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Sample records for host range multiplication

  1. Broad host range plasmids.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aayushi; Srivastava, Preeti

    2013-11-01

    Plasmids are and will remain important cloning vehicles for biotechnology. They have also been associated with the spread of a number of diseases and therefore are a subject of environmental concern. With the advent of sequencing technologies, the database of plasmids is increasing. It will be of immense importance to identify the various bacterial hosts in which the plasmid can replicate. The present review article describes the features that confer broad host range to the plasmids, the molecular basis of plasmid host range evolution, and applications in recombinant DNA technology and environment.

  2. More Is Better: Selecting for Broad Host Range Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alexa; Ward, Samantha; Hyman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. In this perspective, we discuss several aspects of a characteristic feature of bacteriophages, their host range. Each phage has its own particular host range, the range of bacteria that it can infect. While some phages can only infect one or a few bacterial strains, other phages can infect many species or even bacteria from different genera. Different methods for determining host range may give different results, reflecting the multiple mechanisms bacteria have to resist phage infection and reflecting the different steps of infection each method depends on. This makes defining host range difficult. Another difficulty in describing host range arises from the inconsistent use of the words “narrow” and especially “broad” when describing the breadth of the host range. Nearly all bacteriophages have been isolated using a single host strain of bacteria. While this procedure is fairly standard, it may more likely produce narrow rather than broad host range phage. Our results and those of others suggest that using multiple host strains during isolation can more reliably produce broader host range phages. This challenges the common belief that most bacteriophages have a narrow host range. We highlight the implications of this for several areas that are affected by host range including horizontal gene transfer and phage therapy. PMID:27660623

  3. Multiple amino acids in the capsid structure of canine parvovirus coordinately determine the canine host range and specific antigenic and hemagglutination properties.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S F; Sgro, J Y; Parrish, C R

    1992-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are over 98% similar in DNA sequence but have specific host range, antigenic, and hemagglutination (HA) properties which were located within the capsid protein gene. In vitro mutagenesis and recombination were used to prepare 16 different recombinant genomic clones, and viruses derived from those clones were analyzed for their in vitro host range, antigenic, and HA properties. The region of CPV from 59 to 91 map units determined the ability to replicate in canine cells. A complex series of interactions was observed among the individual sequence differences between 59 and 73 map units. The canine host range required that VP2 amino acids (aa) 93 and 323 both be the CPV sequence, and those two CPV sequences introduced alone into FPV greatly increased viral replication in canine cells. Changing any one of aa 93, 103, or 323 of CPV to the FPV sequence either greatly decreased replication in canine cells or resulted in an inviable plasmid. The Asn-Lys difference of aa 93 alone was responsible for the CPV-specific epitope recognized by monoclonal antibodies. An FPV-specific epitope was affected by aa 323. Amino acids 323 and 375 together determined the pH dependence of HA. Amino acids involved in the various specific properties were all around the threefold spikes of the viral particle. Images PMID:1331498

  4. A survey of host range genes in poxvirus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bratke, Kirsten A.; McLysaght, Aoife; Rothenburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Poxviruses are widespread pathogens, which display extremely different host ranges. Whereas some poxviruses, including variola virus, display narrow host ranges, others such as cowpox viruses naturally infect a wide range of mammals. The molecular basis for differences in host range are poorly understood but apparently depend on the successful manipulation of the host antiviral response. Some poxvirus genes have been shown to confer host tropism in experimental settings and are thus called host range factors. Identified host range genes include vaccinia virus K1L, K3L, E3L, B5R, C7L and SPI-1, cowpox virus CP77/CHOhr, ectromelia virus p28 and 022, and myxoma virus T2, T4, T5, 11L, 13L, 062R and 063R. These genes encode for ankyrin repeat-containing proteins, tumor necrosis factor receptor II homologs, apoptosis inhibitor T4-related proteins, Bcl-2-related proteins, pyrin domain-containing proteins, cellular serine protease inhibitors (serpins), short complement-like repeats containing proteins, KilA-N/RING domain-containing proteins, as well as inhibitors of the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR. We conducted a systematic survey for the presence of known host range genes and closely related family members in poxvirus genomes, classified them into subgroups based on their phylogenetic relationship and correlated their presence with the poxvirus phylogeny. Common themes in the evolution of poxvirus host range genes are lineage-specific duplications and multiple independent inactivation events. Our analyses yield new insights into the evolution of poxvirus host range genes. Implications of our findings for poxvirus host range and virulence are discussed. PMID:23268114

  5. Cowpox: reservoir hosts and geographic range.

    PubMed Central

    Chantrey, J.; Meyer, H.; Baxby, D.; Begon, M.; Bown, K. J.; Hazel, S. M.; Jones, T.; Montgomery, W. I.; Bennett, M.

    1999-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus are wild rodents, although direct evidence for this is lacking for much of the virus's geographic range. Here, through a combination of serology and PCR, we demonstrate conclusively that the main hosts in Great Britain are bank voles, wood mice and short-tailed field voles. However, we also suggest that wood mice may not be able to maintain infection alone, explaining the absence of cowpox from Ireland where voles are generally not found. Infection in wild rodents varies seasonally, and this variation probably underlies the marked seasonal incidence of infection in accidental hosts such as humans and domestic cats. PMID:10459650

  6. Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Gowtage-Sequeria, Sonya

    2005-01-01

    An updated literature survey identified 1,407 recognized species of human pathogen, 58% of which are zoonotic. Of the total, 177 are regarded as emerging or reemerging. Zoonotic pathogens are twice as likely to be in this category as are nonzoonotic pathogens. Emerging and reemerging pathogens are not strongly associated with particular types of nonhuman hosts, but they are most likely to have the broadest host ranges. Emerging and reemerging zoonoses are associated with a wide range of drivers, but changes in land use and agriculture and demographic and societal changes are most commonly cited. However, although zoonotic pathogens do represent the most likely source of emerging and reemerging infectious disease, only a small minority have proved capable of causing major epidemics in the human population. PMID:16485468

  7. Host range, host specificity and hypothesized host shift events among viruses of lower vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The successful replication of a viral agent in a host is a complex process that often leads to a species specificity of the virus and can make interspecies transmission difficult. Despite this difficulty, natural host switch seems to have been frequent among viruses of lower vertebrates, especially fish viruses, since there are several viruses known to be able to infect a wide range of species. In the present review we will focus on well documented reports of broad host range, variations in host specificity, and host shift events hypothesized for viruses within the genera Ranavirus, Novirhabdovirus, Betanodavirus, Isavirus, and some herpesvirus. PMID:21592358

  8. In vitro host range of feline morbillivirus

    PubMed Central

    SAKAGUCHI, Shoichi; KOIDE, Rie; MIYAZAWA, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) is an emerging virus in cats, which is associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis. To study the in vitro host range of FmoPV, we inoculated FmoPV strain SS1 to 32 cell lines originated from 13 species and cultured for 2 weeks, followed by RNA extraction and reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction for FmoPV detection. As a result, only cell lines derived from cats and African green monkeys were susceptible to FmoPV. FmoPV infects diverse feline cell lines: epithelial, fibroblastic, lymphoid and glial cells. These results indicate that the receptor (s) for FmoPV are ubiquitously expressed in cats. No infectivity of FmoPV was observed in human cell lines, which suggests least threatening of cross-species transmission of FmoPV from cats to humans. PMID:26027844

  9. Generating a host range-expanded recombinant baculovirus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Zihao; Long, Zhao; Cai, Yi; Ying, Zhongfu; Yin, Hanqi; Yuan, Meijin; Clem, Rollie J.; Yang, Kai; Pang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    As baculoviruses usually have a narrow insecticidal spectrum, knowing the mechanisms by which they control the host-range is prerequisite for improvement of their applications as pesticides. In this study, from supernatant of culture cells transfected with DNAs of an Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) mutant lacking the antiapoptotic gene p35 (vAc∆P35) and a cosmid representing a fragment of Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV), a viral strain was plaque-purified and named vAcRev. vAcRev had a broader host range than either vAc∆P35 or SeMNPV parental virus, being able to infect not only the permissive hosts of its parental viruses but also a nonpermissive host (Spodoptera litura). Genome sequencing indicated that vAcRev comprises a mixture of two viruses with different circular dsDNA genomes. One virus contains a genome similar to vAc∆P35, while in the other viral genome, a 24.4 kbp-fragment containing 10 essential genesis replaced with a 4 kbp-fragment containing three SeMNPV genes including a truncated Se-iap3 gene. RNA interference and ectopic expression assays found that Se-iap3 is responsible for the host range expansion of vAcRev, suggesting that Se-iap3 inhibits the progression of apoptosis initiated by viral infection and promotes viral propagation in hosts both permissive and non-permissive for AcMNPV and SeMNPV. PMID:27321273

  10. Poxviruses and the Evolution of Host Range and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Sherry L.; Peng, Chen; McFadden, Grant; Rothenburg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Poxviruses as a group can infect a large number of animals. However, at the level of individual viruses, even closely related poxviruses display highly diverse host ranges and virulence. For example, variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is human-specific and highly virulent only to humans, whereas related cowpox viruses naturally infect a broad spectrum of animals and only cause relatively mild disease in humans. The successful replication of poxviruses depends on their effective manipulation of the host antiviral responses, at the cellular-, tissue- and species-specific levels, which constitutes a molecular basis for differences in poxvirus host range and virulence. A number of poxvirus genes have been identified that possess host range function in experimental settings, and many of these host range genes target specific antiviral host pathways. Herein, we review the biology of poxviruses with a focus on host range, zoonotic infections, virulence, genomics and host range genes as well as the current knowledge about the function of poxvirus host range factors and how their interaction with the host innate immune system contributes to poxvirus host range and virulence. We further discuss the evolution of host range and virulence in poxviruses as well as host switches and potential poxvirus threats for human and animal health. PMID:24161410

  11. Host Range Specificity in Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Bhat, R G; Subbarao, K V

    1999-12-01

    ABSTRACT Verticillium dahliae isolates from artichoke, bell pepper, cabbage, cauliflower, chili pepper, cotton, eggplant, lettuce, mint, potato, strawberry, tomato, and watermelon and V. albo-atrum from alfalfa were evaluated for their pathogenicity on all 14 hosts. One-month-old seedlings were inoculated with a spore suspension of about 10(7) conidia per ml using a root-dip technique and incubated in the greenhouse. Disease incidence and severity, plant height, and root and shoot dry weights were recorded 6 weeks after inoculation. Bell pepper, cabbage, cauliflower, cotton, eggplant, and mint isolates exhibited host specificity and differential pathogenicity on other hosts, whereas isolates from artichoke, lettuce, potato, strawberry, tomato, and watermelon did not. Bell pepper was resistant to all Verticillium isolates except isolates from bell pepper and eggplant. Thus, host specificity exists in some isolates of V. dahliae. The same isolates were characterized for vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) through complementation of nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants. Cabbage and cauliflower isolates did not produce nit mutants. The isolate from cotton belonged to VCG 1; isolates from bell pepper, eggplant, potato, and tomato, to VCG 4; and the remaining isolates, to VCG 2. These isolates were also analyzed using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Forty random primers were screened, and eighteen of them amplified DNA from Verticillium. Based on RAPD banding patterns, cabbage and cauliflower isolates formed a unique group, distinct from other V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum groups. Minor genetic variations were observed among V. dahliae isolates from other hosts, regardless of whether they were host specific or not. There was no correlation among pathogenicity, VCGs, and RAPD banding patterns. Even though the isolates belonged to different VCGs, they shared similar RAPD profiles. These results suggest that management of Verticillium wilt in some crops

  12. Novel application of species richness estimators to predict the host range of parasites.

    PubMed

    Watson, David M; Milner, Kirsty V; Leigh, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges. We selected three mistletoe species (hemiparasitic plants in the Loranthaceae) to evaluate our approach: a strict host specialist (Amyema lucasii, dependent on a single host species), an intermediate species (Amyema quandang, dependent on hosts in one genus) and a generalist (Lysiana exocarpi, dependent on many genera across multiple families), comparing results from geographically-stratified surveys against known host lists derived from herbarium specimens. The results-based stopping rule (stop sampling bioregion once observed host richness exceeds 80% of the host richness predicted using the Abundance-based Coverage Estimator) worked well for most bioregions studied, being satisfied after three to six sampling plots (each representing 25 host trees) but was unreliable in those bioregions with high host richness or high proportions of rare hosts. Although generating stable predictions of host range with minimal variation among six estimators trialled, distribution-wide estimates fell well short of the number of hosts known from herbarium records. This mismatch, coupled with the discovery of nine previously unrecorded mistletoe-host combinations, further demonstrates the limited ecological relevance of simple host-parasite lists. By collecting estimates of host range of constrained completeness, our approach maximises sampling efficiency while generating comparable estimates of the number of primary

  13. GENETICS OF HOST RANGE IN LEPIDOPTERA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic basis of complex, ecologically relevant traits is not well known for any organism. The question is particularly compelling where closely-related species have diverged radically in their adaptation to the environment. Differences in host plant use among moths and butterflies often provi...

  14. Prevalence of Broad-Host-Range Lytic Bacteriophages of Sphaerotilus natans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ellen C.; Schrader, Holly S.; Rieland, Brenda; Thompson, Thomas L.; Lee, Kit W.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.; Kokjohn, Tyler A.

    1998-01-01

    Two bacteriophage collections were examined with regard to their ability to form plaques on multiple bacterial host species. Nine of 10 phages studied were found to be broad-host-range bacteriophages. These phages fell into two groups. Group 1, the SN series, was isolated from sewage treatment plant samples with Sphaerotilus natans ATCC 13338 as a host. The DNAs of these bacteriophages contained modified bases and were insensitive to cleavage by type I and II restriction endonucleases. The efficiency of plating of these bacteriophages was changed only slightly on the alternate host. Group 2, the BHR series, was isolated by a two-host enrichment protocol. These bacteriophages were sensitive to restriction, and their efficiency of plating was dramatically reduced on the alternate host. Our results suggest that a multiple-host enrichment protocol may be more effective for the isolation of broad-host-range bacteriophages by avoiding the selection bias inherent in single-host methods. At least two of the broad-host-range bacteriophages mediated generalized transduction. We suggest that broad-host-range bacteriophages play a key role in phage ecology and gene transfer in nature. PMID:9464396

  15. The Poxvirus C7L Host Range Factor Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Host range factors, expressed by the poxvirus family, determine the host tropism of species, tissue, and cell specificity. C7L family members exist in the genomes of most sequenced mammalian poxviruses, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved effort adapting to the hosts. In general, C7L orthologs influence the host tropism in mammalian cell culture, and for some poxviruses it is essential for the complete viral life cycle in vitro and in vivo. The C7L family members lack obvious sequence homology with any other known viral or cellular proteins. Here we review recent findings from an evolutionary perspective and summarize recent progress that broadens our view on the role of C7L family members in mediating poxvirus host range and antagonizing the host defense system. PMID:23103013

  16. Host Range of, and Plant Reaction to, Subanguina picridis

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    The host range of the knapweed nematode, Subanguina picridis (Kirjanova) Brzeski, under controlled environmental conditions was extended to include, in addition to Russian knapweed, Acroptilon repens (L.) DC., plant species within the Centaureinae, and Carduinae subtribes of the Cynareae tribe of the Asteraceae family. Examination of host response to nematode infection revealed that Russian knapweed was the only highly susceptible host plant. Diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.) was moderately susceptible, and other plants which formed galls were resistant to S. picridis. PMID:19294150

  17. Scale insect host ranges are broader in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Nate B; Peterson, Daniel A; Normark, Benjamin B

    2015-12-01

    The specificity of the interactions between plants and their consumers varies considerably. The evolutionary and ecological factors underlying this variation are unclear. Several potential explanatory factors vary with latitude, for example plant species richness and the intensity of herbivory. Here, we use comparative phylogenetic methods to test the effect of latitude on host range in scale insects. We find that, on average, scale insects that occur in lower latitudes are more polyphagous. This result is at odds with the general pattern of greater host-plant specificity of insects in the tropics. We propose that this disparity reflects a high cost for host specificity in scale insects, stemming from unusual aspects of scale insect life history, for example, passive wind-driven dispersal. More broadly, the strong evidence for pervasive effects of geography on host range across insect groups stands in stark contrast to the weak evidence for constraints on host range due to genetic trade-offs.

  18. An Experimental Host Range of Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered virus isolated from wheat. This study was conducted to determine an experimental host range for TriMV and identify species that could serve as differential hosts for isolating TriMV from Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV). Plants tested were mechan...

  19. Invasion success of a scarab beetle within its native range: host range expansion versus host-shift

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Stéphane; De Romans, Saïana; Glare, Travis; Armstrong, Karen; Worner, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Only recently has it been formally acknowledged that native species can occasionally reach the status of ‘pest’ or ‘invasive species’ within their own native range. The study of such species has potential to help unravel fundamental aspects of biological invasions. A good model for such a study is the New Zealand native scarab beetle, Costelytra zealandica (White), which even in the presence of its natural enemies has become invasive in exotic pastures throughout the country. Because C. zealandica still occurs widely within its native habitat, we hypothesised that this species has only undergone a host range expansion (ability to use equally both an ancestral and new host) onto exotic hosts rather than a host shift (loss of fitness on the ancestral host in comparison to the new host). Moreover, this host range expansion could be one of the main drivers of its invasion success. In this study, we investigated the fitness response of populations of C. zealandica from native and exotic flora, to several feeding treatments comprising its main exotic host plant as well as one of its ancestral hosts. Our results suggest that our initial hypothesis was incorrect and that C. zealandica populations occurring in exotic pastures have experienced a host-shift rather than simply a host-range expansion. This finding suggests that an exotic plant introduction can facilitate the evolution of a distinct native host-race, a phenomenon often used as evidence for speciation in phytophagous insects and which may have been instrumental to the invasion success of C. zealandica. PMID:24795845

  20. Isolation of Polyvalent Bacteriophages by Sequential Multiple-Host Approaches.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pingfeng; Mathieu, Jacques; Li, Mengyan; Dai, Zhaoyi; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2015-11-20

    Many studies on phage biology are based on isolation methods that may inadvertently select for narrow-host-range phages. Consequently, broad-host-range phages, whose ecological significance is largely unexplored, are consistently overlooked. To enhance research on such polyvalent phages, we developed two sequential multihost isolation methods and tested both culture-dependent and culture-independent phage libraries for broad infectivity. Lytic phages isolated from activated sludge were capable of interspecies or even interorder infectivity without a significant reduction in the efficiency of plating (0.45 to 1.15). Two polyvalent phages (PX1 of the Podoviridae family and PEf1 of the Siphoviridae family) were characterized in terms of adsorption rate (3.54 × 10(-10) to 8.53 × 10(-10) ml/min), latent time (40 to 55 min), and burst size (45 to 99 PFU/cell), using different hosts. These phages were enriched with a nonpathogenic host (Pseudomonas putida F1 or Escherichia coli K-12) and subsequently used to infect model problematic bacteria. By using a multiplicity of infection of 10 in bacterial challenge tests, >60% lethality was observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa relative to uninfected controls. The corresponding lethality for Pseudomonas syringae was ∼ 50%. Overall, this work suggests that polyvalent phages may be readily isolated from the environment by using different sequential hosts, and this approach should facilitate the study of their ecological significance as well as enable novel applications.

  1. Host compatibility rather than vector-host-encounter rate determines the host range of avian Plasmodium parasites.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Matthew C I; Hamer, Gabriel L; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2013-06-07

    Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector species structure parasite-host relationships by restricting access of certain parasites to a subset of available hosts. Specifically, we investigate how the feeding patterns of Culex mosquito vectors relate to distributions of avian malaria parasites among hosts in suburban Chicago, IL, USA. We show that Plasmodium lineages, defined by cytochrome b haplotypes, are heterogeneously distributed across avian hosts. However, the feeding patterns of the dominant vectors (Culex restuans and Culex pipiens) are similar across these hosts, and do not explain the distributions of Plasmodium parasites. Phylogenetic similarity of avian hosts predicts similarity in their Plasmodium parasites. This effect was driven primarily by the general association of Plasmodium parasites with particular host superfamilies. Our results suggest that a mosquito-imposed encounter rate does not limit the distribution of avian Plasmodium parasites across hosts. This implies that compatibility between parasites and their avian hosts structure Plasmodium host range.

  2. Host plant utilization, host range oscillations and diversification in nymphalid butterflies: a phylogenetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Nylin, Sören; Slove, Jessica; Janz, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity is a major factor in the diversification of life, and that variation in host range in phytophagous insects is a good model for investigating this claim. We explore the use of angiosperm plants as hosts for nymphalid butterflies, and in particular the evidence for past oscillations in host range and how they are linked to host shifts and to diversification. At the level of orders of plants, a relatively simple pattern of host use and host shifts emerges, despite the 100 million years of history of the family Nymphalidae. We review the evidence that these host shifts and the accompanying diversifications were associated with transient polyphagous stages, as suggested by the "oscillation hypothesis." In addition, we investigate all currently polyphagous nymphalid species and demonstrate that the state of polyphagy is rare, has a weak phylogenetic signal, and a very apical distribution in the phylogeny; we argue that these are signs of its transient nature. We contrast our results with data from the bark beetles Dendroctonus, in which a more specialized host use is instead the apical state. We conclude that plasticity in host use is likely to have contributed to diversification in nymphalid butterflies.

  3. Genome characteristics of facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strains reflect host range and host plant biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry, Alison M.; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, Maria Pilar; Goltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga R.; Labarre, Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez, Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth C.; Niemann, James; Pujic, Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt, Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde, Claudio; Wall, Luis G.; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N2-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally distributed angiosperms in the “actinorhizal” symbioses. Three closely related clades of Frankia sp. strains are recognized; members of each clade infect a subset of plants from among eight angiosperm families. We sequenced the genomes from three strains; their sizes varied from 5.43 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (Frankia sp. strain HFPCcI3) to 7.50 Mbp for a medium host range strain (Frankia alni strain ACN14a) to 9.04 Mbp for a broad host range strain (Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported for such closely related soil bacteria (97.8%–98.9% identity of 16S rRNA genes). The extent of gene deletion, duplication, and acquisition is in concert with the biogeographic history of the symbioses and host plant speciation. Host plant isolation favored genome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genome expansion. The results support the idea that major genome expansions as well as reductions can occur in facultative symbiotic soil bacteria as they respond to new environments in the context of their symbioses. PMID:17151343

  4. Effects of epistasis on infectivity range during host-parasite coevolution.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Ben; Gupta, Sunetra; Buckling, Angus

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how parasites adapt to changes in host resistance is crucial to evolutionary epidemiology. Experimental studies have demonstrated that parasites are more capable of adapting to gradual, rather than sudden changes in host phenotype, as the latter may require multiple mutations that are unlikely to arise simultaneously. A key, but as yet unexplored factor is precisely how interactions between mutations (epistasis) affect parasite evolution. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of infectivity range, where parasites may experience selection to infect broader sets of genotypes. When epistasis is strongly positive, we find that parasites are unlikely to evolve broader infectivity ranges if hosts exhibit sudden, rather than gradual changes in phenotype, in close agreement with empirical observations. This is due to a low probability of fixing multiple mutations that individually confer no immediate advantage. When epistasis is weaker, parasites are more likely to evolve broader infectivity ranges if hosts make sudden changes in phenotype, which can be explained by a balance between mutation supply and selection. Thus, we demonstrate that both the rate of phenotypic change in hosts and the form of epistasis between mutations in parasites are crucial in shaping the evolution of infectivity range.

  5. Phylogenetic signal in plant pathogen–host range

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregory S.; Webb, Campbell O.

    2007-01-01

    What determines which plant species are susceptible to a given plant pathogen is poorly understood. Experimental inoculations with fungal pathogens of plant leaves in a tropical rain forest show that most fungal pathogens are polyphagous but that most plant species in a local community are resistant to any given pathogen. The likelihood that a pathogen can infect two plant species decreases continuously with phylogenetic distance between the plants, even to ancient evolutionary distances. This phylogenetic signal in host range allows us to predict the likely host range of plant pathogens in a local community, providing an important tool for plant ecology, design of agronomic systems, quarantine regulations in international trade, and risk analysis of biological control agents. In particular, the results suggest that the rate of spread and ecological impacts of a disease through a natural plant community will depend strongly on the phylogenetic structure of the community itself and that current regulatory approaches strongly underestimate the local risks of global movement of plant pathogens or their hosts. PMID:17360396

  6. Evolution of Host Defense against Multiple Enemy Populations.

    PubMed

    Toor, Jaspreet; Best, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Natural and managed populations are embedded within complex ecological communities, where they face multiple enemies. Experimental studies have shown that the evolution of host defense mechanisms to a focal enemy is impacted by the surrounding enemy community. Theoretically, the evolution of host defenses against a single enemy population, typically parasites, has been widely studied, but only recently has the impact of community interactions on host-parasite evolution been looked at. In this article, we theoretically examine the evolutionary behavior of a host population that must allocate defenses between two enemy populations, parasites and predators, with defense against one enemy constraining defense against the other. We show that in simpler models the composition of the enemy community plays the key role in determining the defense strategy of the hosts, with the hosts building up defenses against the enemy population posing a larger threat. However, this simple driver is shown to break down when there is significant recovery and reproduction from infected hosts. Additionally, we find that most host diversity is likely to occur when there is a combined high risk of infection and predation, in common with experimental studies. Our results therefore provide vital insight into the ecological feedbacks that drive the evolution of host defense against multiple enemy populations.

  7. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38 008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  8. Extension of the Avian Host Range of Collyriclosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tahas, Stamatios A; Diakou, Anastasia; Dressel, Monika; Frei, Samuel; Azevedo, Fábia M Pinto; Casero, Maria V Mena; Maia, Carla; Grest, Paula; Grimm, Felix; Sitko, Jiljí; Literak, Ivan

    2017-01-18

    We describe cases of collyriclosis in apodiform and passeriform birds in Portugal, Switzerland, and Germany. We extend the host range of Collyriculm faba to include apodiform birds ( Apus apus , Apus melba , and Apus pallidus ) and the passerine Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch). Infections varied in severity from an incidental finding to severe debilitation and death. The infection route remains unclear with the apparent absence from Germany, Portugal, and Switzerland of the first intermediate host of C. faba, the aquatic gastropod Bythinella austriaca, implying that other organisms might be involved in the parasite's life cycle. Furthermore, the detection of C. faba cysts in very young passerine birds may indicate an infection during the nestling stage and a rapid development of parasite-containing subcutaneous cysts. This series of cases highlights an increased geographic range into Portugal and the potential debilitating nature of a parasite of migratory birds in Europe. However, given the rarity of cases, collyriclosis does not seem to present an important threat to migratory species preservation.

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungal richness declines towards the host species' range edge.

    PubMed

    Lankau, Richard A; Keymer, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Plant range boundaries are generally considered to reflect abiotic conditions; however, a rise in negative or decline in positive species interactions at range margins may contribute to these stable boundaries. While evidence suggests that pollinator mutualisms may decline near range boundaries, little is known about other important plant mutualisms, including microbial root symbionts. Here, we used molecular methods to characterize root-associated fungal communities in populations of two related temperate tree species from across the species' range in the eastern United States. We found that ectomycorrhizal fungal richness on plant roots declined with distance from the centre of the host species range. These patterns were not evident in nonmycorrhizal fungal communities on roots nor in fungal communities in bulk soil. Climatic and soil chemical variables could not explain these biogeographic patterns, although these abiotic gradients affected other components of the bulk soil and rhizosphere fungal community. Depauperate ectomycorrhizal fungal communities may represent an underappreciated challenge to marginal tree populations, especially as rapid climate change pushes these populations outside their current climate niche.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Host Range and Human-Bovine Host Shift ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Sakwinska, Olga; Giddey, Marlyse; Moreillon, Martine; Morisset, Delphine; Waldvogel, Andreas; Moreillon, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of bovine mastitis. The concomitant emergence of pig-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in human carriage and infection requires a reexamination of the host range and specificity of human- and cow-associated S. aureus strains, something which has not been systematically studied previously. The genetic relatedness of 500 S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis cases, 57 isolates from nasal carriage of farmers, and 133 isolates from nonfarmers was determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and spa typing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was conducted on a subset of isolates to match AFLP clusters with MLST clonal complexes (CCs). This data set allowed us to study host range and host specificity and to estimate the extent of bovine-to-human transmission. The genotype compositions of S. aureus isolates from farmers and nonfarmers were very similar, while the mastitis isolates were quite distinct. Overall, transmission was low, but specific genotypes did show increased cow-to-human transmission. Unexpectedly, more than one-third of mastitis isolates belonged to CC8, a lineage which has not been considered to be bovine mastitis associated, but it is well known from human carriage and infection (i.e., USA300). Despite the fact that we did detect some transmission of other genotypes from cows to farmers, no transmission of CC8 isolates to farmers was detected, except for one tentative case. This was despite the close genetic relatedness of mastitis CC8 strains to nonfarmer carriage strains. These results suggest that the emergence of the new bovine-adapted genotype was due to a recent host shift from humans to cows concurrent with a loss of the ability to colonize humans. More broadly, our results indicate that host specificity is a lineage-specific trait that can rapidly evolve. PMID:21742927

  11. Host lifespan and the evolution of resistance to multiple parasites.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, R; White, A; Boots, M

    2017-03-01

    Hosts are typically challenged by multiple parasites, but to date theory on the evolution of resistance has mainly focused on single infections. We develop a series of models that examine the impact of multiple parasites on the evolution of resistance under the assumption that parasites coexist at the host population scale as a consequence of superinfection. In this way, we are able to explicitly examine the impact of ecological dynamics on the evolutionary outcome. We use our models to address a key question of how host lifespan affects investment in resistance to multiple parasites. We show that investment in costly resistance depends on the specificity of the immune response and on whether or not the focal parasite leads to more acute infection than the co-circulating parasite. A key finding is that investment in resistance always increases as the immune response becomes more general independently of whether it is the focal or the co-circulating parasite that exploits the host most aggressively. Long-lived hosts always invest more than short-lived hosts in both general resistance and resistance that is specific to relatively acute focal parasites. However, for specific resistance to parasites that are less acute than co-circulating parasites it is the short-lived hosts that are predicted to invest most. We show that these results apply whatever the mode of defence, that is whether it is through avoidance or through increased recovery, with or without acquired immunity, or through acquired immunity itself. As a whole, our results emphasize the importance of considering multiple parasites in determining optimal immune investment in eco-evolutionary systems.

  12. Evolution of specialization: a phylogenetic study of host range in the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2011-06-01

    Specialization is common in most lineages of insect herbivores, one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. To address how and why specialization is maintained over evolutionary time, we hypothesized that plant defense and other ecological attributes of potential host plants would predict the performance of a specialist root-feeding herbivore (the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus). Using a comparative phylogenetic and functional trait approach, we assessed the determinants of insect host range across 18 species of Asclepias. Larval survivorship decreased with increasing phylogenetic distance from the true host, Asclepias syriaca, suggesting that adaptation to plant traits drives specialization. Among several root traits measured, only cardenolides (toxic defense chemicals) correlated with larval survival, and cardenolides also explained the phylogenetic distance effect in phylogenetically controlled multiple regression analyses. Additionally, milkweed species having a known association with other Tetraopes beetles were better hosts than species lacking Tetraopes herbivores, and milkweeds with specific leaf area values (a trait related to leaf function and habitat affiliation) similar to those of A. syriaca were better hosts than species having divergent values. We thus conclude that phylogenetic distance is an integrated measure of phenotypic and ecological attributes of Asclepias species, especially defensive cardenolides, which can be used to explain specialization and constraints on host shifts over evolutionary time.

  13. Multiple host-switching of Haemosporidia parasites in bats

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Linda; Robert, Vincent; Csorba, Gabor; Hassanin, Alexandre; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Walston, Joe; Nhim, Thy; Goodman, Steve M; Ariey, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Background There have been reported cases of host-switching in avian and lizard species of Plasmodium (Apicomplexa, Haemosporidia), as well as in those infecting different primate species. However, no evidence has previously been found for host-swapping between wild birds and mammals. Methods This paper presents the results of the sampling of blood parasites of wild-captured bats from Madagascar and Cambodia. The presence of Haemosporidia infection in these animals is confirmed and cytochrome b gene sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic analysis. Results Results reveal at least three different and independent Haemosporidia evolutionary histories in three different bat lineages from Madagascar and Cambodia. Conclusion Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests multiple host-switching of Haemosporidia parasites in bats with those from avian and primate hosts. PMID:18045505

  14. Evolution of host range in the follicle mite Demodex kutzeri.

    PubMed

    Palopoli, Michael F; Tra, VAN; Matoin, Kassey; Mac, Phuong D

    2016-11-29

    The sequences of four mitochondrial genes were determined for Demodex mites isolated from two distantly related species within the family Cervidae, and identified morphologically as belonging to the species Demodex kutzeri. The sequences were used to test the hypothesis that Demodex are strictly host-specific, and hence cospeciate with their hosts: (1) The estimated divergence time between mites found on elk vs humans agreed closely with a previous estimate of the time that these host species last shared a common ancestor, suggesting cospeciation of mites and hosts, at least over long evolutionary timescales. (2) The extremely low levels of sequence divergence between the mites found on elk vs mule deer hosts indicated that these mites belong to the same species, which suggests that Demodex are able to move across host species boundaries over shorter timescales. Together, the results are consistent with the model that Demodex mites are not strict host-specialists, but instead lose the ability to move between host lineages gradually.

  15. Predictability of helminth parasite host range using information on geography, host traits and parasite community structure.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Tad; Park, Andrew W; Drake, John M

    2017-02-01

    Host-parasite associations are complex interactions dependent on aspects of hosts (e.g. traits, phylogeny or coevolutionary history), parasites (e.g. traits and parasite interactions) and geography (e.g. latitude). Predicting the permissive host set or the subset of the host community that a parasite can infect is a central goal of parasite ecology. Here we develop models that accurately predict the permissive host set of 562 helminth parasites in five different parasite taxonomic groups. We developed predictive models using host traits, host taxonomy, geographic covariates, and parasite community composition, finding that models trained on parasite community variables were more accurate than any other covariate group, even though parasite community covariates only captured a quarter of the variance in parasite community composition. This suggests that it is possible to predict the permissive host set for a given parasite, and that parasite community structure is an important predictor, potentially because parasite communities are interacting non-random assemblages.

  16. Cucumis melo endornavirus: Genome organization, host range and co-divergence with the host.

    PubMed

    Sabanadzovic, Sead; Wintermantel, William M; Valverde, Rodrigo A; McCreight, James D; Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina

    2016-03-02

    A high molecular weight dsRNA was isolated from a Cucumis melo L. plant (referred to as 'CL01') of an unknown cultivar and completely sequenced. Sequence analyses showed that dsRNA is associated with an endornavirus for which a name Cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV) is proposed. The genome of CmEV-CL01 consists of 15,078 nt, contains a single, 4939 codons-long ORF and terminates with a stretch of 10 cytosine residues. Comparisons of the putative CmEV-encoded polyprotein with available references in protein databases revealed a unique genome organization characterized by the presence of the following domains: viral helicase Superfamily 1 (Hel-1), three glucosyltransferases (doublet of putative capsular polysaccharide synthesis proteins and a putative C_28_Glycosyltransferase), and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The presence of three glycome-related domains of different origin makes the genome organization of CmEV unique among endornaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of viral RdRp domains showed that CmEV belongs to a specific lineage within the family Endornaviridae made exclusively of plant-infecting endornaviruses. An RT-PCR based survey demonstrated high incidence of CmEV among melon germplasm accession (>87% of tested samples). Analyses of partial genome sequences of CmEV isolates from 26 different melon genotypes suggest fine-tuned virus adaptation and co-divergence with the host. Finally, results of the present study revealed that CmEV is present in plants belonging to three different genera in the family Cucurbitaceae. Such diverse host range is unreported for known endornaviruses and suggests a long history of CmEV association with cucurbits predating their speciation.

  17. Divergent Nod-Containing Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 with a Megaplasmid and its Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Songwattana, Pongpan; Noisangiam, Rujirek; Piromyou, Pongdet; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Nantagij, Achara; Okazaki, Shin; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Teaumroong, Neung

    2014-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9, a non-photosynthetic bacterial strain originally isolated from the root nodules of the legume Aeschynomene americana, is a divergent nod-containing strain. It exhibits a broad host range, being able to colonize and efficiently nodulate the roots of most plants from the Dalbergioid, Millettioid, and Robinioid tribes (7 species of Papilionoideae). In all cases, nodulation was determinate. The morphology and size of DOA9 bacteroids isolated from the nodules of various species of Papilionoideae were indistinguishable from the free-living form. However, they were spherical in Arachis hypogaea nodules. GusA-tagged DOA9 also colonized rice roots as endophytes. Since broad-host-range legume symbionts often carry multiple replicons in their genome, we analyzed the replicons for symbiosis genes by electrophoresis. DOA9 carried two replicons, a chromosome (cDOA9) and single megaplasmid (pDOA9) larger than 352 kb. The genes for nodulation (nodA, B, C) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) were localized on the megaplasmid. Southern blot hybridization revealed two copies of nodA on the megaplasmid, single copies of nodB and C on the megaplasmid, and one copy each of nifH on the chromosome and megaplasmid. These results suggested that Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 may have the unusual combination of a broad host range, bacteroid differentiation, and symbiosis-mediating replicons. PMID:25283477

  18. Endophytic Phomopsis species: host range and implications for diversity estimates.

    PubMed

    Murali, T S; Suryanarayanan, T S; Geeta, R

    2006-07-01

    Foliar endophyte assemblages of teak trees growing in dry deciduous and moist deciduous forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve were compared. A species of Phomopsis dominated the endophyte assemblages of teak, irrespective of the location of the host trees. Internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis of 11 different Phomopsis isolates (ten from teak and one from Cassia fistula) showed that they fall into two groups, which are separated by a relatively long branch that is strongly supported. The results showed that this fungus is not host restricted and that it continues to survive as a saprotroph in teak leaf, possibly by exploiting senescent leaves as well as the litter. Although the endophyte assemblage of a teak tree growing about 500 km from the forests was also dominated by a Phomopsis sp., it separated into a different group based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. Our results with an endophytic Phomopsis sp. reinforce the earlier conclusions reached by others for pathogenic Phomopsis sp., i.e., that this fungus is not host specific, and the species concept of Phomopsis needs to be redefined.

  19. The range of multiple sclerosis associated with neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Perini, P; Gallo, P

    2001-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a very rare event. Seven patients with multiple sclerosis and NF1 are described in the literature, and all were reported to have the primary progressive form of multiple sclerosis. Three new patients with NF1 that developed multiple sclerosis are described and it is shown that the range of multiple sclerosis associated with NF1 includes the relapsing forms of the disease. The risk of having both NF1 and multiple sclerosis in north east Italy is higher than would be expected based on the prevalence rates of the two diseases.

 PMID:11606684

  20. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution. PMID:22214193

  1. Controls on pathogen species richness in plants introduced and native ranges: roles of residence time, range size and host traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of hosts to new geographic regions allows them to escape many pathogens, raising two questions. How quickly do introduced hosts accumulate pathogens? Do the same factors control pathogen accumulation as in the native range? We analyzed fungal and viral pathogen species richness on 124 p...

  2. Geographic host use variabiliy and host range evolutionary dynamics in the phytophagous insect Apagomerella versicolor (Cerambycidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high diversity of phytophagous insects has been explained by the tendency of the group towards specialization; however, generalism may be advantageous in some environments. The cerambycid Apagomerella versicolor exhibits intraspecific geographical variation in host use. In northern Argentina it ...

  3. Legionella suppresses the host unfolded protein response via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Treacy-Abarca, Sean; Mukherjee, Shaeri

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, secretes ∼300 effector proteins to modulate the host environment. Given the intimate interaction between L. pneumophila and the endoplasmic reticulum, we investigated the role of the host unfolded protein response (UPR) during L. pneumophila infection. Interestingly, we show that the host identifies L. pneumophila infection as a form of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the sensor pATF6 is processed to generate pATF6(N), a transcriptional activator of downstream UPR genes. However, L. pneumophila is able to suppress the UPR and block the translation of prototypical UPR genes, BiP and CHOP. Furthermore, biochemical studies reveal that L. pneumophila uses two effectors (Lgt1 and Lgt2) to inhibit the splicing of XBP1u mRNA to spliced XBP1 (XBP1s), an UPR response regulator. Thus, we demonstrate that L. pneumophila is able to inhibit the UPR by multiple mechanisms including blocking XBP1u splicing and causing translational repression. This observation highlights the utility of L. pneumophila as a powerful tool for studying a critical protein homeostasis regulator. PMID:26219498

  4. Structure Function Studies of Vaccinia Virus Host Range Protein K1 Reveal a Novel Functional Surface for Ankyrin Repeat Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao; Meng, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Yan; Deng, Junpeng

    2010-06-15

    Poxvirus host tropism at the cellular level is regulated by virus-encoded host range proteins acting downstream of virus entry. The functioning mechanisms of most host range proteins are unclear, but many contain multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats, a motif that is known for ligand interaction through a concave surface. We report here the crystal structure of one of the ANK repeat-containing host range proteins, the vaccinia virus K1 protein. The structure, at a resolution of 2.3 {angstrom}, showed that K1 consists entirely of ANK repeats, including seven complete ones and two incomplete ones, one each at the N and C terminus. Interestingly, Phe82 and Ser83, which were previously shown to be critical for K1's function, are solvent exposed and located on a convex surface, opposite the consensus ANK interaction surface. The importance of this convex surface was further supported by our additional mutagenesis studies. We found that K1's host range function was negatively affected by substitution of either Asn51 or Cys47 and completely abolished by substitution of both residues. Cys47 and Asn51 are also exposed on the convex surface, spatially adjacent to Phe82 and Ser83. Altogether, our data showed that K1 residues on a continuous convex ANK repeat surface are critical for the host range function, suggesting that K1 functions through ligand interaction and does so with a novel ANK interaction surface.

  5. Comparison of ranging behaviour in a multi-species complex of free-ranging hosts of bovine tuberculosis in relation to their use as disease sentinels.

    PubMed

    Yockney, I J; Nugent, G; Latham, M C; Perry, M; Cross, M L; Byrom, A E

    2013-07-01

    Sentinel species are increasingly used by disease managers to detect and monitor the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in wildlife populations. Characterizing home-range movements of sentinel hosts is thus important for developing improved disease surveillance methods, especially in systems where multiple host species co-exist. We studied ranging activity of major hosts of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in an upland habitat of New Zealand: we compared home-range coverage by ferrets (Mustela furo), wild deer (Cervus elaphus), feral pigs (Sus scrofa), brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and free-ranging farmed cattle (Bos taurus). We also report in detail the proportional utilization of a seasonal (4-monthly) range area for the latter four species. Possums covered the smallest home range (<30 ha), ferrets covered ~100 ha, pigs ~4 km(2), deer and cattle both >30 km2. For any given weekly period, cattle, deer and pigs were shown to utilize 37–45% of their estimated 4-month range, while possums utilized 62% during any weekly period and 85% during any monthly period of their estimated 4-month range. We suggest that present means for estimating TB detection kernels, based on long-term range size estimates for possums and sentinel species, probably overstate the true local surveillance coverage per individual.

  6. Lucky imaging multiplicity studies of exoplanet host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2014-03-01

    The multiplicity of stars is an important parameter in order to understand star and planet formation. In the past decades extrasolar planets have been discovered around more than 600 stars with the radial velocity and transit techniques. Many of these systems present extreme cases of massive planetary objects at very close separations to their primary stars. To explain the configurations of such systems is hence a continued challenge in the development of formation theories. It will be very interesting to determine if there are significant differences between planets in single and multiple star systems. In our ongoing study we use high resolution imaging techniques to clarify the multiplicity status of nearby (within 250 pc) planet host stars. For targets on the northern hemisphere we employ the lucky imaging instrument Astralux at the 2.2 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. The lucky imaging approach consists of taking several thousand short images with integration times shorter than the speckle coherence time, to sample the speckle variations during the observation window. We then only choose the so called "lucky shots" with a very high Strehl ratio in one of the speckles, to shift and add, resulting in a final image with the highest possible Strehl ratio and therefore highest possible angular resolution. We will present recent results of our study at the Calar Alto Observatory, as well as observations undertaken with the RTK camera at the 20 cm guiding telescope in our own observatory in Großschwabhausen.

  7. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Pringle, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown. The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides (the death cap) is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges. On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. phalloides in its native range. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe. The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and the current distribution of A. phalloides appears constrained within the distribution of Q. agrifolia. In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year. Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. phalloides and other ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced across the world. PMID:22134645

  8. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Pringle, Anne

    2012-04-01

    The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown. The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides (the death cap) is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges. On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. phalloides in its native range. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe. The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and the current distribution of A. phalloides appears constrained within the distribution of Q. agrifolia. In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year. Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. phalloides and other ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced across the world.

  9. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  10. A lucky imaging multiplicity study of exoplanet host stars - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Seeliger, M.; Buder, S.; Errmann, R.; Avenhaus, H.; Mouillet, D.; Maire, A.-L.; Raetz, S.

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of extrasolar planets are detected by indirect detection methods such as transit monitoring and radial velocity measurements. While these methods are very successful in detecting short-periodic planets, they are mostly blind to wide sub-stellar or even stellar companions on long orbits. In our study, we present high-resolution imaging observations of 60 exoplanet hosts carried out with the lucky imaging instrument AstraLux at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope as well as with the new Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) high-resolution adaptive optics imager at the ESO/VLT in the case of a known companion of specific interest. Our goal is to study the influence of stellar multiplicity on the planet formation process. We detected and confirmed four previously unknown stellar companions to the exoplanet hosts HD 197037, HD 217786, Kepler-21 and Kepler-68. In addition, we detected 11 new low-mass stellar companion candidates which must still be confirmed as bound companions. We also provide new astrometric and photometric data points for the recently discovered very close binary systems WASP-76 and HD 2638. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the previously detected stellar companion to the HD 185269 system is a very low mass binary. Finally, we provide precise constraints on additional companions for all observed stars in our sample.

  11. A Multiple-range Self-balancing Thermocouple Potentiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, I; Estrin, M

    1951-01-01

    A multiple-range potentiometer circuit is described that provides automatic measurement of temperatures or temperature differences with any one of several thermocouple-material pairs. Techniques of automatic reference junction compensation, span adjustment, and zero suppression are described that permit rapid selection of range and wire material, without the necessity for restandardization, by setting of two external tap switches.

  12. Multiple host switching events shape the evolution of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Horká, Ivona; De Grave, Sammy; Fransen, Charles H J M; Petrusek, Adam; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    The majority of the almost 1,000 species of Palaemonidae, the most speciose family of caridean shrimp, largely live in symbioses with marine invertebrates of different phyla. These associations range from weak epibiosis to obligatory endosymbiosis and from restricted commensalism to semi-parasitism, with the specialisation to particular hosts likely playing a role in the diversification of this shrimp group. Our study elucidates the evolutionary history of symbiotic palaemonids based on a phylogenetic analysis of 87 species belonging to 43 genera from the Indo-West Pacific and the Atlantic using two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A complementary three-marker analysis including taxa from GenBank raises this number to 107 species from 48 genera. Seven larger clades were recovered in the molecular phylogeny; the basal-most one includes mostly free-living shrimp, albeit with a few symbiotic species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that free-living forms likely colonised cnidarian hosts initially, and switching between different host phyla occurred multiple times in palaemonid evolutionary history. In some cases this was likely facilitated by the availability of analogous microhabitats in unrelated but morphologically similar host groups. Host switching and adaptations to newly colonised host groups must have played an important role in the evolution of this diverse shrimp group.

  13. Multiple host switching events shape the evolution of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Horká, Ivona; De Grave, Sammy; Fransen, Charles H. J. M.; Petrusek, Adam; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the almost 1,000 species of Palaemonidae, the most speciose family of caridean shrimp, largely live in symbioses with marine invertebrates of different phyla. These associations range from weak epibiosis to obligatory endosymbiosis and from restricted commensalism to semi-parasitism, with the specialisation to particular hosts likely playing a role in the diversification of this shrimp group. Our study elucidates the evolutionary history of symbiotic palaemonids based on a phylogenetic analysis of 87 species belonging to 43 genera from the Indo-West Pacific and the Atlantic using two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A complementary three-marker analysis including taxa from GenBank raises this number to 107 species from 48 genera. Seven larger clades were recovered in the molecular phylogeny; the basal-most one includes mostly free-living shrimp, albeit with a few symbiotic species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that free-living forms likely colonised cnidarian hosts initially, and switching between different host phyla occurred multiple times in palaemonid evolutionary history. In some cases this was likely facilitated by the availability of analogous microhabitats in unrelated but morphologically similar host groups. Host switching and adaptations to newly colonised host groups must have played an important role in the evolution of this diverse shrimp group. PMID:27246395

  14. Biogeographic Variation in Host Range Phenotypes and Taxonomic Composition of Marine Cyanophage Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, China A.; Marston, Marcia F.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the important role of phages in marine systems, little is understood about how their diversity is distributed in space. Biogeographic patterns of marine phages may be difficult to detect due to their vast genetic diversity, which may not be accurately represented by conserved marker genes. To investigate the spatial biogeographic structure of marine phages, we isolated over 400 cyanophages on Synechococcus host strain WH7803 at three coastal locations in the United States (Rhode Island, Washington, and southern California). Approximately 90% of the cyanophage isolates were myoviruses, while the other 10% were podoviruses. The diversity of isolates was further characterized in two ways: (i) taxonomically, using conserved marker genes and (ii) phenotypically, by testing isolates for their ability to infect a suite of hosts, or their “host range.” Because host range is a highly variable trait even among closely related isolates, we hypothesized that host range phenotypes of cyanophage isolates would vary more strongly among locations than would taxonomic composition. Instead, we found evidence for strong biogeographic variation both in taxonomic composition and host range phenotypes, with little taxonomic overlap among the three coastal regions. For both taxonomic composition and host range phenotypes, cyanophage communities from California and Rhode Island were the most dissimilar, while Washington communities exhibited similarity to each of the other two locations. These results suggest that selection imposed by spatial variation in host dynamics influence the biogeographic distribution of cyanophages. PMID:27446023

  15. Stepwise adaptation of murine cytomegalovirus to cells of a foreign host for identification of host range determinants.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Pawletko, Kerstin; Indenbirken, Daniela; Schumacher, Uwe; Brune, Wolfram

    2015-06-01

    Ever since their first isolation 60 years ago, cytomegaloviruses have been recognized as being highly species specific. They replicate only in cells of their own or a closely related host species, while cells of phylogenetically more distant hosts are usually not permissive for viral replication. For instance, human cytomegalovirus replicates in human and chimpanzee fibroblasts but not in rodent cells, and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) replicates in cells of mice and rats but not in primate cells. However, the viral and cellular factors determining the narrow host range of cytomegaloviruses have remained largely unknown. We show that MCMV can be adapted stepwise to replicate in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE-1) cells and human fibroblasts. The human RPE-1 cells used for the initial adaptation step showed a pronounced contact inhibition and produced very low level of interferon-β transcripts upon cytomegalovirus infection, suggesting that these cells provide a particularly favorable environment for adaptation. By whole genome sequencing of the 230 kbp viral genomes of several adapted mutants, a limited number of mutations were detected. Comparison of several human cell-adapted MCMV clones and introduction of specific mutations into the wild-type MCMV genome by site-directed mutagenesis allows for the identification of viral host range determinants and provides the basis for elucidating the molecular basis of the cytomegalovirus host species specificity.

  16. Characterisation of Host Growth after Infection with a Broad-Range Freshwater Cyanopodophage

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Siobhan C.; Smith, James R.; Hayes, Paul K.; Watts, Joy E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater cyanophages are poorly characterised in comparison to their marine counterparts, however, the level of genetic diversity that exists in freshwater cyanophage communities is likely to exceed that found in marine environments, due to the habitat heterogeneity within freshwater systems. Many cyanophages are specialists, infecting a single host species or strain; however, some are less fastidious and infect a number of different host genotypes within the same species or even hosts from different genera. Few instances of host growth characterisation after infection by broad host-range phages have been described. Here we provide an initial characterisation of interactions between a cyanophage isolated from a freshwater fishing lake in the south of England and its hosts. Designated ΦMHI42, the phage is able to infect isolates from two genera of freshwater cyanobacteria, Planktothrix and Microcystis. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy indicate that ΦMHI42 is a member of the Podoviridae, albeit with a larger than expected capsid. The kinetics of host growth after infection with ΦMHI42 differed across host genera, species and strains in a way that was not related to the growth rate of the uninfected host. To our knowledge, this is the first characterisation of the growth of cyanobacteria in the presence of a broad host-range freshwater cyanophage. PMID:24489900

  17. Narrow- and Broad-Host-Range Symbiotic Plasmids of Rhizobium spp. Strains That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Susana; Martinez, Esperanza; Dávila, Guillermo; Palacios, Rafael

    1988-01-01

    Agrobacterium transconjugants containing symbiotic plasmids from different Rhizobium spp. strains that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris were obtained. All transconjugants conserved the parental nodulation host range. Symbiotic (Sym) plasmids of Rhizobium strains isolated originally from P. vulgaris nodules, which had a broad nodulation host range, and single-copy nitrogenase genes conferred a Fix+ phenotype to the Agrobacterium transconjugants. A Fix− phenotype was obtained with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from P. vulgaris nodules that had a narrow host range and reiterated nif genes, as well as with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from other legumes that presented single nif genes and a broad nodulation host range. This indicates that different types of Sym plasmids can confer the ability to establish an effective symbiosis with P. vulgaris. Images PMID:16347637

  18. Host plant range of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in areas of invasion of the New World.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Amalin, Divina; Hosein, Farzan; Roda, Amy; Duncan, Rita E; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    Raoiella indica has spread rapidly through the Neotropical region where the mite damages economically and ecologically important plants. Three studies were conducted to determine the host plant range of R. indica, using the presence of colonies containing all life stages as an indicator of reproductive suitability. Periodic surveys at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (Miami Dade County, FL, USA) and the Royal Botanical Gardens (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) identified 27 new reproductive host plants. The reproductive suitability of two dicotyledonous species and three native Florida palm species was examined. An updated list of reproductive host plants of R. indica is presented. All reported reproductive hosts (91 plant species) of R. indica are monocots from the orders Arecales (Arecaceae), Zingiberales (Heliconiaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Zingiberaceae) and Pandanales (Pandanaceae). Most are palms of the family Arecaceae that originated in areas of the Eastern Hemisphere; about one fourth of the reported hosts are native to the New World and could be considered new host associations of R. indica. Six years after the initial detection in the Caribbean, R. indica has expanded its host plant range. Here we report 27 new reproductive host of R. indica that represent 30% of increase on previous host plant records. As this mite continues spreading in the Neotropical region a great diversity of plants is potentially affected.

  19. Multiple host shifts by the emerging honeybee parasite, Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J M K; Anderson, D L; Tay, W T

    2015-05-01

    Host shifts are a key mechanism of parasite evolution and responsible for the emergence of many economically important pathogens. Varroa destructor has been a major factor in global honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines since shifting hosts from the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) > 50 years ago. Until recently, only two haplotypes of V. destructor (Korea and Japan) had successfully host shifted to A. mellifera. In 2008, the sister species V. jacobsoni was found for the first time parasitizing A. mellifera in Papua New Guinea (PNG). This recent host shift presents a serious threat to world apiculture but also provides the opportunity to examine host shifting in this system. We used 12 microsatellites to compare genetic variation of V. jacobsoni on A. mellifera in PNG with mites on A. cerana in both PNG and surrounding regions. We identified two distinct lineages of V. jacobsoni reproducing on A. mellifera in PNG. Our analysis indicated independent host shift events have occurred through small numbers of mites shifting from local A. cerana populations. Additional lineages were found in the neighbouring Papua and Solomon Islands that had partially host shifted to A. mellifera, that is producing immature offspring on drone brood only. These mites were likely in transition to full colonization of A. mellifera. Significant population structure between mites on the different hosts suggested host shifted V. jacobsoni populations may not still reproduce on A. cerana, although limited gene flow may exist. Our studies provide further insight into parasite host shift evolution and help characterize this new Varroa mite threat to A. mellifera worldwide.

  20. Infection of non-host model plant species with the narrow-host-range Cacao swollen shoot virus.

    PubMed

    Friscina, Arianna; Chiappetta, Laura; Jacquemond, Mireille; Tepfer, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) is a major pathogen of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Africa, and long-standing efforts to limit its spread by the culling of infected trees have had very limited success. CSSV is a particularly difficult virus to study, as it has a very narrow host range, limited to several tropical tree species. Furthermore, the virus is not mechanically transmissible, and its insect vector can only be used with difficulty. Thus, the only efficient means to infect cacao plants that have been experimentally described so far are by particle bombardment or the agroinoculation of cacao plants with an infectious clone. We have genetically transformed three non-host species with an infectious form of the CSSV genome: two experimental hosts widely used in plant virology (Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana) and the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. In transformed plants of all three species, the CSSV genome was able to replicate, and, in tobacco, CSSV particles could be observed by immunosorbent electron microscopy, demonstrating that the complete virus cycle could be completed in a non-host plant. These results will greatly facilitate the preliminary testing of CSSV control strategies using plants that are easy to raise and to transform genetically.

