the in vivo behavior and integration of stem cell transplants still remain largely unknown. Thus, the development of innovative non-invasive imaging techniques capable of effectively tracking such therapy in vivo is vital for a more in-depth investigation into future clinical applications. Such imaging modalities will not only generate further insight into the mechanisms behind stem cell-based therapy, but also address some major concerns associated with translational cardiovascular stem cell therapy. In the present review, we summarize the principles underlying three major stem cell tracking methods: (1) radioactive labeling for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, (2) iron particle labeling for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (3) reporter gene labeling for bioluminescence, fluorescence, MRI, SPECT, and PET imaging. We then discuss recent clinical studies that have utilized these modalities to gain biological insights into stem cell fate. PMID:21538182

  10. Imaging cardiac stem cell therapy: translations to human clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Y; Ebert, Antje D; Narula, Jagat; Wu, Joseph C

    2011-08-01

    Stem cell therapy promises to open exciting new options in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Although feasible and clinically safe, the in vivo behavior and integration of stem cell transplants still remain largely unknown. Thus, the development of innovative non-invasive imaging techniques capable of effectively tracking such therapy in vivo is vital for a more in-depth investigation into future clinical applications. Such imaging modalities will not only generate further insight into the mechanisms behind stem cell-based therapy, but also address some major concerns associated with translational cardiovascular stem cell therapy. In the present review, we summarize the principles underlying three major stem cell tracking methods: (1) radioactive labeling for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, (2) iron particle labeling for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (3) reporter gene labeling for bioluminescence, fluorescence, MRI, SPECT, and PET imaging. We then discuss recent clinical studies that have utilized these modalities to gain biological insights into stem cell fate.

  11. Facilitating cells: Translation of hematopoietic chimerism to achieve clinical tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ildstad, Suzanne T.; Leventhal, Joseph; Wen, Yujie; Yolcu, Esma

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT For over 50 y the association between hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance has been recognized. This originated with the brilliant observation by Dr. Ray Owen that freemartin cattle twins that shared a common placental blood supply were red blood cell chimeras, which led to the discovery that hematopoietic chimerism resulted in actively acquired tolerance. This was first confirmed in neonatal mice by Medawar et al. and subsequently in adult rodents. Fifty years later this concept has been successfully translated to solid organ transplant recipients in the clinic. The field is new, but cell-based therapies are being used with increasing frequency to induce tolerance and immunomodulation. The future is bright. This review focuses on chimerism and tolerance: past, present and prospects for the future. PMID:26745761

  12. Alphavirus Infection: Host Cell Shut-Off and Inhibition of Antiviral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fros, Jelke J.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2016-01-01

    Alphaviruses cause debilitating disease in humans and animals and are transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods, typically mosquitoes. With a traditional focus on two models, Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus, alphavirus research has significantly intensified in the last decade partly due to the re-emergence and dramatic expansion of chikungunya virus in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. As a consequence, alphavirus–host interactions are now understood in much more molecular detail, and important novel mechanisms have been elucidated. It has become clear that alphaviruses not only cause a general host shut-off in infected vertebrate cells, but also specifically suppress different host antiviral pathways using their viral nonstructural proteins, nsP2 and nsP3. Here we review the current state of the art of alphavirus host cell shut-off of viral transcription and translation, and describe recent insights in viral subversion of interferon induction and signaling, the unfolded protein response, and stress granule assembly. PMID:27294951

  13. Translation dynamics of single mRNAs in live cells and neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Eliscovich, Carolina; Yoon, Young J; Singer, Robert H

    2016-06-17

    Translation is the fundamental biological process converting mRNA information into proteins. Single-molecule imaging in live cells has illuminated the dynamics of RNA transcription; however, it is not yet applicable to translation. Here, we report single-molecule imaging of nascent peptides (SINAPS) to assess translation in live cells. The approach provides direct readout of initiation, elongation, and location of translation. We show that mRNAs coding for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are translated when they encounter the ER membrane. Single-molecule fluorescence recovery after photobleaching provides direct measurement of elongation speed (5 amino acids per second). In primary neurons, mRNAs are translated in proximal dendrites but repressed in distal dendrites and display "bursting" translation. This technology provides a tool with which to address the spatiotemporal translation mechanism of single mRNAs in living cells.

  14. Real-Time Imaging of Translation on Single mRNA Transcripts in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Han, Boran; Zhou, Ruobo; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-05-05

    Translation is under tight spatial and temporal controls to ensure protein production in the right time and place in cells. Methods that allow real-time, high-resolution visualization of translation in live cells are essential for understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of translation regulation. Based on multivalent fluorescence amplification of the nascent polypeptide signal, we develop a method to image translation on individual mRNA molecules in real time in live cells, allowing direct visualization of translation events at the translation sites. Using this approach, we monitor transient changes of translation dynamics in responses to environmental stresses, capture distinct mobilities of individual polysomes in different subcellular compartments, and detect 3' UTR-dependent local translation and active transport of polysomes in dendrites of primary neurons.

  15. Host cell targets for African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Galindo, Inmaculada; Cuesta-Geijo, Miguel Ángel; Barrado-Gil, Lucía; Alonso, Covadonga

    2015-11-02

    Viruses are strict intracellular pathogens that require the cellular environment to complete a successful infection. Among them, African swine fever virus (ASFV) is an evolutionary ancient DNA virus, endemic in Africa, which is nowadays causing an emergent disease in Europe with a potential high economic impact in the pig industry. It is well known that host-cell components are critical crossroads mapping the virus path for a productive infection, some of them at the endocytic pathway. Considering that ASFV infectious cycle strongly relies in several factors from the host cell, the study of virus-host interactions remains crucial as they will reveal the obstacles, routes and tracks, hints and the target waypoint in the virus journey to destination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Host cell modulation by human, animal and plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Siv G E; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2004-04-01

    Members of the alpha-proteobacteria display a broad range of interactions with higher eukaryotes. Some are pathogens of humans, such as Rickettsia and Bartonella that are associated with diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. Others like the Brucella cause abortions in pregnant animals. Yet other species have evolved elaborate interactions with plants; in this group we find both plant symbionts and parasites. Despite radically different host preferences, extreme genome size variations and the absence of toxin genes, similarities in survival strategies and host cell interactions can be recognized among members of the alpha-proteobacteria. Here, we review some of these similarities, with a focus on strategies for modulation of the host target cell.

  17. mRNA translation during oocyte maturation plays a key role in development of primordial germ cells in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Zeynali, Bahman; Dixon, Keith E

    2004-09-01

    It is believed that cytoplasmic localization in the egg is necessary for development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in Xenopus embryos. In this study, we sought to determine if translation of maternal mRNA during oocyte maturation is involved in the development of PGCs. Donor oocytes were collected from both stimulated (those who receive gonadotropin) and unstimulated females, artificially matured and fertilized using a host transfer technique. Using chloramphenicol (50 microM and 500 microM RNA), RNA translation was inhibited during oocyte maturation. Our results showed that in unstimulated embryos treated with 50 microM chloramphenicol, there was a significant reduction in the number of PGCs reaching genital ridges. In stimulated embryos, however, the number of PGCs was unchanged unless a higher concentration (500 microM) of chloramphenicol was used. From these results it is suggested that maternal mRNA translation during oocyte maturation plays a key role in development of PGCs.

  18. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten; Menge, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains.

  19. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains. PMID:27021246

  20. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    PubMed

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection.

  1. Th9 cells drive host immunity against gastrointestinal worm infection

    PubMed Central

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejía, Jorge; Temann, Angela U.; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De’Broski R.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4), -5, -9, and -13 drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial and the importance of IL-9 vs. IL-4 producing CD4+ effector T cells in Type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9 deficient and IL-9 fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early Type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas Th9 cells and Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC2) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and non-redundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host protective Type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection. PMID:24138883

  2. Clinical translation of stem cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lindvall, O

    2016-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), the main pathology underlying the motor symptoms is a loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical trials of intrastriatal transplantation of human foetal mesencephalic tissue have shown that the grafted dopaminergic neurons re-innervate the striatum, restore striatal dopamine release and, in some cases, induce major, long-lasting improvement of motor function. However, nonmotor symptoms originating from degeneration outside the striatum or in nondopaminergic systems are not alleviated by intrastriatal implantation of dopaminergic neurons. Stem cells and reprogrammed cells could potentially be used to produce dopaminergic neurons for transplantation in patients with PD. Recent studies demonstrate that standardized preparations of dopaminergic neurons of the correct substantia nigra phenotype can be generated from human embryonic stem cells in large numbers, and they will soon be available for patient application. In addition, dopaminergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells are being considered for clinical translation. Important challenges include the demonstration of potency (growth capacity and functional efficacy) and safety of the generated dopaminergic neurons in preclinical animal models. The dopaminergic neurons should subsequently be tested, using optimal patient selection and cell preparation and transplantation procedures, in controlled clinical studies. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  3. A host-specific, temperature-sensitive translation defect determines the attenuation phenotype of a human rhinovirus/poliovirus chimera, PV1(RIPO).

    PubMed

    Jahan, Nusrat; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen

    2011-07-01

    By using a rhinosvirus/poliovirus type 1 chimera, PV1(RIPO), with the cognate internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2), we set out to shed light on the mechanism by which this variant expresses its attenuated phenotype in poliovirus-sensitive, CD155 transgenic (tg) mice and cynomolgus monkeys. Here we report that replication of PV1(RIPO) is restricted not only in human cells of neuronal origin, as was reported previously, but also in cells of murine origin at physiological temperature. This block in replication was enhanced at 39.5°C but, remarkably, it was absent at 33°C. PV1(RIPO) variants that overcame the replication block were derived by serial passage under restrictive conditions in either mouse cells or human neuronal cells. All adapting mutations mapped to the 5'-nontranslated region of PV1(RIPO). Variants selected in mouse cells, but not in human neuronal cells, exhibited increased mouse neurovirulence in vivo. The observed strong mouse-specific defect of PV1(RIPO) at nonpermissive temperature correlated with the translational activity of the HRV2 IRES in this chimeric virus. These unexpected results must be kept in mind when poliovirus variants are tested in CD155 tg mice for their neurovirulent potential, particularly in assays of live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine lots. Virulence may be masked by adverse species-specific conditions in mouse cells that may not allow accurate prediction of neurovirulence in the human host. Thus, novel poliovirus variants in line for possible development of human vaccines must be tested in nonhuman primates.

  4. Stimulation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase mRNA translation by reovirus capsid polypeptide sigma 3 in cotransfected COS cells.

    PubMed Central

    Giantini, M; Shatkin, A J

    1989-01-01

    The mammalian reovirus S4 gene has been implicated in the serotype-dependent inhibition of host cell protein synthesis during viral replication in mouse L cells. To examine the effect(s) of this gene on transcription or translation or both, a DNA copy of the serotype 3 S4 gene was inserted into a eucaryotic expression vector. Cotransfection of COS cells with plasmids containing S4 and the reporter gene, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), resulted in a marked stimulation of CAT expression, predominantly at the level of translation. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the double-stranded-RNA-binding activity of the S4 gene product, polypeptide sigma 3. Images PMID:2724407

  5. Flavivirus Infection Uncouples Translation Suppression from Cellular Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Hanna; Magg, Vera; Uch, Fabian; Mutz, Pascal; Klein, Philipp; Haneke, Katharina; Lohmann, Volker; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Fackler, Oliver T.; Locker, Nicolas; Stoecklin, Georg

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT As obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on host cell translation for the production of new progeny, yet infected cells also synthesize antiviral proteins to limit virus infection. Modulation of host cell translation therefore represents a frequent strategy by which viruses optimize their replication and spread. Here we sought to define how host cell translation is regulated during infection of human cells with dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), two positive-strand RNA flaviviruses. Polysome profiling and analysis of de novo protein synthesis revealed that flavivirus infection causes potent repression of host cell translation, while synthesis of viral proteins remains efficient. Selective repression of host cell translation was mediated by the DENV polyprotein at the level of translation initiation. In addition, DENV and ZIKV infection suppressed host cell stress responses such as the formation of stress granules and phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2). Mechanistic analyses revealed that translation repression was uncoupled from the disruption of stress granule formation and eIF2α signaling. Rather, DENV infection induced p38-Mnk1 signaling that resulted in the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and was essential for the efficient production of virus particles. Together, these results identify the uncoupling of translation suppression from the cellular stress responses as a conserved strategy by which flaviviruses ensure efficient replication in human cells. PMID:28074025

  6. Evolving Concepts and Translational Relevance of Enteroendocrine Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Daniel J

    2016-03-01

    Classical enteroenteroendocrine cell (EEC) biology evolved historically from identification of scattered hormone-producing endocrine cells within the epithelial mucosa of the stomach, small and large intestine. Purification of functional EEC hormones from intestinal extracts, coupled with molecular cloning of cDNAs and genes expressed within EECs has greatly expanded the complexity of EEC endocrinology, with implications for understanding the contribution of EECs to disease pathophysiology. Pubmed searches identified manuscripts highlighting new concepts illuminating the molecular biology, classification and functional role(s) of EECs and their hormonal products. Molecular interrogation of EECs has been transformed over the past decade, raising multiple new questions that challenge historical concepts of EEC biology. Evidence for evolution of the EEC from a unihormonal cell type with classical endocrine actions, to a complex plurihormonal dynamic cell with pleiotropic interactive functional networks within the gastrointestinal mucosa is critically assessed. We discuss gaps in understanding how EECs sense and respond to nutrients, cytokines, toxins, pathogens, the microbiota, and the microbial metabolome, and highlight the expanding translational relevance of EECs in the pathophysiology and therapy of metabolic and inflammatory disorders. The EEC system represents the largest specialized endocrine network in human physiology, integrating environmental and nutrient cues, enabling neural and hormonal control of metabolic homeostasis. Updating EEC classification systems will enable more accurate comparative analyses of EEC subpopulations and endocrine networks in multiple regions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Translating Research into Clinical Scale Manufacturing of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bieback, Karen; Kinzebach, Sven; Karagianni, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    It sounds simple to obtain sufficient numbers of cells derived from fetal or adult human tissues, isolate and/or expand the stem cells, and then transplant an appropriate number of these cells into the patient at the correct location. However, translating basic research into routine therapies is a complex multistep process which necessitates product regulation. The challenge relates to managing the expected therapeutic benefits with the potential risks and to balance the fast move to clinical trials with time-consuming cautious risk assessment. This paper will focus on the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and challenges and achievements in the manufacturing process enabling their use in clinical studies. It will allude to different cellular sources, special capacities of MSCs, but also to current regulations, with a special focus on accessory material of human or animal origin, like media supplements. As cellular integrity and purity, formulation and lot release testing of the final product, validation of all procedures, and quality assurance are of utmost necessity, these topics will be addressed. PMID:21318154

  8. In vitro analysis of translation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Rakotondrafara, Aurélie M; Miller, W Allen

    2008-01-01

    The genomes of many plant viruses contain translation-enhancing sequences that allow them to compete successfully with host messenger RNAs for the translation machinery. Identification of translation enhancer elements is valuable, both to gain understanding of virus gene expression control and to apply them as tools for engineering gene expression in plant cells. Here, we describe experiments designed to detect viral elements that enhance translation, focusing on cap-independent translation activity, using a high fidelity cell-free wheat germ translation extract.

  9. Host cell factors as antiviral targets in arenavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Linero, Florencia N; Sepúlveda, Claudia S; Giovannoni, Federico; Castilla, Viviana; García, Cybele C; Scolaro, Luis A; Damonte, Elsa B

    2012-09-01

    Among the members of the Arenaviridae family, Lassa virus and Junin virus generate periodic annual outbreaks of severe human hemorrhagic fever (HF) in endemic areas of West Africa and Argentina, respectively. Given the human health threat that arenaviruses represent and the lack of a specific and safe chemotherapy, the search for effective antiviral compounds is a continuous demanding effort. Since diverse host cell pathways and enzymes are used by RNA viruses to fulfill their replicative cycle, the targeting of a host process has turned an attractive antiviral approach in the last years for many unrelated virus types. This strategy has the additional benefit to reduce the serious challenge for therapy of RNA viruses to escape from drug effects through selection of resistant variants triggered by their high mutation rate. This article focuses on novel strategies to identify inhibitors for arenavirus therapy, analyzing the potential for antiviral developments of diverse host factors essential for virus infection.

  10. Toxoplasma exports dense granule proteins beyond the vacuole to the host cell nucleus and rewires the host genome expression.

    PubMed

    Bougdour, Alexandre; Tardieux, Isabelle; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the most widespread apicomplexan parasite and occupies a large spectrum of niches by infecting virtually any warm-blooded animals. As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma has evolved a repertoire of strategies to fine-tune the cellular environment in an optimal way to promote growth and persistence in host tissues hence increasing the chance to be transmitted to new hosts. Short and long-term intracellular survival is associated with Toxoplasma ability to both evade the host deleterious immune defences and to stimulate a beneficial immune balance by governing host cell gene expression. It is only recently that parasite proteins responsible for driving these transcriptional changes have been identified. While proteins contained in the apical secretory Rhoptry organelle have already been identified as bona fide secreted effectors that divert host signalling pathways, recent findings revealed that dense granule proteins should be added to the growing list of effectors as they reach the host cell cytoplasm and nucleus and target various host cell pathways in the course of cell infection. Herein, we emphasize on a novel subfamily of dense granule residentproteins, exemplified with the GRA16 and GRA24 members we recently discovered as both are exported beyond the vacuole-containing parasites and reach the host cell nucleus to reshape the host genome expression. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Multiple myeloma cells promote migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by altering their translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Dabbah, Mahmoud; Attar-Schneider, Oshrat; Zismanov, Victoria; Tartakover Matalon, Shelly; Lishner, Michael; Drucker, Liat

    2016-10-01

    The role of the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma pathogenesis and progression is well recognized. Indeed, we have shown that coculture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from normal donors and multiple myeloma cells comodulated translation initiation. Here, we characterized the timeline of mesenchymal stem cells conditioning by multiple myeloma cells, the persistence of this effect, and the consequences on cell phenotype. Normal donor mesenchymal stem cells were cocultured with multiple myeloma cell lines (U266, ARP1) (multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cells) (1.5 h,12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 3 d) and were assayed for translation initiation status (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G; regulators: mechanistic target of rapamycin, MNK, 4EBP; targets: SMAD family 5, nuclear factor κB, cyclin D1, hypoxia inducible factor 1, c-Myc) (immunoblotting) and migration (scratch assay, inhibitors). Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases in mesenchymal stem cell conditioning and altered migration was also tested (immunoblotting, inhibitors). Multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cells were recultured alone (1-7 d) and were assayed for translation initiation (immunoblotting). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of extracted ribonucleic acid was tested for microRNAs levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinases were activated within 1.5 h of coculture and were responsible for multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cell translation initiation status (an increase of >200%, P < 0.05) and elevated migration (16 h, an increase of >400%, P < 0.05). The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells conditioned by multiple myeloma cells were reversible after only 1 d of multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cell culture alone. Decreased expression of microRNA-199b and microRNA-125a (an increase of <140%, P < 0.05) in multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cells supported elevated

  12. Sendai virus utilizes specific sialyloligosaccharides as host cell receptor determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Markwell, M A; Paulson, J C

    1980-01-01

    Purified sialyltransferases (CMP-N-acetyl-neuraminate:D-galactosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylneuraminyl-transferase, EC 2.4.99.1) in conjunction with neuraminidase (acylneuraminyl hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.18) were used to produce cell surface sialyloligosaccharides of defined sequence to investigate their role in paramyxovirus infection of host cells. Infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells by Sendai virus was monitored by hemagglutination titer of the virus produced and by changes in morphological characteristics. By either criterion, treatment of the cells with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase to remove cell surface sialic acids rendered them resistant to infection by Sendai virus. Endogenous replacement of receptors by the cell occurred slowly but supported maximal levels of infection within 6 hr. In contrast, sialylation during a 20-min incubation with CMP-sialic acid and beta-galactoside alpha 2,3-sialytransferase restored full susceptibility to infection. This enzyme elaborates the NeuAc alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,3GalNAc (NeuAc, N-acetylneuraminic acid) sequence on glycoproteins and glycolipids. No restoration of infectivity was observed when neuraminidase-treated cells were sialylated by using beta-galactoside alpha 2,6-sialytransferase, which elaborates the NeuAc-alpha 2,6Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc sequence. These results suggest that sialyloligosaccharide receptor determinants of defined sequence are required for Sendai virus infection of host cells. Images PMID:6255459

  13. mRNA decay during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: mutations that affect translation of an mRNA influence the sites at which it is cleaved by the HSV virion host shutoff (Vhs) protein.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Lora A; Read, G Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    During lytic infections, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (Vhs) endoribonuclease degrades many host and viral mRNAs. Within infected cells it cuts mRNAs at preferred sites, including some in regions of translation initiation. Vhs binds the translation initiation factors eIF4H, eIF4AI, and eIF4AII, suggesting that its mRNA degradative function is somehow linked to translation. To explore how Vhs is targeted to preferred sites, we examined the in vitro degradation of a target mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysates containing in vitro-translated Vhs. Vhs caused rapid degradation of mRNAs beginning with cleavages at sites in the first 250 nucleotides, including a number near the start codon and in the 5' untranslated region. Ligation of the ends to form a circular mRNA inhibited Vhs cleavage at the same sites at which it cuts capped linear molecules. This was not due to an inability to cut any circular RNA, since Vhs cuts circular mRNAs containing an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the same sites as linear molecules with the IRES. Cutting linear mRNAs at preferred sites was augmented by the presence of a 5' cap. Moreover, mutations that altered the 5' proximal AUG abolished Vhs cleavage at nearby sites, while mutations that changed sequences surrounding the AUG to improve their match to the Kozak consensus sequence enhanced Vhs cutting near the start codon. The results indicate that mutations in an mRNA that affect its translation affect the sites at which it is cut by Vhs and suggest that Vhs is directed to its preferred cut sites during translation initiation.

  14. Novel HIV-1 Therapeutics through Targeting Altered Host Cell Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Coley, William; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Van Duyne, Rachel; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) strains presents a challenge for the design of new drugs. Anti-HIV compounds currently in use are the subject of advanced clinical trials using either HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase, viral protease, or integrase inhibitors. Recent studies show an increase in the number of HIV-1 variants resistant to anti-retroviral agents in newly infected individuals. Targeting host cell factors involved in the regulation of HIV-1 replication might be one way to combat HIV-1 resistance to the currently available anti-viral agents. A specific inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression could be expected from the development of compounds targeting host cell factors that participate in the activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Here we will discuss how targeting the host can be accomplished either by using small molecules to alter the function of the host’s proteins such as p53 or cdk9, or by utilizing new advances in siRNA therapies to knock down essential host factors such as CCR5 and CXCR4. Finally, we will discuss how the viral protein interactomes should be performed to better design therapeutics against HIV-1. PMID:19732026

  15. Host cell kinases and the hepatitis C virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Che C; Lupberger, Joachim; Doerig, Christian; Baumert, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection relies on virus-host interactions with human hepatocytes, a context in which host cell kinases play critical roles in every step of the HCV life cycle. During viral entry, cellular kinases, including EGFR, EphA2 and PKA, regulate the localization of host HCV entry factors and induce receptor complex assembly. Following virion internalization, viral genomes replicate on endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranous webs. The formation of membranous webs depends on interactions between the HCV NS5a protein and PI4KIIIα. The phosphorylation status of NS5a, regulated by PI4KIIIα, CKI and other kinases, also acts as a molecular switch to virion assembly, which takes place on lipid droplets. The formation of lipid droplets is enhanced by HCV activation of IKKα. In view of the multiple crucial steps in the viral life cycle that are mediated by host cell kinases, these enzymes also represent complementary targets for antiviral therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  17. Context-dependent regulation of Musashi-mediated mRNA translation and cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    MacNicol, Melanie C; Cragle, Chad E; MacNicol, Angus M

    2011-01-01

    Musashi-mediated mRNA translational control has been implicated in the promotion of physiological and pathological stem cell proliferation. During self-renewal of mammalian stem cells, Musashi has been proposed to act to repress the translation of mRNAs encoding inhibitors of cell cycle progression. By contrast, in maturing Xenopus oocytes Musashi activates translation of target mRNAs that encode proteins promoting cell cycle progression. The mechanisms directing Musashi to differentially control mRNA translation in mammalian stem cells and Xenopus oocytes is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the mechanisms defining Musashi function lie within the cellular context. Specifically, we show that murine Musashi acts as an activator of translation in maturing Xenopus oocytes while Xenopus Musashi functions as a repressor of target mRNA translation in mammalian cells. We further demonstrate that within the context of a primary mammalian neural stem/progenitor cell, Musashi can be converted from a repressor of mRNA translation to an activator of translation in response to extracellular stimuli. We present current models of Musashi-mediated mRNA translational control and discuss possible mechanisms for regulating Musashi function. An understanding of these mechanisms presents exciting possibilities for development of therapeutic targets to control physiological and pathological stem cell proliferation.

  18. Cancer Cell Discrimination Using Host-Guest "Doubled" Arrays.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc D B; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Mout, Rubul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Wille, Marcos E; Rana, Subinoy; Dunphy, Karen A; Jerry, D Joseph; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rotello, Caren M; Rotello, Vincent M

    2017-06-14

    We report a nanosensor that uses cell lysates to rapidly profile the tumorigenicity of cancer cells. This sensing platform uses host-guest interactions between cucurbit[7]uril and the cationic headgroup of a gold nanoparticle to non-covalently modify the binding of three fluorescent proteins of a multi-channel sensor in situ. This approach doubles the number of output channels to six, providing single-well identification of cell lysates with 100% accuracy. Significantly, this classification could be extended beyond the training set, determining the invasiveness of novel cell lines. The unique fingerprint of these cell lysates required minimal sample quantity (200 ng, ∼1000 cells), making the methodology compatible with microbiopsy technology.

  19. Affinity capture and identification of host cell factors associated with hepatitis C virus (+) strand subgenomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Alok; Dixit, Updesh; Manvar, Dinesh; Chaturvedi, Nootan; Pandey, Virendra N

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leading to chronic hepatitis is a major factor in the causation of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. This process may involve the interplay of various host cell factors, as well as the interaction of these factors with viral RNA and proteins. We report a novel strategy using a sequence-specific biotinylated peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-neamine conjugate targeted to HCV RNA for the in situ capture of subgenomic HCV (+) RNA, along with cellular and viral factors associated with it in MH14 host cells. Using this affinity capture system in conjunction with LC/MS/MS, we have identified 83 cellular factors and three viral proteins (NS5B, NS5A, and NS3-4a protease-helicase) associated with the viral genome. The capture was highly specific. These proteins were not scored with cured MH14 cells devoid of HCV replicons because of the absence of the target sequence in cells for the PNA-neamine probe and also because, unlike oligomeric DNA, cellular proteins have no affinity for PNA. The identified cellular factors belong to different functional groups, including signaling, oncogenic, chaperonin, transcriptional regulators, and RNA helicases as well as DEAD box proteins, ribosomal proteins, translational regulators/factors, and metabolic enzymes, that represent a diverse set of cellular factors associated with the HCV RNA genome. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of a diverse class of selected proteins in an HCV replicon cell line either enhanced or inhibited HCV replication/translation, suggesting that these cellular factors have regulatory roles in HCV replication.

  20. RELATION OF TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS TO THE HOST CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Esau, Katherine; Cronshaw, James

    1967-01-01

    The relation of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to host cells was studied in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. systemically infected with the virus. The typical TMV inclusions, striate or crystalline material and ameboid or X-bodies, which are discernible with the light microscope, and/or particles of virus, which are identifiable with the electron microscope, were observed in epidermal cells, mesophyll cells, parenchyma cells of the vascular bundles, differentiating and mature tracheary elements, and immature and mature sieve elements. Virus particles were observed in the nuclei and the chloroplasts of parenchyma cells as well as in the ground cytoplasm, the vacuole, and between the plasma membrane and the cell wall. The nature of the conformations of the particle aggregates in the chloroplasts was compatible with the concept that some virus particles may be assembled in these organelles. The virus particles in the nuclei appeared to be complete particles. Under the electron microscope the X-body constitutes a membraneless assemblage of endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, virus particles, and of virus-related material in the form of wide filaments indistinctly resolvable as bundles of tubules. Some parenchyma cells contained aggregates of discrete tubules in parallel arrangement. These groups of tubules were relatively free from components of host protoplasts. PMID:6036529

  1. Infection Strategies of Intestinal Parasite Pathogens and Host Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Di Genova, Bruno M.; Tonelli, Renata R.

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading causes worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these three pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite–host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases’ pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways, and cell death. PMID:26973630

  2. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  3. Brucella T4SS: the VIP pass inside host cells.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Thais Lourdes Santos; Salcedo, Suzana Pinto; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    For many Gram-negative bacteria, like Brucella, the type IV secretion system (T4SS) has a critical role in bacterial virulence. In Brucella, the VirB T4SS permits the injection of bacterial effectors inside host cells, leading to subversion of signaling pathways and favoring bacterial growth and pathogenesis. The virB operon promoter is tightly regulated by a combination of transcriptional activators and repressors that are expressed according to the environmental conditions encountered by Brucella. Recent advances have shed light on the Brucella T4SS regulatory mechanisms and also its substrates. Characterization of the targets and functions of these translocated effectors is underway and will help understand the role of the T4SS in the establishment of a replication niche inside host cells.

  4. Host cell autophagy in immune response to zoonotic infections.

    PubMed

    Skendros, Panagiotis; Mitroulis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a fundamental homeostatic process in which cytoplasmic targets are sequestered within double-membraned autophagosomes and subsequently delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Accumulating evidence supports the pivotal role of autophagy in host defense against intracellular pathogens implicating both innate and adaptive immunity. Many of these pathogens cause common zoonotic infections worldwide. The induction of the autophagic machinery by innate immune receptors signaling, such as TLRs, NOD1/2, and p62/SQSTM1 in antigen-presenting cells results in inhibition of survival and elimination of invading pathogens. Furthermore, Th1 cytokines induce the autophagic process, whereas autophagy also contributes to antigen processing and MHC class II presentation, linking innate to adaptive immunity. However, several pathogens have developed strategies to avoid autophagy or exploit autophagic machinery to their advantage. This paper focuses on the role of host cell autophagy in the regulation of immune response against intracellular pathogens, emphasizing on selected bacterial and protozoan zoonoses.

  5. Translating G-CSF as an adjunct therapy to stem cell transplantation for stroke

    PubMed Central

    dela Peña, Ike; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2015-01-01

    Among recently investigated stroke therapies, stem cell treatment holds great promise by virtue of their putative ability to replace lost cells, promote endogenous neurogenesis and produce behavioral and functional improvement through their “bystander effects.” Translating stem cell in the clinic, however, presents a number of technical difficulties. A strategy suggested to enhance therapeutic utility of stem cells is combination therapy, i.e., cotransplantation of stem cells or adjunct treatment with pharmacological agents and substrates, which is assumed to produce more profound therapeutic benefits by circumventing limitations of individual treatments, and facilitating complementary brain repair processes. We previously demonstrated enhanced functional effects of co-treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and human umbilical cord blood cell (hUCB) transplantation in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we suggest that the aforementioned combination therapy may also produce synergistic effects in stroke. Accordingly, G-CSF treatment may reduce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhance neurogenesis rendering a receptive microenvironment for hUCB engraftment. Adjunct treatment of G-CSF with hUCB may facilitate stemness maintenance and guide neural lineage commitment of hUCB cells. Moreover, regenerative mechanisms afforded by G-CSF-mobilized endogenous stem cells, secretion of growth factors by hUCB grafts and G-CSF-recruited endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) , as well as the potential graft–host integration that may promote synaptic circuitry re-establishment could altogether produce more pronounced functional improvement in stroked rats subjected to a combination G-CSF treatment and hUCB transplantation. Nevertheless, differences in pathology and repair processes underlying TBI and stroke deserve consideration when testing effects of combinatorial G-CSF and hUCB cell transplantation for stroke treatment

  6. Translating G-CSF as an Adjunct Therapy to Stem Cell Transplantation for Stroke.

    PubMed

    Peña, Ike dela; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-12-01

    Among recently investigated stroke therapies, stem cell treatment holds great promise by virtue of their putative ability to replace lost cells, promote endogenous neurogenesis,and produce behavioral and functional improvement through their "bystander effects." Translating stem cell in the clinic, however, presents a number of technical difficulties. A strategy suggested to enhance therapeutic utility of stem cells is combination therapy, i.e., co-transplantation of stem cells or adjunct treatment with pharmacological agents and substrates,which is assumed to produce more profound therapeutic benefits by circumventing limitations of individual treatments and facilitating complementary brain repair processes. We previously demonstrated enhanced functional effects of cotreatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF)and human umbilical cord blood cell (hUCB) transplantation in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here,we suggest that the aforementioned combination therapy may also produce synergistic effects in stroke. Accordingly, G-CSF treatment may reduce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhance neurogenesis rendering a receptive microenvironment for hUCB engraftment. Adjunct treatment of GCSF with hUCB may facilitate stemness maintenance and guide neural lineage commitment of hUCB cells. Moreover, regenerative mechanisms afforded by G-CSF-mobilized endogenous stem cells, secretion of growth factors by hUCB grafts and G-CSF-recruited endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs), as well as the potential graft–host integration that may promote synaptic circuitry re-establishment could altogether produce more pronounced functional improvement in stroked rats subjected to a combination G-CSF treatment and hUCB transplantation. Nevertheless, differences in pathology and repair processes underlying TBI and stroke deserve consideration when testing the effects of combinatorial G-CSF and hUCB cell transplantation for stroke treatment. Further

  7. Centrality of host cell death in plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Martin B; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for proper growth, development, and cellular homeostasis in all eukaryotes. The regulation of PCD is of central importance in plant-microbe interactions; notably, PCD and features associated with PCD are observed in many host resistance responses. Conversely, pathogen induction of inappropriate cell death in the host results in a susceptible phenotype and disease. Thus, the party in control of PCD has a distinct advantage in these battles. PCD processes appear to be of ancient origin, as indicated by the fact that many features of cell death strategy are conserved between animals and plants; however, some of the details of death execution differ. Mammalian core PCD genes, such as caspases, are not present in plant genomes. Similarly, pro- and antiapoptotic mammalian regulatory elements are absent in plants, but, remarkably, when expressed in plants, successfully impact plant PCD. Thus, subtle structural similarities independent of sequence homology appear to sustain operational equivalence. The vacuole is emerging as a key organelle in the modulation of plant PCD. Under different signals for cell death, the vacuole either fuses with the plasmalemma membrane or disintegrates. Moreover, the vacuole appears to play a key role in autophagy; evidence suggests a prosurvival function for autophagy, but other studies propose a prodeath phenotype. Here, we describe and discuss what we know and what we do not know about various PCD pathways and how the host integrates signals to activate salicylic acid and reactive oxygen pathways that orchestrate cell death. We suggest that it is not cell death as such but rather the processes leading to cell death that contribute to the outcome of a given plant-pathogen interaction.

