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Sample records for hot dipping processes

  1. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Xingbo Liu

    2006-01-18

    The process of continuous galvanizing of rolled sheet steel includes immersion into a bath of molten zinc/aluminum alloy. The steel strip is dipped in the molten bath through a series of driving motors and rollers which control the speed and tension of the strip, with the ability to modify both the amount of coating applied to the steel as well as the thickness and width of the sheet being galvanized. There are three rolls used to guide the steel strip through the molten metal bath. The rolls that operate in the molten Zn/Al are subject to a severely corrosive environment and require frequent changing. The performance of this equipment, the metallic hardware submerged in the molten Zn/Al bath, is the focus of this research. The primary objective of this research is to extend the performance life of the metallic hardware components of molten Zn/Al pot hardware by an order of magnitude. Typical galvanizing operations experience downtimes on the order of every two weeks to change the metallic hardware submerged in the molten metal bath. This is an expensive process for industry which takes upwards of 3 days for a complete turn around to resume normal operation. Each roll bridle consists of a sink, stabilizer, and corrector roll with accompanying bearing components. The cost of the bridle rig with all components is as much as $25,000 dollars just for materials. These inefficiencies are of concern to the steel coating companies and serve as a potential market for many materials suppliers. This research effort served as a bridge between the market potential and industry need to provide an objective analytical and mechanistic approach to the problem of wear and corrosion of molten metal bath hardware in a continuous sheet galvanizing line. The approach of the investigators was to provide a means of testing and analysis that was both expeditious and cost effective. The consortium of researchers from West Virginia University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed

  2. The status of chemical sensors for hot-dip galvanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    1996-09-01

    Alloying elements are added to the zinc used in the hot-dip galvanization of sheet steel to control the properties and appearance of the resulting coating. For example, aluminum is added to improve the corrosion resistance and adherence of the coating. Other additions, such as antimony, are added to control the grain size and, thus, the appearance of the coating. The concentrations of these alloying elements may change during the process, either deliberately according to product specifications or due to factors such as preferential oxidation. These changes may require replenishment of a depleted alloying element or adjustments in other processing parameters to maintain optimal efficiency. Intelligent adjustments require knowledge of the alloy composition, which requires inline measurement of the concentrations of alloying elements. This article presents recent developments in chemical sensors for use in hot-dip galvanization. In particular, electrochemical sensors for measuring the concentrations of aluminum and antimony in molten zinc are reviewed.

  3. Effect of Process Variables on the Grain Size and Crystallographic Texture of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaboli, Shirin; McDermid, Joseph R.

    2014-08-01

    A galvanizing simulator was used to determine the effect of galvanizing bath antimony (Sb) content, substrate surface roughness, and cooling rate on the microstructural development of metallic zinc coatings. Substrate surface roughness was varied through the use of relatively rough hot-rolled and relatively smooth bright-rolled steels, cooling rates were varied from 0.1 to 10 K/s, and bulk bath Sb levels were varied from 0 to 0.1 wt pct. In general, it was found that increasing bath Sb content resulted in coatings with a larger grain size and strongly promoted the development of coatings with the close-packed {0002} basal plane parallel to the substrate surface. Increasing substrate surface roughness tended to decrease the coating grain size and promoted a more random coating crystallographic texture, except in the case of the highest Sb content bath (0.1 wt pct Sb), where substrate roughness had no significant effect on grain size except at higher cooling rates (10 K/s). Increased cooling rates tended to decrease the coating grain size and promote the {0002} basal orientation. Calculations showed that increasing the bath Sb content from 0 to 0.1 wt pct Sb increased the dendrite tip growth velocity from 0.06 to 0.11 cm/s by decreasing the solid-liquid interface surface energy from 0.77 to 0.45 J/m2. Increased dendrite tip velocity only partially explains the formation of larger zinc grains at higher Sb levels. It was also found that the classic nucleation theory cannot completely explain the present experimental observations, particularly the effect of increasing the bath Sb, where the classical theory predicts increased nucleation and a finer grain size. In this case, the "poisoning" theory of nucleation sites by segregated Sb may provide a partial explanation. However, any analysis is greatly hampered by the lack of fundamental thermodynamic information such as partition coefficients and surface energies and by a lack of fundamental structural studies. Overall

  4. 7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305.21... Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. Mangoes may be treated using schedule T102-a: (a) Fruit... the treatment. (c) Water in the treatment tank must be treated or changed regularly to...

  5. Deformation and fatigue behavior of hot dip galvanized coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Camurri, Carlos P. . E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl; Benavente, Raul G.; Roa, Isidoro S.; Carrasco, Claudia C.

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports on the results of a study of the effect of static and dynamic stresses on hot dip galvanized coatings on SAE 1020 steel substrates. Galvanizing was performed using baths maintained at 450 deg. C, the zinc containing 0.16% Ti and 0.02% Fe and with Al and Ni in the ranges 0-0.20% and 0-0.30%, respectively. Static three-point bend tests were conducted with applied stresses in the range 428-790 MPa. Dynamic bend-fatigue tests involved stresses in the range 228-578 MPa at a cyclic frequency of 0.25 Hz for up to 700 cycles. The total crack density in the coatings was measured before and after the tests using light optical and electron microscopy. The results showed that the crack density increased as the applied stress increased and crack propagation was promoted perpendicular to the substrate. The number of cycles had no effect on the crack density and propagation at stresses lower than 386 MPa. At higher stresses the number of applied cycles contributed only to crack propagation. It was concluded that the best bath composition for preventing fatigue crack propagation is one that minimized the formation of thinner brittle layers in the galvanized coatings.

  6. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry1,2,3. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago1. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear. First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test. All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  7. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-04

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  8. Improvement of hot-dip zinc coating by enriching the inner layers with iron oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibli, S. M. A.; Manu, R.

    2006-02-01

    The performance of hot-dip galvanic coating formed on steel not only depends on the alloy composition of the superficial layer but also significantly, on the composition of the inner alloy layers at the coating/substrate interface. Further, the presence of barrier oxide layers, if any can also improve the performance of galvanic coating. In the present work, the effect of inner iron oxide barrier layer formed prior to hot-dip galvanization was investigated. A continuous and adherent iron oxide layer was formed on steel by anodic oxidation of the steel substrate. Although the wettability of oxide surface by liquid zinc was initially poor, the increase in dipping time and the transition of the oxide layer to unstable form due to the presence of Cl - ion in the flux facilitated localized growth of Fe-Zn alloy phases. The inhibitive nature of the oxide layer was temporary, since the presence of Cl - induces micro cracks on the oxide surface thereby facilitating better zinc diffusion. The modification of the substrate structure during galvanization was found to influence the galvanizing process significantly. The present study predicts scope for application of this process for protection of rusted steel specimens too.

  9. Embrittlement of surface mount solder joints by hot solder-dipped, gold-plated leads

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1993-07-01

    The detachment of beam-leaded transistors from several surface mount circuit boards following modest thermal cycling was examined. Microstructural analysis of the package leads and bonding pads from the failed units indicated that gold embrittlement was responsible for a loss of solder joint mechanical integrity that caused detachment of transistors from the circuit boards. An analysis of the hot dipping process used to remove gold from the leads prior to assembly demonstrated that the gold, although dissolved from the lead, remained in the nearby solder and was subsequently retained in the coating formed on the lead upon withdrawal from the bath. This scenario allowed gold to enter the circuit board solder joints. It was hypothesized, and later confirmed by experimental trials, that increasing the number of dips prevented gold from entering the solder coatings.