  1. Multiple-Zone Diffractive Optic Element for Laser Ranging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    A diffractive optic element (DOE) can be used as a beam splitter to generate multiple laser beams from a single input laser beam. This technology has been recently used in LRO s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to generate five laser beams that measure the lunar topography from a 50-km nominal mapping orbit (see figure). An extension of this approach is to use a multiple-zone DOE to allow a laser altimeter instrument to operate over a wider range of distances. In particular, a multiple-zone DOE could be used for applications that require both mapping and landing on a planetary body. In this case, the laser altimeter operating range would need to extend from several hundred kilometers down to a few meters. The innovator was recently involved in an investigation how to modify the LOLA instrument for the OSIRIS asteroid mapping and sample return mission. One approach is to replace the DOE in the LOLA laser beam expander assembly with a multiple-zone DOE that would allow for the simultaneous illumination of the asteroid with mapping and landing laser beams. The proposed OSIRIS multiple-zone DOE would generate the same LOLA five-beam output pattern for high-altitude topographic mapping, but would simultaneously generate a wide divergence angle beam using a small portion of the total laser energy for the approach and landing portion of the mission. Only a few percent of the total laser energy is required for approach and landing operations as the return signal increases as the inverse square of the ranging height. A wide divergence beam could be implemented by making the center of the DOE a diffractive or refractive negative lens. The beam energy and beam divergence characteristics of a multiple-zone DOE could be easily tailored to meet the requirements of other missions that require laser ranging data. Current single-zone DOE lithographic manufacturing techniques could also be used to fabricate a multiple-zone DOE by masking the different DOE zones during

  2. Evolutionary interpretations of mycobacteriophage biodiversity and host-range through the analysis of codon usage bias

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Lauren A.; Gupta, Swati; Streiter, Fraida; Prasad, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    In an genomics course sponsored by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), undergraduate students have isolated and sequenced the genomes of more than 1,150 mycobacteriophages, creating the largest database of sequenced bacteriophages able to infect a single host, Mycobacterium smegmatis, a soil bacterium. Genomic analysis indicates that these mycobacteriophages can be grouped into 26 clusters based on genetic similarity. These clusters span a continuum of genetic diversity, with extensive genomic mosaicism among phages in different clusters. However, little is known regarding the primary hosts of these mycobacteriophages in their natural habitats, nor of their broader host ranges. As such, it is possible that the primary host of many newly isolated mycobacteriophages is not M. smegmatis, but instead a range of closely related bacterial species. However, determining mycobacteriophage host range presents difficulties associated with mycobacterial cultivability, pathogenicity and growth. Another way to gain insight into mycobacteriophage host range and ecology is through bioinformatic analysis of their genomic sequences. To this end, we examined the correlations between the codon usage biases of 199 different mycobacteriophages and those of several fully sequenced mycobacterial species in order to gain insight into the natural host range of these mycobacteriophages. We find that UPGMA clustering tends to match, but not consistently, clustering by shared nucleotide sequence identify. In addition, analysis of GC content, tRNA usage and correlations between mycobacteriophage and mycobacterial codon usage bias suggests that the preferred host of many clustered mycobacteriophages is not M. smegmatis but other, as yet unknown, members of the mycobacteria complex or closely allied bacterial species. PMID:28348827

  3. Electrically and optically tunable plasmonic guest-host liquid crystals with long-range ordered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingkun; Yuan, Ye; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2014-07-09

    Practical guest-host devices in which dichroic dye molecules follow electrical switching of a liquid crystal host remain elusive for decades despite promising efficient displays and emergent applications such as smart windows. This is mainly because of poor stability, surface precipitation, and limited means for property engineering of the dyes. To overcome these challenges, we develop plasmonic metal nanoparticle analogues of dichroic guest-host liquid crystals. Nematic dispersions of aligned anisotropic gold nanoparticles are obtained by polymer passivation of their surfaces to impose weak tangential boundary conditions for orientation of anisotropic host molecules. Control of the ensuing surface interactions leads to long-range ordered colloidal dispersions, allowing for collective optical and electrical switching of rod- and platelet-like nanoparticles. This facile control of mesostructured plasmonic medium's optical properties in visible and infrared spectral ranges is of interest for many applications.

  4. Host-range Characterization of Two Pratylenchus coffeae Isolates from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. A.; Inomoto, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Two isolates of Pratylenchus coffeae were collected from coffee roots (in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil) and Aglaonema (in Rio de Janeiro City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and maintained in the laboratory on alfalfa callus. Twenty-four plants were tested in the greenhouse to characterize the host preference of these isolates. The host ranges of the isolates differed from each other and, interestingly, coffee, banana, and citrus were not among the better hosts of either isolate. Rather, sorghum, maize, rice, millet, okra, melon, eggplant, and lettuce were the best hosts of the Marília isolate. Poor hosts included French marigold, Rangpur lime, banana, sesame, peanut, sunflower, cotton, French bean, onion, and small onion. The best hosts of the Rio de Janeiro isolate were sesame, soybean, sorghum, castor oil plant, watermelon, squash, eggplant, and melon; the poorest hosts were French marigold, coffee, Rangpur lime, banana, sunflower, peanut, maize, millet, French bean, cotton, onion, sweet pepper, lettuce, okra, and small onion. These isolates have important molecular and morphological differences, suggesting host preference is linked to these characteristics. PMID:19265921

  5. Improvement of hydrological model calibration by selecting multiple parameter ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiaofeng; Liu, Shuguang; Cai, Yi; Li, Xinjian; Jiang, Yangming

    2017-01-01

    The parameters of hydrological models are usually calibrated to achieve good performance, owing to the highly non-linear problem of hydrology process modelling. However, parameter calibration efficiency has a direct relation with parameter range. Furthermore, parameter range selection is affected by probability distribution of parameter values, parameter sensitivity, and correlation. A newly proposed method is employed to determine the optimal combination of multi-parameter ranges for improving the calibration of hydrological models. At first, the probability distribution was specified for each parameter of the model based on genetic algorithm (GA) calibration. Then, several ranges were selected for each parameter according to the corresponding probability distribution, and subsequently the optimal range was determined by comparing the model results calibrated with the different selected ranges. Next, parameter correlation and sensibility were evaluated by quantifying two indexes, RC Y, X and SE, which can be used to coordinate with the negatively correlated parameters to specify the optimal combination of ranges of all parameters for calibrating models. It is shown from the investigation that the probability distribution of calibrated values of any particular parameter in a Xinanjiang model approaches a normal or exponential distribution. The multi-parameter optimal range selection method is superior to the single-parameter one for calibrating hydrological models with multiple parameters. The combination of optimal ranges of all parameters is not the optimum inasmuch as some parameters have negative effects on other parameters. The application of the proposed methodology gives rise to an increase of 0.01 in minimum Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (ENS) compared with that of the pure GA method. The rising of minimum ENS with little change of the maximum may shrink the range of the possible solutions, which can effectively reduce uncertainty of the model performance.

  6. Structural basis for antagonizing a host restriction factor by C7 family of poxvirus host-range proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Krumm, Brian; Li, Yongchao; Deng, Junpeng; Xiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Human sterile alpha motif domain-containing 9 (SAMD9) protein is a host restriction factor for poxviruses, but it can be overcome by some poxvirus host-range proteins that share homology with vaccinia virus C7 protein. To understand the mechanism of action for this important family of host-range factors, we determined the crystal structures of C7 and myxoma virus M64, a C7 family member that is unable to antagonize SAMD9. Despite their different functions and only 23% sequence identity, the two proteins have very similar overall structures, displaying a previously unidentified fold comprised of a compact 12-stranded antiparallel β-sandwich wrapped in two short α helices. Extensive structure-guided mutagenesis of C7 identified three loops clustered on one edge of the β sandwich as critical for viral replication and binding with SAMD9. The loops are characterized with functionally important negatively charged, positively charged, and hydrophobic residues, respectively, together forming a unique “three-fingered molecular claw.” The key residues of the claw are not conserved in two C7 family members that do not antagonize SAMD9 but are conserved in distantly related C7 family members from four poxvirus genera that infect diverse mammalian species. Indeed, we found that all in the latter group of proteins bind SAMD9. Taken together, our data indicate that diverse mammalian poxviruses use a conserved molecular claw in a C7-like protein to target SAMD9 and overcome host restriction. PMID:26578811

  7. Identification of FAM111A as an SV40 Host Range Restriction and Adenovirus Helper Factor

    PubMed Central

    Padi, Megha; Korkhin, Anna; James, Robert L.; Adelmant, Guillaume; Yoon, Rosa; Guo, Luxuan; Berrios, Christian; Zhang, Ying; Calderwood, Michael A.; Velmurgan, Soundarapandian; Cheng, Jingwei; Marto, Jarrod A.; Hill, David E.; Cusick, Michael E.; Vidal, Marc; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Litovchick, Larisa; DeCaprio, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The small genome of polyomaviruses encodes a limited number of proteins that are highly dependent on interactions with host cell proteins for efficient viral replication. The SV40 large T antigen (LT) contains several discrete functional domains including the LXCXE or RB-binding motif, the DNA binding and helicase domains that contribute to the viral life cycle. In addition, the LT C-terminal region contains the host range and adenovirus helper functions required for lytic infection in certain restrictive cell types. To understand how LT affects the host cell to facilitate viral replication, we expressed full-length or functional domains of LT in cells, identified interacting host proteins and carried out expression profiling. LT perturbed the expression of p53 target genes and subsets of cell-cycle dependent genes regulated by the DREAM and the B-Myb-MuvB complexes. Affinity purification of LT followed by mass spectrometry revealed a specific interaction between the LT C-terminal region and FAM111A, a previously uncharacterized protein. Depletion of FAM111A recapitulated the effects of heterologous expression of the LT C-terminal region, including increased viral gene expression and lytic infection of SV40 host range mutants and adenovirus replication in restrictive cells. FAM111A functions as a host range restriction factor that is specifically targeted by SV40 LT. PMID:23093934

  8. A novel expression system based on host-range expansion of baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Qi, Y; Liu, D; Joshua, M N; Wang, Y

    1998-12-01

    A host range expanded recombinant Autographa californica multiple-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrosis virus AcMNPV/r2 was obtained by cotransfection of the bacmid DNA from Escherichia coli DH10Bac along with a plasmid pBmH-M containing HindIII M fragment of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) genomic DNA. A recombinant transposon vector carrying a mutant green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) and a polyhedrin gene was constructed. Transposition was carried out in both E. coli DH10Bac and E. coli DH10BmH, which contains AcMNPV/r2 and a helper plasmid. Recombinant DNAs were transfected into Sf-9 cells to generate recombinant virus AcMNPV/r3 and AcMNPV/r4 respectively. Viral stock of AcMNPV/r4 was then infected into Bombyx mori cells (BmN) and Bombyx mori larvae (silkworm). Analysis shows that GFP was highly expressed in Bombyx mori larvae. This expression system, is practicable therefore for mass production of foreign gene products.

  9. Deep phylogeographical structure and parallel host range evolution in the leaf beetle Agelasa nigriceps.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Matsumoto, Kazuma; Katakura, Haruo

    2014-02-01

    To understand the mechanisms behind the diversification of herbivorous insects through insect-plant interactions, it is important to know how the insects change their diet breadth in response to environmental changes. In this study, we investigated the phylogeographical pattern of the leaf beetle Agelasa nigriceps to infer the evolutionary history of its host range. While this beetle commonly uses Actinidia arguta (Actinidiaceae) as a host plant, it has been recorded recently on Pterostyrax hispidus (Styracaceae), which is now increasing in abundance at some localities in Japan due to the indirect effects of high population size of a mammalian herbivore. Considerable variation among populations in the ability of Ag. nigriceps to use P. hispidus suggests that P. hispidus is a newly acquired host plant for this beetle. Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) revealed a high degree of phylogeographical structure in Ag. nigriceps throughout Japan, which is consistent with the hypothesis that several glacial refugia existed in the Japanese archipelago. In contrast, no genetic structure associated with the host plants was detected. Both the mitochondrial DNA and AFLP analyses showed that populations that can use P. hispidus are polyphyletic. These results and geographical variation in host use suggest that the host range expansion to a novel host, P. hispidus, is a very recent and possibly ongoing phenomenon and has occurred independently in several regions. Our study illustrates that the host range of herbivorous insects can evolve repeatedly in response to similar environmental changes.

  10. Implications of a temperature increase for host plant range: predictions for a butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Audusseau, Hélène; Nylin, Sören; Janz, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Although changes in phenology and species associations are relatively well-documented responses to global warming, the potential interactions between these phenomena are less well understood. In this study, we investigate the interactions between temperature, phenology (in terms of seasonal timing of larval growth) and host plant use in the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album. We found that the hierarchy of larval performance on three natural host plants was not modified by a temperature increase as such. However, larval performance on each host plant and temperature treatment was affected by rearing season. Even though larvae performed better at the higher temperature regardless of the time of the rearing, relative differences between host plants changed with the season. For larvae reared late in the season, performance was always better on the herbaceous plant than on the woody plants. In this species, it is likely that a prolonged warming will lead to a shift from univoltinism to bivoltinism. The demonstrated interaction between host plant suitability and season means that such a shift is likely to lead to a shift in selective regime, favoring specialization on the herbaceous host. Based on our result, we suggest that host range evolution in response to temperature increase would in this species be highly contingent on whether the population undergoes a predicted shift from one to two generations. We discuss the effect of global warming on species associations and the outcome of asynchrony in rates of phenological change. PMID:24101991

  11. Implications of a temperature increase for host plant range: predictions for a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Audusseau, Hélène; Nylin, Sören; Janz, Niklas

    2013-09-01

    Although changes in phenology and species associations are relatively well-documented responses to global warming, the potential interactions between these phenomena are less well understood. In this study, we investigate the interactions between temperature, phenology (in terms of seasonal timing of larval growth) and host plant use in the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album. We found that the hierarchy of larval performance on three natural host plants was not modified by a temperature increase as such. However, larval performance on each host plant and temperature treatment was affected by rearing season. Even though larvae performed better at the higher temperature regardless of the time of the rearing, relative differences between host plants changed with the season. For larvae reared late in the season, performance was always better on the herbaceous plant than on the woody plants. In this species, it is likely that a prolonged warming will lead to a shift from univoltinism to bivoltinism. The demonstrated interaction between host plant suitability and season means that such a shift is likely to lead to a shift in selective regime, favoring specialization on the herbaceous host. Based on our result, we suggest that host range evolution in response to temperature increase would in this species be highly contingent on whether the population undergoes a predicted shift from one to two generations. We discuss the effect of global warming on species associations and the outcome of asynchrony in rates of phenological change.

  12. Investigations of the Host Range of the Corn Cyst Nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Ringer, Chloe E.; Sardanelli, Sandra; Krusberg, Lorin R.

    1987-01-01

    The host range of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, recently detected in Maryland, was investigated. A total of 269 plant entries, representing 68 families, 172 genera, and 204 species, was inoculated with cysts or a mixture of eggs and second-stage juveniles of H. zeae. The host range of the Maryland population of H. zeae was limited to plants of the Gramineae and included 11 tribes, 33 genera, 42 species, and 77 entries. All 22 corn (Zea mays) cultivars tested were hosts. Other economic hosts included certain cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Arena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sugar cane (Saccharum interspecific hybrid), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum), a weed species common to cultivated fields in Maryland, was also a host for H. zeae. Other hosts included meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis), Calamagrostis eipgeios, Job's tears (Coix Lachryma-Jobi), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), witchgrass (Panicum capillare), broomcorn (Panicum miliaceum), fountain grass (Pennisetum rueppeli), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), common reed (Phragmites australis), eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides), corn (Zea mays), and teosinte (Zea mexicana). PMID:19290286

  13. Range Sensing By Projecting Multiple Slits With Random Cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Minoru; Abe, Shigeru

    1990-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a range sensing method by projecting a single pattern of multiple slits. To obtain 3D data by projecting a single pattern, certain codes for identifying each slit must be contained in the patten. In our method, random dots are used to identify each slit. The random dots are given as randomly distributed cuts on each slit. Thus, each slit is divided into many small line segments and using these segments as features, stereo matching is carried out to obtain 3D data. Using adjacent relations among slit-segments, the false matches are reduced and segment pairs, whose adjacent segments also correspond with each other, are extracted and considered to be correct matches. Then, from the resultant matches, the correspondence is propagated by utilizing the adjacency relationships to get an entire range image.

  14. Hybridization between two cestode species and its consequences for intermediate host range

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F1 hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii), both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, respectively). Methods We used an in vitro breeding system to hybridize Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii; hybridization rate was quantified using microsatellite markers. We measured several fitness relevant traits in pure lines of the parental parasite species as well as in their hybrids: hatching rates, infection rates in the copepod first host, and infection rates and growth in the two species of stickleback second hosts. Results We show that the parasites can hybridize in the in vitro system, although the proportion of self-fertilized offspring was higher in the heterospecific breeding pairs than in the control pure parental species. Hybrids have a lower hatching rate, but do not show any disadvantages in infection of copepods. In fish, hybrids were able to infect both stickleback species with equal frequency, whereas the pure lines were only able to infect their normal host species. Conclusions Although not yet documented in nature, our study shows that hybridization in Schistocephalus spp. is in principle possible and that, in respect to their expanded host range, the hybrids are fitter. Further studies are needed to find the reason for the maintenance of the species boundaries in wild populations. PMID:23390985

  15. Revisiting Trypanosoma rangeli Transmission Involving Susceptible and Non-Susceptible Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Luciana de Lima; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Guarneri, Alessandra Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli infects several triatomine and mammal species in South America. Its transmission is known to occur when a healthy insect feeds on an infected mammal or when an infected insect bites a healthy mammal. In the present study we evaluated the classic way of T. rangeli transmission started by the bite of a single infected triatomine, as well as alternative ways of circulation of this parasite among invertebrate hosts. The number of metacyclic trypomastigotes eliminated from salivary glands during a blood meal was quantified for unfed and recently fed nymphs. The quantification showed that ~50,000 parasites can be liberated during a single blood meal. The transmission of T. rangeli from mice to R. prolixus was evaluated using infections started through the bite of a single infected nymph. The mice that served as the blood source for single infected nymphs showed a high percentage of infection and efficiently transmitted the infection to new insects. Parasites were recovered by xenodiagnosis in insects fed on mice with infections that lasted approximately four months. Hemolymphagy and co-feeding were tested to evaluate insect-insect T. rangeli transmission. T. rangeli was not transmitted during hemolymphagy. However, insects that had co-fed on mice with infected conspecifics exhibited infection rates of approximately 80%. Surprisingly, 16% of the recipient nymphs became infected when pigeons were used as hosts. Our results show that T. rangeli is efficiently transmitted between the evaluated hosts. Not only are the insect-mouse-insect transmission rates high, but parasites can also be transmitted between insects while co-feeding on a living host. We show for the first time that birds can be part of the T. rangeli transmission cycle as we proved that insect-insect transmission is feasible during a co-feeding on these hosts. PMID:26469403

  16. Revisiting Trypanosoma rangeli Transmission Involving Susceptible and Non-Susceptible Hosts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luciana de Lima; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Guarneri, Alessandra Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli infects several triatomine and mammal species in South America. Its transmission is known to occur when a healthy insect feeds on an infected mammal or when an infected insect bites a healthy mammal. In the present study we evaluated the classic way of T. rangeli transmission started by the bite of a single infected triatomine, as well as alternative ways of circulation of this parasite among invertebrate hosts. The number of metacyclic trypomastigotes eliminated from salivary glands during a blood meal was quantified for unfed and recently fed nymphs. The quantification showed that ~50,000 parasites can be liberated during a single blood meal. The transmission of T. rangeli from mice to R. prolixus was evaluated using infections started through the bite of a single infected nymph. The mice that served as the blood source for single infected nymphs showed a high percentage of infection and efficiently transmitted the infection to new insects. Parasites were recovered by xenodiagnosis in insects fed on mice with infections that lasted approximately four months. Hemolymphagy and co-feeding were tested to evaluate insect-insect T. rangeli transmission. T. rangeli was not transmitted during hemolymphagy. However, insects that had co-fed on mice with infected conspecifics exhibited infection rates of approximately 80%. Surprisingly, 16% of the recipient nymphs became infected when pigeons were used as hosts. Our results show that T. rangeli is efficiently transmitted between the evaluated hosts. Not only are the insect-mouse-insect transmission rates high, but parasites can also be transmitted between insects while co-feeding on a living host. We show for the first time that birds can be part of the T. rangeli transmission cycle as we proved that insect-insect transmission is feasible during a co-feeding on these hosts.

  17. Multiple host kinases contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Roppenser, Bernhard; Kwon, Hyunwoo; Canadien, Veronica; Xu, Risheng; Devreotes, Peter N; Grinstein, Sergio; Brumell, John H

    2013-01-01

    SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.

  18. Oxatub[4]arene: a molecular "transformer" capable of hosting a wide range of organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei; Wang, Hao-Yi; Li, Dong-Hao; Yang, Liu-Pan; Jiang, Wei

    2016-04-28

    The molecular "transformer", oxatub[4]arene, was found to be able to host a wide range of organic cations. The strong binding ability is believed to originate from its four interconvertible and deep-cavity conformers. The binding behavior of such adaptable receptors may provide implications for molecular recognition in nature.

  19. Complete genome sequence of the broad-host-range strain Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we announce the complete genome sequence of the symbiotic and nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257. The genome shares a high degree of similarity with the closely related broad-host-range strains S. fredii NGR234 and HH103. Most striking, the USDA257 genome encodes for a wealt...

  20. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, a broad-host-range pathogen of plants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hitendra Kumar; da Silva, Daniel Passos; Devescovi, Giulia; Maraite, Henri; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Studholme, David J; Venturi, Vittorio

    2012-05-01

    Pseudomonas fuscovaginae was first reported as a pathogen of rice causing sheath rot in plants grown at high altitudes. P. fuscovaginae is now considered a broad-host-range plant pathogen causing disease in several economically important plants. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first draft genome sequence of a P. fuscovaginae strain.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, a Broad-Host-Range Pathogen of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Devescovi, Giulia; Maraite, Henri; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Studholme, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fuscovaginae was first reported as a pathogen of rice causing sheath rot in plants grown at high altitudes. P. fuscovaginae is now considered a broad-host-range plant pathogen causing disease in several economically important plants. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first draft genome sequence of a P. fuscovaginae strain. PMID:22535942

  2. Sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host range and sorghum resistance including cross-resistance from greenbug sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The graminous host range, and sources of sorghum plant resistance including cross resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) sorghums, [Sorghum bicolor L.) Moench], were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari, (Zehntner) in greenhouse no-choice experiments and ...

  3. The Relationship of Within-Host Multiplication and Virulence in a Plant-Virus System

    PubMed Central

    Pagán, Israel; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Background Virulence does not represent any obvious advantage to parasites. Most models of virulence evolution assume that virulence is an unavoidable consequence of within-host multiplication of parasites, resulting in trade-offs between within-host multiplication and between-host transmission fitness components. Experimental support for the central assumption of this hypothesis, i.e., for a positive correlation between within-host multiplication rates and virulence, is limited for plant-parasite systems. Methodology/Principal Findings We have addressed this issue in the system Arabidopsis thaliana-Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Virus multiplication and the effect of infection on plant growth and on viable seed production were quantified for 21 Arabidopsis wild genotypes infected by 3 CMV isolates. The effect of infection on plant growth and seed production depended of plant architecture and length of postembryonic life cycle, two genetically-determined traits, as well as on the time of infection in the plant's life cycle. A relationship between virus multiplication and virulence was not a general feature of this host-parasite system. This could be explained by tolerance mechanisms determined by the host genotype and operating differently on two components of plant fitness, biomass production and resource allocation to seeds. However, a positive relationship between virus multiplication and virulence was detected for some accessions with short life cycle and high seed weight to biomass ratio, which show lower levels of tolerance to infection. Conclusions/Significance These results show that genotype-specific tolerance mechanisms may lead to the absence of a clear relationship between parasite multiplication and virulence. Furthermore, a positive correlation between parasite multiplication and virulence may occur only in some genotypes and/or environmental conditions for a given host-parasite system. Thus, our results challenge the general validity of the trade

  4. Do-or-die life cycles and diverse post-infection resistance mechanisms limit the evolution of parasite host ranges.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Michael; Gudelj, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    In light of the dynamic nature of parasite host ranges and documented potential for rapid host shifts, the observed high host specificity of most parasites remains an ecological paradox. Different variants of host-use trade-offs have become a mainstay of theoretical explanations of the prevalence of host specialism, but empirical evidence for such trade-offs is rare. We propose an alternative theory based on basic features of the parasite life cycle: host selection and subsequent intrahost replication. We introduce a new concept of effective burst size that accounts for the fact that successful host selection does not guarantee intrahost replication. Our theory makes a general prediction that a parasite will expand its host range if its effective burst size is positive. An in silico model of bacteria-phage coevolution verifies our predictions and demonstrates that the tendency for relatively narrow host ranges in parasites can be explained even in the absence of trade-offs.

  5. Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng

    2016-07-01

    We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise.

  6. Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise. PMID:27364891

  7. Construction and characterization of regulated L-arabinose-inducible broad host range expression vectors in Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Sukchawalit, R; Vattanaviboon, P; Sallabhan, R; Mongkolsuk, S

    1999-12-15

    Several versions of broad host range (BHR), L-arabinose-inducible expression vectors were constructed. These expression vectors were based on a high copy number BHR pBBR1MCS-4 replicon that could replicate in both enteric and non-enteric Gram-negative bacteria. Two versions of expression cassettes containing multiple cloning sites either with or without a ribosome binding site were placed under transcriptional control of the Escherichia coli BAD promoter and araC gene. Three versions of vectors containing ampicillin or kanamycin or tetracycline resistance genes as selectable markers were constructed. In all six new L-arabinose-inducible BHR expression vectors containing many unique cloning sites, selectable markers were made to facilitate cloning and expression of genes in various Gram-negative bacteria. A Tn9 chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene was cloned into an expression vector, resulting in pBBad18Acat that was used to establish optimal expression conditions (addition of 0.02% L-arabinose to mid-exponential phase cells for at least 1 h) in a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. Comparison of the Cat enzyme activities between uninduced and a 180-min L-arabinose-induced culture showed a greater than 150-fold increased Cat specific activity. In addition, L-arabinose induction of exponential phase cells harboring pBBad18Acat gave a higher amount of Cat than similarly treated stationary phase cells. The usefulness of the expression vector was also demonstrated in both enteric and non-enteric Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Prevalence, Genetic Diversity, and Host Range of Tectiviruses among Members of the Bacillus cereus Group

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Annika

    2014-01-01

    GIL01, Bam35, GIL16, AP50, and Wip1 are tectiviruses preying on the Bacillus cereus group. Despite the significant contributions of phages in different biological processes, little is known about the dealings taking place between tectiviruses and their Gram-positive bacterial hosts. Therefore, this work focuses on characterizing the interactions between tectiviruses and the B. cereus group by assessing their occurrence and genetic diversity and evaluating their host range. To study the occurrence of tectiviruses in the B. cereus group, 2,000 isolates were evaluated using primers designed to be specific to two variable regions detected in previously described elements. PCR and propagation tests revealed that tectivirus-like elements occurred in less than 3% of the isolates. Regardless of this limited distribution, several novel tectiviruses were found, and partial DNA sequencing indicated that a greater diversity exists within the family Tectiviridae. Analyses of the selected variable regions, along with their host range, showed that tectiviruses in the B. cereus group can be clustered mainly into two different groups: the ones infecting B. anthracis and those isolated from other B. cereus group members. In order to address the host range of some novel tectiviruses, 120 strains were tested for sensitivity. The results showed that all the tested tectiviruses produced lysis in at least one B. cereus sensu lato strain. Moreover, no simple relationship between the infection patterns of the tectiviruses and their diversity was found. PMID:24795369

  9. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and host range of tectiviruses among members of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    GIL01, Bam35, GIL16, AP50, and Wip1 are tectiviruses preying on the Bacillus cereus group. Despite the significant contributions of phages in different biological processes, little is known about the dealings taking place between tectiviruses and their Gram-positive bacterial hosts. Therefore, this work focuses on characterizing the interactions between tectiviruses and the B. cereus group by assessing their occurrence and genetic diversity and evaluating their host range. To study the occurrence of tectiviruses in the B. cereus group, 2,000 isolates were evaluated using primers designed to be specific to two variable regions detected in previously described elements. PCR and propagation tests revealed that tectivirus-like elements occurred in less than 3% of the isolates. Regardless of this limited distribution, several novel tectiviruses were found, and partial DNA sequencing indicated that a greater diversity exists within the family Tectiviridae. Analyses of the selected variable regions, along with their host range, showed that tectiviruses in the B. cereus group can be clustered mainly into two different groups: the ones infecting B. anthracis and those isolated from other B. cereus group members. In order to address the host range of some novel tectiviruses, 120 strains were tested for sensitivity. The results showed that all the tested tectiviruses produced lysis in at least one B. cereus sensu lato strain. Moreover, no simple relationship between the infection patterns of the tectiviruses and their diversity was found.

  10. Ecological Genetics and Host Range Expansion by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Assefa, Y; Conlong, D E; Van Den Berg, J; Martin, L A

    2015-08-01

    The host plant range of pests can have important consequences for its evolution, and plays a critical role in the emergence and spread of a new pest outbreak. This study addresses the ecological genetics of the indigenous African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in an attempt to investigate the evolutionary forces that may be involved in the recent host range expansion and establishment of this species in Ethiopian and southern African sugarcane. We used populations from Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa to examine whether the host range expansion patterns shared by the Ethiopian and the southern African populations of B. fusca have evolved independently. Base-pair differences in the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were used to characterize haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relationships. There were seven haplotypes among the 30 sequenced individuals collected on four host plant species from 17 localities in the four countries. Of the seven COI haplotypes identified, the two major ones occurred in both sugarcane and maize. Genetic analyses revealed no detectable genetic differentiation between southern African B. fusca populations from maize and sugarcane (FST = 0.019; P = 0.24). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between populations of the pest from different geographic regions (FST = 0.948; P < 0.001). The main implication of these findings is that the B. fusca populations in maize in southern Africa are more likely to shift to sugarcane, suggesting that ecological opportunity is an important factor in host plant range expansion by a pest.

  11. The Fleas (Siphonaptera) in Iran: Diversity, Host Range, and Medical Importance

    PubMed Central

    Maleki-Ravasan, Naseh; Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Laudisoit, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background Flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. Studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial. The aims of this study were to make an exhaustive inventory of the literature on the fleas (Siphonaptera) and range of associated hosts in Iran, present their known distribution, and discuss their medical importance. Methodology/Principal Findings The data were obtained by an extensive literature review related to medically significant fleas in Iran published before 31st August 2016. The flea-host specificity was then determined using a family and subfamily-oriented criteria to further realize and quantify the shared and exclusive vertebrate hosts of fleas among Iran fleas. The locations sampled and reported in the literature were primarily from human habitation, livestock farms, poultry, and rodents’ burrows of the 31 provinces of the country. The flea fauna were dominated by seven families, namely the Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllidae, Pulicidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Coptopsyllidae, Ischnopsyllidae and Vermipsyllidae. The hosts associated with Iran fleas ranged from the small and large mammals to the birds. Pulicidae were associated with 73% (56/77) of identified host species. Flea-host association analysis indicates that rodents are the common hosts of 5 flea families but some sampling bias results in the reduced number of bird host sampled. Analyses of flea-host relationships at the subfamily level showed that most vertebrates hosted fleas belgonging to 3 subfamilies namely Xenopsyllinae (n = 43), Ctenophthalminae (n = 20) and

  12. Does scavenging extend the host range of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)?

    PubMed

    Půza, Vladimír; Mrácek, Zdenĕk

    2010-05-01

    Living and freeze-killed natural and laboratory hosts, with different susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes, were exposed to the larvae of Steinernema affine and Steinernema kraussei in two different experimental arenas (Eppendorf tubes, Petri dishes), and the success of the colonisation and eventual progeny production were observed. Both nematodes were able to colonise both living and dead larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) and adult Blatella germanica (Blattodea) even though the progeny production in dead hosts was lower on average. Living carabid beetles, Poecilus cupreus, and elaterid larvae (Coleoptera) were resistant to the infection, however, both nematodes were able to colonise and multiply in several dead P. cupreus and in a majority of dead elaterid larvae. By scavenging, EPNs can utilise cadavers of insects that are naturally resistant to EPN infection, and so broaden their host range.

  13. Chronic graft-versus-host disease: clinical presentation of multiple lesions of lichenoid and atrophic pattern*

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Luiza; Vieira, Érica Cristina; Minicucci, Eliana Maria; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; de Souza, Mair Pedro; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2013-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease is observed mainly in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation and is expressed by cutaneous or systemic signals and symptoms. Graft-versus-host disease is clinically classified as acute or chronic. Chronic Graft-versus-host disease occurs in up to 70% of hematopoietic cell transplanted patients and its clinical manifestations have important impact on morbidity and quality of life. The authors report an expressive cutaneous, oral and adnexal involvement in a patient with chronic Graft-versus-host disease with multiple lesions of lichenoid and atrophic pattern. PMID:24173188

  14. Genetic mixture of multiple source populations accelerates invasive range expansion.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Natalie K; Ochocki, Brad M; Crawford, Kerri M; Compagnoni, Aldo; Miller, Tom E X

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of population genetic studies have documented that many successful biological invasions stem from multiple introductions from genetically distinct source populations. Yet, mechanistic understanding of whether and how genetic mixture promotes invasiveness has lagged behind documentation that such mixture commonly occurs. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test the influence of genetic mixture on the velocity of invasive range expansion. The mechanistic basis for effects of genetic mixture could include evolutionary responses (mixed invasions may harbour greater genetic diversity and thus elevated evolutionary potential) and/or fitness advantages of between-population mating (heterosis). If driven by evolution, positive effects of source population mixture should increase through time, as selection sculpts genetic variation. If driven by heterosis, effects of mixture should peak following first reproductive contact and then dissipate. Using a laboratory model system (beetles spreading through artificial landscapes), we quantified the velocity of range expansion for invasions initiated with one, two, four or six genetic sources over six generations. Our experiment was designed to test predictions corresponding to the evolutionary and heterosis mechanisms, asking whether any effects of genetic mixture occurred in early or later generations of range expansion. We also quantified demography and dispersal for each experimental treatment, since any effects of mixture should be manifest in one or both of these traits. Over six generations, invasions with any amount of genetic mixture (two, four and six sources) spread farther than single-source invasions. Our data suggest that heterosis provided a 'catapult effect', leaving a lasting signature on range expansion even though the benefits of outcrossing were transient. Individual-level trait data indicated that genetic mixture had positive effects on local demography (reduced extinction risk and enhanced

  15. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:7618891

  16. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community

    PubMed Central

    Klümper, Uli; Riber, Leise; Dechesne, Arnaud; Sannazzarro, Analia; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Smets, Barth F

    2015-01-01

    Conjugal plasmids can provide microbes with full complements of new genes and constitute potent vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. Conjugal plasmid transfer is deemed responsible for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among microbes. While broad host range plasmids are known to transfer to diverse hosts in pure culture, the extent of their ability to transfer in the complex bacterial communities present in most habitats has not been comprehensively studied. Here, we isolated and characterized transconjugants with a degree of sensitivity not previously realized to investigate the transfer range of IncP- and IncPromA-type broad host range plasmids from three proteobacterial donors to a soil bacterial community. We identified transfer to many different recipients belonging to 11 different bacterial phyla. The prevalence of transconjugants belonging to diverse Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria suggests that inter-Gram plasmid transfer of IncP-1 and IncPromA-type plasmids is a frequent phenomenon. While the plasmid receiving fractions of the community were both plasmid- and donor- dependent, we identified a core super-permissive fraction that could take up different plasmids from diverse donor strains. This fraction, comprising 80% of the identified transconjugants, thus has the potential to dominate IncP- and IncPromA-type plasmid transfer in soil. Our results demonstrate that these broad host range plasmids have a hitherto unrecognized potential to transfer readily to very diverse bacteria and can, therefore, directly connect large proportions of the soil bacterial gene pool. This finding reinforces the evolutionary and medical significances of these plasmids. PMID:25333461

  17. Short- and long-range cues used by ground-dwelling parasitoids to find their host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubert, C.; Josso, C.; Louâpre, P.; Cortesero, A. M.; Poinsot, D.

    2013-02-01

    Parasitoids of phytophagous insects face a detectability-reliability dilemma when foraging for hosts. Plant-related cues are easily detectable, but do not guarantee the presence of the host. Host-related cues are very reliable, but much harder to detect from a distance. Little is known in particular about the way coleopteran parasitoid females use these cues when foraging for a suitable place to lay their eggs. The question is of interest because, unlike hymenopteran larvae, coleopteran parasitoid larvae are highly mobile and able to forage for hosts on their own. We assessed whether females of the parasitoid rove beetle Aleochara bipustulata (L.) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) are attracted to plant (Swede roots, Brassica napus) and host-related cues [pupae of the cabbage root fly Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)]. In the field, A. bipustulata adult females were captured in selective pitfall traps containing pieces of roots damaged by D. radicum larvae, but not in traps containing pieces of healthy roots or D. radicum pupae. However, in the laboratory, the odour of D. radicum pupae attracted A. bipustulata females to mini-pitfalls. Video monitoring in the laboratory showed that foraging A. bipustulata females preferred a zone containing D. radicum pupae and larval tracks rather than one containing an extract of D. radicum-infested roots. Our results suggest a behavioural sequence where A. bipustulata females use plant-related cues at a distance, but then switch their preference to host-related cues at a close range. This would be the first observation of this behaviour in coleopteran parasitoids.

  18. Cryptosporidium from a free-ranging marsupial host: bandicoots in urban Australia.

    PubMed

    Dowle, Matthew; Hill, Nichola J; Power, Michelle L

    2013-11-15

    Expansion of human settlement has increased the interface between people and bandicoots with implications for the emergence and spread of zoonotic parasites. The host status of bandicoots inhabiting suburban areas and their potential role in Cryptosporidium transmission remains unresolved. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence and identity of Cryptosporidium in two sympatric bandicoot species. Cryptosporidium signatures were detected in twelve bandicoot faecal samples (n=98) through amplification of the 18S rRNA. Phylogenetic inference placed the isolates in a clade with Cryptosporidium parvum, a species with a broad host range and zoonotic potential, or loosely related to Cryptosporidium hominis. However, the identity of the bandicoot isolates was not fully resolved and whether they were infected or simply passively transmitting oocysts is unknown. This study revealed that free-ranging bandicoots of northern Sydney were shedding Cryptosporidium oocysts at a prevalence of 12.2% (95% CI [6.76, 20.8]), similar to marsupial species that act as reservoirs for Cryptosporidium. Our findings expand the range of hosts known to shed Cryptosporidium in urban areas.

  19. The role of flagella and chemotaxis genes in host pathogen interaction of the host adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin compared to the broad host range serovar S. Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of flagella and chemotaxis genes in host pathogen interaction in Salmonella enterica is mainly based on studies of the broad host range serovar, S. Typhimurium, while little is known on the importance in host specific and host adapted serovars, such as S. Dublin. In the current study we have used previously characterized insertion mutants in flagella and chemotaxis genes to investigate this and possible differences in the importance between the two serovars. Results fliC (encoding the structural protein of the flagella) was essential for adhesion and fliC and cheB (CheB restores the chemotaxis system to pre-stimulus conformation) were essential for invasion of S. Dublin into epithelial Int407 cells. In S. Typhimurium, both lack of flagella (fliC/fljB double mutant) and cheB influenced adhesion, and invasion was influenced by lack of both cheA (the histidine-kinase of the chemotaxis system), fliC/fljB and cheB mutation. Uptake in J774A.1 macrophage cells was significantly reduced in cheA, cheB and fliC mutants of S. Dublin, while cheA was dispensable in S. Typhimurium. Removal of flagella in both serotypes caused an increased ability to propagate intracellular in J774 macrophage cells and decreased cytotoxicity toward these cells. Flagella and chemotaxis genes were found not to influence the oxidative response. The induction of IL-6 from J774A-1 cells depended on the presence of flagella in S. Typhimurium, whilst this was not the case following challenge with S. Dublin. Addition of fliC from S. Typhimurium in trans to a fliC mutant of S. Dublin increased cytotoxicity but it did not increase the IL-6 production. Flagella were demonstrated to contribute to the outcome of infection following oral challenge of mice in S. Dublin, while an S. Typhimurium fliC/fljB mutant showed increased virulence following intra peritoneal challenge. Conclusions The results showed that flagella and chemotaxis genes differed in their role in host pathogen

  20. Host Suitability of Diverse Lines of Phaseolus vulgaris to Multiple Populations of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James R.; Young, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    The host suitability of diverse races and gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) for multiple isolates of Heterodera glycines was studied. Twenty P. vulgaris genotypes, representing three of the six races within the two major germplasm pools, were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability to five H. glycines isolates. Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes differed in their host suitability to different H. glycines isolates. While some common bean lines were excellent hosts for some H. glycines isolates, no common bean line was a good host for all isolates. Some bean lines from races Durango and Mesoamerica, representing the Middle America gene pool, were resistant to all five nematode isolates. Other lines, from both the Andean and Middle America gene pools, had differential responses for host suitability to the different isolates of H. glycines. PMID:19265970

  1. Ecological host-range of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of Dioscorea bulbifera L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Open-field host-specificity testing assesses the host-range of a biological control agent in a setting that permits the agent to use its full complement of host-seeking behaviors. This form of testing, particularly when it includes a no-choice phase in which the target weed is killed, may provide th...

  2. Feline Host Range of Canine parvovirus: Recent Emergence of New Antigenic Types in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Tohya, Yukinobu; Takahashi, Eiji; Mochizuki, Masami

    2002-01-01

    Since the emergence of Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) in the late 1970s, CPV-2 has evolved consecutively new antigenic types, CPV-2a and 2b. Although CPV-2 did not have a feline host range, CPV-2a and 2b appear to have gained the ability to replicate in cats. Recent investigations demonstrate the prevalence of CPV-2a and 2b infection in a wide range of cat populations. We illustrate the pathogenic potential of CPV in cats and assesses the risk caused by CPV variants. PMID:11971764

  3. All five host-range variants of Xanthomonas citri carry one pthA homolog with 17.5 repeats that determines pathogenicity on citrus, but none determine host-range variation.

    PubMed

    Al-Saadi, Abdulwahid; Reddy, Joseph D; Duan, Yong P; Brunings, Asha M; Yuan, Qiaoping; Gabriel, Dean W

    2007-08-01

    Citrus canker disease is caused by five groups of Xanthomonas citri strains that are distinguished primarily by host range: three from Asia (A, A*, and A(w)) and two that form a phylogenetically distinct clade and originated in South America (B and C). Every X. citri strain carries multiple DNA fragments that hybridize with pthA, which is essential for the pathogenicity of wide-host-range X. citri group A strain 3213. DNA fragments that hybridized with pthA were cloned from a representative strain from all five groups. Each strain carried one and only one pthA homolog that functionally complemented a knockout mutation of pthA in 3213. Every complementing homolog was of identical size to pthA and carried 17.5 nearly identical, direct tandem repeats, including three new genes from narrow-host-range groups C (pthC), A(w) (pthAW), and A* (pthA*). Every noncomplementing paralog was of a different size; one of these was sequenced from group A* (pthA*-2) and was found to have an intact promoter and full-length reading frame but with 15.5 repeats. None of the complementing homologs nor any of the noncomplementing paralogs conferred avirulence to 3213 on grapefruit or suppressed avirulence of a group A* strain on grapefruit. A knockout mutation of pthC in a group C strain resulted in loss of pathogenicity on lime, but the strain was unaffected in ability to elicit an HR on grapefruit. This pthC- mutant was fully complemented by pthA, pthB, or pthC. Analysis of the predicted amino-acid sequences of all functional pthA homologs and nonfunctional paralogs indicated that the specific sequence of the 17th repeat may be essential for pathogenicity of X. citri on citrus.

  4. Different Mesorhizobium species associated with Caragana carry similar symbiotic genes and have common host ranges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen Feng; Guan, Su Hua; Zhao, Chun Tian; Yan, Xue Rui; Man, Chao Xin; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2008-06-01

    Fourteen strains representing 11 Caragana-nodulating Mesorhizobium genomic species were identified as representing Mesorhizobium amorphae, Mesorhizobium huakuii, Mesorhizobium septentrionale and groups related to Mesorhizobium plurifarium, Mesorhizobium temperatum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense and Mesorhizobium mediterraneum by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, partial housekeeping recA gene, and previously performed sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins and BOX-PCR fingerprinting. Despite their different taxonomic affiliation, highly similar symbiotic genes (>93% similarity for nodC and >91.8% similarity for nifH) were found among the Caragana strains and the three type strains for M. tianshanense, M. temperatum and M. septentrionale. Cross nodulation tests revealed that each of these 14 Caragana mesorhizobia and the three type strains mentioned above could effectively infect each of their original host plants, Caragana microphylla, Glycyrrhiza (host for M. tianshanense type strain) and Astragalus adsurgens (host for M. temperatum and M. septentrionale type strains). These results provide evidence that different Mesorhizobium species can nodulate with Caragana, and they have similar symbiotic genes (probably acquired by a phenomenon of lateral gene transfer) and common host ranges.

  5. Genetic evidence confirms polygamous mating system in a crustacean parasite with multiple hosts.

    PubMed

    Jossart, Quentin; Wattier, Rémi A; Kastally, Chedly; Aron, Serge; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007) proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders). Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software) as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus.

  6. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Junglen, Sandra; Korries, Marvin; Grasse, Wolfgang; Wieseler, Janett; Kopp, Anne; Hermanns, Kyra; León-Juárez, Moises; Drosten, Christian; Kümmerer, Beate Mareike

    2017-01-01

    of viruses with a host range exclusively restricted to insects in close relationship to the vertebrate-pathogenic flaviviruses were discovered in mosquitoes. To identify barriers that could block the arboviral vertebrate tropism, we set out to identify the steps at which the ISF replication cycle fails in vertebrates. Our studies revealed blocks at several levels, suggesting that flavivirus host range expansion from insects to vertebrates was a complex process that involved overcoming multiple barriers.

  7. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Junglen, Sandra; Korries, Marvin; Grasse, Wolfgang; Wieseler, Janett; Kopp, Anne; Hermanns, Kyra; León-Juárez, Moises; Drosten, Christian

    2017-01-01

    increasing number of viruses with a host range exclusively restricted to insects in close relationship to the vertebrate-pathogenic flaviviruses were discovered in mosquitoes. To identify barriers that could block the arboviral vertebrate tropism, we set out to identify the steps at which the ISF replication cycle fails in vertebrates. Our studies revealed blocks at several levels, suggesting that flavivirus host range expansion from insects to vertebrates was a complex process that involved overcoming multiple barriers. PMID:28101536

  8. Emergence of elevated levels of multiple infections in spatial host-virus dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Bradford; Penington, Catherine; Weitz, Joshua

    Bacteria are subject to infection and potentially to multiple simultaneous infections by viruses. Multiply infected hosts have altered life-history traits (e.g., viral burst size) and evolutionary rates (e.g., viral recombination). Yet our understanding of multiple infections of microbes is limited to lab settings where the ratio of inoculant viruses to hosts is controlled. In contrast, rates of multiple infection in natural environments are unknown. Here, we develop an individual based model to quantify rates of multiple infections by a single viral type. We explore different dispersal regimes by varying the viral adsorption rate. High dispersal regimes lead to spatial dynamics and rates of multiple infection equivalent to predictions from mean field models. Local clustering of bacterial hosts occurs for low dispersal. Comparing to mean field, the clustering leads to increased rates of multiple infection and fatter tails in the distribution of the number of internal viruses. The emergence of increased colocalization of viruses with infected hosts leads to these deviations. We show these deviations result from the wave-like spread of viruses when invading clusters of bacteria. Our work represents a key step in understanding the population-level effects of multiple infections.

  9. Host-Range Dynamics of Cochliobolus lunatus: From a Biocontrol Agent to a Severe Environmental Threat

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Sharma, Chandradev K.; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-01-01

    We undertook an investigation to advance understanding of the host-range dynamics and biocontrol implications of Cochliobolus lunatus in the past decade. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) farms were routinely surveyed for brown-to-black leaf spot disease caused by C. lunatus. A biphasic gene data set was assembled and databases were mined for reported hosts of C. lunatus in the last decade. The placement of five virulent strains of C. lunatus causing foliar necrosis of potato was studied with microscopic and phylogenetic tools. Analysis of morphology showed intraspecific variations in stromatic tissues among the virulent strains causing foliar necrosis of potato. A maximum likelihood inference based on GPDH locus separated C. lunatus strains into subclusters and revealed the emergence of unclustered strains. The evolving nutritional requirement of C. lunatus in the last decade is exhibited by the invasion of vertebrates, invertebrates, dicots, and monocots. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of the host-range dynamics of C. lunatus and provide useful implications on the threat posed to the environment when C. lunatus is used as a mycoherbicide. PMID:24987680

  10. Prediction of steps in the evolution of variola virus host range.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Chad; Purdy, Alex; Verster, Adrian J; Upton, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Variola virus, the agent of smallpox, has a severely restricted host range (humans) but a devastatingly high mortality rate. Although smallpox has been eradicated by a World Health Organization vaccination program, knowledge of the evolutionary processes by which human super-pathogens such as variola virus arise is important. By analyzing the evolution of variola and other closely related poxviruses at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms we detected a hotspot of genome variation within the smallpox ortholog of the vaccinia virus O1L gene, which is known to be necessary for efficient replication of vaccinia virus in human cells. These mutations in the variola virus ortholog and the subsequent loss of the functional gene from camelpox virus and taterapox virus, the two closest relatives of variola virus, strongly suggest that changes within this region of the genome may have played a key role in the switch to humans as a host for the ancestral virus and the subsequent host-range restriction that must have occurred to create the phenotype exhibited by smallpox.

  11. Prediction of Steps in the Evolution of Variola Virus Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Chad; Purdy, Alex; Verster, Adrian J.; Upton, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Variola virus, the agent of smallpox, has a severely restricted host range (humans) but a devastatingly high mortality rate. Although smallpox has been eradicated by a World Health Organization vaccination program, knowledge of the evolutionary processes by which human super-pathogens such as variola virus arise is important. By analyzing the evolution of variola and other closely related poxviruses at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms we detected a hotspot of genome variation within the smallpox ortholog of the vaccinia virus O1L gene, which is known to be necessary for efficient replication of vaccinia virus in human cells. These mutations in the variola virus ortholog and the subsequent loss of the functional gene from camelpox virus and taterapox virus, the two closest relatives of variola virus, strongly suggest that changes within this region of the genome may have played a key role in the switch to humans as a host for the ancestral virus and the subsequent host-range restriction that must have occurred to create the phenotype exhibited by smallpox. PMID:24626337

  12. Eilat virus, a unique alphavirus with host range restricted to insects by RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nasar, Farooq; Palacios, Gustavo; Gorchakov, Rodion V; Guzman, Hilda; Da Rosa, Amelia P Travassos; Savji, Nazir; Popov, Vsevolod L; Sherman, Michael B; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2012-09-04

    Most alphaviruses and many other arboviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. Consequently, they can be propagated in most vertebrate and insect cell cultures. This ability of arboviruses to infect arthropods and vertebrates is usually essential for their maintenance in nature. However, several flaviviruses have recently been described that infect mosquitoes but not vertebrates, although the mechanism of their host restriction has not been determined. Here we describe a unique alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani mosquitoes from the Negev desert of Israel. Phylogenetic analyses placed EILV as a sister to the Western equine encephalitis antigenic complex within the main clade of mosquito-borne alphaviruses. Electron microscopy revealed that, like other alphaviruses, EILV virions were spherical, 70 nm in diameter, and budded from the plasma membrane of mosquito cells in culture. EILV readily infected a variety of insect cells with little overt cytopathic effect. However, in contrast to typical mosquito-borne alphaviruses, EILV could not infect mammalian or avian cell lines, and viral as well as RNA replication could not be detected at 37 °C or 28 °C. Evolutionarily, these findings suggest that EILV lost its ability to infect vertebrate cells. Thus, EILV seems to be mosquito-specific and represents a previously undescribed complex within the genus Alphavirus. Reverse genetic studies of EILV may facilitate the discovery of determinants of alphavirus host range that mediate disease emergence.

  13. Secreted effectors in Toxoplasma gondii and related species: determinants of host range and pathogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    English, E D; Adomako-Ankomah, Y; Boyle, J P

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of secreted proteins in Toxoplasma gondii that play important roles in host–pathogen interactions and parasite virulence, particularly in the mouse model. However, the role that these proteins play in driving the unique features of T. gondii compared to some of its nearest apicomplexan relatives (Hammondia hammondi and Neospora caninum) is unknown. These unique features include distinct dissemination characteristics in vivo and a vast host range. In this review we comprehensively survey what is known about disease outcome, the host response and host range for T. gondii, H. hammondi, and N. caninum. We then review what is presently known about recently identified secreted virulence effectors in these three genetically related, but phenotypically distinct, species. Finally we exploit the existence of genome sequences for these three organisms and discuss what is known about the presence, and functionality, of key T. gondii effectors in these three species. PMID:25655311

  14. The Influence of Multiple Host Contacts on the Acquisition and Transmission of Dengue-2 Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    efficient vector and can transmit virus each time it probes or imbibes blood from a host. Dengue viruses might make it more difficult for A&. aegnti to...infective, A&. agMgti is an efficient vector and can transmit virus each time it probes or imbibes blood from a host. Dengue viruses night alter the...proposing that multiple contacts contribute to dengue virus transmission. Also, I discuss the illnesses caused by dengue viruses and the transmission of

  15. Parallel processing in a host plus multiple array processor system for radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkan, B. Z.

    1983-01-01

    Host plus multiple array processor architecture is demonstrated to yield a modular, fast, and cost-effective system for radar processing. Software methodology for programming such a system is developed. Parallel processing with pipelined data flow among the host, array processors, and discs is implemented. Theoretical analysis of performance is made and experimentally verified. The broad class of problems to which the architecture and methodology can be applied is indicated.

  16. Emerging Trends in Molecular Interactions between Plants and the Broad Host Range Fungal Pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    PubMed Central

    Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Peyraud, Rémi; Barascud, Marielle; Badet, Thomas; Vincent, Rémy; Barbacci, Adelin; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are major threats to food security worldwide. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related Ascomycete plant pathogens causing mold diseases on hundreds of plant species. There is no genetic source of complete plant resistance to these broad host range pathogens known to date. Instead, natural plant populations show a continuum of resistance levels controlled by multiple genes, a phenotype designated as quantitative disease resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between plants and S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea but significant advances were made on this topic in the last years. This minireview highlights a selection of nine themes that emerged in recent research reports on the molecular bases of plant-S. sclerotiorum and plant-B. cinerea interactions. On the fungal side, this includes progress on understanding the role of oxalic acid, on the study of fungal small secreted proteins. Next, we discuss the exchanges of small RNA between organisms and the control of cell death in plant and fungi during pathogenic interactions. Finally on the plant side, we highlight defense priming by mechanical signals, the characterization of plant Receptor-like proteins and the hormone abscisic acid in the response to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, the role of plant general transcription machinery and plant small bioactive peptides. These represent nine trends we selected as remarkable in our understanding of fungal molecules causing disease and plant mechanisms associated with disease resistance to two devastating broad host range fungi. PMID:27066056

  17. A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Ndungo, Esther; Herbert, Andrew S.; Raaben, Matthijs; Obernosterer, Gregor; Biswas, Rohan; Miller, Emily Happy; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Carette, Jan E.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Whelan, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses are the causative agents of an increasing number of disease outbreaks in human populations, including the current unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in western Africa. One obstacle to controlling these epidemics is our poor understanding of the host range of filoviruses and their natural reservoirs. Here, we investigated the role of the intracellular filovirus receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a molecular determinant of Ebola virus (EBOV) host range at the cellular level. Whereas human cells can be infected by EBOV, a cell line derived from a Russell’s viper (Daboia russellii) (VH-2) is resistant to infection in an NPC1-dependent manner. We found that VH-2 cells are resistant to EBOV infection because the Russell’s viper NPC1 ortholog bound poorly to the EBOV spike glycoprotein (GP). Analysis of panels of viper-human NPC1 chimeras and point mutants allowed us to identify a single amino acid residue in NPC1, at position 503, that bidirectionally influenced both its binding to EBOV GP and its viral receptor activity in cells. Significantly, this single residue change perturbed neither NPC1’s endosomal localization nor its housekeeping role in cellular cholesterol trafficking. Together with other recent work, these findings identify sequences in NPC1 that are important for viral receptor activity by virtue of their direct interaction with EBOV GP and suggest that they may influence filovirus host range in nature. Broader surveys of NPC1 orthologs from vertebrates may delineate additional sequence polymorphisms in this gene that control susceptibility to filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Identifying cellular factors that determine susceptibility to infection can help us understand how Ebola virus is transmitted. We asked if the EBOV receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) could explain why reptiles are resistant to EBOV infection. We demonstrate that cells derived from the Russell’s viper are not susceptible to infection because EBOV

  18. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    PubMed

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  19. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  20. Wide Host Ranges of Herbivorous Beetles? Insights from DNA Bar Coding

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest. PMID:24073210

  1. Temperature-dependent alterations in host use drive rapid range expansion in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Pateman, Rachel M; Hill, Jane K; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard; Thomas, Chris D

    2012-05-25

    Responses of species to climate change are extremely variable, perhaps because of climate-related changes to interactions among species. We show that temperature-related changes in the dependence of the butterfly Aricia agestis on different larval host plants have facilitated rapid range expansion. Historically, the butterfly was largely restricted to a single plant species, Helianthemum nummularium, but recent warmer conditions have enabled the butterfly to increasingly use the more widespread plant species Geranium molle. This has resulted in a substantial increase in available habitat and rapid range expansion by the butterfly (79 kilometers northward in Britain in 20 years). Interactions among species are often seen as constraints on species' responses to climate change, but we show that temperature-dependent changes to interspecific interactions can also facilitate change.

  2. Genome degradation in Brucella ovis corresponds with narrowing of its host range and tissue tropism.

    PubMed

    Tsolis, Renee M; Seshadri, Rekha; Santos, Renato L; Sangari, Felix J; Lobo, Juan M García; de Jong, Maarten F; Ren, Qinghu; Myers, Garry; Brinkac, Lauren M; Nelson, William C; Deboy, Robert T; Angiuoli, Samuel; Khouri, Hoda; Dimitrov, George; Robinson, Jeffrey R; Mulligan, Stephanie; Walker, Richard L; Elzer, Philip E; Hassan, Karl A; Paulsen, Ian T

    2009-01-01

    Brucella ovis is a veterinary pathogen associated with epididymitis in sheep. Despite its genetic similarity to the zoonotic pathogens B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis, B. ovis does not cause zoonotic disease. Genomic analysis of the type strain ATCC25840 revealed a high percentage of pseudogenes and increased numbers of transposable elements compared to the zoonotic Brucella species, suggesting that genome degradation has occurred concomitant with narrowing of the host range of B. ovis. The absence of genomic island 2, encoding functions required for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, as well as inactivation of genes encoding urease, nutrient uptake and utilization, and outer membrane proteins may be factors contributing to the avirulence of B. ovis for humans. A 26.5 kb region of B. ovis ATCC25840 Chromosome II was absent from all the sequenced human pathogenic Brucella genomes, but was present in all of 17 B. ovis isolates tested and in three B. ceti isolates, suggesting that this DNA region may be of use for differentiating B. ovis from other Brucella spp. This is the first genomic analysis of a non-zoonotic Brucella species. The results suggest that inactivation of genes involved in nutrient acquisition and utilization, cell envelope structure and urease may have played a role in narrowing of the tissue tropism and host range of B. ovis.