  8. Cell-surface translational dynamics of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Synapse efficacy heavily relies on the number of neurotransmitter receptors available at a given time. In addition to the equilibrium between the biosynthetic production, exocytic delivery and recycling of receptors on the one hand, and the endocytic internalization on the other, lateral diffusion and clustering of receptors at the cell membrane play key roles in determining the amount of active receptors at the synapse. Mobile receptors traffic between reservoir compartments and the synapse by thermally driven Brownian motion, and become immobilized at the peri-synaptic region or the synapse by: (a) clustering mediated by homotropic inter-molecular receptor–receptor associations; (b) heterotropic associations with non-receptor scaffolding proteins or the subjacent cytoskeletal meshwork, leading to diffusional “trapping,” and (c) protein-lipid interactions, particularly with the neutral lipid cholesterol. This review assesses the contribution of some of these mechanisms to the supramolecular organization and dynamics of the paradigm neurotransmitter receptor of muscle and neuronal cells -the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Currently available information stemming from various complementary biophysical techniques commonly used to interrogate the dynamics of cell-surface components is critically discussed. The translational mobility of nAChRs at the cell surface differs between muscle and neuronal receptors in terms of diffusion coefficients and residence intervals at the synapse, which cover an ample range of time regimes. A peculiar feature of brain α7 nAChR is its ability to spend much of its time confined peri-synaptically, vicinal to glutamatergic (excitatory) and GABAergic (inhibitory) synapses. An important function of the α7 nAChR may thus be visiting the territories of other neurotransmitter receptors, differentially regulating the dynamic equilibrium between excitation and inhibition, depending on its residence time in each domain. PMID

  9. Toxoplasma Actin Is Required for Efficient Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drewry, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apicomplexan parasites actively invade host cells using a mechanism predicted to be powered by a parasite actin-dependent myosin motor. In the model apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii, inducible knockout of the actin gene, ACT1, was recently demonstrated to limit but not completely abolish invasion. This observation has led to the provocative suggestion that T. gondii possesses alternative, ACT1-independent invasion pathways. Here, we dissected the residual invasive ability of Δact1 parasites. Surprisingly, we were able to detect residual ACT1 protein in inducible Δact1 parasites as long as 5 days after ACT1 deletion. We further found that the longer Δact1 parasites were propagated after ACT1 deletion, the more severe an invasion defect was observed. Both findings are consistent with the quantity of residual ACT1 retained in Δact1 parasites being responsible for their invasive ability. Furthermore, invasion by the Δact1 parasites was also sensitive to the actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D. Finally, there was no clear defect in attachment to host cells or moving junction formation by Δact1 parasites. However, Δact1 parasites often exhibited delayed entry into host cells, suggesting a defect specific to the penetration stage of invasion. Overall, our results support a model where residual ACT1 protein retained in inducible Δact1 parasites facilitates their limited invasive ability and confirm that parasite actin is essential for efficient penetration into host cells during invasion. PMID:26081631

  10. Translating stem cell research to the clinic: a primer on translational considerations for your first stem cell protocol.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Timothy; Creane, Michael; Windebank, Anthony J; Terzic, Andre; Dietz, Allan B

    2015-08-22

    Over the last two decades, a new therapeutic paradigm has emerged which has changed the way debilitating diseases may be treated in the future. Instead of using small-molecule drugs and devices to ameliorate the symptoms of disease, clinicians may harness the therapeutic power of cells to regenerate and cure diseases which currently represent a major unmet medical need. Advancements in the scientific knowledge of stem cell biology, along with highly encouraging preclinical proof-of-concept studies, in the last several years have served as a launch pad for testing such therapeutics in humans with life-threatening diseases. However, translating basic research findings into human therapy has not been straightforward and has presented many scientific, clinical, and regulatory challenges for scientists and clinicians. In this article, we provide a guidance framework for investigators for the design of early-phase clinical studies using stem cell-based therapeutics. Furthermore, important trial parameters and design features which must be considered before regulatory submission of such studies are highlighted.

  11. Baculovirus Infection Influences Host Protein Expression in Two Established Insect Cell Lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We identified host proteins that changed in response to host cell susceptibility to baculovirus infection. We used three baculovirus–host cell systems utilizing two cell lines derived from pupal ovaries, Hz-AM1 (from Helicoverpa zea) and Hv-AM1 (from Heliothis virescens). Hv-AM1 cells are permissive...

  12. Preparation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell-free extract for in vitro translation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng; Sachs, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell-free in vitro translation systems have been in use since the 1970s. These systems can faithfully synthesize polypeptides when programmed with mRNA, enabling the production of polypeptides for analysis as well as permitting analyses of the cis- and trans-acting factors that regulate translation. Here we describe the preparation and use of cell-free translation systems from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  13. Thiouracil cross-linking mass spectrometry: a cell-based method to identify host factors involved in viral amplification.

    PubMed

    Lenarcic, Erik M; Landry, Dori M; Greco, Todd M; Cristea, Ileana M; Thompson, Sunnie R

    2013-08-01

    Eukaryotic RNA viruses are known to utilize host factors; however, the identity of these factors and their role in the virus life cycle remain largely undefined. Here, we report a method to identify proteins bound to the viral RNA during amplification in cell culture: thiouracil cross-linking mass spectrometry (TUX-MS). TUX-MS relies on incorporation of a zero-distance cross-linker into the viral RNA during infection. Proteins bound to viral RNA are cross-linked prior to cell lysis, purified, and identified using mass spectrometry. Using the TUX-MS method, an unbiased screen for poliovirus (PV) host factors was conducted. All host and viral proteins that are known to interact with the poliovirus RNA were identified. In addition, TUX-MS identified an additional 66 host proteins that have not been previously described in poliovirus amplification. From these candidates, eight were selected and validated. Furthermore, we demonstrate that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of two of these uncharacterized host factors results in either a decrease in copy number of positive-stranded RNA or a decrease in PV translation. These data demonstrate that TUX-MS is a robust, unbiased method to identify previously unknown host cell factors that influence virus growth. This method is broadly applicable to a range of RNA viruses, such as flaviviruses, alphaviruses, picornaviruses, bunyaviruses, and coronaviruses.

  14. Thiouracil Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry: a Cell-Based Method To Identify Host Factors Involved in Viral Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lenarcic, Erik M.; Landry, Dori M.; Greco, Todd M.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA viruses are known to utilize host factors; however, the identity of these factors and their role in the virus life cycle remain largely undefined. Here, we report a method to identify proteins bound to the viral RNA during amplification in cell culture: thiouracil cross-linking mass spectrometry (TUX-MS). TUX-MS relies on incorporation of a zero-distance cross-linker into the viral RNA during infection. Proteins bound to viral RNA are cross-linked prior to cell lysis, purified, and identified using mass spectrometry. Using the TUX-MS method, an unbiased screen for poliovirus (PV) host factors was conducted. All host and viral proteins that are known to interact with the poliovirus RNA were identified. In addition, TUX-MS identified an additional 66 host proteins that have not been previously described in poliovirus amplification. From these candidates, eight were selected and validated. Furthermore, we demonstrate that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of two of these uncharacterized host factors results in either a decrease in copy number of positive-stranded RNA or a decrease in PV translation. These data demonstrate that TUX-MS is a robust, unbiased method to identify previously unknown host cell factors that influence virus growth. This method is broadly applicable to a range of RNA viruses, such as flaviviruses, alphaviruses, picornaviruses, bunyaviruses, and coronaviruses. PMID:23740976

  15. Differential activity profiles of translation inhibitors in whole-cell and cell-free approaches.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, M; Klammt, C; Bernhard, F; Karas, M; Stein, T

    2008-02-01

    Evaluation of the activity profiles of standard prokaryotic translation inhibitors with different physicochemical properties under whole-cell and cell-free conditions. The minimal inhibitory concentration values (cell-free/whole-cell microg ml(-1)) for three aminoglycosides (neomycin, 0.01/6.92; paromomycin, 0.7/1.96; streptomycin 1.45/1.57), three macrolides (erythromycin, 1.53/56.9; josamycin, 1.61/87.7; oleandomycin, 5.12/565.9), chloramphenicol (11.9/3.04), and two tetracyclines (tetracycline hydrochloride, not determined/0.63; minocycline hydrochloride, 2.53/1.09), towards Escherichia coli A19 cells were determined with a microtitre plate-based broth dilution method and compared with values determined in a coupled transcription/translation system based on a S30 extract of the same E. coli strain (cell-free) for the production of the green fluorescent protein. The analysed prokaryotic translation inhibitors showed substance-specific activity profiles under cell-free vs whole-cell conditions that are explainable by the physicochemical properties of the molecules. This study shows the advantages and limits of cell- free transcription/translation (CFTT) experiments for the discovery of novel antimicrobials. The main advantage is the direct access of the target structures (ribosomes) for the inhibitors, and our results provide an estimation of the concentration necessary to detect new agents. The main limitations are that the inhibitory properties of different agents in CFTT experiments do not necessarily reflect their growth inhibition activity in cell cultures.

  16. Variation in RNA Virus Mutation Rates across Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Combe, Marine; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that RNA viruses exhibit higher rates of spontaneous mutation than DNA viruses and microorganisms. However, their mutation rates vary amply, from 10−6 to 10−4 substitutions per nucleotide per round of copying (s/n/r) and the causes of this variability remain poorly understood. In addition to differences in intrinsic fidelity or error correction capability, viral mutation rates may be dependent on host factors. Here, we assessed the effect of the cellular environment on the rate of spontaneous mutation of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which has a broad host range and cell tropism. Luria-Delbrück fluctuation tests and sequencing showed that VSV mutated similarly in baby hamster kidney, murine embryonic fibroblasts, colon cancer, and neuroblastoma cells (approx. 10−5 s/n/r). Cell immortalization through p53 inactivation and oxygen levels (1–21%) did not have a significant impact on viral replication fidelity. This shows that previously published mutation rates can be considered reliable despite being based on a narrow and artificial set of laboratory conditions. Interestingly, we also found that VSV mutated approximately four times more slowly in various insect cells compared with mammalian cells. This may contribute to explaining the relatively slow evolution of VSV and other arthropod-borne viruses in nature. PMID:24465205

  17. Arginase II Restricts Host Defense to Helicobacter pylori by Attenuating Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Translation in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Asim, Mohammad; Barry, Daniel P.; Singh, Kshipra; de Sablet, Thibaut; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Gobert, Alain P.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Despite eliciting a vigorous immune response, the bacterium persists for the life of the host. An important antimicrobial mechanism is the production of NO derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We have reported that macrophages can kill H. pylori in vitro by an NO-dependent mechanism, but supraphysiologic levels of the iNOS substrate L-arginine are required. Because H. pylori induces arginase activity in macrophages, we determined if this restricts NO generation by reducing L-arginine availability. Inhibition of arginase with S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (BEC) significantly enhanced NO generation in H. pylori-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by enhancing iNOS protein translation but not iNOS mRNA levels. This effect resulted in increased killing of H. pylori that was attenuated with an NO scavenger. In contrast, inhibition of arginase in macrophages activated by the colitis-inducing bacterium Citrobacter rodentium increased NO without affecting iNOS levels. H. pylori upregulated levels of arginase II (Arg2) mRNA and protein, which localized to mitochondria, whereas arginase I was not induced. Increased iNOS protein and NO levels were also demonstrated by small interfering RNA knockdown of Arg2 and in peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 Arg2−/− mice. In H. pylori-infected mice, treatment with BEC or deletion of Arg2 increased iNOS protein levels and NO generation in gastric macrophages, but treatment of Arg2−/− mice with BEC had no additional effect. These studies implicate Arg2 in the immune evasion of H. pylori by causing intracellular depletion of L-arginine and thus reduction of NO-dependent bactericidal activity. PMID:20097867

  18. ADP-ribosylation of translation elongation factor 2 by diphtheria toxin in yeast inhibits translation and cell separation.

    PubMed

    Mateyak, Maria K; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2013-08-23

    Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) facilitates the movement of the peptidyl tRNA-mRNA complex from the A site of the ribosome to the P site during protein synthesis. ADP-ribosylation (ADP(R)) of eEF2 by bacterial toxins on a unique diphthamide residue inhibits its translocation activity, but the mechanism is unclear. We have employed a hormone-inducible diphtheria toxin (DT) expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which allows for the rapid induction of ADP(R)-eEF2 to examine the effects of DT in vivo. ADP(R) of eEF2 resulted in a decrease in total protein synthesis consistent with a defect in translation elongation. Association of eEF2 with polyribosomes, however, was unchanged upon expression of DT. Upon prolonged exposure to DT, cells with an abnormal morphology and increased DNA content accumulated. This observation was specific to DT expression and was not observed when translation elongation was inhibited by other methods. Examination of these cells by electron microscopy indicated a defect in cell separation following mitosis. These results suggest that expression of proteins late in the cell cycle is particularly sensitive to inhibition by ADP(R)-eEF2.

  19. Regulation of Poly(A) Tail and Translation during the Somatic Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Eun; Yi, Hyerim; Kim, Yoosik; Chang, Hyeshik; Kim, V Narry

    2016-05-05

    Poly(A) tails are critical for mRNA stability and translation. However, recent studies have challenged this view, showing that poly(A) tail length and translation efficiency are decoupled in non-embryonic cells. Using TAIL-seq and ribosome profiling, we investigate poly(A) tail dynamics and translational control in the somatic cell cycle. We find dramatic changes in poly(A) tail lengths of cell-cycle regulatory genes like CDK1, TOP2A, and FBXO5, explaining their translational repression in M phase. We also find that poly(A) tail length is coupled to translation when the poly(A) tail is <20 nucleotides. However, as most genes have >20 nucleotide poly(A) tails, their translation is regulated mainly via poly(A) tail length-independent mechanisms during the cell cycle. Specifically, we find that terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) tract-containing transcripts escape global translational suppression in M phase and are actively translated. Our quantitative and comprehensive data provide a revised view of translational control in the somatic cell cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fertility facts: male and female germ cell development requires translational control by CPEB.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, F; Hentze, M W

    2001-08-01

    In the August issue of Developmental Cell, Tay and Richter examine the consequences of eliminating CPEB function in mice. Their studies reveal an important role for this translational regulator at the pachytene stage of germ cell differentiation.

  1. Hypoxia Induces Autophagy through Translational Up-Regulation of Lysosomal Proteins in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Chih; Chang, Chiao-May; Sun, H. Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia occurs in a wide variety of physiological and pathological conditions, including tumorigenesis. Tumor cells have to adapt to hypoxia by altering their gene expression and protein synthesis. Here, we showed that hypoxia inhibits translation through activation of PERK and inactivation of mTOR in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Prolonged hypoxia (1% O2, 16 h) dramatically inhibits general translation in HCT116 cells, yet selected mRNAs remain efficiently translated under such a condition. Using microarray analysis of polysome- associated mRNAs, we identified a large number of hypoxia-regulated genes at the translational level. Efficiently translated mRNAs during hypoxia were validated by polysome profiling and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that many of the up-regulated genes are involved in lysosome, glycan and lipid metabolism, antigen presentation, cell adhesion, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. The majority of down-regulated genes are involved in apoptosis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. Further investigation showed that hypoxia induces lysosomal autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction through translational regulation in HCT116 cells. The abundance of several translation factors and the mTOR kinase activity are involved in hypoxia-induced mitochondrial autophagy in HCT116 cells. Our studies highlight the importance of translational regulation for tumor cell adaptation to hypoxia. PMID:27078027

  2. Host Cell Invasion in Mucormycosis: Role of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical hallmarks of mucormycosis infections include the unique susceptibility of patients with increased available serum iron, the propensity of the organism to invade blood vessels, and defective phagocytic function. These hallmarks underscore the critical roles of iron metabolism, phagocyte function, and interactions with endothelial cells lining blood vessels, in the organism’s virulence strategy. In an attempt to understand how Mucorales invade the host, we will review the current knowledge about interactions between Mucorales and the host while evading phagocyte-mediated killing. Additionally, since iron is an important determinant of the disease, we will focus on the role of iron on these interactions. Ultimately, a superior understanding of the pathogenesis of mucormycosis will enable development of novel therapies for this disease. PMID:21807554

  3. HIV-Induced Epigenetic Alterations in Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, Enass A; Ji, Hong; Shata, Mohamed Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a member of the Retroviridae family, is a positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus. HIV, the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has two major types, HIV-1 and HIV-2 In HIV-infected cells the single stranded viral RNA genome is reverse transcribed and the double-stranded viral DNA integrates into the cellular DNA, forming a provirus. The proviral HIV genome is controlled by the host epigenetic regulatory machinery. Cellular epigenetic regulators control HIV latency and reactivation by affecting the chromatin state in the vicinity of the viral promoter located to the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence. In turn, distinct HIV proteins affect the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of the host cells. HIV-1 infection of CD4(+) T cells in vitro upregulated DNMT activity and induced hypermethylation of distinct cellular promoters. In contrast, in the colon mucosa and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients demethylation of the FOXP3 promoter was observed, possibly due to the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. For a curative therapy of HIV infected individuals and AIDS patients, a combination of antiretroviral drugs with epigenetic modifying compounds have been suggested for the reactivation of latent HIV-1 genomes. These epigenetic drugs include histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI), histone methyltransferase inhibitors (HMTI), histone demethylase inhibitors, and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTI).

  4. Identifying Francisella tularensis Genes Required for Growth in Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, J.; Steele, S.; Miller, C.; Lovullo, E.; Taft-Benz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative intracellular pathogen capable of infecting a vast diversity of hosts, ranging from amoebae to humans. A hallmark of F. tularensis virulence is its ability to quickly grow to high densities within a diverse set of host cells, including, but not limited to, macrophages and epithelial cells. We developed a luminescence reporter system to facilitate a large-scale transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes required for growth in macrophage and epithelial cell lines. We screened 7,454 individual mutants, 269 of which exhibited reduced intracellular growth. Transposon insertions in the 269 growth-defective strains mapped to 68 different genes. FTT_0924, a gene of unknown function but highly conserved among Francisella species, was identified in this screen to be defective for intracellular growth within both macrophage and epithelial cell lines. FTT_0924 was required for full Schu S4 virulence in a murine pulmonary infection model. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant bacterial membrane is permeable when replicating in hypotonic solution and within macrophages, resulting in strongly reduced viability. The permeability and reduced viability were rescued when the mutant was grown in a hypertonic solution, indicating that FTT_0924 is required for resisting osmotic stress. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant was also significantly more sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics than Schu S4. Taken together, the data strongly suggest that FTT_0924 is required for maintaining peptidoglycan integrity and virulence. PMID:25987704

  5. Identifying Francisella tularensis genes required for growth in host cells.

    PubMed

    Brunton, J; Steele, S; Miller, C; Lovullo, E; Taft-Benz, S; Kawula, T

    2015-08-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative intracellular pathogen capable of infecting a vast diversity of hosts, ranging from amoebae to humans. A hallmark of F. tularensis virulence is its ability to quickly grow to high densities within a diverse set of host cells, including, but not limited to, macrophages and epithelial cells. We developed a luminescence reporter system to facilitate a large-scale transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes required for growth in macrophage and epithelial cell lines. We screened 7,454 individual mutants, 269 of which exhibited reduced intracellular growth. Transposon insertions in the 269 growth-defective strains mapped to 68 different genes. FTT_0924, a gene of unknown function but highly conserved among Francisella species, was identified in this screen to be defective for intracellular growth within both macrophage and epithelial cell lines. FTT_0924 was required for full Schu S4 virulence in a murine pulmonary infection model. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant bacterial membrane is permeable when replicating in hypotonic solution and within macrophages, resulting in strongly reduced viability. The permeability and reduced viability were rescued when the mutant was grown in a hypertonic solution, indicating that FTT_0924 is required for resisting osmotic stress. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant was also significantly more sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics than Schu S4. Taken together, the data strongly suggest that FTT_0924 is required for maintaining peptidoglycan integrity and virulence.

  6. Polysome profiling of mAb producing CHO cell lines links translational control of cell proliferation and recombinant mRNA loading onto ribosomes with global and recombinant protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Charlotte L; Mead, Emma J; Daramola, Olalekan; Dunn, Sarah; Hatton, Diane; Field, Ray; Pettman, Gary; Smales, C Mark

    2017-08-01

    mRNA translation is a key process determining growth, proliferation and duration of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture and influences recombinant protein synthesis rate. During bioprocessing, CHO cells can experience stresses leading to reprogramming of translation and decreased global protein synthesis. Here we apply polysome profiling to determine reprogramming and translational capabilities in host and recombinant monoclonal antibody-producing (mAb) CHO cell lines during batch culture. Recombinant cell lines with the fastest cell specific growth rates were those with the highest global translational efficiency. However, total ribosomal capacity, determined from polysome profiles, did not relate to the fastest growing or highest producing mAb cell line, suggesting it is the ability to utilise available machinery that determines protein synthetic capacity. Cell lines with higher cell specific productivities tended to have elevated recombinant heavy chain transcript copy numbers, localised to the translationally active heavy polysomes. The highest titre cell line was that which sustained recombinant protein synthesis and maintained high recombinant transcript copy numbers in polysomes. Investigation of specific endogenous transcripts revealed a number that maintained or reprogrammed into heavy polysomes, identifying targets for potential cell engineering or those with 5' untranslated regions that might be utilised to enhance recombinant transcript translation. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Parallel measurement of dynamic changes in translation rates in single cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyuho; Jaimovich, Ariel; Dey, Gautam; Ruggero, Davide; Meyuhas, Oded; Sonenberg, Nahum; Meyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Protein concentrations are often regulated by dynamic changes in translation rates. Nevertheless, it has been challenging to directly monitor changes in translation in living cells. We have developed a reporter system to measure real-time changes of translation rates in human or mouse individual cells by conjugating translation regulatory motifs to sequences encoding a nuclear targeted fluorescent protein and a controllable destabilization domain. Application of the method showed that individual cells undergo marked fluctuations in the translation rate of mRNAs whose 5′ terminal oligopyrimidine (5′ TOP) motif regulates the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that small reductions in amino acid levels signal through different mTOR-dependent pathways to control TOP mRNA translation, whereas larger reductions in amino acid levels control translation through eIF2A. Our study demonstrates that dynamic measurements of single-cell activities of translation regulatory motifs can be used to identify and investigate fundamental principles of translation. PMID:24213167

  8. Skewing the T-cell repertoire by combined DNA vaccination, host conditioning, and adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, Annelies; Bins, Adriaan D; Schumacher, Ton N M; Haanen, John B A G

    2008-04-01

    Approaches for T-cell-based immunotherapy that have shown substantial effects in clinical trials are generally based on the adoptive transfer of high numbers of antigen-specific cells, and the success of these approaches is thought to rely on the high magnitude of the tumor-specific T-cell responses that are induced. In this study, we aimed to develop strategies that also yield a T-cell repertoire that is highly skewed toward tumor recognition but do not rely on ex vivo generation of tumor-specific T cells. To this end, the tumor-specific T-cell repertoire was first expanded by DNA vaccination and then infused into irradiated recipients. Subsequent vaccination of the recipient mice with the same antigen resulted in peak CD8(+) T-cell responses of approximately 50%. These high T-cell responses required the presence of antigen-experienced tumor-specific T cells within the graft because only mice that received cells of previously vaccinated donor mice developed effective responses. Tumor-bearing mice treated with this combined therapy showed a significant delay in tumor outgrowth, compared with mice treated by irradiation or vaccination alone. Furthermore, this antitumor effect was accompanied by an increased accumulation of activated and antigen-specific T cells within the tumor. In summary, the combination of DNA vaccination with host conditioning and adoptive transfer generates a marked, but transient, skewing of the T-cell repertoire toward tumor recognition. This strategy does not require ex vivo expansion of cells to generate effective antitumor immunity and may therefore easily be translated to clinical application.

  9. Inkjet printing of silk nest arrays for cell hosting.

    PubMed

    Suntivich, Rattanon; Drachuk, Irina; Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2014-04-14

    An inkjet printing approach is presented for the facile fabrication of microscopic arrays of biocompatible silk "nests" capable of hosting live cells for prospective biosensors. The patterning of silk fibroin nests were constructed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of silk polyelectrolytes chemically modified with poly-(l-lysine) and poly-(l-glutamic acid) side chains. The inkjet-printed silk circular regions with a characteristic "nest" shape had diameters of 70-100 μm and a thickness several hundred nanometers were stabilized by ionic pairing and by the formation of the silk II crystalline secondary structure. These "locked-in" silk nests remained anchored to the substrate during incubation in cell growth media to provide a biotemplated platform for printing-in, immobilization, encapsulation and growth of cells. The process of inkjet-assisted printing is versatile and can be applied on any type of substrate, including rigid and flexible, with scalability and facile formation.

  10. Depletion of host cell riboflavin reduces Wolbachia levels in cultured mosquito cells

    PubMed Central

    Baldridge, Gerald D.; Carroll, Elissa M.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium that occurs in arthropod and nematode hosts. Wolbachia presumably provides a fitness benefit to its hosts, but the basis for its retention and spread in host populations remains unclear. Wolbachia genomes retain biosynthetic pathways for some vitamins, and the possibility that these vitamins benefit host cells provides a potential means of selecting for Wolbachia-infected cell lines. To explore whether riboflavin produced by Wolbachia is available to its host cell, we established that growth of uninfected C7–10 mosquito cells decreases in riboflavin-depleted culture medium. A well studied inhibitor of riboflavin uptake, lumiflavin, further inhibits growth of uninfected C7–10 cells with an LC50 of approximately 12 µg/ml. Growth of C/wStr1 mosquito cells, infected with Wolbachia from the planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, was enhanced in medium containing low levels of lumiflavin, but Wolbachia levels decreased. Lumiflavin-enhanced growth thus resembled the improved growth that accompanies treatment with antibiotics that deplete Wolbachia, rather than a metabolic advantage provided by the Wolbachia infection. We used the polymerase chain reaction to validate the decrease in Wolbachia abundance and evaluated our results in the context of a proteomic analysis in which we detected nearly 800 wStr proteins. Our data indicate that Wolbachia converts riboflavin to FMN and FAD for its own metabolic needs, and does not provide a source of riboflavin for its host cell. PMID:24789726

  11. Depletion of host cell riboflavin reduces Wolbachia levels in cultured mosquito cells.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Ann M; Baldridge, Gerald D; Carroll, Elissa M; Kurtz, Cassandra M

    2014-09-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium that occurs in arthropod and nematode hosts. Wolbachia presumably provides a fitness benefit to its hosts, but the basis for its retention and spread in host populations remains unclear. Wolbachia genomes retain biosynthetic pathways for some vitamins, and the possibility that these vitamins benefit host cells provides a potential means of selecting for Wolbachia-infected cell lines. To explore whether riboflavin produced by Wolbachia is available to its host cell, we established that growth of uninfected C7-10 mosquito cells decreases in riboflavin-depleted culture medium. A well-studied inhibitor of riboflavin uptake, lumiflavin, further inhibits growth of uninfected C7-10 cells with an LC50 of approximately 12 μg/ml. Growth of C/wStr1 mosquito cells, infected with Wolbachia from the planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, was enhanced in medium containing low levels of lumiflavin, but Wolbachia levels decreased. Lumiflavin-enhanced growth thus resembled the improved growth that accompanies treatment with antibiotics that deplete Wolbachia, rather than a metabolic advantage provided by the Wolbachia infection. We used the polymerase chain reaction to validate the decrease in Wolbachia abundance and evaluated our results in the context of a proteomic analysis in which we detected nearly 800 wStr proteins. Our data indicate that Wolbachia converts riboflavin to FMN and FAD for its own metabolic needs, and does not provide a source of riboflavin for its host cell.

  12. Exosomes Secreted by Toxoplasma gondii-Infected L6 Cells: Their Effects on Host Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Changes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Song, Hyemi; Pyo, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Min-Kyung; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces alteration of the host cell cycle and cell proliferation. These changes are not only seen in directly invaded host cells but also in neighboring cells. We tried to identify whether this alteration can be mediated by exosomes secreted by T. gondii-infected host cells. L6 cells, a rat myoblast cell line, and RH strain of T. gondii were selected for this study. L6 cells were infected with or without T. gondii to isolate exosomes. The cellular growth patterns were identified by cell counting with trypan blue under confocal microscopy, and cell cycle changes were investigated by flow cytometry. L6 cells infected with T. gondii showed decreased proliferation compared to uninfected L6 cells and revealed a tendency to stay at S or G2/M cell phase. The treatment of exosomes isolated from T. gondii-infected cells showed attenuation of cell proliferation and slight enhancement of S phase in L6 cells. The cell cycle alteration was not as obvious as reduction of the cell proliferation by the exosome treatment. These changes were transient and disappeared at 48 hr after the exosome treatment. Microarray analysis and web-based tools indicated that various exosomal miRNAs were crucial for the regulation of target genes related to cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the exosomes originating from T. gondii could change the host cell proliferation and alter the host cell cycle.

  13. Translational Control of Viral Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Michael; Tan, Seng-Lai; Katze, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses rely exclusively on the translational machinery of the host cell for the synthesis of viral proteins. This relationship has imposed numerous challenges on both the infecting virus and the host cell. Importantly, viruses must compete with the endogenous transcripts of the host cell for the translation of viral mRNA. Eukaryotic viruses have thus evolved diverse mechanisms to ensure translational efficiency of viral mRNA above and beyond that of cellular mRNA. Mechanisms that facilitate the efficient and selective translation of viral mRNA may be inherent in the structure of the viral nucleic acid itself and can involve the recruitment and/or modification of specific host factors. These processes serve to redirect the translation apparatus to favor viral transcripts, and they often come at the expense of the host cell. Accordingly, eukaryotic cells have developed antiviral countermeasures to target the translational machinery and disrupt protein synthesis during the course of virus infection. Not to be outdone, many viruses have answered these countermeasures with their own mechanisms to disrupt cellular antiviral pathways, thereby ensuring the uncompromised translation of virion proteins. Here we review the varied and complex translational programs employed by eukaryotic viruses. We discuss how these translational strategies have been incorporated into the virus life cycle and examine how such programming contributes to the pathogenesis of the host cell. PMID:10839817

  14. What's missing? Discussing stem cell translational research in educational information on stem cell "tourism".

    PubMed

    Master, Zubin; Zarzeczny, Amy; Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell tourism is a growing industry in which patients pursue unproven stem cell therapies for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. It is a challenging market to regulate due to a number of factors including its international, online, direct-to-consumer approach. Calls to provide education and information to patients, their families, physicians, and the general public about the risks associated with stem cell tourism are mounting. Initial studies examining the perceptions of patients who have pursued stem cell tourism indicate many are highly critical of the research and regulatory systems in their home countries and believe them to be stagnant and unresponsive to patient needs. We suggest that educational material should include an explanation of the translational research process, in addition to other aspects of stem cell tourism, as one means to help promote greater understanding and, ideally, curb patient demand for unproven stem cell interventions. The material provided must stress that strong scientific research is required in order for therapies to be safe and have a greater chance at being effective. Through an analysis of educational material on stem cell tourism and translational stem cell research from patient groups and scientific societies, we describe essential elements that should be conveyed in educational material provided to patients. Although we support the broad dissemination of educational material on stem cell translational research, we also acknowledge that education may simply not be enough to engender patient and public trust in domestic research and regulatory systems. However, promoting patient autonomy by providing good quality information to patients so they can make better informed decisions is valuable in itself, irrespective of whether it serves as an effective deterrent of stem cell tourism. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. The Plasmodium falciparum translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is incorporated more efficiently into B cells than its human homologue.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Pérez, Berenice; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Lira-Carmona, Rosalía; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Ortega-López, Jaime; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum secretes a homologue of the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) into serum of infected individuals, although its role in pathogenesis or virulence is unknown. To determine the effect of P. falciparum TCTP on B cells as compared to human TCTP, fluorescently labeled proteins were incubated on primary cultures of mouse splenic B cells and analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that both recombinant proteins are incorporated into B cells, but differ significantly in their rate and percentage of incorporation, being significantly higher for P. falciparum TCTP. Furthermore, P. falciparum TCTP showed a lower B cell proliferative effect than human TCTP, suggesting a mechanism through which the former could interfere in the host's immune response.

  16. Lassa Virus Cell Entry Reveals New Aspects of Virus-Host Cell Interaction.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Giulia; Galan-Navarro, Clara; Kunz, Stefan

    2017-02-15

    Viral entry represents the first step of every viral infection and is a determinant for the host range and disease potential of a virus. Here, we review the latest developments on cell entry of the highly pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus, providing novel insights into the complex virus-host cell interaction of this important human pathogen. We will cover new discoveries on the molecular mechanisms of receptor recognition, endocytosis, and the use of late endosomal entry factors.

  17. Interaction of Human Tumor Viruses with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Georgia; Blumenthal, Melissa J.; Katz, Arieh A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, seven viruses, namely Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), have been described to be consistently associated with different types of human cancer. These oncogenic viruses belong to distinct viral families, display diverse cell tropism and cause different malignancies. A key to their pathogenicity is attachment to the host cell and entry in order to replicate and complete their life cycle. Interaction with the host cell during viral entry is characterized by a sequence of events, involving viral envelope and/or capsid molecules as well as cellular entry factors that are critical in target cell recognition, thereby determining cell tropism. Most oncogenic viruses initially attach to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, followed by conformational change and transfer of the viral particle to secondary high-affinity cell- and virus-specific receptors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the host cell surface factors and molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic virus binding and uptake by their cognate host cell(s) with the aim to provide a concise overview of potential target molecules for prevention and/or treatment of oncogenic virus infection. PMID:26008702

  18. Interaction of human tumor viruses with host cell surface receptors and cell entry.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Georgia; Blumenthal, Melissa J; Katz, Arieh A

    2015-05-22

    Currently, seven viruses, namely Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), have been described to be consistently associated with different types of human cancer. These oncogenic viruses belong to distinct viral families, display diverse cell tropism and cause different malignancies. A key to their pathogenicity is attachment to the host cell and entry in order to replicate and complete their life cycle. Interaction with the host cell during viral entry is characterized by a sequence of events, involving viral envelope and/or capsid molecules as well as cellular entry factors that are critical in target cell recognition, thereby determining cell tropism. Most oncogenic viruses initially attach to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, followed by conformational change and transfer of the viral particle to secondary high-affinity cell- and virus-specific receptors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the host cell surface factors and molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic virus binding and uptake by their cognate host cell(s) with the aim to provide a concise overview of potential target molecules for prevention and/or treatment of oncogenic virus infection.

  19. The interactions of intracellular Protista and their host cells, with special reference to heterotrophic organisms.

    PubMed

    Bannister, L H

    1979-04-11

    Intracellular genera are found in all the major groups of Protista, but are particularly common among the dinoflagellates, trypanosomatid zooflagellates and suctorian ciliates; the Sporozoa are nearly all intracellular at some stage of their life, and the Microspora entirely so. Intracellular forms can dwell in the nucleus, within phagosomal or other vacuoles or may lie free in the hyaloplasm of their host cells. Organisms tend to select their hosts from a restricted taxonomic range although there are some notable exceptions. There is also great variation in the types of host cell inhabited. There are various reasons for both host and cell selectivity including recognition phenomena at the cell surfaces. Invasion of host cells is usually preceded by surface interactions with the invader. Some organisms depend upon phagocytosis for entry, but others induce host cells to engulf them by non-phagocytic means or invade by microinjection through the host plasma membrane. Protista avoid lysosomal destruction by their resistance to enzyme attack, by surrounding themselves with lysosome-inhibiting vacuoles, by escaping from the phagosomal system into the hyaloplasm and by choosing host cells which lack lysosomes. Nutrition of intracellular heterotrophic organisms involves some degree of competition with the host cell's metabolism as well as erosion of host cell cytoplasm. In Plasmodium infections, red cells are made more permeable to required nutrients by the action of the parasite on the host cell membrane. The parasite is often dependent upon the host cell for complex nutrients which it cannot synthesize for itself. Intracellular forms often profoundly modify the structure and metabolism of the host cell or interfere with its growth and multiplication. This may result in the final lysis of the host cell at the end of the intracellular phase or before the infection of other cells. Certain types of intracellular organisms may have arisen initially as forms attached to the

  20. Mechanism of host restriction of adenovirus-associated virus replication in African green monkey kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Buller, R M; Straus, S E; Rose, J A

    1979-06-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad) serotypes provide an early factor(s) that is necessary for adenovirus-associated virus (AAV) multiplication in human cell lines. However, little, if any, AAV production occurs in primary African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells co-infected with AAV and a helper human Ad (non-permissive infection), unless cells are additionally infected with SV40 (permissive infection). To determine the basis of the host restriction of AAV replication in AGMK cells, AAV DNA, RNA and protein synthesis were analyzed under various conditions of infection. Hybridization reactions revealed no detectable AAV-specific DNA or RNA in infections with AAV alone or in combination with SV40. In co-infections with AAV and Ad5 or Ad7, the synthesis of both AAV- and Ad-specific DNA and RNA occurred without a significant rise in titre of either virus. During non-permissive infection, however, AAV DNA synthesis was abnormal in that an expected accumulation of single-stranded progeny molecules was not observed. Finally, although intact 20S AAV transcripts were present in the cytoplasm of AGMK cells during non-permissive infection (in amounts ranging from 50 to 80% of that found during permissive infection), AAV-specific polypeptides were not demonstrable by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Taken together, these experiments indicate that the host restriction of AAV replication in AGMK cells is exerted at the level of translation of the single AAV messenger RNA. In addition, it appears that one or more of the AAV polypeptides specified by this message is required for the production of single-stranded AAV progeny DNA.