  10. Nanoscale surface analysis on second generation advanced high strength steel after hot dip galvanizing.

    PubMed

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Preis, K; Samek, L; Stifter, D

    2013-09-01

    Second generation advanced high strength steel is one promising material of choice for modern automotive structural parts because of its outstanding maximal elongation and tensile strength. Nonetheless there is still a lack of corrosion protection for this material due to the fact that cost efficient hot dip galvanizing cannot be applied. The reason for the insufficient coatability with zinc is found in the segregation of manganese to the surface during annealing and the formation of manganese oxides prior coating. This work analyses the structure and chemical composition of the surface oxides on so called nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel on the nanoscopic scale after hot dip galvanizing in a simulator with employed analytical methods comprising scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and focused ion beam (FIB) for cross section preparation. By the combination of these methods, it was possible to obtain detailed chemical images serving a better understanding which processes exactly occur on the surface of this novel kind of steel and how to promote in the future for this material system galvanic protection.

  11. Nanoscale surface analysis on second generation advanced high strength steel after hot dip galvanizing.

    PubMed

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Preis, K; Samek, L; Stifter, D

    2013-09-01

    Second generation advanced high strength steel is one promising material of choice for modern automotive structural parts because of its outstanding maximal elongation and tensile strength. Nonetheless there is still a lack of corrosion protection for this material due to the fact that cost efficient hot dip galvanizing cannot be applied. The reason for the insufficient coatability with zinc is found in the segregation of manganese to the surface during annealing and the formation of manganese oxides prior coating. This work analyses the structure and chemical composition of the surface oxides on so called nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel on the nanoscopic scale after hot dip galvanizing in a simulator with employed analytical methods comprising scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and focused ion beam (FIB) for cross section preparation. By the combination of these methods, it was possible to obtain detailed chemical images serving a better understanding which processes exactly occur on the surface of this novel kind of steel and how to promote in the future for this material system galvanic protection. PMID:23404132

  12. Reduction in microbial load on buffalo meat by hot water dip treatment.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Sakhare, P Z; Rao, D N

    1998-01-01

    Buffalo meat cuts from shoulder and leg portions were subjected to hot water treatment (70 and 80 °C for 30 and 60 s). Meat cuts dipped in water at ambient temperature served as control. The surface samples were analysed for microbial load, visual score for colour and numerical values of colour parameters (a(∗), b(∗), L(∗), W). Control samples of shoulder and leg meat had a mean total plate count (TPC) of 4.15 log CFU cm(-2) and 3.81 log CFU cm(-2) and enterobacteriaceae counts of 2.33 log CFU cm(-2) and 2.26 log CFU cm(-2), respectively. Treatment of meat cuts with hot water reduced the TPC significantly (p < 0.001)with a highest reduction of 1.60 log in leg meat and 1.80 log in shoulder meat at 80 °C. Hot water treatment of meat eliminated enterobacteriaceae. Although, there was discolouration of meat by hot water treatment, the colour regained during storage of meat at refrigerated temperature (4 ±1 °C). Hot water treatment of meat resulted in loss of redness (a(∗)), increase in lightness (L(∗)) and whiteness (W). After storage, a(∗) increased and L(∗) and W decreased. The results suggested that the dip treatment with hot water reduces the initial bacterial load substantially and improves the microbiological quality of buffalo meat without causing any permanent discolouration.

  13. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.

  14. Influence of hot water dip on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during storage.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Zhong, Liezhou; Sun, Yujing; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2013-12-01

    The influence of hot water dips (50, 52 and 54  for 3 min) on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during 60 days' storage at 10  was investigated. Hot water dips did not affect fruit quality attributes as well as ascorbic acid content, and 50  treatment significantly reduced fruit weight loss. Significant increases of flavonoids were found in all hot water treated fruit from after treatments till 15 days of storage, whereas phenolic acids were not greatly affected. Hot water dipping at 50  significantly increased total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin immediately after treatment and maintained similar levels with control during storage, while 52 and 54  treatments showed relatively lower levels. The results suggested that hot water dipping at 50  for 3 min can be a promising way to retain functional quality of storing Satsuma mandarin.

  15. Evaluation of hot-water and sanitizer dip treatments of knives contaminated with bacteria and meat residue.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J; Dorsa, Warren J

    2007-03-01

    Hot water (HW; 82.2 degrees C, 180 degreesF) is used for sanitation of meat cutting implements in most slaughter facilities, but validation of actual practices against meat-borne bacterial pathogens and spoilage flora is lacking. Observed implement immersions in HW in two large pork processing plants were found to typically be < or = 1 s. Impact of these practices on bacteria on metal surfaces was assessed in the laboratory, and alternative treatments were investigated. Knives were inoculated with raw pork residues and Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, Clostridium perfringens, and Lactobacillus spp. and were sampled before and after 1- or 15-s dips of blades in HW, warm water (48.9 degrees C), or warm sanitizers (neutral or acid quaternary ammonium compounds [QAC] at 400 ppm, or peroxyacetic acid at 700 ppm H2O2 and 165 ppm peroxyacetic acid). Simultaneous scrubbing and 15-s dipping in HW or acid QAC was also evaluated. Reductions on knives dipped for 1 s were usually < 1 log and were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between treatments. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 after 15 s in HW, neutral QAC, acid QAC, or peroxyacetic acid were 3.02, 2.38, 3.04, and 1.52 log, respectively. Reductions of other bacteria due to HW were not significantly different from sanitizers and were significantly greater than warm water for all bacteria except C. perfringens. Combined scrubbing and 15-s dipping in HW resulted in a 2.91- and 2.25-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, respectively, whereas reduction caused by acid QAC was significantly less at about 1.7 log each. Brief dip treatments of contaminated knives have limited efficacy, but longer immersions cause greater reductions that were not enhanced by scrubbing. QAC is a suitable alternative to HW in this application. PMID:17388054

  16. Atmospheric corrosion of hot-dip galvanized bolts for fastening weathering steel guiderail

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, H.E.; Gorman, C.D. ) Fischer, R.J. )

    1999-03-01

    The life of galvanized fastener coatings is only slightly reduced by coupling to weathering steel, provided the initial coating is thick enough to endure an initial period of galvanic attack prior to the development of a protective rust layer on the weathering steel. Typical thicknesses of hot-dip galvanized coatings (3 to 5 mil [76 to 127 [micro]m]) are adequate. Discoloration on the surface of weathering steel exposed to drainage from galvanized fasteners is superficial, and decreases with time of exposure.

  17. Simple Heat Treatment for Production of Hot-Dip Galvanized Dual Phase Steel Using Si-Al Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Equihua-Guillén, F.; García-Lara, A. M.; Muñíz-Valdes, C. R.; Ortíz-Cuellar, J. C.; Camporredondo-Saucedo, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents relevant metallurgical considerations to produce galvanized dual phase steels from low cost aluminum-silicon steels which are produced by continuous strip processing. Two steels with different contents of Si and Al were austenized in the two-phase field ferrite + austenite (α + γ) in a fast manner to obtain dual phase steels, suitable for hot-dip galvanizing process, under typical parameters of continuous annealing processing line. Tensile dual phase properties were obtained from specimens cooled from temperature below Ar3, held during 3 min, intermediate cooling at temperature above Ar1 and quenching in Zn bath at 465 °C. The results have shown typical microstructure and tensile properties of galvanized dual phase steels. Finally, the synergistic effect of aluminum, silicon, and residual chromium on martensite start temperature ( M s), critical cooling rate ( C R), volume fraction of martensite, and tensile properties has been studied.

  18. Engineering functionality gradients by dip coating process in acceleration mode.

    PubMed

    Faustini, Marco; Ceratti, Davide R; Louis, Benjamin; Boudot, Mickael; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David

    2014-10-01

    In this work, unique functional devices exhibiting controlled gradients of properties are fabricated by dip-coating process in acceleration mode. Through this new approach, thin films with "on-demand" thickness graded profiles at the submillimeter scale are prepared in an easy and versatile way, compatible for large-scale production. The technique is adapted to several relevant materials, including sol-gel dense and mesoporous metal oxides, block copolymers, metal-organic framework colloids, and commercial photoresists. In the first part of the Article, an investigation on the effect of the dip coating speed variation on the thickness profiles is reported together with the critical roles played by the evaporation rate and by the viscosity on the fluid draining-induced film formation. In the second part, dip-coating in acceleration mode is used to induce controlled variation of functionalities by playing on structural, chemical, or dimensional variations in nano- and microsystems. In order to demonstrate the full potentiality and versatility of the technique, original graded functional devices are made including optical interferometry mirrors with bidirectional gradients, one-dimensional photonic crystals with a stop-band gradient, graded microfluidic channels, and wetting gradient to induce droplet motion.