  3. Genome Degradation in Brucella ovis Corresponds with Narrowing of Its Host Range and Tissue Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Tsolis, Renee M.; Seshadri, Rekha; Santos, Renato L.; Sangari, Felix J.; Lobo, Juan M. García; de Jong, Maarten F.; Ren, Qinghu; Myers, Garry; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Nelson, William C.; DeBoy, Robert T.; Angiuoli, Samuel; Khouri, Hoda; Dimitrov, George; Robinson, Jeffrey R.; Mulligan, Stephanie; Walker, Richard L.; Elzer, Philip E.; Hassan, Karl A.; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2009-01-01

    Brucella ovis is a veterinary pathogen associated with epididymitis in sheep. Despite its genetic similarity to the zoonotic pathogens B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis, B. ovis does not cause zoonotic disease. Genomic analysis of the type strain ATCC25840 revealed a high percentage of pseudogenes and increased numbers of transposable elements compared to the zoonotic Brucella species, suggesting that genome degradation has occurred concomitant with narrowing of the host range of B. ovis. The absence of genomic island 2, encoding functions required for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, as well as inactivation of genes encoding urease, nutrient uptake and utilization, and outer membrane proteins may be factors contributing to the avirulence of B. ovis for humans. A 26.5 kb region of B. ovis ATCC25840 Chromosome II was absent from all the sequenced human pathogenic Brucella genomes, but was present in all of 17 B. ovis isolates tested and in three B. ceti isolates, suggesting that this DNA region may be of use for differentiating B. ovis from other Brucella spp. This is the first genomic analysis of a non-zoonotic Brucella species. The results suggest that inactivation of genes involved in nutrient acquisition and utilization, cell envelope structure and urease may have played a role in narrowing of the tissue tropism and host range of B. ovis. PMID:19436743

  4. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. PMID:21457381

  5. “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” Prophage Late Genes May Limit Host Range and Culturability

    PubMed Central

    Fleites, Laura A.; Jain, Mukesh; Zhang, Shujian

    2014-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” is an uncultured alphaproteobacterium that systemically colonizes its insect host both inter- and intracellularly and also causes a severe, crop-destroying disease of citrus called huanglongbing, or citrus “greening.” In planta, “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” is also systemic but phloem limited. “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” strain UF506 carries two predicted prophages, SC1 and SC2. Bacteriophage particles have been observed in experimentally “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected periwinkle but not in any other host. Comparative gene expression analysis of predicted SC1 late genes showed a much higher level of late gene expression, including holin transcripts (SC1_gp110), in “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected periwinkle relative to “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected citrus. To functionally characterize predicted holin and endolysin activity, SC1_gp110 and two predicted endolysins, one within SC1 (SC1_gp035) and another well outside the predicted prophage region (CLIBASIA_04790), were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Both SC1 genes inhibited bacterial growth consistent with holin and endolysin function. The holin (SC1_gp110) promoter region was fused with a uidA reporter on pUFR071, a wide bacterial host range (repW) replicon, and used to transform Liberibacter crescens strain BT-1 by electroporation. BT-1 is the only liberibacter strain cultured to date and was used as a proxy for “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus.” pUFR071 was >95% stable without selection in BT-1 for over 20 generations. The reporter construct exhibited strong constitutive glucuronidase (GUS) activity in culture-grown BT-1 cells. However, GUS reporter activity in BT-1 was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by crude aqueous extracts from psyllids. Taken together with plant expression data, these observations indicate that “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” prophage activation may limit “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” host

  6. Rampant host switching and multiple female body colour transitions in Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z-F; Huang, D-W; Chen, L-L; Zhen, W-Q; Fu, Y-G; Peng, Z-Q

    2006-07-01

    Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and their associated fig waSPS (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea and Agaonidae) have attracted much attention and have been used as a model system for many studies. Fig waSPS belonging to the genus Philotrypesis are very common in most figs but their taxonomy, ecology and biology are currently poorly explored. A previous study on African Philotrypesis showed that their host association is phylogenetically conserved at subsection level. We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny with extended sampling from seven sections of figs. Our study suggested that the diversification of Philotrypesis is less constrained by host figs. Host switching is rampant between figs at species level and even at section level. We also investigated the evolution of the body colour forms in female Philotrypesis. Our study first suggested that female body colour is not evolutionarily stable and that there have been multiple transitions. Possible mechanisms for multiple colour transitions are expected to be determined in the near future.

  7. The impact of multiple infections on wild animal hosts: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Field parasitological studies consistently demonstrate the reality of polyparasitism in natural systems. However, only recently, studies from ecological and evolutionary fields have emphasised a broad spectrum of potential multiple infections-related impacts. The main goal of our review is to reunify the different approaches on the impacts of polyparasitism, not only from laboratory or human medical studies but also from field or theoretical studies. We put forward that ecological and epidemiological determinants to explain the level of polyparasitism, which regularly affects not only host body condition, survival or reproduction but also host metabolism, genetics or immune investment. Despite inherent limitations of all these studies, multiple infections should be considered more systematically in wildlife to better appreciate the importance of parasite diversity in wildlife, cumulative effects of parasitism on the ecology and evolution of their hosts. PMID:22957114

  8. GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF STREPTOCCOCUS AGALACTIAE ISOLATES FROM MULTIPLE HOSTS AND THEIR INFECTIVITY IN NILE TILAPIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our laboratory has conducted multiple studies to investigate the genomic diversity of GBS isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regions. We have examined fish and dolphin GBS strains using phenotypic, serological typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) techniques and comp...

  9. Characterization of novel virulent broad-host-range phages of Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Stephen J; Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Young, Ry; Gonzalez, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of several plant diseases, most notably Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis. We report the isolation and characterization of the first virulent phages for X. fastidiosa, siphophages Sano and Salvo and podophages Prado and Paz, with a host range that includes Xanthomonas spp. Phages propagated on homologous hosts had observed adsorption rate constants of ~4 × 10(-12) ml cell(-1) min(-1) for X. fastidiosa strain Temecula 1 and ~5 × 10(-10) to 7 × 10(-10) ml cell(-1) min(-1) for Xanthomonas strain EC-12. Sano and Salvo exhibit >80% nucleotide identity to each other in aligned regions and are syntenic to phage BcepNazgul. We propose that phage BcepNazgul is the founding member of a novel phage type, to which Sano and Salvo belong. The lysis genes of the Nazgul-like phage type include a gene that encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein endolysin and also spanin gene families that provide insight into the evolution of the lysis pathway for phages of Gram-negative hosts. Prado and Paz, although exhibiting no significant DNA homology to each other, are new members of the phiKMV-like phage type, based on the position of the single-subunit RNA polymerase gene. The four phages are type IV pilus dependent for infection of both X. fastidiosa and Xanthomonas. The phages may be useful as agents for an effective and environmentally responsible strategy for the control of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa.

  10. Multiple attractors of host-parasitoid models with integrated pest management strategies: eradication, persistence and outbreak.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Xiao, Yanni; Cheke, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Host-parasitoid models including integrated pest management (IPM) interventions with impulsive effects at both fixed and unfixed times were analyzed with regard to host-eradication, host-parasitoid persistence and host-outbreak solutions. The host-eradication periodic solution with fixed moments is globally stable if the host's intrinsic growth rate is less than the summation of the mean host-killing rate and the mean parasitization rate during the impulsive period. Solutions for all three categories can coexist, with switch-like transitions among their attractors showing that varying dosages and frequencies of insecticide applications and the numbers of parasitoids released are crucial. Periodic solutions also exist for models with unfixed moments for which the maximum amplitude of the host is less than the economic threshold. The dosages and frequencies of IPM interventions for these solutions are much reduced in comparison with the pest-eradication periodic solution. Our results, which are robust to inclusion of stochastic effects and with a wide range of parameter values, confirm that IPM is more effective than any single control tactic.

  11. Gyrodactylus proterorhini in its non-native range: distribution and ability to host-switch in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Ondračková, Markéta

    2016-08-01

    Successful co-introduction of a parasite and its host relies not only on presence of the parasite on host individuals in the founder population but also on the ability of both host and parasite to persist in the new area. Gyrodactylus proterorhini (Monogenea) has been successfully co-introduced with its Ponto-Caspian goby hosts (Babka gymnotrachelus, Neogobius fluviatilis, Neogobius melanostomus, Ponticola kessleri, Proterorhinus semilunaris) to many freshwater systems in Europe and is now widely distributed over four large European river basins (Danube, Rhine, Scheldt and Vistula). Within Europe, higher infection levels are documented in sites further from the native host range. In North America, however, G. proterorhini appears to be absent. Host specificity of G. proterorhini tested under natural conditions showed accidental host-switching onto local fish species (native Perca fluviatilis and non-native Perccottus glenii) in the river Vistula. Further examination of host-switching under experimental conditions, however, showed that G. proterorhini were unable to survive on non-gobiid hosts longer than 24 h. Our results indicate extremely low potential for host-switching of introduced G. proterorhini to non-gobiid hosts, at least in the freshwater systems of Central and Western Europe.

  12. Species identification, host range and diversity of Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) infesting Ribes in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Stalažs, Arturs; Moročko-Bičevska, Inga

    2016-06-01

    Cecidophyopsis mites are important pests in all cultivation regions of Ribes causing bud galls and sterility. Despite their economic importance, the knowledge on Cecidophyopsis species infesting Ribes in various areas of the world is still deficient. The present study was carried out to identify Cecidophyopsis species occurring in Latvia on cultivated and wild Ribes, to assess their host range and gain insight into the genetic diversity of these insufficiently studied pests by use of multiplex PCR, rDNA sequences and morphological characters. Cecidophyopsis alpina, C. aurea, C. spicata and C. selachodon were detected to occur in all surveyed habitats. For the first time, C. alpina was identified on blackcurrants and redcurrants, and C. aurea on redcurrants, blackcurrants and alpine currants. The presence of C. ribis was not confirmed with molecular tools during this study. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of four Cecidophyopsis species identified by multiplex PCR. A close phylogenetic relatedness was found for C. aurea and C. alpina, and for C. ribis and C. spicata highlighting the necessity for additional studies. Our findings suggest a need to consider also other Cecidophyopsis species besides C. ribis in breeding programs for host resistance to mites.

  13. Genetic diversity and host range variation of Ralstonia solanacearum strains entering North America.

    PubMed

    Norman, David J; Zapata, Mildred; Gabriel, Dean W; Duan, Y P; Yuen, Jeanne M F; Mangravita-Novo, Arianna; Donahoo, Ryan S

    2009-09-01

    Each year, large volumes of ornamental and food plant propagative stock are imported into the North America; occasionally, Ralstonia solanacearum is found systemically infecting this plant material. In this study, 107 new R. solanacearum strains were collected over a 10-year period from imported propagative stock and compared with 32 previously characterized R. solanacearum strains using repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) element (BOX, ERIC, and REP) primers. Additional strain comparisons were made by sequencing the endoglucanase and the cytochrome b561 genes. Using rep-PCR primers, populations could be distinguished by biovar and, to a limited extent, country of origin and original host. Similarity coefficients among rep-PCR clusters within biovars were relatively low in many cases, indicating that disease outbreaks over time may have been caused by different clonal populations. Similar population differentiations of R. solanacearum were obtained when comparing strain sequences using either the endoglucanase or cytochrome b561 genes. We found that most of the new biovar 1 strains of R. solanacearum entering the United States were genetically distinct from the biovar 1 strains currently found infecting vegetable production. These introduced biovar 1 strains also had a broader host range and could infect not only tomato, tobacco, and potato but also anthurium and pothos and cause symptoms on banana. All introductions into North America of race 3, biovar 2 strains in the last few years have been linked to geranium production and appeared to be clonal.

  14. Prevalence, host range, and spatial distribution of black band disease in the Maldivian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Montano, Simone; Strona, Giovanni; Seveso, Davide; Galli, Paolo

    2013-07-09

    Little research has been conducted on diseases affecting reef-building corals in the central Indian Ocean. During 2010 and 2011, we performed a quantitative assessment of black band disease (BBD) in the central Republic of Maldives. Distribution, host range, and prevalence of BBD were investigated at 6 coral islands (Magoodhoo, Adanga, Ihuru, Vabbinfaru, Thudufushi, and Athuruga) belonging to 3 different atolls. BBD was found to be widespread among the atolls. All the islands showed a prevalence lower than 0.5%. Magoodhoo Island showed the highest mean disease prevalence. In the whole surveyed area, shallow sites showed higher overall mean BBD prevalence than deep ones. BBD was recorded from 6 scleractinian families (Acroporidae, Faviidae, Poritidae, Siderastreidae, Agariciidae, Fungiidae) and 13 scleractinian genera. Two of them, Gardineroseris and Sandalolitha, constitute new records for the disease. The siderastreid Psammocora (BBD prevalence: 5.33 ± 1.41%, mean ± SE) was the most affected genus, followed by Goniopora (2.7 ± 1.3%). BBD prevalence was positively correlated to the respective host density in both genera. Favites and Acropora were the less affected genera (both <0.1%). Although we observed an extremely low overall disease prevalence in the surveyed area (<1%), the large number of different scleractinian genera affected and the widespread distribution of BBD indicate a need for further investigation.

  15. Genetic diversity, host range, and distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, M; Mozafari, J; Rakhshandehroo, F; Shams-Bakhsh, M

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is considered one of the most important tomato pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions including Iran. During the years 2007 to 2009, a total number of 510 symptomatic and asymptomatic vegetable, ornamental and weed samples were collected from fields and greenhouses in ten provinces of Iran. Symptoms included stunting, yellowing, leaf curl and flower senescence. PCR with specific primers showed TYLCV infection in 184 samples (36%) such as cucumber, pepper, tomato and several weeds from seven provinces. Based on the geographical origin, host range and symptoms, twenty three representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. An amplicon with a size about 608 base pair (bp) comprising partial sequence of the coat (CP) and movement protein (MP) coding regions of the viral genome was sequenced and compared with the corresponding selected sequences available in GenBank for Iran and worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the nucleotide sequences indicated two geographically separated clades. Isolates collected from Hormozgan, Khuzestan and Kerman provinces were grouped together with other Iranian isolates including TYLCV-Ir2, TYLCV-Kahnooj, and an isolate from Oman. It was also revealed that isolates collected from Boushehr, Fars, Tehran, and Isfahan placed close to the Iranian isolate TYLCV-Abadeh and isolates from Israel and Egypt. No correlation was found between the genetic variation and the host species, but selected Iranian isolates were grouped on the basis of the geographical origins. Results of this study indicated a high genetic diversity among Iranian TYLCV isolates.

  16. The influence of host diversity and composition on epidemiological patterns at multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean M; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2012-05-01

    Spatial patterns of pathogen prevalence are determined by ecological processes acting across multiple spatial scales. Host-pathogen interactions are influenced by community composition, landscape structure, and environmental factors. Explaining prevalence patterns requires an understanding of how local determinants of infection, such as community composition, are mediated by landscape characteristics and regional-scale environmental drivers. Here we investigate the role of local community interactions and the effects of landscape structure on the dynamics of barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV) in the open meadows of the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. B/CYDV is an aphid-transmitted, generalist pathogen of over 100 wild and cultivated grass species. We used variance components analysis and model selection techniques to partition the sources of variation in B/CYDV prevalence and to determine which abiotic and biotic factors influence host-pathogen interactions in a Cascades meadowsystem. B/CYDV prevalence in Cascades meadows varied by host species identity, with a significantly higher proportion of infected Festuca idahoensis individuals than Elymus glaucus or Bromus carinatus. Although there was significant variation in prevalence among host species and among meadows in the same meadow complex, there was no evidence of any significant variation in prevalence among different meadow complexes at a larger spatial scale. Variation in prevalence among meadows was primarily associated with the local community context (host identity, the relative abundance of different host species, and host species richness) and the physical landscape attributes of the meadow. These results highlight the importance of local host community composition, mediated by landscape characteristics such as meadow aspect, as a determinant of the spatial pattern of infection of a multi-host pathogen.

  17. In vitro and in vivo host range of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Barik, Tapan K; Johnson, Rebecca M; Rasgon, Jason L

    2015-07-29

    AgDNV is a powerful gene transduction tool and potential biological control agent for Anopheles mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter virus system, we investigated AgDNV host range specificity in four arthropod cell lines (derived from An. gambiae, Aedes albopictus and Drosophila melanogaster) and six mosquito species from 3 genera (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex tarsalis). In vitro, efficient viral invasion, replication and GFP expression was only observed in MOS55 An. gambiae cells. In vivo, high levels of GFP were observed in An. gambiae mosquitoes. Intermediate levels of GFP were observed in the closely related species An. arabiensis. Low levels of GFP were observed in An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. tarsalis. These results suggest that AgDNV is a specific gene transduction tool for members of the An. gambiae species complex, and could be potentially developed into a biocontrol agent with minimal off-target effects.

  18. Evolution of broad host range in retroviruses leads to cell death mediated by highly cytopathic variants.

    PubMed

    Rainey, G Jonah A; Coffin, John M

    2006-01-01

    The ability of many retroviruses to cause disease can be correlated to their cytopathic effect (CPE) in tissue culture characterized by an acute period of cell death and viral DNA accumulation. Here, we show that mutants of a subgroup B avian retrovirus (Alpharetrovirus) cause a very dramatic CPE in certain susceptible avian cells that is coincident with elevated levels of apoptosis, as measured by nuclear morphology, and persistent viral DNA accumulation. These mutants also have a broadly extended host range that includes rodent, cat, dog, monkey, and human cells (31). Previously, we have shown that the mutants exhibit diminished resistance to superinfection. The results presented here have important implications for the process of evolution of retroviruses to use distinct cellular receptors.

  19. Host range and cellular tropism of the human exogenous gammaretrovirus XMRV.

    PubMed

    Stieler, Kristin; Schulz, Claudia; Lavanya, Madakasira; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Stocking, Carol; Fischer, Nicole

    2010-03-30

    Recently, the first human infection with an exogenous gammaretrovirus (XMRV) was reported. In its initial description, XMRV was confined to prostate stromal fibroblasts, although subsequent reports demonstrated XMRV protein expression in prostate epithelial cells. Most recently, XMRV has been detected in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transmission routes and tissue tropism of XMRV by comparing its host range, receptor usage and LTR functionality with other MLV isolates. We demonstrate using pseudotype experiments that XMRV Env mediates efficient infection of cells from different species. We show that replication competent XMRV infects various human cell types, including hematopoietic cell lines and prostate stromal fibroblasts. XMRV-LTR activity is significantly higher in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and in prostate stromal fibroblasts, compared to other cell types tested and could be one factor contributing to efficient viral spread in prostate tissue.

  20. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qing; Yang, Lin; Zhu, Weijun; Liu, Li; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Wenbo; Xiao, Genfu; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2005-05-10

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens.

  1. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: Vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Qing; Yang Lin; Zhu Weijun; Liu Li; Wang Haibo; Yu Wenbo; Xiao Genfu; Tien Po; Zhang Linqi; Chen Zhiwei . E-mail: zchen@adarc.org

    2005-05-10

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens.

  2. In vitro and in vivo host range of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV)

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Barik, Tapan K.; Johnson, Rebecca M.; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    AgDNV is a powerful gene transduction tool and potential biological control agent for Anopheles mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter virus system, we investigated AgDNV host range specificity in four arthropod cell lines (derived from An. gambiae, Aedes albopictus and Drosophila melanogaster) and six mosquito species from 3 genera (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex tarsalis). In vitro, efficient viral invasion, replication and GFP expression was only observed in MOS55 An. gambiae cells. In vivo, high levels of GFP were observed in An. gambiae mosquitoes. Intermediate levels of GFP were observed in the closely related species An. arabiensis. Low levels of GFP were observed in An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. tarsalis. These results suggest that AgDNV is a specific gene transduction tool for members of the An. gambiae species complex, and could be potentially developed into a biocontrol agent with minimal off-target effects. PMID:26220140

  3. Canine and feline host ranges of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus: distinct host cell tropisms of each virus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Truyen, U; Parrish, C R

    1992-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as an apparently new virus during the mid-1970s. The origin of CPV is unknown, but a variation from feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) or another closely related parvovirus is suspected. Here we examine the in vitro and in vivo canine and feline host ranges of CPV and FPV. Examination of three canine and six feline cell lines and mitogen-stimulated canine and feline peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that CPV replicates in both canine and feline cells, whereas FPV replicates efficiently only in feline cells. The in vivo host ranges were unexpectedly complex and distinct from the in vitro host ranges. Inoculation of dogs with FPV revealed efficient replication in the thymus and, to some degree, in the bone marrow, as shown by virus isolation, viral DNA recovery, and Southern blotting and by strand-specific in situ hybridization. FPV replication could not be demonstrated in mesenteric lymph nodes or in the small intestine, which are important target tissues in CPV infection. Although CPV replicated well in all the feline cells tested in vitro, it did not replicate in any tissue of cats after intramuscular or intravenous inoculation. These results indicate that these viruses have complex and overlapping host ranges and that distinct tissue tropisms exist in the homologous and heterologous hosts. Images PMID:1323703

  4. Listeria monocytogenes in multiple habitats and host populations: review of available data for mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Wiedmann, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has the ability to survive and multiply in diverse habitats and to cause infection in a variety of animal species and humans. We evaluated the literature on survival and multiplication within and transmission among multiple host populations and habitats, including man, sewage, general environment (soil, water, and vegetation), silage (fermented plant material), animals (including wild and domestic animals), and food processing plants. The available knowledge on L. monocytogenes transmission dynamics was translated into the key process nodes of interrelated host- and habitat-specific mathematical models, providing a starting framework for future modeling work and the ultimate development of a system-wide model for evaluation of its transmission, and strategies to reduce human exposure. Because of the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive and multiply in many habitats and hosts, and the number of possible transmission routes, it is highly unlikely that it could be eradicated from any habitat or host, including man. However, L. monocytogenes load within and transmission among habitats and host populations could probably be reduced. Based on the published information, we hypothesize that three recent anthropogenic practices increase the load within and transmission among reviewed habitats and host populations: extended refrigerated storage of ready-to-eat foods allowing L. monocytogenes growth in foods that are contaminated during production or subsequent handling; feeding domestic ruminants with silage often contaminated with L. monocytogenes; and dispersal of contaminated products of sewage treatment to agricultural fields and waters. Future mathematical modeling work could test how much the reduction of L. monocytogenes load and transmission in hosts and habitats associated with these anthropogenic practices would reduce human exposure and consequently human listeriosis.

  5. Spatial variation in the phylogenetic structure of flea assemblages across geographic ranges of small mammalian hosts in the Palearctic.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Pilosof, Shai; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2013-08-01

    We investigated spatial variation in the phylogenetic structure (measured as a degree of phylogenetic clustering) of flea assemblages across the geographic ranges of 11 Palearctic species of small mammalian hosts and asked whether the phylogenetic structure of the flea assemblage of a host in a locality is affected by (i) distance of this locality from the centre of the host's geographic range, (ii) geographic position of the locality (distance to the equator) and (iii) phylogenetic structure of the entire flea assemblage of the locality. Our results demonstrated that the key factor underlying spatial variation of the phylogenetic structure of the flea assemblage of a host was the distance from the centre of the host's geographic range. However, the pattern of this spatial variation differed between host species and might be explained by their species-specific immunogenetic and/or distributional patterns. Local flea assemblages may also, to some extent, be shaped by environmental filtering coupled with historical events. In addition, the phylogenetic structure of a local within-host flea assemblage may mirror the phylogenetic structure of the entire across-host flea assemblage in that locality and, thus, be affected by the availability of certain phylogenetic lineages.

  6. Multiple and Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity After Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiuhong; Xing, Yuzhen; Cheng, Bo

    2017-02-22

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common secondary solid tumors in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, according to previous reports, multiple and recurrent OSCC is very rare. The presented case shows the susceptibility to the development of secondary malignancies, particularly oral cancer, of patients who present with chronic graft-versus-host disease after HSCT. OSCC after HSCT appears to be more invasive and has a tendency to recur, with a poor prognosis. Therefore, regular and thorough evaluations of the oral mucosa are recommended for all patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation and have chronic graft-versus-host disease.

  7. Multiple representation approach to geometric model construction from range data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivunen, Visa; Vezien, Jean-Marc; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    1995-04-01

    A method is presented for constructing geometric design data from noisy 3-D sensor measurements of physical parts. In early processing phase, RLTS regression filters stemming from robust estimation theory are used for separating the desired part of the signal in contaminated sensor data from undesired part. Strategies for producing a complete 3-D data set from partial views are studied. Surface triangulation, NURBS, and superellipsoids are employed in model construction to be able to represent efficiently polygonal shapes, free form surfaces and standard primitive solids. Multiple representations are used because there is no single representation that would be most appropriate in all situations. The size of the required control point mesh for spline description is estimated using a surface characterization process. Surfaces of arbitrary topology are modeled using triangulation and trimmed NURBS. A user given tolerance value is driving refinement of the obtained surface model. The resulting model description is a procedural CAD model which can convey structural information in addition to low level geometric primitives. The model is translated to IGES standard product data exchange format to enable data sharing with other processes in concurrent engineering environment. Preliminary results on view registration and integration using simulated data are shown. Examples of model construction using both real and simulated data are also given.

  8. Signal Design for Improved Ranging Among Multiple Transceivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Lawrence; Tien, Jeffrey; Srinivasan, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    "Ultra-BOC" (where "BOC" signifies "binary offset carrier") is the name of an improved generic design of microwave signals to be used by a group of spacecraft flying in formation to measure ranges and bearings among themselves and to exchange telemetry needed for these measurements. Ultra-BOC could also be applied on Earth for diverse purposes -- for example, measuring relative positions of vehicles on highways for traffic-control purposes and determining the relative alignments of machines operating in mines and of construction machines and structures at construction sites. Ultra-BOC provides for rapid and robust acquisition of signals, even when signal-to-noise ratios are low. The design further provides that each spacecraft or other platform constantly strives to acquire and track the signals from the other platforms while simultaneously transmitting signals that provide full range, bearing, and telemetry service to the other platforms. In Ultra-BOC, unlike in other signal designs that have been considered for the same purposes, it is not necessary to maneuver the spacecraft or other platforms to obtain the data needed for resolving integer-carrier-cycle phase ambiguities.

  9. Characterization of a new iridovirus isolated from crickets and investigations on the host range

    PubMed

    Kleespies; Tidona; Darai

    1999-01-01

    Typical signs of an iridovirus infection were observed in two species of fatally diseased crickets, Gryllus campestris L. and Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). The infection was manifested by hypertrophy and bluish iridescence of the affected fat body cells. Electron microscope investigations led to the identification of a new iridovirus, which was termed cricket iridovirus (CrIV). In negatively stained preparations the size of the icosahedral virus particles ranged from 151 nm (side-side) to 167 nm (apex-apex). Assembly of virions occurred in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied fat body cells, where they often accumulated in paracrystalline arrays. Genetic analyses of purified viral DNA using a variety of restriction enzymes revealed that CrIV is distinct from all other known iridoviruses that have been isolated from insects and reported so far. In host range studies it was shown that CrIV can be transmitted perorally to other orthopteran species, causing characteristic symptoms and fatal disease. These species include Gryllus bimaculatus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae), which represents one of the most important pest insects in developing countries, as well as the cockroaches Blattella germanica L. and Blatta orientalis L. (both Orthoptera, Blattidae). Consequently, the isolation and characterization of this new cricket iridovirus is of particular interest in view of its possible use in biological or integrated control. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Prevalence of avian haemosporidian parasites is positively related to the abundance of host species at multiple sites within a region.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Collins, Michael D; Sari, Eloisa H R; Coffey, Elyse D; Dickerson, Rebecca C; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Henry, Donata R; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E; Hanson, Alison A; Roberts, Jackson R; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    Parasite prevalence is thought to be positively related to host population density owing to enhanced contagion. However, the relationship between prevalence and local abundance of multiple host species is underexplored. We surveyed birds and their haemosporidian parasites (genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) at multiple sites across eastern North America to test whether the prevalence of these parasites in a host species at a particular site is related to that host's local abundance. Prevalence was positively related to host abundance within most sites, although the effect was stronger and more consistent for Plasmodium than for Haemoproteus. In contrast, prevalence was not related to variation in the abundance of most individual host species among sites across the region. These results suggest that parasite prevalence partly reflects the relative abundances of host species in local assemblages. However, three nonnative host species had low prevalence despite being relatively abundant at one site, as predicted by the enemy release hypothesis.

  11. Species Boundaries and Host Range of Tortoise Mites (Uropodoidea) Phoretic on Bark Beetles (Scolytinae), Using Morphometric and Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Knee, Wayne; Beaulieu, Frédéric; Skevington, Jeffrey H.; Kelso, Scott; Cognato, Anthony I.; Forbes, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of symbionts and their hosts requires accurate taxonomic knowledge, including clear species boundaries and phylogenies. Tortoise mites (Mesostigmata: Uropodoidea) are among the most diverse arthropod associates of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), but their taxonomy and host associations are largely unstudied. We tested the hypotheses that (1) morphologically defined species are supported by molecular data, and that (2) bark beetle uropodoids with a broad host range comprise cryptic species. To do so, we assessed the species boundaries of uropodoid mites collected from 51 host species, across 11 countries and 103 sites, using morphometric data as well as partial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S). Overall, morphologically defined species were confirmed by molecular datasets, with a few exceptions. Twenty-nine of the 36 uropodoid species (Trichouropoda, Nenteria and Uroobovella) collected in this study had narrow host ranges, while seven species had putative broad host ranges. In all but one species, U. orri, our data supported the existence of these host generalists, which contrasts with the typical finding that widespread generalists are actually complexes of cryptic specialists. PMID:23071768

  12. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.

  13. Seasonal Alterations in Host Range and Fidelity in the Polyphagous Mirid Bug, Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A. G.

    2015-01-01

    In herbivorous insects, host plant switching is commonly observed and plays an important role in their annual life cycle. However, much remains to be learned about seasonal host switching of various pestiferous arthropods under natural conditions. From 2006 until 2012, we assessed Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) host plant use in successive spring, summer and winter seasons at one single location (Langfang, China). Data were used to quantify changes in host plant breadth and host fidelity between seasons. Host fidelity of A. lucorum differed between seasons, with 87.9% of spring hosts also used in the summer and 36.1% of summer hosts used in winter. In contrast, as little as 25.6% host plant species were shared between winter and spring. Annual herbaceous plants are most often used for overwintering, while perennial woody plants are relatively important for initial population build-up in the spring. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of evolutionary interactions between A. lucorum and its host plants and lays the groundwork for the design of population management strategies for this important pest in myriad crops. PMID:25692969

  14. Host range and community structure of avian nest parasites in the genus Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the island of Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Bulgarella, Mariana; Heimpel, George E

    2015-01-01

    Parasite host range can be influenced by physiological, behavioral, and ecological factors. Combining data sets on host–parasite associations with phylogenetic information of the hosts and the parasites involved can generate evolutionary hypotheses about the selective forces shaping host range. Here, we analyzed associations between the nest-parasitic flies in the genus Philornis and their host birds on Trinidad. Four of ten Philornis species were only reared from one species of bird. Of the parasite species with more than one host bird species, P. falsificus was the least specific and P. deceptivus the most specific attacking only Passeriformes. Philornis flies in Trinidad thus include both specialists and generalists, with varying degrees of specificity within the generalists. We used three quantities to more formally compare the host range of Philornis flies: the number of bird species attacked by each species of Philornis, a phylogenetically informed host specificity index (Poulin and Mouillot's STD), and a branch length-based STD. We then assessed the phylogenetic signal of these measures of host range for 29 bird species. None of these measures showed significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that clades of Philornis did not differ significantly in their ability to exploit hosts. We also calculated two quantities of parasite species load for the birds – the parasite species richness, and a variant of the STD index based on nodes rather than on taxonomic levels – and assessed the signal of these measures on the bird phylogeny. We did not find significant phylogenetic signal for the parasite species load or the node-based STD index. Finally, we calculated the parasite associations for all bird pairs using the Jaccard index and regressed these similarity values against the number of nodes in the phylogeny separating bird pairs. This analysis showed that Philornis on Trinidad tend to feed on closely related bird species more often than expected by

  15. Relative geographic range of sibling species of host damselflies does not reliably predict differential parasitism by water mites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    related hosts species, no such differences were found between other related host species. Differences in geographic range of related host species does not reliably explain differential levels of parasitism by water mites. PMID:24351055

  16. Genomic Diversity of Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts and Their Infectivity in Nile Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), has a broad host range and can be pathogenic to numerous animals, including fish. GBS is most recognized for causing cattle mastitis and human neonatal meningitis, it also causes fatal meningo-encephalitis in fish. We investigat...

  17. Modulation of pPS10 Host Range by Plasmid-Encoded RepA Initiator Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maestro, Beatriz; Sanz, Jesús M.; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; Fernández-Tresguerres, Elena

    2003-01-01

    We report here the isolation and analysis of novel repA host range mutants of pPS10, a plasmid originally found in Pseudomonas savastanoi. Upon hydroxylamine treatment, five plasmid mutants were selected for their establishment in Escherichia coli at 37°C, a temperature at which the wild-type form cannot be established. The mutations were located in different functional regions of the plasmid RepA initiation protein, and the mutants differ in their stable maintenance, copy number, and ability to interact with sequences of the basic replicon. Four of them have broadened their host range, and one of them, unable to replicate in Pseudomonas, has therefore changed its host range. Moreover, the mutants also have increased their replication efficiency in strains other than E. coli such as Pseudomonas putida and Alcaligenes faecalis. None of these mutations drastically changed the structure or thermal stability of the wild-type RepA protein, but in all cases an enhanced interaction with host-encoded DnaA protein was detected by gel filtration chromatography. The effects of the mutations on the functionality of RepA protein are discussed in the framework of a three-dimensional model of the protein. We propose possible explanations for the host range effect of the different repA mutants, including the enhancement of limiting interactions of RepA with specific host replication factors such as DnaA. PMID:12562807

  18. Role of larval host plants in the climate-driven range expansion of the butterfly Polygonia c-album.

    PubMed

    Braschler, Brigitte; Hill, Jane K

    2007-05-01

    1. Some species have expanded their ranges during recent climate warming and the availability of breeding habitat and species' dispersal ability are two important factors determining expansions. The exploitation of a wide range of larval host plants should increase an herbivorous insect species' ability to track climate by increasing habitat availability. Therefore we investigated whether the performance of a species on different host plants changed towards its range boundary, and under warmer temperatures. 2. We studied the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album, which is currently expanding its range in Britain and apparently has altered its host plant preference from Humulus lupulus to include other hosts (particularly Ulmus glabra and Urtica dioica). We investigated insect performance (development time, larval growth rate, adult size, survival) and adult flight morphology on these host plants under four rearing temperatures (18-28.5 degrees C) in populations from core and range margin sites. 3. In general, differences between core and margin populations were small compared with effects of rearing temperature and host plant. In terms of insect performance, host plants were generally ranked U. glabra > or = U. dioica > H. lupulus at all temperatures. Adult P. c-album can either enter diapause or develop directly and higher temperatures resulted in more directly developing adults, but lower survival rates (particularly on the original host H. lupulus) and smaller adult size. 4. Adult flight morphology of wild-caught individuals from range margin populations appeared to be related to increased dispersal potential relative to core populations. However, there was no difference in laboratory reared individuals, and conflicting results were obtained for different measures of flight morphology in relation to larval host plant and temperature effects, making conclusions about dispersal potential difficult. 5. Current range expansion of P. c-album is associated with the

  19. Avian host range of Chlamydophila spp. based on isolation, antigen detection and serology.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Taday, Eva M A

    2003-10-01

    Published reports and our own diagnostic data on the avian host range of avian Chlamydophila spp. are presented in an attempt to provide evidence for the large number of bird species that have been naturally infected with chlamydia. The term 'chlamydia-positive' is based on either isolation of the organism and antigen detection or on serological detection of circulating antibodies. The list of chlamydia-positive birds contains the six major domestic species (chicken, turkey, Pekin duck, Muscovy duck, goose, and pigeon), the three minor domestic species (Japanese quail, bobwhite quail, and peafowl) and a total of 460 free-living or pet bird species in 30 orders. The order Psittaciformes contains by far the most (153 of 342; 45%) chlamydia-positive bird species. More than 20% of all species per order are positive for chlamydia in the orders Lariformes (gulls, 26 of 92 species; 28%), Alciformes (alks, six of 23 species; 26%), Sphenisciformes (penguins, four of 16 species; 25%), and Anseriformes (ducks and geese, 33 of 157 species; 21%). Only 5% of all bird species (14 of 259 species) in the order Phasianiformes (gallinaceus birds) are chlamydia-positive. The different percentages of chlamydia-positive bird species reflect: (i) a high rate of investigations (e.g. of domestic birds) compared with infrequent testing (e.g. of Charadriiformes or Cuculiformes), (ii) frequent zoonotic implications (e.g. psittacine and columbiform birds), and (iii) an assumed high susceptibility to infection and subsequent seroconversion (e.g. waterfowl).

  20. The avian and mammalian host range of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Webby, Richard J

    2013-12-05

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species. Despite intensive control measures the number of human and animal cases continues to increase. A more complete understanding of susceptible species and of contributing environmental and molecular factors is crucial if we are to slow the rate of new cases. H5N1 is currently endemic in domestic poultry in only a handful of countries with sporadic and unpredictable spread to other countries. Close contact of terrestrial bird or mammalian species with infected poultry/waterfowl or their biological products is the major route for interspecies transmission. Intra-species transmission of H5N1 in mammals, including humans, has taken place on a limited scale though it remains to be seen if this will change; recent laboratory studies suggest that it is indeed possible. Here we review the avian and mammalian species that are naturally susceptible to H5N1 infection and the molecular factors associated with its expanded host range.

  1. A T3 and T7 Recombinant Phage Acquires Efficient Adsorption and a Broader Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tiao-Yin; Lo, Yi-Haw; Tseng, Pin-Wei; Chang, Shun-Fu; Lin, Yann-Tsyr; Chen, Ton-Seng

    2012-01-01

    It is usually thought that bacteriophage T7 is female specific, while phage T3 can propagate on male and female Escherichia coli. We found that the growth patterns of phages T7M and T3 do not match the above characteristics, instead showing strain dependent male exclusion. Furthermore, a T3/7 hybrid phage exhibits a broader host range relative to that of T3, T7, as well as T7M, and is able to overcome the male exclusion. The T7M sequence closely resembles that of T3. T3/7 is essentially T3 based, but a DNA fragment containing part of the tail fiber gene 17 is replaced by the T7 sequence. T3 displays inferior adsorption to strains tested herein compared to T7. The T3 and T7 recombinant phage carries altered tail fibers and acquires better adsorption efficiency than T3. How phages T3 and T7 recombine was previously unclear. This study is the first to show that recombination can occur accurately within only 8 base-pair homology, where four-way junction structures are identified. Genomic recombination models based on endonuclease I cleavages at equivalent and nonequivalent sites followed by strand annealing are proposed. Retention of pseudo-palindromes can increase recombination frequency for reviving under stress. PMID:22347414

  2. The Role of Flavonoids in Nodulation Host-Range Specificity: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng-Wu; Murray, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are crucial signaling molecules in the symbiosis between legumes and their nitrogen-fixing symbionts, the rhizobia. The primary function of flavonoids in the interaction is to induce transcription of the genes for biosynthesis of the rhizobial signaling molecules called Nod factors, which are perceived by the plant to allow symbiotic infection of the root. Many legumes produce specific flavonoids that only induce Nod factor production in homologous rhizobia, and therefore act as important determinants of host range. Despite a wealth of evidence on legume flavonoids, relatively few have proven roles in rhizobial infection. Recent studies suggest that production of key “infection” flavonoids is highly localized at infection sites. Furthermore, some of the flavonoids being produced at infection sites are phytoalexins and may have a role in the selection of compatible symbionts during infection. The molecular details of how flavonoid production in plants is regulated during nodulation have not yet been clarified, but nitrogen availability has been shown to play a role. PMID:27529286

  3. A T3 and T7 recombinant phage acquires efficient adsorption and a broader host range.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiao-Yin; Lo, Yi-Haw; Tseng, Pin-Wei; Chang, Shun-Fu; Lin, Yann-Tsyr; Chen, Ton-Seng

    2012-01-01

    It is usually thought that bacteriophage T7 is female specific, while phage T3 can propagate on male and female Escherichia coli. We found that the growth patterns of phages T7M and T3 do not match the above characteristics, instead showing strain dependent male exclusion. Furthermore, a T3/7 hybrid phage exhibits a broader host range relative to that of T3, T7, as well as T7M, and is able to overcome the male exclusion. The T7M sequence closely resembles that of T3. T3/7 is essentially T3 based, but a DNA fragment containing part of the tail fiber gene 17 is replaced by the T7 sequence. T3 displays inferior adsorption to strains tested herein compared to T7. The T3 and T7 recombinant phage carries altered tail fibers and acquires better adsorption efficiency than T3. How phages T3 and T7 recombine was previously unclear. This study is the first to show that recombination can occur accurately within only 8 base-pair homology, where four-way junction structures are identified. Genomic recombination models based on endonuclease I cleavages at equivalent and nonequivalent sites followed by strand annealing are proposed. Retention of pseudo-palindromes can increase recombination frequency for reviving under stress.

  4. The avian and mammalian host range of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Webby, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species. Despite intensive control measures the number of human and animal cases continues to increase. A more complete understanding of susceptible species and of contributing environmental and molecular factors is crucial if we are to slow the rate of new cases. H5N1 is currently endemic in domestic poultry in only a handful of countries with sporadic and unpredictable spread to other countries. Close contact of terrestrial bird or mammalian species with infected poultry/waterfowl or their biological products is the major route for interspecies transmission. Intra-species transmission of H5N1 in mammals, including humans, has taken place on a limited scale though it remains to be seen if this will change; recent laboratory studies suggest that it is indeed possible. Here we review the avian and mammalian species that are naturally susceptible to H5N1 infection and the molecular factors associated with its expanded host range. PMID:24025480

  5. Host and geographic range extensions of the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, R.P.; Batts, W.N.; Yun, S.; Traxler, G.S.; Kaufman, J.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from populations of Pacific sardine Sardinops sagaxfrom the coastal waters of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and central and southern California, USA. The virus was also isolated from Pacific mackerel Scomber japonicus in southern California, from eulachon or smeltThaleichthys pacificus, and surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus pretiosus from Oregon, USA. Mortality and skin lesions typical of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in other marine fish species were observed among sardine in Canada and in a few surf smelt from Oregon, but the remaining isolates of VHSV were obtained from healthy appearing fish. The prevalence of VHSV among groups of apparently healthy sardine, mackerel and smelt ranged from 4 to 8% in California and Oregon. A greater prevalence of infection (58%) occurred in groups of sardine sampled in Canada that sustained a naturally occurring epidemic during 1998-99. A captive group of surf smelt in Oregon exhibited an 81% prevalence of infection with clinical signs in only a few fish. The new isolates were confirmed as North American VHSV and were closely related based on comparisons of the partial nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene. The VHSV isolates from sardine in Canada and California were the most closely related, differing from isolates obtained from other marine fish species and salmonids in British Columbia, Canada, Alaska and Washington, USA. These new virus isolations extend both the known hosts (sardine, mackerel and 2 species of smelt) and geographic range (Oregon and California, USA) of VHSV.

  6. Genetic structure of Aegilops cylindrica Host in its native range and in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Harish T; Vales, M Isabel; Mallory-Smith, Carol; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar

    2009-10-01

    Chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers were used to study genetic diversity and genetic structure of Aegilops cylindrica Host collected in its native range and in adventive sites in the USA. Our analysis suggests that Ae. cylindrica, an allotetraploid, arose from multiple hybridizations between Ae. markgrafii (Greuter) Hammer. and Ae. tauschii Coss. presumably along the Fertile Crescent, where the geographic distributions of its diploid progenitors overlap. However, the center of genetic diversity of this species now encompasses a larger area including northern Iraq, eastern Turkey, and Transcaucasia. Although the majority of accessions of Ae. cylindrica (87%) had D-type plastomes derived from Ae. tauschii, accessions with C-type plastomes (13%), derived from Ae. markgrafii, were also observed. This corroborates a previous study suggesting the dimaternal origin of Ae. cylindrica. Model-based and genetic distance-based clustering using both chloroplast and nuclear markers indicated that Ae. tauschii ssp. tauschii contributed one of its D-type plastomes and its D genome to Ae. cylindrica. Analysis of genetic structure using nuclear markers suggested that Ae. cylindrica accessions could be grouped into three subpopulations (arbitrarily named N-K1, N-K2, and N-K3). Members of the N-K1 subpopulation were the most numerous in its native range and members of the N-K2 subpopulation were the most common in the USA. Our analysis also indicated that Ae. cylindrica accessions in the USA were derived from a few founder genotypes. The frequency of Ae. cylindrica accessions with the C-type plastome in the USA (approximately 24%) was substantially higher than in its native range of distribution (approximately 3%) and all C-type Ae. cylindrica in the USA except one belonged to subpopulation N-K2. The high frequency of the C-type plastome in the USA may reflect a favorable nucleo-cytoplasmic combination.

  7. Production of high-titer helper virus-free retroviral vectors by cocultivation of packaging cells with different host ranges.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, C M; Miller, A D

    1991-01-01

    The titer of retroviral vectors can be increased by cocultivation of retrovirus packaging cells that produce a vector with packaging cells having a different host range. Multiple rounds of infection occur in such cultures, producing an amplification of vector copy number and titer. Production of a vector with a very high titer of over 10(10) CFU per ml of conditioned medium has been reported, although replication-competent helper virus was also present. Since helper-free virus is a requirement for many applications of retroviral vectors, we repeated this procedure with a modified vector and achieved a 2- to 10-fold amplification of vector titer in the absence of helper virus, up to 2 x 10(7) CFU/ml. We have also repeated these experiments with the same vector and methods described previously or have assayed virus from the high-titer vector-producing cell line reported previously and observed maximum titers of 10(8) CFU/ml, invariably accompanied by helper virus. Thus, while amplification of vector titer in the absence of helper virus is possible, some unexplained difference in the assays for virus titer must account for our inability to obtain the exceptionally high vector titers that were reported previously. PMID:2041097

  8. A simple procedure to determine the infectivity and host range of viruses infecting anaerobic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Gorlas, Aurore; Geslin, Claire

    2013-03-01

    Plaque assay is the method traditionally used to isolate and purify lytic viruses, to determine the viral titer and host range. Whereas most bacterioviruses are either temperate or lytic, the majority of known archeoviruses are not lytic (i.e. they are temperate or chronic). In view of the widespread occurrence of such viruses in extreme environments, we designed an original method, called the inverted spot test, to determine the host range and infectivity of viruses isolated from anaerobic hyperthermophilic and sulfur-reducing microorganisms. Here, we used this approach to prove for the first time the infectivity of Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1) and to confirm the host range of Thermococcus prieurii virus 1 (TPV1), the only two viruses isolated so far from any of the described marine hyperthermophilic archaea (Euryarchaeota phylum, Thermococcales order).

  9. Host Range Assessment of Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (Tylenchida: Hoplolaimidae) on Pasture Species

    PubMed Central

    Davis, L. T.; Bell, N. L.; Watson, R.N.; Rohan, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    The host status of 15 commonly occurring pasture species for Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus was tested in a greenhouse trial. Only tall fescue, with and without Neotyphodium endophyte infection, was a good host (Pf/Pi = final/initial population > 1). Inoculation survival was tested in a second trial, which showed that only 10% of the H. pseudorobustus nematodes survived the first 7 days after inoculation. When the Pf/Pi was adjusted to account for a 10% survival, all of the grass and clover hosts tested had a Pf/Pi > 1. Both trials showed a positive correlation between increased numbers of H. pseudorobustus and free-living nematodes. PMID:19262829

  10. A rabbitpox virus serpin gene controls host range by inhibiting apoptosis in restrictive cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, M A; Ali, A N; Turner, P C; Moyer, R W

    1995-01-01

    Poxviruses are unique among viruses in encoding members of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. Orthopoxviruses contain three serpins, designated SPI-1, SPI-2, and SPI-3. SPI-1 encodes a 40-kDa protein that is required for the replication of rabbitpox virus (RPV) in PK-15 or A549 cells in culture (A. N. Ali, P. C. Turner, M. A. Brooks, and R. W. Moyer, Virology 202:305-314, 1994). Examination of nonpermissive human A549 cells infected with an RPV mutant disrupted in the SPI-1 gene (RPV delta SPI-1) suggests there are no gross defects in protein or DNA synthesis. The proteolytic processing of late viral structural proteins, a feature of orthopoxvirus infections associated with the maturation of virus particles, also appears relatively normal. However, very few mature virus particles of any kind are produced compared with the level found in infections with wild-type RPV. Morphological examination of RPV delta SPI-1-infected A549 cells, together with an observed fragmentation of cellular DNA, suggests that the host range defect is associated with the onset of apoptosis. Apoptosis is seen only in RPV delta SPI-1 infection of nonpermissive (A549 or PK-15) cells and is absent in all wild-type RPV infections and RPV delta SPI-2 mutant infections examined to date. Although the SPI-1 gene is expressed early, before DNA replication, the triggering apoptotic event occurs late in the infection, as RPV delta SPI-1-infected A549 cells do not undergo apoptosis when infections are carried out in the presence of cytosine arabinoside. While the SPI-2 (crmA) gene, when transfected into cells, has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, our experiments provide the first indication that a poxvirus serpin protein can inhibit apoptosis during a poxvirus infection. PMID:7494278

  11. Evaluation of host range and larval feeding impact of Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa): considerations for biological control of Vincetoxicum in North America.

    PubMed

    Weed, Aaron S; Casagrande, Richard A

    2011-12-01

    A biological control program has been initiated against European swallow-worts Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench. and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., which are invasive in North America. A population of the leaf beetle Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa) originating from the western Alps has been under evaluation as a part of this program. The preliminary host range of C. a. asclepiadis was determined among 37 potential host plants. In addition, a prerelease impact study was conducted to determine the effect of larval feeding on the performance of V. nigrum. Under no-choice conditions beetle larvae completed development on nine plant species within the genera Artemisia and Tanacetum (Asteraceae) and Asclepias and Vincetoxicum (Apocynaceae). The host range of adults is broader than larvae (13 plant species within five genera received sustained feeding). Three of the six nontarget species supporting larval development are native to North America, however in separate oviposition tests, female beetles failed to produce eggs when confined to these hosts. In multiple-choice tests, neither larvae nor adults preferred Vincetoxicum spp. to nontarget species. Larval damage by C. a. asclepiadis at densities at and above five larvae per plant substantially reduced growth, biomass, and delayed reproduction of V. nigrum. However, this population of C. a. asclepiadis is polyphagous and unsuitable for biological control of Vincetoxicum because of potential risk of attack to Asclepias tuberosa L. and native North American Asteraceae, particularly Artemisia.

  12. Laboratory and realized host ranges of Chaetorellia succinea (Diptera: Tephritidae), an unintentionally introduced natural enemy of yellow starthistle.

    PubMed

    Balciunas, Joe K; Villegas, Baldo

    2007-08-01

    In 1999, we reported our discovery, in California and Oregon, of Chaetorellia succinea (Costa) (Diptera: Tephritidae) destroying the seeds of yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis L., one of the worst weeds in the western United States. This fly, an unintentional introduction from Greece, dispersed rapidly throughout California and the northwest, and there is interest in using this adventive fly as a classical biological control agent for this weed. Because the host range of Ch. succinea has not been studied, this fly might pose a risk to other members of the thistle tribe Cardueae, especially the many thistle species native to California and other parts of the western United States. We determined the physiological host range of this fly in the laboratory by exposing it under no-choice conditions to 14 potential Cardueae hosts. Two introduced weed species and the native American basketflower (Centaurea americana Nuttall) were laboratory hosts. Under less restrictive choice test conditions, yellow starthistle was highly preferred, but there was a small amount of oviposition, and a few adult Ch. succinea emerged from all three of these plant species. Because Ch. succinea is now widespread throughout California, we collected flower heads from 24 potential host plant species at 111 sites to determine the realized host range in the field. These collections did not include American basketflower, which does not occur naturally in California. Ch. succinea emerged only from the other two known hosts: Ce. melitensis and Ce. sulfurea. Our results suggest that American basketflower growing in the southwestern United States may be at risk if Ch. succinea expands its range into that region.

  13. Use of wide-host-range bacteriophages to reduce Salmonella on poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriophages used to treat infections are typically amplified in a pathogenic host. However, this practice introduces the risk of administering any remaining bacteriophage-resistant pathogen during bacteriophage application if separate techniques are less than perfect. In this study, bacteriopha...

  14. Expansion of Groundnut ringspot virus host and geographic ranges in solanaceous vegetables in peninsular Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides a timely account of Groundnut ringspot virus infection of additional hosts (pepper, tomatillo and eggplant) and in additional locations to growers, Extension personnel, crop consultants, and state and Federal regulatory and research scientists....

  15. Pristionchus uniformis, should I stay or should I go? Recent host range expansion in a European nematode

    PubMed Central

    D'Anna, Isabella; Sommer, Ralf J

    2011-01-01

    Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a model system in evolutionary developmental biology, evolutionary ecology, and population genetics. This species has a well-known ecological association with scarab beetles. Generally, Pristionchus nematodes have a necromenic association with their beetle hosts. Arrested dauer larvae invade the insect and wait for the host's death to resume development. Only one Pristionchus species is known to frequently associate with a non-scarab beetle. Pristionchus uniformis has been isolated from the chrysomelid Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado potato beetle, in Europe and North America, but is also found on scarab beetles. This unusual pattern of association with two unrelated groups of beetles on two continents requires the involvement of geographical and host range expansion events. Here, we characterized a collection of 81 P. uniformis isolates from North America and Europe and from both scarab beetles and L. decemlineata. We used population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial gene nd2 to reconstruct the genetic history of P. uniformis and its beetle association. Olfactory tests on beetles chemical extracts showed that P. uniformis has a unique chemoattractive profile toward its beetle hosts. Our results provide evidence for host range expansion through host-switching events in Europe where P. uniformis was originally associated with scarab beetles and the nematode's subsequent invasion of North America. PMID:22393515

  16. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus-Host Interactions: Multifunctional Viral Proteins that Perform Multiple and Differing Jobs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yao; Zheng, Shijun J

    2017-01-14

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). The consequent immunosuppression increases susceptibility to other infectious diseases and the risk of subsequent vaccination failure as well. Since the genome of IBDV is relatively small, it has a limited number of proteins inhibiting the cellular antiviral responses and acting as destroyers to the host defense system. Thus, these virulence factors must be multifunctional in order to complete the viral replication cycle in a host cell. Insights into the roles of these viral proteins along with their multiple cellular targets in different pathways will give rise to a rational design for safer and effective vaccines. Here we summarize the recent findings that focus on the virus-cell interactions during IBDV infection at the protein level.

  17. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus-Host Interactions: Multifunctional Viral Proteins that Perform Multiple and Differing Jobs

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yao; Zheng, Shijun J.

    2017-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). The consequent immunosuppression increases susceptibility to other infectious diseases and the risk of subsequent vaccination failure as well. Since the genome of IBDV is relatively small, it has a limited number of proteins inhibiting the cellular antiviral responses and acting as destroyers to the host defense system. Thus, these virulence factors must be multifunctional in order to complete the viral replication cycle in a host cell. Insights into the roles of these viral proteins along with their multiple cellular targets in different pathways will give rise to a rational design for safer and effective vaccines. Here we summarize the recent findings that focus on the virus–cell interactions during IBDV infection at the protein level. PMID:28098808

  18. Eop1 from a Rubus strain of Erwinia amylovora functions as a host-range limiting factor.

    PubMed

    Asselin, J E; Bonasera, J M; Kim, J F; Oh, C-S; Beer, S V

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium causing the disease fire blight of rosaceous plants, are separated into two groups based on host range: Spiraeoideae and Rubus strains. Spiraeoideae strains have wide host ranges, infecting plants in many rosaceous genera, including apple and pear. In the field, Rubus strains infect the genus Rubus exclusively, which includes raspberry and blackberry. Based on comparisons of limited sequence data from a Rubus and a Spiraeoideae strain, the gene eop1 was identified as unusually divergent, and it was selected as a possible host specificity factor. To test this, eop1 genes from a Rubus strain and a Spiraeoideae strain were cloned and mutated. Expression of the Rubus-strain eop1 reduced the virulence of E. amylovora in immature pear fruit and in apple shoots. Sequencing the orfA-eop1 regions of several strains of E. amylovora confirmed that forms of eop1 are conserved among strains with similar host ranges. This work provides evidence that eop1 from a Rubus-specific strain can function as a determinant of host specificity in E. amylovora.

  19. Host growth temperature and a conservative amino acid substitution in the replication protein of pPS10 influence plasmid host range.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Tresguerres, M E; Martín, M; García de Viedma, D; Giraldo, R; Díaz-Orejas, R

    1995-01-01

    pPS10 is a replicon isolated from Pseudomonas syringe pv. savastanoi that can be established at 37 degrees C efficiently in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but very inefficiently in Escherichia coli. The establishment of the wild-type pPS10 replicon in E. coli is favored at low temperatures (30 degrees C or below). RepA protein of pPS10 promotes in vitro plasmid replication in extracts from E. coli, and this replication depends on host proteins DnaA, DnaB, DnaG, and SSB. Mutant plasmids able to efficiently replicate in E. coli at 37 degrees C were obtained. Three of four mutants whose mutations were mapped show a conservative Ala-->Val change in the amino-terminal region of the replication protein RepA. Plasmids carrying this mutation maintain the capacity to replicate in P. aeruginosa and have a fourfold increase in copy number in this host. The mutation does not substantially alter the autoregulation mediated by RepA. These results show that the physiological conditions of the host as well as subtle changes in the plasmid replication protein can modulate the host range of the pPS10 replicon. PMID:7635822

  20. Temporal Assessment of the Impact of Exposure to Cow Feces in Two Watersheds by Multiple Host-Specific PCR Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to feces in two watersheds with different management histories was assessed by tracking cattle feces bacterial populations using multiple host-specific PCR assays. In addition, environmental factors affecting the occurrence of these markers were identified. Each assay wa...