  1. Role of myeloid cells in HIV-1-host interplay.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The AIDS research field has embarked on a bold mission to cure HIV-1-infected individuals of the virus. To do so, scientists are attempting to identify the reservoirs that support viral persistence in patients on therapy, to understand how viral persistence is regulated and to come up with strategies that interrupt viral persistence and that eliminate the viral reservoirs. Most of the attention regarding the cure of HIV-1 infection has focused on the CD4+ T cell reservoir. Investigators are developing tools to probe the CD4+ T cell reservoirs as well as in vitro systems that provide clues on how to perturb them. By comparison, the myeloid cell, and in particular, the macrophage has received far less attention. As a consequence, there is very little understanding as to the role played by myeloid cells in viral persistence in HIV-1-infected individuals on suppressive therapy. As such, should myeloid cells constitute a viral reservoir, unique strategies may be required for their elimination. This article will overview research that is examining the role of macrophage in virus-host interplay and will discuss features of this interplay that could impact efforts to eliminate myeloid cell reservoirs.

  2. Innate lymphoid cells in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Konya, V; Mjösberg, J

    2015-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are lymphocytes lacking rearranged antigen receptors such as those expressed by T and B cells. ILC are important effector and regulatory cells of the innate immune system, controlling lymphoid organogenesis, tissue inflammation, and homeostasis. The family of ILC consists of cytotoxic NK cells and the more recently described noncytotoxic group 1, 2, and 3 ILC. The classification of noncytotoxic ILC-in many aspects-mirrors that of T helper cells, which is based on the expression of master transcription factors and signature cytokines specific for each subset. The IL-22 producing RORγt(+) ILC3 subset was recently found to be critical in the prevention of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) via strengthening the intestinal mucosal barrier. In this review, we summarize the current view of the immunological functions of human noncytotoxic ILC subsets and discuss the potentially beneficial features of IL-22 producing ILC3 in improving allo-HCT efficacy by attenuating susceptibility to GVHD. In addition, we explore the possibility of other ILC subsets playing a role in GVHD. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Pathogen Cell-to-cell Variability Drives Heterogeneity In Host Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Roi; Haseley, Nathan; Brown, Douglas; Penaranda, Cristina; Jijon, Humberto B; Trombetta, John J; Satija, Rahul; Shalek, Alex K; Xavier, Ramnik; Regev, Aviv; Hung, Deborah T

    2015-01-01

    Summary Encounters between immune cells and invading bacteria ultimately determine the course of infection. These interactions are usually measured in populations of cells, masking cell-to-cell variation that may be important for infection outcome. To characterize gene expression variation that underlies distinct infection outcomes, we developed an experimental system that combines single-cell RNA-seq with fluorescent markers, monitoring infection phenotypes. Probing the responses of individual macrophages to invading Salmonella, we find that variation between individual infected host cells is determined by the heterogeneous activity of bacterial factors in individual infecting bacteria. We illustrate how variable PhoPQ activity in the population of invading bacteria drives variable host Type I IFN responses by modifying LPS in a subset of bacteria. This work demonstrates a causative link between host and bacterial variability, with cell-to-cell variation between different bacteria being sufficient to drive radically different host immune responses. This co-variation has implications for host-pathogen dynamics in vivo. PMID:26343579

  4. Homeostatic expansion and repertoire regeneration of donor T cells during graft versus host disease is constrained by the host environment

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Jack; Chen, Xiao; Gendelman, Mariya; Yassai, Maryam; Krueger, Ashley; Tivol, Elizabeth; Logan, Brent; Komorowski, Richard; Vodanovic-Jankovic, Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) typically results in impaired T-cell reconstitution characterized by lymphopenia and repertoire skewing. One of the major causes of inadequate T-cell reconstitution is that T-cell survival and expansion in the periphery are impaired. In this report, we have performed adoptive transfer studies to determine whether the quantitative reduction in T-cell numbers is due to an intrinsic T-cell defect or whether the environmental milieu deleteriously affects T-cell expansion. These studies demonstrate that T cells obtained from animals with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are capable of significant expansion and renormalization of an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio when they are removed from this environment. Moreover, these cells can generate complex T-cell repertoires early after transplantation and are functionally competent to respond to third-party alloantigens. Our data indicate that T cells from mice undergoing GVHD can respond to homeostatic signals in the periphery and are not intrinsically compromised once they are removed from the GVHD environment. We thereby conclude that the host environment and not an intrinsic T-cell defect is primarily responsible for the lack of effective T-cell expansion and diversification of complex T-cell repertoires that occurs during GVHD. PMID:17347406

  5. Unsynchronized Translational and Rotational Diffusion of Nanocargo on a Living Cell Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Lehui; Wei, Lin; Liu, Chang; He, Yan; Yeung, Edward

    2012-03-16

    A robust high-speed and high-precision single nanoparticle translational and rotational tracking method has been developed to directly monitor the interactions between transferrin-modified nanocargos (gold nanorods) and the membrane proteins prior to endocytosis. This approach shows that the translational and rotational diffusions of nanocargos on living cell membranes are unsynchronized in space and in time.

  6. Translational regulation of the cell cycle: when, where, how and why?

    PubMed

    Kronja, Iva; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2011-12-27

    Translational regulation contributes to the control of archetypal and specialized cell cycles, such as the meiotic and early embryonic cycles. Late meiosis and early embryogenesis unfold in the absence of transcription, so they particularly rely on translational repression and activation of stored maternal mRNAs. Here, we present examples of cell cycle regulators that are translationally controlled during different cell cycle and developmental transitions in model organisms ranging from yeast to mouse. Our focus also is on the RNA-binding proteins that affect cell cycle progression by recognizing special features in untranslated regions of mRNAs. Recent research highlights the significance of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB). CPEB determines polyadenylation status, and consequently translational efficiency, of its target mRNAs in both transcriptionally active somatic cells as well as in transcriptionally silent mature Xenopus oocytes and early embryos. We discuss the role of CPEB in mediating the translational timing and in some cases spindle-localized translation of critical regulators of Xenopus oogenesis and early embryogenesis. We conclude by outlining potential directions and approaches that may provide further insights into the translational control of the cell cycle.

  7. Phase Transition of the Bacterium upon Invasion of a Host Cell as a Mechanism of Adaptation: a Mycoplasma gallisepticum Model

    PubMed Central

    Matyushkina, Daria; Pobeguts, Olga; Butenko, Ivan; Vanyushkina, Anna; Anikanov, Nicolay; Bukato, Olga; Evsyutina, Daria; Bogomazova, Alexandra; Lagarkova, Maria; Semashko, Tatiana; Garanina, Irina; Babenko, Vladislav; Vakhitova, Maria; Ladygina, Valentina; Fisunov, Gleb; Govorun, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    What strategies do bacteria employ for adaptation to their hosts and are these strategies different for varied hosts? To date, many studies on the interaction of the bacterium and its host have been published. However, global changes in the bacterial cell in the process of invasion and persistence, remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated phase transition of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum upon invasion of the various types of eukaryotic cells (human, chicken, and mouse) which was stable during several passages after isolation of intracellular clones and recultivation in a culture medium. It was shown that this phase transition is manifested in changes at the proteomic, genomic and metabolomic levels. Eukaryotic cells induced similar proteome reorganization of M. gallisepticum during infection, despite different origins of the host cell lines. Proteomic changes affected a broad range of processes including metabolism, translation and oxidative stress response. We determined that the activation of glycerol utilization, overproduction of hydrogen peroxide and the upregulation of the SpxA regulatory protein occurred during intracellular infection. We propose SpxA as an important regulator for the adaptation of M. gallisepticum to an intracellular environment. PMID:27775027

  8. Host Cell-catalyzed S-Palmitoylation Mediates Golgi Targeting of the Legionella Ubiquitin Ligase GobX*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Han; Doms, Alexandra G.; Cheng, Eric; Kim, Byoungkwan; Evans, Timothy R.; Machner, Matthias P.

    2015-01-01

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires disease, infects and replicates within human alveolar macrophages. L. pneumophila delivers almost 300 effector proteins into the besieged host cell that alter signaling cascades and create conditions that favor intracellular bacterial survival. In order for the effectors to accomplish their intracellular mission, their activity needs to be specifically directed toward the correct host cell protein or target organelle. Here, we show that the L. pneumophila effector GobX possesses E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is mediated by a central region homologous to mammalian U-box domains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GobX exploits host cell S-palmitoylation to specifically localize to Golgi membranes. The hydrophobic palmitate moiety is covalently attached to a cysteine residue at position 175, which is part of an amphipathic α-helix within the C-terminal region of GobX. Site-directed mutagenesis of cysteine 175 or residues on the hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix strongly attenuated palmitoylation and Golgi localization of GobX. Together, our study provides evidence that the L. pneumophila effector GobX exploits two post-translational modification pathways of host cells, ubiquitination and S-palmitoylation. PMID:26316537

  9. The early career researcher's toolkit: translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I; Wilson, Samantha L; Patel, Asha K; Barnes, Amanda L; Adams, Christopher F; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine translation, we discuss common pitfalls associated with translational research, providing practical solutions and important considerations which will aid process and product development. Suggestions range from effective project management, consideration of key manufacturing, clinical and regulatory matters and means of exploiting research for successful commercialization.

  10. Dynamic flux of microvesicles modulate parasite-host cell interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, M I; Deolindo, P; de Messias-Reason, I J; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, H; Almeida, I C; Evans-Osses, I

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles released from pathogens may alter host cell functions. We previously demonstrated the involvement of host cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) during early interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote (META) stage and THP-1 cells. Here, we aim to understand the contribution of different parasite stages and their extracellular vesicles in the interaction with host cells. First, we observed that infective host cell-derived trypomastigote (tissue culture-derived trypomastigote [TCT]), META, and noninfective epimastigote (EPI) stages were able to induce different levels of MV release from THP-1 cells; however, only META and TCT could increase host cell invasion. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy revealed that THP-1-derived MVs can fuse with parasite-derived MVs. Furthermore, MVs derived from the TCT-THP-1 interaction showed a higher fusogenic capacity than those from META- or EPI-THP-1 interaction. However, a higher presence of proteins from META (25%) than TCT (12%) or EPI (5%) was observed in MVs from parasite-THP-1 interaction, as determined by proteomics. Finally, sera from patients with chronic Chagas disease at the indeterminate or cardiac phase differentially recognized antigens in THP-1-derived MVs resulting only from interaction with infective stages. The understanding of intracellular trafficking and the effect of MVs modulating the immune system may provide important clues about Chagas disease pathophysiology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Implementation of a Permeable Membrane Insert-based Infection System to Study the Effects of Secreted Bacterial Toxins on Mammalian Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Rebecca A.; Lee, Shaun W.

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens secrete potent toxins to aid in the destruction of host tissue, to initiate signaling changes in host cells or to manipulate immune system responses during the course of infection. Though methods have been developed to successfully purify and produce many of these important virulence factors, there are still many bacterial toxins whose unique structure or extensive post-translational modifications make them difficult to purify and study in in vitro systems. Furthermore, even when pure toxin can be obtained, there are many challenges associated with studying the specific effects of a toxin under relevant physiological conditions. Most in vitro cell culture models designed to assess the effects of secreted bacterial toxins on host cells involve incubating host cells with a one-time dose of toxin. Such methods poorly approximate what host cells actually experience during an infection, where toxin is continually produced by bacterial cells and allowed to accumulate gradually during the course of infection. This protocol describes the design of a permeable membrane insert-based bacterial infection system to study the effects of Streptolysin S, a potent toxin produced by Group A Streptococcus, on human epithelial keratinocytes. This system more closely mimics the natural physiological environment during an infection than methods where pure toxin or bacterial supernatants are directly applied to host cells. Importantly, this method also eliminates the bias of host responses that are due to direct contact between the bacteria and host cells. This system has been utilized to effectively assess the effects of Streptolysin S (SLS) on host membrane integrity, cellular viability, and cellular signaling responses. This technique can be readily applied to the study of other secreted virulence factors on a variety of mammalian host cell types to investigate the specific role of a secreted bacterial factor during the course of infection. PMID:27585035

  12. Implementation of a Permeable Membrane Insert-based Infection System to Study the Effects of Secreted Bacterial Toxins on Mammalian Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Rebecca A; Lee, Shaun W

    2016-08-19

    Many bacterial pathogens secrete potent toxins to aid in the destruction of host tissue, to initiate signaling changes in host cells or to manipulate immune system responses during the course of infection. Though methods have been developed to successfully purify and produce many of these important virulence factors, there are still many bacterial toxins whose unique structure or extensive post-translational modifications make them difficult to purify and study in in vitro systems. Furthermore, even when pure toxin can be obtained, there are many challenges associated with studying the specific effects of a toxin under relevant physiological conditions. Most in vitro cell culture models designed to assess the effects of secreted bacterial toxins on host cells involve incubating host cells with a one-time dose of toxin. Such methods poorly approximate what host cells actually experience during an infection, where toxin is continually produced by bacterial cells and allowed to accumulate gradually during the course of infection. This protocol describes the design of a permeable membrane insert-based bacterial infection system to study the effects of Streptolysin S, a potent toxin produced by Group A Streptococcus, on human epithelial keratinocytes. This system more closely mimics the natural physiological environment during an infection than methods where pure toxin or bacterial supernatants are directly applied to host cells. Importantly, this method also eliminates the bias of host responses that are due to direct contact between the bacteria and host cells. This system has been utilized to effectively assess the effects of Streptolysin S (SLS) on host membrane integrity, cellular viability, and cellular signaling responses. This technique can be readily applied to the study of other secreted virulence factors on a variety of mammalian host cell types to investigate the specific role of a secreted bacterial factor during the course of infection.

  13. Ribosome Profiling Reveals a Cell-Type-Specific Translational Landscape in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Christian; Sims, Jennifer S.; Hornstein, Nicholas; Mela, Angeliki; Garcia, Franklin; Lei, Liang; Gass, David A.; Amendolara, Benjamin; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Glioma growth is driven by signaling that ultimately regulates protein synthesis. Gliomas are also complex at the cellular level and involve multiple cell types, including transformed and reactive cells in the brain tumor microenvironment. The distinct functions of the various cell types likely lead to different requirements and regulatory paradigms for protein synthesis. Proneural gliomas can arise from transformation of glial progenitors that are driven to proliferate via mitogenic signaling that affects translation. To investigate translational regulation in this system, we developed a RiboTag glioma mouse model that enables cell-type-specific, genome-wide ribosome profiling of tumor tissue. Infecting glial progenitors with Cre-recombinant retrovirus simultaneously activates expression of tagged ribosomes and delivers a tumor-initiating mutation. Remarkably, we find that although genes specific to transformed cells are highly translated, their translation efficiencies are low compared with normal brain. Ribosome positioning reveals sequence-dependent regulation of ribosomal activity in 5′-leaders upstream of annotated start codons, leading to differential translation in glioma compared with normal brain. Additionally, although transformed cells express a proneural signature, untransformed tumor-associated cells, including reactive astrocytes and microglia, express a mesenchymal signature. Finally, we observe the same phenomena in human disease by combining ribosome profiling of human proneural tumor and non-neoplastic brain tissue with computational deconvolution to assess cell-type-specific translational regulation. PMID:25122893

  14. Viral and Host Factors Required for Avian H5N1 Influenza A Virus Replication in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Hale, Benjamin G.; Xu, Ke; Sun, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Following the initial and sporadic emergence into humans of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses in Hong Kong in 1997, we have come to realize the potential for avian influenza A viruses to be transmitted directly from birds to humans. Understanding the basic viral and cellular mechanisms that contribute to infection of mammalian species with avian influenza viruses is essential for developing prevention and control measures against possible future human pandemics. Multiple physical and functional cellular barriers can restrict influenza A virus infection in a new host species, including the cell membrane, the nuclear envelope, the nuclear environment, and innate antiviral responses. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on viral and host factors required for avian H5N1 influenza A viruses to successfully establish infections in mammalian cells. We focus on the molecular mechanisms underpinning mammalian host restrictions, as well as the adaptive mutations that are necessary for an avian influenza virus to overcome them. It is likely that many more viral and host determinants remain to be discovered, and future research in this area should provide novel and translational insights into the biology of influenza virus-host interactions. PMID:23752648

  15. Intracellular Voyeurism: Examining the Modulation of Host Cell Activities bySalmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Jason; Brumell, John H

    2005-11-01

    Salmonella spp. can infect host cells by gaining entry through phagocytosis or by inducing host cell membrane ruffling that facilitates bacterial uptake. With its wide host range, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has proven to be an important model organism for studying intracellular bacterial pathogenesis. Upon entry into host cells, serovar Typhimurium typically resides within a membrane-bound compartment termed the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). From the SCV, serovar Typhimurium can inject several effector proteins that subvert many normal host cell systems, including endocytic trafficking, cytoskeletal rearrangements, lipid signaling and distribution, and innate and adaptive host defenses. The study of these intracellular events has been made possible through the use of various imaging techniques, ranging from classic methods of transmission electron microscopy to advanced livecell fluorescence confocal microscopy. In addition, DNA microarrays have now been used to provide a "snapshot" of global gene expression in serovar Typhimurium residing within the infected host cell. This review describes key aspects of Salmonella-induced subversion of host cell activities, providing examples of imaging that have been used to elucidate these events. Serovar Typhimurium engages specific host cell machinery from initial contact with the host cell to replication within the SCV. This continuous interaction with the host cell has likely contributed to the extensive arsenal that serovar Typhimurium now possesses, including two type III secretion systems, a range of ammunition in the form of TTSS effectors, and a complex genetic regulatory network that coordinates the expression of hundreds of virulence factors.

  16. Emerging functions as host cell factors - an encyclopedia of annexin-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Kuehnl, Alexander; Musiol, Agnes; Raabe, Carsten A; Rescher, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases and drug-resistant infectious agents call for the development of innovative antimicrobial strategies. With pathogenicity now considered to arise from the complex and bi-directional interplay between a microbe and the host, host cell factor targeting has emerged as a promising approach that might overcome the limitations of classical antimicrobial drug development and could open up novel and efficient therapeutic strategies. Interaction with and modulation of host cell membranes is a recurrent theme in the host-microbe relationship. In this review, we provide an overview of what is currently known about the role of the Ca2+ dependent, membrane-binding annexin protein family in pathogen-host interactions, and discuss their emerging functions as host cell derived auxiliary proteins in microbe-host interactions and host cell targets.

  17. Fierce Competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for Host Cell Structures in Dually Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Julia D.; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A.; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M.

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients. PMID:23243063

  18. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    PubMed

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  19. Inhibition of host cell catalase by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a possible mechanism for cell injury.

    PubMed Central

    Almagor, M; Yatziv, S; Kahane, I

    1983-01-01

    This study demonstrates that viable Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells inhibit catalase activity in several types of intact human cells as well as in solution. Human erythrocyte catalase was inhibited up to 72%, and the inhibition of catalase in human cultured skin fibroblasts, lung carcinoma epithelial cells, and ciliated epithelial cells from human nasal polyps ranged between 75 and 80%. UV light-killed mycoplasmas failed to inhibit catalase activity both in intact cells and in vitro. After M. pneumoniae infection of human cultured skin fibroblasts, the level of malonyldialdehyde, an indicator for membrane lipid peroxidation, was 3.5 times higher than in control fibroblasts. Virulent M. pneumoniae completely inhibited catalase activity in solution, whereas the nonvirulent strains had a lesser ability to inhibit catalase activity. These findings suggest that as a result of host cell catalase inhibition by M. pneumoniae, the toxicity of the hydrogen peroxide generated by the microorganism and the affected cell is enhanced, thereby inducing host cell damage. PMID:6407999

  20. Laser-mediated rupture of chlamydial inclusions triggers pathogen egress and host cell necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Markus C.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Ferguson, Charles; Tanzer, Maria C.; Murphy, James M.; Yap, Alpha S.; Parton, Robert G.; Huston, Wilhelmina M.; Teasdale, Rohan D

    2017-01-01

    Remarkably little is known about how intracellular pathogens exit the host cell in order to infect new hosts. Pathogenic chlamydiae egress by first rupturing their replicative niche (the inclusion) before rapidly lysing the host cell. Here we apply a laser ablation strategy to specifically disrupt the chlamydial inclusion, thereby uncoupling inclusion rupture from the subsequent cell lysis and allowing us to dissect the molecular events involved in each step. Pharmacological inhibition of host cell calpains inhibits inclusion rupture, but not subsequent cell lysis. Further, we demonstrate that inclusion rupture triggers a rapid necrotic cell death pathway independent of BAK, BAX, RIP1 and caspases. Both processes work sequentially to efficiently liberate the pathogen from the host cytoplasm, promoting secondary infection. These results reconcile the pathogen's known capacity to promote host cell survival and induce cell death. PMID:28281536

  1. A microfluidic cell-trapping device for single-cell tracking of host-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Delincé, Matthieu J; Bureau, Jean-Baptiste; López-Jiménez, Ana Teresa; Cosson, Pierre; Soldati, Thierry; McKinney, John D

    2016-08-16

    The impact of cellular individuality on host-microbe interactions is increasingly appreciated but studying the temporal dynamics of single-cell behavior in this context remains technically challenging. Here we present a microfluidic platform, InfectChip, to trap motile infected cells for high-resolution time-lapse microscopy. This approach allows the direct visualization of all stages of infection, from bacterial uptake to death of the bacterium or host cell, over extended periods of time. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by co-culturing an established host-cell model, Dictyostelium discoideum, with the extracellular pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae or the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium marinum. We show that the outcome of such infections is surprisingly heterogeneous, ranging from abortive infection to death of the bacterium or host cell. InfectChip thus provides a simple method to dissect the time-course of host-microbe interactions at the single-cell level, yielding new insights that could not be gleaned from conventional population-based measurements.

  2. Mast cells impair host defense during murine Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; Brands, Xanthe; Roelofs, Joris J T H; de Beer, Regina; de Boer, Onno J; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Mast cells (MCs) are located mainly at the host-environment interface where they function as sentinels. Our goal was to study the role of MCs during pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae. Lung tissue of patients who had died from pneumococcal pneumonia or a nonpulmonary cause was stained for MCs and tryptase. Wild-type (WT) and MC-deficient (Kit(W-sh/W-sh)) mice were observed or sacrificed after induction of pneumonia by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae. In separate experiments, WT mice were treated with doxantrazole or cromoglycate, which are MC stabilizing agents. The constitutive presence of tryptase-positive MCs was reduced in affected lungs from pneumonia patients. Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice showed a prolonged survival during the first few days after median lethal dose (LD)100 and LD50 infection, while overall mortality did not differ from that in WT mice. Relative to WT mice, Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice showed reduced bacterial counts with less bacterial dissemination to distant organs and less inflammation. Neither doxantrazole nor cromoglycate influenced antibacterial defense or inflammatory responses after airway infection with S. pneumoniae. MCs exhibit an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism independent of degranulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Host defenses to Rickettsia rickettsii infection contribute to increased microvascular permeability in human cerebral endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Woods, Michael E; Olano, Juan P

    2008-03-01

    Rickettsiae are arthropod-borne intracellular bacterial pathogens that primarily infect the microvascular endothelium leading to systemic spread of the organisms and the major pathophysiological effect, increased microvascular permeability, and edema in vital organs such as the lung and brain. Much work has been done on mechanisms of immunity to rickettsiae, as well as the responses of endothelial cells to rickettsial invasion. However, to date, no one has described the mechanisms of increased microvascular permeability during acute rickettsiosis. We sought to establish an in vitro model of human endothelial-target rickettsial infection using the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Rickettsia rickettsii, and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Endothelial cells infected with R. rickettsii exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in trans-endothelial electrical resistance, which translates into increased monolayer permeability. Additionally, we showed that the addition of pro-inflammatory stimuli essential to rickettsial immunity dramatically enhanced this effect. This increase in permeability correlates with dissociation of adherens junctions between endothelial cells and is not dependent on the presence of nitric oxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that increased microvascular permeability associated with rickettsial infection is partly attributable to intracellular rickettsiae and partly attributable to the immune defenses that have evolved to protect the host from rickettsial spread.

  4. Clinical and preclinical translation of cell-based therapies using adipose tissue-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant, and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cells suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of preclinical data relating to the isolation, characterization, cryopreservation, differentiation, and transplantation of freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction cells and adherent, culture-expanded, adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in vitro and in animal models. This body of work has provided evidence supporting clinical translational applications of adipose-derived cells in safety and efficacy trials. The present article reviews the case reports and phase I-III clinical evidence using autologous adipose-derived cells that have been published, to date, in the fields of gastroenterology, neurology, orthopedics, reconstructive surgery, and related clinical disciplines. Future directions and challenges facing the field are discussed and evaluated. PMID:20587076

  5. Some aspects of oncogenic virus-host cell and virus-tumor cell antigenic relationships.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E

    1982-01-01

    Some viewpoints are presented as regards the virus-host cell relationship within the framework of carcinogenesis. Data are reviewed which point out the possibility of the transfer of cellular antigenic fractions from the tumor cell to the virus that grows in it, as well as of a hybridization between the virus genome and the genome of the tumoral host cell. Such a hybridization may have multiple consequences, among which the appearance of new oncogenic variants of viruses so far known to be nononcogenic ones.

  6. Host cell proteins in biologics development: Identification, quantitation and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Hunter, Alan K; Mozier, Ned M

    2009-06-15

    Host cell proteins (HCPs) are those produced or encoded by the organisms and unrelated to the intended recombinant product. Some are necessary for growth, survival, and normal cellular processing whereas others may be non-essential, simply carried along as baggage. Like the recombinant product, HCPs may also be modified by the host with a number of post-translational modifications. Regardless of the utility, or lack thereof, HCPs are undesirable in the final drug substance. Though commonly present in small quantities (parts per million expressed as nanograms per milligrams of the intended recombinant protein) much effort and cost is expended by industry to remove them. The purpose of this review is to summarize what is of relevance in regards to the biology, the impact of genomics and proteomics on HCP evaluation, the regulatory expectations, analytical approaches, and various methodologies to remove HCPs with bioprocessing. Historical data, bioinformatics approaches and industrial case study examples are provided. Finally, a proposal for a risk assessment tool is provided which brings these facets together and proposes a means for manufacturers to classify and organize a control strategy leading to meaningful product specifications. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu

    2016-03-17

    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3C(pro)s) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3C(pro) plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3C(pro) are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3C(pro) can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3C(pro) and these essential factors, 3C(pro) is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3C(pro) are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3C(pro) may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3C(pro) is summarized.

  8. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu

    2016-01-01

    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized. PMID:26999188

  9. Inhibition of tumor cell growth by Sigma1 ligand mediated translational repression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Felix J.; Schrock, Joel M.; Spino, Christina M.; Marino, Jacqueline C.; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sigma1 ligand treatment mediates decrease in tumor cell mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of a Sigma1 ligand with reversible translational repressor actions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of a role for Sigma1 in cellular protein synthesis. -- Abstract: Treatment with sigma1 receptor (Sigma1) ligands can inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, the cellular pathways engaged in response to Sigma1 ligand treatment that contribute to these outcomes remain largely undefined. Here, we show that treatment with putative antagonists of Sigma1 decreases cell mass. This effect corresponds with repressed cap-dependent translation initiation in multiple breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Sigma1 antagonist treatment suppresses phosphorylation of translational regulator proteins p70S6K, S6, and 4E-BP1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Sigma1 also results in translational repression, consistent with the effects of antagonist treatment. Sigma1 antagonist mediated translational repression and decreased cell size are both reversible. Together, these data reveal a role for Sigma1 in tumor cell protein synthesis, and demonstrate that small molecule Sigma1 ligands can be used as modulators of protein translation.

  10. Stem Cell-Based Cell Carrier for Targeted Oncolytic Virotherapy: Translational Opportunity and Open Questions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Janice; Hall, Robert R; Lesniak, Maciej S; Ahmed, Atique U

    2015-11-27

    Oncolytic virotherapy for cancer is an innovative therapeutic option where the ability of a virus to promote cell lysis is harnessed and reprogrammed to selectively destroy cancer cells. Such treatment modalities exhibited antitumor activity in preclinical and clinical settings and appear to be well tolerated when tested in clinical trials. However, the clinical success of oncolytic virotherapy has been significantly hampered due to the inability to target systematic metastasis. This is partly due to the inability of the therapeutic virus to survive in the patient circulation, in order to target tumors at distant sites. An early study from various laboratories demonstrated that cells infected with oncolytic virus can protect the therapeutic payload form the host immune system as well as function as factories for virus production and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic virus. While a variety of cell lineages possessed potential as cell carriers, copious investigation has established stem cells as a very attractive cell carrier system in oncolytic virotherapy. The ideal cell carrier desire to be susceptible to viral infection as well as support viral infection, maintain immunosuppressive properties to shield the loaded viruses from the host immune system, and most importantly possess an intrinsic tumor homing ability to deliver loaded viruses directly to the site of the metastasis-all qualities stem cells exhibit. In this review, we summarize the recent work in the development of stem cell-based carrier for oncolytic virotherapy, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of cell carriers, especially focusing on why stem cells have emerged as the leading candidate, and finally propose a future direction for stem cell-based targeted oncolytic virotherapy that involves its establishment as a viable treatment option for cancer patients in the clinical setting.

  11. Stem Cell-Based Cell Carrier for Targeted Oncolytic Virotherapy: Translational Opportunity and Open Questions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Janice; Hall, Robert R.; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Ahmed, Atique U.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy for cancer is an innovative therapeutic option where the ability of a virus to promote cell lysis is harnessed and reprogrammed to selectively destroy cancer cells. Such treatment modalities exhibited antitumor activity in preclinical and clinical settings and appear to be well tolerated when tested in clinical trials. However, the clinical success of oncolytic virotherapy has been significantly hampered due to the inability to target systematic metastasis. This is partly due to the inability of the therapeutic virus to survive in the patient circulation, in order to target tumors at distant sites. An early study from various laboratories demonstrated that cells infected with oncolytic virus can protect the therapeutic payload form the host immune system as well as function as factories for virus production and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic virus. While a variety of cell lineages possessed potential as cell carriers, copious investigation has established stem cells as a very attractive cell carrier system in oncolytic virotherapy. The ideal cell carrier desire to be susceptible to viral infection as well as support viral infection, maintain immunosuppressive properties to shield the loaded viruses from the host immune system, and most importantly possess an intrinsic tumor homing ability to deliver loaded viruses directly to the site of the metastasis—all qualities stem cells exhibit. In this review, we summarize the recent work in the development of stem cell-based carrier for oncolytic virotherapy, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of cell carriers, especially focusing on why stem cells have emerged as the leading candidate, and finally propose a future direction for stem cell-based targeted oncolytic virotherapy that involves its establishment as a viable treatment option for cancer patients in the clinical setting. PMID:26633462

  12. Bacterial Colonization of Host Cells in the Absence of Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Gilk, Stacey D.; Cockrell, Diane C.; Luterbach, Courtney; Hansen, Bryan; Knodler, Leigh A.; Ibarra, J. Antonio; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Reports implicating important roles for cholesterol and cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in host-pathogen interactions have largely employed sterol sequestering agents and biosynthesis inhibitors. Because the pleiotropic effects of these compounds can complicate experimental interpretation, we developed a new model system to investigate cholesterol requirements in pathogen infection utilizing DHCR24−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). DHCR24−/− MEFs lack the Δ24 sterol reductase required for the final enzymatic step in cholesterol biosynthesis, and consequently accumulate desmosterol into cellular membranes. Defective lipid raft function by DHCR24−/− MEFs adapted to growth in cholesterol-free medium was confirmed by showing deficient uptake of cholera-toxin B and impaired signaling by epidermal growth factor. Infection in the absence of cholesterol was then investigated for three intracellular bacterial pathogens: Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Invasion by S. Typhimurium and C. trachomatis was unaltered in DHCR24−/− MEFs. In contrast, C. burnetii entry was significantly decreased in −cholesterol MEFs, and also in +cholesterol MEFs when lipid raft-associated αVβ3 integrin was blocked, suggesting a role for lipid rafts in C. burnetii uptake. Once internalized, all three pathogens established their respective vacuolar niches and replicated normally. However, the C. burnetii-occupied vacuole within DHCR24−/− MEFs lacked the CD63-postive material and multilamellar membranes typical of vacuoles formed in wild type cells, indicating cholesterol functions in trafficking of multivesicular bodies to the pathogen vacuole. These data demonstrate that cholesterol is not essential for invasion and intracellular replication by S. Typhimurium and C. trachomatis, but plays a role in C. burnetii-host cell interactions. PMID:23358892

  13. The Transforming Parasite Theileria Co-opts Host Cell Mitotic and Central Spindles to Persist in Continuously Dividing Cells

    PubMed Central

    von Schubert, Conrad; Xue, Gongda; Schmuckli-Maurer, Jacqueline; Woods, Kerry L.; Nigg, Erich A.; Dobbelaere, Dirk A. E.