  19. Microstructural Study Of Zinc Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings with Titanium Additions In The Zinc Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konidaris, S.; Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Zinc hot-dip galvanizing is a method for protecting iron and steel against corrosion. Galvanizing with pure Zn or Zn with additions like Ni, Al, Pb and Bi has been extensively studied, but there is a lack of scientific information about other additions. The present work examines the effect of a 0.5 wt% Ti addition in the Zn melt. The samples were exposed to accelerated corrosion in a salt spray chamber (SSC). The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were determined by Optical Microscopy, XRD and SEM associated with an EDS Analyzer. The results indicate that the coatings have a typical morphology, while Zn-Ti phases were also detected.

  20. On The Effect Of Zinc Melt Composition On The Structure Of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konidaris, S.; Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Zinc hot-dip galvanizing is an effective method for the corrosion protection of ferrous materials. A way of improving the results is through the addition of various elements in the zinc melt. In the present work the effect of Ni, Bi, Cr, Mn, Se and Si at concentration of 0.5 or 1.5 wt.% was examined. Coupons of carbon steel St-37 were coated with zinc containing the above-mentioned elements and were exposed in a Salt Spray Chamber (SSC). The micro structure of these coatings was examined with SEM and XRD. In every case the usual morphology was observed, while differences at the thickness and the crystal size of each layer were induced. However the alloying elements were present in the coating affecting its reactivity and, at least in the case of Mn and Cr, improving corrosion resistance.

  1. Hot water dipping of olives (Olea europaea) for virgin oil debittering.

    PubMed

    García, José M; Yousfi, Khaled; Oliva, Jesús; García-Diaz, M Teresa; Pérez-Camino, M Carmen

    2005-10-19

    Olives (Olea europaea L.) of the Manzanilla, Picual, and Verdial varieties harvested at the green mature stage of ripening were dipped in hot water at a range of temperatures between 60 and 72 degrees C for 3 min. Immediately after treatment, oils were physically extracted from the olives. Olive heating promotes a reduction of oil bitterness in direct relationship to the temperature used. Fruit heating at > or =60 degrees C for 3 min did not cause significant changes in acidity, UV absorption, peroxide index, and panel test score of the oils obtained but decreased its oxidative stability. Oils extracted from heated fruit showed higher concentrations of chlorophylls and carotenes and lower total phenol content. PMID:16218671

  2. On The Effect Of Zinc Melt Composition On The Structure Of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Konidaris, S.; Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-23

    Zinc hot-dip galvanizing is an effective method for the corrosion protection of ferrous materials. A way of improving the results is through the addition of various elements in the zinc melt. In the present work the effect of Ni, Bi, Cr, Mn, Se and Si at concentration of 0.5 or 1.5 wt.% was examined. Coupons of carbon steel St-37 were coated with zinc containing the above-mentioned elements and were exposed in a Salt Spray Chamber (SSC). The micro structure of these coatings was examined with SEM and XRD. In every case the usual morphology was observed, while differences at the thickness and the crystal size of each layer were induced. However the alloying elements were present in the coating affecting its reactivity and, at least in the case of Mn and Cr, improving corrosion resistance.

  3. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE NICKEL ADDITION IN ZINC HOT-DIP GALVANIZING BATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-21

    A usual practice during zinc hot-dip galvanizing is the addition of nickel in the liquid zinc which is used to inhibit the Sandelin effect. Its action is due to the fact that the zeta(zeta) phase of the Fe-Zn system is replaced by the TAU(tau) phase of the Fe-Zn-Ni system. In the present work an attempt is made to explain the formation of the TAU phase with thermodynamics. For this reason the Gibbs free energy changes for TAU and zeta phases were calculated. The excess free energy for the system was calculated with the Redlich-Kister polyonyme. From this calculation it was deduced that the Gibbs energy change for the tau phase is negative. As a result its formation is spontaneous.

  4. On texture, corrosion resistance and morphology of hot-dip galvanized zinc coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, H.; Toroghinejad, M. R.; Golozar, M. A.

    2007-06-01

    Texture is an important factor which affects the coating properties. Chemical composition of the zinc bath can strongly influence the texture of hot-dip galvanized coatings. In this study, lead content of the zinc bath was changed from 0.01 wt.% to 0.11 wt.%. Specimens were prepared from zinc baths of different lead content and its texture was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behaviour was analyzed by Tafel extrapolation and linear polarization tests. To study the corrosion products of the specimens, salt spray test was employed. Also, the spangle size of the specimens was determined using line intercept method. From the experimental results it was found that (00.2) basal plane texture component would be weakened by increasing the lead content of the zinc and conversely, (20.1) high angle pyramidal texture components strengthened. Besides, coatings with strong (00.2) texture component and weaker (20.1) component have better corrosion resistance than the coatings with weak (00.2) and strong (20.1) texture components. In addition, surface morphology would be changed and presence of basal planes decreases at the coating surface due to the increase of lead in the zinc bath. Furthermore, spangle size would be increased by increasing the lead content of the zinc bath. Investigation on the effects of skin pass rolling showed that in this case, (00.2) basal texture component and corrosion resistance of the skin passed specimens, in comparison with non-skin passed specimens, have been decreased.

  5. Fabrication and mechanical properties of PLLA/PCL/HA composites via a biomimetic, dip coating, and hot compression procedure.

    PubMed

    Charles, L F; Shaw, M T; Olson, J R; Wei, M

    2010-06-01

    Currently, the bone-repair biomaterials market is dominated by high modulus metals and their alloys. The problem of stress-shielding, which results from elastic modulus mismatch between these metallic materials and natural bone, has stimulated increasing research into the development of polymer-ceramic composite materials that can more closely match the modulus of bone. In this study, we prepared poly(L: -lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PLLA/HA/PCL) composites via a four-step process, which includes surface etching of the fiber, the deposition of the HA coating onto the PLLA fibers through immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), PCL coating through a dip-coating process, and hot compression molding. The initial HA-coated PLLA fiber had a homogeneous and continuous coating with a gradient structure. The effects of HA: PCL ratio and molding temperature on flexural mechanical properties were studied and both were shown to be important to mechanical properties. Mechanical results showed that at low molding temperatures and up to an HA: PCL volume ratio of 1, the flexural strain decreased while the flexural modulus and strength increased. At higher mold temperatures with a lower viscosity of the PCL a HA: PCL ratio of 1.6 gave similar properties. The process successfully produced composites with flexural moduli near the lower range of bone. Such composites may have clinical use for load bearing bone fixation.

  6. Evaluation of the Spanish hot dip galvanising sector as a source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Angeles; Sanz, Paloma; Ruiz, M Luisa; Fabrellas, Begoña; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    A survey to estimate the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emissions of Spanish hot dip galvanising sector was carried out during 2002. This investigation is the first presenting Spanish experimental data related to this industrial sector. Three different matrices: flue gas, ash and filter dust were tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs generated during the galvanising process. The organic source of PCDD/F formation could be from the insufficient degreasing o from inhibitors or additives used in the pickling steps such as quinoline, isoquinoline, 8-methylquinoline or polyether phosphoric acid. Low levels PCDD/Fs were achieved in air emissions when air control devices are used. On the contrary, filter dusts are highly contaminated; indicating that the absence of air control devices would increase the risk of fugitive emissions. Homologue profiles and Principal Component Analysis demonstrate there are differences in the formation mechanisms in the bath zone (ashes) compared to the stack location (filter dusts and air emissions), related to the de novo synthesis and reaction time. The annual PCDD/F emission to the atmosphere for this sector during 2002 has been estimated in 0.023g I-TEQ. The emission factor of plants with air control devices has been calculated at 0.030microg I-TEQ/ton of galvanised steel. PMID:18083211