  1. Identification from diverse mammalian poxviruses of host-range regulatory genes functioning equivalently to vaccinia virus C7L.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Chao, Jie; Xiang, Yan

    2008-03-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) C7L is a host-range gene that regulates cellular tropism of VACV. Distantly related C7L homologues are encoded by nearly all mammalian poxviruses, but whether they are host-range genes functioning similar to VACV C7L has not been determined. Here, we used VACV as a model system to analyze five different C7L homologues from diverse mammalian poxviruses for their abilities to regulate poxvirus cellular tropism. Three C7L homologues (myxoma virus M63R, M64R and cowpox virus 020), when expressed with an epitope tag and from a VACV mutant lacking the host-range genes K1L and C7L (vK1L-C7L-), failed to support productive viral replication in human and murine cells. In nonpermissive cells, these viruses did not synthesize viral late proteins, expressed a reduced level of the early protein E3L, and were defective at suppressing cellular PKR activation. In contrast, two other C7L homologues, myxoma virus (MYXV) M62R and yaba-like disease virus (YLDV) 67R, when expressed with an epitope tag and from vK1L(-)C7L(-), supported normal viral replication in human and murine cells and restored the ability of the virus to suppress PKR activation. Furthermore, M62R rescued the defect of vK1L(-)C7L(-) at replicating and disseminating in mice following intranasal inoculation. These results show that MYXV M62R and YLDV 67R function equivalently to C7L at supporting VACV replication in mammalian hosts and suggest that a C7L-like host-range gene is essential for the replication of many mammalian poxviruses in mammalian hosts.

  2. Targeting multiple response regulators of Mycobacterium tuberculosis augments the host immune response to infection

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Srijon Kaushik; Kumar, Manish; Alokam, Reshma; Sharma, Arun Kumar; Chatterjee, Ayan; Kumar, Ranjeet; Sahu, Sanjaya Kumar; Jana, Kuladip; Singh, Ramandeep; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Basu, Joyoti; Kundu, Manikuntala

    2016-01-01

    The genome of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes eleven paired two component systems (TCSs) consisting of a sensor kinase (SK) and a response regulator (RR). The SKs sense environmental signals triggering RR-dependent gene expression pathways that enable the bacterium to adapt in the host milieu. We demonstrate that a conserved motif present in the C-terminal domain regulates the DNA binding functions of the OmpR family of Mtb RRs. Molecular docking studies against this motif helped to identify two molecules with a thiazolidine scaffold capable of targeting multiple RRs, and modulating their regulons to attenuate bacterial replication in macrophages. The changes in the bacterial transcriptome extended to an altered immune response with increased autophagy and NO production, leading to compromised survival of Mtb in macrophages. Our findings underscore the promise of targeting multiple RRs as a novel yet unexplored approach for development of new anti-mycobacterial agents particularly against drug-resistant Mtb. PMID:27181265

  3. The N-terminus of vaccinia virus host range protein C7L is essential for function

    PubMed Central

    Terajima, Masanori; Urban, Stina L.; Leporati, Anita M.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV), a member of the Poxviridae family of large double-stranded DNA viruses, is being used as a smallpox vaccine as well as an expression vector for immunization against other infectious diseases and cancer. The host range of wild type VACV is very broad among mammalian cells. C7L is a host range gene identified in VACV and is well conserved in mammalian poxviruses except for parapoxviruses and molluscum contagiosum virus. The molecular mechanisms by which the C7L gene exerts host range function are not well understood. The C7L protein does not have any known conserved domains or show sequence similarity to cellular proteins or viral proteins other than the C7L homologues in mammalian poxviruses. We generated recombinant vaccinia viruses carrying deletion mutants of the C7L gene using NYVAC as a parental strain and found that the N-terminus is essential for host range function of C7L, which is consistent with a previous report that showed homology among C7L homologues are greater near the N-terminus than the C-terminus. PMID:23001690

  4. Biology and host range of Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis; a potential biological control agent for Chinese tallow Triadica sebifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera, is an invasive weed that infests natural and agricultural areas of the southeastern USA. A candidate for biological control of Chinese tallow has been studied under quarantine conditions. The biology and host range of a primitive leaf feeding beetle, Heterapoderops...

  5. Sex, horizontal transmission, and multiple hosts prevent local adaptation of Crithidia bombi, a parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp.).

    PubMed

    Erler, Silvio; Popp, Mario; Wolf, Stephan; Lattorff, H Michael G

    2012-05-01

    Local adaptation within host-parasite systems can evolve by several non-exclusive drivers (e.g., host species-genetic adaptation; ecological conditions-ecological adaptation, and time-temporal adaptation). Social insects, especially bumblebees, with an annual colony life history not only provide an ideal system to test parasite transmission within and between different host colonies, but also parasite adaptation to specific host species and environments. Here, we study local adaptation in a multiple-host parasite characterized by high levels of horizontal transmission. Crithidia bombi occurs as a gut parasite in several bumblebee species. Parasites were sampled from five different host species in two subsequent years. Population genetic tools were used to test for the several types of adaptation. Although we found no evidence for local adaptation of the parasite toward host species, there was a slight temporal differentiation of the parasite populations, which might have resulted from severe bottlenecks during queen hibernation. Parasite populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and showed no signs of linkage disequilibrium suggesting that sexual reproduction is an alternative strategy in this otherwise clonal parasite. Moreover, high levels of multiple infections were found, which might facilitate sexual genetic exchange. The detection of identical clones in different host species suggested that horizontal transmission occurs between host species and underpins the lack of host-specific adaptation.

  6. Range and Velocity Estimation of Moving Targets Using Multiple Stepped-frequency Pulse Trains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Meng, Huadong; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Peng, Ying-Ning

    2008-01-01

    Range and velocity estimation of moving targets using conventional stepped-frequency pulse radar may suffer from the range-Doppler coupling and the phase wrapping. To overcome these problems, this paper presents a new radar waveform named multiple stepped-frequency pulse trains and proposes a new algorithm. It is shown that by using multiple stepped-frequency pulse trains and the robust phase unwrapping theorem (RPUT), both of the range-Doppler coupling and the phase wrapping can be robustly resolved, and accordingly, the range and the velocity of a moving target can be accurately estimated. PMID:27879769

  7. Multiplicity in transiting planet-host stars. A lucky imaging study of Kepler candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.

    2012-10-01

    Context. In the exoplanetary era, the Kepler spacecraft is causing a revolution by discovering thousands of new planet candidates. However, a follow-up program is needed to reject false candidates and fully characterize the bona-fide exoplanets. Aims: Our main aims are to 1./ detect and analyze close companions inside the typical Kepler point spread function (PSF) to study whether they are the responsible for the dimming found in Kepler light curves, 2./ study the change in the stellar and planetary parameters caused by an unresolved object, 3./ help validate the Kepler objects of interest (KOI) that do not have any object inside the Kepler PSF, and 4./ study the multiplicity rate of planet-host candidates. Such a large sample of observed planet-host candidates allows us to derive statistics for close (visual or bounded) companions to the harboring star. Methods: We present lucky imaging observations for a total of 98 KOIs. This technique is based on the acquisition of thousands of very-short-exposure-time images. A selection and combination of a small amount of the highest quality frames provides a high resolution image with objects having a 0.1 arcsec PSF. We apply this technique to carry out observations in the Sloan i and z filters of our Kepler candidates. Results: We find blended objects inside the Kepler PSF for a significant percentage of KOIs. On the one hand, only 58.2% of the hosts do not have any object within 6 arcsec. On the other hand, we find 19 companions closer than 3 arcsec in 17 KOIs. According to their magnitudes and i - z colors, 8 of them could be physically bound to the host star.

  8. Multiple-gain-ranging readout method to extend the dynamic range of amorphous silicon flat-panel imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Pieter G.; Colbeth, Richard E.; Mollov, Ivan; Munro, Peter; Pavkovich, John; Seppi, Edward J.; Shapiro, Edward G.; Tognina, Carlo A.; Virshup, Gary F.; Yu, J. Micheal; Zentai, George; Kaissl, Wolfgang; Matsinos, Evangelos; Richters, Jeroen; Riem, Heinrich

    2004-05-01

    The dynamic range of many flat panel imaging systems are fundamentally limited by the dynamic range of the charge amplifier and readout signal processing. We developed two new flat panel readout methods that achieve extended dynamic range by changing the read out charge amplifier feedback capacitance dynamically and on a real-time basis. In one method, the feedback capacitor is selected automatically by a level sensing circuit, pixel-by-pixel, based on its exposure level. Alternatively, capacitor selection is driven externally, such that each pixel is read out two (or more) times, each time with increased feedback capacitance. Both methods allow the acquisition of X-ray image data with a dynamic range approaching the fundamental limits of flat panel pixels. Data with an equivalent bit depth of better than 16 bits are made available for further image processing. Successful implementation of these methods requires careful matching of selectable capacitor values and switching thresholds, with the imager noise and sensitivity characteristics, to insure X-ray quantum limited operation over the whole extended dynamic range. Successful implementation also depends on the use of new calibration methods and image reconstruction algorithms, to insure artifact free rebuilding of linear image data by the downstream image processing systems. The multiple gain ranging flat panel readout method extends the utility of flat panel imagers and paves the way to new flat panel applications, such as cone beam CT. We believe that this method will provide a valuable extension to the clinical application of flat panel imagers.

  9. Variations in type III effector repertoires, pathological phenotypes and host range of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri pathotypes.

    PubMed

    Escalon, Aline; Javegny, Stéphanie; Vernière, Christian; Noël, Laurent D; Vital, Karine; Poussier, Stéphane; Hajri, Ahmed; Boureau, Tristan; Pruvost, Olivier; Arlat, Matthieu; Gagnevin, Lionel

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms determining the host range of Xanthomonas are still undeciphered, despite much interest in their potential roles in the evolution and emergence of plant pathogenic bacteria. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xci) is an interesting model of host specialization because of its pathogenic variants: pathotype A strains infect a wide range of Rutaceous species, whereas pathotype A*/A(W) strains have a host range restricted to Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) and alemow (Citrus macrophylla). Based on a collection of 55 strains representative of Xci worldwide diversity assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), we investigated the distribution of type III effectors (T3Es) in relation to host range. We examined the presence of 66 T3Es from xanthomonads in Xci and identified a repertoire of 28 effectors, 26 of which were shared by all Xci strains, whereas two (xopAG and xopC1) were present only in some A*/A(W) strains. We found that xopAG (=avrGf1) was present in all A(W) strains, but also in three A* strains genetically distant from A(W) , and that all xopAG-containing strains induced the hypersensitive response (HR) on grapefruit and sweet orange. The analysis of xopAD and xopAG suggested horizontal transfer between X. citri pv. bilvae, another citrus pathogen, and some Xci strains. A strains were genetically less diverse, induced identical phenotypic responses and possessed indistinguishable T3E repertoires. Conversely, A*/A(W) strains exhibited a wider genetic diversity in which clades correlated with geographical origin and T3E repertoire, but not with pathogenicity, according to T3E deletion experiments. Our data outline the importance of taking into account the heterogeneity of Xci A*/A(W) strains when analysing the mechanisms of host specialization.

  10. Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to

  11. Amerindian Helicobacter pylori Strains Go Extinct, as European Strains Expand Their Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Bello, Maria G.; Pérez, Maria E.; Bortolini, Maria C.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Pericchi, Luis R.; Zambrano-Guzmán, Orlisbeth; Linz, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori strains would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes) of 131 strains: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all strains that had been cultured from Africans were African strains (hpAfrica1), all from Spanish were European (hpEurope) and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed strains: hspAmerind and hpEurope strains had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori strains were hspAmerind. Strains hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination). The lower genetic structure in hpEurope strains is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian strains might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian strains may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts. PMID:18830403

  12. Novel Papillomaviruses in Free-Ranging Iberian Bats: No Virus–Host Co-evolution, No Strict Host Specificity, and Hints for Recombination

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M.; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E.; Bravo, Ignacio G.

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus–host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered. PMID:24391150

  13. Novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging Iberian bats: no virus-host co-evolution, no strict host specificity, and hints for recombination.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus-host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered.

  14. Heart rate, multiple body temperature, long-range and long-life telemetry system for free-ranging animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-range, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body temperatures at multiple locations from free-ranging animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium range transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-range transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying temperature information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-range tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.

  15. Limits to the host range of the highly polyphagous tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha ludens in its natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Birke, A; Acosta, E; Aluja, M

    2015-12-01

    Anastepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly polyphagous fruit fly that is able to develop in a wide range of hosts. Understanding the limits of this pest's host range could provide valuable information for pest management and plant breeding for pest resistance. Previous studies have shown that guavas (Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.), are not attacked under natural conditions by A. ludens. To understand this phenomenon, guavas were exposed to natural infestation by A. ludens and to other fruit fly species that infest guavas in nature (Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastepha obliqua (Macquart)). Once the susceptible phenological stage of guavas was determined, fruit infestation levels were compared between A. ludens and A. striata. Choice and non-choice tests were performed under field-cage conditions. Under field conditions, guavas were susceptible to A. striata and A. fraterculus attack all the way from when fruit was undeveloped to when fruit began to ripen. No infestation by A. ludens was recorded under natural conditions. Similar results were obtained when forced exposures were performed, indicating that unripe guavas were preferred by A. striata over ripe fruit, and that infestation rates were higher at early fruit maturity stages. Under forced oviposition conditions, A. ludens larvae were unable to develop in unripe guavas but did so in fully ripe fruit. However, A. ludens fitness parameters were dramatically affected, exhibiting reduced survival and reduced pupal weight compared to conspecifics that developed in a natural host, grapefruit. We confirm that P. guajava should not be treated as a natural host of this pestiferous species, and suggest that both behavioral aspects and the fact that larvae are unable to adequately develop in this fruit, indeed represent clear limits to A. ludens's broad host range.

  16. M062 is a host range factor essential for myxoma virus pathogenesis and functions as an antagonist of host SAMD9 in human cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wennier, Sonia; Zhang, Leiliang; McFadden, Grant

    2011-04-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) M062R is a functional homolog of the C7L family of host range genes from orthopoxviruses. We constructed a targeted M062R-knockout-MYXV (vMyxM062-KO) and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. In European rabbits, infection by vMyxM062-KO was completely asymptomatic. The surviving rabbits did not gain full protection against the subsequent lethal-dose challenge with wild-type MYXV. We also looked for cellular tropism defects in a variety of cultured cells. In all of the rabbit cells tested, vMyxM062-KO conducts an abortive infection, although it initiates viral DNA replication. In many, but not all, human cancer cells that are permissive for wild-type MYXV, vMyxM062-KO exhibited a profound replication defect. We categorized human cells tested into two groups: (i) type A, which support productive replication for wild-type MYXV but are unable to produce significant levels of progeny virus by vMyxM062-KO, and (ii) type B, which are permissive to infections by both wild-type MYXV and vMyxM062-KO. Furthermore, using proteomic strategies, we identified sterile α motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9), an interferon-regulated cellular protein implicated in human inflammatory disorders, as a unique host binding partner of M062 in human cells. Significantly, knocking down SAMD9 in type A human cancer cells led to a substantial rescue of vMyxM062-KO infection. In summary, M062 is a novel host range factor that controls productive MYXV replication in rabbit cells and in a wide variety of human cells. M062 also binds and antagonizes cellular SAMD9 in human cells, suggesting that SAMD9 is a novel innate antiviral factor against poxviruses.

  17. Genome Analysis of a Novel Broad Host Range Proteobacteria Phage Isolated from a Bioreactor Treating Industrial Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Marina; Baron, Maayan; Brenner, Asher; Kushmaro, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and consequently they have a major impact on the development of a microbial population. In this study, the genome of a novel broad host range bacteriophage, Aquamicrobium phage P14, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, was analyzed. The Aquamicrobium phage P14 was found to infect members of different Proteobacteria classes (Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria). This phage contains a 40,551 bp long genome and 60% of its genes had blastx hits. Furthermore, the bacteriophage was found to share more than 50% of its genes with several podoviruses and has the same gene order as other polyvalent bacteriophages. The results obtained in this study led to the conclusion that indeed general features of the genome of the Aquamicrobium phage P14 are shared with other broad host range bacteriophages, however further analysis of the genome is needed in order to identify the specific mechanisms which enable the bacteriophage to infect both Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:28106814

  18. The Presence of Two Receptor-Binding Proteins Contributes to the Wide Host Range of Staphylococcal Twort-Like Phages

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Ippei; Osada, Keita; Azam, Aa Haeruman; Asakawa, Hiroaki; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thanks to their wide host range and virulence, staphylococcal bacteriophages (phages) belonging to the genus Twortlikevirus (staphylococcal Twort-like phages) are regarded as ideal candidates for clinical application for Staphylococcus aureus infections due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria of this species. To increase the usability of these phages, it is necessary to understand the mechanism underlying host recognition, especially the receptor-binding proteins (RBPs) that determine host range. In this study, we found that the staphylococcal Twort-like phage ΦSA012 possesses at least two RBPs. Genomic analysis of five mutant phages of ΦSA012 revealed point mutations in orf103, in a region unique to staphylococcal Twort-like phages. Phages harboring mutated ORF103 could not infect S. aureus strains in which wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are glycosylated with α-N-acetylglucosamine (α-GlcNAc). A polyclonal antibody against ORF103 also inhibited infection by ΦSA012 in the presence of α-GlcNAc, suggesting that ORF103 binds to α-GlcNAc. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody against ORF105, a short tail fiber component previously shown to be an RBP, inhibited phage infection irrespective of the presence of α-GlcNAc. Immunoelectron microscopy indicated that ORF103 is a tail fiber component localized at the bottom of the baseplate. From these results, we conclude that ORF103 binds α-GlcNAc in WTAs, whereas ORF105, the primary RBP, is likely to bind the WTA backbone. These findings provide insight into the infection mechanism of staphylococcal Twort-like phages. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus phages belonging to the genus Twortlikevirus (called staphylococcal Twort-like phages) are considered promising agents for control of Staphylococcus aureus due to their wide host range and highly lytic capabilities. Although staphylococcal Twort-like phages have been studied widely for therapeutic purposes, the host recognition process of staphylococcal Twort

  19. Second site mutation in the virus envelope expands the host range of a cytopathic variant of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Ferrarone, John; Knoper, Ryan C; Li, Randolph; Kozak, Christine A

    2012-11-10

    Spl574 MLV (murine leukemia virus) is a variant of Moloney ecotropic MLV (MoMLV) that is cytopathic in Mus dunni cells and restricted by other mouse cells. Its host range and cytopathicity are due to a mutation, S82F, at a site critical for binding to the CAT-1 receptor. To identify residues that affect affinity for receptor variants, virus with S82F was passed in restrictive cells. The env genes of the adapted viruses contained 18 novel mutations, including one, E114G, present in 6 of 30 sequenced envs. MoMLV-E114G efficiently infected all mouse cells as well as ecotropic MLV resistant Chinese hamster cells. Virus with E114G and S82F induced large multinucleated syncytia in NIH 3T3 and SC-1 cells as well as M. dunni cells. Inoculation of Mo-S82F,E114G into mice produced lymphomas typical of MoMLV. Residues at env position 114 are thus important determinants of host range, and E114G suppresses host range restriction due to S82F, but does not affect S82F-governed cytopathicity.

  20. Differentiation of polyvalent bacteriophages specific to uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains based on the host range pattern and RFLP.

    PubMed

    Maszewska, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Ewelina; Ciurzyńska, Aneta; Wojtasik, Arkadiusz; Piątkowska, Iwona; Dastych, Jarosław; Różalski, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by P. mirabilis are difficult to cure because of the increasing antimicrobial resistance of these bacteria. Phage therapy is proposed as an alternative infection treatment. The aim of this study was to isolate and differentiate uropathogenic P. mirabilis strain specific polyvalent bacteriophages producing polysaccharide depolymerases (PDs). 51 specific phages were obtained. The plaques of 29 bacteriophages were surrounded by halos, which indicated that they produced PDs. The host range analysis showed that, except phages 58B and 58C, the phage host range profiles differed from each other. Phages 35 and 45 infected all P. mirabilis strains tested. Another 10 phages lysed more than 90% of isolates. Among these phages, 65A, 70, 66 and 66A caused a complete lysis of the bacterial lawn formed by 62% to 78% of strains. Additionally, phages 39A and 70 probably produced PDs. The phages' DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis demonstrated that genomes of 51 isolated phages represented 34 different restriction profiles. DNA of phage 58A seemed to be resistant to selected EcoRV endonuclease. The 33 RFLP-EcoRV profiles showed a Dice similarity index of 38.8%. 22 RFLP patterns were obtained from single phage isolates. The remaining 12 restriction profiles consisted of 2 to 4 viruses. The results obtained from phage characterization based on the pattern of phage host range in combination with the RFLP method enabled effective differentiation of the studied phages and selection of PD producing polyvalent phages for further study.

  1. Climate Change May Alter Breeding Ground Distributions of Eastern Migratory Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via Range Expansion of Asclepias Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species’ distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months

  2. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Nathan P

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months

  3. Roles of host plants in boll weevil range expansion beyond tropical Mesoamerica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New findings on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biology and ecology have had repercussions on the current level of understanding about short- and long-range boll weevil dispersal, and range expansion from its original tropical Mesoamerican habitat. The w...

  4. Model-selection-based approach for calculating cellular multiplicity of infection during virus colonization of multi-cellular hosts.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Mark P; Tromas, Nicolas; Elena, Santiago F

    2013-01-01

    The cellular multiplicity of infection (MOI) is a key parameter for describing the interactions between virions and cells, predicting the dynamics of mixed-genotype infections, and understanding virus evolution. Two recent studies have reported in vivo MOI estimates for Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), using sophisticated approaches to measure the distribution of two virus variants over host cells. Although the experimental approaches were similar, the studies employed different definitions of MOI and estimation methods. Here, new model-selection-based methods for calculating MOI were developed. Seven alternative models for predicting MOI were formulated that incorporate an increasing number of parameters. For both datasets the best-supported model included spatial segregation of virus variants over time, and to a lesser extent aggregation of virus-infected cells was also implicated. Three methods for MOI estimation were then compared: the two previously reported methods and the best-supported model. For CaMV data, all three methods gave comparable results. For TMV data, the previously reported methods both predicted low MOI values (range: 1.04-1.23) over time, whereas the best-supported model predicted a wider range of MOI values (range: 1.01-2.10) and an increase in MOI over time. Model selection can therefore identify suitable alternative MOI models and suggest key mechanisms affecting the frequency of coinfected cells. For the TMV data, this leads to appreciable differences in estimated MOI values.

  5. Multiple Candidate Effectors from the Oomycete Pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Suppress Host Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fabro, Georgina; Steinbrenner, Jens; Coates, Mary; Ishaque, Naveed; Baxter, Laura; Studholme, David J.; Körner, Evelyn; Allen, Rebecca L.; Piquerez, Sophie J. M.; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Greenshields, David; Lei, Rita; Badel, Jorge L.; Caillaud, Marie-Cecile; Sohn, Kee-Hoon; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Parker, Jane E.; Beynon, Jim; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of Hpa isolate Emoy2 (HaRxLs) were able to manipulate host defenses in different Arabidopsis accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS) of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000-LUX (Pst-LUX) and assessing changes in Pst-LUX growth in planta on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (∼70%) of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to Pst-LUX growth on more than one accession indicating that Hpa virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a Pst mutant (ΔCEL) showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced Pst-LUX growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased Pst-LUX growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced Pst growth on turnip, a non-host for Hpa, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against Hpa could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in Arabidopsis a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to Hpa and attenuation of Arabidopsis PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in Hpa virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether candidate

  6. Multiple candidate effectors from the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis suppress host plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Fabro, Georgina; Steinbrenner, Jens; Coates, Mary; Ishaque, Naveed; Baxter, Laura; Studholme, David J; Körner, Evelyn; Allen, Rebecca L; Piquerez, Sophie J M; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Greenshields, David; Lei, Rita; Badel, Jorge L; Caillaud, Marie-Cecile; Sohn, Kee-Hoon; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Parker, Jane E; Beynon, Jim; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-11-01

    Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of Hpa isolate Emoy2 (HaRxLs) were able to manipulate host defenses in different Arabidopsis accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS) of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000-LUX (Pst-LUX) and assessing changes in Pst-LUX growth in planta on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (~70%) of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to Pst-LUX growth on more than one accession indicating that Hpa virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a Pst mutant (ΔCEL) showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced Pst-LUX growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased Pst-LUX growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced Pst growth on turnip, a non-host for Hpa, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against Hpa could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in Arabidopsis a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to Hpa and attenuation of Arabidopsis PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in Hpa virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether candidate

  7. Host Range and Distribution of the Clover Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne trifoliophila

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, E. C.; Jennings, P. L.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Meloidogyne trifoliophila to gall 230 species and cultivars of plants was determined in a greenhouse. All clovers (Trifolium spp.) were severely galled regardless of species or cultivar. Most soybean cultivars were moderately to severely galled. Among other legumes, broad bean, garden pea, Korean lespedeza, sweetclover, and common vetch were good hosts, but alfalfa, bird's-foot trefoil, peanut, and pole bean were poor or nonhosts. Among other plant families, most Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) were galled, but Cucurbitaceae, Iridaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae were rarely or never galled. Results for Amaryllidaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Liliaceae were variable. This nematode was not found in a survey of pasture and soybean fields in southwestern Tennessee. PMID:19274266

  8. Host behaviour drives parasite genetics at multiple geographic scales: population genetics of the chewing louse, Thomomydoecus minor.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sheree E; Spradling, Theresa A; Demastes, James W; Calhoun, Courtney S

    2015-08-01

    Pocket gophers and their symbiotic chewing lice form a host-parasite assemblage known for a high degree of cophylogeny, thought to be driven by life history parameters of both host and parasite that make host switching difficult. However, little work to date has focused on determining whether these life histories actually impact louse populations at the very fine scale of louse infrapopulations (individuals on a single host) at the same or at nearby host localities. We used microsatellite and mtDNA sequence data to make comparisons of chewing-louse (Thomomydoecus minor) population subdivision over time and over geographic space where there are different potential amounts of host interaction surrounding a zone of contact between two hybridizing pocket-gopher subspecies. We found that chewing lice had high levels of population isolation consistent with a paucity of horizontal transmission even at the very fine geographic scale of a single alfalfa field. We also found marked genetic discontinuity in louse populations corresponding with host subspecies and little, if any, admixture in the louse genetic groups even though the lice are closely related. The correlation of louse infrapopulation differentiation with host interaction at multiple scales, including across a discontinuity in pocket-gopher habitat, suggests that host behaviour is the primary driver of parasite genetics. This observation makes sense in light of the life histories of both chewing lice and pocket gophers and provides a powerful explanation for the well-documented pattern of parallel cladogenesis in pocket gophers and chewing lice.

  9. A Multivalent Adsorption Apparatus Explains the Broad Host Range of Phage phi92: a Comprehensive Genomic and Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Falk F. R.; Browning, Christopher; Nazarov, Sergey; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Bethe, Andrea; Oberbeck, Astrid; Bowman, Valorie D.; Stummeyer, Katharina; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage phi92 is a large, lytic myovirus isolated in 1983 from pathogenic Escherichia coli strains that carry a polysialic acid capsule. Here we report the genome organization of phi92, the cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction of its virion, and the reinvestigation of its host specificity. The genome consists of a linear, double-stranded 148,612-bp DNA sequence containing 248 potential open reading frames and 11 putative tRNA genes. Orthologs were found for 130 of the predicted proteins. Most of the virion proteins showed significant sequence similarities to proteins of myoviruses rv5 and PVP-SE1, indicating that phi92 is a new member of the novel genus of rv5-like phages. Reinvestigation of phi92 host specificity showed that the host range is not limited to polysialic acid-encapsulated Escherichia coli but includes most laboratory strains of Escherichia coli and many Salmonella strains. Structure analysis of the phi92 virion demonstrated the presence of four different types of tail fibers and/or tailspikes, which enable the phage to use attachment sites on encapsulated and nonencapsulated bacteria. With this report, we provide the first detailed description of a multivalent, multispecies phage armed with a host cell adsorption apparatus resembling a nanosized Swiss army knife. The genome, structure, and, in particular, the organization of the baseplate of phi92 demonstrate how a bacteriophage can evolve into a multi-pathogen-killing agent. PMID:22787233

  10. Genomic evidence that resource-based trade-offs limit host-range expansion in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Gompert, Zachariah; Messina, Frank J

    2016-06-01

    Trade-offs have often been invoked to explain the evolution of ecological specialization. Phytophagous insects have been especially well studied, but there has been little evidence that resource-based trade-offs contribute to the evolution of host specialization in this group. Here, we combine experimental evolution and partial genome resequencing of replicate seed beetle selection lines to test the trade-off hypothesis and measure the repeatability of evolution. Bayesian estimates of selection coefficients suggest that rapid adaptation to a poor host (lentil) was mediated by standing genetic variation at multiple genetic loci and involved many of the same variants in replicate lines. Sublines that were then switched back to the ancestral host (mung bean) showed a more gradual and variable (less repeatable) loss of adaptation to lentil. We were able to obtain estimates of variance effective population sizes from genome-wide differences in allele frequencies within and between lines. These estimates were relatively large, which suggests that the contribution of genetic drift to the loss of adaptation following reversion was small. Instead, we find that some alleles that were favored on lentil were selected against during reversion on mung bean, consistent with the genetic trade-off hypothesis.

  11. A wide host-range metagenomic library from a waste water treatment plant yields a novel alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Margaret; Bond, Philip L; Richardson, David J; Johnston, Andrew W B

    2005-12-01

    Using DNA obtained from the metagenome of an anaerobic digestor in a waste water treatment plant, we constructed a gene library cloned in the wide host-range cosmid pLAFR3. One cosmid enabled Rhizobium leguminosarum to grow on ethanol as sole carbon and energy source, this being due to the presence of a gene, termed adhEMeta. The AdhEMeta protein most closely resembles the AdhE alcohol dehydrogenase of Clostridium acetobutylicum, where it catalyses the formation of ethanol and butanol in a two-step reductive process. However, cloned adhEMeta did not confer ethanol utilization ability to Escherichia coli or to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, even though it was transcribed in both these hosts. Further, cell-free extracts of E. coli and R. leguminosarum containing cloned adhEMeta had butanol and ethanol dehydrogenase activities when assayed in vitro. In contrast to the well-studied AdhE proteins of C. acetobutylicum and E. coli, the enzyme specified by adhEMeta is not inactivated by oxygen and it enables alcohol to be catabolized. Cloned adhEMeta did, however, confer one phenotype to E. coli. AdhE- mutants of E. coli fail to ferment glucose and introduction of adhEMeta restored the growth of such mutants when grown under fermentative conditions. These observations show that the use of wide host-range vectors enhances the efficacy with which metagenomic libraries can be screened for genes that confer novel functions.

  12. Role of multiple hosts in the cross-species transmission and emergence of a pandemic parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Allison, Andrew B; Harbison, Carole E; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M; Kaelber, Jason T; Brown, Justin D; Ruder, Mark G; Keel, M Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence.

  13. In vitro host range of the Hz-1 nonoccluded virus in insect cell lines.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Arthur H; Grasela, James J; Ignoffo, Carlo M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 13 insect cell lines spanning 4 orders (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, and Homoptera) were tested for their ability to replicate the nonoccluded virus Hz-1. Only the Lepidopteran cell lines supported replication of the virus with TN-CL1 and BCIRL-HZ-AM1 producing the highest titers of 2.4 x 10(8) tissue culture infective dose (TCID)50/ml and 2.0 x 10(8) TCID50/ml, respectively. A codling moth cell line (CP-169) was the only Lepidopteran cell line that did not replicate the virus and transfection of this cell line with Hz-1 DNA failed to replicate the virus. Also, transfection with DNA from a recombinant baculovirus carrying the red fluorescent protein gene (AcMNPVhsp70 Red) was not expressed in CP-169 cells. The replication cycle of Hz-1 in BCIRL-HZ-AM1 cells showed that this virus replicated rapidly starting at 16 h postinoculation (p.i.) and reaching a peak titer of 1.0 x 10(8) TCID50/ml 56 h postinoculation. Hz-1 when compared with several other baculoviruses has the widest in vitro host spectrum.

  14. Biology and preliminary host range assessment of two potential kudzu biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Frye, Matthew J; Hough-Goldstein, Judith; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Two insect species from China, Gonioctena tredecimmaculata (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ornatalcides (Mesalcidodes) trifidus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were studied in quarantine in the United States as potential biological control agents for kudzu, Pueraria montana variety lobata (Willd.) Maesen and S. Almeida. Adults of G. tredecimmaculata were ovoviviparous and reproduced throughout the summer, producing offspring that had an obligate adult diapause. In no-choice tests, adult and larval G. tredecimmaculata rejected most of the plant species tested, but consumed foliage and completed their life cycle on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and on a native woodland plant, hog-peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata L. Fernald), which are in the same subtribe as kudzu (Glycininae). Insects showed similar responses to field- and greenhouse-grown soybean and kudzu foliage, despite measurable differences in leaf traits: field-grown foliage of both plants had greater leaf toughness, higher total carbon content, higher trichome density, and lower water content than greenhouse foliage. O. trifidus adults also rejected most of the plants tested but fed on and severely damaged potted soybean and hog-peanut plants in addition to kudzu. Further tests in China are needed to determine whether these species will accept nontarget host plants under open-field conditions.

  15. North American tree squirrels and ground squirrels with overlapping ranges host different Cryptosporidium species and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Brianna L S; Clark, Mark E; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W; Prediger, Jitka; McEvoy, John M

    2015-12-01

    Wildlife-associated Cryptosporidium are an emerging cause of cryptosporidiosis in humans. The present study was undertaken to determine the extent to which North American tree squirrels and ground squirrels host zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Fragments of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA and actin genes were amplified and sequenced from fecal samples obtained from three tree squirrel and three ground squirrel species. In tree squirrels, Cryptosporidium was identified in 40.5% (17/42) of American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), 40.4% (55/136) of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and 28.6% (2/7) of fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). Human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium ubiquitum and Cryptosporidium skunk genotype were the most prevalent species/genotypes in tree squirrels. Because tree squirrels live in close proximity to humans and are frequently infected with potentially zoonotic Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, they may be a significant reservoir of infection in humans. In ground squirrels, Cryptosporidium was detected in 70.2% (33/47) of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), 35.1% (27/77) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), and the only golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) that was sampled. Cryptosporidium rubeyi and ground squirrel genotypes I, II, and III were identified in isolates from these ground squirrel species. In contrast to the Cryptosporidium infecting tree squirrels, these species/genotypes appear to be specific for ground squirrels and are not associated with human disease.

  16. Long range correlations in high multiplicity hadron collisions: Building bridges with ridges

    SciTech Connect

    Venugopalan, Raju

    2015-01-15

    We discuss the physics of the ridge–azimuthally collimated long range rapidity correlations–in high multiplicity proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions. We outline some of the theoretical discussions in the literature that address the systematics of these ridge correlations.

  17. Dead-end hollow-fiber ultrafiltration for concentration and enumeration of Escherichia coli and broad-host-range plasmid DNA from wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Asfahl, Kyle L.; Savin, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-host-range plasmids can facilitate dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants among diverse bacterial populations. We evaluated hollow-fiber ultrafiltration for increases in detection efficiency of broad-host-range plasmids and Escherichia coli DNA in wastewater. Ultrafiltration followed by PCR showed limited increases in DNA detection and quantification in effluent compared with membrane filtration alone. PMID:22251424

  18. Broad-Host-Range Plasmids from Agricultural Soils Have IncP-1 Backbones with Diverse Accessory Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Diya; Van der Auwera, Geraldine A.; Rogers, Linda M.; Thomas, Christopher M.; Brown, Celeste J.; Top, Eva M.

    2011-01-01

    Broad-host-range plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to antibiotics and heavy metals or degradation of pollutants. Although some broad-host-range plasmids have been extensively studied, their evolutionary history and genetic diversity remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to analyze and compare the genomes of 12 broad-host-range plasmids that were previously isolated from Norwegian soils by exogenous plasmid isolation and that encode mercury resistance. Complete nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analyses based on the relaxase gene traI showed that all the plasmids belong to one of two subgroups (β and ε) of the well-studied incompatibility group IncP-1. A diverse array of accessory genes was found to be involved in resistance to antimicrobials (streptomycin, spectinomycin, and sulfonamides), degradation of herbicides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid), and a putative new catabolic pathway. Intramolecular transposition of insertion sequences followed by deletion was found to contribute to the diversity of some of these plasmids. The previous observation that the insertion sites of a Tn501-related element are identical in four IncP-1β plasmids (pJP4, pB10, R906, and R772) was further extended to three more IncP-1β plasmids (pAKD15, pAKD18, and pAKD29). We proposed a hypothesis for the evolution of these Tn501-bearing IncP-1β plasmids that predicts recent diversification followed by worldwide spread. Our study increases the available collection of complete IncP-1 plasmid genome sequences by 50% and will aid future studies to enhance our understanding of the evolution and function of this important plasmid family. PMID:21948829

  19. Characterization of Extended-Host-Range Pseudo-T-Even Bacteriophage Kpp95 Isolated on Klebsiella pneumoniae▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lii-Tzu; Chang, Shu-Ying; Yen, Ming-Ren; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

    2007-01-01

    Kpp95, isolated on Klebsiella pneumoniae, is a bacteriophage with the morphology of T4-type phages and is capable of rapid lysis of host cells. Its double-stranded genomic DNA (ca. 175 kb, estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) can be cut only by restriction endonucleases with a cleavage site flanked either by A and T or by T, as tested, suggesting that it contains the modified derivative(s) of G and/or C. Over 26 protein bands were visualized upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the virion proteins. N-terminal sequencing indicated that the most abundant band (46 kDa) is the major coat protein (gp23) which has been cleaved from a signal peptide likely with a length similar to that of T4. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the central region (263 amino acid residues) of gp23 and the full length of gp18 and gp19 placed Kpp95 among the pseudo-T-even subgroup, most closely related to the coliphage JS98. In addition to being able to lyse many extended-spectrum β-lactamase strains of K. pneumoniae, Kpp95 can lyse Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens cells. Thus, Kpp95 deserves further studies for development as a component of a therapeutic cocktail, owing to its high efficiencies of host lysis plus extended host range. PMID:17337566

  20. Azimuthal anisotropy harmonics from long-range correlations in high multiplicity pp collisions at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenyu

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of two-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicities. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.2 pb-1, were collected during the 2010 LHC pp run using the CMS detector. In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (| Δη | > 2), near-side (Δϕ ≈ 0) structure is found in the two-particle Δη - Δϕ correlation functions. The second-order (v2) and third-order (v3) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of charged particles, KS0 and Λ / Λ ‾ particles are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as a function of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum, after correcting for the contribution of back-to-back jet correlations. A v2 and v3 value of about 4% and 1%, averaging over 0.3 multiplicity region, and are found to be smaller than values obtained in pPb and PbPb collisions at similar multiplicities.

  1. Human Neoplasms Elicit Multiple Specific Immune Responses in the Autologous Host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Ugur; Tureci, Ozlem; Schmitt, Holger; Cochlovius, Bjorn; Johannes, Thomas; Schmits, Rudolf; Stenner, Frank; Luo, Guorong; Schobert, Ingrid; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    1995-12-01

    Expression of cDNA libraries from human melanoma, renal cancer, astrocytoma, and Hodgkin disease in Escherichia coli and screening for clones reactive with high-titer IgG antibodies in autologous patient serum lead to the discovery of at least four antigens with a restricted expression pattern in each tumor. Besides antigens known to elicit T-cell responses, such as MAGE-1 and tyrosinase, numerous additional antigens that were overexpressed or specifically expressed in tumors of the same type were identified. Sequence analyses suggest that many of these molecules, besides being the target of a specific immune response, might be of relevance for tumor growth. Antibodies to a given antigen were usually confined to patients with the same tumor type. The unexpected frequency of human tumor antigens, which can be readily defined at the molecular level by the serological analysis of autologous tumor cDNA expression cloning, indicates that human neoplasms elicit multiple specific immune responses in the autologous host and provides diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to human cancer.

  2. Improved accuracy of acute graft-versus-host disease staging among multiple centers.

    PubMed

    Levine, John E; Hogan, William J; Harris, Andrew C; Litzow, Mark R; Efebera, Yvonne A; Devine, Steven M; Reshef, Ran; Ferrara, James L M

    2014-01-01

    The clinical staging of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) varies significantly among bone marrow transplant (BMT) centers, but adherence to long-standing practices poses formidable barriers to standardization among centers. We have analyzed the sources of variability and developed a web-based remote data entry system that can be used by multiple centers simultaneously and that standardizes data collection in key areas. This user-friendly, intuitive interface resembles an online shopping site and eliminates error-prone entry of free text with drop-down menus and pop-up detailed guidance available at the point of data entry. Standardized documentation of symptoms and therapeutic response reduces errors in grade assignment and allows creation of confidence levels regarding the diagnosis. Early review and adjudication of borderline cases improves consistency of grading and further enhances consistency among centers. If this system achieves widespread use it may enhance the quality of data in multicenter trials to prevent and treat acute GVHD.

  3. Multilocus sequence analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum reveals three distinct lineages with different host ranges in clinically ill French cattle.

    PubMed

    Chastagner, Amélie; Dugat, Thibaud; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Verheyden, Hélène; Legrand, Loïc; Bachy, Véronique; Chabanne, Luc; Joncour, Guy; Maillard, Renaud; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia; Bailly, Xavier; Leblond, Agnès

    2014-12-09

    Molecular epidemiology represents a powerful approach to elucidate the complex epidemiological cycles of multi-host pathogens, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A. phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that affects a wide range of wild and domesticated animals. Here, we characterized its genetic diversity in populations of French cattle; we then compared the observed genotypes with those found in horses, dogs, and roe deer to determine whether genotypes of A. phagocytophilum are shared among different hosts. We sampled 120 domesticated animals (104 cattle, 13 horses, and 3 dogs) and 40 wild animals (roe deer) and used multilocus sequence analysis on nine loci (ankA, msp4, groESL, typA, pled, gyrA, recG, polA, and an intergenic region) to characterize the genotypes of A. phagocytophilum present. Phylogenic analysis revealed three genetic clusters of bacterial variants in domesticated animals. The two principal clusters included 98% of the bacterial genotypes found in cattle, which were only distantly related to those in roe deer. One cluster comprised only cattle genotypes, while the second contained genotypes from cattle, horses, and dogs. The third contained all roe deer genotypes and three cattle genotypes. Geographical factors could not explain this clustering pattern. These results suggest that roe deer do not contribute to the spread of A. phagocytophilum in cattle in France. Further studies should explore if these different clusters are associated with differing disease severity in domesticated hosts. Additionally, it remains to be seen if the three clusters of A. phagocytophilum genotypes in cattle correspond to distinct epidemiological cycles, potentially involving different reservoir hosts.

  4. Acute graft-versus-host disease and bronchiolitis obliterans after autologous stem cell transplantation in a patient with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Sara; Cabrero, Mónica; Caballero, Juan C; Dávila, Julio; de la Calle, Veronica Gonzalez; López-Godino, Oriana; López-Corral, Lucia; Pérez, Estefanía; Vázquez, Lourdes; Corral, Rocío; Caballero, Dolores; del Cañizo, Consuelo; Mateos, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Sixty-seven-year-old patient, diagnosed with multiple myeloma who had received autologous stem cell transplantation, following bortezomib, dexamethasone and thalidomide conventional regimen, achieving complete response, developed rash, diarrhea, and severe respiratory failure, 80 days after the transplantation procedure. He was diagnosed with graft-versus-host disease and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. PMID:26185631

  5. The effect of host nutritional quality on multiple components of Trichogramma brassicae fitness.

    PubMed

    Kishani Farahani, H; Ashouri, A; Zibaee, A; Abroon, P; Alford, L

    2016-10-01

    For parasitoids, the host represents the sole source of nutrients for the developing immature. Subsequently, host quality is an important factor affecting immature development and the resulting fitness of the emerging parasitoid, with impacts on fecundity, longevity and offspring sex ratio. Host age is an integral component of host quality and a key factor in host selection by the female parasitoid. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of decreasing host quality (determined by increasing host age) on adult life history traits (size, wing loading, longevity, and fecundity) and nutritional reserves (protein, lipid and glycogen concentrations) of the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae. Higher quality hosts resulted in the production of larger offspring with increased resource reserves and enhanced mobility. One-day-old eggs contained significantly more protein and triglyceride than 25- and 45-day-old eggs. Quality of host and fitness of reared wasps decreased due to host aging. Parasitoids reared on 1-day-old hosts were larger, with greater fecundity and longevity, a reduced wind loading index, and produced a higher proportion of female offspring when compared with those reared on 25- and 45-day-old hosts. In addition, wasps reared on 1-day-old hosts contained higher energy resources, as determined by triglyceride, glycogen and protein reserves, which are essential to successful offspring production. One-day-old hosts can therefore be considered as the best age for producing wasps with greater fitness, since they contain the highest amount of protein, glycogen, and triglyceride. This has implications for the mass rearing of T. brassicae and enhancing the efficacy of this biological control agent.

  6. Response of Flour Beetles to Multiple Stressors of Parasitic (Hymenolepis diminuta), Environmental (Diatomaceous Earth), and Host (Reproduction) Origin.

    PubMed

    Shostak, Allen W; Van Buuren, Kala G; Cook, Ranon

    2015-08-01

    Organisms face a multitude of potential stressors, and the way these stressors interact can provide insights into underlying biological processes. This study examined the flour beetle Tribolium confusum and its survival, net fecundity, and surface-seeking behavior in response to combinations of stressors from 3 categories. Infection by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta provided a stress of parasitic origin. Exposure to diatomaceous earth (DE) provided a stress of environmental origin. Use of virgin and mated beetles evaluated reproduction as a stress of host origin. Single and multiple exposure of beetles to parasite eggs achieved a maximum mean abundance of 21 parasites/beetle and a maximum intensity of 90 parasites in an individual beetle. DE reduced initial parasite establishment, but did not directly affect survival of parasites after their establishment in the host. A rehydration technique was used to recover parasites from dead beetles, enabling this to be the first study to correlate H. diminuta intensity at time of death directly to mortality of T. confusum. A dichotomous intensity-mortality relationship was observed in 8% DE, whereby lightly infected (<20 parasites) hosts were killed by DE in an intensity-independent manner, but more heavily infected hosts were killed in an intensity-dependent manner. Host mating status did not affect host survival, but there were interactions among mating status, parasitism, and DE on net fecundity and surface-seeking behavior. However, these effects were minor compared to the host mortality that occurred when parasite abundance and DE concentration were both high. The aggregated distribution of T. confusum in beetles, the difficulty of achieving high mean abundances, and an apparent need for the stressors to have strong effects individually if they are to have enhanced effects when in combination, suggests that exposure to multiple stressors would seriously impact only a small proportion of the host population.

  7. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Differs with Burrowing Nematode Collection Site, but not with Host Range.

    PubMed

    Marin, D H; Kaplan, D T; Opperman, C H

    1999-06-01

    The genetic variability of 12 burrowing nematode (Radopholus sp.) isolates from Central America, the Caribbean, and Florida, and one isolate from Ivory Coast were compared with RAPD analysis. A high degree of genetic similarity (>0.82) was determined for isolates from the Western Hemisphere. Genome similarity was greatest among isolates collected within a country. Among isolates collected in Central America and the Caribbean, burrowing nematodes from Belize and Guatemala were genetically more distant. However, the genome of the isolate from Ivory Coast was most dissimilar (>0.30). These results suggest that African and American burrowing-nematode isolates may have had different origins or that they have been geographically isolated for a sufficient amount of time to have accumulated genetic changes detectable by RAPD analysis. No relationship was found between the genomic similarity and extent of reproduction or damage to banana or citrus roots. Morphometric analysis involving eight of the isolates indicated that they were morphologically identical and values for morphometric parameters were well within the range previously published for banana and citrusparasitic burrowing nematodes.

  8. Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ≤ 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection.

  9. Envelope-binding domain in the cationic amino acid transporter determines the host range of ecotropic murine retroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, L M; Kim, J W; Tseng, L; Cunningham, J M

    1993-01-01

    Infection of rodent cells by ecotropic type C retroviruses requires the expression of a cationic amino acid transporter composed of multiple membrane-spanning domains. By exchanging portions of cDNAs encoding the permissive mouse and nonpermissive human transporters and examining their abilities to specify virus infection upon expression in human 293 cells, we have identified the amino acid residues in the extracellular loop connecting the fifth and sixth membrane-spanning segments of the mouse transporter that are required for both envelope gp70 binding and infection. These findings strongly suggest that the role of the mouse transporter in determining infection is to provide an envelope-binding site. This role is analogous to those of host membrane proteins composed of a single membrane-spanning domain that serve as binding proteins or receptors for other enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and murine and human coronaviruses. PMID:8445722

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Broad-Host-Range Vibriophage KVP40: Comparative Genomics of a T4-Related Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric S.; Heidelberg, John F.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Nelson, William C.; Durkin, A. Scott; Ciecko, Ann; Feldblyum, Tamara V.; White, Owen; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nierman, William C.; Lee, Jong; Szczypinski, Bridget; Fraser, Claire M.

    2003-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the T4-like, broad-host-range vibriophage KVP40 has been determined. The genome sequence is 244,835 bp, with an overall G+C content of 42.6%. It encodes 386 putative protein-encoding open reading frames (CDSs), 30 tRNAs, 33 T4-like late promoters, and 57 potential rho-independent terminators. Overall, 92.1% of the KVP40 genome is coding, with an average CDS size of 587 bp. While 65% of the CDSs were unique to KVP40 and had no known function, the genome sequence and organization show specific regions of extensive conservation with phage T4. At least 99 KVP40 CDSs have homologs in the T4 genome (Blast alignments of 45 to 68% amino acid similarity). The shared CDSs represent 36% of all T4 CDSs but only 26% of those from KVP40. There is extensive representation of the DNA replication, recombination, and repair enzymes as well as the viral capsid and tail structural genes. KVP40 lacks several T4 enzymes involved in host DNA degradation, appears not to synthesize the modified cytosine (hydroxymethyl glucose) present in T-even phages, and lacks group I introns. KVP40 likely utilizes the T4-type sigma-55 late transcription apparatus, but features of early- or middle-mode transcription were not identified. There are 26 CDSs that have no viral homolog, and many did not necessarily originate from Vibrio spp., suggesting an even broader host range for KVP40. From these latter CDSs, an NAD salvage pathway was inferred that appears to be unique among bacteriophages. Features of the KVP40 genome that distinguish it from T4 are presented, as well as those, such as the replication and virion gene clusters, that are substantially conserved. PMID:12923095

  11. Adaptation of Chimeric Retroviruses In Vitro and In Vivo: Isolation of Avian Retroviral Vectors with Extended Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Barsov, Eugene V.; Payne, William S.; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed and characterized two new replication-competent avian sarcoma/leukosis virus-based retroviral vectors with amphotropic and ecotropic host ranges. The amphotropic vector RCASBP-M2C(797-8), was obtained by passaging the chimeric retroviral vector RCASBP-M2C(4070A) (6) in chicken embryos. The ecotropic vector, RCASBP(Eco), was created by replacing the env-coding region in the retroviral vector RCASBP(A) with the env region from an ecotropic murine leukemia virus. It replicates efficiently in avian DFJ8 cells that express murine ecotropic receptor. For both vectors, permanent cell lines that produce viral stocks with titers of about 5 × 106 CFU/ml on mammalian cells can be easily established by passaging transfected avian cells. Some chimeric viruses, for example, RCASBP(Eco), replicate efficiently without modifications. For those chimeric viruses that do require modification, adaptation by passage in vitro or in vivo is a general strategy. This strategy has been used to prepare vectors with altered host range and could potentially be used to develop vectors that would be useful for targeted gene delivery. PMID:11333876

  12. Adaptation of chimeric retroviruses in vitro and in vivo: isolation of avian retroviral vectors with extended host range.

    PubMed

    Barsov, E V; Payne, W S; Hughes, S H

    2001-06-01

    We have designed and characterized two new replication-competent avian sarcoma/leukosis virus-based retroviral vectors with amphotropic and ecotropic host ranges. The amphotropic vector RCASBP-M2C(797-8), was obtained by passaging the chimeric retroviral vector RCASBP-M2C(4070A) (6) in chicken embryos. The ecotropic vector, RCASBP(Eco), was created by replacing the env-coding region in the retroviral vector RCASBP(A) with the env region from an ecotropic murine leukemia virus. It replicates efficiently in avian DFJ8 cells that express murine ecotropic receptor. For both vectors, permanent cell lines that produce viral stocks with titers of about 5 x 10(6) CFU/ml on mammalian cells can be easily established by passaging transfected avian cells. Some chimeric viruses, for example, RCASBP(Eco), replicate efficiently without modifications. For those chimeric viruses that do require modification, adaptation by passage in vitro or in vivo is a general strategy. This strategy has been used to prepare vectors with altered host range and could potentially be used to develop vectors that would be useful for targeted gene delivery.

  13. Multiple introductions boosted genetic diversity in the invasive range of black cherry (Prunus serotina; Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Pairon, Marie; Petitpierre, Blaise; Campbell, Michael; Guisan, Antoine; Broennimann, Olivier; Baret, Philippe V.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Besnard, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a North American tree that is rapidly invading European forests. This species was introduced first as an ornamental plant then it was massively planted by foresters in many countries but its origins and the process of invasion remain poorly documented. Based on a genetic survey of both native and invasive ranges, the invasion history of black cherry was investigated by identifying putative source populations and then assessing the importance of multiple introductions on the maintenance of gene diversity. Methods Genetic variability and structure of 23 populations from the invasive range and 22 populations from the native range were analysed using eight nuclear microsatellite loci and five chloroplast DNA regions. Key Results Chloroplast DNA diversity suggests there were multiple introductions from a single geographic region (the north-eastern United States). A low reduction of genetic diversity was observed in the invasive range for both nuclear and plastid genomes. High propagule pressure including both the size and number of introductions shaped the genetic structure in Europe and boosted genetic diversity. Populations from Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany showed high genetic diversity and low differentiation among populations, supporting the hypothesis that numerous introduction events, including multiple individuals and exchanges between sites, have taken place during two centuries of plantation. Conclusions This study postulates that the invasive black cherry has originated from east of the Appalachian Mountains (mainly the Allegheny plateau) and its invasiveness in north-western Europe is mainly due to multiple introductions containing high numbers of individuals. PMID:20400456

  14. An interaction domain in human SAMD9 is essential for myxoma virus host-range determinant M062 antagonism of host anti-viral function.

    PubMed

    Nounamo, Bernice; Li, Yibo; O'Byrne, Peter; Kearney, Aoife M; Khan, Amir; Liu, Jia

    2017-03-01

    In humans, deleterious mutations in the sterile α motif domain protein 9 (SAMD9) gene are associated with cancer, inflammation, weakening of the immune response, and developmental arrest. However, the biological function of SAMD9 and its sequence-structure relationships remain to be characterized. Previously, we found that an essential host range factor, M062 protein from myxoma virus (MYXV), antagonized the function of human SAMD9. In this study, we examine the interaction between M062 and human SAMD9 to identify regions that are critical to SAMD9 function. We also characterize the in vitro kinetics of the interaction. In an infection assay, exogenous expression of SAMD9 N-terminus leads to a potent inhibition of wild-type MYXV infection. We reason that this effect is due to the sequestration of viral M062 by the exogenously expressed N-terminal SAMD9 region. Our studies reveal the first molecular insight into viral M062-dependent mechanisms that suppress human SAMD9-associated antiviral function.

  15. Large-Scale Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals the Complex Evolutionary History of Rabies Virus in Multiple Carnivore Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Troupin, Cécile; Dacheux, Laurent; Tanguy, Marion; Sabeta, Claude; Blanc, Hervé; Bouchier, Christiane; Vignuzzi, Marco; Holmes, Edward C.; Bourhy, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The natural evolution of rabies virus (RABV) provides a potent example of multiple host shifts and an important opportunity to determine the mechanisms that underpin viral emergence. Using 321 genome sequences spanning an unprecedented diversity of RABV, we compared evolutionary rates and selection pressures in viruses sampled from multiple primary host shifts that occurred on various continents. Two major phylogenetic groups, bat-related RABV and dog-related RABV, experiencing markedly different evolutionary dynamics were identified. While no correlation between time and genetic divergence was found in bat-related RABV, the evolution of dog-related RABV followed a generally clock-like structure, although with a relatively low evolutionary rate. Subsequent molecular clock dating indicated that dog-related RABV likely underwent a rapid global spread following the intensification of intercontinental trade starting in the 15th century. Strikingly, although dog RABV has jumped to various wildlife species from the order Carnivora, we found no clear evidence that these host-jumping events involved adaptive evolution, with RABV instead characterized by strong purifying selection, suggesting that ecological processes also play an important role in shaping patterns of emergence. However, specific amino acid changes were associated with the parallel emergence of RABV in ferret-badgers in Asia, and some host shifts were associated with increases in evolutionary rate, particularly in the ferret-badger and mongoose, implying that changes in host species can have important impacts on evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27977811

  16. Untangling the Diverse Interior and Multiple Exterior Guest Interactions of a Supramolecular Host by the Simultaneous Analysis of Complementary Observables.

    PubMed

    Sgarlata, Carmelo; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2016-07-05

    The entropic and enthalpic driving forces for encapsulation versus sequential exterior guest binding to the [Ga4L6](12-) supramolecular host in solution are very different, which significantly complicates the determination of these thermodynamic parameters. The simultaneous use of complementary techniques, such as NMR, UV-vis, and isothermal titration calorimetry, enables the disentanglement of such multiple host-guest interactions. Indeed, data collected by each technique measure different components of the host-guest equilibria and together provide a complete picture of the solution thermodynamics. Unfortunately, commercially available programs do not allow for global analysis of different physical observables. We thus resorted to a novel procedure for the simultaneous refinement of multiple parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) by treating different observables through a weighted nonlinear least-squares analysis of a constrained model. The refinement procedure is discussed for the multiple binding of the Et4N(+) guest, but it is broadly applicable to the deconvolution of other intricate host-guest equilibria.

  17. Emergence of increased frequency and severity of multiple infections by viruses due to spatial clustering of hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Bradford P.; Penington, Catherine J.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple virus particles can infect a target host cell. Such multiple infections (MIs) have significant and varied ecological and evolutionary consequences for both virus and host populations. Yet, the in situ rates and drivers of MIs in virus-microbe systems remain largely unknown. Here, we develop an individual-based model (IBM) of virus-microbe dynamics to probe how spatial interactions drive the frequency and nature of MIs. In our IBMs, we identify increasingly spatially correlated clusters of viruses given sufficient decreases in viral movement. We also identify increasingly spatially correlated clusters of viruses and clusters of hosts given sufficient increases in viral infectivity. The emergence of clusters is associated with an increase in multiply infected hosts as compared to expectations from an analogous mean field model. We also observe long-tails in the distribution of the multiplicity of infection in contrast to mean field expectations that such events are exponentially rare. We show that increases in both the frequency and severity of MIs occur when viruses invade a cluster of uninfected microbes. We contend that population-scale enhancement of MI arises from an aggregate of invasion dynamics over a distribution of microbe cluster sizes. Our work highlights the need to consider spatially explicit interactions as a potentially key driver underlying the ecology and evolution of virus-microbe communities.