    2010-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Theileria inhabits the host cell cytoplasm and possesses the unique capacity to transform the cells it infects, inducing continuous proliferation and protection against apoptosis. The transforming schizont is a multinucleated syncytium that resides free in the host cell cytoplasm and is strictly intracellular. To maintain transformation, it is crucial that this syncytium is divided over the two daughter cells at each host cell cytokinesis. This process was dissected using different cell cycle synchronization methods in combination with the targeted application of specific inhibitors. We found that Theileria schizonts associate with newly formed host cell microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles, positioning the parasite at the equatorial region of the mitotic cell where host cell chromosomes assemble during metaphase. During anaphase, the schizont interacts closely with host cell central spindle. As part of this process, the schizont recruits a host cell mitotic kinase, Polo-like kinase 1, and we established that parasite association with host cell central spindles requires Polo-like kinase 1 catalytic activity. Blocking the interaction between the schizont and astral as well as central spindle microtubules prevented parasite segregation between the daughter cells during cytokinesis. Our findings provide a striking example of how an intracellular eukaryotic pathogen that evolved ways to induce the uncontrolled proliferation of the cells it infects usurps the host cell mitotic machinery, including Polo-like kinase 1, one of the pivotal mitotic kinases, to ensure its own persistence and survival. PMID:20927361

  14. A Viral mRNA Motif at the 3′-Untranslated Region that Confers Translatability in a Cell-Specific Manner. Implications for Virus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Moreno, Manuel; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) mRNAs contain several motifs that participate in the regulation of their translation. We have discovered a motif at the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNAs, constituted by three repeated sequences, which is involved in the translation of both SINV genomic and subgenomic mRNAs in insect, but not in mammalian cells. These data illustrate for the first time that an element present at the 3′-UTR confers translatability to mRNAs from an animal virus in a cell-specific manner. Sequences located at the beginning of the 5′-UTR may also regulate SINV subgenomic mRNA translation in both cell lines in a context of infection. Moreover, a replicon derived from Sleeping disease virus, an alphavirus that have no known arthropod vector for transmission, is much more efficient in insect cells when the repeated sequences from SINV are inserted at its 3′-UTR, due to the enhanced translatability of its mRNAs. Thus, these findings provide a clue to understand, at the molecular level, the evolution of alphaviruses and their host range. PMID:26755446

  15. Adhesion to the host cell surface is sufficient to mediate Listeria monocytogenes entry into epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Fabian E; Rengarajan, Michelle; Chavez, Natalie; Radhakrishnan, Prathima; Gloerich, Martijn; Bianchini, Julie; Siemers, Kathleen; Luckett, William S; Lauer, Peter; Nelson, W James; Theriot, Julie A

    2017-09-06

    An intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier breached by the Gram-positive facultative pathogen Listeria monocytogenes during an in vivo infection. L. monocytogenes binds to the epithelial host cell receptor E-cadherin, which mediates a physical link between the bacterium and filamentous actin (F-actin). However, the importance of anchoring the bacterium to F-actin through E-cadherin for bacterial invasion has not been tested directly in epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that depleting αE-catenin, which indirectly links E-cadherin to F-actin, did not decrease L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells in tissue culture. Instead, invasion increased due to increased bacterial adhesion to epithelial monolayers with compromised cell-cell junctions. Furthermore, expression of a mutant E-cadherin lacking the intracellular domain was sufficient for efficient L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells. Importantly, direct biotin-mediated binding of bacteria to surface lipids in the plasma membrane of host epithelial cells was sufficient for uptake. Our results indicate that the only requirement for L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells is adhesion to the host cell surface, and that E-cadherin-mediated coupling of the bacterium to F-actin is not required. © 2017 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  16. Biological insights into the expression of translation initiation factors from recombinant CHOK1SV cell lines and their relationship to enhanced productivity.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma J; Masterton, Rosalyn J; Feary, Marc; Obrezanova, Olga; Zhang, Lin; Young, Robert; Smales, C Mark

    2015-12-15

    Translation initiation is on the critical pathway for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by mammalian cells. Formation of a closed loop structure comprised of mRNA, a number of eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and ribosomal proteins has been proposed to aid re-initiation of translation and therefore increase global translational efficiency. We have determined mRNA and protein levels of the key components of the closed loop, eIFs (eIF3a, eIF3b, eIF3c, eIF3h, eIF3i and eIF4G1), poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) 1 and PABP-interacting protein 1 (PAIP1), across a panel of 30 recombinant mAb-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell lines with a broad range of growth characteristics and production levels of a model recombinant mAb. We have used a multi-level statistical approach to investigate the relationship between key performance indicators (cell growth and recombinant antibody productivity) and the intracellular amounts of target translation initiation factor proteins and the mRNAs encoding them. We show that high-producing cell lines maintain amounts of the translation initiation factors involved in the formation of the closed loop mRNA, maintaining these proteins at appropriate levels to deliver enhanced recombinant protein production. We then utilize knowledge of the amounts of these factors to build predictive models for and use cluster analysis to identify, high-producing cell lines. The present study therefore defines the translation initiation factor amounts that are associated with highly productive recombinant GS-CHOK1SV cell lines that may be targets for screening highly productive cell lines or to engineer new host cell lines with the potential for enhanced recombinant antibody productivity.

  17. The cell cycle of symbiotic Chlorella. I. The relationship between host feeding and algal cell growth and division.

    PubMed

    McAuley, P J

    1985-08-01

    When green hydra were starved, cell division of the symbiotic algae within their digestive cells was inhibited, but algal cell growth, measured as increase in either mean volume or protein content per cell, was not. Therefore, control of algal division by the host digestive cells must be effected by direct inhibition of algal mitosis rather than by controlling algal cell growth. The number of algae per digestive cell increased slightly during starvation, eventually reaching a new stable level. A number of experiments demonstrated that although there was a relationship between host cell and algal mitosis, this was not causal: the apparent entrainment of algal mitosis to that of the host cells could be disrupted. Thus, there was a delay in algal but not host cell mitosis when hydra were fed after prolonged starvation, and algae repopulated starved hydra with lower than normal numbers of algae (reinfected aposymbionts or hydra transferred to light after growth in continuous darkness). Two experiments demonstrated a direct stimulation of algal cell division by host feeding. Relationships of algal and host cell mitosis to numbers of Artemia digested per hydra were different, and in hydra fed extracted Artemia algal, but not host cell, mitosis was reduced in comparison to that in control hydra fed live shrimp. It is proposed that algal division may be dependent on a division factor, derived from host digestion of prey, whose supply is controlled by the host cells. Numbers of algae per cell would be regulated by competition for division factor, except at host cell mitosis, when the algae may have temporarily uncontrolled access to host pools of division factor. The identity of the division factor is not known, but presumably is a metabolite needed by both host cells and algae.

  18. Lost in translation: pluripotent stem cell-derived hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Mania; Liebhaber, Steffi; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Lachmann, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) such as embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells represent a promising cell type to gain novel insights into human biology. Understanding the differentiation process of PSCs in vitro may allow for the identification of cell extrinsic/intrinsic factors, driving the specification process toward all cell types of the three germ layers, which may be similar to the human in vivo scenario. This would not only lay the ground for an improved understanding of human embryonic development but would also contribute toward the generation of novel cell types used in cell replacement therapies. In this line, especially the developmental process of mesodermal cells toward the hematopoietic lineage is of great interest. Therefore, this review highlights recent progress in the field of hematopoietic specification of pluripotent stem cell sources. In addition, we would like to shed light on emerging factors controlling primitive and definitive hematopoietic development and to highlight recent approaches to improve the differentiation potential of PSC sources toward hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. While the generation of fully defined hematopoietic stem cells from PSCs remains challenging in vitro, we here underline the instructive role of cell extrinsic factors such as cytokines for the generation of PSC-derived mature hematopoietic cells. Thus, we have comprehensively examined the role of cytokines for the derivation of mature hematopoietic cell types such as macrophages, granulocytes, megakaryocytes, erythrocytes, dendritic cells, and cells of the B- and T-cell lineage. PMID:26174486

  19. Studying host cell protein interactions with monoclonal antibodies using high throughput protein A chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sisodiya, Vikram N; Lequieu, Joshua; Rodriguez, Maricel; McDonald, Paul; Lazzareschi, Kathlyn P

    2012-10-01

    Protein A chromatography is typically used as the initial capture step in the purification of monoclonal antibodies produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although exploiting an affinity interaction for purification, the level of host cell proteins in the protein A eluent varies significantly with different feedstocks. Using a batch binding chromatography method, we performed a controlled study to assess host cell protein clearance across both MabSelect Sure and Prosep vA resins. We individually spiked 21 purified antibodies into null cell culture fluid generated with a non-producing cell line, creating mock cell culture fluids for each antibody with an identical composition of host cell proteins and antibody concentration. We demonstrated that antibody-host cell protein interactions are primarily responsible for the variable levels of host cell proteins in the protein A eluent for both resins when antibody is present. Using the additives guanidine HCl and sodium chloride, we demonstrated that antibody-host cell protein interactions may be disrupted, reducing the level of host cell proteins present after purification on both resins. The reduction in the level of host cell proteins differed between antibodies suggesting that the interaction likely varies between individual antibodies but encompasses both an electrostatic and hydrophobic component.

  20. Eimeria bovis-induced modulation of the host cell proteome at the meront I stage.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Kathleen; Schmitt, Sigrid; Linder, Monica; Hermosilla, Carlos; Zahner, Horst; Taubert, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The proteome of Eimeria bovis meront I-carrying host cells was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) at 14 days p.i. and compared to non-infected control cells. A total of 221 protein spots were modulated in their abundance in E. bovis-infected host cells and were subsequently analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). These analyses identified 104 proteins in total with 25 host cell proteins being up-regulated and 79 proteins being down-regulated in E. bovis-infected host cells. Moreover, 20 newly expressed proteins were identified exclusively in E. bovis-infected host cells and were most likely of parasite origin. Parasite-induced differences in protein abundance concerned distinct functional categories, with most proteins being involved in host cell metabolism, cell structure, protein fate and gene transcription. Some of the modulated molecules also indicated regulatory processes on the level of host cell stress response (HSP70, HSP90), host cell apoptosis (caspase 8) and actin elongation/depolymerization (α-actinin-1, gelsonin, tropomodulin-3, transgelin). Since merozoites I were already released shortly after cell sampling, the current data reflect the situation at the end of first merogony. This is the first proteomic approach on E. bovis-infected host cells that was undertaken to gain a rather broad insight into Eimeria-induced host cell modulation. The data processed in this investigation should provide a useful basis for more detailed analyses concerning Eimeria-host cell interactions.

  1. Escherichia coli persister cells suppress translation by selectively disassembling and degrading their ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Junho; Rogers, Janet; Kearns, Mark; Leslie, Macall; Hartson, Steven D; Wilson, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial persisters are rare, phenotypically distinct cells that survive exposure to multiple antibiotics. Previous studies indicated that formation and maintenance of the persister phenotype are regulated by suppressing translation. To examine the mechanism of this translational suppression, we developed novel methodology to rapidly purify ribosome complexes from persister cells. We purified His-tagged ribosomes from Escherichia coli cells that over-expressed HipA protein, which induces persister formation, and were treated with ampicillin to remove antibiotic-sensitive cells. We profiled ribosome complexes and analyzed the ribosomal RNA and protein components from these persister cells. Our results show that (i) ribosomes in persisters exist largely as inactive ribosomal subunits, (ii) rRNAs and tRNAs are mostly degraded and (iii) a small fraction of the ribosomes remain mostly intact, except for reduced amounts of seven ribosomal proteins. Our findings explain the basis for translational suppression in persisters and suggest how persisters survive exposure to multiple antibiotics.

  2. Host cell capable of producing enzymes useful for degradation of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Los, Alrik Pieter; Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2015-08-18

    The invention relates to a host cell comprising at least four different heterologous polynucleotides chosen from the group of polynucleotides encoding cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is capable of producing the at least four different enzymes chosen from the group of cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is a filamentous fungus and is capable of secretion of the at least four different enzymes. This host cell can suitably be used for the production of an enzyme composition that can be used in a process for the saccharification of cellulosic material.

  3. Host cell capable of producing enzymes useful for degradation of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Los, Alrik Pieter; Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2017-08-22

    The invention relates to a host cell comprising at least four different heterologous polynucleotides chosen from the group of polynucleotides encoding cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is capable of producing the at least four different enzymes chosen from the group of cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is a filamentous fungus and is capable of secretion of the at least four different enzymes. This host cell can suitably be used for the production of an enzyme composition that can be used in a process for the saccharification of cellulosic material.

  4. Hypomethylation of host cell DNA synthesized after infection or transformation of cells by herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Macnab, J.C.M.; Adams, R.L.P.; Rinaldi, A.; Orr, A.; Clark, L.

    1988-04-01

    Infection of rat embryo cells with herpes simplex virus type 2 caused undermethylation of host cell DNA synthesized during infection. DNA made prior to infection was not demethylated, but some of its degradation products, including methyl dCMP, were incorporated into viral DNA. The use of mutant virus showed that some viral DNA synthesis appears to be required for the inhibition of methylation. Inhibition of methylation cannot be explained by an absence of DNA methyltransferase as the activity of this enzyme did not change during the early period of infection. Inhibition of host cell DNA methylation may be an important step in the transformation of cells by herpesviruses, and various transformed cell lines tested showed reduced levels of DNA methylation.

  5. Host Cell Interactions Are a Significant Barrier to the Clinical Utility of Peptide Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Starr, Charles G; He, Jing; Wimley, William C

    2016-12-16

    Despite longstanding promise and many known examples, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have failed, thus far, to impact human medicine. On the basis of the physical chemistry and mechanism of action of AMPs, we hypothesized that host cell interactions could contribute to a loss of activity in vivo where host cells are highly concentrated. To test this idea, we characterized AMP activity in the presence of human red blood cells (RBC). Indeed, we show that most of a representative set of natural and synthetic AMPs tested are significantly inhibited by preincubation with host cells and would be effectively inactive at physiological cell density. We studied an example broad-spectrum AMP, ARVA (RRGWALRLVLAY), in a direct, label-free binding assay. We show that weak binding to host cells, coupled with their high concentration, is sufficient to account for a loss of useful activity, for at least some AMPs, because >1 × 10(8) peptides must be bound to each bacterial cell to achieve sterilization. The effect of host cell preincubation on AMP activity is comparable to that of serum protein binding. Feasible changes in host cell binding could lead to AMPs that do not lose activity through interaction with host cells. We suggest that the intentional identification of AMPs that are active in the presence of concentrated host cells can be achieved with a paradigm shift in the way AMPs are discovered.

  6. Ligation-free ribosome profiling of cell type-specific translation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Hornstein, Nicholas; Torres, Daniela; Das Sharma, Sohani; Tang, Guomei; Canoll, Peter; Sims, Peter A

    2016-07-05

    Ribosome profiling has emerged as a powerful tool for genome-wide measurements of translation, but library construction requires multiple ligation steps and remains cumbersome relative to more conventional deep-sequencing experiments. We report a new, ligation-free approach to ribosome profiling that does not require ligation. Library construction for ligation-free ribosome profiling can be completed in one day with as little as 1 ng of purified RNA footprints. We apply ligation-free ribosome profiling to mouse brain tissue to identify new patterns of cell type-specific translation and test its ability to identify translational targets of mTOR signaling in the brain.

  7. Cutaneous graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplant - a review*

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Cesar Daniel Villarreal; Alanis, Julio Cesar Salas; Pérez, Jose Carlos Jaime; Candiani, Jorge Ocampo

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT) associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The earliest and most common manifestation is cutaneous graft-versus-host disease. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical features, prevention and treatment of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease. We discuss various insights into the disease's mechanisms and the different treatments for acute and chronic skin graft-versus-host disease. PMID:27438202

  8. Host cell protein adsorption characteristics during protein A chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Richard D R; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Tait, Andrew S; Smales, C Mark; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2012-07-01

    Protein A chromatography is a critical and 'gold-standard' step in the purification of monoclonal antibody (mAb) products. Its ability to remove >98% of impurities in a single step alleviates the burden on subsequent process steps and facilitates the implementation of platform processes, with a minimal number of chromatographic steps. Here, we have evaluated four commercially available protein A chromatography matrices in terms of their ability to remove host cell proteins (HCPs), a complex group of process related impurities that must be removed to minimal levels. SELDI-TOF MS was used as a screening tool to generate an impurity profile fingerprint for each resin and indicated a number of residual impurities present following protein A chromatography, agreeing with HCP ELISA. Although many of these were observed for all matrices there was a significantly elevated level of impurity binding associated with the resin based on controlled pore glass under standard conditions. Use of null cell line supernatant with and without spiked purified mAb demonstrated the interaction of HCPs to be not only with the resin back-bone but also with the bound mAb. A null cell line column overload and sample enrichment method before 2D-PAGE was then used to determine individual components associated with resin back-bone adsorption. The methods shown allow for a critical analysis of HCP removal during protein A chromatography. Taken together they provide the necessary process understanding to allow process engineers to identify rational approaches for the removal of prominent HCPs.

  9. Putative alternative polyadenylation (APA) events in the early interaction of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells.

    PubMed

    Afonso-Grunz, Fabian

    2015-12-01

    The immune response of epithelial cells upon infection is mediated by changing activity levels of a variety of proteins along with changes in mRNA, and also ncRNA abundance. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) represents a mechanism that diversifies gene expression similar to alternative splicing. T-cell activation, neuronal activity, development and several human diseases including viral infections involve APA, but at present it remains unclear if this mechanism is also implicated in the response to bacterial infections. Our recently published study of interacting Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells includes genome-wide expression profiles of human epithelial cells prior and subsequent to infection with the invasive pathogen. The generated dataset (GEO accession number: GSE61730) covers several points of time post infection, and one of these interaction stages was additionally profiled with MACE-based dual 3'Seq, which allows for identification of polyadenylation (PA) sites. The present study features the polyadenylation landscape in early interacting cells based on this data, and provides a comparison of the identified PA sites with those of a corresponding 3P-Seq dataset of non-interacting cells. Differential PA site usage of FTL, PRDX1 and VAPA results in transcription of mRNA isoforms with distinct sets of miRNA and protein binding sites that influence processing, localization, stability, and translation of the respective mRNA. APA of these candidate genes consequently harbors the potential to modulate the host cell response to bacterial infection.

  10. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Is a Feed-Forward Translational Coactivator of Transforming Growth Factor β Early Protransforming Events in Breast Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Decarlo, Lindsey; Mestel, Celine; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen; Schneider, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is overexpressed early in breast cancers in association with disease progression and reduced survival. Much remains to be understood regarding the role of eIF4E in human cancer. We determined, using immortalized human breast epithelial cells, that elevated expression of eIF4E translationally activates the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway, promoting cell invasion, a loss of cell polarity, increased cell survival, and other hallmarks of early neoplasia. Overexpression of eIF4E is shown to facilitate the selective translation of integrin β1 mRNA, which drives the translationally controlled assembly of a TGF-β receptor signaling complex containing α3β1 integrins, β-catenin, TGF-β receptor I, E-cadherin, and phosphorylated Smad2/3. This receptor complex acutely sensitizes nonmalignant breast epithelial cells to activation by typically substimulatory levels of activated TGF-β. TGF-β can promote cellular differentiation or invasion and transformation. As a translational coactivator of TGF-β, eIF4E confers selective mRNA translation, reprogramming nonmalignant cells to an invasive phenotype by reducing the set point for stimulation by activated TGF-β. Overexpression of eIF4E may be a proinvasive facilitator of TGF-β activity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Is a Feed-Forward Translational Coactivator of Transforming Growth Factor β Early Protransforming Events in Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Decarlo, Lindsey; Mestel, Celine; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is overexpressed early in breast cancers in association with disease progression and reduced survival. Much remains to be understood regarding the role of eIF4E in human cancer. We determined, using immortalized human breast epithelial cells, that elevated expression of eIF4E translationally activates the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway, promoting cell invasion, a loss of cell polarity, increased cell survival, and other hallmarks of early neoplasia. Overexpression of eIF4E is shown to facilitate the selective translation of integrin β1 mRNA, which drives the translationally controlled assembly of a TGF-β receptor signaling complex containing α3β1 integrins, β-catenin, TGF-β receptor I, E-cadherin, and phosphorylated Smad2/3. This receptor complex acutely sensitizes nonmalignant breast epithelial cells to activation by typically substimulatory levels of activated TGF-β. TGF-β can promote cellular differentiation or invasion and transformation. As a translational coactivator of TGF-β, eIF4E confers selective mRNA translation, reprogramming nonmalignant cells to an invasive phenotype by reducing the set point for stimulation by activated TGF-β. Overexpression of eIF4E may be a proinvasive facilitator of TGF-β activity. PMID:25986608

  12. TRAP-rc, Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification from Rare Cell Populations of Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Benjamin; Renaud, Yoan; Aradhya, Rajaguru; Jagla, Krzysztof; Junion, Guillaume

    2015-09-10

    Measuring levels of mRNAs in the process of translation in individual cells provides information on the proteins involved in cellular functions at a given point in time. The protocol dubbed Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) is able to capture this mRNA translation process in a cell-type-specific manner. Based on the affinity purification of polysomes carrying a tagged ribosomal subunit, TRAP can be applied to translatome analyses in individual cells, making it possible to compare cell types during the course of developmental processes or to track disease development progress and the impact of potential therapies at molecular level. Here we report an optimized version of the TRAP protocol, called TRAP-rc (rare cells), dedicated to identifying engaged-in-translation RNAs from rare cell populations. TRAP-rc was validated using the Gal4/UAS targeting system in a restricted population of muscle cells in Drosophila embryos. This novel protocol allows the recovery of cell-type-specific RNA in sufficient quantities for global gene expression analytics such as microarrays or RNA-seq. The robustness of the protocol and the large collections of Gal4 drivers make TRAP-rc a highly versatile approach with potential applications in cell-specific genome-wide studies.

  13. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Maria R.; Rocca, Bruno J.; Barone, Aurora; Onorati, Monica; Mundo, Lucia; Crivelli, Filippo; Di Nuovo, Franca; De Falco, Giulia; del Vecchio, Maria T.; Tripodi, Sergio A.; Tosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:26425551

  14. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Maria R; Rocca, Bruno J; Barone, Aurora; Onorati, Monica; Mundo, Lucia; Crivelli, Filippo; Di Nuovo, Franca; De Falco, Giulia; del Vecchio, Maria T; Tripodi, Sergio A; Tosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis.

  15. In vitro translation in a hybrid cell free lysate with exogenous cellular ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Panthu, Baptiste; Décimo, Didier; Balvay, Laurent; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2015-05-01

    Cell free protein synthesis systems (CFPS) have been widely used to express proteins and to explore the pathways of gene expression. In the present manuscript, we describe the design of a novel adaptable hybrid in vitro translation system which is assembled with ribosomes isolated from many different origins. We first show that this hybrid system exhibits all important features such as efficiency, sensitivity, reproducibility and the ability to translate specialized mRNAs in less than 1 h. In addition, the unique design of this cell free assay makes it highly adaptable to utilize ribosomes isolated from many different organs, tissues or cell types.

  16. How Stem Cells Speak with Host Immune Cells in Inflammatory Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Stefano; Cossetti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised great expectations that diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) may be ameliorated by the development of non-hematopoietic stem cell medicines. Yet, the application of adult stem cells as CNS therapeutics is challenging and the interpretation of some of the outcomes ambiguous. In fact, the initial idea that stem cell transplants work only via structural cell replacement has been challenged by the observation of consistent cellular signaling between the graft and the host. Cellular signaling is the foundation of coordinated actions and flexible responses, and arises via networks of exchanging and interacting molecules that transmit patterns of information between cells. Sustained stem cell graft-to-host communication leads to remarkable trophic effects on endogenous brain cells and beneficial modulatory actions on innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo, ultimately promoting the healing of the injured CNS. Among a number of adult stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are being extensively investigated for their ability to signal to the immune system upon transplantation in experimental CNS diseases. Here, we focus on the main cellular signaling pathways that grafted MSCs and NPCs use to establish a therapeutically relevant cross talk with host immune cells, while examining the role of inflammation in regulating some of the bidirectionality of these communications. We propose that the identification of the players involved in stem cell signaling might contribute to the development of innovative, high clinical impact therapeutics for inflammatory CNS diseases. PMID:23633288

  17. Developing a case study model for successful translation of stem cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Trounson, Alan; Baum, Elona; Gibbons, Don; Tekamp-Olson, Patricia

    2010-06-04

    Cell therapies derived from pluripotent stem cells are entering the preclinical and early clinical development phase, but eventual translation faces many challenges. We describe a new approach by California to form global public-private "disease team" partnerships to enable new clinical opportunities to be evaluated in the complex regulatory environment.

  18. Bacterial effectors target the plant cell nucleus to subvert host transcription

    PubMed Central

    Canonne, Joanne; Rivas, Susana

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote virulence, Gram-negative bacteria have evolved the ability to inject so-called type III effector proteins into host cells. The plant cell nucleus appears to be a subcellular compartment repeatedly targeted by bacterial effectors. In agreement with this observation, mounting evidence suggests that manipulation of host transcription is a major strategy developed by bacteria to counteract plant defense responses. It has been suggested that bacterial effectors may adopt at least three alternative, although not mutually exclusive, strategies to subvert host transcription. T3Es may (1) act as transcription factors that directly activate transcription in host cells, (2) affect histone packing and chromatin configuration, and/or (3) directly target host transcription factor activity. Here, we provide an overview on how all these strategies may lead to host transcriptional re-programming and, as a result, to improved bacterial multiplication inside plant cells. PMID:22353865

  19. Life in cells, hosts, and vectors: parasite evolution across scales.

    PubMed

    Mideo, Nicole; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Aebischer, Toni; Brown, Mark J F; Fenton, Andy; Friman, Ville-Petri; Restif, Olivier; Reece, Sarah E; Webster, Joanne P; Brown, Sam P

    2013-01-01

    Parasite evolution is increasingly being recognized as one of the most important issues in applied evolutionary biology. Understanding how parasites maximize fitness whilst facing the diverse challenges of living in cells, hosts, and vectors, is central to disease control and offers a novel testing ground for evolutionary theory. The Centre for Immunity, Infection, and Evolution at the University of Edinburgh recently held a symposium to address the question "How do parasites maximise fitness across a range of biological scales?" The symposium brought together researchers whose work looks across scales and environments to understand why and how parasites 'do what they do', tying together mechanism, evolutionary explanations, and public health implications. With a broad range of speakers, our aim was to define and encourage more holistic approaches to studying parasite evolution. Here, we present a synthesis of the current state of affairs in parasite evolution, the research presented at the symposium, and insights gained through our discussions. We demonstrate that such interdisciplinary approaches are possible and identify key areas for future progress. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Host Cell Invasion and Virulence Mediated by Candida albicans Ssa1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianing N.; Solis, Norma V.; Phan, Quynh T.; Bajwa, Jashanjot S.; Kashleva, Helena; Thompson, Angela; Liu, Yaoping; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna; Edgerton, Mira; Filler, Scott G.

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans Ssa1 and Ssa2 are members of the HSP70 family of heat shock proteins that are expressed on the cell surface and function as receptors for antimicrobial peptides such as histatins. We investigated the role of Ssa1 and Ssa2 in mediating pathogenic host cell interactions and virulence. A C. albicans ssa1Δ/Δ mutant had attenuated virulence in murine models of disseminated and oropharyngeal candidiasis, whereas an ssa2Δ/Δ mutant did not. In vitro studies revealed that the ssa1Δ/Δ mutant caused markedly less damage to endothelial cells and oral epithelial cell lines. Also, the ssa1Δ/Δ mutant had defective binding to endothelial cell N-cadherin and epithelial cell E-cadherin, receptors that mediate host cell endocytosis of C. albicans. As a result, this mutant had impaired capacity to induce its own endocytosis by endothelial cells and oral epithelial cells. Latex beads coated with recombinant Ssa1 were avidly endocytosed by both endothelial cells and oral epithelial cells, demonstrating that Ssa1 is sufficient to induce host cell endocytosis. These results indicate that Ssa1 is a novel invasin that binds to host cell cadherins, induces host cell endocytosis, and is critical for C. albicans to cause maximal damage to host cells and induce disseminated and oropharyngeal disease. PMID:21085601

  1. Ribosome profiling reveals translational regulation of mammalian cells in response to hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhiwen; Yang, Jiaqi; Dai, Aimei; Wang, Yuming; Li, Wei; Xie, Zhi

    2017-08-21

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells transfer oxygen and nutrients from choroid to the neural retina. Reduced oxygen to RPE perturbs development and functions of blood vessels in retina. Previous efforts of genome-wide studies have been largely focused on transcriptional changes of cells in response to hypoxia. Recently developed ribosome profiling provides an opportunity to study genome-wide translational changes. To gain systemic insights into the transcriptional and translational regulation of cellular in response to hypoxic stress, we used simultaneous RNA sequencing and ribosome profiling on an RPE cells line, ARPE-19, under hypoxia condition. Both HIF-1α and EPAS1 (HIF-2α) proteins were stabilized in ARPE-19 under hypoxic stress treatment at 1 h, 2 h and 4 h. Analysis of simultaneous RNA sequencing and ribosome profiling data showed genome-wide gene expression changes at both transcriptional and translational levels. Comparative analysis of ribosome profiling and RNA-seq data revealed that hypoxia induced changes of more genes at the translational than the transcriptional levels. Ribosomes densities at 5' untranslated region (UTR) significantly increased under hypoxic stress. Interestingly, the increase in ribosome densities at 5' UTR is positively correlated with the presence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5' UTR of mRNAs. Our results characterized translational profiles of mRNAs for a RPE cell line in response to hypoxia. In particular, uORFs play important roles in the regulation of translation efficiency by affecting ribosomes loading onto mRNAs. This study provides the first attempt to understand translational response of mammalian cells under hypoxic condition.

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits bacterial virulence and invasion of host cells.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Lun K; Yount, Jacob S; Hang, Howard C

    2017-03-10

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and beneficial effects of host microbiota has motivated the search for anti-infective agents that attenuate bacterial virulence rather than growth. For example, we discovered that specific flavonoids such as baicalein and quercetin from traditional medicinal plant extracts could attenuate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III protein secretion and invasion of host cells. Here, we show epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea extracts also inhibits the activity of S. Typhimurium type III protein effectors and significantly reduces bacterial invasion into host cells. These results reveal additional dietary plant metabolites that can attenuate bacterial virulence and infection of host cells.

  3. Vertebrate mRNAs with a 5'-terminal pyrimidine tract are candidates for translational repression in quiescent cells: characterization of the translational cis-regulatory element.

    PubMed Central

    Avni, D; Shama, S; Loreni, F; Meyuhas, O

    1994-01-01

    The translation of mammalian ribosomal protein (rp) mRNAs is selectively repressed in nongrowing cells. This response is mediated through a regulatory element residing in the 5' untranslated region of these mRNAs and includes a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5' TOP). To further characterize the translational cis-regulatory element, we monitored the translational behavior of various endogenous and heterologous mRNAs or hybrid transcripts derived from transfected chimeric genes. The translational efficiency of these mRNAs was assessed in cells that either were growing normally or were growth arrested under various physiological conditions. Our experiments have yielded the following results: (i) the translation of mammalian rp mRNAs is properly regulated in amphibian cells, and likewise, amphibian rp mRNA is regulated in mammalian cells, indicating that all of the elements required for translation control of rp mRNAs are conserved among vertebrate classes; (ii) selective translational control is not confined to rp mRNAs, as mRNAs encoding the naturally occurring ubiquitin-rp fusion protein and elongation factor 1 alpha, which contain a 5' TOP, also conform this mode of regulation; (iii) rat rpP2 mRNA contains only five pyrimidines in its 5' TOP, yet this mRNA is translationally controlled in the same fashion as other rp mRNAs with a 5' TOP of eight or more pyrimidines; (iv) full manifestation of this mode of regulation seems to require both the 5' TOP and sequences immediately downstream; and (v) an intact translational regulatory element from rpL32 mRNA fails to exert its regulatory properties even when preceded by a single A residue. Images PMID:8196625

  4. Identifying Francisella tularensis genes required for growth in host cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram negative intracellular pathogen capable of infecting a vast diversity of hosts, ranging from amoebae to humans. A hallmark of F. tularensis virulence is its ability to quickly grow to high densities within a diverse set of host cel...

  5. Transgene-host cell interactions mediate significant influences on the production, stability, and function of recombinant canine FVIII.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Bredon; Ozelo, Margareth C; Ogiwara, Kenichi; Ahlin, James; Albanez, Silvia; Hegadorn, Carol; Harpell, Lori; Hough, Christine; Lillicrap, David

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant FVIII manufacturing is characterized by poor product stability and low yields. Codon-optimization of transgenes accelerates translation by exploiting the synonymous codon usage bias of a species. However, this can alter the performance of the final product. Additionally, the effects of transgene design across diverse cell types are not well understood and are of interest for next-generation protein and gene therapies. To investigate the effects of transgene design across different host cells, B-domain-deleted (BDD) and modified codon-optimized (CO-N6) transgenes were inserted via lentiviral delivery into cBOECs, HEK293T, and MDCK cells. The CO-N6 cFVIII transgene produced threefold more protein per transgene in HEK293T cells, and sixfold more protein in the two canine cell lines. However, pharmacokinetic analysis in hemophilia A dogs demonstrated that cFVIII produced from cBOECs transduced with the CO-N6 transgene had significantly reduced in vivo recovery. Furthermore, this product showed reduced in vitro stability and activity on thrombin activation versus the BDD product. This trend was reversed in HEK293T lines. Overall, our results demonstrate the need for an integrated approach that not only assesses protein expression levels but also considers the influence that host-cells have on preserving the molecular and biochemical properties of the naturally occurring FVIII.

  6. Transgene-host cell interactions mediate significant influences on the production, stability, and function of recombinant canine FVIII

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Bredon; Ozelo, Margareth C; Ogiwara, Kenichi; Ahlin, James; Albanez, Silvia; Hegadorn, Carol; Harpell, Lori; Hough, Christine; Lillicrap, David

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant FVIII manufacturing is characterized by poor product stability and low yields. Codon-optimization of transgenes accelerates translation by exploiting the synonymous codon usage bias of a species. However, this can alter the performance of the final product. Additionally, the effects of transgene design across diverse cell types are not well understood and are of interest for next-generation protein and gene therapies. To investigate the effects of transgene design across different host cells, B-domain-deleted (BDD) and modified codon-optimized (CO-N6) transgenes were inserted via lentiviral delivery into cBOECs, HEK293T, and MDCK cells. The CO-N6 cFVIII transgene produced threefold more protein per transgene in HEK293T cells, and sixfold more protein in the two canine cell lines. However, pharmacokinetic analysis in hemophilia A dogs demonstrated that cFVIII produced from cBOECs transduced with the CO-N6 transgene had significantly reduced in vivo recovery. Furthermore, this product showed reduced in vitro stability and activity on thrombin activation versus the BDD product. This trend was reversed in HEK293T lines. Overall, our results demonstrate the need for an integrated approach that not only assesses protein expression levels but also considers the influence that host-cells have on preserving the molecular and biochemical properties of the naturally occurring FVIII. PMID:26636112

  7. Targeting HIF2α Translation with Tempol in VHL-Deficient Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Manik C.; Ghosh, Sanchari; Yang, Youfeng; Gupta, Gopal; DeGraff, William; Krishna, Murali C.; Mitchell, James B.; Rouault, Tracey A.; Linehan, W. Marston

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene, Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), is frequently mutated in the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). In hypoxic conditions, or when there is a VHL mutation, the hypoxia inducible factors, HIF1α and HIF2α, are stabilized and transcribe a panel of genes associated with cancer such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Recent studies in clear cell kidney cancer have suggested that HIF2α, but not HIF1α, is the critical oncoprotein in the VHL pathway. Therefore, targeting HIF2α could provide a potential therapeutic approach for patients with advanced CCRCC. Since iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) is known to inhibit the translation of HIF2α, we investigated whether Tempol, a stable nitroxide that activates IRP1 towards IRE-binding, might have a therapeutic effect on a panel of human CCRCC cells expressing both HIF1α and HIF2α. We first evaluated the protein expression of HIF1α and HIF2α in 15 different clear cell renal carcinoma cell lines established from patient tumors in our laboratory. Tempol decreased the expression of HIF2α, and its downstream targets in all the cell lines of the panel. This effect was attributed to a dramatic increase of IRE-binding activity of IRP1. Several cell lines were found to have an increased IRP1 basal activity at 20% O2 compared to 5% O2, which may lower HIF2α expression in some of the cell lines in a VHL-independent manner. Taken together our data identify Tempol as an agent with potential therapeutic activity targeting expression of HIF2α in VHL-deficient clear cell kidney cancer and illustrate the importance of studying biochemical processes at relevant physiological O2 levels. PMID:23178531

  8. Guidelines for stem cell science and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Sunil K

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research has released its updated guidelines for stem cell research in order to provide "assurance that stem cell research is conducted with scientific and ethical integrity and that new therapies are evidence-based." The guidelines were updated by a Guidelines Update Task Force consisting of twenty-five scientists, ethicists and experts in health care policy from nine countries. The chairpersons of this task force are Jonathan Kimmelman, George Daley and Insoo Hyun. There is no representative from India; the only person of Indian origin on it, Mahendra Rao, represents The New York Stem Cell Foundation.