  7. Evolution of micro-arc oxidation behaviors of the hot-dipping aluminum coatings on Q235 steel substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihong, Lu; Dejiu, Shen; Jingwu, Zhang; Jian, Song; Liang, Li

    2011-02-01

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is not applicable to prepare ceramic coatings on the surface of steel directly. In this work, hybrid method of MAO and hot-dipping aluminum (HDA) were employed to fabricate composite ceramic coatings on the surface of Q235 steel. The evolution of MAO coatings, such as growth rate, thickness of the total coatings, ingrown and outgrown coatings, cross section and surface morphologies and phase composition of the ceramic coatings were studied. The results indicate that both the current density and the processing time can affect the total thickness, the growth rate and the ratio of ingrown and outgrown thickness of the ceramic coatings. The total thickness, outgrown thickness and growth rate have maximum values with the processing time prolonged. The time when the maximum value appears decreases and the ingrown dominant turns to outgrown dominant little by little with the current density increasing. The composite coatings obtained by this hybrid method consists of three layers from inside to outside, i.e. Fe-Al alloy layer next to the substrate, aluminum layer between the Fe-Al layer and the ceramic coatings which is as the top exterior layer. Metallurgical bonding was observed between every of the two layers. There are many micro-pores and micro-cracks, which act as discharge channels and result of quick and non-uniform cooling of melted sections in the MAO coatings. The phase composition of the ceramic coatings is mainly composed of amorphous phase and crystal Al2O3 oxides. The crystal Al2O3 phase includes κ-Al2O3, θ-Al2O3 and β-Al2O3. Compared with the others, the β-Al2O3 content is the least. The MAO process can be divided into three periods, namely the common anodic oxidation stage, the stable MAO stage and the ceramic coatings destroyed stage. The exterior loose part of the ceramic coatings was destroyed badly in the last period which should be avoided during the MAO process.

  8. Development of nano TiO2-incorporated phosphate coatings on hot dip zinc surface for good paintability and corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibli, S. M. A.; Chacko, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Phosphating is one of the most important chemical conversion processes for the purpose of corrosion protection and primer for painting. In the present work, nano TiO2 incorporated phosphate coating was developed on hot dip galvanized zinc surface for achieving good paintability and corrosion resistance. Based on the results from preliminary studies, the amount of nano TiO2 incorporated into the phosphating bath was optimized as 0.1 g. TiO2 incorporation effectively reduced the extent of zinc dissolution during phosphating and activated the process to achieve the expected coating weight faster. Also it yielded coating with greater thickness than the normal phosphate coating. The TiO2 incorporation resulted in a well crystallized phosphate coating with large crystal size and greater surface coverage. Results from the electrochemical analysis revealed the better barrier protection characteristics and enhanced corrosion resistance of TiO2 incorporated phosphate coatings over the normal phosphate coatings.

  9. Organic acid formulation and dip to control listeria monocytogenes in hot dogs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processed meat products such as frankfurters, smoked sausage, and deli meat have gained popularity because consumers have less time for food preparation and demand more convenient meat items. Because these products are handled post processing and may not be reheated before consumption, the presence...

  10. Wear Behavior and Mechanism of Fe-Al Intermetallic Coating Prepared by Hot-Dip Aluminizing and Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. Y.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, J. Q.; Chen, K. M.; Mo, J. G.; Cui, X. H.; Wang, S. Q.

    2016-05-01

    A Fe-Al intermetallic compound coating was prepared on AISI H13 steel by hot-dip aluminizing and subsequent high-temperature diffusion. Dry sliding wear tests of the Fe-Al intermetallic coating were performed at 298 K to 873 K (25 °C to 600 °C). The wear behavior of the Fe-Al intermetallic coating was noticed to vary markedly with the temperature and load. At 298 K (25 °C), the wear rate rapidly increased with an increase of the load. As the temperature was elevated, the wear rate dramatically decreased except for the cases under 300 N at 473 K and 673 K (200 °C and 400 °C). The Fe-Al intermetallic coating possessed an excellent elevated-temperature wear performance, especially at 673 K to 873 K (400 °C to 600 °C), but worse room-temperature one, which were noticed to be attributed to the existence and inexistence of thin tribo-oxide layers, respectively. Such a thin tribo-oxide layer was considered to provide a protection for the intermetallic compound. When the tribo-oxide layer did not form at room temperature or the formed one was massively delaminated above the critical load at elevated temperatures, Fe-Al intermetallic coating possessed poor wear resistance.

  11. Dynamic nanomechanical properties of novel Si-rich intermetallic coatings growth on a medical 316 LVM steel by hot dipping in a hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy.

    PubMed

    Frutos, E; González-Carrasco, J L

    2015-06-01

    This aim of this study is to determine the elastoplastic properties of Ni-free Al3FeSi2 intermetallic coatings grown on medical stainless steel under different experimental conditions. Elastoplastic properties are defined by the plasticity index (PI), which correlates the hardness and the Young's modulus. Special emphasis is devoted to correlate the PI with the wear resistance under sliding contact, determined by scratch testing, and fracture toughness, determined by using a novel method based on successive impacts with small loads. With regard to the substrate, the developed coatings are harder and exhibit a lower Young's reduced modulus, irrespective of the experimental conditions. It has been shown that preheating of the samples prior to hot dipping and immersion influences the type and volume fraction of precipitates, which in turn also affect the nanomechanical properties. The higher the preheating temperature is, the greater the Young's reduced modulus is. For a given preheating condition, an increase of the immersion time yields a decrease in hardness. Although apparent friction coefficients of coated specimens are smaller than those obtained on AISI 316 LVM, they increase when using preheating or higher immersion times during processing, which correlates with the PI. The presence of precipitates produces an increase in fracture toughness, with values greater than those presented by samples processed on melted AlSi alloys with lower Si content (12 wt%). Therefore, these intermetallic coatings could be considered "hard but tough", suitable to enhance the wear resistance, especially when using short periods of immersion. PMID:25778350

  12. Effect of Dipping Treatments on Color Stabilization and Texture of Apple Cubes for Infrared Dry-Blanching Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research investigated the effectiveness of dipping treatments on reducing enzymatic browning of apple cubes for the infrared dry-blanching (IDB) process. Apple cubes were dipped in solutions with various combinations of ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and calcium chloride (CC) at differen...

  13. Designing the Color of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet Through Destructive Light Interference Using a Zn-Ti Liquid Metallic Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levai, Gabor; Godzsák, Melinda; Török, Tamas I.; Hakl, Jozsef; Takáts, Viktor; Csik, Attila; Vad, Kalman; Kaptay, George

    2016-07-01

    The color of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet was adjusted in a reproducible way using a liquid Zn-Ti metallic bath, air atmosphere, and controlling the bath temperature as the only experimental parameter. Coloring was found only for samples cooled in air and dipped into Ti-containing liquid Zn. For samples dipped into a 0.15 wt pct Ti-containing Zn bath, the color remained metallic (gray) below a 792 K (519 °C) bath temperature; it was yellow at 814 K ± 22 K (541 °C ± 22 °C), violet at 847 K ± 10 K (574 °C ± 10 °C), and blue at 873 K ± 15 K (600 °C ± 15 °C). With the increasing bath temperature, the thickness of the adhered Zn-Ti layer gradually decreased from 52 to 32 micrometers, while the thickness of the outer TiO2 layer gradually increased from 24 to 69 nm. Due to small Al contamination of the Zn bath, a thin (around 2 nm) alumina-rich layer is found between the outer TiO2 layer and the inner macroscopic Zn layer. It is proven that the color change was governed by the formation of thin outer TiO2 layer; different colors appear depending on the thickness of this layer, mostly due to the destructive interference of visible light on this transparent nano-layer. A complex model was built to explain the results using known relationships of chemical thermodynamics, adhesion, heat flow, kinetics of chemical reactions, diffusion, and optics. The complex model was able to reproduce the observations and allowed making predictions on the color of the hot-dip galvanized steel sample, as a function of the following experimental parameters: temperature and Ti content of the Zn bath, oxygen content, pressure, temperature and flow rate of the cooling gas, dimensions of the steel sheet, velocity of dipping the steel sheet into the Zn-Ti bath, residence time of the steel sheet within the bath, and the velocity of its removal from the bath. These relationships will be valuable for planning further experiments and technologies on color hot-dip galvanization of steel