  18. Broad-host-range expression vectors that carry the L-arabinose-inducible Escherichia coli araBAD promoter and the araC regulator.

    PubMed

    Newman, J R; Fuqua, C

    1999-02-18

    We describe the development and analysis of broad-host-range (BHR) cloning vectors that carry the araC-PBAD controlled expression cassette from Escherichia coli. These plasmids are designed to facilitate l-arabinose-responsive control of target genes in a variety of Gram-negative bacterial hosts. BHR PBAD::lacZ fusions were used to analyze the utility of this controlled expression system in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In A. tumefaciens, the level of control afforded is significant, although less stringent than that observed in E. coli. The BHR PBAD vectors offer a useful alternative to currently used controlled expression systems, and can be employed in conjunction with other regulated promoters to simultaneously regulate expression of multiple genes. Addition of a variety of carbon sources, namely C4 acids and the anti-inducer d-fucose, allows modulation of l-arabinose induction. Activation of PBAD expression in A. tumefaciens requires a plasmid-borne copy of araC, and is not affected by endogenous regulators.

  19. Multiple metasomatic events recorded in Kilbourne Hole peridotite xenoliths: the relative contribution of host basalt interaction vs. silicate metasomatic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. J.; Yoshikawa, M.; Harvey, J.; Burton, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Stark differences between bulk-rock lithophile trace element budgets and the sum of the contributions from their constituent minerals are common, if not ubiquitous in peridotite xenoliths [1]. In the absence of modal metasomatism this discrepancy is often attributed to the “catch-all”, yet often vague process of cryptic metasomatism. This study presents comprehensive Sr-Nd isotope ratios for variably metasomatized bulk-rock peridotites, host basalts, constituent peridotite mineral phases and interstitial glass from 13 spinel lherzolite and harzburgite xenoliths from the Kilbourne Hole volcanic maar, New Mexico, USA. Similar measurements were also made on hand-picked interstitial glass from one of the most highly metasomatized samples (KH03-16) in an attempt to unravel the effects of multiple metasomatic events. In all Kilbourne Hole peridotites analysed, hand-picked, optically clean clinopyroxenes preserve a more primitive Sr isotope signature than the corresponding bulk-rock; a pattern preserved in all but one sample for Nd isotope measurements. Reaction textures, avoided during hand-picking, around clinopyroxene grains are evident in the most metasomatized samples and accompanied by films of high-SiO2 interstitial glass. The margins of primary minerals appear partially resorbed and trails of glassy melt inclusions similar in appearance to those previously reported from the same locality [2], terminate in these films. Hand-picked glass from KH03-16 reveals the most enriched 87Sr/86Sr of any component recovered from these xenoliths (87Sr/86Sr = 0.708043 ± 0.00009; [Sr] = 81 ppm). Similarly, the 143Nd/144Nd of the glass is amongst the most enriched of the peridotite components (143Nd/144Nd = 0.512893 ± 0.000012; [Nd] = 10 ppm). However, the host basalt (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703953 ± 0.00012; 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512873 ± 0.000013), similar in composition to nearby contemporaneous Potrillo Volcanic Field basalts [3], contains nearly an order of magnitude more Sr and more

  20. Genome sequence and analysis of a broad-host range lytic bacteriophage that infects the Bacillus cereus group

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparatively little information is available on members of the Myoviridae infecting low G+C content, Gram-positive host bacteria of the family Firmicutes. While numerous Bacillus phages have been isolated up till now only very few Bacillus cereus phages have been characterized in detail. Results Here we present data on the large, virulent, broad-host-range B. cereus phage vB_BceM_Bc431v3 (Bc431v3). Bc431v3 features a 158,618 bp dsDNA genome, encompassing 239 putative open reading frames (ORFs) and, 20 tRNA genes encoding 17 different amino acids. Since pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that the genome of this phage has a mass of 155-158 kb Bc431v3 DNA appears not to contain long terminal repeats that are found in the genome of Bacillus phage SPO1. Conclusions Bc431v3 displays significant sequence similarity, at the protein level, to B. cereus phage BCP78, Listeria phage A511 and Enterococcus phage ØEF24C and other morphologically related phages infecting Firmicutes such as Staphylococcus phage K and Lactobacillus phage LP65. Based on these data we suggest that Bc431v3 should be included as a member of the Spounavirinae; however, because of all the diverse taxonomical information has been addressed recently, it is difficult to determine the genus. The Bc431v3 phage contains some highly unusual genes such as gp143 encoding putative tRNAHis guanylyltransferase. In addition, it carries some genes that appear to be related to the host sporulation regulators. These are: gp098, which encodes a putative segregation protein related to FstK/SpoIIIE DNA transporters; gp105, a putative segregation protein; gp108, RNA polymerase sigma factor F/B; and, gp109 encoding RNA polymerase sigma factor G. PMID:23388049

  1. The multiplicity of exoplanet host stars. Spectroscopic confirmation of the companions GJ 3021 B and HD 27442 B, one new planet host triple-star system, and global statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugrauer, M.; Neuhäuser, R.; Mazeh, T.

    2007-07-01

    features of the Balmer, Paschen, and Bracket series. With its subgiant primary and the white-dwarf companion, the HD 27442 AB system is the most evolved planet host stellar system known today. The mass-period and eccentricity-period correlation of planets around single stars and those residing in multiple-star systems seem different for the short-period planets. The distribution functions of planet orbital elements (P, e) are identical, while the mass-distribution (m sin(i)) exhibits one difference. While both planet populations exhibit a peak in their mass-distribution at about 1 M_Jup, the frequency of more massive planets continually decreases in single-star systems, whereas the mass-distribution of planets residing in multiple-star systems exhibits a further peak at about 4 M_Jup. This indicates that the mass-distributions of the two planet populations might differ in the intermediate mass-range between 2 and 6 M_Jup. Based on observations obtained on La Silla in ESO programs 70.C-0116(A), 71.C-0140(A), 73.C-0103(A), and on Paranal in ESO runs 074.C-0144(B), 074.C-0144(C), 073.C-0370(A), on Mauna Kea in UKIRT program U/02A/16, as well as at the Munich LMU University Observatory on Mount Wendelstein.

  2. Multiple-camera/motion stereoscopy for range estimation in helicopter flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Raymond E.

    1993-01-01

    Aiding the pilot to improve safety and reduce pilot workload by detecting obstacles and planning obstacle-free flight paths during low-altitude helicopter flight is desirable. Computer vision techniques provide an attractive method of obstacle detection and range estimation for objects within a large field of view ahead of the helicopter. Previous research has had considerable success by using an image sequence from a single moving camera to solving this problem. The major limitations of single camera approaches are that no range information can be obtained near the instantaneous direction of motion or in the absence of motion. These limitations can be overcome through the use of multiple cameras. This paper presents a hybrid motion/stereo algorithm which allows range refinement through recursive range estimation while avoiding loss of range information in the direction of travel. A feature-based approach is used to track objects between image frames. An extended Kalman filter combines knowledge of the camera motion and measurements of a feature's image location to recursively estimate the feature's range and to predict its location in future images. Performance of the algorithm will be illustrated using an image sequence, motion information, and independent range measurements from a low-altitude helicopter flight experiment.

  3. Discovery of a polyomavirus in European badgers (Meles meles) and the evolution of host range in the family Polyomaviridae.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah C; Murphy, Aisling A; Cotten, Matthew; Palser, Anne L; Benson, Phillip; Lesellier, Sandrine; Gormley, Eamonn; Richomme, Céline; Grierson, Sylvia; Bhuachalla, Deirdre Ni; Chambers, Mark; Kellam, Paul; Boschiroli, María-Laura; Ehlers, Bernhard; Jarvis, Michael A; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-06-01

    Polyomaviruses infect a diverse range of mammalian and avian hosts, and are associated with a variety of symptoms. However, it is unknown whether the viruses are found in all mammalian families and the evolutionary history of the polyomaviruses is still unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a novel polyomavirus in the European badger (Meles meles), which to our knowledge represents the first polyomavirus to be characterized in the family Mustelidae, and within a European carnivoran. Although the virus was discovered serendipitously in the supernatant of a cell culture inoculated with badger material, we subsequently confirmed its presence in wild badgers. The European badger polyomavirus was tentatively named Meles meles polyomavirus 1 (MmelPyV1). The genome is 5187 bp long and encodes proteins typical of polyomaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses including all known polyomavirus genomes consistently group MmelPyV1 with California sea lion polyomavirus 1 across all regions of the genome. Further evolutionary analyses revealed phylogenetic discordance amongst polyomavirus genome regions, possibly arising from evolutionary rate heterogeneity, and a complex association between polyomavirus phylogeny and host taxonomic groups.

  4. Salmonella phages isolated from dairy farms in Thailand show wider host range than a comparable set of phages isolated from U.S. dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Wongsuntornpoj, Sarach; Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Bergholz, Peter; Wiedmann, Martin; Chaturongakul, Soraya

    2014-08-06

    Salmonella is a zoonotic pathogen with globally distributed serovars as well as serovars predominantly found in certain regions; for example, serovar Weltevreden is rarely isolated in the U.S., but is common in Thailand. Relative to our understanding of Salmonella diversity, our understanding of the global diversity of Salmonella phages is limited. We hypothesized that the serovar diversity in a given environment and farming system will affect the Salmonella phage diversity associated with animal hosts. We thus isolated and characterized Salmonella phages from 15 small-scale dairy farms in Thailand and compared the host ranges of the 62 Salmonella phage isolates obtained with host range diversity for 129 phage isolates obtained from dairy farms in the U.S. The 62 phage isolates from Thailand represented genome sizes ranging from 40 to 200 kb and showed lysis of 6-25 of the 26 host strains tested (mean number of strain lysed=19). By comparison, phage isolates previously obtained in a survey of 15 U.S. dairy farms showed a narrow host range (lysis of 1-17; mean number of strains lysed=4); principal coordinate analysis also confirmed U.S. and Thai phages had distinct host lysis profiles. Our data indicate that dairy farms that differ in management practices and are located on different continents can yield phage isolates that differ in their host ranges, providing an avenue for isolation of phages with desirable host range characteristics for commercial applications. Farming systems characterized by coexistence of different animals may facilitate presence of Salmonella phages with wide host ranges.

  5. Construction of broad-host-range cosmid cloning vectors: identification of genes necessary for growth of Methylobacterium organophilum on methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.N.; Hanson, R.S.

    1985-03-01

    Four new cloning vectors have been constructed from the broad-host-range cloning vector pRK290. These vectors, pLA2901, pLA2905, pLA2910, and pLA2917, confer resistance to kanamycin and tetracycline. The latter two are cosmid derivatives of pLA2901. The new vectors can be mobilized into, and are stably maintained in, a variety of gram-negative bacteria. A Sau3A genomic bank of Methylobacterium organophilum strain xx DNA has been constructed in pLA2917, and complementation analysis, with a variety of mutants unable to grow on methanol, revealed at least five separate regions necessary for growth on methanol. Complementation analysis and Tn5 mutagenesis data suggest that at least three genes are responsible for expression of active methanol dehydrogenase.

  6. Role of the B Allele of Influenza A Virus Segment 8 in Setting Mammalian Host Range and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Matthew L.; Wise, Helen M.; Nicol, Marlynne Q.; Smith, Nikki; Dunfee, Rebecca L.; Beard, Philippa M.; Jagger, Brett W.; Ligertwood, Yvonne; Hardisty, Gareth R.; Xiao, Haixia; Benton, Donald J.; Coburn, Alice M.; Paulo, Joao A.; Gygi, Steven P.; McCauley, John W.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Lycett, Samantha J.; Weekes, Michael P.; Dutia, Bernadette M.

    2016-01-01

    great socioeconomic burden on farming and health care sectors. Host adaptation likely involves multiple viral factors. Here, we investigated the role of IAV segment 8. Segment 8 has evolved into two distinct clades: the A and B alleles. The B-allele genes have previously been suggested to be restricted to avian virus species. We introduced a selection of avian virus A- and B-allele segment 8s into human H1N1 and H3N2 virus backgrounds and found that these reassortant viruses were fully competent in mammalian host systems. We also analyzed the currently available public data on the segment 8 gene distribution and found surprisingly little evidence for specific avian host restriction of the B-clade segment. We conclude that B-allele segment 8 genes are, in fact, capable of supporting infection in mammals and that they should be considered during the assessment of the pandemic risk of zoonotic influenza A viruses. PMID:27489273

  7. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.

  8. Promoters of the Broad Host Range Plasmid Rk2: Analysis of Transcription (Initiation) in Five Species of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Greener, A.; Lehman, S. M.; Helinski, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    A broad host range cloning vector was constructed, suitable for monitoring promoter activity in diverse Gram-negative bacteria. This vector, derived from plasmid RSF1010, utilized the firefly luciferase gene as the reporter, since the assay for its bioluminescent product is sensitive, and measurements can be made without background from the host. Twelve DNA fragments with promoter activity were obtained from broad host range plasmid RK2 and inserted into the RSF1010 derived vector. The relative luciferase activities were determined for these fragments in five species of Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, four promoters were analyzed by primer extension to locate transcriptional start sites in each host. The results show that several of the promoters vary substantially in relative strengths or utilize different transcriptional start sites in different bacteria. Other promoters exhibited similar activities and identical start sites in the five hosts examined. PMID:1732166

  9. Nile Tilapia Infectivity by Genomically Diverse Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), is recognized for causing cattle mastitis, human neonatal meningitis, and fish meningo-encephalitis. We investigated the genomic diversity of GBS isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regions using serological t...

  10. Multiple dispersal vectors drive range expansion in an invasive marine species.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Mark F; Sherman, Craig D H; Lee, Randall S; Bott, Nathan J; Hirst, Alastair J

    2016-10-01

    The establishment and subsequent spread of invasive species is widely recognized as one of the most threatening processes contributing to global biodiversity loss. This is especially true for marine and estuarine ecosystems, which have experienced significant increases in the number of invasive species with the increase in global maritime trade. Understanding the rate and mechanisms of range expansion is therefore of significant interest to ecologists and conservation managers alike. Using a combination of population genetic surveys, environmental DNA (eDNA) plankton sampling and hydrodynamic modelling, we examined the patterns of introduction of the predatory Northern Pacific seastar (Asterias amurensis) and pathways of secondary spread within southeast Australia. Genetic surveys across the invasive range reveal some genetic divergence between the two main invasive regions and no evidence of ongoing gene flow, a pattern that is consistent with the establishment of the second invasive region via a human-mediated translocation event. In contrast, hydrodynamic modelling combined with eDNA plankton sampling demonstrated that the establishment of range expansion populations within a region is consistent with natural larval dispersal and recruitment. Our results suggest that both anthropogenic and natural dispersal vectors have played an important role in the range expansion of this species in Australia. The multiple modes of spread combined with high levels of fecundity and a long larval duration in A. amurensis suggests it is likely to continue its range expansion and significantly impact Australian marine ecosystems.

  11. Baculovirus LEF-11 Hijack Host ATPase ATAD3A to Promote Virus Multiplication in Bombyx mori cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Hu, Nan; Dong, Fei-Fan; Chen, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Research on molecular mechanisms that viruses use to regulate the host apparatus is important in virus infection control and antiviral therapy exploration. Our previous research showed that the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) LEF-11 localized to dense regions of the cell nucleus and is required for viral DNA replication. Herein, we examined the mechanism of LEF-11 on BmNPV multiplication and demonstrated that baculovirus LEF-11 interacts with Bombyx mori ATAD3A and HSPD1 (HSP60) protein. Furthermore, we showed that LEF-11 has the ability to induce and up-regulate the expression of ATAD3A and HSPD1, phenomena that were both reversed upon knockdown of lef-11. Our findings showed that ATAD3A and HSPD1 were necessary and contributed to BmNPV multiplication in Bombyx mori cells. Moreover, ATAD3A was found to directly interact with HSPD1. Interestingly, ATAD3A was required for the expression of HSPD1, while the knockdown of HSPD1 had no obvious effect on the expression level of ATAD3A. Taken together, the data presented in the current study demonstrated that baculovirus LEF-11 hijacks the host ATPase family members, ATAD3A and HSPD1, efficiently promote the multiplication of the virus. This study furthers our understanding of how baculovirus modulates energy metabolism of the host and provides a new insight into the molecular mechanisms of antiviral research. PMID:28393927

  12. Acoustically mediated long-range interaction among multiple spherical particles exposed to a plane standing wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shenwei; Qiu, Chunyin; Wang, Mudi; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we study the acoustically mediated interaction forces among multiple well-separated spherical particles trapped in the same node or antinode plane of a standing wave. An analytical expression of the acoustic interaction force is derived, which is accurate even for the particles beyond the Rayleigh limit. Interestingly, the multi-particle system can be decomposed into a series of independent two-particle systems described by pairwise interactions. Each pairwise interaction is a long-range interaction, as characterized by a soft oscillatory attenuation (at the power exponent of n = -1 or -2). The vector additivity of the acoustic interaction force, which is not well expected considering the nonlinear nature of the acoustic radiation force, is greatly useful for exploring a system consisting of a large number of particles. The capability of self-organizing a big particle cluster can be anticipated through such acoustically controllable long-range interaction.

  13. Host range and cell cycle activation properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants defective in pRB binding

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, R.; Bauer, P.H.; Benjamin, T.L.; Crissman, H.A.; Bradbury, E.M. |

    1994-11-01

    The authors have examined the growth properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants that ar unable to bind pRB, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. These mutants grow poorly on primary mouse cells yet grow well on NIH 3T3 and other established mouse cell lines. Preinfection of primary baby mouse kidney (BMK) epithelial cells with wild-type simian virus 40 renders these cells permissive to growth of pRB-binding polyomavirus mutants. Conversely, NIH 3T3 cells transfected by and expressing wild-type human pRB become nonpermissive. Primary fibroblasts for mouse embryos that carry a homozygous knockout of the RB gene are permissive, while those from normal littermates are nonpermissive. The host range of polyomavirus pRB-binding mutants is thus determined by expression or lack of expression of functional pRB by the host. These results demonstrate the importance of pRB binding by large T antigen for productive viral infection in primary cells. Failure of pRB-binding mutants to grow well in BMK cells correlates with their failure to induce progression from G{sub 0} or G{sub 1} through the S phase of the cell cycle. Time course studies show delayed synthesis and lower levels of accumulation of large T antigen, viral DNA, and VP1 in mutant compared with wild-type virus-infected BMK cells. These results support a model in which productive infection by polyomavirus in normal mouse cells is tightly coupled to the induction and progression of the cell cycle. 48 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Ranging in an underwater medium with multiple isogradient sound speed profile layers.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Hamid; Leus, Geert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the problem of acoustic ranging between sensor nodes in an underwater environment. The underwater medium is assumed to be composed of multiple isogradient sound speed profile (SSP) layers where in each layer the sound speed is linearly related to the depth. Furthermore, each sensor node is able to measure its depth and can exchange this information with other nodes. Under these assumptions, we first show how the problem of underwater localization can be converted to the traditional range-based terrestrial localization problem when the depth information of the nodes is known a priori. Second, we relate the pair-wise time of flight (ToF) measurements between the nodes to their positions. Next, based on this relation, we propose a novel ranging algorithm for an underwater medium. The proposed ranging algorithm considers reflections from the seabed and sea surface. We will show that even without any reflections, the transmitted signal may travel through more than one path between two given nodes. The proposed algorithm analyzes them and selects the fastest one (first arrival path) based on the measured ToF and the nodes' depth measurements. Finally, in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm we run several simulations and compare the results with other existing algorithms.

  15. An Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging Core Based on Frequency Shift Keying Towards Indoor Localization.

    PubMed

    Segers, Laurent; Van Bavegem, David; De Winne, Sam; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2015-07-30

    This paper describes a new approach and implementation methodology for indoor ranging based on the time difference of arrival using code division multiple access with ultrasound signals. A novel implementation based on a field programmable gate array using finite impulse response filters and an optimized correlation demodulator implementation for ultrasound orthogonal signals is developed. Orthogonal codes are modulated onto ultrasound signals using frequency shift keying with carrier frequencies of 24.5 kHz and 26 kHz. This implementation enhances the possibilities for real-time, embedded and low-power tracking of several simultaneous transmitters. Due to the high degree of parallelism offered by field programmable gate arrays, up to four transmitters can be tracked simultaneously. The implementation requires at most 30% of the available logic gates of a Spartan-6 XC6SLX45 device and is evaluated on accuracy and precision through several ranging topologies. In the first topology, the distance between one transmitter and one receiver is evaluated. Afterwards, ranging analyses are applied between two simultaneous transmitters and one receiver. Ultimately, the position of the receiver against four transmitters using trilateration is also demonstrated. Results show enhanced distance measurements with distances ranging from a few centimeters up to 17 m, while keeping a centimeter-level accuracy.

  16. An Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging Core Based on Frequency Shift Keying Towards Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Laurent; Van Bavegem, David; De Winne, Sam; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach and implementation methodology for indoor ranging based on the time difference of arrival using code division multiple access with ultrasound signals. A novel implementation based on a field programmable gate array using finite impulse response filters and an optimized correlation demodulator implementation for ultrasound orthogonal signals is developed. Orthogonal codes are modulated onto ultrasound signals using frequency shift keying with carrier frequencies of 24.5 kHz and 26 kHz. This implementation enhances the possibilities for real-time, embedded and low-power tracking of several simultaneous transmitters. Due to the high degree of parallelism offered by field programmable gate arrays, up to four transmitters can be tracked simultaneously. The implementation requires at most 30% of the available logic gates of a Spartan-6 XC6SLX45 device and is evaluated on accuracy and precision through several ranging topologies. In the first topology, the distance between one transmitter and one receiver is evaluated. Afterwards, ranging analyses are applied between two simultaneous transmitters and one receiver. Ultimately, the position of the receiver against four transmitters using trilateration is also demonstrated. Results show enhanced distance measurements with distances ranging from a few centimeters up to 17 m, while keeping a centimeter-level accuracy. PMID:26263986

  17. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi; Mueller, Claudius; Roberts, Brian; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-11-15

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells.

  18. Predicting the host range of Nystalea ebalea: secondary plant chemistry and host selection by a surrogate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The safety of weed biological control depends upon the selection and utilization of the target weed by the agent while causing minimal harm to non-target species. Selection of weed species by biological control agents is determined by the presence of behavioral cues, generally host secondary plant c...

  19. Multiple Horizontal Transfers of Bacteriophage WO and Host Wolbachia in Fig Wasps in a Closed Community

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningxin; Jia, Sisi; Xu, Heng; Liu, Yong; Huang, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasp. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23) and 39.1% (9/23), respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a specific clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future. PMID:26913026

  20. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies Obtained from Multiple Host Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative genomic approach was used to identify large sequence polymorphisms among Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) subspecies obtained from a variety of host animals. DNA microarrays were used as a platform for comparing mycobacterial isolates with the sequenced bovine isolate M. avium subsp. p...

  1. Pathogen espionage: multiple bacterial adrenergic sensors eavesdrop on host communication systems.

    PubMed

    Karavolos, Michail H; Winzer, Klaus; Williams, Paul; Khan, C M Anjam

    2013-02-01

    The interactions between bacterial pathogens and their eukaryotic hosts are vital in determining the outcome of infections. Bacterial pathogens employ molecular sensors to detect and facilitate adaptation to changes in their niche. The sensing of these extracellular signals enables the pathogen to navigate within mammalian hosts. Intercellular bacterial communication is facilitated by the production and sensing of autoinducer (AI) molecules via quorum sensing. More recently, AI-3 and the host neuroendocrine (NE) hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline were reported to display cross-talk for the activation of the same signalling pathways. Remarkably, there is increasing evidence to suggest that enteric bacteria sense and respond to the host NE stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline to modulate virulence. These responses can be inhibited by α and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists implying a bacterial receptor-based sensing and signalling cascade. In Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, QseC has been proposed as the adrenergic receptor. Strikingly, there is an increasing body of evidence that not all the bacterial adrenergic responses require signalling through QseC. Here we provide additional hypotheses to reconcile these observations implicating the existence of alternative adrenergic receptors including BasS, QseE and CpxA and their associated signalling cascades with major roles in interkingdom communication.

  2. Multiple Horizontal Transfers of Bacteriophage WO and Host Wolbachia in Fig Wasps in a Closed Community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningxin; Jia, Sisi; Xu, Heng; Liu, Yong; Huang, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasp. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23) and 39.1% (9/23), respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a specific clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future.

  3. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine.

  4. Coexpression of the simian immunodeficiency virus Env and Rev proteins by a recombinant human adenovirus host range mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S M; Lee, S G; Ronchetti-Blume, M; Virk, K P; Mizutani, S; Eichberg, J W; Davis, A; Hung, P P; Hirsch, V M; Chanock, R M

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human adenoviruses (Ads) that replicate in the intestinal tract offer a novel, yet practical, means of immunoprophylaxis against a wide variety of viral and bacterial pathogens. For some infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the potential for residual infectious material in vaccine preparations must be eliminated. Therefore, recombinant human Ads that express noninfectious HIV or other microbial proteins are attractive vaccine candidates. To test such an approach for HIV, we chose an experimental model of AIDS based on simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques. Our data demonstrate that the SIV Env gene products are expressed in cultured cells after infection with a recombinant Ad containing both SIV env and rev genes. An E3 deletion vector derived from a mutant of human Ad serotype 5 that efficiently replicates in both human and monkey cells was used to bypass the usual host range restriction of Ad infection. In addition, we show that the SIV rev gene is properly spliced from a single SIV subgenomic DNA fragment and that the Rev protein is expressed in recombinant Ad-SIV-infected human as well as monkey cells. The expression of SIV gene products in suitable live Ad vectors provides an excellent system for studying the regulation of SIV gene expression in cultured cells and evaluating the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of SIV proteins in macaques. Images PMID:1404612

  5. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.

  6. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Verdejo, S.; Soler, A.; Canals, J.

    1992-01-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M × M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0. PMID:19283047

  7. A correlation between macronutrient balancing and insect host-plant range: evidence from the specialist caterpillar Spodoptera exempta (Walker).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Pum; Raubenheimer, David; Behmer, Spencer T; Simpson, Stephen J

    2003-12-01

    In an earlier study, we showed that the ingestive responses of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis to foods imbalanced in their protein:carbohydrate content is similar to generalist locusts, but differs from that of specialist-feeding locusts. Here we further pursued the comparison by repeating the experiments using a closely related specialist caterpillar, Spodoptera exempta. First, caterpillars were allowed to self-compose a diet of preferred protein:carbohydrate balance by mixing between nutritionally complementary foods. Then, they were confined to one of five imbalanced foods, in which we measured the trade-off between over- and under-ingesting the two nutrients. On complementary foods, the caterpillars actively regulated their protein and carbohydrate intake. In the no-choice experiment, those fed excess-protein foods ingested small surpluses of protein compared with generalist feeders, thus showing a pattern of nutrient balancing similar to that observed in specialist locusts. Utilisation data indicated that ingested excesses and deficits were to some extent offset by differential utilisation. Evidence also showed that post-ingestive responses of the specialist S. exempta were less flexible than those observed in the generalist S. littoralis, a pattern which is again in accordance with comparisons of acridids differing in their host-plant range.

  8. Measuring long-range carrier diffusion across multiple grains in polycrystalline semiconductors by photoluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Alberi, K; Fluegel, B; Moutinho, H; Dhere, R G; Li, J V; Mascarenhas, A

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film polycrystalline semiconductors are currently at the forefront of inexpensive large-area solar cell and integrated circuit technologies because of their reduced processing and substrate selection constraints. Understanding the extent to which structural and electronic defects influence carrier transport in these materials is critical to controlling the optoelectronic properties, yet many measurement techniques are only capable of indirectly probing their effects. Here we apply a novel photoluminescence imaging technique to directly observe the low temperature diffusion of photocarriers through and across defect states in polycrystalline CdTe thin films. Our measurements show that an inhomogeneous distribution of localized defect states mediates long-range hole transport across multiple grain boundaries to locations exceeding 10 μm from the point of photogeneration. These results provide new insight into the key role deep trap states have in low temperature carrier transport in polycrystalline CdTe by revealing their propensity to act as networks for hopping conduction.

  9. Measuring long-range carrier diffusion across multiple grains in polycrystalline semiconductors by photoluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Moutinho, H.; Dhere, R. G.; Li, J. V.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2013-10-01

    Thin-film polycrystalline semiconductors are currently at the forefront of inexpensive large-area solar cell and integrated circuit technologies because of their reduced processing and substrate selection constraints. Understanding the extent to which structural and electronic defects influence carrier transport in these materials is critical to controlling the optoelectronic properties, yet many measurement techniques are only capable of indirectly probing their effects. Here we apply a novel photoluminescence imaging technique to directly observe the low temperature diffusion of photocarriers through and across defect states in polycrystalline CdTe thin films. Our measurements show that an inhomogeneous distribution of localized defect states mediates long-range hole transport across multiple grain boundaries to locations exceeding 10 μm from the point of photogeneration. These results provide new insight into the key role deep trap states have in low temperature carrier transport in polycrystalline CdTe by revealing their propensity to act as networks for hopping conduction.

  10. Measuring long-range carrier diffusion across multiple grains in polycrystalline semiconductors by photoluminescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Moutinho, H.; Dhere, R. G.; Li, J. V.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film polycrystalline semiconductors are currently at the forefront of inexpensive large-area solar cell and integrated circuit technologies because of their reduced processing and substrate selection constraints. Understanding the extent to which structural and electronic defects influence carrier transport in these materials is critical to controlling the optoelectronic properties, yet many measurement techniques are only capable of indirectly probing their effects. Here we apply a novel photoluminescence imaging technique to directly observe the low temperature diffusion of photocarriers through and across defect states in polycrystalline CdTe thin films. Our measurements show that an inhomogeneous distribution of localized defect states mediates long-range hole transport across multiple grain boundaries to locations exceeding 10 μm from the point of photogeneration. These results provide new insight into the key role deep trap states have in low temperature carrier transport in polycrystalline CdTe by revealing their propensity to act as networks for hopping conduction. PMID:24158163

  11. Hardware-based smart camera for recovering high dynamic range video from multiple exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Heyrman, Barthélémy; Ginhac, Dominique

    2014-10-01

    In many applications such as video surveillance or defect detection, the perception of information related to a scene is limited in areas with strong contrasts. The high dynamic range (HDR) capture technique can deal with these limitations. The proposed method has the advantage of automatically selecting multiple exposure times to make outputs more visible than fixed exposure ones. A real-time hardware implementation of the HDR technique that shows more details both in dark and bright areas of a scene is an important line of research. For this purpose, we built a dedicated smart camera that performs both capturing and HDR video processing from three exposures. What is new in our work is shown through the following points: HDR video capture through multiple exposure control, HDR memory management, HDR frame generation, and representation under a hardware context. Our camera achieves a real-time HDR video output at 60 fps at 1.3 megapixels and demonstrates the efficiency of our technique through an experimental result. Applications of this HDR smart camera include the movie industry, the mass-consumer market, military, automotive industry, and surveillance.

  12. Chronic Graft-versus-host Disease Presenting with Multiple Punctate Intracranial Lesions on Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Makoto; Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Obara, Naoshi; Ogawa, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Sato, Taiki; Nohara, Seitaro; Chiba, Shigeru; Tamaoka, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system graft-versus-host disease can present quite a diagnostic challenge. We herein present a case of histologically-confirmed chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) involving the central nervous system that occurred at 19 months after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed areas of confluent hyperintensity in the deep/subcortical white matter with multiple punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancements, suggesting the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A brain biopsy revealed perivascular CD3-positive T cell infiltration around the small vessels. We propose that the detection of punctate-enhanced lesions by magnetic resonance imaging may be a useful finding that facilitates the early diagnosis of chronic GVHD involving the central nervous system. PMID:28154284

  13. MsmK, an ATPase, Contributes to Utilization of Multiple Carbohydrates and Host Colonization of Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mei-Fang; Gao, Ting; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Yang, Xi; Zhu, Jia-Wen; Teng, Mu-Ye; Li, Lu; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition and metabolism of carbohydrates are essential for host colonization and pathogenesis of bacterial pathogens. Different bacteria can uptake different lines of carbohydrates via ABC transporters, in which ATPase subunits energize the transport though ATP hydrolysis. Some ABC transporters possess their own ATPases, while some share a common ATPase. Here we identified MsmK, an ATPase from Streptococcus suis, an emerging zoonotic bacterium causing dead infections in pigs and humans. Genetic and biochemistry studies revealed that the MsmK was responsible for the utilization of raffinose, melibiose, maltotetraose, glycogen and maltotriose. In infected mice, the msmK-deletion mutant showed significant defects of survival and colonization when compared with its parental and complementary strains. Taken together, MsmK is an ATPase that contributes to multiple carbohydrates utilization and host colonization of S. suis. This study gives new insight into our understanding of the carbohydrates utilization and its relationship to the pathogenesis of this zoonotic pathogen.

  14. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C. Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(−)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru. PMID:26645579

  15. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  16. Type VI Secretion System Transports Zn2+ to Combat Multiple Stresses and Host Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenhan; Gao, Fen; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Weipeng; Wei, Gehong; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Shen, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are widespread multi-component machineries that translocate effectors into either eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, for virulence or for interbacterial competition. Herein, we report that the T6SS-4 from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis displays an unexpected function in the transportation of Zn2+ to combat diverse stresses and host immunity. Environmental insults such as oxidative stress induce the expression of T6SS-4 via OxyR, the transcriptional factor that also regulates many oxidative response genes. Zinc transportation is achieved by T6SS-4-mediated translocation of a novel Zn2+-binding protein substrate YezP (YPK_3549), which has the capacity to rescue the sensitivity to oxidative stress exhibited by T6SS-4 mutants when added to extracellular milieu. Disruption of the classic zinc transporter ZnuABC together with T6SS-4 or yezP results in mutants that almost completely lost virulence against mice, further highlighting the importance of T6SS-4 in resistance to host immunity. These results assigned an unconventional role to T6SSs, which will lay the foundation for studying novel mechanisms of metal ion uptake by bacteria and the role of this process in their resistance to host immunity and survival in harmful environments. PMID:26134274

  17. Virulence genotyping of Pasteurella multocida isolated from multiple hosts from India.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Laxmi Narayan; Priyadarshini, Adyasha; Kumar, Santosh; Thomas, Prasad; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Nagaleekar, Viswas Konasagara; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 108 P. multocida isolates recovered from various host animals such as cattle, buffalo, swine, poultry (chicken, duck, and emu) and rabbits were screened for carriage of 8 virulence associated genes. The results revealed some unique information on the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Indian isolates. With the exception of toxA gene, all other virulence associated genes were found to be regularly distributed among host species. Association study between capsule type and virulence genes suggested that pfhA, nanB, and nanH genes were regularly distributed among all serotypes with the exception of CapD, whereas toxA gene was found to be positively associated with CapD and CapA. The frequency of hgbA and nanH genes among swine isolates of Indian origin was found to be less in comparison to its equivalents around the globe. Interestingly, very high prevalence of tbpA gene was observed among poultry, swine, and rabbit isolates. Likewise, very high prevalence of pfhA gene (95.3%) was observed among Indian isolates, irrespective of host species origin.

  18. Satellite range delay simulator for a matrix-switched time division multiple-access network simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) facility at NASA Lewis Research Center is presently configured as a satellite-switched time division multiple access (SS-TDMA) network simulator. The purpose of SITE is to demonstrate and evaluate advanced communication satellite technologies, presently embodied by POC components developed under NASA contracts in addition to other hardware, such as ground terminals, designed and built in-house at NASA Lewis. Each ground terminal in a satellite communications system will experience a different aspect of the satellite's motion due mainly to daily tidal effects and station keeping, hence a different duration and rate of variation in the range delay. As a result of this and other effects such as local oscillator instability, each ground terminal must constantly adjust its transmit burst timing so that data bursts from separate ground terminals arrive at the satellite in their assigned time slots, preventing overlap and keeping the system in synchronism. On the receiving end, ground terminals must synchronize their local clocks using reference transmissions received through the satellite link. A feature of the SITE facility is its capability to simulate the varying propagation delays and associated Doppler frequency shifts that the ground terminals in the network have to cope with. Delay is achieved by means of two NASA Lewis designed and built range delay simulator (RDS) systems, each independently controlled locally with front panel switches or remotely by an experiment control and monitor (EC/M) computer.

  19. Seeing red; the development of pON.mCherry, a broad-host range constitutive expression plasmid for Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Rachael K.; Shuman, Howard A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of plasmid-mediated gene expression control in bacteria revolutionized the field of bacteriology. Many of these expression control systems rely on the addition of small molecules, generally metabolites or non-metabolized analogs thereof, to the growth medium to induce expression of the genes of interest. The paradigmatic example of an expression control system is the lac system from Escherichia coli, which typically relies on the Ptac promoter and the Lac repressor, LacI. In many cases, however, constitutive gene expression is desired, and other experimental approaches require the coordinated control of multiple genes. While multiple systems have been developed for use in E. coli and its close relatives, the utility and/or functionality of these tools does not always translate to other species. For example, for the Gram-negative pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, a causative agent of Legionnaires’ Disease, the aforementioned Ptac system represents the only well-established expression control system. In order to enhance the tools available to study bacterial gene expression in L. pneumophila, we developed a plasmid, pON.mCherry, which confers constitutive gene expression from a mutagenized LacI binding site. We demonstrate that pON.mCherry neither interferes with other plasmids harboring an intact LacI-Ptac expression system nor alters the growth of Legionella species during intracellular growth. Furthermore, the broad-host range plasmid backbone of pON.mCherry allows constitutive gene expression in a wide variety of Gram-negative bacterial species, making pON.mCherry a useful tool for the greater research community. PMID:28257493

  20. Seeing red; the development of pON.mCherry, a broad-host range constitutive expression plasmid for Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Michael J; Jacobson, Rachael K; Shuman, Howard A

    2017-01-01

    The development of plasmid-mediated gene expression control in bacteria revolutionized the field of bacteriology. Many of these expression control systems rely on the addition of small molecules, generally metabolites or non-metabolized analogs thereof, to the growth medium to induce expression of the genes of interest. The paradigmatic example of an expression control system is the lac system from Escherichia coli, which typically relies on the Ptac promoter and the Lac repressor, LacI. In many cases, however, constitutive gene expression is desired, and other experimental approaches require the coordinated control of multiple genes. While multiple systems have been developed for use in E. coli and its close relatives, the utility and/or functionality of these tools does not always translate to other species. For example, for the Gram-negative pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, a causative agent of Legionnaires' Disease, the aforementioned Ptac system represents the only well-established expression control system. In order to enhance the tools available to study bacterial gene expression in L. pneumophila, we developed a plasmid, pON.mCherry, which confers constitutive gene expression from a mutagenized LacI binding site. We demonstrate that pON.mCherry neither interferes with other plasmids harboring an intact LacI-Ptac expression system nor alters the growth of Legionella species during intracellular growth. Furthermore, the broad-host range plasmid backbone of pON.mCherry allows constitutive gene expression in a wide variety of Gram-negative bacterial species, making pON.mCherry a useful tool for the greater research community.

  1. Survivorship of Z-Pheromone Race European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on a Range of Host Plants Varying in Defensive Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Kelsey E; Mason, Charles E; Flexner, J Lindsey; Hough-Goldstein, Judith; McDonald, John H

    2017-03-03

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), was introduced in North America in the early 1900s and became a major pest of corn. After its introduction, it was found on > 200 other plant hosts, but corn remained its primary host. Early life history studies indicated that European corn borer had the potential of a wide host range. For nearly 80 yr before the introduction of Bt corn, the European corn borer was a major pest of corn in North America. This study investigated the growth and survivorship of the Z-pheromone race European corn borer on a range of hosts that vary in defensive chemistries and historic degree of infestation to better understand the current host plant range of Z-pheromone race of O. nubilalis. The plants tested include sweet corn, cry1F Bt field corn, non-Bt corn, cucumber, tomato, and green bean. Experiments were conducted in the growth chamber, greenhouse, and field to determine survival under different conditions. In most cases, results supported the expected outcome, with significantly higher survival on non-Bt corn hosts than the other hosts tested. Neonate larvae fed exclusively on leaves of green bean exhibited intermediate survival, whereas third-instars fed on only leaves of cucumber survived intermediately. Larvae on Bt corn and tomato had comparable low survival rates, overall suggesting that the defensive features of tomato are about as effective as Cry1F Bt corn. Non-Bt corn was found to be the most suitable host plant, overall for European corn borer among those tested.

  2. A method for evaluating the host range of bacteriophages using phages fluorescently labeled with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU).

    PubMed

    Ohno, Sayaka; Okano, Hironori; Tanji, Yasunori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Watanabe, Kazuya; Takai, Ken; Imachi, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    The evaluation of bacteriophage (phage) host range is a significant issue in understanding phage and prokaryotic community interactions. However, in conventional methods, such as plaque assay, target host strains must be isolated, although almost all environmental prokaryotes are recalcitrant to cultivation. Here, we introduce a novel phage host range evaluation method using fluorescently labeled phages (the FLP method), which consists of the following four steps: (i) Fluorescently labeled phages are added to a microbial consortium, and host cells are infected and fluorescently labeled. (ii) Fluorescent cells are sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. (iii) 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sorted cells are analyzed, and specific oligonucleotide probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are designed. (iv) Cells labeled with both fluorescently labeled phage and FISH probe are identified as host cells. To verify the feasibility of this method, we used T4 phage and Escherichia coli as a model. We first used nucleic acid stain reagents for phage labeling; however, the reagents also stained non-host cells. Next, we employed the Click-iT EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) assay kit from Invitrogen for phage labeling. Using EdU-labeled T4 phage, we could specifically detect E. coli cells in a complex microbial consortium from municipal sewage. We also confirmed that FISH could be applied to the infected E. coli cells. These results suggest that this FLP method using the EdU assay kit is a useful method for evaluating phage host range and may have a potential application for various types of phages, even if their prokaryotic hosts are currently unculturable.

  3. Temporal Assessment of the Impact of Exposure to Cow Feces inTwo Watersheds by Multiple Host-Specific PCR Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal exposure in two watersheds with different management histories was assessed by tracking cattle fecal bacterial populations using multiple host-specific PCR assays. In addition, environmental factors affecting the occurrence of these markers were identified. Each assay was t...

  4. The biology and preliminary host range of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) and its impact on kudzu growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Hanula, James L; Horn, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.), recently was discovered in the United States feeding on kudzu, Pueraria montana Lour. (Merr.) variety lobata (Willd.), an economically important invasive vine. We studied its biology on kudzu and its impact on kudzu growth. We also tested its ability to use other common forest legumes for oviposition and development. Flight intercept traps operated from 17 May 2010 to 31 May 2011 in a kudzu field near Athens, GA showed three peaks of adult flight activity suggesting there are two generations per year on kudzu. Vine samples examined for eggs from April 2010 to April 2011 and June to October 2011 showed two periods of oviposition activity in 2010, which coincided with the peaks in adult activity. In 2011, the second period of oviposition began on or before 24 June and then egg abundance declined gradually thereafter until late August when we recovered <2 eggs/0.5 m of vine. Samples of the five nymphal instars and adults on vines did not show similar trends in abundance. Adults did not lay eggs on the various legume species tested in 2010 in a no-choice test possibly because the cages were too small. In the 2011 field host range experiments conducted in a kudzu field by using 12 legume species, M. cribraria preferentially oviposited on kudzu over soybean, Glycine max Merrill., but they still laid 320 eggs per plant on soybean. Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. and Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don had 122.2 and 108.4 eggs per plant, respectively. Kudzu and soybean were the only species M. cribraria completed development on. Plots protected from M. cribraria feeding by biweekly insecticide applications had 32.8% more kudzu biomass than unprotected plots. Our results show that M. cribraria has a significant impact on kudzu growth and could help suppress this pest weed.

  5. Recent host range expansion of canine distemper virus and variation in its receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Kazue; Suzuki, Rintaro; Maeda, Taro; Tsuda, Miwako; Abe, Erika; Yoshida, Takao; Endo, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Maki; Nagamine, Takashi; Yamamoto, Hanae; Ueda, Miya; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2014-07-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) is a receptor for morbilliviruses. To understand the recent host range expansion of canine distemper virus (CDV) in carnivores, we determined the nucleotide sequences of SLAMs of various carnivores and generated three-dimensional homology SLAM models. Thirty-four amino acid residues were found for the candidates binding to CDV on the interface of the carnivore SLAMs. SLAM of the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) were similar to those of other members of the suborder Caniformia, indicating that the animals in this group have similar sensitivity to dog CDV. However, they were different at nine positions from those of felids. Among the nine residues, four of domestic cat (Felis catus) SLAM (72, 76, 82, and 129) and three of lion (Panthera leo persica) SLAM (72, 82, and 129) were associated with charge alterations, suggesting that the felid interfaces have lower affinities to dog CDV. Only the residue at 76 was different between domestic cat and lion SLAM interfaces. The domestic cat SLAM had threonine at 76, whereas the lion SLAM had arginine, a positively charged residue like that of the dog SLAM. The cat SLAM with threonine is likely to have lower affinity to CDV-H and to confer higher resistance against dog CDV. Thus, the four residues (72, 76, 82, and 129) on carnivore SLAMs are important for the determination of affinity and sensitivity with CDV. Additionally, the CDV-H protein of felid strains had a substitution of histidine for tyrosine at 549 of dog CDV-H and may have higher affinity to lion SLAM. Three-dimensional model construction is a new risk assessment method of morbillivirus infectivity. Because the method is applicable to animals that have no information about virus infection, it is especially useful for morbillivirus risk assessment and wildlife conservation.

  6. Bacteriophage module reshuffling results in adaptive host range as exemplified by the baseplate model of listerial phage A118.

    PubMed

    Cambillau, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Each phage infects its specific bacterial host strain through highly specific interactions between the baseplate-associated receptor binding protein (RBP) at the tip of the phage tail and the receptor at the host surface. Baseplates incorporate structural core modules, Dit and Tal, largely conserved among phages, and peripheral modules anchoring the RBPs. Exploiting structural information from the HHpred program and EM data from the Bielmann et al. (2015) paper, a molecular model of the A118 phage baseplate was generated from different building blocks. This model implies the occurrence of baseplate module reshuffling and suggests that listerial phage A118 may have been derived from lactococcal phage TP901-1 through host species exchange. With the increase of available viral module structures, modelling phage baseplates will become easier and more reliant, and will provide insightful information on the nature of the phage host receptor and its mode of recognition.

  7. Inbreeding in Gredos mountain range (Spain): contribution of multiple consanguinity and intervalley variation.

    PubMed

    Fuster, V; Jiménez, A M; Colantonio, S E

    2001-04-01

    The present paper examines consanguineous marriages occurring between 1874 and 1975 in three valleys (Tormes, Alberche, and Tiétar) in the Sierra de Gredos mountain range, Avila province, Spain. Information was obtained from parish registers of 42 localities, corresponding to a total of 41,696 weddings. Consanguineous marriages were defined as those up to the third degree of consanguinity (second cousins). From 1874 to 1975 the percentage of related mates was 4.45% and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.0011868 (for 1874 to 1917 corresponding figures up to the fourth degree were 16.44% and 0.00 19085, respectively). In order to ascertain the characteristics and evolution of mating patterns in Gredos, the contribution of each degree of kinship was analyzed as a whole and then for each valley separately. Regarding total consanguineous marriages in Gredos, there is a low frequency of uncle-niece matings (0.21%) and a first-second cousin mating ratio (C22/C33) of 0.23 (up to the third degree of consanguinity). Before 1918 multiple matings (i.e., those involving more than a single relationship) accounted for 19.16% of consanguineous marriages (up to the fourth degree). The observed frequencies of multiple consanguineous marriages was, on average, about twice that expected at random, and the proportion of such marriages to total inbreeding was 34.65%. The temporal change of the Gredos inbreeding pattern was characterized by a recent decrease; the highest inbreeding levels correspond to the period from 1915 to 1944. Finally, intervalley differences (maximum inbreeding coefficient in the Tormes, minimum in the Tiétar) are interpreted considering the geography, population size, and population mobility for each valley

  8. Myxoma Virus M064 Is a Novel Member of the Poxvirus C7L Superfamily of Host Range Factors That Controls the Kinetics of Myxomatosis in European Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Wennier, Sonia; Moussatche, Nissin; Reinhard, Mary; Condit, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The myxoma virus (MYXV) carries three tandem C7L-like host range genes (M062R, M063R, and M064R). However, despite the fact that the sequences of these three genes are similar, they possess very distinctive functions in vivo. The role of M064 in MYXV pathogenesis was investigated and compared to the roles of M062 and M063. We report that M064 is a virulence factor that contributes to MYXV pathogenesis but lacks the host range properties associated with M062 and M063. PMID:22379095

  9. Myxoma virus M064 is a novel member of the poxvirus C7L superfamily of host range factors that controls the kinetics of myxomatosis in European rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wennier, Sonia; Moussatche, Nissin; Reinhard, Mary; Condit, Richard; McFadden, Grant

    2012-05-01

    The myxoma virus (MYXV) carries three tandem C7L-like host range genes (M062R, M063R, and M064R). However, despite the fact that the sequences of these three genes are similar, they possess very distinctive functions in vivo. The role of M064 in MYXV pathogenesis was investigated and compared to the roles of M062 and M063. We report that M064 is a virulence factor that contributes to MYXV pathogenesis but lacks the host range properties associated with M062 and M063.

  10. Establishment of a genetically marked insect-derived symbiont in multiple host plants.

    PubMed

    Bextine, Blake; Lampe, David; Lauzon, Carol; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Thomas A

    2005-01-01

    Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans, originally isolated from the cibarial region of the foregut of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), was transformed using the Himar1 transposition system to express EGFP. Seedlings of six potential host plants were inoculated with transformed bacteria and 2 weeks later samples were taken 5 cm away and analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR using primers designed to amplify the gene insert. The largest colony of 3,591,427 cells/2 cm of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans was found in Citrus limon, with almost all plants testing positive in both trials. The amount of colonization decreased in the other plants tested in the following order: orange (Citrus sinensis "sweet orange") > chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum grandiflora cv. "White Diamond") > periwinkle (Vinca rosea) > crepe myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) > grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay). The bacterium's preference for citrus paralleled the host insect's preference for this same plant. Additional tests determined that A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans thrives as a nonpathogenic, xylem-associated endophyte.

  11. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species☆

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick

  12. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi; Mueller, Claudius; Roberts, Brian; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-11-01

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses.

  13. Bacteria influence mountain pine beetle brood development through interactions with symbiotic and antagonistic fungi: implications for climate-driven host range expansion.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Janet; Mason, Charles J; Cale, Jonathan A; Adams, Aaron; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Raffa, Kenneth F; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-10-01

    Bark beetles are associated with diverse communities of symbionts. Although fungi have received significant attention, we know little about how bacteria, and in particular their interactions with fungi, affect bark beetle reproduction. We tested how interactions between four bacterial associates, two symbiotic fungi, and two opportunistic fungi affect performance of mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in host tissue. We compared beetle performance in phloem of its historical host, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and its novel host recently accessed through warming climate, jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Overall, beetles produced more larvae, and established longer ovipositional and larval galleries in host tissue predominantly colonized by the symbiotic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera, or Ophiostoma montium than by the opportunistic colonizer Aspergillus and to a lesser extent, Trichoderma. This occurred in both historical and naïve hosts. Impacts of bacteria on beetle reproduction depended on particular fungus-bacterium combinations and host species. Some bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas sp. D4-22 and Hy4T4 in P. contorta and Pseudomonas sp. Hy4T4 and Stenotrophomonas in P. banksiana, reduced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus and Trichoderma resulting in more larvae and longer ovipositional and larval galleries. These effects were not selective, as bacteria also reduced beneficial effects by symbionts in both host species. Interestingly, Bacillus enhanced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus in both hosts. These results demonstrate that bacteria influence brood development of bark beetles in host tissue. They also suggest that climate-driven range expansion of D. ponderosae through the boreal forest will not be significantly constrained by requirements of, or interactions among, its microbial associates.

  14. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-05-04

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system's trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach.

  15. 3D indoor modeling using a hand-held embedded system with multiple laser range scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Wang, Duhu; Xu, Shike

    2016-10-01

    Accurate three-dimensional perception is a key technology for many engineering applications, including mobile mapping, obstacle detection and virtual reality. In this article, we present a hand-held embedded system designed for constructing 3D representation of structured indoor environments. Different from traditional vehicle-borne mobile mapping methods, the system presented here is capable of efficiently acquiring 3D data while an operator carrying the device traverses through the site. It consists of a simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) module, a 3D attitude estimate module and a point cloud processing module. The SLAM is based on a scan matching approach using a modern LIDAR system, and the 3D attitude estimate is generated by a navigation filter using inertial sensors. The hardware comprises three 2D time-flight laser range finders and an inertial measurement unit(IMU). All the sensors are rigidly mounted on a body frame. The algorithms are developed on the frame of robot operating system(ROS). The 3D model is constructed using the point cloud library(PCL). Multiple datasets have shown robust performance of the presented system in indoor scenarios.

  16. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system’s trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  17. An Ehrlichia chaffeensis tandem repeat protein interacts with multiple host targets involved in cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, and vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wakeel, Abdul; Kuriakose, Jeeba A; McBride, Jere W

    2009-05-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that exhibits tropism for mononuclear phagocytes forming cytoplasmic membrane-bound microcolonies called morulae. To survive and replicate within phagocytes, E. chaffeensis exploits the host cell by modulating a number of host cell processes, but the ehrlichial effector proteins involved are unknown. In this study, we determined that p47, a secreted, differentially expressed, tandem repeat (TR) protein, interacts with multiple host proteins associated with cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, and vesicle trafficking. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that p47 interacts with polycomb group ring finger 5 (PCGF5) protein, Src protein tyrosine kinase FYN (FYN), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2), and adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1). p47 interaction with these proteins was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assays and colocalization in HeLa cells transfected with p47-green fluorescent fusion protein (AcGFP1-p47). Moreover, confocal microscopy demonstrated p47-expressing dense-cored (DC) ehrlichiae colocalized with PCGF5, FYN, PTPN2, and CAP1. An amino-terminally truncated form of p47 containing TRs interacted only with PCGF5 and not with FYN, PTPN2, and CAP1, indicating differences in p47 domains that are involved in these interactions. These results demonstrate that p47 is involved in a complex network of interactions involving numerous host cell proteins. Furthermore, this study provides a new insight into the molecular and functional distinction of DC ehrlichiae, as well as the effector proteins involved in facilitating ehrlichial survival in mononuclear phagocytes.

  18. Dynamical Evolution of Short Period Planets in the Multiple Systems during the Host-Stars Contraction to the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, M.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2005-05-01

    We study the dynamical evolution of short-period extrasolar planets orbiting young host stars with other eccentric planets. During the fast stages of planet formation, the host-stars are in pre-main sequence stage and are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. As the host-stars evolve onto to the main sequence, the disks are depleted and the stellar radii and the speed of rotation change. All these effects influence the evolution of the orbits of short-period planets. In addition, when the short period planets whose period is less than 6 days have large eccentricities, the tidal dissipation of energy during the circularization would induce interior heating, inflation, Roche lobe overflow, and ultimately mass losses. We study the necessary conditions for the survival of hot Jupiters including the potential of the evolving disk, the potential due to the flattening of the star produced by the increasing stellar rotation, and the post-Newtonian potential of the host star. We find that the short-period planets orbiting around young stellar objects whose spin periods are longer than a few days may be highly vulnerable to the dissipation of the disk and evolution of the stars. Based on these results, we suggest that fast rotators have more short-period planets in multiple systems than slow rotating stars. This work was partly performed while MN held a JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship for Research Abroad (Heisei 14). This work is supported in part by NASA through grant NAG5-11779 to D. N. C. Lin.

  19. Complete inhibition of tobamovirus multiplication by simultaneous mutations in two homologous host genes.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takuya; Imai, Takahiro; Satoh, Rena; Kawashima, Arata; Takahashi, Miki; Tomita, Kayo; Kubota, Kenji; Meshi, Tetsuo; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2002-03-01

    The TOM1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a putative multipass transmembrane protein which is necessary for the efficient multiplication of tobamoviruses. We have previously shown that mutations severely destructive to the TOM1 gene reduce tobamovirus multiplication to low levels but do not impair it completely. In this report, we subjected one of the tom1 mutants (tom1-1) to another round of mutagenesis and isolated a new mutant which did not permit a detectable level of tobamovirus multiplication. In addition to tom1-1, this mutant carried a mutation referred to as tom3-1. Positional cloning showed that TOM3 was one of two TOM1-like genes in Arabidopsis. Based on the similarity between the amino acid sequences of TOM1 and TOM3, together with the results of a Sos recruitment assay suggesting that both TOM1 and TOM3 bind tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins, we propose that TOM1 and TOM3 play parallel and essential roles in the replication of tobamoviruses.

  20. Host range and genetic relatedness of Colletotrichum acutatum isolates from fruit crops and leatherleaf fern in Florida.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, S J; Peres, N A; Barquero, M P; Arauz, L F; Timmer, L W

    2009-05-01

    Isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum were collected from anthracnose-affected strawberry, leatherleaf fern, and Key lime; ripe-rot-affected blueberry; and postbloom fruit drop (PFD)-affected sweet orange in Florida. Additional isolates from ripe-rot-affected blueberry were collected from Georgia and North Carolina and from anthracnose-affected leatherleaf fern in Costa Rica. Pathogenicity tests on blueberry and strawberry fruit; foliage of Key lime, leatherleaf fern, and strawberry; and citrus flowers showed that isolates were highly pathogenic to their host of origin. Isolates were not pathogenic on foliage of heterologous hosts; however, several nonhomologous isolates were mildly or moderately pathogenic to citrus flowers and blueberry isolates were pathogenic to strawberry fruit. Based on sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region of the rDNA repeat, the glutaraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase intron 2 (G3PD), and the glutamine synthase intron 2 (GS), isolates from the same host were identical or very similar to each other and distinct from those isolated from other hosts. Isolates from leatherleaf fern in Florida were the only exception. Among these isolates, there were two distinct G3PD and GS sequences that occurred in three of four possible combinations. Only one of these combinations occurred in Costa Rica. Although maximum parsimony trees constructed from genomic regions individually displayed little or no homoplasy, there was a lack of concordance among genealogies that was consistent with a history of recombination. This lack of concordance was particularly evident within a clade containing PFD, Key lime, and leatherleaf fern isolates. Overall, the data indicated that it is unlikely that a pathogenic strain from one of the hosts examined would move to another of these hosts and produce an epidemic.