  9. Translating cell biology in vitro to immunity in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boes, Marianne; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2004-07-01

    The elimination of pathogens and pathogen-infected cells initially rests on the rapid deployment of innate immune defences. Should these defences fail, it is the lymphocytes - T cells and B cells - with their antigen-specific receptors that must rise to the task of providing adaptive immunity. Technological advances are now allowing immunologists to correlate data obtained in vitro with in vivo functions. A better understanding of T-cell activation in vivo could lead to more effective strategies for the treatment and prevention of infectious and autoimmmune diseases.

  10. Molecular and Translational Classifications of DAMPs in Immunogenic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Abhishek D.; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Apetoh, Lionel; Baert, Thais; Birge, Raymond B.; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Breckpot, Karine; Brough, David; Chaurio, Ricardo; Cirone, Mara; Coosemans, An; Coulie, Pierre G.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Dini, Luciana; de Witte, Peter; Dudek-Peric, Aleksandra M.; Faggioni, Alberto; Fucikova, Jitka; Gaipl, Udo S.; Golab, Jakub; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Hamblin, Michael R.; Hemminki, Akseli; Herrmann, Martin; Hodge, James W.; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido; Krysko, Dmitri V.; Land, Walter G.; Madeo, Frank; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Mattarollo, Stephen R.; Maueroder, Christian; Merendino, Nicolò; Multhoff, Gabriele; Pabst, Thomas; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Riganti, Chiara; Romano, Erminia; Rufo, Nicole; Smyth, Mark J.; Sonnemann, Jürgen; Spisek, Radek; Stagg, John; Vacchelli, Erika; Vandenabeele, Peter; Vandenberk, Lien; Van den Eynde, Benoit J.; Van Gool, Stefaan; Velotti, Francesca; Zitvogel, Laurence; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The immunogenicity of malignant cells has recently been acknowledged as a critical determinant of efficacy in cancer therapy. Thus, besides developing direct immunostimulatory regimens, including dendritic cell-based vaccines, checkpoint-blocking therapies, and adoptive T-cell transfer, researchers have started to focus on the overall immunobiology of neoplastic cells. It is now clear that cancer cells can succumb to some anticancer therapies by undergoing a peculiar form of cell death that is characterized by an increased immunogenic potential, owing to the emission of the so-called “damage-associated molecular patterns” (DAMPs). The emission of DAMPs and other immunostimulatory factors by cells succumbing to immunogenic cell death (ICD) favors the establishment of a productive interface with the immune system. This results in the elicitation of tumor-targeting immune responses associated with the elimination of residual, treatment-resistant cancer cells, as well as with the establishment of immunological memory. Although ICD has been characterized with increased precision since its discovery, several questions remain to be addressed. Here, we summarize and tabulate the main molecular, immunological, preclinical, and clinical aspects of ICD, in an attempt to capture the essence of this phenomenon, and identify future challenges for this rapidly expanding field of investigation. PMID:26635802

  11. The Cell Wall Lipid PDIM Contributes to Phagosomal Escape and Host Cell Exit of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Jeff; Hughitt, V. Keith; Velikovsky, Carlos A.; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is composed of unique lipids that are important for pathogenesis. Indeed, the first-ever genetic screen in M. tuberculosis identified genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of the cell wall lipid PDIM (phthiocerol dimycocerosates) as crucial for the survival of M. tuberculosis in mice. Here we show evidence for a novel molecular mechanism of the PDIM-mediated virulence in M. tuberculosis. We characterized the DNA interaction and the regulon of Rv3167c, a transcriptional repressor that is involved in virulence regulation of M. tuberculosis, and discovered that it controls the PDIM operon. A loss-of-function genetic approach showed that PDIM levels directly correlate with the capacity of M. tuberculosis to escape the phagosome and induce host cell necrosis and macroautophagy. In conclusion, our study attributes a novel role of the cell wall lipid PDIM in intracellular host cell modulation, which is important for host cell exit and dissemination of M. tuberculosis. PMID:28270579

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells in stem cell transplant recipients are damaged and remain of host origin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Kaiyan; Lu, Dao-Pei

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expansion capacity and origin of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in 34 patients who received a sex-mismatched stem cell transplant (SCT). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the amelogenin gene (AMEL) was used to detect donor-derived MSCs. Cultured MSCs were hybridized with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for chromosomes X and Y to distinguish cells of donor origin from those of host origin. The MSCs of 31 of the 34 patients showed confluent stroma, and the MSCs from 24 of these 31 patients were successfully passaged more than 5 times and were able to be used for PCR and FISH analyses. The colony-forming unit-fibroblast, confluence time, and passage numbers of the MSCs and the colony-forming capacity of the hematopoietic progenitor cells of the patients were significantly different from those of 30 healthy control subjects. Flow cytometry results showed that the proportion of CD14(+)CD45(+) cells, which are regarded as monocytes/macrophages, in cultured MSCs (fifth passage) was less than 0.04%. PCR and FISH analyses revealed that the MSC-derived cells in all 24 patients were from the host. In conclusion, the expansion capacity of MSCs in patients who receive an SCT is damaged, and the MSCs originate from the host.

  13. Host cell protein dynamics in recombinant CHO cells: impacts from harvest to purification and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hogwood, Catherine Em; Bracewell, Daniel G; Smales, C Mark

    2013-01-01

    During the production of recombinant protein products, such as monoclonal antibodies, manufacturers must demonstrate clearance of host cell impurities and contaminants to appropriate levels prior to use in the clinic. These include host cell DNA and RNA, product related contaminants such as aggregates, and importantly host cell proteins (HCPs). Despite the importance of HCP removal, the identity and dynamics of these proteins during cell culture and downstream processing (DSP) are largely unknown. Improvements in technologies such as SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry alongside the gold standard technique of ELISA has allowed semi-quantification of the total HCPs present. However, only recently have techniques been utilized in order to identify those HCPs present and align this with the development of approaches to monitor the dynamics of HCPs during both fermentation and downstream processing. In order to enable knowledge based decisions with regards to improving HCP clearance it is vital to identify potential problematic HCPs on a cell line and product specific basis. Understanding the HCP dynamics will in the future help provide a platform to rationally manipulate and engineer and/or select suitable recombinant CHO cell lines and downstream processing steps to limit problematic HCPs.

  14. Sheep primary cells as in vitro models to investigate Mycoplasma agalactiae host cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shrilakshmi; Gabriel, Cordula; Kragl, Martin; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2015-10-01

    Appropriate infection models are imperative for the understanding of pathogens like mycoplasmas that are known for their strict host and tissue specificity, and lack of suitable cell and small animal models has hindered pathogenicity studies. This is particularly true for the economically important group of ruminant mycoplasmas whose virulence factors need to be elucidated for designing effective intervention strategies. Mycoplasma agalactiae serves as a useful role model especially because it is phylogenetically very close to M. bovis and causes similar symptoms by as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we successfully prepared and characterized four different primary sheep cell lines, namely the epithelial and stromal cells from the mammary gland and uterus, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry, we identified vimentin and cytokeratin as specific markers to confirm the typical cell phenotypes of these primary cells. Furthermore, M. agalactiae's consistent adhesion and invasion into these primary cells proves the reliability of these cell models. Mimicking natural infections, mammary epithelial and stromal cells showed higher invasion and adhesion rates compared to the uterine cells as also seen via double immunofluorescence staining. Altogether, we have generated promising in vitro cell models to study host-pathogen interactions of M. agalactiae and related ruminant pathogens in a more authentic manner.

  15. Host cell subversion by Toxoplasma GRA16, an exported dense granule protein that targets the host cell nucleus and alters gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bougdour, Alexandre; Durandau, Eric; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Ortet, Philippe; Barakat, Mohamed; Kieffer, Sylvie; Curt-Varesano, Aurélie; Curt-Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bastien, Olivier; Coute, Yohann; Pelloux, Hervé; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2013-04-17

    After invading host cells, Toxoplasma gondii multiplies within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that is maintained by parasite proteins secreted from organelles called dense granules. Most dense granule proteins remain within the PV, and few are known to access the host cell cytosol. We identify GRA16 as a dense granule protein that is exported through the PV membrane and reaches the host cell nucleus, where it positively modulates genes involved in cell-cycle progression and the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. GRA16 binds two host enzymes, the deubiquitinase HAUSP and PP2A phosphatase, which exert several functions, including regulation of p53 and the cell cycle. GRA16 alters p53 levels in a HAUSP-dependent manner and induces nuclear translocation of the PP2A holoenzyme. Additionally, certain GRA16-deficient strains exhibit attenuated virulence, indicating the importance of these host alterations in pathogenesis. Therefore, GRA16 represents a potentially emerging subfamily of exported dense granule proteins that modulate host function.

  16. Translational Prospects and Challenges in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Masaki; Czysz, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Despite continuous efforts to improve the process of drug discovery and development, achieving success at the clinical stage remains challenging because of a persistent translational gap between the preclinical and clinical settings. Under these circumstances, the discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has brought new hope to the drug discovery field because they enable scientists to humanize a variety of pharmacological and toxicological models in vitro. The availability of human iPS cell-derived cells, particularly as an alternative for difficult-to-access tissues and organs, is increasing steadily; however, their use in the field of translational medicine remains challenging. Biomarkers are an essential part of the translational effort to shift new discoveries from bench to bedside as they provide a measurable indicator with which to evaluate pharmacological and toxicological effects in both the preclinical and clinical settings. In general, during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, in vitro models that are established to recapitulate human diseases are validated by using a set of biomarkers; however, their translatability to a clinical setting remains problematic. This review provides an overview of current strategies for human iPS cell-based drug discovery from the perspective of translational research, and discusses the importance of early consideration of clinically relevant biomarkers. PMID:28009813

  17. Translational Prospects and Challenges in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Masaki; Czysz, Katherine

    2016-12-21

    Despite continuous efforts to improve the process of drug discovery and development, achieving success at the clinical stage remains challenging because of a persistent translational gap between the preclinical and clinical settings. Under these circumstances, the discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has brought new hope to the drug discovery field because they enable scientists to humanize a variety of pharmacological and toxicological models in vitro. The availability of human iPS cell-derived cells, particularly as an alternative for difficult-to-access tissues and organs, is increasing steadily; however, their use in the field of translational medicine remains challenging. Biomarkers are an essential part of the translational effort to shift new discoveries from bench to bedside as they provide a measurable indicator with which to evaluate pharmacological and toxicological effects in both the preclinical and clinical settings. In general, during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, in vitro models that are established to recapitulate human diseases are validated by using a set of biomarkers; however, their translatability to a clinical setting remains problematic. This review provides an overview of current strategies for human iPS cell-based drug discovery from the perspective of translational research, and discusses the importance of early consideration of clinically relevant biomarkers.

  18. Translation suppression promotes stress granule formation and cell survival in response to cold shock

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Sarah; Cherkasova, Valeria; Bankhead, Peter; Bukau, Bernd; Stoecklin, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Cells respond to different types of stress by inhibition of protein synthesis and subsequent assembly of stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic aggregates that contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Global translation is regulated through the translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and the mTOR pathway. Here we identify cold shock as a novel trigger of SG assembly in yeast and mammals. Whereas cold shock–induced SGs take hours to form, they dissolve within minutes when cells are returned to optimal growth temperatures. Cold shock causes eIF2α phosphorylation through the kinase PERK in mammalian cells, yet this pathway is not alone responsible for translation arrest and SG formation. In addition, cold shock leads to reduced mitochondrial function, energy depletion, concomitant activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, prevents the formation of SGs and strongly reduces cellular survival in a translation-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that cells actively suppress protein synthesis by parallel pathways, which induce SG formation and ensure cellular survival during hypothermia. PMID:22875991

  19. Predicting bacteriophage proteins located in host cell with feature selection technique.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Liang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Feng-Biao; Huang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Lin, Hao

    2016-04-01

    A bacteriophage is a virus that can infect a bacterium. The fate of an infected bacterium is determined by the bacteriophage proteins located in the host cell. Thus, reliably identifying bacteriophage proteins located in the host cell is extremely important to understand their functions and discover potential anti-bacterial drugs. Thus, in this paper, a computational method was developed to recognize bacteriophage proteins located in host cells based only on their amino acid sequences. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with incremental feature selection (IFS) was proposed to optimize the feature set. Using a jackknife cross-validation, our method can discriminate between bacteriophage proteins located in a host cell and the bacteriophage proteins not located in a host cell with a maximum overall accuracy of 84.2%, and can further classify bacteriophage proteins located in host cell cytoplasm and in host cell membranes with a maximum overall accuracy of 92.4%. To enhance the value of the practical applications of the method, we built a web server called PHPred (〈http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/PHPred〉). We believe that the PHPred will become a powerful tool to study bacteriophage proteins located in host cells and to guide related drug discovery.

  20. Translational research and therapeutic applications of stem cell transplantation in periodontal regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Xie, Cheng; Zhao, Yi-Min; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have received a great deal of interest from the research community as potential therapeutic "tools" for a variety of chronic debilitating diseases that lack clinically effective therapies. Stem cells are also of interest for the regeneration of tooth-supporting tissues that have been lost to periodontal disease. Indeed, substantial data have demonstrated that the exogenous administration of stem cells or their derivatives in preclinical animal models of periodontal defects can restore damaged tissues to their original form and function. As we discuss here, however, considerable hurdles must be overcome before these findings can be responsibly translated to novel clinical therapies. Generally, the application of stem cells for periodontal therapy in clinics will not be realized until the best cell(s) to use, the optimal dose, and an effective mode of administration are identified. In particular, we need to better understand the mechanisms of action of stem cells after transplantation in the periodontium and to learn how to preciously control stem cell fates in the pathological environment around a tooth. From a translational perspective, we outline the challenges that may vary across preclinical models for the evaluation of stem cell therapy in situations that require periodontal reconstruction and the safety issues that are related to clinical applications of human stem cells. Although clinical trials that use autologous periodontal ligament stem cells have been approved and have already been initiated, proper consideration of the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns may facilitate, rather than inhibit, the clinical translation of new therapies.

  1. How do cell-free HIV virions avoid infecting dead-end host cells and cell fragments?

    PubMed

    Lyengar, Sujatha; Schwartz, David H

    2004-01-01

    HIV faces the challenge of identifying and entering suitable host cells (i.e. activated and viable) among a wide array of receptor-positive but unsuitable targets. Lymph nodes contain resting cells, activated cells destined for apoptosis within 24 h, and cell fragments, all of which represent replicative dead ends. We postulate that 1) HIV virions have evolved the ability to probe the internal status of potential host cells from the external cell membrane by assessing the ability of cells to co-cap CD4 and chemokine receptors, and 2) the requirement for dual receptor binding in a concerted manner by three gp120 molecules is the molecular mechanism by which virions stochastically ensure high density co-capping of receptors. Cell-associated HIV accomplishes the same selective process by targeting cells capable of participating in immunological synapse formation.

  2. Ribosome-mediated synthesis of natural product-like peptides via cell-free translation.

    PubMed

    Maini, Rumit; Umemoto, Shiori; Suga, Hiroaki

    2016-10-01

    Peptide natural products (PNPs) represent a unique class of compounds known for their fascinating structural motifs with important biological activities. Lately, PNPs have garnered a lot of interest for their application in drug discovery. Nevertheless, lack of diversity oriented synthetic/biosynthetic platforms to generate large natural product-like libraries has limited their development as peptide therapeutics. The promiscuity of cell-free translation has allowed for the synthesis of artificial PNPs having complex structural features. Modified cell-free translation systems coupled with the display technologies have generated diverse natural product-like peptide libraries and led to the discovery of several biologically active molecules. Such technologies have drastically decreased the time to obtain peptide drug leads and therefore, revolutionized the field of peptide drug discovery. In this account, we review recent developments in the synthesis of natural product-like peptides via cell-free translation.

  3. Hurdles to clinical translation of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Neofytou, Evgenios; O’Brien, Connor Galen; Couture, Larry A.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells are known to have the capacity to renew indefinitely, being intrinsically able to differentiate into many different cell types. These characteristics have generated tremendous enthusiasm about the potential applications of these cells in regenerative medicine. However, major challenges remain with the development and testing of novel experimental stem cell therapeutics in the field. In this Review, we focus on the nature of the preclinical challenges and discuss potential solutions that could help overcome them. Furthermore, we discuss the use of allogeneic versus autologous stem cell products, including a review of their respective advantages and disadvantages, major clinical requirements, quality standards, time lines, and costs of clinical grade development. PMID:26132109

  4. Cyanobacterium sp. host cell and vector for production of chemical compounds in Cyanobacterial cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Piven, Irina; Friedrich, Alexandra; Duhring, Ulf; Uliczka, Frank; Baier, Kerstin; Inaba, Masami; Shi, Tuo; Wang, Kui; Enke, Heike; Kramer, Dan

    2016-04-19

    A cyanobacterial host cell, Cyanobacterium sp., that harbors at least one recombinant gene for the production of a chemical compounds is provided, as well as vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid isolated from the cell.

  5. Cyanobacterium sp. host cell and vector for production of chemical compounds in cyanobacterial cultures

    DOEpatents

    Piven, Irina; Friedrich, Alexandra; Duhring, Ulf; Uliczka, Frank; Baier, Kerstin; Inaba, Masami; Shi, Tuo; Wang, Kui; Enke, Heike; Kramer, Dan

    2014-09-30

    A cyanobacterial host cell, Cyanobacterium sp., that harbors at least one recombinant gene for the production of a chemical compounds is provided, as well as vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid isolated from the cell.

  6. Legionella pneumophila infection activates bystander cells differentially by bacterial and host cell vesicles.

    PubMed

    Jung, Anna Lena; Herkt, Christina Elena; Schulz, Christine; Bolte, Kathrin; Seidel, Kerstin; Scheller, Nicoletta; Sittka-Stark, Alexandra; Bertrams, Wilhelm; Schmeck, Bernd

    2017-07-24

    Extracellular vesicles from eukaryotic cells and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from gram-negative bacteria have been described as mediators of pathogen-host interaction and intercellular communication. Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is a causative agent of severe pneumonia. The differential effect of bacterial and host cell vesicles in L. pneumophila infection is unknown so far. We infected THP-1-derived or primary human macrophages with L. pneumophila and isolated supernatant vesicles by differential centrifugation. We observed an increase of exosomes in the 100 k pellet by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, and protein markers. This fraction additionally contained Legionella LPS, indicating also the presence of OMVs. In contrast, vesicles in the 16 k pellet, representing microparticles, decreased during infection. The 100 k vesicle fraction activated uninfected primary human alveolar epithelial cells, A549 cells, and THP-1 cells. Epithelial cell activation was reduced by exosome depletion (anti-CD63, or GW4869), or blocking of IL-1β in the supernatant. In contrast, the response of THP-1 cells to vesicles was reduced by a TLR2-neutralizing antibody, UV-inactivation of bacteria, or - partially - RNase-treatment of vesicles. Taken together, we found that during L. pneumophila infection, neighbouring epithelial cells were predominantly activated by exosomes and cytokines, whereas myeloid cells were activated by bacterial OMVs.

  7. Host cell reactivation studies with epidermal cells of mice sensitive and resistant to carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.E.; Strickland, A.G.

    1984-03-01

    Primary epidermal cells from AKR, BALB/c, CD-1, and SENCAR mice, listed in order of least to most sensitive to epidermal carcinogenesis by initiation and promotion protocols, were found to be equally competent to ''reactivate'' herpes simplex virus type 1 irradiated by germicidal ultraviolet radiation. Nontumorigenic BALB/c epidermal cell lines selected in vitro for resistance to terminal differentiation after in vivo or in vitro treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens showed virus survival curves similar to those of primary cells. Similarly, primary cultures which were allowed to grow to confluency following a single treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (100 ng/ml) retained normal host cell reactivation. Host cell reactivation studies with mouse dermal fibroblasts could not be done because of the failure of the herpes simplex virus to infect these cells and produce plaques. These results demonstrate that survival of ultraviolet light-damaged virus in primary epidermal cells in culture is unrelated to whether the cells are derived from mice sensitive or resistant to epidermal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, virus survival is not changed by tumor promoter treatment or by treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens which results in differentiation-resistant cells.

  8. Estrogen Coordinates Translation and Transcription, Revealing a Role for NRSF in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bronson, Michael W.; Hillenmeyer, Sara; Park, Richard W.; Brodsky, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation may enhance or inhibit estrogen transcriptional control to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells. To understand how transcriptome and translational responses coordinate to drive proliferation, we determined estrogen's global and specific effects on translation regulation by comparing the genome-wide profiles of total mRNA, polysome-associated mRNA, and monosome-associated mRNAs in MCF-7 cells after stimulation by 1 h of 10 nm 17β-estradiol (E2). We observe three significant, novel findings. 1) E2 regulates several transcripts and pathways at the translation level. 2) We find that polysome analysis has higher sensitivity than total RNA in detecting E2-regulated transcripts as exemplified by observing stronger E2-induced enrichment of E2 expression signatures in polysomes more than in total RNA. This increased sensitivity allowed the identification of the repression of neural restrictive silencing factor targets in polysome-associated RNA but not total RNA. NRSF activity was required for E2 stimulation of the cell cycle. 3) We observe that the initial translation state is already high for E2 up-regulated transcripts before E2 treatment and vice versa for E2 down-regulated transcripts. This suggests that the translation state anticipates potential E2-induced transcriptome levels. Together, these data suggest that E2 stimulates breast cancer cells by regulating translation using multiple mechanisms. In sum, we show that polysome profiling of E2 regulation of breast cancer cells provides novel insights into hormone action and can identify novel factors critical for breast cancer cell growth. PMID:20392875

  9. IRES-Mediated Translation of Membrane Proteins and Glycoproteins in Eukaryotic Cell-Free Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brödel, Andreas K.; Sonnabend, Andrei; Roberts, Lisa O.; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements found in the 5′ untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR) of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established systems. PMID

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells in multiple sclerosis - translation to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dulamea, A

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, characterized by an aberrant activation of the immune system and combining demyelination with neurodegeneration. Studies on experimental models of multiple sclerosis revealed immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells. Clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells therapy in multiple sclerosis patients showed tolerability, safety on short term, some immunomodulatory properties reducing the Th1 proinflammatory response and the inflammatory MRI parameters. The author reviews the data about experimental studies and clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  11. Amplified in Breast Cancer Regulates Transcription and Translation in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ochnik, Aleksandra M; Peterson, Mark S; Avdulov, Svetlana V; Oh, Annabell S; Bitterman, Peter B; Yee, Douglas

    2016-02-01

    Control of mRNA translation is fundamentally altered in cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling regulates key translation mediators to modulate protein synthesis (e.g. eIF4E, 4E-BP1, mTOR, and S6K1). Importantly the Amplified in Breast Cancer (AIB1) oncogene regulates transcription and is also a downstream mediator of IGF-I signaling. To determine if AIB1 also affects mRNA translation, we conducted gain and loss of AIB1 function experiments in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)(+) (MCF-7L) and ERα(-) (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and LCC6) breast cancer cells. AIB1 positively regulated IGF-I-induced mRNA translation in both ERα(+) and ERα(-) cells. Formation of the eIF4E-4E-BP1 translational complex was altered in the AIB1 ERα(+) and ERα(-) knockdown cells, leading to a reduction in the eIF4E/4E-BP1 and eIF4G/4E-BP1 ratios. In basal and IGF-I stimulated MCF-7 and LCC6 cells, knockdown of AIB1 decreased the integrity of the cap-binding complex, reduced global IGF-I stimulated polyribosomal mRNA recruitment with a concomitant decrease in ten of the thirteen genes tested in polysome-bound mRNAs mapping to proliferation, cell cycle, survival, transcription, translation and ribosome biogenesis ontologies. Specifically, knockdown of AIB1 decreased ribosome-bound mRNA and steady-state protein levels of the transcription factors ERα and E2F1 in addition to reduced ribosome-bound mRNA of the ribosome biogenesis factor BYSL in a cell-line specific manner to regulate mRNA translation. The oncogenic transcription factor AIB1 has a novel role in the regulation of polyribosome recruitment and formation of the translational complex. Combinatorial therapies targeting IGF signaling and mRNA translation in AIB1 expressing breast cancers may have clinical benefit and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Insights from Ayurveda for translational stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kalpana S.; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Ayurveda therapies are based on restoration of body balance and nourishment of dhatus or tissues. Rasayana concept of Ayurveda explains tissue regeneration and cell renewal. The drugs and therapies explained as rasayana provide research opportunities for biology of regeneration. Specific rasayana stimulate and nourish respective dhatus. Interpretation of this description offers clues for specific differentiation of stem cells with appropriate extract. The preliminary experiments on Medhya drugs suggest neuronal stem cells differentiation. Authors highlight the potential of Ayurveda and its possible contributions in regenerative medicine. Authors propose a protocol based on integrative approach derived from Ayurveda concepts and current understanding of regenerative medicine. The advanced understanding about adult and embryonic stem cells along with concepts of regeneration in Ayurveda has immense potential in the development of regenerative medicine. PMID:24812469

  13. Positive mRNA Translational Control in Germ Cells by Initiation Factor Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Friday, Andrew J.; Keiper, Brett D.

    2015-01-01

    Ultimately, the production of new proteins in undetermined cells pushes them to new fates. Other proteins hold a stem cell in a mode of self-renewal. In germ cells, these decision-making proteins are produced largely from translational control of preexisting mRNAs. To date, all of the regulation has been attributed to RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that repress mRNAs in many models of germ cell development (Drosophila, mouse, C. elegans, and Xenopus). In this review, we focus on the selective, positive function of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G, which recruit mRNAs to ribosomes upon derepression. Evidence now shows that the two events are not separate but rather are coordinated through composite complexes of repressors and germ cell isoforms of eIF4 factors. Strikingly, the initiation factor isoforms are themselves mRNA selective. The mRNP complexes of translation factors and RBPs are built on specific populations of mRNAs to prime them for subsequent translation initiation. Simple rearrangement of the partners causes a dormant mRNP to become synthetically active in germ cells when and where they are required to support gametogenesis. PMID:26357652

  14. Human ribosomes from cells with reduced dyskerin levels are intrinsically altered in translation.

    PubMed

    Penzo, Marianna; Rocchi, Laura; Brugiere, Sabine; Carnicelli, Domenica; Onofrillo, Carmine; Couté, Yohann; Brigotti, Maurizio; Montanaro, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Dyskerin is a pseudouridine (ψ) synthase involved in fundamental cellular processes including uridine modification in rRNA and small nuclear RNA and telomere stabilization. Dyskerin functions are altered in X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (X-DC) and cancer. Dyskerin's role in rRNA pseudouridylation has been suggested to underlie the alterations in mRNA translation described in cells lacking dyskerin function, although relevant direct evidences are currently lacking. Our purpose was to establish definitely whether defective dyskerin function might determine an intrinsic ribosomal defect leading to an altered synthetic activity. Therefore, ribosomes from dyskerin-depleted human cells were purified and 1) added to a controlled reticulocyte cell-free system devoid of ribosomes to study mRNA translation; 2) analyzed for protein contamination and composition by mass spectrometry, 3) analyzed for global pseudouridylation levels. Ribosomes purified from dyskerin-depleted cells showed altered translational fidelity and internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation. These ribosomes displayed reduced uridine modification, whereas they were not different in terms of protein contamination or ribosomal protein composition with respect to ribosomes from matched control cells with full dyskerin activity. In conclusion, lack of dyskerin function in human cells induces a defect in rRNA uridine modification, which is sufficient to alter ribosome activity.

  15. Elimination of allogeneic multipotent stromal cells by host macrophages in different models of regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Arutyunyan, Irina; Elchaninov, Andrey; Fatkhudinov, Timur; Makarov, Andrey; Kananykhina, Evgeniya; Usman, Natalia; Bolshakova, Galina; Glinkina, Valeria; Goldshtein, Dmitry; Sukhikh, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic multipotent stromal cells were previously thought to be poorly recognized by host immune system; the prolonged survival in host environments was explained by their immune privileged status. As long as the concept is currently reconsidered, the routes of elimination of allogeneic multipotent stromal cells by host immunity must be taken into account. This is necessary for correct comprehension of their therapeutic action. The study was focused upon survival of umbilical cord-derived allogeneic multipotent stromal cells in different rat models of tissue regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy or by critical limb ischemia. The observations were carried out by means of vital labeling of the cells with PKH26 prior to injection, in combination with differential immunostaining of host macrophages with anti-CD68 antibody. According to the results, allogeneic multipotent stromal cells are specifically eliminated by host immune system; the efficacy can reach 100%. Massive clearance of transplanted cells by host macrophages is accompanied by appropriation of the label by the latter, and this is a pronounced case of misleading presentation of exogenous label by host cells. The study emphasizes the role of macrophages in host response and also the need of additional criteria for correct data interpretation. PMID:26191137

  16. PERK Signal-Modulated Protein Translation Promotes the Survivability of Dengue 2 Virus-Infected Mosquito Cells and Extends Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jiun-Nan; Chen, Tien-Huang; Chiang, Yi-Hsuan; Peng, Jing-Yun; Yang, Tsong-Han; Cheng, Chih-Chieh; Sofiyatun, Eny; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Chen, Wei-June

    2017-09-20

    Survival of mosquitoes from dengue virus (DENV) infection is a prerequisite of viral transmission to the host. This study aimed to see how mosquito cells can survive the infection during prosperous replication of the virus. In C6/36 cells, global protein translation was shut down after infection by DENV type 2 (DENV2). However, it returned to a normal level when infected cells were treated with an inhibitor of the protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) signaling pathway. Based on a 7-Methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (m7GTP) pull-down assay, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex was also identified in DENV2-infected cells. This suggests that most mosquito proteins are synthesized via canonical cap-dependent translation. When the PERK signal pathway was inhibited, both accumulation of reactive oxygen species and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential increased. This suggested that ER stress response was alleviated through the PERK-mediated shutdown of global proteins in DENV2-infected C6/36 cells. In the meantime, the activities of caspases-9 and -3 and the apoptosis-related cell death rate increased in C6/36 cells with PERK inhibition. This reflected that the PERK-signaling pathway is involved in determining cell survival, presumably by reducing DENV2-induced ER stress. Looking at the PERK downstream target, α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), an increased phosphorylation status was only shown in infected C6/36 cells. This indicated that recruitment of ribosome binding to the mRNA 5'-cap structure could have been impaired in cap-dependent translation. It turned out that shutdown of cellular protein translation resulted in a pro-survival effect on mosquito cells in response to DENV2 infection. As synthesis of viral proteins was not affected by the PERK signal pathway, an alternate mode other than cap-dependent translation may be utilized. This finding provides insights into elucidating how the PERK signal

  17. Spatially segregated transcription and translation in cells of the endomembrane-containing bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus.

    PubMed

    Gottshall, Ekaterina Y; Seebart, Corrine; Gatlin, Jesse C; Ward, Naomi L

    2014-07-29

    The dogma of coupled transcription and translation in bacteria has been challenged by recent reports of spatial segregation of these processes within the relatively simple cellular organization of the model organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The bacterial species Gemmata obscuriglobus possesses an extensive endomembrane system. The membranes generate a very convoluted intracellular architecture in which some of the cell's ribosomes appear to have less direct access to the cell's nucleoid(s) than others. This observation prompted us to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of G. obscuriglobus translation may be spatially segregated from transcription. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, we showed that translating ribosomes are localized throughout the cell, with a quantitatively greater proportion found in regions distal to nucleoid(s). Our results extend information about the phylogenetic and morphological diversity of bacteria in which the spatial organization of transcription and translation has been studied. These findings also suggest that endomembranes may provide an obstacle to colocated transcription and translation, a role for endomembranes that has not been reported previously for a prokaryotic organism. Our studies of G. obscuriglobus may provide a useful background for consideration of the evolutionary development of eukaryotic cellular complexity and how it led to decoupled processes of gene expression in eukaryotes.

  18. Cytoskeletal changes in Eimeria bovis-infected host endothelial cells during first merogony.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Schröpfer, Elmar; Stowasser, Michael; Eckstein-Ludwig, Ursula; Behrendt, Jan Hillern; Zahner, Horst

    2008-10-01

    The first merogony of Eimeria bovis takes place in lymphatic endothelial cells of the ileum, resulting in the formation of macromeronts up to 250 microm. In this study, we investigated the host cell cytoskeleton (actin filaments, microtubules, spectrin, vimentin intermediate filaments) associated with parasitic development in vitro by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC) and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells (BSLEC) as host cells. No prominent changes in the host cell cytoskeleton were detected 1-3 days after E. bovis sporozoite invasion. With ongoing meront maturation a significant increase in microtubules and actin filaments close to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) was found. Mature macromeronts within the PV were completely enclosed by these cytoskeletal elements. Our findings suggest, that in order to guarantee the survival of the host cell on the enlargement of macromeronts, E. bovis needs not only to augment but also to rearrange its cytoskeletal system.