  14. Direct deposition of highly conductive aluminum thin film on substrate by solution-dipping process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Moon; Choi, Si-Young; Jung, Areum

    2013-06-12

    A solution-dipping process consisting of 2 steps, including (i) a catalytic treatment of the substrate and (ii) an immersion of the catalytically treated substrate into an aluminum precursor solution of AlH3{O(C4H9)2}, is suggested for the low-cost and simple preparation of aluminum thin film. This process can be applied to electric devices in the way of not only various film geometry including large area (□ 100 mm (W) × 100 mm (L)) or patterned structure but also the diverse substrate selectivity including rigid or flexible substrate. More interestingly, preparations of aluminum film in this study can be unprecedentedly accomplished at room temperature with the help of chemical catalyst to decompose AlH3{O(C4H9)2} into Al, 1.5H2, and O(C4H9)2. Beyond the previously reported processes, the prepared Al films via solution-dipping process are comparable or even superior to Ag, Au, and Al films prepared by other solution processes and furthermore are found to be excellent in mechanical durability against external deformation. PMID:23716504

  15. Investigation of hydrogeologic processes in a dipping layer structure: 1. The flow barrier effect.

    PubMed

    Alfnes, E; Kinzelbach, W; Aagaard, P

    2004-04-01

    Numerical simulations of a field experiment were performed in order to study the processes contributing to lateral diversion of water flow in the unsaturated zone. The experimental site is a glacial delta with dipping layers of alternating finer and coarser sand. Model soil physical parameters for each of the stratigraphic layers were estimated from soil grain size distributions. Anisotropy of the hydraulic conductivity within the layers was critical in order to reproduce the flow pattern observed in the experiment. Capillary and hydraulic barriers were of minor importance for the observed lateral diversion. PMID:15028389

  16. Explosive Indentation Study of B4C-TiAlx Composites Fabricated by the Dipping Exothermic Reaction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Ansari, Haris Masood; Kim, Haneul; Kim, Do Kyung; Chang, Soon Nam

    The aim of this study is to fabricate a high volume fraction B4C-reinforced intermetallic matrix composite by the dipping exothermic reaction process and investigate the shock impact damage response of composites by explosive indentation experiment. It has been shown that the final microstructure of the dipping exothermic reaction process-fabricated composite can be tailored by treatment of the constituent powders and post heat treatment. The hardness and impact damage resistance of the fabricated composites were evaluated.

  17. Steeply dipping heaving bedrock, Colorado: Part 3 - Environmental controls and heaving processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, D.C.; Higgins, J.D.; Olsen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental processes and mechanisms that govern differential heaving in steeply dipping claystone bedrock near Denver, Colorado. Three potential heave mechanisms and causal processes were evaluated: (1) rebound expansion, from reduced overburden stress; (2) expansive gypsum-crystal precipitation, from oxidation of pyrite; and (3) swelling of clay minerals, from increased ground moisture. First, we documented the effect of short-term changes in overburden stress, atmospheric exposure, and ground moisture on bedrock at various field sites and in laboratory samples. Second, we documented differential heaving episodes in outcrops and at construction and developed sites. We found that unloading and exposure of the bedrock in construction-cut areas are essentially one-time processes that result in drying and desiccation of the near-surface bedrock, with no visible heaving response. In contrast, wetting produces a distinct swelling response in the claystone strata, and it may occur repeatedly as natural precipitation or from lawn irrigation. We documented 2.5 to 7.5 cm (1 to 3 in.) of differential heaving in 24 hours triggered by sudden infiltration of water at the exposed ground surface in outcrops and at construction sites. From these results, we interpret that rebound and pyrite weathering, both of which figure strongly into the long-term geologic evolution of the geologic framework, do not appear to be major heave mechanisms at these excavation depths. Heaving of the claystone takes two forms: (1) hydration swelling of dipping bentonitic beds or zones, and (2) hydration swelling within bedrock blocks accommodated by lateral, thrust-shear movements, along pre-existing bedding and fracture planes.

  18. Controlled Growth of Ultrathin Film of Organic Semiconductors by Balancing the Competitive Processes in Dip-Coating for Organic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Suna; Chen, Xiaosong; Xu, Zeyang; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Wenping; Chi, Lifeng; Gao, Xike; Meng, Yancheng

    2016-06-28

    Ultrathin film with thickness below 15 nm of organic semiconductors provides excellent platform for some fundamental research and practical applications in the field of organic electronics. However, it is quite challenging to develop a general principle for the growth of uniform and continuous ultrathin film over large area. Dip-coating is a useful technique to prepare diverse structures of organic semiconductors, but the assembly of organic semiconductors in dip-coating is quite complicated, and there are no reports about the core rules for the growth of ultrathin film via dip-coating until now. In this work, we develop a general strategy for the growth of ultrathin film of organic semiconductor via dip-coating, which provides a relatively facile model to analyze the growth behavior. The balance between the three direct factors (nucleation rate, assembly rate, and recession rate) is the key to determine the growth of ultrathin film. Under the direction of this rule, ultrathin films of four organic semiconductors are obtained. The field-effect transistors constructed on the ultrathin film show good field-effect property. This work provides a general principle and systematic guideline to prepare ultrathin film of organic semiconductors via dip-coating, which would be highly meaningful for organic electronics as well as for the assembly of other materials via solution processes.

  19. Controlled Growth of Ultrathin Film of Organic Semiconductors by Balancing the Competitive Processes in Dip-Coating for Organic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Suna; Chen, Xiaosong; Xu, Zeyang; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Wenping; Chi, Lifeng; Gao, Xike; Meng, Yancheng

    2016-06-28

    Ultrathin film with thickness below 15 nm of organic semiconductors provides excellent platform for some fundamental research and practical applications in the field of organic electronics. However, it is quite challenging to develop a general principle for the growth of uniform and continuous ultrathin film over large area. Dip-coating is a useful technique to prepare diverse structures of organic semiconductors, but the assembly of organic semiconductors in dip-coating is quite complicated, and there are no reports about the core rules for the growth of ultrathin film via dip-coating until now. In this work, we develop a general strategy for the growth of ultrathin film of organic semiconductor via dip-coating, which provides a relatively facile model to analyze the growth behavior. The balance between the three direct factors (nucleation rate, assembly rate, and recession rate) is the key to determine the growth of ultrathin film. Under the direction of this rule, ultrathin films of four organic semiconductors are obtained. The field-effect transistors constructed on the ultrathin film show good field-effect property. This work provides a general principle and systematic guideline to prepare ultrathin film of organic semiconductors via dip-coating, which would be highly meaningful for organic electronics as well as for the assembly of other materials via solution processes. PMID:27267545

  20. Harvest maturity and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Arkin' carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 13.5), cut to 1 cm thick slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 d...

  1. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions. PMID:25328209

  2. Influence of Minor Alloying Elements on Selective Oxidation and Reactive Wetting of CMnSi TRIP Steel during Hot Dip Galvanizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Lawrence; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Young Ha; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of the addition of minor alloying elements on the selective oxidation and the reactive wetting of CMnSi transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels was studied by means of galvanizing simulator tests. Five TRIP steels containing small alloying additions of Cr, Ni, Ti, Cu, and Sn were investigated. After intercritical annealing (IA) at 1093 K (820 °C) in a N2 + 5 pct H2 gas atmosphere with a dew point of 213 K (-60 °C), two types of oxides were formed on the strip surface: Mn-rich xMnO·SiO2 ( x > 1.5) and Si-rich xMnO·SiO2 ( x < 0.3) oxides. The addition of the minor alloying elements changed the morphology of the Si-rich oxides from a continuous film to discrete islands and this improved the wettability by molten Zn. The improved wetting effect of the minor alloying elements was attributed to an increased area fraction of the surface where the oxides were thinner, enabling a direct unhindered reaction between Fe and the Al in the liquid Zn and the formation of the inhibition layer during the hot dip galvanizing. The addition of a small amount of Sn is shown to significantly decrease the density of Zn-coating defects on CMnSi TRIP steels.