  1. Host range of Tetramesa romana Walker (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a potential biological control of giant reed, Arundo donax L. in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eurytomid wasp, Tetramesa romana Walker, was evaluated as a potential biological control agent of the invasive reed grass, Arundo donax in North America. No-choice tests and timed behavioral studies were used to determine the fundamental host range of two genotypes of the wasp collected from Gr...

  2. Host range testing and biology of Abia sericea (Cimbicidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp., Dipsacaceae) are widespread in the USA, being present in 43 states and listed as noxious in five. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (L.) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. The host range, biology, and life history of this ins...

  3. Slow cell infection, inefficient primary infection and inability to replicate in fat body determine host-range of Thysanoplusia orichalcea M Nucleopolyhedrovirus (ThorMNPV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene expression cassette was inserted at the gp37 locus of Thysanoplusia orichacea M nucleopolyhedrovirus (ThorMNPV) to produce vThGFP to study host-range mechanisms. Using EGFP to monitor infection in vitro, many cell lines showed EGFP expression sugges...

  4. ‘Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila’ gen. nov., sp. nov.: Considerations on Evolutionary History, Host Range and Shift of Early Divergent Rickettsiae

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Claudia; Galati, Stefano; Schweikert, Michael; Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Verni, Franco; Petroni, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    “Neglected Rickettsiaceae” (i.e. those harboured by non-hematophagous eukaryotic hosts) display greater phylogenetic variability and more widespread dispersal than pathogenic ones; yet, the knowledge about their actual host range and host shift mechanism is scarce. The present work reports the characterization following the full-cycle rRNA approach (SSU rRNA sequence, specific in situ hybridization, and ultrastructure) of a novel rickettsial bacterium, herewith proposed as 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov. We found it in association with four different free-living ciliates (Diophrys oligothrix, Euplotes octocarinatus, Paramecium caudatum, and Spirostomum sp., all belonging to Alveolata, Ciliophora); furthermore it was recently observed as intracellular occurring in Carteria cerasiformis and Pleodorina japonica (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the belonging of the candidate new genus to the family Rickettsiaceae (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales) as a sister group of the genus Rickettsia. In situ observations revealed the ability of the candidate new species to colonize either nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments, depending on the host organism. The presence of the same bacterial species within different, evolutionary distant, hosts indicates that 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' recently underwent several distinct host shifts, thus suggesting the existence of horizontal transmission pathways. We consider these findings as indicative of an unexpected spread of rickettsial infections in aquatic communities, possibly by means of trophic interactions, and hence propose a new interpretation of the origin and phylogenetic diversification of rickettsial bacteria. PMID:23977321

  5. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  6. Extended geographical distribution and host range of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera Pyralidae)in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field exploration was conducted to confirm the southernmost distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in Argentina. The distribution of the moth was extended to the south (40° 10´S) and west (66° 56´W). The native Opuntia penicilligera was recorded as a host for the first time. These findings should ...

  7. Computational and Functional Analysis of the Virus-Receptor Interface Reveals Host Range Trade-Offs in New World Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Scott A.; Jackson, Eleisha L.; Lungu, Oana I.; Meyer, Austin G.; Demogines, Ann; Ellington, Andrew D.; Georgiou, George

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animal viruses frequently cause zoonotic disease in humans. As these viruses are highly diverse, evaluating the threat that they pose remains a major challenge, and efficient approaches are needed to rapidly predict virus-host compatibility. Here, we develop a combined computational and experimental approach to assess the compatibility of New World arenaviruses, endemic in rodents, with the host TfR1 entry receptors of different potential new host species. Using signatures of positive selection, we identify a small motif on rodent TfR1 that conveys species specificity to the entry of viruses into cells. However, we show that mutations in this region affect the entry of each arenavirus differently. For example, a human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in this region, L212V, makes human TfR1 a weaker receptor for one arenavirus, Machupo virus, but a stronger receptor for two other arenaviruses, Junin and Sabia viruses. Collectively, these findings set the stage for potential evolutionary trade-offs, where natural selection for resistance to one virus may make humans or rodents susceptible to other arenavirus species. Given the complexity of this host-virus interplay, we propose a computational method to predict these interactions, based on homology modeling and computational docking of the virus-receptor protein-protein interaction. We demonstrate the utility of this model for Machupo virus, for which a suitable cocrystal structural template exists. Our model effectively predicts whether the TfR1 receptors of different species will be functional receptors for Machupo virus entry. Approaches such at this could provide a first step toward computationally predicting the “host jumping” potential of a virus into a new host species. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate how evolutionary trade-offs may exist in the dynamic evolutionary interplay between viruses and their hosts, where natural selection for resistance to one virus could make humans or rodents susceptible

  8. A phloem-limited fijivirus induces the formation of neoplastic phloem tissues that house virus multiplication in the host plant

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jiangfeng; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jianping; Sun, Liying

    2016-01-01

    A number of phloem-limited viruses induce the development of tumours (enations) in the veins of host plants, but the relevance of tumour induction to the life cycle of those viruses is unclear. In this study, we performed molecular and structural analyses of tumours induced by rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, genus Fijivirus) infection in maize plants. The transcript level of the maize cdc2 gene, which regulates the cell cycle, was highly elevated in tumour tissues. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified 25 cellular proteins with altered accumulation in the tumour tissues. These proteins are involved in various metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, redox, energy pathways and amino acid synthesis. Histological analysis indicated that the tumours predominantly originated from hyperplastic growth of phloem, but those neoplastic tissues have irregular structures and cell arrangements. Immunodetection assays and electron microscopy observations indicated that in the shoots, RBSDV is confined to phloem and tumour regions and that virus multiplication actively occurs in the tumour tissue, as indicated by the high accumulation of non-structural proteins and formation of viroplasms in the tumour cells. Thus, the induction of tumours by RBSDV infection provides a larger environment that is favourable for virus propagation in the host plant. PMID:27432466

  9. The origins of new pandemic viruses: the acquisition of new host ranges by canine parvovirus and influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Colin R; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    Transfer of viruses between hosts to create a new self-sustaining epidemic is rare; however, those new viruses can cause severe outbreaks. Examples of such viruses include three pandemic human influenza A viruses and canine parvovirus in dogs. In each case one virus made the original transfer and spread worldwide, and then further adaptation resulted in the emergence of variants worldwide. For the influenza viruses several changes were required for growth and spread between humans, and the emergence of human H2N2 and H3N2 strains in 1957 and 1968 involved the acquisition of three or two new genomic segments, respectively. Adaptation to humans involved several viral genes including the hemagglutinin, the neuraminidase, and the replication proteins. The canine adaptation of the parvoviruses involved capsid protein changes altering the recognition of the host transferrin receptors, allowing canine transferrin receptor binding and its use as a receptor for cell infection.

  10. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-10-09

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific.

  11. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Abecia, Leticia; Angarita, Erika; Aravena, Paula; Nora Arenas, Graciela; Ariza, Claudia; Attwood, Graeme T.; Mauricio Avila, Jose; Avila-Stagno, Jorge; Bannink, André; Barahona, Rolando; Batistotti, Mariano; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Brown-Kav, Aya; Carvajal, Andres M.; Cersosimo, Laura; Vieira Chaves, Alexandre; Church, John; Clipson, Nicholas; Cobos-Peralta, Mario A.; Cookson, Adrian L.; Cravero, Silvio; Cristobal Carballo, Omar; Crosley, Katie; Cruz, Gustavo; Cerón Cucchi, María; de la Barra, Rodrigo; De Menezes, Alexandre B.; Detmann, Edenio; Dieho, Kasper; Dijkstra, Jan; dos Reis, William L. S.; Dugan, Mike E. R.; Hadi Ebrahimi, Seyed; Eythórsdóttir, Emma; Nde Fon, Fabian; Fraga, Martín; Franco, Francisco; Friedeman, Chris; Fukuma, Naoki; Gagić, Dragana; Gangnat, Isabelle; Javier Grilli, Diego; Guan, Le Luo; Heidarian Miri, Vahideh; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Gomez, Alma Ximena Ibarra; Isah, Olubukola A.; Ishaq, Suzanne; Jami, Elie; Jelincic, Juan; Kantanen, Juha; Kelly, William J.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Klieve, Athol; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Koike, Satoshi; Kopecny, Jan; Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten; Julie Krizsan, Sophie; LaChance, Hannah; Lachman, Medora; Lamberson, William R.; Lambie, Suzanne; Lassen, Jan; Leahy, Sinead C.; Lee, Sang-Suk; Leiber, Florian; Lewis, Eva; Lin, Bo; Lira, Raúl; Lund, Peter; Macipe, Edgar; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Cuquetto Mantovani, Hilário; Marcoppido, Gisela Ariana; Márquez, Cristian; Martin, Cécile; Martinez, Gonzalo; Eugenia Martinez, Maria; Lucía Mayorga, Olga; McAllister, Tim A.; McSweeney, Chris; Mestre, Lorena; Minnee, Elena; Mitsumori, Makoto; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Molina, Isabel; Muenger, Andreas; Munoz, Camila; Murovec, Bostjan; Newbold, John; Nsereko, Victor; O’Donovan, Michael; Okunade, Sunday; O’Neill, Brendan; Ospina, Sonia; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Parra, Diana; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; Pinares-Patino, Cesar; Pope, Phil B.; Poulsen, Morten; Rodehutscord, Markus; Rodriguez, Tatiana; Saito, Kunihiko; Sales, Francisco; Sauer, Catherine; Shingfield, Kevin; Shoji, Noriaki; Simunek, Jiri; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica; Stres, Blaz; Sun, Xuezhao; Swartz, Jeffery; Liang Tan, Zhi; Tapio, Ilma; Taxis, Tasia M.; Tomkins, Nigel; Ungerfeld, Emilio; Valizadeh, Reza; van Adrichem, Peter; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Van Hoven, Woulter; Waghorn, Garry; John Wallace, R.; Wang, Min; Waters, Sinéad M.; Keogh, Kate; Witzig, Maren; Wright, Andre-Denis G.; Yamano, Hidehisa; Yan, Tianhai; Yanez-Ruiz, David R.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Zambrano, Ricardo; Zeitz, Johanna; Zhou, Mi; Wei Zhou, Hua; Xia Zou, Cai; Zunino, Pablo; Janssen, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific. PMID:26449758

  12. Multiple rate digital command detection system with range clean-up capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.; Butman, S. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A multi-rate digital command system is disclosed which uses the composite signal of a mu-type ranging system as a subcarrier to transmit range codes and data from a station to a receiver where the range codes are sequentially phase modulated on a subcarrier of frequency by one of its own subharmonics and data is phase modulated on a selected ranging component. A range cleanup loop in a spacecraft locks the phase of a locally generated reference component to a received ranging component and retransmits the component to a ground station. When the inverse phase of a ranging component is received and detected, the cleanup loop is modified to demodulate phase modulated command symbols while continuing tracking the same ranging component. The command symbol rate is coherently related to the ranging signal component bit rate.

  13. Peptide-Recombinant VP6 Protein Based Enzyme Immunoassay for the Detection of Group A Rotaviruses in Multiple Host Species

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Subhankar; Saurabh, Sharad; Gulati, Baldev R.; Singh, Neeraj; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Joshi, Vinay G.; Banyai, Krisztian; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel enzyme immunoassay for the detection of group A rotavirus (RVA) antigen in fecal samples of multiple host species. The assay is based on the detection of conserved VP6 protein using anti-recombinant VP6 antibodies as capture antibodies and anti-multiple antigenic peptide (identified and constructed from highly immunodominant epitopes within VP6 protein) antibodies as detector antibodies. The clinical utility of the assay was evaluated using a panel of 914 diarrhoeic fecal samples from four different host species (bovine, porcine, poultry and human) collected from diverse geographical locations in India. Using VP6- based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as the gold standard, we found that the diagnostic sensitivity (DSn) and specificity (DSp) of the new assay was high [bovine (DSn = 94.2% & DSp = 100%); porcine (DSn = 94.6% & DSp = 93.3%); poultry (DSn = 74.2% & DSp = 97.7%) and human (DSn = 82.1% & DSp = 98.7%)]. The concordance with RT-PCR was also high [weighted kappa (k) = 0.831–0.956 at 95% CI = 0.711–1.0] as compared to RNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA-PAGE). The performance characteristics of the new immunoassay were comparable to those of the two commercially available ELISA kits. Our results suggest that this peptide-recombinant protein based assay may serve as a preliminary assay for epidemiological surveillance of RVA antigen and for evaluation of vaccine effectiveness especially in low and middle income settings. PMID:27391106

  14. Discovery of Novel dsRNA Viral Sequences by In Silico Cloning and Implications for Viral Diversity, Host Range and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A.; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequence of viruses can contribute greatly to the study of viral evolution, diversity and the interaction between viruses and hosts. Traditional molecular cloning methods for obtaining RNA viral genomes are time-consuming and often difficult because many viruses occur in extremely low titers. DsRNA viruses in the families, Partitiviridae, Totiviridae, Endornaviridae, Chrysoviridae, and other related unclassified dsRNA viruses are generally associated with symptomless or persistent infections of their hosts. These characteristics indicate that samples or materials derived from eukaryotic organisms used to construct cDNA libraries and EST sequencing might carry these viruses, which were not easily detected by the researchers. Therefore, the EST databases may include numerous unknown viral sequences. In this study, we performed in silico cloning, a procedure for obtaining full or partial cDNA sequence of a gene by bioinformatics analysis, using known dsRNA viral sequences as queries to search against NCBI Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database. From this analysis, we obtained 119 novel virus-like sequences related to members of the families, Endornaviridae, Chrysoviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae. Many of them were identified in cDNA libraries of eukaryotic lineages, which were not known to be hosts for these viruses. Furthermore, comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these newly discovered virus-like sequences with known dsRNA viruses revealed that these dsRNA viruses may have co-evolved with respective host supergroups over a long evolutionary time while potential horizontal transmissions of viruses between different host supergroups also is possible. We also found that some of the plant partitiviruses may have originated from fungal viruses by horizontal transmissions. These findings extend our knowledge of the diversity and possible host range of dsRNA viruses and offer insight into the origin and evolution of relevant viruses with their hosts. PMID

  15. Host Range Testing of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for Use in Classical Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Bistline-East, Allison; Pandey, Raju; Kececi, Mehmet; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Host range tests for Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from Punjab Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated D. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolonged sequential no-choice treatments, 3) prolonged no-choice static treatments, and 4) choice treatments. Selection of nontarget psyllid species was based on phylogenetic proximity to D. citri, likelihood of being encountered by D. aligarhensis in the prospective release areas in California, and psyllid species in biological control of invasive weeds. D. aligarhensis exhibited high host affinity to D. citri, and only parasitized one nontarget species, the pestiferous potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), at low levels (<14%). Based on the results of this study, we conclude that D. aligarhensis has a narrow host range and exhibits a high level of host specificity, as it shows a significant attack preference for the target pest, D. citri. Results presented here suggest D. aligarhensis poses minimal risk to nontarget psyllid species in California.

  16. The Role of Female Search Behaviour in Determining Host Plant Range in Plant Feeding Insects: A Test of the Information Processing Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Soren

    1997-05-01

    Recent theoretical studies have suggested that host range in herbivorous insects may be more restricted by constraints on information processing on the ovipositing females than by trade-offs in larval feeding efficiency. We have investigated if females from polyphagous species have to pay for their ability to localize and evaluate plants from different species with a lower ability to discriminate between conspecific host plants with differences in quality. Females of the monophagous butterflies Polygonia satyrus, Vanessa indica and Inachis io and the polyphagous P. c-album and Cynthia cardui (all in Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) were given a simultaneous choice of stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) of different quality. In addition, the same choice trial was given to females from two populations of P. c-album with different degrees of specificity. As predicted from the information processing hypothesis, all specialists discriminated significantly against the bad quality nettle, whereas the generalists laid an equal amount of eggs on both types of nettle. There were no corresponding differences between specialist and generalist larvae in their ability to utilize poor quality leaves. Our study therefore suggests that female host-searching behaviour plays an important role in determining host plant range.

  17. Distribution, host range, and climatic constraints on Centistes gasseni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a South American parasitoid of cucumber beetles, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera Walsh, G; Athanas, M M; Salles, L A B; Schroder, R F W

    2003-12-01

    The genus Diabrotica includes a large number of pest species, including some of the most important crop pests of the Americas. The parasitoid Centistes gasseni Shaw is the first braconid to be described parasitizing Diabrotica in South America, and high natural infestations are reported. Field and experimental observations on the host range, distribution and biology of this parasitoid are described. Centistes gasseniwas collected in southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, in a region comprising humid lowlands and highlands, and cool temperate to warm subtropical climates, with regular rainfall in excess of 1300 mm. Three Diabroticaspecies, D. limitata (Sahlberg), D. speciosa (Germar) and D. viridula (Fabricius) were found to host the parasitoid, with mean percent parasitism of 5.4, 2.0 and 1.0%, respectively. Diabrotica speciosa and D. viridula are the two most important pest Diabroticaspecies in South America. Laboratory experiments with field-collected beetles and parasitoid cocoons indicated that C. gasseni overwinters in adult host beetles, remaining dormant in its live host below developmental temperatures. A potential distribution of C. gasseni in North America is proposed based on its known climatic range and the distribution of the main pest species of adult overwintering North American Diabrotica.

  18. Host and Environmental Factors Modulate the Exposure of Free-Ranging and Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) to Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Velasco Ávila, Ana Luisa; Boadella, Mariana; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Barasona, José Ángel; Santos, João P. V.; Queirós, João; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Barral, Marta; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The control of multihost pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. We aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of C. burnetii. We predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a European context would be exposed to C. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to C. burnetii. To test this hypothesis, we designed a retrospective survey of 47 Iberian red deer populations from which 1,751 serum samples and 489 spleen samples were collected. Sera were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in order to estimate exposure to C. burnetii, and spleen samples were analyzed by PCR in order to estimate the prevalence of systemic infections. Thereafter, we gathered 23 variables—within environmental, host, and management factors—potentially modulating the risk of exposure of deer to C. burnetii, and we performed multivariate statistical analyses to identify the main risk factors. Twenty-three populations were seropositive (48.9%), and C. burnetii DNA in the spleen was detected in 50% of the populations analyzed. The statistical analyses reflect the complexity of C. burnetii ecology and suggest that although red deer may maintain the circulation of C. burnetii without third species, the most frequent scenario probably includes other wild and domestic host species. These findings, taken together with previous evidence of C. burnetii shedding by naturally infected red deer, point at this wild ungulate as a true reservoir for C. burnetii and an important node in the life cycle of C. burnetii, at least in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:26150466

  19. Host and Environmental Factors Modulate the Exposure of Free-Ranging and Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) to Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, David; Velasco Ávila, Ana Luisa; Boadella, Mariana; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Barasona, José Ángel; Santos, João P V; Queirós, João; García-Pérez, Ana L; Barral, Marta; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    The control of multihost pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. We aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of C. burnetii. We predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a European context would be exposed to C. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to C. burnetii. To test this hypothesis, we designed a retrospective survey of 47 Iberian red deer populations from which 1,751 serum samples and 489 spleen samples were collected. Sera were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in order to estimate exposure to C. burnetii, and spleen samples were analyzed by PCR in order to estimate the prevalence of systemic infections. Thereafter, we gathered 23 variables-within environmental, host, and management factors-potentially modulating the risk of exposure of deer to C. burnetii, and we performed multivariate statistical analyses to identify the main risk factors. Twenty-three populations were seropositive (48.9%), and C. burnetii DNA in the spleen was detected in 50% of the populations analyzed. The statistical analyses reflect the complexity of C. burnetii ecology and suggest that although red deer may maintain the circulation of C. burnetii without third species, the most frequent scenario probably includes other wild and domestic host species. These findings, taken together with previous evidence of C. burnetii shedding by naturally infected red deer, point at this wild ungulate as a true reservoir for C. burnetii and an important node in the life cycle of C. burnetii, at least in the Iberian Peninsula.

  20. Description of Meloidogyne christiei n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) from Oak with SEM and Host-Range Observations

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. Morgan; Kaplan, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Meloidogyne christiei n. sp. is described and illustrated from turkey oak (Quercus laevis) in Sanlando Park, Altamonte Springs, Florida. This new nematode species has a distinctive perineal pattern commonly with a high, squarish arch and coarse broken striae which tend to diverge at various angles, especially in and above the anal area. Female labial disc is indented, forming four points or prongs, unlike other species. Eggs are deposited inside the gall in a tubular, coiled manner. Vaginal muscles are exceptionally prominent and dense. SEM observations provided further detail of the perineal pattern and details of the head of females, males, and second-stage juveniles. Galls on the root commonly occur singly, but sometimes in small clusters, and appear as discrete nodules on the side of the root and without adjacent swelling. In general, only one female is found in each gall but occasionally two are present. In greenhouse tests, citrus, tobacco, cotton, pepper, watermelon, peanut, and tomato were not hosts. This nematode occurs throughout central Florida commonly on Q. laevis, the only known host. PMID:19294223

  1. Accuracy of Range Restriction Correction with Multiple Imputation in Small and Moderate Samples: A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaffel, Andreas; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Approaches to correcting correlation coefficients for range restriction have been developed under the framework of large sample theory. The accuracy of missing data techniques for correcting correlation coefficients for range restriction has thus far only been investigated with relatively large samples. However, researchers and evaluators are…

  2. Host range and diversity of the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) living in association with bark beetles in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Kolarík, Miroslav; Kostovcík, Martin; Pazoutová, Sylvie

    2007-11-01

    Geosmithia spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are dry-spored fungi that occur in galleries built by many phloeophagous bark beetles. This study mapped the diversity, host spectrum and area of distribution of Geosmithia spp. occurring in galleries of bark beetle species with a Mediterranean distribution. Eighty-six wood samples of 19 tree species infested by 18 subcortical insect species were collected from across the Mediterranean Basin during the years 2003-2006. Geosmithia spp. were found in 82 samples of angiosperms and two host trees from the family Juniperaceae infested by 14 bark beetles and the bostrichid Scobicia pustulata, suggesting that the association of Geosmithia and phloeophagous bark beetles is very widespread in the Mediterranean. Geosmithia isolates were sorted into 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on their phenotype similarity and phylogeny of their ITS regions of rDNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). The OTUs represent five known species (G. flava, G. langdonii, G. lavendula, G. pallida, G. putterillii) and seven undescribed taxa. Most of the bark beetles were associated with on average 1-2.5 OTUs per sample. G. lavendula, considered very uncommon in nature, was found as a common associate of bark beetles. Six out of 13 OTUs were found to be distributed in the Mediterranean but not in neighbouring areas of temperate Europe suggesting that Geosmithia spp. have a geographically limited distribution, probably due to their dependency on the geographically limited area of their vectors. The proportion of generalists and specialists among Geosmithia spp. was smaller compared with data from temperate Europe. A possible explanation is the effective dispersal of Geosmithia by polyphagous bostrichids across the niches defined by mutually exclusive bark beetles.

  3. Evidence for suppression of immunity as a driver for genomic introgressions and host range expansion in races of Albugo candida, a generalist parasite

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Mark; Gardiner, Anastasia; Bailey, Kate; Kemen, Eric; Ward, Ben J; Cevik, Volkan; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Balmuth, Alexi; Holub, Eric; van Oosterhout, Cock; Jones, Jonathan DG

    2015-01-01

    How generalist parasites with wide host ranges can evolve is a central question in parasite evolution. Albugo candida is an obligate biotrophic parasite that consists of many physiological races that each specialize on distinct Brassicaceae host species. By analyzing genome sequence assemblies of five isolates, we show they represent three races that are genetically diverged by ∼1%. Despite this divergence, their genomes are mosaic-like, with ∼25% being introgressed from other races. Sequential infection experiments show that infection by adapted races enables subsequent infection of hosts by normally non-infecting races. This facilitates introgression and the exchange of effector repertoires, and may enable the evolution of novel races that can undergo clonal population expansion on new hosts. We discuss recent studies on hybridization in other eukaryotes such as yeast, Heliconius butterflies, Darwin's finches, sunflowers and cichlid fishes, and the implications of introgression for pathogen evolution in an agro-ecological environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04550.001 PMID:25723966

  4. Comparative genomic and transcriptome analyses of pathotypes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri provide insights into mechanisms of bacterial virulence and host range

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Citrus bacterial canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on citrus industries worldwide and is caused by a few species and pathotypes of Xanthomonas. X. citri subsp. citri strain 306 (XccA306) is a type A (Asiatic) strain with a wide host range, whereas its variant X. citri subsp. citri strain Aw12879 (Xcaw12879, Wellington strain) is restricted to Mexican lime. Results To characterize the mechanism for the differences in host range of XccA and Xcaw, the genome of Xcaw12879 that was completed recently was compared with XccA306 genome. Effectors xopAF and avrGf1 are present in Xcaw12879, but were absent in XccA306. AvrGf1 was shown previously for Xcaw to cause hypersensitive response in Duncan grapefruit. Mutation analysis of xopAF indicates that the gene contributes to Xcaw growth in Mexican lime but does not contribute to the limited host range of Xcaw. RNA-Seq analysis was conducted to compare the expression profiles of Xcaw12879 and XccA306 in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium and XVM2 medium, which induces hrp gene expression. Two hundred ninety two and 281 genes showed differential expression in XVM2 compared to in NB for XccA306 and Xcaw12879, respectively. Twenty-five type 3 secretion system genes were up-regulated in XVM2 for both XccA and Xcaw. Among the 4,370 common genes of Xcaw12879 compared to XccA306, 603 genes in NB and 450 genes in XVM2 conditions were differentially regulated. Xcaw12879 showed higher protease activity than XccA306 whereas Xcaw12879 showed lower pectate lyase activity in comparison to XccA306. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of XccA306 and Xcaw12879 identified strain specific genes. Our study indicated that AvrGf1 contributes to the host range limitation of Xcaw12879 whereas XopAF contributes to virulence. Transcriptome analyses of XccA306 and Xcaw12879 presented insights into the expression of the two closely related strains of X. citri subsp. citri. Virulence genes including genes encoding T3SS components

  5. High-Performance Anti-Retransmission Deception Jamming Utilizing Range Direction Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruijia; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xing; Sun, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Retransmission deception jamming seriously degrades the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) detection efficiency and can mislead SAR image interpretation by forming false targets. In order to suppress retransmission deception jamming, this paper proposes a novel multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) SAR structure range direction MIMO SAR, whose multiple channel antennas are vertical to the azimuth. First, based on the multiple channels of range direction MIMO SAR, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal was adopted as the transmission signal of each channel, which is defined as a sub-band signal. This sub-band signal corresponds to the transmission channel. Then, all of the sub-band signals are modulated with random initial phases and concurrently transmitted. The signal form is more complex and difficult to intercept. Next, the echoes of the sub-band signal are utilized to synthesize a wide band signal after preprocessing. The proposed method will increase the signal to interference ratio and peak amplitude ratio of the signal to resist retransmission deception jamming. Finally, well-focused SAR imagery is obtained using a conventional imaging method where the retransmission deception jamming strength is degraded and defocused. Simulations demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:28075367

  6. High-Performance Anti-Retransmission Deception Jamming Utilizing Range Direction Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijia; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xing; Sun, Bing

    2017-01-09

    Retransmission deception jamming seriously degrades the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) detection efficiency and can mislead SAR image interpretation by forming false targets. In order to suppress retransmission deception jamming, this paper proposes a novel multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) SAR structure range direction MIMO SAR, whose multiple channel antennas are vertical to the azimuth. First, based on the multiple channels of range direction MIMO SAR, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal was adopted as the transmission signal of each channel, which is defined as a sub-band signal. This sub-band signal corresponds to the transmission channel. Then, all of the sub-band signals are modulated with random initial phases and concurrently transmitted. The signal form is more complex and difficult to intercept. Next, the echoes of the sub-band signal are utilized to synthesize a wide band signal after preprocessing. The proposed method will increase the signal to interference ratio and peak amplitude ratio of the signal to resist retransmission deception jamming. Finally, well-focused SAR imagery is obtained using a conventional imaging method where the retransmission deception jamming strength is degraded and defocused. Simulations demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Multiple parton interactions and production of charged particles up to the intermediate-pT range in high-multiplicity p p events at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Somnath; Choudhury, Subikash; Muhuri, Sanjib; Ghosh, Premomoy

    2017-01-01

    Satisfactory description of data by hydrodynamics-motivated models, as has been reported recently by experimental collaborations at the LHC, confirm "collectivity" in high-multiplicity proton-proton (p p ) collisions. Notwithstanding this, a detailed study of high-multiplicity p p data in other approaches or models is essential for better understanding of the specific phenomenon. In this study, the focus is on a pQCD-inspired multiparton interaction (MPI) model, including a color reconnection (CR) scheme as implemented in the Monte Carlo code, PYTHIA8 tune 4C. The MPI with the color reconnection reproduces the dependence of the mean transverse momentum ⟨pT⟩ on the charged particle multiplicity Nch in p p collisions at the LHC, providing an alternate explanation to the signature of "hydrodynamic collectivity" in p p data. It is, therefore, worth exploring how this model responds to other related features of high-multiplicity p p events. This comparative study with recent experimental results demonstrates the limitations of the model in explaining some of the prominent features of the final-state charged particles up to the intermediate-pT (pT<2.0 GeV /c ) range in high-multiplicity p p events.

  8. Rapidly expanding genetic diversity and host range of the Circoviridae viral family and other Rep encoding small circular ssDNA genomes

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of numerous circoviruses and distantly related circular DNA viruses encoding a rolling circle replication initiator protein (Rep) have been characterized from the tissues of mammals, fish, insects, and plants (geminivirus and nanovirus), human and animal feces, in an algae cell, and in diverse environmental samples. We review the genome organization, phylogenetic relationships and initial prevalence studies of cycloviruses, a proposed new genus in the Circoviridae family. Viral fossil rep sequences were also identified integrated on the chromosomes of mammals, frogs, lancelets, crustaceans, mites, gastropods, roundworms, placozoans, hydrozoans, protozoans, land plants, fungi, algae, and phytoplasma bacterias and their plasmids, reflecting their past host range. An ancient origin for viruses with rep-encoding single stranded small circular genomes, predating the diversification of eukaryotes, is discussed. The cellular hosts and pathogenicity of many recently described rep-containing circular genomes remain to be determined. Future studies of the virome of single cell and multi-cellular eukaryotes are likely to further extend the known diversity and host-range of small rep-containing circular viral genomes. PMID:22155583

  9. Mutational Analysis of the tra Locus of the Broad-Host-Range Streptomyces Plasmid pIJ101

    PubMed Central

    Pettis, Gregg S.; Cohen, Stanley N.

    2000-01-01

    The tra gene of Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJ101 encodes a 621-amino-acid protein that can mediate both plasmid transfer and the interbacterial transfer of chromosomal genes (i.e., chromosome-mobilizing ability [Cma]) during mating. Here we report the results of in-frame insertional mutagenesis studies aimed at defining regions of Tra required for these functions. While hexameric linker insertions throughout the tra gene affected plasmid and chromosomal gene transfer, insertions in a 200-amino-acid region of the Tra protein that contains presumed nucleotide-binding motifs and that is widely conserved among a functionally diverse family of bacterial and plasmid proteins (K. J. Begg, S. J. Dewar, and W. D. Donachie, J. Bacteriol. 177:6211–6222, 1995) had especially prominent effects on both functions. Insertions near the N terminus of Tra reduced Cma for either circular or linear host chromosomes to a much greater extent than pIJ101 plasmid transfer. Our results suggest that Cma involves Tra functions incremental to those needed for plasmid DNA transfer. PMID:10913083

  10. Presence of Extracellular DNA during Biofilm Formation by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Strains with Different Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Sena-Vélez, Marta; Redondo, Cristina; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) A strain causes citrus bacterial canker, a serious leaf, fruit and stem spotting disease of several Citrus species. X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (Xac) is the cause of citrus bacterial spot, a minor disease of citrus nursery plants and X. campestris pv. campestris (Xc) is a systemic pathogen that causes black rot of cabbage. Xanthomonas spp. form biofilms in planta that facilitate the host infection process. Herein, the role of extracellular DNA (eDNA) was evaluated in the formation and stabilization of the biofilm matrix at different stages of biofilm development. Fluorescence and light microscopy, as well as DNAse treatments, were used to determine the presence of eDNA in biofilms and bacterial cultures. DNAse treatments of Xcc strains and Xac reduced biofilm formation at the initial stage of development, as well as disrupted preformed biofilm. By comparison, no significant effect of the DNAse was detected for biofilm formation by Xc. DNAse effects on biofilm formation or disruption varied among Xcc strains and Xanthomonas species which suggest different roles for eDNA. Variation in the structure of fibers containing eDNA in biofilms, bacterial cultures, and in twitching motility was also visualized by microscopy. The proposed roles for eDNA are as an adhesin in the early stages of biofilm formation, as an structural component of mature bacterial aggregates, and twitching motility structures. PMID:27248687

  11. Characterization of California sea lion polyomavirus 1: expansion of the known host range of the Polyomaviridae to Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Rivera, Rebecca; Archer, Linda L; Benham, Celeste; Muller, Jennifer K; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; St Leger, Judy A; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Nollens, Hendrik H

    2011-07-01

    The genome of a novel polyomavirus first identified in a proliferative tongue lesion of a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is reported. This is only the third described polyomavirus of laurasiatherian mammals, is the first of the three associated with a lesion, and is the first known polyomavirus of a host in the order Carnivora. Predicted large T, small t, VP1, VP2, and VP3 genes were identified based on homology to proteins of known polyomaviruses, and a putative agnoprotein was identified based upon its location in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted late region proteins found that the laurasiatherian polyomaviruses, together with Squirrel monkey polyomavirus and Murine pneumotropic virus, form a monophyletic clade. Phylogenetic analysis of the early region was more ambiguous. The noncoding control region of California sea lion polyomavirus 1 is unusual in that only two apparent large T binding sites are present; this is less than any other known polyomavirus. The VP1 of this virus has an unusually long carboxy-terminal region. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed and utilized on various samples from 79 additional animals from either managed or wild stranded California sea lion populations, and California sea lion polyomavirus 1 infection was found in 24% of stranded animals. Sequence of additional samples identified four sites of variation in the t antigens, three of which resulted in predicted coding changes.

  12. Parasite species richness and intensity of interspecific interactions increase with latitude in two wide-ranging hosts.

    PubMed

    Torchin, Mark E; Miura, Osamu; Hechinger, Ryan F

    2015-11-01

    Although the latitudinal diversity gradient is a well-known and general pattern, the mechanisms structuring it remain elusive. Two key issues limit differentiating these. First, habitat type usually varies with latitude, precluding a standardized evaluation of species richness. Second, broad-scale and local factors hypothesized to shape diversity patterns covary with one another, making it difficult to tease apart independent effects. Examining communities of parasites in widely distributed hosts can eliminate some of these confounding factors. We quantified diversity and interspecific interactions for trematode parasites infecting two similar snail species across 27 degrees of latitude from 43 locations in tropical and temperate oceans. Counter to typical patterns, we found that species richness, levels of parasitism, and intensity of intraguild predation increased with latitude. Because speciation rates are precluded from driving diversity gradients in this particular system, the reversed gradients are likely due to local ecological factors, specifically, increased productivity and stability. We highlight how this system may serve as a useful tool to provide insight into what processes drive diversity gradients in general.

  13. Fine structure and cellular responses at the host-parasite interface in a range of fish-helminth systems.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Bo, T; Lorenzoni, M; Shinn, A P; Giari, L

    2015-03-15

    A series of ultrastructural-based studies were conducted on the interface region in different fish-helminth systems: (a) an intestinal infection of the cestode Monobothrium wageneri in tench, Tinca tinca; (b) an extensive intestinal submucosa and mucosal infection in tench by metacercariae of an unidentified digenean trematode; (c) an intestinal infection in brown trout, Salmo trutta, by the acanthocephalan Dentitruncus truttae; (d) an extraintestinal infection by larvae of the acanthocephalan, Pomphorhynchus laevis in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus; and (e) an infection in the livers of Eurasian minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus, by larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus. Endoparasitic helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract and associated organs, inducing the recruitment of various immune cells to the site of infection. In each of the fish-helminth systems that were studied, a massive hyperplastic granulocyte response involving mast cells (MCs) and neutrophils in close proximity to the helminths was documented. The current study presents data on the interface region in each fish-helminth system and documents the penetration of mast cells granules within the tegument of P. laevis larvae. No extracellular vesicles containing tegumental secretions from any of the four different taxa of endoparasitic helminths species at the host-parasite interface region were seen.

  14. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (−):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  15. Establishment, population increase, spread, and ecological host range of Lophodiplosis trifida (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Pratt, P D; Rayamajhi, M B; Tipping, P W; Center, T D; Wright, S A; Purcell, M

    2013-10-01

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cavanilles) Blake is an invasive weed in wetland systems of Florida. A biological control program targeting M. quinquenervia has resulted in the release of the gall forming midge Lophodiplosis trifida Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Populations of the introduced herbivore readily established at all 24 release sites across the weed's range in Florida, and there was no evidence that founding colony size (100, 2,000, or 6,000 adults) influenced herbivore establishment or local population growth rates. Landscape level spread of L. trifida from release sites averaged nearly 6 km/yr, ranging as high as 14.4 km/yr. Prerelease host range testing predicted that L. trifida oviposits indiscriminately on test plant species but does not complete development on any of the test species, including congeners present in Florida. To test the predictability of these host range tests, L. trifida was released in a common garden consisting of 18 test plant species that were interplanted with M. quinquenervia. Plant species postulated to be at risk experienced no gall development by L. trifida while intermingled M. quinquenervia trees supported 704.8 (± 158.5) galls per plant. Historically, many introduced Cecidomyiidae have limited effect on plant performance of target weeds because of recruitment of native parasitoids that disrupt biological control efficacy. In contrast to this trend, there has been no evidence to date that parasitoids are exploiting L. trifida in Florida.

  16. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  17. Life history and host range of Oxydia vesulia transpeneus, an unsuitable biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of Oxydia vesulia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was assessed as a potential biological control agent of the invasive weed Brazilian Peppertree Schinus terebinthifolia. Larvae were collected in Brazil feeding on the plant in its native range and colonized in quarantine where lif...

  18. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2% overall. None of the ...

  19. A Short Evaluation of Triangulated Range from Multiple Angles-Only Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 614th Air & Operations Center,614 AOC/SSD,Vandenberg AFB, CA ,93437 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies ( AMOS ) Conference, 9-12 Sep 2014, Maui, HI. 14. ABSTRACT Range observations are scarce for deep

  20. Pathogen-Host Associations and Predicted Range Shifts of Human Monkeypox in Response to Climate Change in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thomassen, Henri A.; Fuller, Trevon; Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Shiplacoff, Julia A. G.; Mulembakani, Prime M.; Blumberg, Seth; Johnston, Sara C.; Kisalu, Neville K.; Kinkela, Timothée L.; Fair, Joseph N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Shongo, Robert L.; LeBreton, Matthew; Meyer, Hermann; Wright, Linda L.; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Buermann, Wolfgang; Okitolonda, Emile; Hensley, Lisa E.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Smith, Thomas B.; Rimoin, Anne W.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX). Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC), and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4th Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts. PMID:23935820

  1. Impact of eastern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) on host white spruce (Picea glauca) development, growth and performance across multiple scales.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry A; Reblin, Jaret S; Zonana, David M; Dunlavey, Ryan F; Hricko, Carolyn R; Hall, Adam W; Schmiege, Stephanie C; Butschek, Ross A; Duran, Kristy L; Emery, R J Neil; Kurepin, Leonid V; Lewis, James D; Pharis, Richard P; Phillips, Nathan G; Tissue, David T

    2013-04-01

    Infection by eastern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) modifies needle and branch morphology and hastens white spruce (Picea glauca) mortality. We examined potential causal mechanisms and assessed the impacts of infection-induced alterations to host development and performance across scales ranging from needle hormone contents to bole expansion. Needles on infected branches (IBs) possessed higher total cytokinin (CK) and lower abscisic acid contents than needles on uninfected branches (UBs). IBs exhibited greater xylem growth than same-aged UBs, which is consistent with the promotive effect of CKs on vascular differentiation and organ sink strength. Elevated CK content may also explain the dense secondary and tertiary branching observed at the site of infection, i.e. the formation of 'witches' brooms' with significantly lower light capture efficiencies. Observed hormone perturbations were consistent with higher rates of transpiration, lower water use efficiencies (WUEs) and more negative needle carbon isotope ratios observed for IBs. Observed reductions in needle size allowed IBs to compensate for reduced hydraulic conductivity. Severe infections resulted in dramatically decreased diameter growth of the bole. It seems likely that the modifications to host hormone contents by eastern dwarf mistletoe infection led white spruce trees to dedicate a disproportionate fraction of their photoassimilate and other resources to self-shaded branches with low WUE. This would have decreased the potential for fixed carbon accumulation, generating a decline in the whole-tree resource pool. As mistletoe infections grew in size and the number of IBs increased, this burden was manifested as increasingly greater reductions in bole growth.

  2. Broad-host-range plasmid pRK340 delivers Tn5 into the Legionella pneumophila chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Keen, M G; Street, E D; Hoffman, P S

    1985-01-01

    Transposon Tn5 was introduced into Legionella pneumophila on plasmid pRK340, which is temperature sensitive for plasmid maintenance. The presence of plasmid DNA was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and by conjugal transfer of the plasmid to Escherichia coli. Tn5 insertions were obtained by culturing L. pneumophila at the nonpermissive temperature (43 degrees C) on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar containing kanamycin. Of the 260 kanamycin-resistant colonies picked, 220 failed to conjugate pRK340 to E. coli. Plasmid DNA was not visualized from eight randomly picked Tn5-containing strains, and Southern hybridizations indicated that Tn5, but not pRK340, inserted into multiple sites in the Legionella chromosome. In addition, the streptomycin resistance determinant on Tn5 was expressed in L. pneumophila. Images PMID:2987191

  3. ME-CAGEBIRDr,X-CPMG-HSQMBC. A phase sensitive, multiplicity edited long range HSQC with absorptive line shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskela, Harri; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Heikkinen, Sami

    2016-11-01

    ME-CAGEBIRDr,X-CPMG-HSMBC pulse sequence is a phase sensitive, carbon multiplicity edited 2D-experiment for detecting heteronuclear correlations originating from long-range 1H, 13C-couplings, nJCH. The presented method allows measurement of nJCH-values as well as is capable of separating different carbon types in subspectra (13C/13CH2 and 13CH/13CH3) with minimal amount of cross talk i.e. cross peaks from wrong carbon multiplicity. Pure lineshapes and clean subspectra are achieved by utilizing CPMG in polarization transfer period, CRISIS-approach in multiplicity editing period and zero-quantum filtration. The obtained spectral properties together with simple setup of the experiment make ME-CAGEBIRDr,X-CPMG-HSMBC a useful addition into synthetic organic chemistry oriented NMR-tool collection.

  4. Multiple Sensor Fusion for Detecting Targets in FLIR (Forward-Looking Infrared) and Range Images.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    as much of the background as possible. The range sensor used to provide the data base was an active laser radar (Due and Peterson, 1982; Nettleton ...tions were conducted at all times of day (Dockery, 1987; Nettleton and Smiley, 1987). The FLIR and laser radar were mounted in separate trailers. The...Processing: A Review", Optical Engineering, 25: 380-386 (March 1986). Nettleton , John E., and Alan Smiley. Multisensor Field Test Laser Radar Log, Ft. A.P

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of two conjugative broad host range plasmids from a marine microbial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Peter; Bergström, Maria; Hermansson, Malte

    2014-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pMCBF1 and pMCBF6 was determined and analyzed. pMCBF1 and pMCBF6 form a novel clade within the IncP-1 plasmid family designated IncP-1 ς. The plasmids were exogenously isolated earlier from a marine biofilm. pMCBF1 (62 689 base pairs; bp) and pMCBF6 (66 729 bp) have identical backbones, but differ in their mercury resistance transposons. pMCBF1 carries Tn5053 and pMCBF6 carries Tn5058. Both are flanked by 5 bp direct repeats, typical of replicative transposition. Both insertions are in the vicinity of a resolvase gene in the backbone, supporting the idea that both transposons are "res-site hunters" that preferably insert close to and use external resolvase functions. The similarity of the backbones indicates recent insertion of the two transposons and the ongoing dynamics of plasmid evolution in marine biofilms. Both plasmids also carry the insertion sequence ISPst1, albeit without flanking repeats. ISPs1is located in an unusual site within the control region of the plasmid. In contrast to most known IncP-1 plasmids the pMCBF1/pMCBF6 backbone has no insert between the replication initiation gene (trfA) and the vegetative replication origin (oriV). One pMCBF1/pMCBF6 block of about 2.5 kilo bases (kb) has no similarity with known sequences in the databases. Furthermore, insertion of three genes with similarity to the multidrug efflux pump operon mexEF and a gene from the NodT family of the tripartite multi-drug resistance-nodulation-division (RND) system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found. They do not seem to confer antibiotic resistance to the hosts of pMCBF1/pMCBF6, but the presence of RND on promiscuous plasmids may have serious implications for the spread of antibiotic multi-resistance.

  6. Genomic and functional characterization of the modular broad-host-range RA3 plasmid, the archetype of the IncU group.

    PubMed

    Kulinska, Anna; Czeredys, Magdalena; Hayes, Finbarr; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2008-07-01

    IncU plasmids are a distinctive group of mobile elements with highly conserved backbone functions and variable antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. The IncU archetype is conjugative plasmid RA3, whose sequence (45,909 bp) shows it to be a mosaic, modular replicon with a class I integron different from that of other IncU replicons. Functional analysis demonstrated that RA3 possesses a broad host range and can efficiently self-transfer, replicate, and be maintained stably in alpha-, beta-, and gammaproteobacteria. RA3 contains 50 open reading frames clustered in distinct functional modules. The replication module encompasses the repA and repB genes embedded in long repetitive sequences. RepA, which is homologous to antitoxin proteins from alpha- and gammaproteobacteria, contains a Cro/cI-type DNA-binding domain present in the XRE family of transcriptional regulators. The repA promoter is repressed by RepA and RepB. The minireplicon encompasses repB and the downstream repetitive sequence r1/r2. RepB shows up to 80% similarity to putative replication initiation proteins from environmental plasmids of beta- and gammaproteobacteria, as well as similarity to replication proteins from alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Stable maintenance functions of RA3 are most like those of IncP-1 broad-host-range plasmids and comprise the active partitioning apparatus formed by IncC (ParA) and KorB (ParB), the antirestriction protein KlcA, and accessory stability components KfrA and KfrC. The RA3 origin of transfer was localized experimentally between the maintenance and conjugative-transfer operons. The putative conjugative-transfer module is highly similar in organization and in its products to transfer regions of certain broad-host-range environmental plasmids.

  7. Broad-Host-Range ProUSER Vectors Enable Fast Characterization of Inducible Promoters and Optimization of p-Coumaric Acid Production in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Calero, Patricia; Jensen, Sheila I; Nielsen, Alex T

    2016-07-15

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 has gained increasing interest as a host for the production of biochemicals. Because of the lack of a systematic characterization of inducible promoters in this strain, we generated ProUSER broad-host-expression plasmids that facilitate fast uracil-based cloning. A set of ProUSER-reporter vectors was further created to characterize different inducible promoters. The PrhaB and Pm promoters were orthogonal and showed titratable, high, and homogeneous expression. To optimize the production of p-coumaric acid, P. putida was engineered to prevent degradation of tyrosine and p-coumaric acid. Pm and PrhaB were used to control the expression of a tyrosine ammonia lyase or AroG* and TyrA* involved in tyrosine production, respectively. Pathway expression was optimized by modulating inductions, resulting in small-scale p-coumaric acid production of 1.2 mM, the highest achieved in Pseudomonads under comparable conditions. With broad-host-range compatibility, the ProUSER vectors will serve as useful tools for optimizing gene expression in a variety of bacteria.

  8. Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging System Using Spread Spectrum and MEMS Technology for Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Laurent; Tiete, Jelmer; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Indoor localization of persons and objects poses a great engineering challenge. Previously developed localization systems demonstrate the use of wideband techniques in ultrasound ranging systems. Direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum ultrasound signals have been proven to achieve a high level of accuracy. A novel ranging method using the frequency hopping spread spectrum with finite impulse response filtering will be investigated and compared against the direct sequence spread spectrum. In the first setup, distances are estimated in a single-access environment, while in the second setup, two senders and one receiver are used. During the experiments, the micro-electromechanical systems are used as ultrasonic sensors, while the senders were implemented using field programmable gate arrays. Results show that in a single-access environment, the direct sequence spread spectrum method offers slightly better accuracy and precision performance compared to the frequency hopping spread spectrum. When two senders are used, measurements point out that the frequency hopping spread spectrum is more robust to near-far effects than the direct sequence spread spectrum. PMID:24553084

  9. Data Transfer for Multiple Sensor Networks Over a Broad Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    At extreme temperatures, cryogenic and over 300 C, few electronic components are available to support intelligent data transfer over a common, linear combining medium. This innovation allows many sensors to operate on the same wire bus (or on the same airwaves or optical channel: any linearly combining medium), transmitting simultaneously, but individually recoverable at a node in a cooler part of the test area. This innovation has been demonstrated using room-temperature silicon microcircuits as proxy. The microcircuits have analog functionality comparable to componentry designed using silicon carbide. Given a common, linearly combining medium, multiple sending units may transmit information simultaneously. A listening node, using various techniques, can pick out the signal from a single sender, if it has unique qualities, e.g. a voice. The problem being solved is commonly referred to as the cocktail party problem. The human brain uses the cocktail party effect when it is able to recognize and follow a single conversation in a party full of talkers and other noise sources. High-temperature sensors have been used in silicon carbide electronic oscillator circuits. The frequency of the oscillator changes as a function of the changes in the sensed parameter, such as pressure. This change is analogous to changes in the pitch of a person s voice. The output of this oscillator and many others may be superimposed onto a single medium. This medium may be the power lines supplying current to the sensors, a third wire dedicated to data transmission, the airwaves through radio transmission, an optical medium, etc. However, with nothing to distinguish the identities of each source that is, the source separation this system is useless. Using digital electronic functions, unique codes or patterns are created and used to modulate the output of the sensor.

  10. Extension of the Focusable Mass Range in Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with Multiple Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Dennis, Elise; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Carado, Anthony J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2012-11-15

    Since the underlying theory of Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (DOFMS) was reported in 2007,[1] laboratory results[2, 3] have proven its practical viability. However, these previous implementations of DOFMS considered ion detection only over narrow DOF-detection windows, with 25-mm being the greatest detection length explored. These small mass windows cannot be used to evaluate how DOFMS focusing performs over greater DOF detection lengths and mass ranges. In the present study, we expand on previous studies by placing two spatially selective ion detectors along the detection plane of the DOFMS instrument. Ion signals are simultaneously collected from both DOF detectors in order to simulate DOFMS performance with a longer spatially selective ion detector.

  11. Diversity and geographical distribution of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates and their phages: patterns of susceptibility to phage infection and phage host range.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Espejo, Romilio; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is an important fish pathogen worldwide that causes cold water disease (CWD) or rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS). Phage therapy has been suggested as an alternative method for the control of this pathogen in aquaculture. However, effective use of bacteriophages in disease control requires detailed knowledge about the diversity and dynamics of host susceptibility to phage infection. For this reason, we examined the genetic diversity of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in three different areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) through direct genome restriction enzyme analysis (DGREA) and their susceptibility to 33 bacteriophages isolated in Chile and Denmark, thus covering large geographical (>12,000 km) and temporal (>60 years) scales of isolation. An additional 40 phage-resistant isolates obtained from culture experiments after exposure to specific phages were examined for changes in phage susceptibility against the 33 phages. The F. psychrophilum and phage populations isolated from Chile and Denmark clustered into geographically distinct groups with respect to DGREA profile and host range, respectively. However, cross infection between Chilean phage isolates and Danish host isolates and vice versa was observed. Development of resistance to certain bacteriophages led to susceptibility to other phages suggesting that "enhanced infection" is potentially an important cost of resistance in F. psychrophilum, possibly contributing to the observed co-existence of phage-sensitive F. psychrophilum strains and lytic phages across local and global scales. Overall, our results showed that despite the identification of local communities of phages and hosts, some key properties determining phage infection patterns seem to be globally distributed.

  12. The role of multiple wildlife hosts in the persistence and spread of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Barron, MC; Tompkins, DM; Ramsey, DSL; Bosson, MAJ

    2015-01-01

    Abstract AIM: To explore how the inclusion of multi-host dynamics affects the predicted prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in possums and other host species following the current best practice for control of TB in large difficult and remote areas, to identify which host species are responsible for changes in predicted prevalence, and whether TB can persist in possum-free host communities. METHODS: Multi-host TB models were constructed, comprising three host species with density-dependent population growth, density-dependent disease transmission and susceptible and infected classes. Models were parameterised for two case studies of current concern in New Zealand, namely chronic TB persistence in a possum-deer-pig complex in extensive forest, and in a possum-pig-ferret complex in unforested semi-arid shrub and grasslands. Persistence of TB in the face of best practice possum control was evaluated from model simulations, and the contribution of different hosts to persistence of TB was assessed by removing each host species in turn from the simulations. A sensitivity test explored how different parameter values affected modelled persistence of TB. RESULTS: The forest multi-host model-predicted amplification of TB prevalence due to the presence of pigs. The presence of pigs and/or deer did not jeopardise the success of best practice possum control in eradicating TB from the system, as pigs and deer are effectively end-hosts for TB. Sensitivity analyses indicated these interpretations were robust to uncertainty in model parameter values. The grassland system model predicted that the multi-host species complex could potentially lead to failure of eradication of TB under possum-only control, due to TB persisting in ferret and pig populations in the absence of possum hosts through reciprocal scavenging, resulting in spillback transmission to possums once their populations had started to recover from control. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to management of TB, for modelled

  13. Broad host range vectors for expression of proteins with (Twin-) Strep-tag, His-tag and engineered, export optimized yellow fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In current protein research, a limitation still is the production of active recombinant proteins or native protein associations to assess their function. Especially the localization and analysis of protein-complexes or the identification of modifications and small molecule interaction partners by co-purification experiments requires a controllable expression of affinity- and/or fluorescence tagged variants of a protein of interest in its native cellular background. Advantages of periplasmic and/or homologous expressions can frequently not be realized due to a lack of suitable tools. Instead, experiments are often limited to the heterologous production in one of the few well established expression strains. Results Here, we introduce a series of new RK2 based broad host range expression plasmids for inducible production of affinity- and fluorescence tagged proteins in the cytoplasm and periplasm of a wide range of Gram negative hosts which are designed to match the recently suggested modular Standard European Vector Architecture and database. The vectors are equipped with a yellow fluorescent protein variant which is engineered to fold and brightly fluoresce in the bacterial periplasm following Sec-mediated export, as shown from fractionation and imaging studies. Expression of Strep-tag®II and Twin-Strep-tag® fusion proteins in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is demonstrated for various ORFs. Conclusion The broad host range constructs we have produced enable good and controlled expression of affinity tagged protein variants for single-step purification and qualify for complex co-purification experiments. Periplasmic export variants enable production of affinity tagged proteins and generation of fusion proteins with a novel engineered Aequorea-based yellow fluorescent reporter protein variant with activity in the periplasm of the tested Gram-negative model bacteria Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and Escherichia coli K12 for production, localization or co

  14. Utilizing multiple state variables to improve the dynamic range of analog switching in a memristor

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, YeonJoo; Kim, Sungho; Lu, Wei D.

    2015-10-26

    Memristors and memristive systems have been extensively studied for data storage and computing applications such as neuromorphic systems. To act as synapses in neuromorphic systems, the memristor needs to exhibit analog resistive switching (RS) behavior with incremental conductance change. In this study, we show that the dynamic range of the analog RS behavior can be significantly enhanced in a tantalum-oxide-based memristor. By controlling different state variables enabled by different physical effects during the RS process, the gradual filament expansion stage can be selectively enhanced without strongly affecting the abrupt filament length growth stage. Detailed physics-based modeling further verified the observed experimental effects and revealed the roles of oxygen vacancy drift and diffusion processes, and how the diffusion process can be selectively enhanced during the filament expansion stage. These findings lead to more desirable and reliable memristor behaviors for analog computing applications. Additionally, the ability to selectively control different internal physical processes demonstrated in the current study provides guidance for continued device optimization of memristor devices in general.

  15. A parallel unbalanced digitization architecture to reduce the dynamic range of multiple signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallérian, Mathieu; HuÅ£u, Florin; Villemaud, Guillaume; Miscopein, Benoît; Risset, Tanguy

    2016-05-01

    Technologies employed in urban sensor networks are permanently evolving, and thus the gateways employed to collect data in such kind of networks have to be very flexible in order to be compliant with the new communication standards. A convenient way to do that is to digitize all the received signals in one shot and then to digitally perform the signal processing, as it is done in software-defined radio (SDR). All signals can be emitted with very different features (bandwidth, modulation type, and power level) in order to respond to the various propagation conditions. Their difference in terms of power levels is a problem when digitizing them together, as no current commercial analog-to-digital converter (ADC) can provide a fine enough resolution to digitize this high dynamic range between the weakest possible signal in the presence of a stronger signal. This paper presents an RF front end receiver architecture capable of handling this problem by using two ADCs of lower resolutions. The architecture is validated through a set of simulations using Keysight's ADS software. The main validation criterion is the bit error rate comparison with a classical receiver.