  19. Identification of RNA Binding Proteins Associated with Dengue Virus RNA in Infected Cells Reveals Temporally Distinct Host Factor Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Viktorovskaya, Olga V.; Greco, Todd M.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Thompson, Sunnie R.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are currently no vaccines or antivirals available for dengue virus infection, which can cause dengue hemorrhagic fever and death. A better understanding of the host pathogen interaction is required to develop effective therapies to treat DENV. In particular, very little is known about how cellular RNA binding proteins interact with viral RNAs. RNAs within cells are not naked; rather they are coated with proteins that affect localization, stability, translation and (for viruses) replication. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventy-nine novel RNA binding proteins for dengue virus (DENV) were identified by cross-linking proteins to dengue viral RNA during a live infection in human cells. These cellular proteins were specific and distinct from those previously identified for poliovirus, suggesting a specialized role for these factors in DENV amplification. Knockdown of these proteins demonstrated their function as viral host factors, with evidence for some factors acting early, while others late in infection. Their requirement by DENV for efficient amplification is likely specific, since protein knockdown did not impair the cell fitness for viral amplification of an unrelated virus. The protein abundances of these host factors were not significantly altered during DENV infection, suggesting their interaction with DENV RNA was due to specific recruitment mechanisms. However, at the global proteome level, DENV altered the abundances of proteins in particular classes, including transporter proteins, which were down regulated, and proteins in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which were up regulated. Conclusions/Significance The method for identification of host factors described here is robust and broadly applicable to all RNA viruses, providing an avenue to determine the conserved or distinct mechanisms through which diverse viruses manage the viral RNA within cells. This study significantly increases the number of cellular factors known to interact with

  20. Vascular diseases await translation of blood vessels engineered from stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Rekha; Duda, Dan G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) might pave the way toward a long-sought solution for obtaining sufficient numbers of autologous cells for tissue engineering. Several methods exist for generating endothelial cells or perivascular cells from hiPSCs in vitro for use in the building of vascular tissue. We discuss current developments in the generation of vascular progenitor cells from hiPSCs and the assessment of their functional capacity in vivo, opportunities and challenges for the clinical translation of engineered vascular tissue, and modeling of vascular diseases using hiPSC-derived vascular progenitor cells. PMID:26468328

  1. Translation of adenovirus 2 late mRNAs microinjected into cultured African green monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.D.; Anderson, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    Adenovirus 2-infected monkey cells fail to synthesize fiber, a 62,000 M/sub r/ virion polypeptide expressed at late times in productively infected cells. Yet these cells contain fiber mRNA that, after isolation, can be translated in vitro. The reason for the failure of monkey cells to translate fiber mRNA has been approached by microinjecting adenovirus mRNA into the cytoplasm of cultured monkey cells. Late adenovirus 2 mRNA, isolated from infected HeLa cells, was efficiently expressed when microinjected into the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-C. Expressed viral proteins identified by immunoprecipitation included the adenovirus fiber polypeptide. This result demonstrates that the monkey cell translational apparatus is capable of recognizing and expressing functional adenovirus mRNA. Microinjection of late virus mRNA into cells previously infected with wild-type adenovirus 2 failed to increase significantly the yield of infectious virus. 26 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Cell-Type-Specific mRNA Purification by Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP)

    PubMed Central

    Heiman, Myriam; Kulicke, Ruth; Fenster, Robert J.; Greengard, Paul; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Cellular diversity and architectural complexity create barriers to understanding the function of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) at a molecular level. To address this problem, we recently developed a methodology that provides the ability to profile the entire translated mRNA complement of any genetically defined cell population. This methodology, which we termed translating ribosome affinity purification, or TRAP, combines cell-type-specific transgene expression with affinity purification of translating ribosomes. TRAP can be used to study the cell-type-specific mRNA profiles of any genetically defined cell type, and has been successfully used to date in organisms ranging from D. melanogaster to mice and human cultured cells. Unlike other methodologies that rely upon micro-dissection, cell panning, or cell sorting, the TRAP methodology bypasses the need for tissue fixation or single-cell suspensions (and potential artifacts these treatments introduce), and reports on mRNAs in the entire cell body. This protocol provides a step-by-step guide to implementing the TRAP methodology, which takes two days to complete once all materials are in hand. PMID:24810037

  3. Imaging: Guiding the Clinical Translation of Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Patricia K.; Lan, Feng; Wang, Yongming; Wu, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have been touted as the holy grail of medical therapy with promises to regenerate cardiac tissue, but it appears the jury is still out on this novel therapy. Using advanced imaging technology, scientists have discovered that these cells do not survive nor engraft long-term. In addition, only marginal benefit has been observed in large animal studies and human trials. However, all is not lost. Further application of advanced imaging technology will help scientists unravel the mysteries of stem cell therapy and address the clinical hurdles facing its routine implementation. In this review, we will discuss how advanced imaging technology will help investigators better define the optimal delivery method, improve survival and engraftment, and evaluate efficacy and safety. Insights gained from this review may direct the development of future preclinical investigations and clinical trials. PMID:21960727

  4. Differential host gene expression in cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Luciana; Afonso, Claudio L; Estevez, Carlos; Wasilenko, Jamie; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2008-10-15

    In order to understand the molecular mechanisms by which different strains of avian influenza viruses overcome host response in birds, we used a complete chicken genome microarray to compare early gene expression levels in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with two avian influenza viruses (AIV), A/CK/Hong Kong/220/97 and A/Egret/Hong Kong/757.2/02, with different replication characteristics. Gene ontology revealed that the genes with altered expression are involved in many vital functional classes including protein metabolism, translation, transcription, host defense/immune response, ubiquitination and the cell cycle. Among the immune-related genes, MEK2, MHC class I, PDCD10 and Bcl-3 were selected for further expression analysis at 24 hpi using semi-quantitive RT-PCR. Infection of CEF with A/Egret/Hong Kong/757.2/02 resulted in a marked repression of MEK2 and MHC class I gene expression levels. Infection of CEF with A/CK/Hong Kong/220/97 induced an increase of MEK2 and a decrease in PDCD10 and Bcl-3 expression levels. The expression levels of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were also analyzed at 24 hpi, showing higher expression levels of all of these genes after infection with A/CK/Hong Kong/220/97 compared to A/Egret/Hong Kong/757.2/02. In addition, comparison of the NS1 sequences of the viruses revealed amino acid differences that may explain in part the differences in IFN-alpha expression observed. Microarray gene expression analysis has proven to be a useful tool on providing important insights into how different AIVs affect host gene expression and how AIVs may use different strategies to evade host response and replicate in host cells.

  5. A miRNA-responsive cell-free translation system facilitates isolation of hepatitis C virus miRNP complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bradrick, Shelton S.; Nagyal, Simardeep; Novatt, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Micro(mi)RNAs are 21- to 23-nt RNAs that regulate multiple biological processes. In association with Argonaute (Ago) proteins and other factors that form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), miRNAs typically bind mRNA 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) and repress protein production through antagonizing translation and transcript stability. For a given mRNA–miRNA interaction, cis-acting RNA elements and trans-acting RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) may influence mRNA fate. This is particularly true of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome which interacts with miR-122, an abundant liver miRNA. miR-122 binding to HCV RNA considerably stimulates virus replication in cultured cells and primates, but the mechanism(s) and associated host factors required for enhancement of HCV replication have not been fully elucidated. We recapitulated miR-122–HCV RNA interactions in a cell-free translation system derived from cells that express miR-122. Specifically, lysates produced from HEK-293 cells that inducibly transcribe and process pri-miR-122 were characterized alongside those from isogenic cells lacking miR-122 expression. We observed a stimulatory effect of miR-122 on HCV reporter mRNAs in a manner that depended on expression of miR-122 and intact target sites within the HCV 5′ UTR. We took advantage of this system to affinity-purify miR-122-HCV RNP complexes. Similar to functional assays, we found that association of immobilized HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA with endogenous Ago2 requires both miR-122 expression and intact miR-122 target sites in cis. This combined approach may be generalizable to affinity purification of miRNP complexes for selected target mRNAs, allowing identification of miRNP components and RBPs that may contribute to regulation. PMID:23793894

  6. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M C; Brum, Felipe L; da Silva, Camila C; Zuma, Aline A; Elias, Maria C; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number.

  7. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M. C.; Brum, Felipe L.; da Silva, Camila C.; Zuma, Aline A.; Elias, Maria C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number. PMID:26082757

  8. Natural variation in populations of persistently colonizing bacteria affect human host cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Aras, Rahul A; Lee, Yongchan; Kim, Sung-Kook; Israel, Dawn; Peek, Richard M; Blaser, Martin J

    2003-08-15

    The highly diverse bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which persistently colonizes the human stomach, provides models to study the role of genome plasticity in host adaptation. Within H. pylori populations from 2 colonized individuals, intragenomic recombination between cagA DNA repeat sequences leads to deletion or duplication of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the CagA protein, which is injected by a type IV secretion system into host cells. Experimental coculture of gastric epithelial cells with the strains containing these naturally occurring CagA phosphorylation site variants induced markedly divergent host cell morphologic responses. Mutants were constructed in which a phosphorylation site was either added or deleted in the expressed CagA protein; coculture studies confirmed that the naturally occurring differences in CagA phosphorylation are responsible for the observed phenotypic variation. These findings indicate that within an individual host, intragenomic recombination between H. pylori repetitive DNA produces strain variants differing in their signals to host cells.

  9. Mechanical insights into ribosomal progression overcoming RNA G-quadruplex from periodical translation suppression in cells.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Tamaki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2016-03-07

    G-quadruplexes formed on DNA and RNA can be roadblocks to movement of polymerases and ribosome on template nucleotides. Although folding and unfolding processes of the G-quadruplexes are deliberately studied in vitro, how the mechanical and physical properties of the G-quadruplexes affect intracellular biological systems is still unclear. In this study, mRNAs with G-quadruplex forming sequences located either in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) or in the open reading frame (ORF) were constructed to evaluate positional effects of the G-quadruplex on translation suppression in cells. Periodic fluctuation of translation suppression was observed at every three nucleotides within the ORF but not within the 5' UTR. The results suggested that difference in motion of ribosome at the 5' UTR and the ORF determined the ability of the G-quadruplex structure to act as a roadblock to translation in cells and provided mechanical insights into ribosomal progression to overcome the roadblock.

  10. Funding translational work in cell-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mahendra S

    2011-07-08

    The cell therapy branch of the regenerative medicine field has been innovative in developing new models of delivery and development and identifying alternative sources of funding. We discuss the implications of these changes for pharmaceutical companies and the opportunities they offer to a new entrepreneur. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical translation of stem cell therapies: a bridgeable gap.

    PubMed

    Cuende, Natividad; Izeta, Ander

    2010-06-04

    Stem cell scientists trying to reach patients often lack the multidisciplinary skills needed to overcome complex regulatory barriers and may feel deterred from pursuing clinical implementation. In order to help bridge this gap, we offer a European perspective based on our hands-on experience at the Andalusian Initiative for Advanced Therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nat1 promotes translation of specific proteins that induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Hayami; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Iwasaki, Mio; Narita, Megumi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Rand, Tim A.; Nakagawa, Masato; Watanabe, Akira; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Novel APOBEC1 target 1 (Nat1) (also known as “p97,” “Dap5,” and “Eif4g2”) is a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic protein that is homologous to the C-terminal two thirds of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (Eif4g1). We previously showed that Nat1-null mouse embryonic stem cells (mES cells) are resistant to differentiation. In the current study, we found that NAT1 and eIF4G1 share many binding proteins, such as the eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF3 and eIF4A and ribosomal proteins. However, NAT1 did not bind to eIF4E or poly(A)-binding proteins, which are critical for cap-dependent translation initiation. In contrast, compared with eIF4G1, NAT1 preferentially interacted with eIF2, fragile X mental retardation proteins (FMR), and related proteins and especially with members of the proline-rich and coiled-coil–containing protein 2 (PRRC2) family. We also found that Nat1-null mES cells possess a transcriptional profile similar, although not identical, to the ground state, which is established in wild-type mES cells when treated with inhibitors of the ERK and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling pathways. In Nat1-null mES cells, the ERK pathway is suppressed even without inhibitors. Ribosome profiling revealed that translation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (Map3k3) and son of sevenless homolog 1 (Sos1) is suppressed in the absence of Nat1. Forced expression of Map3k3 induced differentiation of Nat1-null mES cells. These data collectively show that Nat1 is involved in the translation of proteins that are required for cell differentiation. PMID:28003464

  13. Natural Killer Cells in Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Simonetta, Federico; Alvarez, Maite; Negrin, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a well-established therapeutic modality effective for a variety of hematological malignancies but, unfortunately, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to cancer relapse as well as to transplant-related complications including graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). Natural killer (NK) cells are the first donor-derived lymphocyte subset to recover after HCT, and their crucial role in protection against cancer relapse and infections is well established. Conversely, the role played by NK cells in GvHD is still controversial. Early studies suggested a participation of NK cells in GvHD induction or exacerbation. Subsequently, experimental evidence obtained in mice as well observational studies performed in humans led to a model in which NK cells play a regulatory role in GvHD by repressing alloreactive T cell responses. This widely accepted model has been recently challenged by clinical evidence indicating that NK cells can in some cases promote GvHD. In this review, we summarize available knowledge about the role of NK cells in GVHD pathogenesis. We review studies uncovering cellular mechanisms through which NK cells interact with other immune cell subsets during GvHD leading to a model in which NK cells naturally suppress GvHD through their cytotoxic ability to inhibit T cell activation unless exogenous hyperactivation lead them to produce proinflammatory cytokines that can conversely sustain T cell-mediated GvHD induction. PMID:28487696

  14. Non-canonical Translation in Plant RNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Miras, Manuel; Miller, W Allen; Truniger, Verónica; Aranda, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Viral protein synthesis is completely dependent upon the host cell's translational machinery. Canonical translation of host mRNAs depends on structural elements such as the 5' cap structure and/or the 3' poly(A) tail of the mRNAs. Although many viral mRNAs are devoid of one or both of these structures, they can still translate efficiently using non-canonical mechanisms. Here, we review the tools utilized by positive-sense single-stranded (+ss) RNA plant viruses to initiate non-canonical translation, focusing on cis-acting sequences present in viral mRNAs. We highlight how these elements may interact with host translation factors and speculate on their contribution for achieving translational control. We also describe other translation strategies used by plant viruses to optimize the usage of the coding capacity of their very compact genomes, including leaky scanning initiation, ribosomal frameshifting and stop-codon readthrough. Finally, future research perspectives on the unusual translational strategies of +ssRNA viruses are discussed, including parallelisms between viral and host mRNAs mechanisms of translation, particularly for host mRNAs which are translated under stress conditions.

  15. Non-canonical Translation in Plant RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Miras, Manuel; Miller, W. Allen; Truniger, Verónica; Aranda, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Viral protein synthesis is completely dependent upon the host cell's translational machinery. Canonical translation of host mRNAs depends on structural elements such as the 5′ cap structure and/or the 3′ poly(A) tail of the mRNAs. Although many viral mRNAs are devoid of one or both of these structures, they can still translate efficiently using non-canonical mechanisms. Here, we review the tools utilized by positive-sense single-stranded (+ss) RNA plant viruses to initiate non-canonical translation, focusing on cis-acting sequences present in viral mRNAs. We highlight how these elements may interact with host translation factors and speculate on their contribution for achieving translational control. We also describe other translation strategies used by plant viruses to optimize the usage of the coding capacity of their very compact genomes, including leaky scanning initiation, ribosomal frameshifting and stop-codon readthrough. Finally, future research perspectives on the unusual translational strategies of +ssRNA viruses are discussed, including parallelisms between viral and host mRNAs mechanisms of translation, particularly for host mRNAs which are translated under stress conditions. PMID:28428795

  16. Interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi Secreted Proteins and Host Cell Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe Costa, Renata; da Silveira, Jose F.; Bahia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6–7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here, we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion. PMID:27065960

  17. Translation efficiency of EBNA1 encoded by lymphocryptoviruses influences endogenous presentation of CD8+ T cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Tellam, Judy; Rist, Michael; Connolly, Geoff; Webb, Natasha; Fazou, Chrysa; Wang, Fred; Khanna, Rajiv

    2007-02-01

    Lymphocryptoviruses (LCV) that infect humans and Old World primates display a significant degree of genetic identity. These viruses use B lymphocytes as primary host cells to establish a long-term latent infection and express highly homologous latent viral proteins. Of particular interest is the expression of the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1), which plays a crucial role in maintaining the viral genome in B cells. Using human and Old World primate homologues of EBNA1, we show that the internal repeat sequences differentially influence their in vitro translation efficiency. Although the glycine-alanine repeat domain of human LCV (EBV) EBNA1 inhibits its self-synthesis, the repeat domains within the simian LCV homologues of EBNA1 do not inhibit self-synthesis. As a consequence, simian LCV EBNA1-expressing cells are more efficiently recognized by virus-specific CTL when compared to human EBV EBNA1, even though both proteins are highly stable in B cells. Interestingly, we also show that similar to human EBNA1, CD8+ T cell epitopes from simian LCV EBNA1 are predominantly derived from newly synthesized protein rather than the long-lived pool of stable protein. These observations provide additional evidence that supports the theory that immune recognition of EBNA1 can occur without compromising the biological maintenance function of this protein.

  18. Development of a BACarray translational profiling approach for the molecular characterization of CNS cell types

    PubMed Central

    Heiman, Myriam; Schaefer, Anne; Gong, Shiaoching; Peterson, Jayms; Day, Michelle; Ramsey, Keri E.; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Schwarz, Cordelia; Stephan, Dietrich A.; Surmeier, D. James; Greengard, Paul; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    Summary The cellular heterogeneity of the brain confounds efforts to elucidate the biological properties of distinct neuronal populations. We have now developed a new ‘BACarray’ methodology, based on affinity purification of polysomal mRNAs from genetically defined cell populations. The utility of this approach is illustrated by the comparative analysis of four types of neurons, revealing hundreds of genes that distinguish these four cell populations. Even two morphologically indistinguishable subclasses of MSNs display vastly different translational profiles. Striatopallidal neurons are characterized by a strong and cell-specific release of intracellular Ca2+ in response to sphingosine 1-phosphate, consistent with their selective expression of Gpr6. In contrast, striatonigral neurons demonstrate a selective cell-specific increase in GABAA receptor subunits in response to chronic cocaine treatment. BACarray translational profiling is a generalizable method useful for the identification of molecular changes in any genetically defined cell type in response to genetic alterations, disease, or pharmacological perturbations. PMID:19013281

  19. Donor Satellite Cell Engraftment is Significantly Augmented When the Host Niche is Preserved and Endogenous Satellite Cells are Incapacitated

    PubMed Central

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Stem Cells2012;30:1971–1984 PMID:22730231

  20. Reassortment of NS Segments Modifies Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Interaction with Avian Hosts and Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Henning; Wang, Zhongfang; Lenz, Eva; Pleschka, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 have caused numerous outbreaks in diverse poultry species and rising numbers of human infections. Both HPAIV subtypes support a growing concern of a pandemic outbreak, specifically via the avian-human link. Natural reassortment of both HPAIV subtypes is a possible event with unpredictable outcome for virulence and host specificity of the progeny virus for avian and mammalian species. NS reassortment of H5N1 HPAIV viruses in the background of A/FPV/Rostock/1934 (H7N1) HPAIV has been shown to change virus replication kinetics and host cell responses in mammalian cells. However, not much is known about the virus-host interaction of such viruses in avian species. In the present study, we show that the NS segment of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (FPV NS VN, H5N1) HPAIV significantly altered the characteristics of the H7 prototype HPAIV in tracheal organ cultures (TOC) of chicken and turkey in vitro, with decreased replication efficiency accompanied by increased induction of type I interferon (IFN) and apoptosis. Furthermore, species-specific differences between chicken and turkey were demonstrated. Interestingly, NS-reassortant FPV NS VN showed an overall highly pathogenic phenotype, with increased virulence and replication potential compared to the wild-type virus after systemic infection of chicken and turkey embryos. Our data demonstrate that single reassortment of an H5-type NS into an H7-type HPAIV significantly changed virus replication abilities and influenced the avian host cell response without prior adaptation. PMID:23468508

  1. Cellular Aspects of Shigella Pathogenesis: Focus on the Manipulation of Host Cell Processes

    PubMed Central

    Killackey, Samuel A.; Sorbara, Matthew T.; Girardin, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for shigellosis. Over the years, the study of Shigella has provided a greater understanding of how the host responds to bacterial infection, and how bacteria have evolved to effectively counter the host defenses. In this review, we provide an update on some of the most recent advances in our understanding of pivotal processes associated with Shigella infection, including the invasion into host cells, the metabolic changes that occur within the bacterium and the infected cell, cell-to-cell spread mechanisms, autophagy and membrane trafficking, inflammatory signaling and cell death. This recent progress sheds a new light into the mechanisms underlying Shigella pathogenesis, and also more generally provides deeper understanding of the complex interplay between host cells and bacterial pathogens in general. PMID:27066460

  2. Cellular Aspects of Shigella Pathogenesis: Focus on the Manipulation of Host Cell Processes.

    PubMed

    Killackey, Samuel A; Sorbara, Matthew T; Girardin, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for shigellosis. Over the years, the study of Shigella has provided a greater understanding of how the host responds to bacterial infection, and how bacteria have evolved to effectively counter the host defenses. In this review, we provide an update on some of the most recent advances in our understanding of pivotal processes associated with Shigella infection, including the invasion into host cells, the metabolic changes that occur within the bacterium and the infected cell, cell-to-cell spread mechanisms, autophagy and membrane trafficking, inflammatory signaling and cell death. This recent progress sheds a new light into the mechanisms underlying Shigella pathogenesis, and also more generally provides deeper understanding of the complex interplay between host cells and bacterial pathogens in general.

  3. Immunoglobulin Cmu RNA in T lymphoma cells is not translated.

    PubMed

    Walker, I D; Harris, A W

    1980-11-20

    It is widely believed that immunoglobulin genes might encode at least part of the receptor for antigen on the T lymphocyte. Evidence supporting this comes from the effects of anti-immunoglobulin idiotype antibodies on cellular immune networks and from the presence of idiotypes on immunologically active factors from T cells. Detailed molecular characterization of the receptors, however, has been seriously hampered by the lack of a suitable cellular source from which it might be isolated. The recent demonstration of Kemp et al. that thymocytes and certain cultured lines of mouse T lymphoma cells contain polyadenylated RNA molecules encoded by the immunoglobulin Cmu gene (Cmu RNA) prompted us to identify the corresponding protein molecules in those cells. As the haploid mouse genome contains a single Cmu gene, any polypeptide encoded by this gene should react with at least some of the antibodies present in rabbit anti-mouse IgM antiserum. In this letter we report that a number of T lymphoma lines, regardless of whether they contain Cmu RNA, synthesize no detectable mu polypeptides.

  4. Mouse host unlicensed NK cells promote donor allogeneic bone marrow engraftment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maite; Sun, Kai; Murphy, William J

    2016-03-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells exist as subsets based on expression of inhibitory receptors that recognize major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) molecules. NK cell subsets bearing MHCI binding receptors for self-MHCI have been termed as "licensed" and exhibit a higher ability to respond to stimuli. In the context of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), host licensed-NK (L-NK) cells have also been demonstrated to be responsible for the acute rejection of allogeneic and MHCI-deficient BM cells (BMCs) in mice after lethal irradiation. However, the role of recipient unlicensed-NK (U-NK) cells has not been well established with regard to allogeneic BMC resistance. After NK cell stimulation, the prior depletion of host L-NK cells resulted in a marked increase of donor engraftment compared with the untreated group. Surprisingly, this increased donor engraftment was reduced after total host NK cell depletion, indicating that U-NK cells can actually promote donor allogeneic BMC engraftment. Furthermore, direct coculture of U-NK cells with allogeneic but not syngeneic BMCs resulted in increased colony-forming unit cell growth in vitro, which was at least partially mediated by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production. These data demonstrate that host NK cell subsets exert markedly different roles in allogeneic BMC engraftment where host L- and U-NK cells reject or promote donor allogeneic BMC engraftment, respectively.

  5. Translational reprogramming in tumour cells can generate oncoselectivity in viral therapies.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Eneko; Navarro, Pilar; Rovira-Rigau, Maria; Sibilio, Annarita; Méndez, Raúl; Fillat, Cristina

    2017-03-16

    Systemic treatment of cancer requires tumour-selective therapies that eliminate cancer cells yet preserve healthy tissues from undesired damage. Tumoral transformation is associated with profound effects in translational reprogramming of gene expression, such that tumour-specific translational regulation presents an attractive possibility for generating oncoselective therapies. We recently discovered that mRNA translational control by cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding proteins (CPEBs) is reactivated in cancer. Here we present a novel approach to restrict genetic-engineered therapies to malignant tissues based on CPEB translational regulation of target mRNAs. We demonstrate that tumour reprogramming of CPEB-mediated mRNA stability and translational regulation modulates tumour-specific expression of viral proteins. For oncolytic adenoviruses, insertion of CPE regulatory sequences in the 3'-untranslated region of the E1A gene provides oncoselectivity, with full potency in cancer cells but attenuated in normal tissues. Our results demonstrate the potential of this strategy to improve oncolytic virus design and provide a framework for exploiting CPE-regulated transgenes for therapy.

  6. Pervasive translational regulation of the cell signalling circuitry underlies mammalian development

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kotaro; Shi, Zhen; Zhulyn, Olena; Denans, Nicolas; Barna, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The degree and dynamics of translational control during mammalian development remain poorly understood. Here we monitored translation of the mammalian genome as cells become specified and organize into tissues in vivo. This identified unexpected and pervasive translational regulation of most of the core signalling circuitry including Shh, Wnt, Hippo, PI3K and MAPK pathways. We further identify and functionally characterize a complex landscape of upstream open reading frames (uORFs) across 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs) of key signalling components. Focusing on the Shh pathway, we demonstrate the importance of uORFs within the major SHH receptor, Ptch1, in control of cell signalling and neuronal differentiation. Finally, we show that the expression of hundreds of mRNAs underlying critical tissue-specific developmental processes is largely regulated at the translation but not transcript levels. Altogether, this work reveals a new layer of translational control to major signalling components and gene regulatory networks that diversifies gene expression spatially across developing tissues. PMID:28195124

  7. Quantitative analysis of mRNA translation in mammalian spermatogenic cells with sucrose and Nycodenz gradients.

    PubMed

    Kleene, Kenneth C; Bagarova, Jana; Hawthorne, Sabrina K; Catado, Leah M

    2010-12-25

    Developmental and global regulation of mRNA translation plays a major role in regulating gene expression in mammalian spermatogenic cells. Sucrose gradients are widely used to analyze mRNA translation. Unfortunately, the information from sucrose gradient experiments is often compromised by the absence of quantification and absorbance tracings, and confusion about the basic properties of sucrose gradients. The Additional Materials contain detailed protocols for the preparation and analysis of sucrose and Nycodenz gradients, obtaining absorbance tracings of sucrose gradients, aligning tracings and fractions, and extraction of equal proportions of RNA from all fractions. The techniques described here have produced consistent measurements despite changes in personnel and minor variations in RNA extraction, gradient analysis, and mRNA quantification, and describes for the first time potential problems in using gradients to analyze mRNA translation in purified spermatogenic cells. Accurate quantification of the proportion of polysomal mRNA is useful in comparing translational activity at different developmental stages, different mRNAs, different techniques and different laboratories. The techniques described here are sufficiently accurate to elucidate the contributions of multiple regulatory elements of variable strength in regulating translation of the sperm mitochondria associated cysteine-rich protein (Smcp) mRNA in transgenic mice.

  8. Quantitative analysis of mRNA translation in mammalian spermatogenic cells with sucrose and Nycodenz gradients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Developmental and global regulation of mRNA translation plays a major role in regulating gene expression in mammalian spermatogenic cells. Sucrose gradients are widely used to analyze mRNA translation. Unfortunately, the information from sucrose gradient experiments is often compromised by the absence of quantification and absorbance tracings, and confusion about the basic properties of sucrose gradients. Methods The Additional Materials contain detailed protocols for the preparation and analysis of sucrose and Nycodenz gradients, obtaining absorbance tracings of sucrose gradients, aligning tracings and fractions, and extraction of equal proportions of RNA from all fractions. Results The techniques described here have produced consistent measurements despite changes in personnel and minor variations in RNA extraction, gradient analysis, and mRNA quantification, and describes for the first time potential problems in using gradients to analyze mRNA translation in purified spermatogenic cells. Conclusions Accurate quantification of the proportion of polysomal mRNA is useful in comparing translational activity at different developmental stages, different mRNAs, different techniques and different laboratories. The techniques described here are sufficiently accurate to elucidate the contributions of multiple regulatory elements of variable strength in regulating translation of the sperm mitochondria associated cysteine-rich protein (Smcp) mRNA in transgenic mice. PMID:21184686

  9. Translational control of regA, a key gene controlling cell differentiation in Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Babinger, Karin; Hallmann, Armin; Schmitt, Rüdiger

    2006-10-01

    The complete division of labour between the reproductive and somatic cells of the green alga Volvox carteri is controlled by three types of genes. One of these is the regA gene, which controls terminal differentiation of the somatic cells. Here, we examined translational control elements located in the 5' UTR of regA, particularly the eight upstream start codons (AUGs) that have to be bypassed by the translation machinery before regA can be translated. The results of our systematic mutational, structural and functional analysis of the 5' UTR led us to conclude that a ribosome-shunting mechanism--rather than leaky scanning, ribosomal reinitiation, or internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation--controls the translation of regA mRNA. This mechanism, which involves dissociation of the 40S initiation complex from the message, followed by reattachment downstream, in order to bypass a secondary structure block in the mRNA, was validated by deleting the predicted ;landing site' (which prevented regA expression) and inserting a stable 64 nucleotide hairpin just upstream of this site (which did not prevent regA expression). We believe that this is the first report suggesting that translation of an mRNA in a green eukaryote is controlled by ribosome shunting.

  10. Inhibition of Non-ATG Translational Events in Cells via Covalent Small Molecules Targeting RNA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wang-Yong; Wilson, Henry D.; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    One major class of disease-causing RNAs is expanded repeating transcripts. These RNAs cause diseases via multiple mechanisms, including: (i) gain-of-function, in which repeating RNAs bind and sequester proteins involved in RNA biogenesis and (ii) repeat associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, in which repeating transcripts are translated into toxic proteins without use of a canonical, AUG, start codon. Herein, we develop and study chemical probes that bind and react with an expanded r(CGG) repeat (r(CGG)exp) present in a 5′ untranslated region that causes fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Reactive compounds bind to r(CGG)exp in cellulo as shown with Chem-CLIP-Map, an approach to map small molecule binding sites within RNAs in cells. Compounds also potently improve FXTAS-associated pre-mRNA splicing and RAN translational defects, while not affecting translation of the downstream open reading frame. In contrast, oligonucleotides affect both RAN and canonical translation when they bind to r(CGG)exp, which is mechanistically traced to a decrease in polysome loading. Thus, designer small molecules that react with RNA targets can be used to profile the RNAs to which they bind in cells, including identification of binding sites, and can modulate several aspects of RNA-mediated disease pathology in a manner that may be more beneficial than oligonucleotides. PMID:25825793

  11. Translational reprogramming in tumour cells can generate oncoselectivity in viral therapies

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Eneko; Navarro, Pilar; Rovira-Rigau, Maria; Sibilio, Annarita; Méndez, Raúl; Fillat, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Systemic treatment of cancer requires tumour-selective therapies that eliminate cancer cells yet preserve healthy tissues from undesired damage. Tumoral transformation is associated with profound effects in translational reprogramming of gene expression, such that tumour-specific translational regulation presents an attractive possibility for generating oncoselective therapies. We recently discovered that mRNA translational control by cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding proteins (CPEBs) is reactivated in cancer. Here we present a novel approach to restrict genetic-engineered therapies to malignant tissues based on CPEB translational regulation of target mRNAs. We demonstrate that tumour reprogramming of CPEB-mediated mRNA stability and translational regulation modulates tumour-specific expression of viral proteins. For oncolytic adenoviruses, insertion of CPE regulatory sequences in the 3′-untranslated region of the E1A gene provides oncoselectivity, with full potency in cancer cells but attenuated in normal tissues. Our results demonstrate the potential of this strategy to improve oncolytic virus design and provide a framework for exploiting CPE-regulated transgenes for therapy. PMID:28300077

  12. Inhibition of Non-ATG Translational Events in Cells via Covalent Small Molecules Targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wang-Yong; Wilson, Henry D; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-04-29

    One major class of disease-causing RNAs is expanded repeating transcripts. These RNAs cause diseases via multiple mechanisms, including: (i) gain-of-function, in which repeating RNAs bind and sequester proteins involved in RNA biogenesis and (ii) repeat associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, in which repeating transcripts are translated into toxic proteins without use of a canonical, AUG, start codon. Herein, we develop and study chemical probes that bind and react with an expanded r(CGG) repeat (r(CGG)(exp)) present in a 5' untranslated region that causes fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Reactive compounds bind to r(CGG)(exp) in cellulo as shown with Chem-CLIP-Map, an approach to map small molecule binding sites within RNAs in cells. Compounds also potently improve FXTAS-associated pre-mRNA splicing and RAN translational defects, while not affecting translation of the downstream open reading frame. In contrast, oligonucleotides affect both RAN and canonical translation when they bind to r(CGG)(exp), which is mechanistically traced to a decrease in polysome loading. Thus, designer small molecules that react with RNA targets can be used to profile the RNAs to which they bind in cells, including identification of binding sites, and can modulate several aspects of RNA-mediated disease pathology in a manner that may be more beneficial than oligonucleotides.

  13. Graft-infiltrating host dendritic cells play a key role in organ transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Quan; Liu, Quan; Divito, Sherrie J.; Zeng, Qiang; Yatim, Karim M.; Hughes, Andrew D.; Rojas-Canales, Darling M.; Nakao, A.; Shufesky, William J.; Williams, Amanda L.; Humar, Rishab; Hoffman, Rosemary A.; Shlomchik, Warren D.; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Lakkis, Fadi G.; Morelli, Adrian E.

    2016-01-01

    Successful engraftment of organ transplants has traditionally relied on preventing the activation of recipient (host) T cells. Once T-cell activation has occurred, however, stalling the rejection process becomes increasingly difficult, leading to graft failure. Here we demonstrate that graft-infiltrating, recipient (host) dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in driving the rejection of transplanted organs by activated (effector) T cells. We show that donor DCs that accompany heart or kidney grafts are rapidly replaced by recipient DCs. The DCs originate from non-classical monocytes and form stable, cognate interactions with effector T cells in the graft. Eliminating recipient DCs reduces the proliferation and survival of graft-infiltrating T cells and abrogates ongoing rejection or rejection mediated by transferred effector T cells. Therefore, host DCs that infiltrate transplanted organs sustain the alloimmune response after T-cell activation has already occurred. Targeting these cells provides a means for preventing or treating rejection. PMID:27554168

  14. Analysis of Host Gene Expression Profile in HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected T-Cells.

    PubMed

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Wood, Owen; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication is closely regulated by a complex pathway of host factors, many of them being determinants of cell tropism and host susceptibility to HIV infection. These host factors are known to exert a positive or negative influence on the replication of the two major types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2, thereby modulating virus infectivity, host response to infection and ultimately disease progression profiles characteristic of these two types. Understanding the differential regulation of host cellular factors in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections will help us to understand the apparent differences in rates of disease progression and pathogenesis. This knowledge would aid in the discovery of new biomarkers that may serve as novel targets for therapy and diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the differential expression of host genes in response to HIV-1/HIV-2 infection. To achieve this, we analyzed the effects of HIV-1 (MN) and HIV-2 (ROD) infection on the expression of host factors in PBMC at the RNA level using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were identified and their biological functions determined. Host gene expression profiles were significantly changed. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a subset of differentially expressed genes in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Genes involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, immune cell proliferation and activation, cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors were differentially expressed in HIV-1 infected cells. Relatively few genes were differentially expressed in cells infected with HIV-2.

  15. Analysis of Host Gene Expression Profile in HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Wood, Owen; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication is closely regulated by a complex pathway of host factors, many of them being determinants of cell tropism and host susceptibility to HIV infection. These host factors are known to exert a positive or negative influence on the replication of the two major types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2, thereby modulating virus infectivity, host response to infection and ultimately disease progression profiles characteristic of these two types. Understanding the differential regulation of host cellular factors in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections will help us to understand the apparent differences in rates of disease progression and pathogenesis. This knowledge would aid in the discovery of new biomarkers that may serve as novel targets for therapy and diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the differential expression of host genes in response to HIV-1/HIV-2 infection. To achieve this, we analyzed the effects of HIV-1 (MN) and HIV-2 (ROD) infection on the expression of host factors in PBMC at the RNA level using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were identified and their biological functions determined. Host gene expression profiles were significantly changed. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a subset of differentially expressed genes in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Genes involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, immune cell proliferation and activation, cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors were differentially expressed in HIV-1 infected cells. Relatively few genes were differentially expressed in cells infected with HIV-2. PMID:26821323

  16. Donor satellite cell engraftment is significantly augmented when the host niche is preserved and endogenous satellite cells are incapacitated.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-09-01

    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy.