  3. Processing map for hot working of powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna Bhat, B. V.; Mahajan, Y. R.; Roshan, H. Md.; Prasad, Yvrk

    1992-08-01

    The constitutive flow behavior of a metal matrix composite (MMC) with 2124 aluminum containing 20 vol pct silicon carbide particulates under hot-working conditions in the temperature range of 300 °C to 550 °C and strain-rate range of 0.001 to 1 s-1 has been studied using hot compression testing. Processing maps depicting the variation of the efficiency of power dissipation given by [2m/(m + 1)] (where m is the strain-rate sensitivity of flow stress) with temperature and strain rate have been established for the MMC as well as for the matrix material. The maps have been interpreted on the basis of the Dynamic Materials Model (DMM). [3] The MMC exhibited a domain of superplasticity in the temperature range of 450 °C to 550 °C and at strain rates less than 0.1 s-1. At 500 °C and 1 s-1 strain rate, the MMC undergoes dynamic recrystallization (DRX), resulting in a reconstitution of microstructure. In comparison with the map for the matrix material, the DRX domain occurred at a strain rate higher by three orders of magnitude. At temperatures lower than 400 °C, the MMC exhibited dynamic recovery, while at 550 °C and 1 s-1, cracking occurred at the prior particle boundaries (representing surfaces of the initial powder particles). The optimum temperature and strain-rate combination for billet conditioning of the MMC is 500 °C and 1 s-1, while secondary metalworking may be done in the super- plasticity domain. The MMC undergoes microstructural instability at temperatures lower than 400 °C and strain rates higher than 0.1 s-1.

  4. Rupture Process During the 2015 Illapel, Chile Earthquake: Zigzag-Along-Dip Rupture Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuwaki, Ryo; Yagi, Yuji; Aránguiz, Rafael; González, Juan; González, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    We constructed a seismic source model for the 2015 M W 8.3 Illapel, Chile earthquake, which was carried out with the kinematic waveform inversion method adopting a novel inversion formulation that takes into account the uncertainty in the Green's function, together with the hybrid backprojection method enabling us to track the spatiotemporal distribution of high-frequency (0.3-2.0 Hz) sources at high resolution by using globally observed teleseismic P-waveforms. A maximum slip amounted to 10.4 m in the shallow part of the seismic source region centered 72 km northwest of the epicenter and generated a following tsunami inundated along the coast. In a gross sense, the rupture front propagated almost unilaterally to northward from the hypocenter at <2 km/s, however, in detail the spatiotemporal slip distribution also showed a complex rupture propagation pattern: two up-dip rupture propagation episodes, and a secondary rupture episode may have been triggered by the strong high-frequency radiation event at the down-dip edge of the seismic source region. High-frequency sources tends to be distributed at deeper parts of the slip area, a pattern also documented in other subduction zone megathrust earthquakes that may reflect the heterogeneous distribution of fracture energy or stress drop along the fault. The weak excitation of high-frequency radiation at the termination of rupture may represent the gradual deceleration of rupture velocity at the transition zone of frictional property or stress state between the megathrust rupture zone and the swarm area.

  5. Highly selective removal of Zn(II) ion from hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste with amino-functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nano-adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shuangyou; Tang, Lihong; Li, Kai; Ning, Ping; Peng, Jinhui; Guo, Huibin; Zhu, Tingting; Liu, Ye

    2016-01-15

    Amino-functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nano-adsorbent was used as a novel sorbent to highly selective removal of Zn(II) ion from hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste in the presence of Fe(II). These hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste mainly contain ZnCl2 and FeCl2 in aqueous HCl media. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and BET surface area measurements. Various factors influencing the adsorption of Zn(II) ion such as initial concentration of metal ions, the amount of adsorbent, pH value of the solutions, the concentration of coexisting iron ion were investigated by batch experiments. The results indicated that the adsorption equilibrium data obeyed the Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacities for Zn(II) to 169.5mg/g. The maximum adsorption occurred at pH 5±0.1 and Fe(II) interferences had no obvious influence. This work provides a potential and unique technique for zinc ion removal from hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste. PMID:26458121

  6. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  7. Large-area sol-gel highly-reflective coatings processed by the dipping technique

    SciTech Connect

    Belleville, P.; Pegon, P.

    1997-12-01

    The Centre d`Etudes de Limeil-Valenton is currently involved in a project which consists of the construction of a 2 MJ/500TW (351-nm) pulsed Nd:glass laser devoted to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research. With 240 laser beams, the proposed megajoule-class laser conceptual design necessitates 44-cm x 2 44-cm x 6-cm cavity-end mirrors (1053-nm) representing more than 50-m{sup 2} of coated area. These dielectric mirrors are made of quaterwave stacks of SiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}-PVP (PolyVinylPyrrolidone) and are prepared from colloidal suspensions (sols) using the sol-gel route. After a sustained search effort. we have prepared (SiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}-PVP){sup 10} mirrored coatings with up to 99% reflection at 1053-nm and for different incidence use. Adequate laser-conditioned damage thresholds ranging 14 - 15 J/cm{sup 2} at 1053-nm wavelength and with 3-ns pulse duration were achieved. Large-area mirrors with good coating uniformity and weak edge-effect were produced by dip-coating at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

  8. THERMAL PROCESSES GOVERNING HOT-JUPITER RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-07-20

    There have been many proposed explanations for the larger-than-expected radii of some transiting hot Jupiters, including either stellar or orbital energy deposition deep in the atmosphere or deep in the interior. In this paper, we explore the important influences on hot-Jupiter radius evolution of (1) additional heat sources in the high atmosphere, the deep atmosphere, and deep in the convective interior; (2) consistent cooling of the deep interior through the planetary dayside, nightside, and poles; (3) the degree of heat redistribution to the nightside; and (4) the presence of an upper atmosphere absorber inferred to produce anomalously hot upper atmospheres and inversions in some close-in giant planets. In particular, we compare the radius expansion effects of atmospheric and deep-interior heating at the same power levels and derive the power required to achieve a given radius increase when night-side cooling is incorporated. We find that models that include consistent day/night cooling are more similar to isotropically irradiated models when there is more heat redistributed from the dayside to the nightside. In addition, we consider the efficacy of ohmic heating in the atmosphere and/or convective interior in inflating hot Jupiters. Among our conclusions are that (1) the most highly irradiated planets cannot stably have uB {approx}> 10 km s{sup -1} G over a large fraction of their daysides, where u is the zonal wind speed and B is the dipolar magnetic field strength in the atmosphere, and (2) that ohmic heating cannot in and of itself lead to a runaway in planet radius.

  9. Dip coating process: Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the low-cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, J. D.; Maciolek, R. B.; Zook, J. D.; Harrison, W. B.; Scott, M. W.; Hendrickson, G.; Wolner, H. A.; Nelson, L. D.; Schuller, T. L.; Peterson, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing solar cell quality sheet silicon by dip-coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large grain polycrystalline silicon was investigated. The dip-coating methods studied were directed toward a minimum cost process with the ultimate objective of producing solar cells with a conversion efficiency of 10% or greater. The technique shows excellent promise for low cost, labor-saving, scale-up potentialities and would provide an end product of sheet silicon with a rigid and strong supportive backing. An experimental dip-coating facility was designed and constructed, several substrates were successfully dip-coated with areas as large as 25 sq cm and thicknesses of 12 micron to 250 micron. There appears to be no serious limitation on the area of a substrate that could be coated. Of the various substrate materials dip-coated, mullite appears to best satisfy the requirement of the program. An inexpensive process was developed for producing mullite in the desired geometry.