  16. Isolation of phages for phage therapy: a comparison of spot tests and efficiency of plating analyses for determination of host range and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Khan Mirzaei, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Anders S

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages, could be a future alternative to antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. There are, however, several problems to be solved, mainly associated to the biology of phages, the interaction between phages and their bacterial hosts, but also to the vast variation of pathogenic bacteria which implies that large numbers of different phages are going to be needed. All of these phages must under present regulation of medical products undergo extensive clinical testing before they can be applied. It will consequently be of great economic importance that effective and versatile phages are selected and collected into phage libraries, i.e., the selection must be carried out in a way that it results in highly virulent phages with broad host ranges. We have isolated phages using the Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) collection and compared two methods, spot testing and efficiency of plating (EOP), which are frequently used to identify phages suitable for phage therapy. The analyses of the differences between the two methods show that spot tests often overestimate both the overall virulence and the host range and that the results are not correlated to the results of EOP assays. The conclusion is that single dilution spot tests cannot be used for identification and selection of phages to a phage library and should be replaced by EOP assays. The difference between the two methods can be caused by many factors. We have analysed if the differences and lack of correlation could be caused by lysis from without, bacteriocins in the phage lysate, or by the presence of prophages harbouring genes coding for phage resistance systems in the genomes of the bacteria in the ECOR collection.

  17. Novel Virulent and Broad-Host-Range Erwinia amylovora Bacteriophages Reveal a High Degree of Mosaicism and a Relationship to Enterobacteriaceae Phages ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Born, Yannick; Fieseler, Lars; Marazzi, Janine; Lurz, Rudi; Duffy, Brion; Loessner, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    A diverse set of 24 novel phages infecting the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated from fruit production environments in Switzerland. Based on initial screening, four phages (L1, M7, S6, and Y2) with broad host ranges were selected for detailed characterization and genome sequencing. Phage L1 is a member of the Podoviridae, with a 39.3-kbp genome featuring invariable genome ends with direct terminal repeats. Phage S6, another podovirus, was also found to possess direct terminal repeats but has a larger genome (74.7 kbp), and the virus particle exhibits a complex tail fiber structure. Phages M7 and Y2 both belong to the Myoviridae family and feature long, contractile tails and genomes of 84.7 kbp (M7) and 56.6 kbp (Y2), respectively, with direct terminal repeats. The architecture of all four phage genomes is typical for tailed phages, i.e., organized into function-specific gene clusters. All four phages completely lack genes or functions associated with lysogeny control, which correlates well with their broad host ranges and indicates strictly lytic (virulent) lifestyles without the possibility for host lysogenization. Comparative genomics revealed that M7 is similar to E. amylovora virus ΦEa21-4, whereas L1, S6, and Y2 are unrelated to any other E. amylovora phage. Instead, they feature similarities to enterobacterial viruses T7, N4, and ΦEcoM-GJ1. In a series of laboratory experiments, we provide proof of concept that specific two-phage cocktails offer the potential for biocontrol of the pathogen. PMID:21764969

  18. Experimental Study of High-Range-Resolution Medical Acoustic Imaging for Multiple Target Detection by Frequency Domain Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Taki, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Sato, Toru

    2009-07-01

    We employed frequency domain interferometry (FDI) for use as a medical acoustic imager to detect multiple targets with high range resolution. The phase of each frequency component of an echo varies with the frequency, and target intervals can be estimated from the phase variance. This processing technique is generally used in radar imaging. When the interference within a range gate is coherent, the cross correlation between the desired signal and the coherent interference signal is nonzero. The Capon method works under the guiding principle that output power minimization cancels the desired signal with a coherent interference signal. Therefore, we utilize frequency averaging to suppress the correlation of the coherent interference. The results of computational simulations using a pseudoecho signal show that the Capon method with adaptive frequency averaging (AFA) provides a higher range resolution than a conventional method. These techniques were experimentally investigated and we confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of processing by FDI.

  19. Vaccinia virus K1L protein mediates host-range function in RK-13 cells via ankyrin repeat and may interact with a cellular GTPase-activating protein.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ritu R; Terajima, Masanori

    2005-12-01

    The K1L protein of vaccinia virus is required for its growth in certain cell lines (RK-13 and human). The cowpox host-range protein CP77 has been shown to complement K1L function in RK-13 cells, despite a lack of homology between the two proteins except for ankyrin repeats. We investigated the role of ankyrin repeats of K1L protein in RK-13 cells. The growth of a recombinant vaccinia virus, with K1L gene mutated in the most conserved ankyrin repeat, was severely impaired. Infection with the mutant virus caused shutdown of cellular and viral protein synthesis early in infection. We also investigated the interaction of K1L protein with cellular proteins and found that K1L interacts with the rabbit homologue of human ACAP2, a GTPase-activating protein with ankyrin repeats. Our result suggests the importance of ankyrin repeat for host-range function of K1L in RK-13 cells and identifies ACAP2 as a cellular protein, which may be interacting with K1L.

  20. Divergence of host range and biological properties between natural isolate and full-length infectious cDNA clone of the Beet mild yellowing virus 2ITB.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elodie; Brault, Véronique; Klein, Delphine; Weyens, Guy; Lefèbvre, Marc; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Gilmer, David

    2014-01-01

    Plant infection by poleroviruses is restricted to phloem tissues, preventing any classical leaf rub inoculation with viral RNA or virions. Efficient virus inoculation to plants is achieved by viruliferous aphids that acquire the virus by feeding on infected plants. The use of promoter-driven infectious cDNA is an alternative means to infect plants and allows reverse genetic studies to be performed. Using Beet mild yellowing virus isolate 2ITB (BMYV-2ITB), we produced a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the virus (named BMYV-EK) placed under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters. Infectivity of the engineered BMYV-EK virus was assayed in different plant species and compared with that of the original virus. We showed that in vitro- or in planta-derived transcripts were infectious in protoplasts and in whole plants. Importantly, the natural aphid vector Myzus persicae efficiently transmitted the viral progeny produced in infected plants. By comparing agroinoculation and aphid infection in a host range assay, we showed that the engineered BMYV-EK virus displayed a similar host range to BMYV-2ITB, except for Nicotiana benthamiana, which proved to be resistant to systemic infection with BMYV-EK. Finally, both the BMYV-EK P0 and the full-length clone were able to strongly interfere with post-transcriptional gene silencing.

  1. Historical comparisons reveal multiple drivers of decadal change of an ecosystem engineer at the range edge.

    PubMed

    Firth, Louise B; Mieszkowska, Nova; Grant, Lisa M; Bush, Laura E; Davies, Andrew J; Frost, Matthew T; Moschella, Paula S; Burrows, Michael T; Cunningham, Paul N; Dye, Stephen R; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2015-08-01

    Biogenic reefs are important for habitat provision and coastal protection. Long-term datasets on the distribution and abundance of Sabellaria alveolata (L.) are available from Britain. The aim of this study was to combine historical records and contemporary data to (1) describe spatiotemporal variation in winter temperatures, (2) document short-term and long-term changes in the distribution and abundance of S. alveolata and discuss these changes in relation to extreme weather events and recent warming, and (3) assess the potential for artificial coastal defense structures to function as habitat for S. alveolata. A semi-quantitative abundance scale (ACFOR) was used to compare broadscale, long-term and interannual abundance of S. alveolata near its range edge in NW Britain. S. alveolata disappeared from the North Wales and Wirral coastlines where it had been abundant prior to the cold winter of 1962/1963. Population declines were also observed following the recent cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Extensive surveys in 2004 and 2012 revealed that S. alveolata had recolonized locations from which it had previously disappeared. Furthermore, it had increased in abundance at many locations, possibly in response to recent warming. S. alveolata was recorded on the majority of artificial coastal defense structures surveyed, suggesting that the proliferation of artificial coastal defense structures along this stretch of coastline may have enabled S. alveolata to spread across stretches of unsuitable natural habitat. Long-term and broadscale contextual monitoring is essential for monitoring responses of organisms to climate change. Historical data and gray literature can be invaluable sources of information. Our results support the theory that Lusitanian species are responding positively to climate warming but also that short-term extreme weather events can have potentially devastating widespread and lasting effects on organisms. Furthermore, the proliferation of

  2. Multiple conformational states of the hammerhead ribozyme, broad time range of relaxation and topology of dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Menger, Marcus; Eckstein, Fritz; Porschke, Dietmar

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of a hammerhead ribozyme was analyzed by measurements of fluorescence-detected temperature jump relaxation. The ribozyme was substituted at different positions by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) as fluorescence indicator; these substitutions do not inhibit catalysis. The general shape of relaxation curves reported from different positions of the ribozyme is very similar: a fast decrease of fluorescence, mainly due to physical quenching, is followed by a slower increase of fluorescence due to conformational relaxation. In most cases at least three relaxation time constants in the time range from a few microseconds to ~200 ms are required for fitting. Although the relaxation at different positions of the ribozyme is similar in general, suggesting a global type of ribozyme dynamics, a close examination reveals differences, indicating an individual local response. For example, 2-AP in a tetraloop reports mainly the local loop dynamics known from isolated loops, whereas 2-AP located at the core, e.g. at the cleavage site or its vicinity, also reports relatively large amplitudes of slower components of the ribozyme dynamics. A variant with an A→G substitution in domain II, resulting in an inactive form, leads to the appearance of a particularly slow relaxation process (τ ≈200 ms). Addition of Mg2+ ions induces a reduction of amplitudes and in most cases a general increase of time constants. Differences between the hammerhead variants are clearly demonstrated by subtraction of relaxation curves recorded under corresponding conditions. The changes induced in the relaxation response by Mg2+ are very similar to those induced by Ca2+. The relaxation data do not provide any evidence for formation of Mg2+-inner sphere complexes in hammerhead ribozymes, because a Mg2+-specific relaxation effect was not visible. However, a Mg2+-specific effect was found for a dodeca-riboadenylate substituted with 2-AP, showing that the fluorescence of 2-AP is able to indicate inner sphere

  3. Multiple conformational states of the hammerhead ribozyme, broad time range of relaxation and topology of dynamics.

    PubMed

    Menger, M; Eckstein, F; Porschke, D

    2000-11-15

    The dynamics of a hammerhead ribozyme was analyzed by measurements of fluorescence-detected temperature jump relaxation. The ribozyme was substituted at different positions by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) as fluorescence indicator; these substitutions do not inhibit catalysis. The general shape of relaxation curves reported from different positions of the ribozyme is very similar: a fast decrease of fluorescence, mainly due to physical quenching, is followed by a slower increase of fluorescence due to conformational relaxation. In most cases at least three relaxation time constants in the time range from a few microseconds to approximately 200 ms are required for fitting. Although the relaxation at different positions of the ribozyme is similar in general, suggesting a global type of ribozyme dynamics, a close examination reveals differences, indicating an individual local response. For example, 2-AP in a tetraloop reports mainly the local loop dynamics known from isolated loops, whereas 2-AP located at the core, e.g. at the cleavage site or its vicinity, also reports relatively large amplitudes of slower components of the ribozyme dynamics. A variant with an A-->G substitution in domain II, resulting in an inactive form, leads to the appearance of a particularly slow relaxation process (tau approximately 200 ms). Addition of Mg(2+) ions induces a reduction of amplitudes and in most cases a general increase of time constants. Differences between the hammerhead variants are clearly demonstrated by subtraction of relaxation curves recorded under corresponding conditions. The changes induced in the relaxation response by Mg(2+) are very similar to those induced by Ca(2+). The relaxation data do not provide any evidence for formation of Mg(2+)-inner sphere complexes in hammerhead ribozymes, because a Mg(2+)-specific relaxation effect was not visible. However, a Mg(2+)-specific effect was found for a dodeca-riboadenylate substituted with 2-AP, showing that the fluorescence of 2

  4. Historical comparisons reveal multiple drivers of decadal change of an ecosystem engineer at the range edge

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Louise B; Mieszkowska, Nova; Grant, Lisa M; Bush, Laura E; Davies, Andrew J; Frost, Matthew T; Moschella, Paula S; Burrows, Michael T; Cunningham, Paul N; Dye, Stephen R; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic reefs are important for habitat provision and coastal protection. Long-term datasets on the distribution and abundance of Sabellaria alveolata (L.) are available from Britain. The aim of this study was to combine historical records and contemporary data to (1) describe spatiotemporal variation in winter temperatures, (2) document short-term and long-term changes in the distribution and abundance of S. alveolata and discuss these changes in relation to extreme weather events and recent warming, and (3) assess the potential for artificial coastal defense structures to function as habitat for S. alveolata. A semi-quantitative abundance scale (ACFOR) was used to compare broadscale, long-term and interannual abundance of S. alveolata near its range edge in NW Britain. S. alveolata disappeared from the North Wales and Wirral coastlines where it had been abundant prior to the cold winter of 1962/1963. Population declines were also observed following the recent cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Extensive surveys in 2004 and 2012 revealed that S. alveolata had recolonized locations from which it had previously disappeared. Furthermore, it had increased in abundance at many locations, possibly in response to recent warming. S. alveolata was recorded on the majority of artificial coastal defense structures surveyed, suggesting that the proliferation of artificial coastal defense structures along this stretch of coastline may have enabled S. alveolata to spread across stretches of unsuitable natural habitat. Long-term and broadscale contextual monitoring is essential for monitoring responses of organisms to climate change. Historical data and gray literature can be invaluable sources of information. Our results support the theory that Lusitanian species are responding positively to climate warming but also that short-term extreme weather events can have potentially devastating widespread and lasting effects on organisms. Furthermore, the proliferation of

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the N2-Fixing Broad Host Range Endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and Virulence Predictions Verified in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fouts, Derrick E.; Tyler, Heather L.; DeBoy, Robert T.; Daugherty, Sean; Ren, Qinghu; Badger, Jonathan H.; Durkin, Anthony S.; Huot, Heather; Shrivastava, Susmita; Kothari, Sagar; Dodson, Robert J.; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Khouri, Hoda; Roesch, Luiz F. W.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Struve, Carsten; Triplett, Eric W.; Methé, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world), while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%), one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578). Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but important category

  6. Identification of Restriction Factors by Human Genome-Wide RNA Interference Screening of Viral Host Range Mutants Exemplified by Discovery of SAMD9 and WDR6 as Inhibitors of the Vaccinia Virus K1L−C7L− Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, Gilad; Ormanoglu, Pinar; Buehler, Eugen C.; Martin, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA interference (RNAi) screens intended to identify host factors that restrict virus replication may fail if the virus already counteracts host defense mechanisms. To overcome this limitation, we are investigating the use of viral host range mutants that exhibit impaired replication in nonpermissive cells. A vaccinia virus (VACV) mutant with a deletion of both the C7L and K1L genes, K1L−C7L−, which abrogates replication in human cells at a step prior to late gene expression, was chosen for this strategy. We carried out a human genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen in HeLa cells infected with a VACV K1L−C7L− mutant that expresses the green fluorescent protein regulated by a late promoter. This positive-selection screen had remarkably low background levels and resulted in the identification of a few cellular genes, notably SAMD9 and WDR6, from approximately 20,000 tested that dramatically enhanced green fluorescent protein expression. Replication of the mutant virus was enabled by multiple siRNAs to SAMD9 or WDR6. Moreover, SAMD9 and WDR6 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 knockout HeLa cell lines were permissive for replication of the K1L−C7L− mutant, in agreement with the siRNA data. Expression of exogenous SAMD9 or interferon regulatory factor 1 restricted replication of the K1L−C7L− mutant in the SAMD9−/− cells. Independent interactions of SAMD9 with the K1 and C7 proteins were suggested by immunoprecipitation. Knockout of WDR6 did not reduce the levels of SAMD9 and interactions of WDR6 with SAMD9, C7, and K1 proteins were not detected, suggesting that these restriction factors act independently but possibly in the same innate defense pathway. PMID:26242627

  7. Ensifer meliloti bv. lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic genotypes and host range.

    PubMed

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Lorite, María José; Donate-Correa, Javier; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Eleven strains were isolated from root nodules of Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and they belonged to the genus Ensifer, a genus never previously described as a symbiont of Lotus. According to their 16S rRNA and atpD gene sequences, two isolates represented minority genotypes that could belong to previously undescribed Ensifer species, but most of the isolates were classified within the species Ensifer meliloti. These isolates nodulated Lotus lancerottensis, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus, whereas Lotus tenuis and Lotus uliginosus were more restrictive hosts. However, effective nitrogen fixation only occurred with the endemic L. lancerottensis. The E. meliloti strains did not nodulate Medicago sativa, Medicago laciniata Glycine max or Glycine soja, but induced non-fixing nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris roots. nodC and nifH symbiotic gene phylogenies showed that the E. meliloti symbionts of Lotus markedly diverged from strains of Mesorhizobium loti, the usual symbionts of Lotus, as well as from the three biovars (bv. meliloti, bv. medicaginis, and bv. mediterranense) so far described within E. meliloti. Indeed, the nodC and nifH genes from the E. meliloti isolates from Lotus represented unique symbiotic genotypes. According to their symbiotic gene sequences and host range, the Lotus symbionts would represent a new biovar of E. meliloti for which bv. lancerottense is proposed.

  8. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and related species.

    PubMed

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Landa, Blanca B

    2014-01-01

    Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.

  9. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: Phylogenetics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Host Range of Downy Mildew of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum) and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops. PMID:24806292

  10. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815T, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A.C.; Melkonian, Rémy; James, Euan K.; Young, J. Peter W.; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Copeland, Alex; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, Jim; Riley, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp). PMID:25197461

  11. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A.C.; Melkonian, Remy; James, Euan; Young, Peter W.; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Copeland, A; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, James; Riley, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).

  12. The newly described mecA homologue, mecALGA251, is present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, G. K.; Larsen, A. R.; Robb, A.; Edwards, G. E.; Pennycott, T. W.; Foster, G.; Mot, D.; Hermans, K.; Baert, K.; Peacock, S. J.; Parkhill, J.; Zadoks, R. N.; Holmes, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A previously unidentified mecA homologue, mecALGA251, has recently been described in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from humans and dairy cattle. The origin and epidemiology of this novel homologue are unclear. The objective of this study was to provide basic descriptive information of MRSA isolates harbouring mecALGA251 from a range of host animal species. Methods A number of S. aureus isolates from historical animal isolate collections were chosen for investigation based on their similarity to known mecALGA251 MRSA isolates. The presence of mecALGA251 was determined using a multiplex PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed by disc diffusion. Results MRSA harbouring mecALGA251 were found in isolates from a domestic dog, brown rats, a rabbit, a common seal, sheep and a chaffinch. All of the isolates were phenotypically MRSA, although this depended on which test was used; some isolates would be considered susceptible with certain assays. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid, rifampicin, kanamycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and mupirocin. Five multilocus sequence types were represented (2273, 130, 425, 1764 and 1245) and six spa types (t208, t6293, t742, t6594, t7914 and t843). Conclusions The discovery of MRSA isolates possessing mecALGA251 from a diverse range of host species, including different taxonomic classes, has important implications for the diagnosis of MRSA in these species and our understanding of the epidemiology of this novel mecA homologue. PMID:22941897

  13. The Detection and Sequencing of a Broad-Host-Range Conjugative IncP-1β Plasmid in an Epidemic Strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Carneiro, Adriana; Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Junior, James Daltro Lima; Lima, Karla Valéria; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Schneider, Horacio; Azevedo, Vasco Ariston; da Costa da Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Background An extended outbreak of mycobacterial surgical infections occurred in Brazil during 2004–2008. Most infections were caused by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, which was characterized by a specific rpoB sequevar and two highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns differentiated by the presence of a ∼50 kb band. The nature of this band was investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Genomic sequencing of the prototype outbreak isolate INCQS 00594 using the SOLiD platform demonstrated the presence of a 56,264-bp circular plasmid, designated pMAB01. Identity matrices, genetic distances and phylogeny analyses indicated that pMAB01 belongs to the broad-host-range plasmid subgroup IncP-1β and is highly related to BRA100, pJP4, pAKD33 and pB10. The presence of pMAB01-derived sequences in 41 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates was evaluated using PCR, PFGE and Southern blot hybridization. Sixteen of the 41 isolates showed the presence of the plasmid. The plasmid was visualized as a ∼50-kb band using PFGE and Southern blot hybridization in 12 isolates. The remaining 25 isolates did not exhibit any evidence of this plasmid. The plasmid was successfully transferred to Escherichia coli by conjugation and transformation. Lateral transfer of pMAB01 to the high efficient plasmid transformation strain Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 could not be demonstrated. Conclusions/Significance The occurrence of a broad-host-range IncP-1β plasmid in mycobacteria is reported for the first time. Thus, genetic exchange could result in the emergence of specific strains that might be better adapted to cause human disease. PMID:23565273

  14. Suppressors of a Host Range Mutation in the Rabbitpox Virus Serpin SPI-1 Map to Proteins Essential for Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Luttge, Benjamin G.; Moyer, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    The orthopoxvirus serpin SPI-1 is an intracellular serine protease inhibitor that is active against cathepsin G in vitro. Rabbitpox virus (RPV) mutants with deletions of the SPI-1 gene grow on monkey kidney cells (CV-1) but do not plaque on normally permissive human lung carcinoma cells (A549). This reduced-host-range (hr) phenotype suggests that SPI-1 may interact with cellular and/or other viral proteins. We devised a genetic screen for suppressors of SPI-1 hr mutations by first introducing a mutation into SPI-1 (T309R) at residue P14 of the serpin reactive center loop. The SPI-1 T309R serpin is inactive as a protease inhibitor in vitro. Introduction of the mutation into RPV leads to the same restricted hr phenotype as deletion of the SPI-1 gene. Second-site suppressors were selected by restoration of growth of the RPV SPI-1 T309R hr mutant on A549 cells. Both intragenic and extragenic suppressors of the T309R mutation were identified. One novel intragenic suppressor mutation, T309C, restored protease inhibition by SPI-1 in vitro. Extragenic suppressor mutations were mapped by a new procedure utilizing overlapping PCR products encompassing the entire genome in conjunction with marker rescue. One suppressor mutation, which also rendered the virus temperature sensitive for growth, mapped to the DNA polymerase gene (E9L). Several other suppressors mapped to gene D5R, an NTPase required for DNA replication. These results unexpectedly suggest that the host range function of SPI-1 may be associated with viral DNA replication by an as yet unknown mechanism. PMID:15994811

  15. Suppressors of a host range mutation in the rabbitpox virus serpin SPI-1 map to proteins essential for viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Luttge, Benjamin G; Moyer, Richard W

    2005-07-01

    The orthopoxvirus serpin SPI-1 is an intracellular serine protease inhibitor that is active against cathepsin G in vitro. Rabbitpox virus (RPV) mutants with deletions of the SPI-1 gene grow on monkey kidney cells (CV-1) but do not plaque on normally permissive human lung carcinoma cells (A549). This reduced-host-range (hr) phenotype suggests that SPI-1 may interact with cellular and/or other viral proteins. We devised a genetic screen for suppressors of SPI-1 hr mutations by first introducing a mutation into SPI-1 (T309R) at residue P14 of the serpin reactive center loop. The SPI-1 T309R serpin is inactive as a protease inhibitor in vitro. Introduction of the mutation into RPV leads to the same restricted hr phenotype as deletion of the SPI-1 gene. Second-site suppressors were selected by restoration of growth of the RPV SPI-1 T309R hr mutant on A549 cells. Both intragenic and extragenic suppressors of the T309R mutation were identified. One novel intragenic suppressor mutation, T309C, restored protease inhibition by SPI-1 in vitro. Extragenic suppressor mutations were mapped by a new procedure utilizing overlapping PCR products encompassing the entire genome in conjunction with marker rescue. One suppressor mutation, which also rendered the virus temperature sensitive for growth, mapped to the DNA polymerase gene (E9L). Several other suppressors mapped to gene D5R, an NTPase required for DNA replication. These results unexpectedly suggest that the host range function of SPI-1 may be associated with viral DNA replication by an as yet unknown mechanism.

  16. Detection of multiple infections by Monocystis strains in a single earthworm host using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Velavan, T P; Schulenburg, H; Michiels, N K

    2010-01-01

    Monocystis sp. are sporocyst-forming apicomplexan parasites common in seminal vesicles of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris where they may account for temporary castration. This study describes the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal cistron of Monocystis sp. This region, including ITS-1, the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and ITS-2, was PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced for Monocystis sp. isolated from the seminal vesicles of several wild-caught L. terrestris. Our analysis revealed substantial polymorphisms, also within single host organisms, indicating intra-host diversity of parasites. These genetic markers are the first that allow distinction of Monocystis sp. genotypes, opening new avenues for the study of parasite diversity within and between hosts.

  17. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Puccinia psidii was first described by Winter (1884) on guava (Psidium guajava L.) in Brazil. The rust is still a major pest of native guava in Brazil and is often referred to as “guava rust” internationally. It is unusual among rust fungi because of its broad and ever-expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae plant family (Simpson et al. 2006). The pathogen is regarded as a major threat to Eucalyptus plantations and other Myrtaceae worldwide (Coutinho et al. 1998, Grgurinovic et al. 2006, Glen et al. 2007). Infections of leaves and meristems are particularly severe on susceptible seedlings, cuttings, young trees, and coppice, causing plants to be stunted and multi-branched, inhibiting normal growth and development, and sometimes causing death to young seedlings (Booth et al. 2000, Rayachhetry et al. 2001). The fungus has expanded its host-range in Brazil, affecting both native and introduced Myrtaceae (Coutinho et al. 1998).


    Since its discovery in 1884, P. psidii has continually been discovered to have an expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae, affecting hosts throughout much of South and Central America and the Caribbean. Spreading out originally from Brazil in 1884, the fungus has been reported on hosts in the following countries (first record in parentheses): Paraguay (1884), Uruguay (1889), Ecuador (1891), Colombia (1913), Puerto Rico (1913), Cuba (1926), Dominican Republic (1933), Venezuela (1934), Jamaica (1936), Argentina (1946), Dominica (1948), Trinidad and Tobago (1951), Guatemala (1968), United States (Florida; 1977), Mexico (1981), El Salvador (1987), and Costa Rica (1998) (Simpson et al. 2006). It is possible that P. psidii was present in El Salvador and Costa Rica prior to 1980, but was not reported until 1987 and 1998, respectively.


    Until recently, Puccinia psidii was restricted to the Neotropics, Mexico, and the

  18. Vertical profiles of the 3-D wind velocity retrieved from multiple wind lidars performing triple range-height-indicator scans

    DOE PAGES

    Debnath, Mithu; Iungo, G. Valerio; Ashton, Ryan; ...

    2017-02-06

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with goodmore » accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.« less

  19. Vertical profiles of the 3-D wind velocity retrieved from multiple wind lidars performing triple range-height-indicator scans

    SciTech Connect

    Debnath, Mithu; Iungo, G. Valerio; Ashton, Ryan; Brewer, W. Alan; Choukulkar, Aditya; Delgado, Ruben; Lundquist, Julie K.; Shaw, William J.; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with good accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.

  20. Vertical profiles of the 3-D wind velocity retrieved from multiple wind lidars performing triple range-height-indicator scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Mithu; Valerio Iungo, G.; Ashton, Ryan; Brewer, W. Alan; Choukulkar, Aditya; Delgado, Ruben; Lundquist, Julie K.; Shaw, William J.; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with good accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.

  1. Modeling the influence of string collective phenomena on the long range rapidity correlations between the transverse momentum and the multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Andronov, E.; Vechernin, V.

    2016-01-22

    The long-range rapidity correlations between the multiplicities (n-n) and the transverse momentum and the multiplicity (pT-n) of charge particles are analyzed in the framework of the simple string inspired model with two types of sources. The sources of the first type correspond to the initial strings formed in a hadronic collision. The sources of the second type imitate the appearance of the emitters of a new kind resulting from interaction (fusion) of the initial strings. The model enabled to describe effectively the influence of the string fusion effects on the strength both the n-n and the pT-n correlations. It was found that in the region, where the process of string fusion comes into play, the calculation results predict the non-monotonic behaviour of the n-n and pT-n correlation coefficients with the growth of the mean number of initial strings, i.e. with the increase of the collision centrality. It was shown also that the increase of the event-by-event fluctuation in the number of primary strings leads to the change of the pT-n correlation sign from negative to positive. One can try to search these signatures of string collective phenomena in interactions of various nuclei at different energies varying the class of collision centrality and its width.

  2. Different Phenotypes of Walker-Like A Box Mutants of ParA Homolog IncC of Broad-Host-Range IncP Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Azeem; Figurski, David H.

    2012-01-01

    The promiscuous IncPα plasmids RK2 and R995 encode a broad-host-range partition system, whose essential components include the incC and korB genes and a DNA site (OB) to which the korB product binds. IncC2, the smaller of the two incC products, is sufficient for stabilization of R995ΔincC. It is a member of the type Ia ParA family of partition ATPases. To better understand the role of ATP in partition, we constructed three alanine-substitution mutants of IncC2. Each mutation changed a different residue of the Walker-like ATP-binding and hydrolysis motif, including a lysine (K10) conserved solely among members of the ParA and MinD families. All three IncC2 mutants were defective in plasmid partition, but they differed from one another in other respects. The IncC2 T16A mutant, predicted to be defective in Mg2+ coordination, was severely impaired in all activities tested. IncC2 K10A, predicted to be defective in ATP hydrolysis, mediated enhanced incompatibility with R995 derivatives. IncC2 K15A, predicted to be defective in ATP binding, exhibited two distinct incompatibility properties depending on the genotype of the target plasmid. When in trans to plasmids carrying a complementable incC deletion, IncC2 K15A caused dramatic plasmid loss, even at low levels of expression. In trans to wild-type R995 or to R995ΔincC carrying a functional P1 partition system, IncC2 K15A-mediated incompatibility was significantly less than that caused by wild-type IncC2. All three Walker-like A box mutants were also defective for the host toxicity that normally results from co-overexpression of incC and korB. The phenotypes of the mutants support a model in which nucleotide hydrolysis is required for separation of paired plasmid complexes and possible interaction with a host factor. PMID:22579980

  3. C7L Family of Poxvirus Host Range Genes Inhibits Antiviral Activities Induced by Type I Interferons and Interferon Regulatory Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Schoggins, John; Rose, Lloyd; Cao, Jingxin; Ploss, Alexander; Rice, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) K1L and C7L function equivalently in many mammalian cells to support VACV replication and antagonize antiviral activities induced by type I interferons (IFNs). While K1L is limited to orthopoxviruses, genes that are homologous to C7L are found in diverse mammalian poxviruses. In this study, we showed that the C7L homologues from sheeppox virus and swinepox virus could rescue the replication defect of a VACV mutant deleted of both K1L and C7L (vK1L−C7L−). Interestingly, the sheeppox virus C7L homologue could rescue the replication of vK1L−C7L− in human HeLa cells but not in murine 3T3 and LA-4 cells, in contrast to all other C7L homologues. Replacing amino acids 134 and 135 of the sheeppox virus C7L homologue, however, made it functional in the two murine cell lines, suggesting that these two residues are critical for antagonizing a putative host restriction factor which has some subtle sequence variation in human and murine cells. Furthermore, the C7L family of host range genes from diverse mammalian poxviruses were all capable of antagonizing type I IFN-induced antiviral activities against VACV. Screening of a library of more than 350 IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) identified interferon-regulated factor 1 (IRF1) as an inhibitor of vK1L−C7L− but not wild-type VACV. Expression of either K1L or C7L, however, rendered vK1L−C7L− resistant to IRF1-induced antiviral activities. Altogether, our data show that K1L and C7L antagonize IRF1-induced antiviral activities and that the host modulation function of C7L is evolutionally conserved in all poxviruses that can readily replicate in tissue-cultured mammalian cells. PMID:22345458

  4. Geochemistry and geochronology of carbonate-hosted base metal deposits in the southern Brooks Range, Alaska: temporal association with VMS deposits and metallogenic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Karen; Slack, John; Selby, David

    2009-01-01

    The Brooks Range contains enormous accumulations of zinc and copper, either as VMS or sediment-hosted deposits. The Ruby Creek and Omar deposits are Cu-Co stratabound deposits associated with dolomitic breccias. Numerous volcanogenic Cu-Zn (+/-Ag, Au) deposits are situated ~20 km north of the Ruby Creek deposit. The carbonate-hosted deposits consist of chalcopyrite and bornite that fill open spaces, replace the matrix of the breccias, and occur in later cross-cutting veins. Cobaltiferous pyrite, chalcocite, minor tennantite-tetrahedrite, galena, and sphalerite are also present. At Ruby Creek, phases such as carrollite, renierite, and germanite occur rarely. The deposits have undergone post-depositional metamorphism (Ruby Creek, low greenschist facies; Omar, blueschist facies). The unusual geochemical signature includes Cu-Co +/- Ag, As, Au, Bi, Ge, Hg, Sb, and U with sporadic high Re concentrations (up to 2.7 ppm). New Re-Os data were obtained for chalcopyrite, bornite, and pyrite from the Ruby Creek deposit (analyses of sulfides from Omar are in progress). The data show extremely high Re abundances (hundreds of ppb, low ppm) and contain essentially no common Os. The Re-Os data provide the first absolute ages of ore formation for the Ruby Creek deposit and demonstrate that the Re-Os systematics of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite are unaffected by greenschist metamorphism. The Re-Os data show that the main phase of Cu mineralization occurred at 384 +/-4.2 Ma, which coincides with zircon U-Pb ages from igneous rocks that are spatially and genetically associated with VMS deposits. This suggests a temporal link between regional magmatism and hydrothermal mineralization.

  5. Sarcocystis calchasi has an expanded host range and induces neurological disease in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and North American rock pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.).

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Maier, Kristina; Wuenschmann, Arno; Reed, Leslie; Armién, Aníbal G; Shaw, Daniel P; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2014-02-24

    Pigeon protozoal encephalitis (PPE) is an emerging central nervous system disease of pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. The intermediate host specificity of S. calchasi had been considered high, as domestic chickens were resistant to experimental infection. Here, we have re-evaluated this concept and expanded the known host range of S. calchasi by experimental infection of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), a species distantly related to pigeons. In this work, a group of eight cockatiels were experimentally infected with S. calchasi, which resulted in a biphasic central nervous system disease that paralleled PPE in many aspects, albeit with a more diverse pathology. All cockatiels became lethargic and polyuric between days 7 and 13 pi and during that time schizonts of S. calchasi were found primarily in the liver and spleen accompanied by necrosis and inflammation. As with pigeons, neurological signs occurred during a chronic phase of the disease in three cockatiels between 57 and 63 dpi. However, all five cockatiels necropsied in that period, or at the end of the trial at 76 dpi, had a severe lymphohistiocytic and necrotizing encephalitis. No tissue cysts were found in the heart, and cockatiels infected with 10(5) sporocysts only had a negligible parasite load in skeletal muscles despite the presence of severe central nervous system lesions. Notably, intralesional schizonts were identified in the brain of one cockatiel. In contrast to previous results, intralesional schizonts were also identified in the brains of three of six naturally infected pigeons from Minnesota and Missouri examined as part of an epidemiological investigation. In both the cockatiel and the pigeons, tissue cysts were found concurrently with schizonts suggesting an uncommon phenomenon in the Sarcocystis life cycle. Based on the results of this study, transmission of S. calchasi to avian species other than the domestic pigeon is

  6. Multiple Pleistocene refugia and Holocene range expansion of an abundant southwestern American desert plant species (Melampodium leucanthum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rebernig, Carolin A; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Bardy, Katharina E; Schönswetter, Peter; Villaseñor, Jose L; Obermayer, Renate; Stuessy, Tod F; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2010-08-01

    Pleistocene climatic fluctuations had major impacts on desert biota in southwestern North America. During cooler and wetter periods, drought-adapted species were isolated into refugia, in contrast to expansion of their ranges during the massive aridification in the Holocene. Here, we use Melampodium leucanthum (Asteraceae), a species of the North American desert and semi-desert regions, to investigate the impact of major aridification in southwestern North America on phylogeography and evolution in a widespread and abundant drought-adapted plant species. The evidence for three separate Pleistocene refugia at different time levels suggests that this species responded to the Quaternary climatic oscillations in a cyclic manner. In the Holocene, once differentiated lineages came into secondary contact and intermixed, but these range expansions did not follow the eastwardly progressing aridification, but instead occurred independently out of separate Pleistocene refugia. As found in other desert biota, the Continental Divide has acted as a major migration barrier for M. leucanthum since the Pleistocene. Despite being geographically restricted to the eastern part of the species' distribution, autotetraploids in M. leucanthum originated multiple times and do not form a genetically cohesive group.

  7. Satellite range delay simulator for a matrix-switched time division multiple-access network simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, Lawrence A.

    1990-01-01

    The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) facility at NASA Lewis Research Center is presently configured as a satellite-switched time division multiple access (SS-TDMA) network simulator. The purpose of SITE is to demonstrate and evaluate advanced communication satellite technologies, presently embodied by POC components developed under NASA contracts in addition to other hardware, such as ground terminals, designed and built in-house at NASA Lewis. Each ground terminal in a satellite communications system will experience a different aspect of the satellite's motion due mainly to daily tidal effects and station keeping, hence a different duration and rate of variation in the range delay. As a result of this and other effects such as local oscillator instability, each ground terminal must constantly adjust its transmit burst timing so that data bursts from separate ground terminals arrive at the satellite in their assigned time slots, preventing overlap and keeping the system in synchronism. On the receiving end, ground terminals must synchronize their local clocks using reference transmissions received through the satellite link. A feature of the SITE facility is its capability to simulate the varying propagation delays and associated Doppler frequency shifts that the ground terminals in the network have to cope with. Delay is ahcieved by means of two NASA Lewis designed and built range delay simulator (RDS) systems, each independently controlled locally with front panel switches or remotely by an experiment control and monitor (EC/M) computer.

  8. Optimal Sensor Placement for Multiple Target Positioning with Range-Only Measurements in Two-Dimensional Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Salinas, David; Pascoal, Antonio M.; Aranda, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    The problem of determining the optimal geometric configuration of a sensor network that will maximize the range-related information available for multiple target positioning is of key importance in a multitude of application scenarios. In this paper, a set of sensors that measures the distances between the targets and each of the receivers is considered, assuming that the range measurements are corrupted by white Gaussian noise, in order to search for the formation that maximizes the accuracy of the target estimates. Using tools from estimation theory and convex optimization, the problem is converted into that of maximizing, by proper choice of the sensor positions, a convex combination of the logarithms of the determinants of the Fisher Information Matrices corresponding to each of the targets in order to determine the sensor configuration that yields the minimum possible covariance of any unbiased target estimator. Analytical and numerical solutions are well defined and it is shown that the optimal configuration of the sensors depends explicitly on the constraints imposed on the sensor configuration, the target positions, and the probabilistic distributions that define the prior uncertainty in each of the target positions. Simulation examples illustrate the key results derived. PMID:23959235

  9. Patterns of feline immunodeficiency virus multiple infection and genome divergence in a free-ranging population of African lions.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Black, Lori; Packer, Craig; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2004-04-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS-like immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. Free-ranging lions, Panthera leo, carry a chronic species-specific strain of FIV, FIV-Ple, which so far has not been convincingly connected with immune pathology or mortality. FIV-Ple, harboring the three distinct strains A, B, and C defined by pol gene sequence divergences, is endemic in the large outbred population of lions in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania. Here we describe the pattern of variation in the three FIV genes gag, pol-RT, and pol-RNase among lions within 13 prides to assess the occurrence of FIV infection and coinfection. Genome diversity within and among FIV-Ple strains is shown to be large, with strain divergence for each gene approaching genetic distances observed for FIV between different species of cats. Multiple in fections with two or three strains were found in 43% of the FIV-positive individuals based on pol-RT sequence analysis, which may suggest that antiviral immunity or interference evoked by one strain is not consistently protective against infection by a second. This comprehensive study of FIV-Ple in a free-ranging population of lions reveals a dynamic transmission of virus in a social species that has historically adapted to render the virus benign.

  10. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  11. Organ heterogeneity of host-derived matrix metalloproteinase expression and its involvement in multiple-organ metastasis by lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shiraga, Minoru; Yano, Seiji; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Goto, Hisatsugu; Miki, Toyokazu; Miki, Keisuke; Zhang, Helong; Sone, Saburo

    2002-10-15

    Cancer metastasis is tightly regulated by the interaction of tumor cells and host organ microenvironments. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), produced by both tumor cells and host stromal cells, play a central role in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. We determined whether metastatic potential of lung cancer to multiple organs is dependent solely on the expression of MMPs by tumor cells, using two metastasis models of human lung cancer cell lines expressing various levels of MMPs and a MMP inhibitor (ONO-4817). In the lung metastasis model, tumor cells (PC14, PC14PE6, H226, A549) inoculated i.v. into nude or SCID mice metastasized only in the lung. In the multiple-organ metastasis model, tumor cells (RERF-LC-AI, SBC-3/DOX, H69/VP, which express low levels of MMPs) inoculated i.v. into natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice metastasized into the liver, kidneys, and systemic lymph nodes. Film in situ zymography analysis revealed that the nontumor parenchyma of the lung had no gelatinolytic activity, whereas gelatinolytic activity of the liver and kidney was high and low, respectively. In the lung metastasis model, gelatinolytic activity of lung nodules directly correlated with the in vitro expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by tumor cells. Inhibition of MMP activity by ONO-4817 suppressed lung metastasis by the cell lines that expressed MMPs, but not those that did not express MMP, via the inhibition of MMP activity of lung tumors. In the multiple-organ metastasis model, liver parenchyma, but not liver nodules, showed gelatinolytic activity. The MMP inhibition reduced metastasis to the liver, but not to the kidney or lymph nodes, via inhibition of MMP activity of liver parenchyma. These findings suggest that MMP expression varies among the host organ microenvironments and that stromal MMPs may promote metastasis of lung cancer. Therefore, antimetastatic effects based on MMP inhibition may be dependent on MMPs derived not only from tumor cells but also from organ

  12. Multiple osteochondromas of the antlers and cranium in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Karl V.; Flohr, Stefan; Gomez, Santiago; Kierdorf, Horst

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a case of multiple osteochondromas affecting the antlers and the left zygomatic bone of a free-ranging adult white-tailed buck (Odocoileus virginianus) from Georgia, USA. Along with a few postcranial bones, the antlered cranium of the individual was found in a severely weathered condition and devoid of any soft tissue. The antlers exhibited five pedunculated exostoses that were composed of cancellous bone and, in their peripheral portions, also mineralized cartilage. The largest of the exostoses, located on the right antler, had a maximum circumference of 55 cm. The exostosis arising from the zygomatic bone was broad-based and much smaller than the exophytic outgrowths on the antlers. Diagnosis of the exostoses as osteochondromas was based on their overall morphology, the normal bone structure in their stalk regions, and the continuity of their spongiosa and cortex with the respective components of the parent bones. Antleromas, i.e., pathological outgrowths developing on antlers as a result of insufficient androgen production, were excluded in the differential diagnosis, based on (1) the apparent maturity and, except for the tumors, normal shape of the antlers and (2) the fact that exostosis formation had also affected the zygomatic bone. Previously only a single case of solitary osteochondroma of an antler has been described in the scientific literature. The case presented here is the first report of multiple osteochondromas in a deer. As antlers are regularly collected as trophies, and huge numbers of them are critically inspected each year, the fact that thus far only two cases of antler osteochondromas have been reported suggests that these tumors are very rare. PMID:28296944

  13. A characterization of non-biotic environmental features of prairies hosting the Dakota Skipper (Hesperia dacotae, Hesperiidae) across its remaining U.S. range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royer, R.A.; McKenney, R.A.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Within the United States, the Dakota Skipper now occurs only in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota. In these states it has been associated with margins of glacial lakes and calcareous mesic prairies that host warm-season native grasses. Preliminary geographic information system (GIS) analysis in North Dakota has indicated a close congruency between historic distribution of the Dakota Skipper and that of specific near-shore glacial lake features and related soil associations. This study analyzed humidity-related non-biotic microhabitat characteristics within three remaining occupied Dakota Skipper sites in each state during the larval growth period in 2000. Measured parameters included topographic relief, soil compaction, soil pH, moisture, and temperature at various depths, soil bulk density, soil texture, and temperature and humidity within the larval nest zone. Results of these efforts reveal two distinctive habitat substrates, one of relatively low surface relief with dense but relatively less compact soils, and another of relatively high relief with less dense but more compact soils. In the low-relief habitat, grazing appears to compact soils unfavorably in otherwise similar prairies in the more xeric western portion of the range, potentially by affecting ground-water buffering of larval nest zone humidity.

  14. Characterization of the basic replicon of pCM1, a narrow-host-range plasmid from the moderate halophile Chromohalobacter marismortui.

    PubMed Central

    Mellado, E; Asturias, J A; Nieto, J J; Timmis, K N; Ventosa, A

    1995-01-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter marismortui contains a 17.5-kb narrow-host-range plasmid, pCM1, which shows interesting properties for the development of cloning vectors for the genetic manipulation of this important group of extremophiles. Plasmid pCM1 can stably replicate and is maintained in most gram-negative moderate halophiles tested. The replication origin has been identified and sequenced, and the minimal pCM1 replicon has been localized to a 1,600-bp region which includes two functionally discrete regions, the oriV region and the repA gene. oriV, located on a 700-bp fragment, contains four iterons 20 bp in length adjacent to a DnaA box that is dispensable but required for efficient replication of pCM1, and it requires trans-acting functions. The repA gene, which encodes a replication protein of 289 residues, is similar to the replication proteins of other gram-negative bacteria. PMID:7768853

  15. Isolation and characterization of insertion sequence elements from gram-negative bacteria by using new broad-host-range, positive selection vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R; Hötte, B; Klauke, B; Kosier, B

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of an RSF1010-derived broad-host-range vector, three different systems which enable positive detection and isolation of insertion sequence (IS) elements from gram-negative bacteria were constructed. Vectors pSUP104-pheS, pSUP104-rpsL, and pSUP104-sac were used successfully in a number of Rhizobium strains and in Xanthomonas campestris. More than 20 different IS elements were isolated and characterized. The 16 IS elements from Rhizobium meliloti were further used to characterize various R. meliloti strains by hybridization. The resulting hybridization patterns were different for every strain and gave a clear and definite IS fingerprint of each strain. These IS fingerprints can be used to identify and characterize R. meliloti strains rapidly and unequivocally, as they proved to be relatively stable. Some of the IS elements were found to be identical when the IS fingerprints from a given strain were compared. This method of IS fingerprinting can also establish whether IS elements are the same, related, or different. Images PMID:1847366

  16. Novel trypanosome Trypanosoma gilletti sp. (Euglenozoa: Trypanosomatidae) and the extension of the host range of Trypanosoma copemani to include the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    McInnes, L M; Hanger, J; Simmons, G; Reid, S A; Ryan, U M

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma irwini was previously described from koalas and we now report the finding of a second novel species, T. gilletti, as well as the extension of the host range of Trypanosoma copemani to include koalas. Phylogenetic analysis at the 18S rDNA and gGAPDH loci demonstrated that T. gilletti was genetically distinct with a genetic distance (± s.e.) at the 18S rDNA locus of 2.7 ± 0.5% from T. copemani (wombat). At the gGAPDH locus, the genetic distance (± s.e.) of T. gilletti was 8.7 ± 1.1% from T. copemani (wombat). Trypanosoma gilletti was detected using a nested trypanosome 18S rDNA PCR in 3/139 (∼2%) blood samples and in 2/29 (∼7%) spleen tissue samples from koalas whilst T. irwini was detected in 72/139 (∼52%) blood samples and T. copemani in 4/139 (∼3%) blood samples from koalas. In addition, naturally occurring mixed infections were noted in 2/139 (∼1.5%) of the koalas tested.

  17. Construction and use of a broad-host-range plasmid expressing the lamB gene for utilization of bacteriophage lambda vectors in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Jasiecki, J; Czy, A; Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, G

    2001-07-01

    The remarkable success of Escherichia coli as a model organism in molecular genetics was dependent, among other things, on its susceptibility to genetic manipulation. Many versatile and sophisticated genetic tools for molecular biology studies are derived from bacteriophage lambda. However, this bacteriophage is specific for E. coli, and thus lambda-based techniques have been restricted to this bacterium. Plasmids expressing the E. coli gene coding for bacteriophage lambda receptor were reported previously, and introduction of such plasmids into cells of some other bacteria made them sensitive to phage lambda infection. However, we found that these systems were not efficient for Vibrio harveyi, one of the most frequently investigated species of marine bacteria. Here we describe construction of a broad-host-range plasmid expressing the lamB gene. Introduction of this plasmid to V. harveyi cells and expression of lamB made this strain susceptible to bacteriophage lambda adsorption and lambda DNA injection. Foreign genetic material could be introduced into cells of this strain using a cosmid vector.

  18. Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the Afrotropical region: host plant range and distribution in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Goergen, Georg; Vayssières, Jean-François; Gnanvossou, Désiré; Tindo, Maurice

    2011-08-01

    In 2003, the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Drew et al. 2005), of possible Sri Lankan origin, has been detected in the East and about 1 yr later in West Africa. In regular surveys in Benin and Cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. Incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in West and Central Africa (WCA) B. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits of at least 46 species from 23 plant families with guava (Psidium spp.), mango (Mangifera spp.), and citrus (spp.), and the wild hosts tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.), African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill.), and sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn.) showing the highest infestation index. B. invadens occurs in 22 countries of WCA with new records for Angola, Central African Republic, the Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sierra Leone. Overall, the pest has spread across a North-South distance of ≍5,000 km representing a contiguous area of >8.3 million km(2) within WCA. B. invadens has adapted to a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions extending from low land rainforest to dry savanna. Because of its highly destructive and invasive potential, B. invadens poses a serious threat to horticulture in Africa if left uncontrolled. Moreover, the presence of this quarantine pest causes considerable restrictions on international trade of affected crops.

  19. Molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in Arizona during 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Shi, Mang; Orciari, Lillian A; Yager, Pamela A; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Kuzmina, Natalia A; Streicker, Daniel G; Bergman, David L; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In nature, rabies virus (RABV; genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae) represents an assemblage of phylogenetic lineages, associated with specific mammalian host species. Although it is generally accepted that RABV evolved originally in bats and further shifted to carnivores, mechanisms of such host shifts are poorly understood, and examples are rarely present in surveillance data. Outbreaks in carnivores caused by a RABV variant, associated with big brown bats, occurred repeatedly during 2001-2009 in the Flagstaff area of Arizona. After each outbreak, extensive control campaigns were undertaken, with no reports of further rabies cases in carnivores for the next several years. However, questions remained whether all outbreaks were caused by a single introduction and further perpetuation of bat RABV in carnivore populations, or each outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of a bat virus. Another question of concern was related to adaptive changes in the RABV genome associated with host shifts. To address these questions, we sequenced and analyzed 66 complete and 20 nearly complete RABV genomes, including those from the Flagstaff area and other similar outbreaks in carnivores, caused by bat RABVs, and representatives of the major RABV lineages circulating in North America and worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that each Flagstaff outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of bat RABV into populations of carnivores. Positive selection analysis confirmed the absence of post-shift changes in RABV genes. In contrast, convergent evolution analysis demonstrated several amino acids in the N, P, G and L proteins, which might be significant for pre-adaptation of bat viruses to cause effective infection in carnivores. The substitution S/T₂₄₂ in the viral glycoprotein is of particular merit, as a similar substitution was suggested for pathogenicity of Nishigahara RABV strain. Roles of the amino acid changes, detected in our study, require

  20. Wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella s.l.) cryptic biotypes with divergent host ranges: Implications for using Eriophyidae for biological control of invasive grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-specificity is the most important criterion for biological control agents (BCAs) and is particularly important for BCAs of invasive grasses that are close relatives of grass crop species. Plant-feeding mites in the family Eriophyidae are often highly host-specific. A study was conducted on th...

  1. Analysis of the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with sarcoids in equine hosts indicates multiple cross-species transmission events and phylogeographical structure.

    PubMed

    Trewby, Hannah; Ayele, Gizachew; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Brandt, Sabine; Campo, M Saveria; Del Fava, Claudia; Marais, Johan; Leonardi, Leonardo; Vanselow, Barbara; Biek, Roman; Nasir, Lubna

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant.

  2. Range expansion of the jumbo squid in the NE Pacific: δ15N decrypts multiple origins, migration and habitat use.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I; Ballance, Lisa T; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Coincident with climate shifts and anthropogenic perturbations, the highly voracious jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas reached unprecedented northern latitudes along the NE Pacific margin post 1997-98. The physical or biological drivers of this expansion, as well as its ecological consequences remain unknown. Here, novel analysis from both bulk tissues and individual amino acids (Phenylalanine; Phe and Glutamic acid; Glu) in both gladii and muscle of D. gigas captured in the Northern California Current System (NCCS) documents for the first time multiple geographic origins and migration. Phe δ(15)N values, a proxy for habitat baseline δ(15)N values, confirm at least three different geographic origins that were initially detected by highly variable bulk δ(15)N values in gladii for squid at small sizes (<30 cm gladii length). In contrast, bulk δ(15)N values from gladii of large squid (>60 cm) converged, indicating feeding in a common ecosystem. The strong latitudinal gradient in Phe δ(15)N values from composite muscle samples further confirmed residency at a point in time for large squid in the NCCS. These results contrast with previous ideas, and indicate that small squid are highly migratory, move into the NCCS from two or more distinct geographic origins, and use this ecosystem mainly for feeding. These results represent the first direct information on the origins, immigration and habitat use of this key "invasive" predator in the NCCS, with wide implications for understanding both the mechanisms of periodic D. gigas population range expansions, and effects on ecosystem trophic structure.

  3. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Dáttilo, Wesley; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durán-Barrón, César; Valenzuela, Jorge; López, Sara; Lombera, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages.

  4. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Dáttilo, Wesley; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durán-Barrón, César; Valenzuela, Jorge; López, Sara; Lombera, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages. PMID:26731271

  5. Tricholoma matsutake in a natural Pinus densiflora forest: correspondence between above- and below-ground genets, association with multiple host trees and alteration of existing ectomycorrhizal communities.

    PubMed

    Lian, Chunlan; Narimatsu, Maki; Nara, Kazuhide; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2006-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake (matsutake) is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus that produces economically important mushrooms in Japan. Here, we use microsatellite markers to identify genets of matsutake sporocarps and below-ground ECM tips, as well as associated host genotypes of Pinus densiflora. We also studied ECM fungal community structure inside, beneath and outside the matsutake fairy rings, using morphological and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) polymorphism analysis. Based on sporocarp samples, one to four genets were found within each fairy ring, and no genetic differentiation among six sites was detected. Matsutake ECM tips were only found beneath fairy rings and corresponded with the genotypes of the above-ground sporocarps. We detected nine below-ground matsutake genets, all of which colonized multiple pine trees (three to seven trees per genet). The ECM fungal community beneath fairy rings was species-poor and significantly differed from those inside and outside the fairy rings. We conclude that matsutake genets occasionally establish from basidiospores and expand on the root systems of multiple host trees. Although matsutake mycelia suppress other ECM fungi during expansion, most of them may recover after the passage of the fairy rings.

  6. Herbivore Diet Breadth and Host Plant Defense Mediate the Tri-Trophic Effects of Plant Toxins on Multiple Coccinellid Predators.

    PubMed

    Katsanis, Angelos; Rasmann, Sergio; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-01-01

    Host plant defenses are known to cascade up food chains to influence herbivores and their natural enemies, but how herbivore and predator traits and identity mediate such tri-trophic dynamics is largely unknown. We assessed the influence of plant defense on aphid and coccinellid performance in laboratory trials with low- vs. high-glucosinolate varieties of Brassica napus, a dietary specialist (Brevicoryne brassicae) and generalist (Myzus persicae) aphid, and five species of aphidophagous coccinellids. The performance of the specialist and generalist aphids was similar and unaffected by variation in plant defense. Aphid glucosinolate concentration and resistance to predators differed by aphid species and host plant defense, and these effects acted independently. With respect to aphid species, the dietary generalist aphid (vs. specialist) had 14% lower glucosinolate concentration and coccinellid predators ate three-fold more aphids. With respect to host plant variety, the high-glucosinolate plants (vs. low) increased aphid glucosinolate concentration by 21%, but had relatively weak effects on predation by coccinellids and these effects varied among coccinellid species. In turn, coccinellid performance was influenced by the interactive effects of plant defense and aphid species, as the cascading, indirect effect of plant defense was greater when feeding upon the specialist than generalist aphid. When feeding upon specialist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by 78% and accelerated development by 14%. In contrast, when feeding upon generalist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by only 11% and had no detectable effect on development time. These interactive effects of plant defense and aphid diet breadth on predator performance also varied among coccinellid species; the indirect negative effects of plant defenses on predator performance was consistent among the five predators when

  7. Herbivore Diet Breadth and Host Plant Defense Mediate the Tri-Trophic Effects of Plant Toxins on Multiple Coccinellid Predators

    PubMed Central

    Katsanis, Angelos; Rasmann, Sergio; Mooney, Kailen A.

    2016-01-01

    Host plant defenses are known to cascade up food chains to influence herbivores and their natural enemies, but how herbivore and predator traits and identity mediate such tri-trophic dynamics is largely unknown. We assessed the influence of plant defense on aphid and coccinellid performance in laboratory trials with low- vs. high-glucosinolate varieties of Brassica napus, a dietary specialist (Brevicoryne brassicae) and generalist (Myzus persicae) aphid, and five species of aphidophagous coccinellids. The performance of the specialist and generalist aphids was similar and unaffected by variation in plant defense. Aphid glucosinolate concentration and resistance to predators differed by aphid species and host plant defense, and these effects acted independently. With respect to aphid species, the dietary generalist aphid (vs. specialist) had 14% lower glucosinolate concentration and coccinellid predators ate three-fold more aphids. With respect to host plant variety, the high-glucosinolate plants (vs. low) increased aphid glucosinolate concentration by 21%, but had relatively weak effects on predation by coccinellids and these effects varied among coccinellid species. In turn, coccinellid performance was influenced by the interactive effects of plant defense and aphid species, as the cascading, indirect effect of plant defense was greater when feeding upon the specialist than generalist aphid. When feeding upon specialist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by 78% and accelerated development by 14%. In contrast, when feeding upon generalist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by only 11% and had no detectable effect on development time. These interactive effects of plant defense and aphid diet breadth on predator performance also varied among coccinellid species; the indirect negative effects of plant defenses on predator performance was consistent among the five predators when

  8. Rapid Virulence Annotation (RVA): identification of virulence factors using a bacterial genome library and multiple invertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Waterfield, Nicholas R; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Dowling, Andrea; Yang, Guowei; Wilkinson, Paul; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas; Reynolds, Stuart E; Bode, Helge B; Dorus, Steven; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

    2008-10-14

    Current sequence databases now contain numerous whole genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria. However, many of the predicted genes lack any functional annotation. We describe an assumption-free approach, Rapid Virulence Annotation (RVA), for the high-throughput parallel screening of genomic libraries against four different taxa: insects, nematodes, amoeba, and mammalian macrophages. These hosts represent different aspects of both the vertebrate and invertebrate immune system. Here, we apply RVA to the emerging human pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica using "gain of toxicity" assays of recombinant Escherichia coli clones. We describe a wealth of potential virulence loci and attribute biological function to several putative genomic islands, which may then be further characterized using conventional molecular techniques. The application of RVA to other pathogen genomes promises to ascribe biological function to otherwise uncharacterized virulence genes.