  17. Hostile Takeover by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver Stage Egress

    PubMed Central

    Graewe, Stefanie; Rankin, Kathleen E.; Lehmann, Christine; Deschermeier, Christina; Hecht, Leonie; Froehlke, Ulrike; Stanway, Rebecca R.; Heussler, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Plasmodium is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes and undergoes obligatory development within a parasitophorous vacuole in hepatocytes before it is released into the bloodstream. The transition to the blood stage was previously shown to involve the packaging of exoerythrocytic merozoites into membrane-surrounded vesicles, called merosomes, which are delivered directly into liver sinusoids. However, it was unclear whether the membrane of these merosomes was derived from the parasite membrane, the parasitophorous vacuole membrane or the host cell membrane. This knowledge is required to determine how phagocytes will be directed against merosomes. Here, we fluorescently label the candidate membranes and use live cell imaging to show that the merosome membrane derives from the host cell membrane. We also demonstrate that proteins in the host cell membrane are lost during merozoite liberation from the parasitophorous vacuole. Immediately after the breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, the host cell mitochondria begin to degenerate and protein biosynthesis arrests. The intact host cell plasma membrane surrounding merosomes allows Plasmodium to mask itself from the host immune system and bypass the numerous Kupffer cells on its way into the bloodstream. This represents an effective strategy for evading host defenses before establishing a blood stage infection. PMID:21909271

  18. A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Huston, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, initiation of phagocytosis, and engulfment. This paper presents recent advances in the cytolytic and phagocytic processes of Entamoeba histolytica in context of the sequential model. PMID:21331284

  19. Porphyromonas gingivalis as a Model Organism for Assessing Interaction of Anaerobic Bacteria with Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Christopher M; Lewis, Janina P

    2015-12-17

    Anaerobic bacteria far outnumber aerobes in many human niches such as the gut, mouth, and vagina. Furthermore, anaerobic infections are common and frequently of indigenous origin. The ability of some anaerobic pathogens to invade human cells gives them adaptive measures to escape innate immunity as well as to modulate host cell behavior. However, ensuring that the anaerobic bacteria are live during experimental investigation of the events may pose challenges. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is capable of invading a variety of eukaryotic non-phagocytic cells. This article outlines how to successfully culture and assess the ability of P. gingivalis to invade human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Two protocols were developed: one to measure bacteria that can successfully invade and survive within the host, and the other to visualize bacteria interacting with host cells. These techniques necessitate the use of an anaerobic chamber to supply P. gingivalis with an anaerobic environment for optimal growth. The first protocol is based on the antibiotic protection assay, which is largely used to study the invasion of host cells by bacteria. However, the antibiotic protection assay is limited; only intracellular bacteria that are culturable following antibiotic treatment and host cell lysis are measured. To assess all bacteria interacting with host cells, both live and dead, we developed a protocol that uses fluorescent microscopy to examine host-pathogen interaction. Bacteria are fluorescently labeled with 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) and used to infect eukaryotic cells under anaerobic conditions. Following fixing with paraformaldehyde and permeabilization with 0.2% Triton X-100, host cells are labeled with TRITC phalloidin and DAPI to label the cell cytoskeleton and nucleus, respectively. Multiple images taken at different focal points (Z-stack) are obtained for temporal

  20. Transcriptional adaptation of Mycosphaerella graminicola to programmed cell death (PCD) of its susceptible wheat host.

    PubMed

    Keon, John; Antoniw, John; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Deller, Siân; Ward, Jane L; Baker, John M; Beale, Michael H; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Rudd, Jason J

    2007-02-01

    Many important fungal pathogens of plants spend long periods (days to weeks) of their infection cycle in symptomless association with living host tissue, followed by a sudden transition to necrotrophic feeding as host tissue death occurs. Little is known about either the host responses associated with this sudden transition or the specific adaptations made by the pathogen to invoke or tolerate it. We are studying a major host-specific fungal pathogen of cultivated wheat, Septoria tritici (teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola). Here, we describe the host responses of wheat leaves infected with M. graminicola during the development of disease symptoms and use microarray transcription profiling to identify adaptive responses of the fungus to its changing environment. We show that symptom development on a susceptible host genotype has features reminiscent of the hypersensitive response, a rapid and strictly localized form of host programmed cell death (PCD) more commonly associated with disease-resistance mechanisms. The initiation and advancement of this host response is associated with a loss of cell-membrane integrity and dramatic increases in apoplastic metabolites and the rate of fungal growth. Microarray analysis of the fungal genes differentially expressed before and after the onset of host PCD supports a transition to more rapid growth. Specific physiological adaptation of the fungus is also revealed with respect to membrane transport, chemical and oxidative stress mechanisms, and metabolism. Our data support the hypothesis that host plant PCD plays an important role in susceptibility towards fungal pathogens with necrotrophic lifestyles.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells in obesity: insights for translational applications.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kenichi; Dzau, Victor J

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is now a major public health problem worldwide. Lifestyle modification to reduce the characteristic excess body adiposity is important in the treatment of obesity, but effective therapeutic intervention is still needed to control what has become an obesity epidemic. Unfortunately, many anti-obesity drugs have been withdrawn from market due to adverse side effects. Bariatric surgery therefore remains the most effective therapy for severe cases, although such surgery is invasive and researchers continue to seek new control strategies for obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a major source of adipocyte generation, and studies have been conducted into the potential roles of MSCs in treating obesity. However, despite significant progress in stem cell research and its potential applications for obesity, adipogenesis is a highly complex process and the molecular mechanisms governing MSC adipogenesis remain ill defined. In particular, successful clinical application of MSCs will require extensive identification and characterization of the transcriptional regulators controlling MSC adipogenesis. Since obesity is associated with the incidence of multiple important comorbidities, an in-depth understanding of the relationship between MSC adipogenesis and the comorbidities of obesity is also necessary to evaluate the potential of effective and safe MSC-based therapies for obesity. In addition, brown adipogenesis is an attractive topic from the viewpoint of therapeutic innovation and future research into MSC-based brown adipogenesis could lead to a novel breakthrough. Ongoing stem cell studies and emerging research fields such as epigenetics are expected to elucidate the complicated mechanisms at play in MSC adipogenesis and develop novel MSC-based therapeutic options for obesity. This review discusses the current understanding of MSCs in adipogenesis and their potential clinical applications for obesity.

  2. Intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage cell death leads to serial killing of host cells.

    PubMed

    Mahamed, Deeqa; Boulle, Mikael; Ganga, Yashica; Mc Arthur, Chanelle; Skroch, Steven; Oom, Lance; Catinas, Oana; Pillay, Kelly; Naicker, Myshnee; Rampersad, Sanisha; Mathonsi, Colisile; Hunter, Jessica; Wong, Emily B; Suleman, Moosa; Sreejit, Gopalkrishna; Pym, Alexander S; Lustig, Gila; Sigal, Alex

    2017-01-28

    A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis is the formation of macrophage-rich granulomas. These may restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, or progress to central necrosis and cavitation, facilitating pathogen growth. To determine factors leading to Mtb proliferation and host cell death, we used live cell imaging to track Mtb infection outcomes in individual primary human macrophages. Internalization of Mtb aggregates caused macrophage death, and phagocytosis of large aggregates was more cytotoxic than multiple small aggregates containing similar numbers of bacilli. Macrophage death did not result in clearance of Mtb. Rather, it led to accelerated intracellular Mtb growth regardless of prior activation or macrophage type. In contrast, bacillary replication was controlled in live phagocytes. Mtb grew as a clump in dead cells, and macrophages which internalized dead infected cells were very likely to die themselves, leading to a cell death cascade. This demonstrates how pathogen virulence can be achieved through numbers and aggregation states.

  3. PHLPP-mediated dephosphorylation of S6K1 inhibits protein translation and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianyu; Stevens, Payton D; Li, Xin; Schmidt, Micheal D; Gao, Tianyan

    2011-12-01

    PHLPP is a family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases that contains PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 isoforms. We have shown previously that PHLPP functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating Akt signaling in cancer cells. Here we report the identification of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as a novel substrate of PHLPP. Overexpression of both PHLPP isoforms resulted in a decrease in S6K1 phosphorylation in cells, and this PHLPP-mediated dephosphorylation of S6K1 was independent of its ability to dephosphorylate Akt. Conversely, S6K1 phosphorylation was increased in cells depleted of PHLPP expression. Furthermore, we showed that the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) expression and insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation were significantly decreased as the result of activation of the S6K-dependent negative feedback loop in PHLPP knockdown cells. Functionally, the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and the amount of phosphorylated rpS6 bound to the translation initiation complex were increased in PHLPP-knockdown cells. This correlated with increased cell size, protein content, and rate of cap-dependent translation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that loss of PHLPP expression activates the S6K-dependent negative feedback loop and that PHLPP is a novel player involved in regulating protein translation initiation and cell size via direct dephosphorylation of S6K1.

  4. Genome-wide profiling reveals a role for T-cell intracellular antigens TIA1 and TIAR in the control of translational specificity in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Carrascoso, Isabel; Sánchez-Jiménez, Carmen; Izquierdo, José M

    2014-07-01

    TIA (T-cell intracellular antigens)-knockdown HeLa cells show an increase in ribosomes and translational machinery components. This increase correlates with specific changes in translationally up-regulated mRNAs involved in cell-cycle progression and DNA repair, as shown in polysomal profiling analysis. Our data support the hypothesis that a concerted activation of both global and selective translational rates leads to the transition to a more proliferative status in TIA-knockdown HeLa cells.

  5. Endosymbiosis of Chlorella species to the ciliate Paramecium bursaria alters the distribution of the host's trichocysts beneath the host cell cortex.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuuki; Fujishima, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Each symbiotic Chlorella of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria is enclosed in a perialgal vacuole membrane derived from the host digestive vacuole membrane. Alga-free paramecia and symbiotic algae can grow independently. Mixing them experimentally can cause reinfection. Earlier, we reported that the symbiotic algae appear to push the host trichocysts aside to become fixed beneath the host cell cortex during the algal reinfection process. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy with a monoclonal antibody against the trichocysts demonstrates that the trichocysts change their locality to form algal attachment sites and decrease their density beneath the host cell cortex through algal reinfection. Transmission electron microscopy to detect acid phosphatase activity showed that some trichocysts near the host cell cortex are digested by the host lysosomal fusion during algal reinfection. Removal of algae from the host cell using cycloheximide recovers the trichocyst's arrangement and number near the host cell cortex. These results indicate that symbiotic algae compete for their attachment sites with preexisting trichocysts and that the algae have the ability to ensure algal attachment sites beneath the host cell cortex.

  6. Dissecting the membrane cholesterol requirement for mycobacterial entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Jafurulla, Md; Kumar, G Aditya; Raghunand, Tirumalai R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages, and are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The molecular mechanism involved in the internalization of mycobacteria is poorly understood. In this work, we have explored the role of host membrane cholesterol in the entry of the avirulent surrogate mycobacterial strain Mycobacterium smegmatis into THP-1 macrophages. Our results show that depletion of host membrane cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin results in a significant reduction in the entry of M. smegmatis into host cells. More importantly, we show that the inhibition in the ability of M. smegmatis to enter host macrophages could be reversed upon replenishment of membrane cholesterol. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the first report showing that membrane cholesterol replenishment can reverse the inhibition in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells. In addition, we demonstrate that cholesterol complexation using amphotericin B (without physical depletion) is sufficient to inhibit mycobacterial entry. Importantly, we observed a significant reduction in mycobacterial entry upon enrichment of host membrane cholesterol. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that an optimum host plasma membrane cholesterol is necessary for the entry of mycobacteria. These results assume relevance in the context of developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting cholesterol-mediated mycobacterial host cell entry.

  7. Darwinian evolution in a translation-coupled RNA replication system within a cell-like compartment.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Usui, Kimihito; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Sunami, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    The ability to evolve is a key characteristic that distinguishes living things from non-living chemical compounds. The construction of an evolvable cell-like system entirely from non-living molecules has been a major challenge. Here we construct an evolvable artificial cell model from an assembly of biochemical molecules. The artificial cell model contains artificial genomic RNA that replicates through the translation of its encoded RNA replicase. We perform a long-term (600-generation) replication experiment using this system, in which mutations are spontaneously introduced into the RNA by replication error, and highly replicable mutants dominate the population according to Darwinian principles. During evolution, the genomic RNA gradually reinforces its interaction with the translated replicase, thereby acquiring competitiveness against selfish (parasitic) RNAs. This study provides the first experimental evidence that replicating systems can be developed through Darwinian evolution in a cell-like compartment, even in the presence of parasitic replicators.

  8. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Daley, George Q; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F; Barker, Roger A; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Breuer, Christopher K; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-06-14

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  9. Chew on this: Amoebic trogocytosis and host cell killing by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica was named “histolytica” (histo-: tissue; lytic-: dissolving) for its ability to destroy host tissues. Direct killing of host cells by the amoebae is likely to be the driving factor that underlies tissue destruction, but the mechanism was unclear. We recently showed that after attaching to host cells, amoebae bite off and ingest distinct host cell fragments, and that this contributes to cell killing. Here we review this process, termed “amoebic trogocytosis” (trogo-: nibble), and how this process interplays with phagocytosis, or whole cell ingestion, in this organism. “Nibbling” processes have been described in other microbes and in multicellular organisms. The discovery of amoebic trogocytosis in E. histolytica may also shed light on an evolutionarily conserved process for intercellular exchange. PMID:26070402

  10. Cell Free Translation in Engineered Picoliter Volume Containers

    PubMed Central

    Siuti, Piro; Retterer, Scott T.; Choi, Chang Kyoung; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    2010-01-01

    Engineers seek to use biological design principles to manipulate information and import new functionality to synthetic devices. Such devices inspired by natural systems could, in turn, play a crucial role in allowing biologists to explore the effects of physical transport and extreme conditions of temperature and pH on reaction systems. For example, engineered reaction containers can be physically and chemically defined to control the flux of molecules of different sizes and charge. The design and testing of such a container is described here. It has a volume of 19pL with defined slits of 200nm. The device successfully contained DNA and protein molecules and is evaluated for carrying out cell-free protein synthesis. The effect of DNA concentration and slit size on protein yield is discussed. PMID:21278819

  11. Th17 Pathway As a Target for Multipotent Stromal Cell Therapy in Dogs: Implications for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Kol, A.; Walker, N. J.; Nordstrom, M.; Borjesson, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Detrimental Th17 driven inflammatory and autoimmune disease such as Crohn’s disease, graft versus host disease and multiple sclerosis remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multipotent stromal/stem cell (MSC) inhibit Th17 polarization and activation in vitro and in rodent models. As such, MSC based therapeutic approaches are being investigated as novel therapeutic approaches to treat Th17 driven diseases in humans. The significance of naturally occurring diseases in dogs is increasingly recognized as a realistic platform to conduct pre-clinical testing of novel therapeutics. Full characterization of Th17 cells in dogs has not been completed. We have developed and validated a flow-cytometric method to detect Th17 cells in canine blood. We further demonstrate that Th17 and other IL17 producing cells are present in tissues of dogs with naturally occurring chronic inflammatory diseases. Finally, we have determined the kinetics of a canine specific Th17 polarization in vitro and demonstrate that canine MSC inhibit Th17 polarization in vitro, in a PGE2 independent mechanism. Our findings provide fundamental research tools and suggest that naturally occurring diseases in dogs, such as inflammatory bowel disease, may be harnessed to translate novel MSC based therapeutic strategies that target the Th17 pathway. PMID:26872054

  12. In situ regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue through host cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young Min; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J; Lee, Sang Jin

    2014-10-01

    Standard reconstructive procedures for restoring normal function after skeletal muscle defects involve the use of existing host tissues such as muscular flaps. In many instances, this approach is not feasible and delays the rehabilitation process and restoration of tissue function. Currently, cell-based tissue engineering strategies have been used for reconstruction; however, donor tissue biopsy and ex vivo cell manipulation are required prior to implantation. The present study aimed to overcome these limitations by demonstrating mobilization of muscle cells into a target-specific site for in situ muscle regeneration. First, we investigated whether host muscle cells could be mobilized into an implanted scaffold. Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds were implanted in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats, and the retrieved scaffolds were characterized by examining host cell infiltration in the scaffolds. The host cell infiltrates, including Pax7+ cells, gradually increased with time. Second, we demonstrated that host muscle cells could be enriched by a myogenic factor released from the scaffolds. Gelatin-based scaffolds containing a myogenic factor were implanted in the TA muscle of rats, and the Pax7+ cell infiltration and newly formed muscle fibers were examined. By the second week after implantation, the Pax7+ cell infiltrates and muscle formation were significantly accelerated within the scaffolds containing insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Our data suggest an ability of host stem cells to be recruited into the scaffolds with the capability of differentiating to muscle cells. In addition, the myogenic factor effectively promoted host cell recruitment, which resulted in accelerating muscle regeneration in situ.

  13. Enteropathogenic E. coli-induced barrier function alteration is not a consequence of host cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Weflen, Andrew; Koutsouris, Athanasia; Roxas, Jennifer L.; Hecht, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that perturbs intestinal epithelial function. Many of the alterations in the host cells are mediated by effector molecules that are secreted directly into epithelial cells by the EPEC type III secretion system. The secreted effector molecule EspF plays a key role in redistributing tight junction proteins and altering epithelial barrier function. EspF has also been shown to localize to mitochondria and trigger membrane depolarization and eventual host cell death. The relationship, if any, between EspF-induced host cell death and epithelial barrier disruption is presently not known. Site-directed mutation of leucine 16 (L16E) of EspF impairs both mitochondrial localization and consequent host cell death. Although the mutation lies within a region critical for type III secretion, EspF(L16E) is secreted efficiently from EPEC. Despite its inability to promote cell death, EspF(L16E) was not impaired for tight junction alteration or barrier disruption. Consistent with this, the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH, despite reducing EPEC-induced host cell death, had no effect on infection-mediated barrier function alteration. Thus EPEC alters the epithelial barrier independent of its ability to induce host cell death. PMID:18356531

  14. Improved transgene expression fine-tuning in mammalian cells using a novel transcription-translation network.

    PubMed

    Malphettes, Laetitia; Fussenegger, Martin

    2006-08-05

    Following the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) and related phenomena, novel regulatory processes, attributable to small non-protein-coding RNAs, continue to emerge. Capitalizing on the ability of artificial short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to trigger degradation of specific target transcripts, and thereby silence desired gene expression, we designed and characterized a generic transcription-translation network in which it is possible to fine-tune heterologous protein production by coordinated transcription and translation interventions using macrolide and tetracycline antibiotics. Integration of siRNA-specific target sequences (TAGs) into the 5' or 3' untranslated regions (5'UTR, 3'UTR) of a desired constitutive transcription unit rendered transgene-encoded protein (erythropoietin, EPO; human placental alkaline phosphatase, SEAP; human vascular endothelial growth factor 121, VEGF(121)) production in mammalian cells responsive to siRNA levels that can be fine-tuned by macrolide-adjustable RNA polymerase II- or III-dependent promoters. Coupling of such macrolide-responsive siRNA-triggered translation control with tetracycline-responsive transcription of tagged transgene mRNAs created an antibiotic-adjustable two-input transcription-translation network characterized by elimination of detectable leaky expression with no reduction in maximum protein production levels. This transcription-translation network revealed transgene mRNA depletion to be dependent on siRNA and mRNA levels and that translation control was able to eliminate basal expression inherent to current transcription control modalities. Coupled transcription-translation circuitries have the potential to lead the way towards composite artificial regulatory networks, to enable complex therapeutic interventions in future biopharmaceutical manufacturing, gene therapy and tissue engineering initiatives.

  15. A novel Meloidogyne enterolobii effector MeTCTP promotes parasitism by suppressing programmed cell death in host plants.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Kan; Chen, Jiansong; Lin, Borong; Wang, Jing; Sun, Fengxia; Hu, Lili; Liao, Jinling

    2017-01-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii is one of the most important plant-parasitic nematodes that can overcome the Mi-1 resistance gene and damage many economically important crops. Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is a multifunctional protein that exists in various eukaryotes and plays an important role in parasitism. In this study, a novel M. enterolobii TCTP effector, named MeTCTP, was identified and functionally characterized. MeTCTP was specifically expressed within the dorsal gland and was up-regulated during M. enterolobii parasitism. Transient expression of MeTCTP in protoplasts from tomato roots showed that MeTCTP was localized in the cytoplasm of the host cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing MeTCTP were more susceptible to M. enterolobii infection than wild-type plants in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in planta RNA interference (RNAi) targeting MeTCTP suppressed the expression of MeTCTP in infecting nematodes and attenuated their parasitism. Furthermore, MeTCTP could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. These results demonstrate that MeTCTP is a novel plant-parasitic nematode effector that promotes parasitism, probably by suppressing programmed cell death in host plants. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Central nervous system myeloid cells as drug targets: current status and translational challenges.

    PubMed

    Biber, Knut; Möller, Thomas; Boddeke, Erik; Prinz, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS), which include parenchymal microglia, macrophages at CNS interfaces and monocytes recruited from the circulation during disease, are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapeutic intervention in neurological and psychiatric diseases. The origin of these cells in the immune system distinguishes them from ectodermal neurons and other glia and endows them with potential drug targets distinct from classical CNS target groups. However, despite the identification of several promising therapeutic approaches and molecular targets, no agents directly targeting these cells are currently available. Here, we assess strategies for targeting CNS myeloid cells and address key issues associated with their translation into the clinic.

  17. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling of Eimeria bovis-infected bovine endothelial host cells.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Anja; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Jimenez, Cristina Arce; Zahner, Horst; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Within its life cycle Eimeria bovis undergoes a long lasting intracellular development into large macromeronts in endothelial cells. Since little is known about the molecular basis of E. bovis-triggered host cell regulation we applied a microarray-based approach to define transcript variation in bovine endothelial cells early after sporozoite invasion (4 h post inoculation (p.i.)), during trophozoite establishment (4 days p.i.), during early parasite proliferation (8 days p.i.) and towards macromeront maturation (14 days p.i.). E. bovis infection led to significant changes in the abundance of many host cell gene transcripts. As infection progressed, the number of regulated genes increased such that 12, 45, 175 and 1184 sequences were modulated at 4 h, 4, 8 and 14 days p.i., respectively. These genes significantly interfered with several host cell functions, networks and canonical pathways, especially those involved in cellular development, cell cycle, cell death, immune response and metabolism. The correlation between stage of infection and the number of regulated genes involved in different aspects of metabolism suggest parasite-derived exploitation of host cell nutrients. The modulation of genes involved in cell cycle arrest and host cell apoptosis corresponds to morphological in vitro findings and underline the importance of these aspects for parasite survival. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of modulated transcripts associated with immune responses also demonstrate the defensive capacity of the endothelial host cell. Overall, this work reveals a panel of novel candidate genes involved in E. bovis-triggered host cell modulation, providing a valuable tool for future work on this topic.

  18. Diversity in host clone performance within a Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Peter M; Berthelot, Maud E; Young, Robert J; Graham, James W A; Racher, Andrew J; Aldana, Dulce

    2015-01-01

    Much effort has been expended to improve the capabilities of individual Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell lines to synthesize recombinant therapeutic proteins (rPs). However, given the increasing variety in rP molecular types and formats it may be advantageous to employ a toolbox of CHO host cell lines in biomanufacturing. Such a toolbox would contain a panel of hosts with specific capabilities to synthesize certain molecular types at high volumetric concentrations and with the correct product quality (PQ). In this work, we examine a panel of clonally derived host cell lines isolated from CHOK1SV for the ability to manufacture two model proteins, an IgG4 monoclonal antibody (Mab) and an Fc-fusion protein (etanercept). We show that these host cell lines vary in their relative ability to synthesize these proteins in transient and stable pool production format. Furthermore, we examined the PQ attributes of the stable pool-produced Mab and etanercept (by N-glycan ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively), and uncovered substantial variation between the host cell lines in Mab N-glycan micro-heterogeneity and etanercept N and O-linked macro-heterogeneity. To further investigate the capabilities of these hosts to act as cell factories, we examined the glycosylation pathway gene expression profiles as well as the levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in the untransfected hosts. We uncovered a moderate correlation between ER mass and the volumetric product concentration in transient and stable pool Mab production. This work demonstrates the utility of leveraging diversity within the CHOK1SV pool to identify new host cell lines with different performance characteristics. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Effect of a tsA mutation of simian virus 40 late gene expression: variations between host cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Alwine, J C; Khoury, G

    1980-01-01

    Infection of AGMK or CV-1 cells by the early simian virus 40 mutant tsA58 at the permissive temperature (32 degrees C) followed by a shift to the nonpermissive temperature (41 degrees C) caused a substantial decrease in the levels of late viral RNA in the cytoplasm of AGMK cells but not CV-1 cells. At the translational level, this depression of late viral RNA levels was reflected by a decrease in late viral protein synthesis. Thus, in AGMK cells, an early region gene product (presumably large T-antigen) appeared to be continuously required for efficient expression of the late viral genes. In contrast, late simian virus 40 gene expression, once it is initiated in CV-1 cells, continued efficiently regardless of the tsA mutation. The difference in expression of the late simian virus 40 genes in these tsA mutant-infected monkey kidney cell lines may reflect a difference in host cell proteins which regulate viral gene expression in conjunction with early viral proteins. Images PMID:6251258

  20. Spatially segregated transcription and translation in cells of the endomembrane-containing bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus

    PubMed Central

    Gottshall, Ekaterina Y.; Seebart, Corrine; Gatlin, Jesse C.; Ward, Naomi L.

    2014-01-01

    The dogma of coupled transcription and translation in bacteria has been challenged by recent reports of spatial segregation of these processes within the relatively simple cellular organization of the model organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The bacterial species Gemmata obscuriglobus possesses an extensive endomembrane system. The membranes generate a very convoluted intracellular architecture in which some of the cell’s ribosomes appear to have less direct access to the cell’s nucleoid(s) than others. This observation prompted us to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of G. obscuriglobus translation may be spatially segregated from transcription. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, we showed that translating ribosomes are localized throughout the cell, with a quantitatively greater proportion found in regions distal to nucleoid(s). Our results extend information about the phylogenetic and morphological diversity of bacteria in which the spatial organization of transcription and translation has been studied. These findings also suggest that endomembranes may provide an obstacle to colocated transcription and translation, a role for endomembranes that has not been reported previously for a prokaryotic organism. Our studies of G. obscuriglobus may provide a useful background for consideration of the evolutionary development of eukaryotic cellular complexity and how it led to decoupled processes of gene expression in eukaryotes. PMID:25024214

  1. Stealing the Keys to the Kitchen: Viral Manipulation of the Host Cell Metabolic Network.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Christopher M; Xu, Shihao; Munger, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Host cells possess the metabolic assets required for viral infection. Recent studies indicate that control of the host's metabolic resources is a core host-pathogen interaction. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to usurp the host's metabolic resources, funneling them towards the production of virion components as well as the organization of specialized compartments for replication, maturation, and dissemination. Consequently, hosts have developed a variety of metabolic countermeasures to sense and resist these viral changes. The complex interplay between virus and host over metabolic control has only just begun to be deconvoluted. However, it is clear that virally induced metabolic reprogramming can substantially impact infectious outcomes, highlighting the promise of targeting these processes for antiviral therapeutic development.

  2. Genome-Wide and Experimental Resolution of Relative Translation Elongation Speed at Individual Gene Level in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei; Cui, Yizhi; Zhong, Jiayong; Jin, Jingjie; He, Qing-Yu; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Gong

    2016-01-01

    In the process of translation, ribosomes first assemble on mRNAs (translation initiation) and then translate along the mRNA (elongation) to synthesize proteins. Elongation pausing is deemed highly relevant to co-translational folding of nascent peptides and the functionality of protein products, which positioned the evaluation of elongation speed as one of the central questions in the field of translational control. By integrating three types of RNA-seq methods, we experimentally and computationally resolved elongation speed, with our proposed elongation velocity index (EVI), a relative measure at individual gene level and under physiological condition in human cells. We successfully distinguished slow-translating genes from the background translatome. We demonstrated that low-EVI genes encoded more stable proteins. We further identified cell-specific slow-translating codons, which might serve as a causal factor of elongation deceleration. As an example for the biological relevance, we showed that the relatively slow-translating genes tended to be associated with the maintenance of malignant phenotypes per pathway analyses. In conclusion, EVI opens a new view to understand why human cells tend to avoid simultaneously speeding up translation initiation and decelerating elongation, and the possible cancer relevance of translating low-EVI genes to gain better protein quality. PMID:26926465

  3. Involvement of DNA polymerase alpha in host cell reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Maeno, K.

    1984-02-01

    Aphidicolin is a potent inhibitor of both host cell DNA polymerase alpha and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced DNA polymerase but has no effect on DNA polymerases beta and gamma of host cells. By using an aphidicolin-resistant mutant (Aphr) of HSV, a possible involvement of DNA polymerase alpha in host cell reactivation of UV-damaged HSV was studied. Plaque formation by UV-irradiated Aphr was markedly inhibited by 1 microgram of aphidicolin per ml, which did not affect the plating efficiency of nonirradiated Aphr. Aphidicolin added before 12 h postinfection inhibited plaque formation by irradiated Aphr, which became aphidicolin insensitive after 36 h postinfection. The results strongly suggest that host cell DNA polymerase alpha is involved in the repair of UV-irradiated HSV DNA.

  4. The translational potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells for clinical neurology : The translational potential of hiPSCs in neurology.

    PubMed

    Devine, Helen; Patani, Rickie

    2017-04-01

    The induced pluripotent state represents a decade-old Nobel prize-winning discovery. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are generated by the nuclear reprogramming of any somatic cell using a variety of established but evolving methods. This approach offers medical science unparalleled experimental opportunity to model an individual patient's disease "in a dish." HiPSCs permit developmentally rationalized directed differentiation into any cell type, which express donor cell mutation(s) at pathophysiological levels and thus hold considerable potential for disease modeling, drug discovery, and potentially cell-based therapies. This review will focus on the translational potential of hiPSCs in clinical neurology and the importance of integrating this approach with complementary model systems to increase the translational yield of preclinical testing for the benefit of patients. This strategy is particularly important given the expected increase in prevalence of neurodegenerative disease, which poses a major burden to global health over the coming decades.

  5. Magnetic and photoresponsive theranosomes: translating cell-released vesicles into smart nanovectors for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda K A; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Bonneau, Stephanie; Marangon, Iris; Boggetto, Nicole; Aubertin, Kelly; Clément, Olivier; Bureau, Michel Francis; Luciani, Nathalie; Gazeau, Florence; Wilhelm, Claire

    2013-06-25

    Cell-released vesicles are natural carriers that circulate in body fluids and transport biological agents to distal cells. As nature uses vesicles in cell communication to promote tumor progression, we propose to harness their unique properties and exploit these biogenic carriers as Trojan horses to deliver therapeutic payloads to cancer cells. In a theranostic approach, cell-released vesicles were engineered by a top-down procedure from precursor cells, previously loaded with a photosensitizer and magnetic nanoparticles. The double exogenous cargo provided vesicles with magnetic and optical responsiveness allowing therapeutic and imaging functions. This new class of cell-derived smart nanovectors was named "theranosomes". Theranosomes enabled efficient photodynamic tumor therapy in a murine cancer model in vivo. Moreover the distribution of this biogenic vector could be monitored by dual-mode imaging, combining fluorescence and MRI. This study reports the first success in translating a cell communication mediator into a smart theranostic nanovector.

  6. β-Cell Generation: Can Rodent Studies Be Translated to Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Carlotti, Françoise; Zaldumbide, Arnaud; Ellenbroek, Johanne H.; Spijker, H. Siebe; Hoeben, Rob C.; de Koning, Eelco J.

    2011-01-01

    β-cell replacement by allogeneic islet transplantation is a promising approach for patients with type 1 diabetes, but the shortage of organ donors requires new sources of β cells. Islet regeneration in vivo and generation of β-cells ex vivo followed by transplantation represent attractive therapeutic alternatives to restore the β-cell mass. In this paper, we discuss different postnatal cell types that have been envisaged as potential sources for future β-cell replacement therapy. The ultimate goal being translation to the clinic, a particular attention is given to the discrepancies between findings from studies performed in rodents (both ex vivo on primary cells and in vivo on animal models), when compared with clinical data and studies performed on human cells. PMID:22007286

  7. Brucella abortus Choloylglycine Hydrolase Affects Cell Envelope Composition and Host Cell Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C.; Mujer, Cesar V.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization. PMID:22174816

  8. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C; Mujer, Cesar V; DelVecchio, Vito G; Comerci, Diego J

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  9. Bacterial Cell-Cell Communication in the Host via RRNPP Peptide-Binding Regulators.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pascual, David; Monnet, Véronique; Gardan, Rozenn

    2016-01-01

    Human microbiomes are composed of complex and dense bacterial consortia. In these environments, bacteria are able to react quickly to change by coordinating their gene expression at the population level via small signaling molecules. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication is mostly mediated by peptides that are released into the extracellular environment. Cell-cell communication based on these peptides is especially widespread in the group Firmicutes, in which they regulate a wide array of biological processes, including functions related to host-microbe interactions. Among the different agents of communication, the RRNPP family of cytoplasmic transcriptional regulators, together with their cognate re-internalized signaling peptides, represents a group of emerging importance. RRNPP members that have been studied so far are found mainly in species of bacilli, streptococci, and enterococci. These bacteria are characterized as both human commensal and pathogenic, and share different niches in the human body with other microorganisms. The goal of this mini-review is to present the current state of research on the biological relevance of RRNPP mechanisms in the context of the host, highlighting their specific roles in commensalism or virulence.