  10. Understanding the role of dip-coating process parameters in the mechanical performance of polymer-coated bioglass robocast scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Motealleh, Azadeh; Eqtesadi, Siamak; Perera, Fidel Hugo; Pajares, Antonia; Guiberteau, Fernando; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    The effect of different dip-coating variables-solvent, deposition temperature and polymer concentration-on the mechanical performance of polycaprolactone-coated 45S5 bioglass robocast scaffolds is systematically analyzed in this work. The reproducible geometry of the scaffolds produced by this additive manufacturing technique makes them an optimal model system and facilitates the analysis. The results suggest that the mechanical performance of the hybrid scaffolds is improved monotonically with polymer concentration, but this concentration cannot be increased indefinitely if the macroporosity interconnectivity, and thus the scaffold׳s capacity to promote tissue ingrowth, are to be preserved. An optimal concentration, and therefore viscosity (~1-4Pas in the present case), exists for any given set of process variables (scaffold geometry and material, polymer, solvent and process temperature) that yields coatings with optimal reinforcement and minimal reduction of scaffold functionality. Solvent and process temperature do not directly affect the strengthening provided by the polymeric coating. However they can determine the maximum concentration at the critical viscosity, and thereby the maximum achievable mechanical performance of the resulting hybrid scaffold.

  11. Understanding the role of dip-coating process parameters in the mechanical performance of polymer-coated bioglass robocast scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Motealleh, Azadeh; Eqtesadi, Siamak; Perera, Fidel Hugo; Pajares, Antonia; Guiberteau, Fernando; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    The effect of different dip-coating variables-solvent, deposition temperature and polymer concentration-on the mechanical performance of polycaprolactone-coated 45S5 bioglass robocast scaffolds is systematically analyzed in this work. The reproducible geometry of the scaffolds produced by this additive manufacturing technique makes them an optimal model system and facilitates the analysis. The results suggest that the mechanical performance of the hybrid scaffolds is improved monotonically with polymer concentration, but this concentration cannot be increased indefinitely if the macroporosity interconnectivity, and thus the scaffold׳s capacity to promote tissue ingrowth, are to be preserved. An optimal concentration, and therefore viscosity (~1-4Pas in the present case), exists for any given set of process variables (scaffold geometry and material, polymer, solvent and process temperature) that yields coatings with optimal reinforcement and minimal reduction of scaffold functionality. Solvent and process temperature do not directly affect the strengthening provided by the polymeric coating. However they can determine the maximum concentration at the critical viscosity, and thereby the maximum achievable mechanical performance of the resulting hybrid scaffold. PMID:27522314

  12. Process for making ceramic hot gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  13. Investigation of hydrogeologic processes in a dipping layer structure - 2. Transport and biodegradation of organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfnes, E.; Breedveld, G. D.; Kinzelbach, W.; Aagaard, P.

    2004-04-01

    Numerical simulation tools have been used to study the dominating processes during transport of aromatic hydrocarbons in the unsaturated soil zone. Simulations were based on field observations at an experimental site located on a glacial delta plain with pronounced layered sedimentary structures. A numerical model for transport in the unsaturated zone, SWMS-3D, has been extended to incorporate coupled multispecies transport, microbial degradation following Monod kinetics and gas diffusive transport of oxygen and hydrocarbons. The flow field parameters were derived from previous work using nonreactive tracers. Breakthrough curves (BTC) from the hydrocarbon field experiment were used to determine sorption parameters and Monod kinetic parameters using a fitting procedure. The numerical simulations revealed that the assumption of homogeneous layers resulted in deviations from the field observations. The deviations were more pronounced with incorporation of reactive transport, compared with earlier work on nonreactive transport. To be able to model reasonable BTC, sorption had to be reduced compared to laboratory experiments. The initial biomass and the maximum utilisation rate could be adjusted to capture both the initial lag phase and the overall degradation rate. Nevertheless, local oxygen limitation is predicted by the model, which was not observed in the field experiment. Incorporation of evaporation and diffusive gas transport of the hydrocarbons did not significantly change the local oxygen demand. The main cause of the observed discrepancies between model and field are attributed to channelling as a result of small-scale heterogeneities such as biopores.

  14. Hot compression process for making edge seals for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Dunyak, Thomas J.; Granata, Jr., Samuel J.

    1994-01-01

    A hot compression process for forming integral edge seals in anode and cade assemblies wherein the assemblies are made to a nominal size larger than a finished size, beads of AFLAS are applied to a band adjacent the peripheral margins on both sides of the assemblies, the assemblies are placed in a hot press and compressed for about five minutes with a force sufficient to permeate the peripheral margins with the AFLAS, cooled and cut to finished size.

  15. Investigation on dip coating process by mathematical modeling of non-Newtonian fluid coating on cylindrical substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Mahyar; Pope, Michael A.; Hrymak, Andrew N.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model for the dip coating process has been developed for cylindrical geometries with non-Newtonian fluids. This investigation explores the effects of the substrate radius and hydrodynamic behavior of the non-Newtonian viscous fluid on the resulting thin film on the substrate. The coating fluid studied, Dymax 1186-MT, is a resin for fiber optics and used as a matrix to suspend 1 vol. % titanium dioxide particles. The coating substrate is a 100 μm diameter fiber optic diffuser. Ellis viscosity model is applied as a non-Newtonian viscous model for coating thickness prediction, including the influence of viscosity in low shear rates that occurs near the surface of the withdrawal film. In addition, the results of the Newtonian and power law models are compared with the Ellis model outcomes. The rheological properties and surface tension of fluids were analyzed and applied in the models and a good agreement between experimental and analytical solutions was obtained for Ellis model.

  16. Processing zirconia by sintering/hot isostatic pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Druschitz, A.P. )

    1988-05-01

    Sintering followed by hot isostatic pressing is a potential method for improving the mechanical properties of ceramic materials. Encouraging data have been presented and published but these data do not clearly show the origin of the benefits. Here, the effects of green density, time, temperature, and pressure on sintered density, grain size, and pore size of slip-cast ZrO{sub 2}-3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} are described. The data demonstrate that, when compared to pressureless sintering, the sintering/hot isostatic pressing process produces an equivalent maximum density at reduced temperature and significant reductions in pore size, but no reduction in minimum grain size. The maximum density obtainable by the sinter/hot isostatic pressing process was limited by both open porosity and large pores; the processing conditions required to produce the maximum process advantage are described.

  17. Cooling system optimization analysis for hot forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoo, Bonyoung; Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    Hot forming technology was developed to produce automotive panels having ultra-high tensile stress over 1500MPa. The elevated temperature corresponds with decreased flow stress and increased ductility. Furthermore, hot forming products have almost zero springback amounts. This advanced forming technology accelerates the needs for numerical simulations coupling with thermal-mechanical formulations. In the present study, 3-dimensional finite element analyses for hot forming processes are conducted using JSTAMP/NV and LS-DYNA considering cooling system. Special attention is paid to the optimization of cooling system using thermo-mechanical finite element analysis through the influence of various cooling parameters. The presented work shows an adequate cooling system functions and microstructural phase transformation material model together with a proper set of numerical parameters can give both efficient and accurate design insight in hot forming manufacturing process. JSTAMP/NV and LS-DYNA can become a robust combination set for complex hot forming analysis which needs thermo-mechanical and microstructural material modeling and various process modeling. The use of the new JSTAMP/NV function for multishot manufacturing process is shown good capabilities in cooling system evaluation. And the use of the advanced LS-DYNA microstructural phase transformation model is shown good evaluation results in martensite amount and Vickers hardness after quenching.