  9. Transcriptome mapping of pAR060302, a blaCMY-2-positive broad-host-range IncA/C plasmid.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kevin S; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Xu, Wayne; Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    The multidrug resistance-encoding plasmids belonging to the IncA/C incompatibility group have recently emerged among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains in the United States. These plasmids have a unique genetic structure compared to other enterobacterial plasmid types, a broad host range, and a propensity to acquire large numbers of antimicrobial resistance genes via their accessory regions. Using E. coli strain DH5α harboring the prototype IncA/C plasmid pAR060302, we sought to define the baseline transcriptome of IncA/C plasmids under laboratory growth and in the face of selective pressure. The effects of ampicillin, florfenicol, or streptomycin exposure were compared to those on cells left untreated at logarithmic phase using Illumina platform-based RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Under growth in Luria-Bertani broth lacking antibiotics, much of the backbone of pAR060302 was transcriptionally inactive, including its putative transfer regions. A few plasmid backbone genes of interest were highly transcribed, including genes of a putative toxin-antitoxin system and an H-NS-like transcriptional regulator. In contrast, numerous genes within the accessory regions of pAR060302 were highly transcribed, including the resistance genes floR, bla(CMY-2), aadA, and aacA. Treatment with ampicillin or streptomycin resulted in no genes being differentially expressed compared to controls lacking antibiotics, suggesting that many of the resistance-associated genes are not differentially expressed due to exposure to these antibiotics. In contrast, florfenicol treatment resulted in the upregulation of floR and numerous chromosomal genes. Overall, the transcriptome mapping of pAR060302 suggests that it mitigates the fitness costs of carrying resistance-associated genes through global regulation with its transcriptional regulators.

  10. Gene regulation on broad host range plasmid RK2: identification of three novel operons whose transcription is repressed by both KorA and KorC.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C M; Ibbotson, J P; Wang, N Y; Smith, C A; Tipping, R; Loader, N M

    1988-01-01

    The product of the korA gene of broad host range plasmid RK2 is a key transcriptional repressor which regulates not only the expression of the essential replication gene trfA but also its own expression and that of the kilA operon. It has previously been proposed that korA also encodes a positive activator of transcription of the korC gene, which may act as a transcriptional antiterminator. Here we show that the action of korA in relation to korC can be explained entirely through the korA protein's property as a transcriptional repressor. The limited ability of the previously cloned korC gene to suppress kilC on its own is shown to be due to the fact that korC in RK2 is transcribed from the bla promoter of Tn1 which was deleted in the original korC clones. We demonstrate that korA is a second repressor along with korC of three operons, one of which encodes kilC, the other two not having been described previously and serving an as yet unknown function. We have designated these operons kcrA, B and C for KorC-regulated. Putative kilC is designated kcrC. The homology between the expression signals of these operons suggests that they have arisen by duplication. This is confirmed in the case of kcrA and B by the existence of considerable homology between the products of the first ORFs in each of these operons. Images PMID:2838814

  11. Insect-Specific Flaviviruses: A Systematic Review of Their Discovery, Host Range, Mode of Transmission, Superinfection Exclusion Potential and Genomic Organization

    PubMed Central

    Blitvich, Bradley J.; Firth, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) discovered in the last decade. Historically, these viruses have generated limited interest due to their inability to infect vertebrate cells. This viewpoint has changed in recent years because some ISFs have been shown to enhance or suppress the replication of medically important flaviviruses in co-infected mosquito cells. Additionally, comparative studies between ISFs and medically important flaviviruses can provide a unique perspective as to why some flaviviruses possess the ability to infect and cause devastating disease in humans while others do not. ISFs have been isolated exclusively from mosquitoes in nature but the detection of ISF-like sequences in sandflies and chironomids indicates that they may also infect other dipterans. ISFs can be divided into two distinct phylogenetic groups. The first group currently consists of approximately 12 viruses and includes cell fusing agent virus, Kamiti River virus and Culex flavivirus. These viruses are phylogenetically distinct from all other known flaviviruses. The second group, which is apparently not monophyletic, currently consists of nine viruses and includes Chaoyang virus, Nounané virus and Lammi virus. These viruses phylogenetically affiliate with mosquito/vertebrate flaviviruses despite their apparent insect-restricted phenotype. This article provides a review of the discovery, host range, mode of transmission, superinfection exclusion ability and genomic organization of ISFs. This article also attempts to clarify the ISF nomenclature because some of these viruses have been assigned more than one name due to their simultaneous discoveries by independent research groups. PMID:25866904

  12. The broad-host-range plasmid pSFA231 isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment represents a new member of the PromA plasmid family

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaobin; Top, Eva M.; Wang, Yafei; Brown, Celeste J.; Yao, Fei; Yang, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    A self-transmissible broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid pSFA231 was isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment in Shen-fu wastewater irrigation zone, China, using the triparental mating exogenous plasmid capture method. Based on its complete sequence the plasmid has a size of 41.5 kb and codes for 50 putative open reading frames (orfs), 29 of which represent genes involved in replication, partitioning and transfer functions of the plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis grouped pSFA231 into the newly defined PromA plasmid family, which currently includes five members. Further comparative genomic analysis shows that pSFA231 shares the common backbone regions with the other PromA plasmids, i.e., genes involved in replication, maintenance and control, and conjugative transfer. Nevertheless, phylogenetic divergence was found in specific gene products. We propose to divide the PromA group into two subgroups, PromA-α (pMRAD02, pSB102) and PromA-β (pMOL98, pIPO2T, pSFA231, pTer331), based on the splits network analysis of the RepA protein. Interestingly, a cluster of hypothetical orfs located between parA and traA of pSFA231 shows high similarity with the corresponding regions on pMOL98, pIPO2T, and pTer331, suggesting these hypothetical orfs may represent “essential” plasmid backbone genes for the PromA-β subgroup. Alternatively, they may also be accessory genes that were first acquired and then stayed as the plasmid diverged. Our study increases the available collection of complete genome sequences of BHR plasmids, and since pSFA231 is the only characterized PromA plasmid from China, our findings also enhance our understanding of the genetic diversity of this plasmid group in different parts of the world. PMID:25628616

  13. Multiple hydrogen bonds tuning guest/host excited-state proton transfer reaction: its application in molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Chou, He-Chun; Hsu, Chin-Hao; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Chung-Chih; Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Pu, Shih-Chieh; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2004-02-18

    A molecular recognition concept exploiting multiple-hydrogen-bond fine-tuned excited-state proton-transfer (ESPT) was conveyed using 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrobis(pyrido[3,2-g]indolo)[2,3-a:3',2'-j]acridine (1a). The catalytic type 1a/carboxylic acids hydrogen-bonding (HB) complexes undergo ultrafast ESPT, resulting in an anomalously large Stokes shifted tautomer emission (lambdamax approximately 600 nm). Albeit forming a quadruple HB complex, ESPT is prohibited in the noncatalytic-type 1a/urea complexes (lambdamax approximately 430 nm). The HB configuration tuning ESPT properties lead to a feasible design for sensing multiple-HB-site analytes of biological interest.

  14. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bi...

  15. Emergence and Dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Producing CTX-M-1-Like Enzymes in Spain Are Associated with IncFII (CTX-M-15) and Broad-Host-Range (CTX-M-1, -3, and -32) Plasmids▿

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Cantón, Rafael; Moreira, Raquel; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2007-01-01

    The spread of CTX-M-1-like enzymes in Spain is associated with particular plasmids of broad-host-range IncN (blaCTX-M-32, blaCTX-M-1), IncL/M (blaCTX-M-1), and IncA/C2 (blaCTX-M-3) or narrow-host-range IncFII (blaCTX-M-15). The identical genetic surroundings of blaCTX-M-32 and blaCTX-M-1 and their locations on related 40-kb IncN plasmids indicate the in vivo evolution of this element. PMID:17145793

  16. Range Expansion of the Jumbo Squid in the NE Pacific: δ15N Decrypts Multiple Origins, Migration and Habitat Use

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I.; Ballance, Lisa T.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Coincident with climate shifts and anthropogenic perturbations, the highly voracious jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas reached unprecedented northern latitudes along the NE Pacific margin post 1997–98. The physical or biological drivers of this expansion, as well as its ecological consequences remain unknown. Here, novel analysis from both bulk tissues and individual amino acids (Phenylalanine; Phe and Glutamic acid; Glu) in both gladii and muscle of D. gigas captured in the Northern California Current System (NCCS) documents for the first time multiple geographic origins and migration. Phe δ15N values, a proxy for habitat baseline δ15N values, confirm at least three different geographic origins that were initially detected by highly variable bulk δ15N values in gladii for squid at small sizes (<30 cm gladii length). In contrast, bulk δ15N values from gladii of large squid (>60 cm) converged, indicating feeding in a common ecosystem. The strong latitudinal gradient in Phe δ15N values from composite muscle samples further confirmed residency at a point in time for large squid in the NCCS. These results contrast with previous ideas, and indicate that small squid are highly migratory, move into the NCCS from two or more distinct geographic origins, and use this ecosystem mainly for feeding. These results represent the first direct information on the origins, immigration and habitat use of this key “invasive” predator in the NCCS, with wide implications for understanding both the mechanisms of periodic D. gigas population range expansions, and effects on ecosystem trophic structure. PMID:23527242

  17. Multiple sources of selenium in ancient seafloor hydrothermal systems: Compositional and Se, S, and Pb isotopic evidence from volcanic-hosted and volcanic-sediment-hosted massive sulfide deposits of the Finlayson Lake District, Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Peter, Jan M.; Scott, Steven D.; Cousens, Brian; Eglington, Bruce M.

    2013-09-01

    Volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) and volcanic-sediment-hosted massive sulfide (VSHMS; i.e., hosted by both volcanic and sedimentary rocks) deposits in the Finlayson Lake District, Yukon, Canada, provide a unique opportunity to study the influence of seafloor and sub-seafloor hydrothermal processes on the formation of Se-poor (GP4F VHMS deposit; 7 ppm Se average), intermediate (Kudz Ze Kayah—KZK VHMS deposit; 200 ppm Se average), and Se-enriched (Wolverine VSHMS deposit; 1100 ppm Se average) mineralization. All three deposits are hosted by mid-Paleozoic (˜360-346 Ma) felsic volcanic rocks, but only the Wolverine deposit has voluminous coeval carbonaceous argillites (black shales) in the host rock package. Here we report the first application of Se isotope analyses to ancient seafloor mineralization and use these data, in conjunction with Pb and S isotope analyses, to better understand the source(s) and depositional process(es) of Se within VHMS and VSHMS systems. The wide range of δ82Se (-10.2‰ to 1.3‰, relative to NIST 3149), δ34S (+2.0‰ to +12.8‰ CDT), and elevated Se contents (up to 5865 ppm) within the Wolverine deposit contrast with the narrower range of δ82Se (-3.8‰ to -0.5‰), δ34S (9.8‰ to 13.0‰), and lower Se contents (200 ppm average) of the KZK deposit. The Wolverine and KZK deposits have similar sulfide depositional histories (i.e., deposition at the seafloor, with concomitant zone refining). The Se in the KZK deposit is magmatic (leaching or degassing) in origin, whereas the Wolverine deposit requires an additional large isotopically negative Se source (i.e. ˜-15‰ δ82Se). The negative δ82Se values for the Wolverine deposit are at the extreme light end for measured terrestrial samples, and the lightest observed for hypogene sulfide minerals, but are within calculated equilibrium values of δ82Se relative to NIST 3149 (˜30‰ at 25 °C between SeO4 and Se2-). We propose that the most negative Se isotope values at the

  18. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings.

  19. Involvement of multiple distinct Bordetella receptor proteins in the utilization of iron liberated from transferrin by host catecholamine stress hormones

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Sandra K.; Brickman, Timothy J.; Suhadolc, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bordetella bronchiseptica is a pathogen that can acquire iron using its native alcaligin siderophore system, but can also use the catechol xenosiderophore enterobactin via the BfeA outer membrane receptor. Transcription of bfeA is positively controlled by a regulator that requires induction by enterobactin. Catecholamine hormones also induce bfeA transcription and B. bronchiseptica can use the catecholamine norepinephrine for growth on transferrin. In this study, B. bronchiseptica was shown to use catecholamines to obtain iron from both transferrin and lactoferrin in the absence of siderophore. In the presence of siderophore, norepinephrine augmented transferrin utilization by B. bronchiseptica, as well as siderophore function in vitro. Genetic analysis identified BfrA, BfrD and BfrE as TonB dependent outer membrane catecholamine receptors. The BfeA enterobactin receptor was found to not be involved directly in catecholamine utilization; however, the BfrA, BfrD and BfrE catecholamine receptors could serve as receptors for enterobactin and its degradation product 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Thus, there is a functional link between enterobactin-dependent and catecholamine-dependent transferrin utilization. This investigation characterizes a new B. bronchiseptica mechanism for iron uptake from transferrin that uses host stress hormones that not only deliver iron directly to catecholamine receptors, but also potentiate siderophore activity by acting as iron shuttles. PMID:22458330

  20. A host-range restricted parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the human metapneumovirus (hMPV) fusion protein elicits protective immunity in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tang, Roderick S; Mahmood, Kutubuddin; Macphail, Mia; Guzzetta, Jeanne M; Haller, Aurelia A; Liu, Hui; Kaur, Jasmine; Lawlor, Heather A; Stillman, Elizabeth A; Schickli, Jeanne H; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Spaete, Richard R

    2005-02-25

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection causes respiratory tract disease similar to that observed during human respiratory syncytial virus infection (hRSV). hMPV infections have been reported across the entire age spectrum although the most severe disease occurs in young children. No vaccines, chemotherapeutics or antibodies are presently available for preventing or treating hMPV infections. In this study, a bovine/human chimeric parainfluenza virus type 3 (b/h PIV3) expressing the human parainfluenza type 3 (hPIV3) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins was engineered to express hMPV fusion (F) protein from the second genome position (b/h PIV3/hMPV F2) with the goal of generating a novel hMPV vaccine. b/h PIV3/hMPV F2 was previously shown to protect hamsters from challenge with wt hMPV (Tang RS, Schickli JH, Macphail M, Fernandes F, Bicha L, Spaete J, et al. Effects of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus antigen insertion in two 3' proximal genome positions of bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 on virus replication and immunogenicity. J Virol 2003;77:10819-28) and is here further evaluated for efficacy and immunogenicity in African green monkeys (AGMs). AGMs immunized intranasally and intratracheally with b/h PIV3/hMPV F2 generated hMPV- and hPIV3-specific humoral and cellular immune responses and were protected from wt hMPV infection. In a separate study, the host-range restriction of b/h PIV3/hMPV F2 replication relative to wt hPIV3 was performed in rhesus monkeys to demonstrate attenuation. These studies showed that b/h PIV3/hMPV F2 was immunogenic, protective and attenuated in non-human primates and warrants further evaluation in humans as a vaccine candidate for prevention of hMPV-associated respiratory tract diseases.

  1. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids: the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple horizontal gene transfers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosomatids of the genera Angomonas and Strigomonas live in a mutualistic association characterized by extensive metabolic cooperation with obligate endosymbiotic Betaproteobacteria. However, the role played by the symbiont has been more guessed by indirect means than evidenced. Symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids, in contrast to their counterparts lacking symbionts, exhibit lower nutritional requirements and are autotrophic for essential amino acids. To evidence the symbiont’s contributions to this autotrophy, entire genomes of symbionts and trypanosomatids with and without symbionts were sequenced here. Results Analyses of the essential amino acid pathways revealed that most biosynthetic routes are in the symbiont genome. By contrast, the host trypanosomatid genome contains fewer genes, about half of which originated from different bacterial groups, perhaps only one of which (ornithine cyclodeaminase, EC:4.3.1.12) derived from the symbiont. Nutritional, enzymatic, and genomic data were jointly analyzed to construct an integrated view of essential amino acid metabolism in symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids. This comprehensive analysis showed perfect concordance among all these data, and revealed that the symbiont contains genes for enzymes that complete essential biosynthetic routes for the host amino acid production, thus explaining the low requirement for these elements in symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids. Phylogenetic analyses show that the cooperation between symbionts and their hosts is complemented by multiple horizontal gene transfers, from bacterial lineages to trypanosomatids, that occurred several times in the course of their evolution. Transfers occur preferentially in parts of the pathways that are missing from other eukaryotes. Conclusion We have herein uncovered the genetic and evolutionary bases of essential amino acid biosynthesis in several trypanosomatids with and without endosymbionts, explaining and complementing decades of

  2. Clastic-hosted stratiform, vein/breccia and disseminated Zn-Pb-Ag deposits of the northwestern Brooks Range, AK: Are they different expressions of dewatering of the same source basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.M. ); Werdon, M.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Sphalerite and galena, with significant silver occur in 3 distinct types of mineralization hosted in Upper Devonian and Carboniferous clastic rocks of the northwestern Brooks Range. The best known are Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulfide deposits with variable pyrite, barite, and hydrothermal silifica hosted in Mississippian (to Pennsylvanian ) black siliceous shale and chert, and similar to shale-hosted Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits worldwide. Zn-Pb-Ag breccias and veins are hosted in Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian fine-grained quartzites and siltstone which stratigraphically underlie the massive sulfide-hosting units. The breccia-vein and disseminated occurrences are co-extensive with the rocks that host massive sulfide deposits, and with the western part of the Endicott Group clastic basin. Pb isotopic ratios of galena from all the deposits are remarkably uniform, and suggest a single Pb source. The authors genetic model suggests that all types are the result of dewatering of a single clastic source basin. Different mineralization styles are probably due to variable depths of emplacement (at or below the seafloor), thermal variations related to extensional thinning of the crust, and hydrologic flow out of the basin controlled by extensional thinning of the crust, and hydrologic flow out of the basin controlled by extensional faulting and permeability variations in local stratigraphy. The most likely sources for Zn and Pb are clay minerals within the lowermost (Hunt Fork Shale) portions of the western Endicott Group.

  3. Understanding Host-Switching by Ecological Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Sabrina B. L.; Braga, Mariana Pires; Brooks, Daniel R.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Hoberg, Eric P.; von Hartenthal, Francisco W.; Boeger, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that parasites are highly specialized with respect to their hosts, empirical evidence demonstrates that host switching rather than co-speciation is the dominant factor influencing the diversification of host-parasite associations. Ecological fitting in sloppy fitness space has been proposed as a mechanism allowing ecological specialists to host-switch readily. That proposal is tested herein using an individual-based model of host switching. The model considers a parasite species exposed to multiple host resources. Through time host range expansion can occur readily without the prior evolution of novel genetic capacities. It also produces non-linear variation in the size of the fitness space. The capacity for host colonization is strongly influenced by propagule pressure early in the process and by the size of the fitness space later. The simulations suggest that co-adaptation may be initiated by the temporary loss of less fit phenotypes. Further, parasites can persist for extended periods in sub-optimal hosts, and thus may colonize distantly related hosts by a "stepping-stone" process. PMID:26431199

  4. Biology and Host Range of Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a Candidate Agent for Biological Control of Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata) in California and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Mehelis, Christopher N; Balciunas, Joe K; Reddy, Angelica M; Van Der Westhuizen, Liame; Neser, Stefan; Moran, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata Lemaire) is an ornamental vine native to South Africa that has escaped into natural areas in coastal California and Oregon, displacing native vegetation. Surveys in South Africa led to the discovery of the leaf- and stem-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike and Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae: Acrolepiinae) as one of several common and damaging native herbivores on Cape-ivy. In greenhouse studies, adult female life span averaged 16 d (46 d maximum). Most (72%) mated females began laying eggs within 72 h of emergence. Females had an average lifetime fecundity of 52 eggs, with >70% laid on leaf laminae, and 89% of eggs were laid by the 15th day postemergence. Lifetime fertility (adult production) averaged three to four offspring per female. At 25 °C, egg hatch required 10 d, pupal formation 26 d, and adult emergence 41 d, while under variable greenhouse and laboratory conditions development to adult required 54-60 d. In four-way choice tests, involving 100 plant species other than Cape-ivy, including 11 genera and 37 species in the Asteraceae, subtribe Senecioninae from both native and invaded ranges, D. delaireae inflicted damage and produced pupae only on Cape-ivy. Leaf mining damage occurred on 30% of leaves of native Senecio hydrophilus in no-choice tests and on 2% of leaves in dual-choice tests, but no pupation occurred. If approved for field release in the continental United States, the moth D. delaireae is expected to produce multiple generations per year on Cape-ivy, and to pose little risk of damage to native plants.

  5. Identification of a Putative Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Host Range Factor with Homology to IpaH and YopM by Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tsolis, Renée M.; Townsend, Stacy M.; Miao, Edward A.; Miller, Samuel I.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Adams, L. Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    1999-01-01

    The genetic basis for the host adaptation of Salmonella serotypes is currently unknown. We have explored a new strategy to identify Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) genes involved in host adaptation, by comparing the virulence of 260 randomly generated signature-tagged mutants during the oral infection of mice and calves. This screen identified four mutants, which were defective for colonization of only one of the two host species tested. One mutant, which only displayed a colonization defect during the infection of mice, was further characterized. During competitive infection experiments performed with the S. typhimurium wild type, the mutant was defective for colonization of murine Peyer's patches but colonized bovine Peyer's patches at the wild-type level. No difference in virulence between wild type and mutant was observed when calves were infected orally with 1010 CFU/animal. In contrast, the mutant possessed a sixfold increase in 50% lethal morbidity dose when mice were infected orally. The transposon in this mutant was inserted in a 2.9-kb pathogenicity islet, which is located between uvrB and yphK on the S. typhimurium chromosome. This pathogenicity islet contained a single gene, termed slrP, with homology to ipaH of Shigella flexneri and yopM of Yersinia pestis. These data show that comparative screening of signature-tagged mutants in two animal species can be used for scanning the S. typhimurium genome for genes involved in host adaptation. PMID:10569754

  6. Single Unpurified Breast Tumor-Initiating Cells from Multiple Mouse Models Efficiently Elicit Tumors in Immune-Competent Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Kurpios, Natasza A.; Girgis-Gabardo, Adele; Hallett, Robin M.; Rogers, Stephen; Gludish, David W.; Kockeritz, Lisa; Woodgett, James; Cardiff, Robert; Hassell, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequency of bulk tumor cell populations is one of the criteria used to distinguish malignancies that follow the cancer stem cell model from those that do not. However, tumor-initiating cell frequencies may be influenced by experimental conditions and the extent to which tumors have progressed, parameters that are not always addressed in studies of these cells. We employed limiting dilution cell transplantation of minimally manipulated tumor cells from mammary tumors of several transgenic mouse models to determine their tumor-initiating cell frequency. We determined whether the tumors that formed following tumor cell transplantation phenocopied the primary tumors from which they were isolated and whether they could be serially transplanted. Finally we investigated whether propagating primary tumor cells in different tissue culture conditions affected their resident tumor-initiating cell frequency. We found that tumor-initiating cells comprised between 15% and 50% of the bulk tumor cell population in multiple independent mammary tumors from three different transgenic mouse models of breast cancer. Culture of primary mammary tumor cells in chemically-defined, serum-free medium as non-adherent tumorspheres preserved TIC frequency to levels similar to that of the primary tumors from which they were established. By contrast, propagating the primary tumor cells in serum-containing medium as adherent populations resulted in a several thousand-fold reduction in their tumor-initiating cell fraction. Our findings suggest that experimental conditions, including the sensitivity of the transplantation assay, can dramatically affect estimates of tumor initiating cell frequency. Moreover, conditional on cell culture conditions, the tumor-initiating cell fraction of bulk mouse mammary tumor cell preparations can either be maintained at high or low frequency in vitro thus permitting comparative studies of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cancer cells

  7. A model-based multiple-pinhole synthetic imager for stand-off range gamma-emitting objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRego, Paul J.; Hecht, Adam A.; Dias da Cunha, Kenya M.; Baldez, Phoenix

    2016-09-01

    Pixelated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors provide the opportunity to perform spectroscopic imaging for discriminating one radioactive material from another. Although Compton interactions provide a means for imaging high energy gamma sources, identification of materials emitting lower energy signatures are better suited to collimator imaging techniques. This paper specifically considers a multiple pinhole method for its simplicity of pinhole focusing combined with straightforward processing methods for incorporating multiple apertures to reduce photon collection time while retaining image resolution. Multiple pinhole image detections are combined using an iterative Maximum- Likelihood Expectation-Maximization (MLEM) synthetic imaging algorithm. To enable subsequent field operations, the imaging system matrix is computed using an imaging model with adjustable parameters rather than one experimentally acquired from point sources. The system model includes an object space, a multiple pinhole collimator plane, and a pixelated detection plane. The modeled object space is implemented in two dimensions to reduce image reconstruction burden since 3D imaging is not practical for single view stand-off imaging. Focusing is modeled by a function computing photon trajectory and passage through the pinhole patterned barrier plane. Results show that a MLEM processed image will achieve resolution approaching that of a single pinhole imaged onto the full detector. The multiple pinhole advantages of simple implementation with shorter focal lengths combined with the availability of portable CZT detectors would be useful in short stand-off applications. Work is currently in progress to experimentally quantify spatial resolution and imaging timelines using an eV Products D-Matrix 4x4 array of pixelated CZT modules.

  8. Validity of segmental multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition of adults across a range of body mass indexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Compare estimates of body composition using segmental, multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy adults across a range of body mass index (BMI). Methods: Percent body fat (%BF), fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) asses...

  9. Revision of the world Monoctonia Starý, parasitoids of gall aphids: taxonomy, distribution, host range, and phylogeny (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Rakhshani, Ehsan; Starý, Petr; Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Čkrkić, Jelisaveta; Moghaddam, Mostafa Ghafouri; Tomanović, Snežana; Petrović, Andjeljko; Tomanović, Željko

    2015-01-14

    The present paper represents a contribution to the knowledge of the taxonomy of Monoctonia Starý aphid parasitoids obtained using the barcoding region of the mitochondrial COI gene. We discuss the phylogenetic position of the genus within the subtribe Monoctonina, redescribe known species, and describe Monoctonia japonica sp. n. from Japan in the association Pemphigus matsumurai Monzen/Populus maximowiczii. A key for species identification is provided. Also, we review and discuss the host records, origin, and geographical distribution of Monoctonia species. It is hypothesized that the genus Monoctonia evolved in Paleogene forests of the temperate (and subtropical) belt, most probably in the European part of the Mediterranean region, which is also the center of origin of their host plants. 

  10. The RepA_N replicons of Gram-positive bacteria: a family of broadly distributed but narrow host range plasmids.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Keith E; Kwong, Stephen M; Firth, Neville; Francia, Maria Victoria

    2009-03-01

    The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids of Enterococcus faecalis and the multiresistance plasmids pSK1 and pSK41 of Staphylococcus aureus are among the best studied plasmids native to Gram-positive bacteria. Although these plasmids seem largely restricted to their native hosts, protein sequence comparison of their replication initiator proteins indicates that they are clearly related. Homology searches indicate that these replicons are representatives of a large family of plasmids and a few phage that are widespread among the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. We propose to name this family the RepA_N family of replicons after the annotated conserved domain that the initiator protein contains. Detailed sequence comparisons indicate that the initiator protein phylogeny is largely congruent with that of the host, suggesting that the replicons have evolved along with their current hosts and that intergeneric transfer has been rare. However, related proteins were identified on chromosomal regions bearing characteristics indicative of ICE elements, and the phylogeny of these proteins displayed evidence of more frequent intergeneric transfer. Comparison of stability determinants associated with the RepA_N replicons suggests that they have a modular evolution as has been observed in other plasmid families.

  11. High-power free-electron maser with frequency multiplication operating in a shortwave part of the millimeter wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Peskov, N. Yu.; Savilov, A. V.; Sedykh, S. N.

    2012-08-01

    The possibility of using frequency multiplication in order to obtain high-power short-wavelength radiation from a free-electron maser (FEM) with a Bragg resonator has been studied. Preliminary experiments with an LIU-3000 (JINR) linear induction accelerator demonstrate the operation of a frequency-multiplying FEM at megawatt power in the 6- and 4-mm wave bands on the second and third harmonic, respectively.

  12. Emergence of host-adapted Salmonella Enteritidis through rapid evolution in an immunocompromised host

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, Elizabeth J; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Hadfield, James; Forbester, Jessica L; Harris, Simon R; Hale, Christine; Heath, Jennifer N; Wileman, Thomas; Clare, Simon; Kane, Leanne; Goulding, David; Otto, Thomas D; Kay, Sally; Doffinger, Rainer; Cooke, Fiona J; Carmichael, Andrew; Lever, Andrew ML; Parkhill, Julian; MacLennan, Calman A; Kumararatne, Dinakantha

    2016-01-01

    Summary Host adaptation is a key factor contributing to the emergence of new bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens. Many pathogens are considered promiscuous because they cause disease across a range of host species, while others are host-adapted, infecting particular hosts1. Host adaptation can potentially progress to host restriction where the pathogen is strictly limited to a single host species and is frequently associated with more severe symptoms. Host-adapted and host-restricted bacterial clades evolve from within a broader host-promiscuous species and sometimes target different niches within their specialist hosts, such as adapting from a mucosal to a systemic lifestyle. Genome degradation, marked by gene inactivation and deletion, is a key feature of host adaptation, although the triggers initiating genome degradation are not well understood. Here, we show that a chronic systemic non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in an immunocompromised human patient resulted in genome degradation targeting genes that are expendable for a systemic lifestyle. We present a genome-based investigation of a recurrent blood-borne Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection covering 15 years in an interleukin (IL)-12 β-1 receptor-deficient individual that developed into an asymptomatic chronic infection. The infecting S. Enteritidis harbored a mutation in the mismatch repair gene mutS that accelerated the genomic mutation rate. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotyping of multiple patient isolates provides evidence for a remarkable level of within-host evolution that parallels genome changes present in successful host-restricted bacterial pathogens but never before observed on this timescale. Our analysis identifies common pathways of host adaptation and demonstrates the role that immunocompromised individuals can play in this process. PMID:27127642

  13. Combining Phylogeography with Distribution Modeling: Multiple Pleistocene Range Expansions in a Parthenogenetic Gecko from the Australian Arid Zone

    PubMed Central

    Strasburg, Jared L.; Kearney, Michael; Moritz, Craig; Templeton, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic and geographic evidence suggest that many parthenogenetic organisms have evolved recently and have spread rapidly. These patterns play a critical role in our understanding of the relative merits of sexual versus asexual reproductive modes, yet their interpretation is often hampered by a lack of detail. Here we present a detailed phylogeographic study of a vertebrate parthenogen, the Australian gecko Heteronotia binoei, in combination with statistical and biophysical modeling of its distribution during the last glacial maximum. Parthenogenetic H. binoei occur in the Australian arid zone and have the widest range of any known vertebrate parthenogen. They are broadly sympatric with their sexual counterparts, from which they arose via hybridization. We have applied nested clade phylogeographic, effective migration, and mismatch distribution analyses to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences obtained for 319 individuals sampled throughout the known geographic ranges of two parthenogenetic mitochondrial lineages. These analyses provide strong evidence for past range expansion events from west to east across the arid zone, and for continuing eastward range expansion. Parthenogen formation and range expansion events date to the late Pleistocene, with one lineage expanding from the northwest of its present range around 240,000 years ago and the second lineage expanding from the far west around 70,000 years ago. Statistical and biophysical distribution models support these inferences of recent range expansion, with suitable climatic conditions during the last glacial maximum most likely limited to parts of the arid zone north and west of much of the current ranges of these lineages. Combination of phylogeographic analyses and distribution modeling allowed considerably stronger inferences of the history of this complex than either would in isolation, illustrating the power of combining complementary analytical approaches. PMID:17712408

  14. Growth of Long Range Forward-Backward Multiplicity Correlations with Centrality in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt sNN = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05

    Forward-backward multiplicity correlation strengths have been measured with the STAR detector for Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. Strong short and long range correlations (LRC) are seen in central Au+Au collisions. The magnitude of these correlations decrease with decreasing centrality until only short range correlations are observed in peripheral Au+Au collisions. Both the Dual Parton Model (DPM) and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) predict the existence of the long range correlations. In the DPM the fluctuation in the number of elementary (parton) inelastic collisions produces the LRC. In the CGC longitudinal color flux tubes generate the LRC. The data is in qualitative agreement with the predictions from the DPM and indicates the presence of multiple parton interactions.

  15. Growth of long range forward-backward multiplicity correlations with centrality in Au + Au collisions at square root of sNN = 200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B I; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bruna, E; Bueltmann, S; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; De Silva, L C; Dedovich, T G; DePhillips, M; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Elnimr, M; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Feng, A; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; Garcia-Solis, E J; Geromitsos, A; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Huo, L; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jena, C; Jin, F; Jones, C L; Jones, P G; Joseph, J; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kajimoto, K; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kopytine, M; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Krus, M; Kuhn, C; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Lee, J H; Leight, W; Levine, M J; Li, N; Li, C; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, J; Liu, L; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mall, O I; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Milner, R; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okada, H; Okorokov, V; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Redwine, R; Reed, R; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Shi, X-H; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Tram, V N; Trattner, A L; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Leeuwen, M; Vander Molen, A M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Videbaek, F; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xie, W; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zuo, J X

    2009-10-23

    Forward-backward multiplicity correlation strengths have been measured with the STAR detector for Au + Au and p + p collisions at square root of s(NN) = 200 GeV. Strong short- and long-range correlations (LRC) are seen in central Au + Au collisions. The magnitude of these correlations decrease with decreasing centrality until only short-range correlations are observed in peripheral Au + Au collisions. Both the dual parton model (DPM) and the color glass condensate (CGC) predict the existence of the long-range correlations. In the DPM, the fluctuation in the number of elementary (parton) inelastic collisions produces the LRC. In the CGC, longitudinal color flux tubes generate the LRC. The data are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the DPM and indicate the presence of multiple parton interactions.

  16. Response of brown-headed cowbirds and three host species to thinning treatments in low-elevation ponderosa pine forests along the northern Colorado Front Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, W.H.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Wanner, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Thinning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests to achieve desired ecological conditions remains a priority in the North American west. In addition to reducing the risk of high-severity wildfires in unwanted areas, stand thinning may increase wildlife and plant diversity and provide increased opportunity for seedling recruitment. We initiated conservative (i.e. minimal removal of trees) ponderosa stand thinning treatments with the goals of reducing fire risk and improving habitat conditions for native wildlife and flora. We then compared site occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), plumbeous vireos (Vireo plumbeus), and western wood-pewees (Contopus sordidulus) in thinned and unthinned (i.e., control) forest stands from 2007 to 2009. Survey stations located in thinned stands had 64% fewer trees/ha, 25% less canopy cover, and 23% less basal area than stations in control stands. Occupancy by all three host species was negatively associated with tree density, suggesting that these species respond favorably to forest thinning treatments in ponderosa pine forests. We also encountered plumbeous vireos more frequently in plots closer to an ecotonal (forest/grassland) edge, an association that may increase their susceptibility to edge-specialist, brood parasites like brown-headed cowbirds. Occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds was not related to forest metrics but was related to occupancy by plumbeous vireos and the other host species in aggregate, supporting previous reports on the affiliation between these species. Forest management practices that promote heterogeneity in forest stand structure may benefit songbird populations in our area, but these treatments may also confer costs associated with increased cowbird occupancy. Further research is required to understand more on the complex relationships between occupancy of cowbirds and host species, and between cowbird occupancy and realized rates of nest parasitism.

  17. Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.

    PubMed

    Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

    2013-03-01

    Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato.

  18. Scientific communications: Re-Os sulfide (bornite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite) systematics of the carbonate-hosted copper deposits at ruby creek, southern brooks range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selby, D.; Kelley, K.D.; Hitzman, M.W.; Zieg, J.

    2009-01-01

    New Re-Os data for chalcopyrite, bornite, and pyrite from the carbonate-hosted Cu deposit at Ruby Creek (Bornite), Alaska, show extremely high Re abundances (hundreds of ppb, low ppm) and contain essentially no common Os. The Re-Os data provide the first absolute ages of ore formation for the carbonate-hosted Ruby Creek Cu-(Co) deposit and demonstrate that the Re-Os systematics of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite are unaffected by greenschist metamorphism. The Re-Os data show that the main phase of Cu mineralization pre dominantly occurred at 384 ?? 4.2 Ma, with an earlier phase possibly at ???400 Ma. The Re-Os data are consistent with the observed paragenetic sequence and coincide with zircon U-Pb ages from igneous rocks within the Ambler metallogenic belt, some of which are spatially and genetically associated with regional volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. The latter may suggest a temporal link between regional magmatism and hydrothermal mineralization in the Ambler district. The utility of bornite and chalcopyrite, in addition to pyrite, contributes to a new understanding of Re-Os geochronology and permits a refinement of the genetic model for the Ruby Creek deposit. ?? 2009 Society of Economices Geologists, Inc.

  19. An algorithm for the realization of three-dimensional laser imaging system's intensity image and range image based on multiple-slit streak tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shaokun; Yu, Xiaojiang; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Xunliang

    2008-03-01

    The technology of three-dimensional laser imaging is applied widely in the field of military use and civilian use etc. There are mainly two methods for three-dimensional laser imaging. One of them is based on APD arrays, and the other is based on streak tube. The latter represents relatively mature technology for providing high-resolution 3D laser radar images. In both of them, the realization of intensity image and range image is the foundation and key of three-dimensional laser imaging. It presents the method for three-dimensional laser imaging using multiple-slit streak tube to get clear, exact intensity image and range image. The multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar (MS-STIL) approach uses several slits instead of the usual single slit to provide a number of additional capabilities over conventional laser radar systems. And it researches into the algorithm for the realization of intensity image and range image and processes the simulative streak tube image with it via the analysis of multiple-slit streak tube's imaging theory, and finally carries through the simulation of intensity image and range image.

  20. Medium to Long Range Kinematic GPS Positioning with Position-Velocity-Acceleration Model Using Multiple Reference Stations.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Ki; Park, Chi Ho; Han, Joong-hee; Kwon, Jay Hyoun

    2015-07-13

    In order to obtain precise kinematic global positioning systems (GPS) in medium to large scale networks, the atmospheric effects from tropospheric and ionospheric delays need to be properly modeled and estimated. It is also preferable to use multiple reference stations to improve the reliability of the solutions. In this study, GPS kinematic positioning algorithms are developed for the medium to large-scale network based on the position-velocity-acceleration model. Hence, the algorithm can perform even in cases where the near-constant velocity assumption does not hold. In addition, the estimated kinematic accelerations can be used for the airborne gravimetry. The proposed algorithms are implemented using Kalman filter and are applied to the in situ airborne GPS data. The performance of the proposed algorithms is validated by analyzing and comparing the results with those from reference values. The results show that reliable and comparable solutions in both position and kinematic acceleration levels can be obtained using the proposed algorithms.

  1. Multiple markers pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and host-specific fungal communities on the mangrove trees Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa.

    PubMed

    Arfi, Yonathan; Buée, Marc; Marchand, Cyril; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Fungi are important actors in ecological processes and trophic webs in mangroves. Although saprophytic fungi occurring in the intertidal part of mangrove have been well studied, little is known about the diversity and structure of the fungal communities in this ecosystem or about the importance of functional groups like pathogens and mutualists. Using tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of the ITS1, ITS2, nu-ssu-V5 and nu-ssu-V7 regions, we studied and compared the fungal communities found on the marine and aerial parts of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa trees in a mangrove in New Caledonia. A total of 209,544 reads were analysed, corresponding to several thousand molecular operational taxonomic units (OTU). There is a marked zonation in the species distribution, with most of the OTU being found specifically in one of the microhabitat studied. Ascomycetes are the dominant phylum (82%), Basidiomycetes are very rare (3%), and 15% of the sequences correspond to unknown taxa. Our results indicate that host specificity is a key factor in the distribution of the highly diverse fungal communities, in both the aerial and intertidal parts of the trees. This study also validates the usefulness of multiple markers in tag-encoded pyrosequencing to consolidate and refine the assessment of the taxonomic diversity.

  2. Design of a communications system for multiple telemetry data channels operating simultaneously with a coherent turn-around ranging channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Gevargiz, John M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a simple technique to design a phase-modulated residual carrier communications link for optimum performance. The emphasis is on two data channels which are operated simultaneously with a ranging signal. The data channels employ PCM/PM and PCM/PSK/PM modulation schemes for high and low data rate channels, respectively. The technique proposed here selects the optimum (1) subcarrier frequency to minimize the interference between the two data channels, and (2) modulation indices for optimum balance of power between the two telemetry data channels and the coherent turn around ranging channel. The selected set of optimum modulation indices will allow for the specified bit error rate (BER) degradations in the two data channels. Although this technique is proposed to optimize the performance degradation for two data channels, generalizations can be made for more than two data channels.

  3. Measurement of long-range angular correlations and azimuthal anisotropies in high-multiplicity p +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidala, C.; Akiba, Y.; Alfred, M.; Andrieux, V.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Ayuso, C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bandara, N. S.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Blau, D. S.; Boer, M.; Bok, J. S.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butler, C.; Campbell, S.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cervantes, R.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Citron, Z.; Connors, M.; Cronin, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dion, A.; Dixit, D.; Do, J. H.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dumancic, M.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Elder, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fan, W.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukuda, Y.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Goto, Y.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, K.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Imai, K.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ito, Y.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jezghani, M.; Ji, Z.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Jorjadze, V.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kang, J. H.; Kapukchyan, D.; Karthas, S.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, M.; Kincses, D.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kotov, D.; Kudo, S.; Kurita, K.; Kwon, Y.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lallow, E. O.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leung, Y. H.; Lewis, N. A.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, M. X.; Loggins, V.-R.; Loggins, V.-R.; Lovasz, K.; Lynch, D.; Majoros, T.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Malaev, M.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Masuda, H.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Mendoza, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mihalik, D. E.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Morrow, S. I. M.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagashima, K.; Nagashima, T.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Novotny, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ottino, G. J.; Ozawa, K.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, M.; Peng, W.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perezlara, C. E.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Phipps, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Pun, A.; Purschke, M. L.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richford, D.; Rinn, T.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Runchey, J.; Safonov, A. S.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, K.; Sato, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seidl, R.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shioya, T.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, K. L.; Snowball, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Syed, S.; Sziklai, J.; Takeda, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Tarnai, G.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Ueda, Y.; Ujvari, B.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Carson, S.; Velkovska, J.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vukman, N.; Wang, X. R.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wong, C. P.; Woody, C. L.; Xu, C.; Xu, Q.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamamoto, H.; Yanovich, A.; Yin, P.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zharko, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We present measurements of long-range angular correlations and the transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow v2 in high-multiplicity p +Au collisions at √{s NN}=200 GeV. A comparison of these results to previous measurements in high-multiplicity d +Au and 3He+Au collisions demonstrates a relation between v2 and the initial collision eccentricity ɛ2, suggesting that the observed momentum-space azimuthal anisotropies in these small systems have a collective origin and reflect the initial geometry. Good agreement is observed between the measured v2 and hydrodynamic calculations for all systems, and an argument disfavoring theoretical explanations based on initial momentum-space domain correlations is presented. The set of measurements presented here allows us to leverage the distinct intrinsic geometry of each of these systems to distinguish between different theoretical descriptions of the long-range correlations observed in small collision systems.

  4. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Reveals Insights into the Genome Architecture of Broad Host Range Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Denton-Giles, Matthew; Hegedus, Dwayne; Seifbarghy, Shirin; Rollins, Jeffrey; van Kan, Jan; Seidl, Michael F.; Faino, Luigi; Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Raffaele, Sylvain; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Heard, Stephanie; Oliver, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a phytopathogenic fungus with over 400 hosts including numerous economically important cultivated species. This contrasts many economically destructive pathogens that only exhibit a single or very few hosts. Many plant pathogens exhibit a “two-speed” genome. So described because their genomes contain alternating gene rich, repeat sparse and gene poor, repeat-rich regions. In fungi, the repeat-rich regions may be subjected to a process termed repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). Both repeat activity and RIP are thought to play a significant role in evolution of secreted virulence proteins, termed effectors. We present a complete genome sequence of S. sclerotiorum generated using Single Molecule Real-Time Sequencing technology with highly accurate annotations produced using an extensive RNA sequencing data set. We identified 70 effector candidates and have highlighted their in planta expression profiles. Furthermore, we characterized the genome architecture of S. sclerotiorum in comparison to plant pathogens that exhibit “two-speed” genomes. We show that there is a significant association between positions of secreted proteins and regions with a high RIP index in S. sclerotiorum but we did not detect a correlation between secreted protein proportion and GC content. Neither did we detect a negative correlation between CDS content and secreted protein proportion across the S. sclerotiorum genome. We conclude that S. sclerotiorum exhibits subtle signatures of enhanced mutation of secreted proteins in specific genomic compartments as a result of transposition and RIP activity. However, these signatures are not observable at the whole-genome scale. PMID:28204478

  5. Influenza HA Subtypes Demonstrate Divergent Phenotypes for Cleavage Activation and pH of Fusion: Implications for Host Range and Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Summer E.; Reed, Mark L.; Russell, Charles J.; Steinhauer, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The influenza A virus (IAV) HA protein must be activated by host cells proteases in order to prime the molecule for fusion. Consequently, the availability of activating proteases and the susceptibility of HA to protease activity represents key factors in facilitating virus infection. As such, understanding the intricacies of HA cleavage by various proteases is necessary to derive insights into the emergence of pandemic viruses. To examine these properties, we generated a panel of HAs that are representative of the 16 HA subtypes that circulate in aquatic birds, as well as HAs representative of the subtypes that have infected the human population over the last century. We examined the susceptibility of the panel of HA proteins to trypsin, as well as human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Additionally, we examined the pH at which these HAs mediated membrane fusion, as this property is related to the stability of the HA molecule and influences the capacity of influenza viruses to remain infectious in natural environments. Our results show that cleavage efficiency can vary significantly for individual HAs, depending on the protease, and that some HA subtypes display stringent selectivity for specific proteases as activators of fusion function. Additionally, we found that the pH of fusion varies by 0.7 pH units among the subtypes, and notably, we observed that the pH of fusion for most HAs from human isolates was lower than that observed from avian isolates of the same subtype. Overall, these data provide the first broad-spectrum analysis of cleavage-activation and membrane fusion characteristics for all of the IAV HA subtypes, and also show that there are substantial differences between the subtypes that may influence transmission among hosts and establishment in new species. PMID:23459660

  6. Multiple-samples-method enabling high dynamic range imaging for high frame rate CMOS image sensor by FPGA and co-processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Blake C.; Johnson-Williams, Nathan

    2014-09-01

    We present results from a prototype CMOS camera system implementing a multiple sampled pixel level algorithm ("Last Sample Before Saturation") to create High-Dynamic Range (HDR) images that approach the dynamic range of CCDs. The system is built around a commercial 1280 × 1024 CMOS image sensor with 10-bits per pixel and up to 500 Hz full frame rate with higher frame rates available through windowing. We analyze imagery data collected at room temperature for SNR versus photocurrent, among other figures of merit. Results conform to expectations of a model that uses only dark current, read noise, and photocurrent as input parameters.

  7. A poxvirus host range protein, CP77, binds to a cellular protein, HMG20A, and regulates its dissociation from the vaccinia virus genome in CHO-K1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chao, Chien-Chiang; Young, Ming-Jer; Chang, Yu-Tai; Cho, Er-Chieh; Chang, Wen

    2006-08-01

    Vaccinia virus does not grow in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in the absence of a viral host range factor, cowpox protein CP77. In this study, CP77 was fused to the C terminus of green fluorescence protein (GFP-CP77) and a series of nested deletion mutants of GFP-CP77 was constructed for insertion into a vaccinia virus host range mutant, VV-hr, and expressed from a viral early promoter. Deletion mapping analyses demonstrated that the N-terminal 352 amino acids of CP77 were sufficient to support vaccinia virus growth in CHO-K1 cells, whereas the C-terminal residues 353 to 668 were dispensable. In yeast two-hybrid analyses, CP77 bound to a cellular protein, HMG20A, and GST pulldown analyses showed that residues 1 to 234 of CP77 were sufficient for this interaction. After VV-hr virus infection of CHO-K1 cells, HMG20A was translocated from the nucleus to viral factories and bound to the viral genome via the HMG box region. In control VV-hr-infected CHO-K1 cells, binding of HMG20A to the viral genome persisted from 2 to 8 h postinfection (h p.i.); in contrast, when CP77 was expressed, the association of HMG20A with viral genome was transient, with little HMG20A remaining bound at 8 h p.i. This indicates that dissociation of HMG20A from viral factories correlates well with CP77 host range activity in CHO-K1 cells. Finally, in cells expressing a CP77 deletion protein (amino acids 277 to 668) or a DeltaANK5 mutant that did not support vaccinia virus growth and did not contain the HMG20A binding site, HMG20A remained bound to viral DNA, demonstrating that the binding of CP77 to HMG20A is essential for its host range function. In summary, our data revealed that a novel cellular protein, HMG20A, the dissociation of which from viral DNA is regulated by CP77, providing the first cellular target regulated by viral host range CP77 protein.

  8. Medium to Long Range Kinematic GPS Positioning with Position-Velocity-Acceleration Model Using Multiple Reference Stations

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chang-Ki; Park, Chi Ho; Han, Joong-hee; Kwon, Jay Hyoun

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain precise kinematic global positioning systems (GPS) in medium to large scale networks, the atmospheric effects from tropospheric and ionospheric delays need to be properly modeled and estimated. It is also preferable to use multiple reference stations to improve the reliability of the solutions. In this study, GPS kinematic positioning algorithms are developed for the medium to large-scale network based on the position-velocity-acceleration model. Hence, the algorithm can perform even in cases where the near-constant velocity assumption does not hold. In addition, the estimated kinematic accelerations can be used for the airborne gravimetry. The proposed algorithms are implemented using Kalman filter and are applied to the in situ airborne GPS data. The performance of the proposed algorithms is validated by analyzing and comparing the results with those from reference values. The results show that reliable and comparable solutions in both position and kinematic acceleration levels can be obtained using the proposed algorithms. PMID:26184215

  9. Expression in grasses of multiple transgenes for degradation of munitions compounds on live-fire training ranges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Routsong, Ryan; Nguyen, Quyen; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C; Strand, Stuart E

    2016-11-10

    The deposition of toxic munitions compounds, such as hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine (RDX), on soils around targets in live-fire training ranges is an important source of groundwater contamination. Plants take up RDX but do not significantly degrade it. Reported here is the transformation of two perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), with the genes for degradation of RDX. These species possess a number of agronomic traits making them well equipped for the uptake and removal of RDX from root zone leachates. Transformation vectors were constructed with xplA and xplB, which confer the ability to degrade RDX, and nfsI, which encodes a nitroreductase for the detoxification of the co-contaminating explosive 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The vectors were transformed into the grass species using Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. All transformed grass lines showing high transgene expression levels removed significantly more RDX from hydroponic solutions and retained significantly less RDX in their leaf tissues than wild-type plants. Soil columns planted with the best-performing switchgrass line were able to prevent leaching of RDX through a 0.5-m root zone. These plants represent a promising plant biotechnology to sustainably remove RDX from training range soil, thus preventing contamination of groundwater.

  10. Comparison of Multiple Quantitative Precipitation Estimates for Warm-Season Flood Forecasting in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, H. A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Gochis, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPEs) from ground and satellite platforms can potentially serve as input to hydrologic models used for flood forecasting in mountainous watersheds. This work compares the impact of ten different high-resolution (4-km and hourly) precipitation products on flood forecast skill in a large region of the Colorado Front Range. These products range from radar fields (Level II, Stage III and IV) to satellite estimates (HydroEstimator, AutoEstimator, Blend, GMSRA, PERSIANN-CCS). We examine QPE skill relative to ground rain gauges to detect error characteristics during the 2004 summer season which exhibited above-average precipitation accumulations in the region. We then quantify flood forecast skill by using the TIN-based Real time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) as an analysis tool in four mountain basins. The structural features of radar and satellite precipitation products determine the timing and magnitude of simulated summer floods in the study basins. Use of ground-based radar and multi-sensor satellite estimates minimize streamflow differences at the outlet locations compared to satellite-only QPEs which tend to underestimate total rainfall volumes, resulting in significant hydrologic response uncertainties. Given the generally low rainfall estimates from satellite-only products, a mean field bias correction is applied to all products and results are compared against non-corrected precipitation products. An exploratory analysis is conducted to assess precipitation volume differences between the bias-corrected and raw satellite products. Probability density functions of the differences allow examining the links between QPE bias, the diurnal precipitation cycle and topographic position. Analysis of the spatiotemporal precipitation and streamflow patterns help identify benefits and shortcomings of high-resolution QPEs for summer storms in mountainous areas.

  11. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin

    2016-12-09

    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  12. Infections of nervous necrosis virus in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea with unexpected wide host ranges.

    PubMed

    Liu, X D; Huang, J N; Weng, S P; Hu, X Q; Chen, W J; Qin, Z D; Dong, X X; Liu, X L; Zhou, Y; Asim, M; Wang, W M; He, J G; Lin, L

    2015-06-01

    The concerns about the impact of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections in wild fish have been raised. This paper presents the results of quarterly surveys of NNV in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea. Samples of 892 wild fish belonging to 69 species and 381 cage-reared fish belonging to 11 species were collected and were detected by seminested PCR and nested PCR. In the case of seminested PCR, the positive signal was detected in 3.0% and 3.1% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 42.3% and 63.0% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. If the fish species were considered, the positive signal was detected in 21.7% and 72.7% species of wild and cage-reared fish by seminested PCR assay, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 65.2% and 100% species of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the nested PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic tree showed that all the obtained viral isolates belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Thirty-five species of the marine fish were the new hosts of NNV.

  13. Bacterial Genome Partitioning: N-Terminal Domain of IncC Protein Encoded by Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RK2 Modulates Oligomerisation and DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Batt, Sarah M.; Bingle, Lewis E.H.; Dafforn, Tim R.; Thomas, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    ParA Walker ATPases form part of the machinery that promotes better-than-random segregation of bacterial genomes. ParA proteins normally occur in one of two forms, differing by their N-terminal domain (NTD) of approximately 100 aa, which is generally associated with site-specific DNA binding. Unusually, and for as yet unknown reasons, parA (incC) of IncP-1 plasmids is translated from alternative start codons producing two forms, IncC1 (364 aa) and IncC2 (259 aa), whose ratio varies between hosts. IncC2 could be detected as an oligomeric form containing dimers, tetramers and octamers, but the N-terminal extension present in IncC1 favours nucleotide-stimulated dimerisation as well as high-affinity and ATP-dependent non-specific DNA binding. The IncC1 NTD does not dimerise or bind DNA alone, but it does bind IncC2 in the presence of nucleotides. Mixing IncC1 and IncC2 improved polymerisation and DNA binding. Thus, the NTD may modulate the polymerisation interface, facilitating polymerisation/depolymerisation and DNA binding, to promote the cycle that drives partitioning. PMID:19109978

  14. Determination of Cloud Base Height, Wind Velocity, and Short-Range Cloud Structure Using Multiple Sky Imagers Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Dong; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Yu, Dantong

    2016-07-01

    Clouds are a central focus of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and more broadly are the subject of much investigation because of their important effects on atmospheric radiation and, through feedbacks, on climate sensitivity. Significant progress has been made by moving from a vertically pointing (“soda-straw”) to a three-dimensional (3D) view of clouds by investing in scanning cloud radars through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Yet, because of the physical nature of radars, there are key gaps in ARM's cloud observational capabilities. For example, cloud radars often fail to detect small shallow cumulus and thin cirrus clouds that are nonetheless radiatively important. Furthermore, it takes five to twenty minutes for a cloud radar to complete a 3D volume scan and clouds can evolve substantially during this period. Ground-based stereo-imaging is a promising technique to complement existing ARM cloud observation capabilities. It enables the estimation of cloud coverage, height, horizontal motion, morphology, and spatial arrangement over an extended area of up to 30 by 30 km at refresh rates greater than 1 Hz (Peng et al. 2015). With fine spatial and temporal resolution of modern sky cameras, the stereo-imaging technique allows for the tracking of a small cumulus cloud or a thin cirrus cloud that cannot be detected by a cloud radar. With support from the DOE SunShot Initiative, the Principal Investigator (PI)’s team at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed some initial capability for cloud tracking using multiple distinctly located hemispheric cameras (Peng et al. 2015). To validate the ground-based cloud stereo-imaging technique, the cloud stereo-imaging field campaign was conducted at the ARM Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma from July 15 to December 24. As shown in Figure 1, the cloud

  15. The myxoma virus m-t5 ankyrin repeat host range protein is a novel adaptor that coordinately links the cellular signaling pathways mediated by Akt and Skp1 in virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Werden, Steven J; Lanchbury, Jerry; Shattuck, Donna; Neff, Chris; Dufford, Max; McFadden, Grant

    2009-12-01

    Most poxviruses express multiple proteins containing ankyrin (ANK) repeats accounting for a large superfamily of related but unique determinants of poxviral tropism. Recently, select members of this novel family of poxvirus proteins have drawn considerable attention for their potential roles in modulating intracellular signaling networks during viral infection. The rabbit-specific poxvirus, myxoma virus (MYXV), encodes four unique ANK repeat proteins, termed M-T5, M148, M149, and M150, all of which include a carboxy-terminal PRANC domain which closely resembles a cellular protein motif called the F-box domain. Here, we show that each MYXV-encoded ANK repeat protein, including M-T5, interacts directly with the Skp1 component of the host SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, and that the binding of M-T5 to cullin 1 is indirect via binding to Skp1 in the host SCF complex. To understand the significance of these virus-host protein interactions, the various binding domains of M-T5 were mapped. The N-terminal ANK repeats I and II were identified as being important for interaction with Akt, whereas the C-terminal PRANC/F-box-like domain was essential for binding to Skp1. We also report that M-T5 can bind Akt and the host SCF complex (via Skp1) simultaneously in MYXV-infected cells. Finally, we report that M-T5 specifically mediates the relocalization of Akt from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during infection with the wild-type MYXV, but not the M-T5 knockout version of the virus. These result