  10. HIV–host interactome revealed directly from infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yang; Jacobs, Erica Y.; Greco, Todd M.; Mohammed, Kevin D.; Tong, Tommy; Keegan, Sarah; Binley, James M.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P.; Chait, Brian T.; Muesing, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Although genetically compact, HIV-1 commandeers vast arrays of cellular machinery to sustain and protect it during cycles of viral outgrowth. Transposon-mediated saturation linker scanning mutagenesis was used to isolate fully replication-competent viruses harbouring a potent foreign epitope tag. Using these viral isolates, we performed differential isotopic labelling and affinity-capture mass spectrometric analyses on samples obtained from cultures of human lymphocytes to classify the vicinal interactomes of the viral Env and Vif proteins as they occur during natural infection. Importantly, interacting proteins were recovered without bias, regardless of their potential for positive, negative or neutral impact on viral replication. We identified specific host associations made with trimerized Env during its biosynthesis, at virological synapses, with innate immune effectors (such as HLA-E) and with certain cellular signalling pathways (for example, Notch1). We also defined Vif associations with host proteins involved in the control of nuclear transcription and nucleoside biosynthesis as well as those interacting stably or transiently with the cytoplasmic protein degradation apparatus. Our approach is broadly applicable to elucidating pathogen–host interactomes, providing high-certainty identification of interactors by their direct access during cycling infection. Understanding the pathophysiological consequences of these associations is likely to provide strategic targets for antiviral intervention. PMID:27375898

  11. Impact of protozoan cell death on parasite-host interactions and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    PCD in protozoan parasites has emerged as a fascinating field of parasite biology. This not only relates to the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary implications but also to the impact on the parasite-host interactions within mammalian hosts and arthropod vectors. During recent years, common functions of apoptosis and autophagy in protozoa and during parasitic infections have emerged. Here, we review how distinct cell death pathways in Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium or Toxoplasma may contribute to regulation of parasite cell densities in vectors and mammalian hosts, to differentiation of parasites, to stress responses, and to modulation of the host immunity. The examples provided indicate crucial roles of PCD in parasite biology. The existence of PCD pathways in these organisms and the identification as being critical for parasite biology and parasite-host interactions could serve as a basis for developing new anti-parasitic drugs that take advantage of these pathways. PMID:21126352

  12. Fibroblasts—a key host cell type in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Strell, Carina; Rundqvist, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Tumor initiation, growth, invasion, and metastasis occur as a consequence of a complex interplay between the host environment and cancer cells. Fibroblasts are now recognized as a key host cell type involved in host–cancer signaling. This review discusses some recent studies that highlight the roles of fibroblasts in tumor initiation, early progression, invasion, and metastasis. Some clinical studies describing the prognostic significance of fibroblast-derived markers and signatures are also discussed. PMID:22509805

  13. Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease: analysis of dendritic cells subpopulations*

    PubMed Central

    Botari, Clara Marino Espricigo; Nunes, Adauto José Ferreira; de Souza, Mair Pedro; Orti-Raduan, Érica Sinara Lenharo; Salvio, Ana Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The graft-versus-host disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Aiming at contributing to the understanding of the role of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and natural killer cells in chronic graft-versus-host disease, we examined biopsies of jugal mucosa of 26 patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Half of these patients developed oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. Microscopic sections were immunohistochemically stained for anti-CD1a, anti-CD123 and anti-CD56. We calculated the number of immunostained cells in the corium per square millimeter and applied the Mann-Whitney test. Results showed a statistically significant increase of myeloid dendritic cells (CD1a+; p=0,02) and natural killer cells (CD56; p=0,04) in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. CD123 immunostaining showed no statistical difference between groups. It was concluded that myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells participate in the development of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. PMID:25054751

  14. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH0032 Is Exposed on the Cytosolic Face of the Pathogen-Occupied Vacuole and Co-opts Host Cell SUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Aminat T.; Huang, Bernice; Beyer, Andrea R.; May, Levi J.; Truchan, Hilary K.; Walker, Naomi J.; Galloway, Nathan L.; Borjesson, Dori L.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a member of the family Anaplasmataceae and the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, resides in a host cell-derived vacuole. Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen interfaces. Of the few bacterial AVM proteins that have been identified, the domains responsible for AVM localization and the host cell pathways that they co-opt are poorly defined. APH0032 is an effector that is expressed and localizes to the AVM late during the infection cycle. Herein, the APH0032 domain that is essential for associating with host cell membranes was mapped. Immunofluorescent labeling of infected cells that had been differentially permeabilized confirmed that APH0032 is exposed on the AVM's cytosolic face, signifying its potential to interface with host cell processes. SUMOylation is the covalent attachment of a member of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) family of proteins to lysines in target substrates. Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated proteins decorate the AVM. Algorithmic prediction analyses identified APH0032 as a candidate for SUMOylation. Endogenous APH0032 was precipitated from infected cells using a SUMO affinity matrix, confirming that the effector co-opts SUMOylation during infection. APH0032 pronouncedly colocalized with SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3 moieties on the AVM. Ectopic expression of APH0032 in A. phagocytophilum infected host cells significantly boosted the bacterial load. This study delineates the first domain of any Anaplasmataceae protein that is essential for associating with the pathogen-occupied vacuole membrane, demonstrates the importance of APH0032 to infection, and identifies it as the second A. phagocytophilum effector that co-opts SUMOylation, thus underscoring the relevance of this post-translational modification to

  15. Managing the potential and pitfalls during clinical translation of emerging stem cell therapies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We are moving into a new era of stem cell research where many possibilities for treatment of degenerative, chronic and/or fatal diseases and injuries are becoming primed for clinical trial. These reports have led millions of people worldwide to hope that regenerative medicine is about to revolutionise biomedicine: either through transplantation of cells grown in the laboratory, or by finding ways to stimulate a patient’s intrinsic stem cells to repair diseased and damaged organs. While major contributions of stem cells to drug discovery, safety and efficacy testing, as well as modelling ‘diseases in a dish’ are also expected, it is the in vivo use of stem cells that has captured the general public’s attention. However, public misconceptions of stem cell potential and applications can leave patients vulnerable to the influences of profit driven entities selling unproven treatments without solid scientific basis or appropriate clinical testing or follow up. This review provides a brief history of stem cell clinical translation together with an overview of the properties, potential, and current clinical application of various stem cell types. In doing so it presents a clearer picture of the inherent risks and opportunities associated with stem cell research translation, and thus offers a framework to help realise invested expectations more quickly, safely and effectively. PMID:24949190

  16. Systems for the expression of orthogonal translation components in eubacterial host cells

    DOEpatents

    Ryu, Youngha; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    The invention related to compositions and methods for the in vivo production of polypeptides comprising one or more unnatural amino acids. Specifically, the invention provides plasmid systems for the efficient eubacterial expression of polypeptides comprising one or more unnatural acids at genetically-programmed positions.

  17. Systems for the expression of orthogonal translation components in eubacterial host cells

    DOEpatents

    Ryu, Youngha [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2011-06-14

    The invention relates to compositions and methods for the in vivo production of polypeptides comprising one or more unnatural amino acids. Specifically, the invention provides plasmid systems for the efficient eubacterial expression of polypeptides comprising one or more unnatural amino acids at genetically-programmed positions.

  18. Systems for the expression of orthogonal translation components eubacterial host cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Youngha; Schultz, Peter G

    2012-06-12

    The invention relates to compositions and methods for the in vivo production of polypeptides comprising one or more unnatural amino acids. Specifically, the invention provides plasmid systems for the efficient eubacterial expression of polypeptides comprising one or more unnatural amino acids at genetically-programmed positions.

  19. Interleukin-7 Modulates Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Responses via Its Action on Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deiser, Katrin; Stoycheva, Diana; Bank, Ute; Blankenstein, Thomas; Schüler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells is a promising approach for the treatment of chronic viral and malignant diseases. In order to improve adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) of cancer, recent strategies aim at the antibody-based blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways in CD8+ T cells. Alternatively, adjuvant effects of immunostimulatory cytokines might be exploited to improve therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses. For example, Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent growth, activation and survival factor for CD8+ T cells that can be used to improve virus- and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Although direct IL-7 effects on CD8+ T cells were studied extensively in numerous models, the contribution of IL-7 receptor-competent (IL-7R+) host cells remained unclear. In the current study we provide evidence that CD8+ T cell-mediated tumor rejection in response to recombinant IL-7 (rIL-7) therapy is strictly dependent on IL-7R+ host cells. On the contrary, CD8+ T cell expansion is independent of host IL-7R expression. If, however, rIL-7 therapy and peptide vaccination are combined, host IL-7R signaling is crucial for CD8+ T cell expansion. Unexpectedly, maximum CD8+ T cell expansion relies mainly on IL-7R signaling in non-hematopoietic host cells, similar to the massive accumulation of dendritic cells and granulocytes. In summary, we provide evidence that IL-7R+ host cells are major targets of rIL-7 that modulate therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses and the outcome of rIL-7-assisted ATT. This knowledge may have important implications for the design and optimization of clinical ATT protocols. PMID:27447484

  20. Deubiquitinase DUBA is a post-translational brake on interleukin-17 production in T cells.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Sascha; Kayagaki, Nobuhiko; Phung, Qui T; Eidenschenk, Celine; Noubade, Rajkumar; Wang, Xiaoting; Lesch, Justin; Lu, Rongze; Newton, Kim; Huang, Oscar W; Cochran, Andrea G; Vasser, Mark; Fauber, Benjamin P; DeVoss, Jason; Webster, Joshua; Diehl, Lauri; Modrusan, Zora; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Lill, Jennie R; Ouyang, Wenjun; Dixit, Vishva M

    2015-02-19

    T-helper type 17 (TH17) cells that produce the cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. The differentiation of TH17 cells is regulated by transcription factors such as RORγt, but post-translational mechanisms preventing the rampant production of pro-inflammatory IL-17A have received less attention. Here we show that the deubiquitylating enzyme DUBA is a negative regulator of IL-17A production in T cells. Mice with DUBA-deficient T cells developed exacerbated inflammation in the small intestine after challenge with anti-CD3 antibodies. DUBA interacted with the ubiquitin ligase UBR5, which suppressed DUBA abundance in naive T cells. DUBA accumulated in activated T cells and stabilized UBR5, which then ubiquitylated RORγt in response to TGF-β signalling. Our data identify DUBA as a cell-intrinsic suppressor of IL-17 production.

  1. CotH3 mediates fungal invasion of host cells during mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Liu, Mingfu; Luo, Guanpingsheng; Bruno, Vincent; Phan, Quynh T; Waring, Alan J; Edwards, John E; Filler, Scott G; Yeaman, Michael R; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2014-01-01

    Angioinvasion is a hallmark of mucormycosis. Previously, we identified endothelial cell glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as a receptor for Mucorales that mediates host cell invasion. Here we determined that spore coat protein homologs (CotH) of Mucorales act as fungal ligands for GRP78. CotH proteins were widely present in Mucorales and absent from noninvasive pathogens. Heterologous expression of CotH3 and CotH2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae conferred the ability to invade host cells via binding to GRP78. Homology modeling and computational docking studies indicated structurally compatible interactions between GRP78 and both CotH3 and CotH2. A mutant of Rhizopus oryzae, the most common cause of mucormycosis, with reduced CotH expression was impaired for invading and damaging endothelial cells and CHO cells overexpressing GRP78. This strain also exhibited reduced virulence in a diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA) mouse model of mucormycosis. Treatment with anti-CotH Abs abolished the ability of R. oryzae to invade host cells and protected DKA mice from mucormycosis. The presence of CotH in Mucorales explained the specific susceptibility of DKA patients, who have increased GRP78 levels, to mucormycosis. Together, these data indicate that CotH3 and CotH2 function as invasins that interact with host cell GRP78 to mediate pathogenic host-cell interactions and identify CotH as a promising therapeutic target for mucormycosis.

  2. Methods and procedures in adipose stem cells: state of the art and perspective for translation medicine.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, G F; De Francesco, F; D'Andrea, F; Ferraro, G A

    2015-03-01

    Stem cells have potential in the retrieval and repair of injured tissue and renovation of organ function. To date, several studies have been carried out to elucidate how differentiation of stem cells can be used in regenerative medicine applications. Adipose tissue is an abundant and accessible source of stem cell, useful for regenerative therapeutic use. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are favorable for future translational research and can be applied in many clinical settings. Adipose tissue repair has been recently adopted in clinical trials to prove that ASCs can be successfully used in patients. Variability in cell culture procedures (isolation, characterization, and differentiation) may have an influence on the experimental outcome. In this report, we consider the selection mechanisms of ASCs using flow cytometry, cell culture, freezing/thawing, cell cycle evaluation, histochemistry/immunofluorescence, and differentiation of ASCs. Both researchers and regulatory institutions should consider a new policy for GMP procedures and protocols, paying special attention to stem cell bio-physiology, to facilitate more clinically oriented studies. ASCs show angiogenic properties, with prospects of repairing tissue damaged by radiotherapy, as well as possessing the ability to heal chronic wounds. They can also be useful in surgical practice. We focus on the potential clinical application of ASCs that are currently available regarding translational medicine and the methods and procedures for their isolation, differentiation, and characterization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. Cell type-specific translational repression of Cyclin B during meiosis in males

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Catherine Craig; Gim, Byung Soo; Fuller, Margaret T.

    2015-01-01

    The unique cell cycle dynamics of meiosis are controlled by layers of regulation imposed on core mitotic cell cycle machinery components by the program of germ cell development. Although the mechanisms that regulate Cdk1/Cyclin B activity in meiosis in oocytes have been well studied, little is known about the trans-acting factors responsible for developmental control of these factors in male gametogenesis. During meiotic prophase in Drosophila males, transcript for the core cell cycle protein Cyclin B1 (CycB) is expressed in spermatocytes, but the protein does not accumulate in spermatocytes until just before the meiotic divisions. Here, we show that two interacting proteins, Rbp4 and Fest, expressed at the onset of spermatocyte differentiation under control of the developmental program of male gametogenesis, function to direct cell type- and stage-specific repression of translation of the core G2/M cell cycle component cycB during the specialized cell cycle of male meiosis. Binding of Fest to Rbp4 requires a 31-amino acid region within Rbp4. Rbp4 and Fest are required for translational repression of cycB in immature spermatocytes, with Rbp4 binding sequences in a cell type-specific shortened form of the cycB 3′ UTR. Finally, we show that Fest is required for proper execution of meiosis I. PMID:26443637

  4. Cell type-specific translational repression of Cyclin B during meiosis in males.

    PubMed

    Baker, Catherine Craig; Gim, Byung Soo; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-10-01

    The unique cell cycle dynamics of meiosis are controlled by layers of regulation imposed on core mitotic cell cycle machinery components by the program of germ cell development. Although the mechanisms that regulate Cdk1/Cyclin B activity in meiosis in oocytes have been well studied, little is known about the trans-acting factors responsible for developmental control of these factors in male gametogenesis. During meiotic prophase in Drosophila males, transcript for the core cell cycle protein Cyclin B1 (CycB) is expressed in spermatocytes, but the protein does not accumulate in spermatocytes until just before the meiotic divisions. Here, we show that two interacting proteins, Rbp4 and Fest, expressed at the onset of spermatocyte differentiation under control of the developmental program of male gametogenesis, function to direct cell type- and stage-specific repression of translation of the core G2/M cell cycle component cycB during the specialized cell cycle of male meiosis. Binding of Fest to Rbp4 requires a 31-amino acid region within Rbp4. Rbp4 and Fest are required for translational repression of cycB in immature spermatocytes, with Rbp4 binding sequences in a cell type-specific shortened form of the cycB 3' UTR. Finally, we show that Fest is required for proper execution of meiosis I.

  5. COS-1 cells as packaging host for production of lentiviruses.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Crystal J; Shioda, Toshi

    2011-03-01

    We present a protocol for in vitro production of recombinant lentiviruses using COS-1 African green monkey kidney epithelial cells and HEK293T human embryonic kidney epithelial cells as packaging cells. COS-1 and HEK293T express SV40 large T antigen, amplifying transfected circular plasmids harboring SV40 replication origin. Support protocols for evaluation of transfection efficiency by in situ β-galactosidase enzyme activity assay and titer of infection-capable virions are also provided. Advantages of using COS-1 packaging cells over the standard HEK293T cells for contamination-sensitive applications or automated processing are discussed.

  6. Cif type III effector protein: a smart hijacker of the host cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Taieb, Frédéric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Oswald, Eric

    2009-09-01

    During coevolution with their hosts, bacteria have developed functions that allow them to interfere with the mechanisms controlling the proliferation of eukaryotic cells. Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is one of these cyclomodulins, the family of bacterial effectors that interfere with the host cell cycle. Acquired early during evolution by bacteria isolated from vertebrates and invertebrates, Cif is an effector protein of type III secretion machineries. Cif blocks the host cell cycle in G1 and G2 by inducing the accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1). The x-ray crystal structure of Cif reveals it to be a divergent member of a superfamily of enzymes including cysteine proteases and acetyltransferases. This review summarizes and discusses what we know about Cif, from the bacterial gene to the host target.

  7. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence.

    PubMed

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R

    2015-09-15

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton--actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement--have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence.

  8. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence

    PubMed Central

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton — actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement — have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence. PMID:26292640

  9. A statistical approach to determining criticality of residual host cell DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Harry; Wei, Ziping; Schenerman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for determining the criticality of residual host cell DNA, which is characterized through two attributes, namely the size and amount of residual DNA in biopharmaceutical product. By applying a mechanistic modeling approach to the problem, we establish the linkage between residual DNA and product safety measured in terms of immunogenicity, oncogenicity, and infectivity. Such a link makes it possible to establish acceptable ranges of residual DNA size and amount. Application of the method is illustrated through two real-life examples related to a vaccine manufactured in Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell line and a monoclonal antibody using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line as host cells.

  10. Ribosomal synthesis and in situ isolation of peptide molecules in a cell-free translation system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Chan; Yoo, Sung Joon; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2010-05-01

    Although the cell-free translation system is now widely accepted as an efficient platform for production, engineering and screening of recombinant proteins, it has not been successfully used for the synthesis of peptide molecules mainly due to low expression yields and rapid proteolysis of the expressed peptides. In this study, we propose a novel strategy for rapid expression and recovery of peptide molecules which involves the rational design of template DNA and heterogenous cell-free translation reaction in the presence of affinity beads. Various peptide molecules which were not expressed in a detectable level were successfully expressed and recovered in situ in a substantial yield. We expect that the presented approach will be widely used as a versatile platform for the generation of a variety of peptide molecules. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Influence of Programmed Cell Death in Myeloid Cells on Host Resilience to Infection with Legionella pneumophila or Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Gamradt, Pia; Xu, Yun; Gratz, Nina; Duncan, Kellyanne; Kobzik, Lester; Högler, Sandra; Decker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen clearance and host resilience/tolerance to infection are both important factors in surviving an infection. Cells of the myeloid lineage play important roles in both of these processes. Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells all have important roles in initiation of the immune response and clearance of bacterial pathogens. If these cells are not properly regulated they can result in excessive inflammation and immunopathology leading to decreased host resilience. Programmed cell death (PCD) is one possible mechanism that myeloid cells may use to prevent excessive inflammation. Myeloid cell subsets play roles in tissue repair, immune response resolution, and maintenance of homeostasis, so excessive PCD may also influence host resilience in this way. In addition, myeloid cell death is one mechanism used to control pathogen replication and dissemination. Many of these functions for PCD have been well defined in vitro, but the role in vivo is less well understood. We created a mouse that constitutively expresses the pro-survival B-cell lymphoma (bcl)-2 protein in myeloid cells (CD68(bcl2tg), thus decreasing PCD specifically in myeloid cells. Using this mouse model we explored the impact that decreased cell death of these cells has on infection with two different bacterial pathogens, Legionella pneumophila and Streptococcus pyogenes. Both of these pathogens target multiple cell death pathways in myeloid cells, and the expression of bcl2 resulted in decreased PCD after infection. We examined both pathogen clearance and host resilience and found that myeloid cell death was crucial for host resilience. Surprisingly, the decreased myeloid PCD had minimal impact on pathogen clearance. These data indicate that the most important role of PCD during infection with these bacteria is to minimize inflammation and increase host resilience, not to aid in the clearance or prevent the spread of the pathogen. PMID:27973535

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi: Entry into Mammalian Host Cells and Parasitophorous Vacuole Formation

    PubMed Central

    Barrias, Emile Santos; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; De Souza, Wanderley

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. This protozoan is an obligate intracellular parasite. The infective forms of the parasite are the metacyclic trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and bloodstream trypomastigotes. The recognition between the parasite and mammalian host cell, involves numerous molecules present in both cell types, and similar to several intracellular pathogens, T. cruzi is internalized by host cells via multiple endocytic pathways. Morphological studies demonstrated that after the interaction of the infective forms of T. cruzi with phagocytic or non-phagocytic cell types, plasma membrane (PM) protrusions can form, showing similarity with those observed during canonical phagocytosis or macropinocytic events. Additionally, several molecules known to be molecular markers of membrane rafts, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis have been demonstrated to be present at the invasion site. These events may or may not depend on the host cell lysosomes and cytoskeleton. In addition, after penetration, components of the host endosomal-lysosomal system, such as early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes, participate in the formation of the nascent parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Dynamin, a molecule involved in vesicle formation, has been shown to be involved in the PV release from the host cell PM. This review focuses on the multiple pathways that T. cruzi can use to enter the host cells until complete PV formation. We will describe different endocytic processes, such as phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, and endocytosis using membrane microdomains and clathrin-dependent endocytosis and show results that are consistent with their use by this smart parasite. We will also discuss others mechanisms that have been described, such as active penetration and the process that takes advantage of cell membrane wound repair. PMID:23914186

  13. Autophagy Controls an Intrinsic Host Defense to Bacteria by Promoting Epithelial Cell Survival: A Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sun-Young; Lee, Se-Na; Yang, Jin-Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Ogawa, Michinaga; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2013-01-01

    Cell death is a critical host response to regulate the fate of bacterial infections, innate immune responses, and ultimately, disease outcome. Shigella spp. invade and colonize gut epithelium in human and nonhuman primates but adult mice are naturally resistant to intra-gastric Shigella infection. In this study, however, we found Shigella could invade the terminal ileum of the mouse small intestine by 1 hour after infection and be rapidly cleared within 24 h. These early phase events occurred shortly after oral infection resulting in epithelial shedding, degranulation of Paneth cells, and cell death in the intestine. During this process, autophagy proceeded without any signs of inflammation. In contrast, blocking autophagy in epithelial cells enhanced host cell death, leading to tissue destruction and to inflammation, suggesting that autophagic flow relieves cellular stress associated with host cell death and inflammation. Herein we propose a new concept of “epithelial barrier turnover” as a general intrinsic host defense mechanism that increases survival of host cells and inhibits inflammation against enteric bacterial infections, which is regulated by autophagy. PMID:24260541

  14. Apicomplexans pulling the strings: manipulation of the host cell cytoskeleton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Helena; Hemphill, Andrew; Leitão, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Invasive stages of apicomplexan parasites require a host cell to survive, proliferate and advance to the next life cycle stage. Once invasion is achieved, apicomplexans interact closely with the host cell cytoskeleton, but in many cases the different species have evolved distinct mechanisms and pathways to modulate the structural organization of cytoskeletal filaments. The host cell cytoskeleton is a complex network, largely, but not exclusively, composed of microtubules, actin microfilaments and intermediate filaments, all of which are modulated by associated proteins, and it is involved in diverse functions including maintenance of cell morphology and mechanical support, migration, signal transduction, nutrient uptake, membrane and organelle trafficking and cell division. The ability of apicomplexans to modulate the cytoskeleton to their own advantage is clearly beneficial. We here review different aspects of the interactions of apicomplexans with the three main cytoskeletal filament types, provide information on the currently known parasite effector proteins and respective host cell targets involved, and how these interactions modulate the host cell physiology. Some of these findings could provide novel targets that could be exploited for the development of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies.

  15. Translating stem cell therapies: the role of companion animals in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Susan W.; Theoret, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Veterinarians and veterinary medicine have been integral to the development of stem cell therapies. The contributions of large animal experimental models to the development and refinement of modern hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were noted nearly five decades ago. More recent advances in adult stem cell/regenerative cell therapies continue to expand knowledge of the basic biology and clinical applications of stem cells. A relatively liberal legal and ethical regulation of stem cell research in veterinary medicine has facilitated the development and in some instances clinical translation of a variety of cell-based therapies involving hematopoietic (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as well as other adult regenerative cells and recently embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). In fact, many of the pioneering developments in these fields of stem cell research have been achieved through collaborations of veterinary and human scientists. This review aims to provide an overview of the contribution of large animal veterinary models in advancing stem cell therapies for both human and clinical veterinary applications. Moreover, in the context of the “One Health Initiative”, the role veterinary patients may play in the future evolution of stem cell therapies for both human and animal patients will be explored. PMID:23627495

  16. Toxoplasma gondii Development of Its Replicative Niche: in Its Host Cell and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens can replicate efficiently only after they manipulate and modify their host cells to create an environment conducive to replication. While diverse cellular pathways are targeted by different pathogens, metabolism, membrane and cytoskeletal architecture formation, and cell death are the three primary cellular processes that are modified by infections. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that infects ∼30% of the world's population and causes severe and life-threatening disease in developing fetuses, in immune-comprised patients, and in certain otherwise healthy individuals who are primarily found in South America. The high prevalence of Toxoplasma in humans is in large part a result of its ability to modulate these three host cell processes. Here, we highlight recent work defining the mechanisms by which Toxoplasma interacts with these processes. In addition, we hypothesize why some processes are modified not only in the infected host cell but also in neighboring uninfected cells. PMID:24951442

  17. Knockdown of ERM family member moesin in host cells increases HIV type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Capalbo, Gianni; Mueller-Kuller, Thea; Markovic, Sandra; Klein, Stefan A; Dietrich, Ursula; Hoelzer, Dieter; Ottmann, Oliver G; Scheuring, Urban J

    2011-12-01

    Moesin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of cytoskeleton/membrane structure organizing and signal transduction proteins. Previously, we found an increased expression of moesin during HIV-1 infection. Moesin was also reported to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. To analyze whether moesin is a host factor affecting the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we used small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to evaluate the effect of moesin knockdown on HIV-1 replication in P4-CCR5 cells. Moesin's knockdown did not affect the cell viability or cell phenotype. Interestingly, we observed a marked increase in viral replication, as demonstrated by enhanced HIV-1 RNA, p24 antigen, and ß-galactosidase reporter expression. Moesin-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 replication was confirmed in lymphocytic host cells (Jurkat). These results suggest an overall rather restrictive role of moesin for HIV-1 replication in host cells in vitro.

  18. Androgen signaling promotes translation of TMEFF2 in prostate cancer cells via phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor 2.

    PubMed

    Overcash, Ryan F; Chappell, Vesna A; Green, Thomas; Geyer, Christopher B; Asch, Adam S; Ruiz-Echevarría, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    The type I transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2), is expressed mainly in brain and prostate. Expression of TMEFF2 is deregulated in prostate cancer, suggesting a role in this disease, but the molecular mechanism(s) involved in this effect are not clear. Although androgens promote tmeff2 transcription, androgen delivery to castrated animals carrying CWR22 xenografts increases TMEFF2 protein levels in the absence of mRNA changes, suggesting that TMEFF2 may also be post-transcriptionally regulated. Here we show that translation of TMEFF2 is regulated by androgens. Addition of physiological concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to prostate cancer cell lines increases translation of endogenous TMEFF2 or transfected TMEFF2-Luciferase fusions, and this effect requires the presence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of TMEFF2. Using chemical and siRNA inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR), we show that the androgen effect on TMEFF2 translation is mediated by the AR. Importantly, DHT also promotes phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) in an AR-dependent manner, paralleling the effect on TMEFF2 translation. Moreover, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions, which promote eIF2α phosphorylation, also stimulate TMEFF2 translation. These results indicate that androgen signaling promotes eIF2α phosphorylation and subsequent translation of TMEFF2 via a mechanism that requires uORFs in the 5'-UTR of TMEFF2.

  19. Androgen Signaling Promotes Translation of TMEFF2 in Prostate Cancer Cells via Phosphorylation of the α Subunit of the Translation Initiation Factor 2

    PubMed Central

    Overcash, Ryan F.; Chappell, Vesna A.; Green, Thomas; Geyer, Christopher B.; Asch, Adam S.; Ruiz-Echevarría, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    The type I transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2), is expressed mainly in brain and prostate. Expression of TMEFF2 is deregulated in prostate cancer, suggesting a role in this disease, but the molecular mechanism(s) involved in this effect are not clear. Although androgens promote tmeff2 transcription, androgen delivery to castrated animals carrying CWR22 xenografts increases TMEFF2 protein levels in the absence of mRNA changes, suggesting that TMEFF2 may also be post-transcriptionally regulated. Here we show that translation of TMEFF2 is regulated by androgens. Addition of physiological concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to prostate cancer cell lines increases translation of endogenous TMEFF2 or transfected TMEFF2-Luciferase fusions, and this effect requires the presence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of TMEFF2. Using chemical and siRNA inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR), we show that the androgen effect on TMEFF2 translation is mediated by the AR. Importantly, DHT also promotes phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) in an AR-dependent manner, paralleling the effect on TMEFF2 translation. Moreover, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions, which promote eIF2α phosphorylation, also stimulate TMEFF2 translation. These results indicate that androgen signaling promotes eIF2α phosphorylation and subsequent translation of TMEFF2 via a mechanism that requires uORFs in the 5′-UTR of TMEFF2. PMID:23405127

  20. Stem cells in human neurodegenerative disorders — time for clinical translation?

    PubMed Central

    Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell–based approaches have received much hype as potential treatments for neurodegenerative disorders. Indeed, transplantation of stem cells or their derivatives in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases can improve function by replacing the lost neurons and glial cells and by mediating remyelination, trophic actions, and modulation of inflammation. Endogenous neural stem cells are also potential therapeutic targets because they produce neurons and glial cells in response to injury and could be affected by the degenerative process. As we discuss here, however, significant hurdles remain before these findings can be responsibly translated to novel therapies. In particular, we need to better understand the mechanisms of action of stem cells after transplantation and learn how to control stem cell proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation in the pathological environment. PMID:20051634

  1. Entry of enveloped viruses into host cells: membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Más, Vicente; Melero, José A

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are intracellular parasites that hijack the cellular machinery for their own replication. Therefore, an obligatory step in the virus life cycle is the delivery of the viral genome inside the cell. Enveloped viruses (i.e., viruses with a lipid envelope) use a two-step procedure to release their genetic material into the cell: (i) they first bind to specific surface receptors of the target cell membrane and then, (ii) they fuse the viral and cell membranes. This last step may occur at the cell surface or after internalization of the virus particle by endocytosis or by some other route (e.g., macropinocytosis). Remarkably, the virus-cell membrane fusion process goes essentially along the same intermediate steps as other membrane fusions that occur for instance in vesicular fusion at the nerve synapsis or cell-cell fusion in yeast mating. Specialized viral proteins, fusogens, promote virus-cell membrane fusion. The viral fusogens experience drastic structural rearrangements during fusion, liberating the energy required to overcome the repulsive forces that prevent spontaneous fusion of the two membranes. This chapter describes the different types of viral fusogens and their mode of action, as are currently known.

  2. A universal strategy for regulating mRNA translation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jicong; Arha, Manish; Sudrik, Chaitanya; Mukherjee, Abhirup; Wu, Xia; Kane, Ravi S.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple strategy to control mRNA translation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells which relies on a unique protein–RNA interaction. Specifically, we used the Pumilio/FBF (PUF) protein to repress translation by binding in between the ribosome binding site (RBS) and the start codon (in Escherichia coli), or by binding to the 5′ untranslated region of target mRNAs (in mammalian cells). The design principle is straightforward, the extent of translational repression can be tuned and the regulator is genetically encoded, enabling the construction of artificial signal cascades. We demonstrate that this approach can also be used to regulate polycistronic mRNAs; such regulation has rarely been achieved in previous reports. Since the regulator used in this study is a modular RNA-binding protein, which can be engineered to target different 8-nucleotide RNA sequences, our strategy could be used in the future to target endogenous mRNAs for regulating metabolic flows and signaling pathways in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. PMID:25845589

  3. Controlled rotation and translation of spherical particles or living cells by surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ianis; Doinikov, Alexander A; Marmottant, Philippe; Rabaud, David; Poulain, Cédric; Thibault, Pierre

    2017-07-11

    We show experimental evidence of the acoustically-assisted micromanipulation of small objects like solid particles or blood cells, combining rotation and translation, using high frequency surface acoustic waves. This was obtained from the leakage in a microfluidic channel of two standing waves arranged perpendicularly in a LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate working at 36.3 MHz. By controlling the phase lag between the emitters, we could, in addition to translation, generate a swirling motion of the emitting surface which, in turn, led to the rapid rotation of spherical polystyrene Janus beads suspended in the channel and of human red and white blood cells up to several rounds per second. We show that these revolution velocities are compatible with a torque caused by the acoustic streaming that develops at the particles surface, like that first described by [F. Busse et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1981, 69(6), 1634-1638]. This device, based on standard interdigitated transducers (IDTs) adjusted to emit at equal frequencies, opens a way to a large range of applications since it allows the simultaneous control of the translation and rotation of hard objects, as well as the investigation of the response of cells to shear stress.

  4. A universal strategy for regulating mRNA translation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jicong; Arha, Manish; Sudrik, Chaitanya; Mukherjee, Abhirup; Wu, Xia; Kane, Ravi S

    2015-04-30

    We describe a simple strategy to control mRNA translation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells which relies on a unique protein-RNA interaction. Specifically, we used the Pumilio/FBF (PUF) protein to repress translation by binding in between the ribosome binding site (RBS) and the start codon (in Escherichia coli), or by binding to the 5' untranslated region of target mRNAs (in mammalian cells). The design principle is straightforward, the extent of translational repression can be tuned and the regulator is genetically encoded, enabling the construction of artificial signal cascades. We demonstrate that this approach can also be used to regulate polycistronic mRNAs; such regulation has rarely been achieved in previous reports. Since the regulator used in this study is a modular RNA-binding protein, which can be engineered to target different 8-nucleotide RNA sequences, our strategy could be used in the future to target endogenous mRNAs for regulating metabolic flows and signaling pathways in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  5. Expression of poliovirus 2Apro in mammalian cells: effects on translation.

    PubMed

    Aldabe, R; Feduchi, E; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-12-11

    Poliovirus protease 2Apro has been efficiently expressed in HeLa and COS cells upon transfection with vector pTM1-2A and infection with the recombinant vaccinia virus bearing the T7 RNA polymerase. The expressed poliovirus protease localizes to the cytoplasm of the transfected cells, both in the endoplasmic reticulum and in vesicles scattered in the cytoplasm. Cleavage of p220, a component of initiation factor eIF-4F, selectively occurs from 5 h post-infection in transfected cells infected with the recombinant virus. This cleavage correlates in time with the profound inhibition observed in the synthesis of vaccinia virus proteins. A similar blockade of vesicular stomatitis virus translation takes place upon 2Apro expression. Finally, the synthesis of poliovirus protein 2C from a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses this protein under the EMC untranslated leader region is not affected by the synthesis of 2Apro. These findings lend support to the idea that translation of capped mRNAs requires the integrity of p220, while this requirement is not observed when translation of a mRNA bearing a picornavirus leader region is assayed.

  6. The effect of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore on apoptosis in Eimeria tenella host cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Yong; Zheng, Ming-Xue; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Xiao-Zhen; Yang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Rui-Li; Li, Shan; Lv, Qiang-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Long; Bai, Rui

    2016-10-01

    Although the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is associated with cellular apoptosis and necrosis, its effect in host response to Eimeria infections is not well understood. In an effort to better understand the effect of MPTP on apoptosis in Eimeria tenella host cells, an MPTP inhibitor (cyclosporin A) was used to inhibit MPTP opening in vitro. Cecal epithelial cells from chick embryos, which were either treated or non-treated with cyclosporin A, were used as Eimeria tenella host cells. In addition, primary chick embryo cecum epithelial cell culture techniques and flow cytometry were used to detect the dynamic changes in MPTP opening, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and cell apoptosis rate of Eimeria tenella host cells. Compared with the control group, cytometric techniques showed that untreated host cells exhibited a significantly higher (P < 0.01) degree of MPTP opening but lower (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Moreover, untreated group cells had less apoptosis (P < 0.01) at 4 h and more apoptosis (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) at 24 to 120 h as compared with control group cells. After the application of cyclosporin A, the degree of MPTP opening in the treated group was significantly lower (P < 0.01) at 4 to 120 h compared to the untreated group, whereas the treated group had higher (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) mitochondrial transmembrane potentials at 24 to 120 h. Flow cytometry assays also showed that there was less (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) apoptosis after 24 h in the treated group than in the untreated group. Taken together, these observations indicate that MPTP is a key node that plays a predominant role in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in the host cell induced by Eimeria tenella.

  7. Synergetic regulation of translational reading-frame switch by ligand-responsive RNAs in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsiu-Ting; Lin, Ya-Hui; Chang, Kung-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Distinct translational initiation mechanisms between prokaryotes and eukaryotes limit the exploitation of prokaryotic riboswitch repertoire for regulatory RNA circuit construction in mammalian application. Here, we explored programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) as the regulatory gene expression platform for engineered ligand-responsive RNA devices in higher eukaryotes. Regulation was enabled by designed ligand-dependent conformational rearrangements of the two cis-acting RNA motifs of opposite activity in -1 PRF. Particularly, RNA elements responsive to trans-acting ligands can be tailored to modify co-translational RNA refolding dynamics of a hairpin upstream of frameshifting site to achieve reversible and adjustable -1 PRF attenuating activity. Combined with a ligand-responsive stimulator, synthetic RNA devices for synergetic translational-elongation control of gene expression can be constructed. Due to the similarity between co-transcriptional RNA hairpin folding and co-translational RNA hairpin refolding, the RNA-responsive ligand repertoire provided in prokaryotic systems thus becomes accessible to gene-regulatory circuit construction for synthetic biology application in mammalian cells. PMID:25414357

  8. eIF4G is required for the pioneer round of translation in mammalian cells.