  18. ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111679. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Effects of modified atmosphere packing and honey dip treatments on quality maintenance of minimally processed grape cv. Razaki (V. vinifera L.) during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Sabır, Ali; Sabır, Ferhan K; Kara, Zeki

    2011-06-01

    Increasing pressure in food conservation sector to replace chemical applications has urged researchers to focus on studying new strategies of extending the postharvest life of produces. In such efforts, numerous materials have been tested for their effectiveness as well as suitability in organic consumption. In this study, effects of modified atmosphere packing (MAP) and honey solution dip on maintenance of quality of minimally processed table grape cv. Razaki were investigated. During the storage at 0 °C with relative humidity of 90%, MAP, honey dip, and their combined applications significantly retarded the weight loss of berries that retained about 2 mm of cap stem. Soluble solid contents of all berries slightly increased, while their acid amounts decreased, resulting in consecutive rises of maturity index. With respect to the sensory score, calculated as mean of ten panelists, honey treatment alone was ranked the highest while control berries had significantly lower value. Overall, MAP, honey solution dip or their combination significantly maintained the general quality of minimally processed grape by delaying quality loss and berry decay. Therefore, honey solution dip yielded promising results to use as an edible organic coating barrier to moisture and resist to water vapor diffusion during the cold storage, offering a good adherence to berry surface. PMID:23572752

  20. Harvest maturity, pre-cutting wash and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Arkin’ carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 12), cut to 10 mm slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 days sto...

  1. 3 Surface water accumulation and subsequent drip loss for processed broiler carcasses subjected to a postchill water dip or spray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To estimate the potential residual carryover of antimicrobials, surface water accumulation and loss was measured for postchill carcasses either dipped or sprayed with water and allowed to drip for up to 5 min. In trials 1 and 2, 10 male broilers were slaughtered, and either soft or hard scalded, and...

  2. Dip-slope and Dip-slope Failures in Taiwan - a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.

    2011-12-01

    Taiwan is famous for dip-slope and dip-slope slides. Dip-slopes exist at many places in the fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan. Under active cutting of stream channels and man-made excavations, a dip-slope may become unstable and susceptible for mass sliding. Daylight of a bedding parallel clay seam is the most dangerous type for dip-slope sliding. Buckling or shear-off features may also happen at toe of a long dip-slope. Besides, a dip-slope is also dangerous for shallow debris slides, if the slope angle is between 25 to 45 degrees and the debris (colluvium or slope wash) is thick (>1m). These unstable slopes may slide during a triggering event, earthquake or typhoon storm; or even slide without a triggering event, like the 2010 Tapu case. Initial buckling feature had been found in the dip-slope of the Feitsui arch dam abutment after detailed explorations. Shear-off feature have also been found in dip-slope located in right bank of the Nahua reservoir after field investigation and drilling. The Chiufengerhshan slide may also be shear-off type. On the other hand, the Tapu, the Tsaoling slides and others are of direct slide type. The Neihoo Bishan slide is a shallow debris slide on dip-slope. All these cases demonstrate the four different types of dip-slope slide. The hazard of a dip-slope should be investigated to cover these possible types of failure. The existence of bedding parallel clay seams is critical for the stability of a dip-slope, either for direct slide or buckling or shear-off type of failure, and is a hot point during investigation. Because, the stability of a dip-slope is changing with time, therefore, detailed explorations to including weathering and erosion rates are also very necessary to ensure the long-term stability of a dip-slope.

  3. Powder processing of nickel and other aluminides by hot consolidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedula, K.; Stephens, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Alloys based on FeAl, NiAl, and Ni3Al have been processed by extrusion of powders over a range of compositions, powder characteristics, and extrusion parameters. It is found that extrusion leads to dynamic recrystallization and that the grain size of the extrusions depends on the powder size, extrusion temperature, and extrusion ratio. Prior particle boundary oxides play an important role in controlling the grain size and uniformity by acting as obstacles to grain growth. Hot isostatic pressing and vacuum hot pressing can be used for powder densification, but prior particle oxides are not effectively broken up due to insufficient shearing deformation.

  4. Experimental investigation of interaction processes between droplets and hot walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, A.; Frohn, A.

    2000-04-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of interaction processes of small liquid droplets with hot walls well above the Leidenfrost temperature has been carried out. The experimental method which uses monodisperse droplet streams in combination with a standard video camera allows very detailed observations and measurements with very high time resolution. The main intent of this paper is to study the mechanical behavior of liquid droplets impacting on hot walls well above the Leidenfrost temperature. A better understanding of this process may lead to a better modeling of two-phase flows, especially for applications in fuel preparation processes, combustion processes, and spray cooling. The loss of momentum of the droplets, the droplet deformation, and the onset of droplet disintegration have been investigated. For all experimental results correlations have been developed, which can be used to improve the numerical modeling of two-phase flows. Using the correlation for the loss of momentum a theoretical approximation for the maximum droplet deformation has been deduced, which yields a very good agreement with our own measurements as well as with results reported in the literature. A minimum impinging angle for droplet disintegration has been discovered for small impinging angles. Below this impinging angle no droplet disintegration is observed. This phenomenon is directly related to the energy dissipation at the wall during the interaction process. With the presented work the understanding of basic interaction processes between droplets and hot walls may be improved.

  5. Stochastic behavior of cooling processes in hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    de Oliveira, P.M.; Sa Martins, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    The collapse of structure effects observed in hot nuclei is interpreted in terms of a dynamic lattice model which describes the process of nucleon (clusters) evaporation from a hot nucleus, predicting the final mass distribution. Results are compared with experimental data for the {sup 10}B+{sup 9}Be and {sup 10}B+{sup 10}B reactions, and indicate that the structures observed in the low-energy mass distributions in both simulation and experiment are a consequence of the competition between the residual interactions and the thermalization dissipative process. As a characteristic feature of complex evolving systems, this competition leads to long term memory during the dissipative path, the observables becoming thus insensitive to the actual microscopic interactions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  7. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation with or without hot water dip and transportation from Thailand to Canada on nutritional qualities, ripening index and sensorial characteristics of Thai mangoes (Nahng Glahng Wahn variety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Gagnon, M.; Pringsulaka, V.; Jobin, M.; Latreille, B.; Nouchpramool, K.; Prachasitthisak, Y.; Charoen, S.; Adulyatham, P.; Lettre, J.; Grad, B.

    1993-07-01

    Two lots of mangoes of the Nahng Glahng Wahn variety from Thailand were irradiated at the Thai Irradiation Center (TIC) at 0.49 to 0.77 kGy. Following this, one batch was retained in Thailand while the other was shipped to the Canadian Irradiation Center (CIC) for investigation of the same variables during storage. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma radiation with hot water dip (HWI) or without (I) before and after transportation on the ripening, vitamin C and vitamin A content and sensory qualities of mangoes. The results indicate that the I and HWI treatments delayed the ripening of the mangoes. The irradiated groups appeared to have a slightly higher content of ascorbic acid on the first day after irradiation than their corresponding controls. The sensory evaluation indicates that the panelists mostly favoured the I and HWI irradiated groups for the overall appearance and texture of whole mangoes and pulp and in taste and palatability of the pulp alone. Transportation stress did not appear to have much of an effect on the ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid levels and the sensorial tests. The mangoes stored and studied in Canada appeared to have a lower vitamin A content.

  9. Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J.; Chaubal, P.C.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

  10. Electronic states and photoexcitation processes of titanium dioxide nanoparticle films dip coated from aqueous Degussa P25 photocatalyst suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jihua; Warren, David S.; Gordon, Keith C.; McQuillan, A. James

    2007-01-15

    The electronic properties of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystalline films, which were prepared by dip coating from Degussa P25 photocatalyst aqueous suspension, have been investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). As indicated by the positive contact potential difference (CPD) change in the sub-band-gap region, SPS shows that the molecularly adsorbed H{sub 2}O in the freshly prepared P25 film creates an empty electron state, which is distributed within 0.79 eV below the conduction band edge, and acts as an electron trap and carrier recombination center. With film aging or under a drying atmosphere, the H{sub 2}O-associated state diminishes, and the occupied electron state due to molecularly adsorbed oxygen, lying within 1.06 eV above the valence band edge, is identified by the reversed polarity of the CPD change in the sub-band-gap region. This information is important in developing a better understanding of real photocatalyst behavior.

  11. High-pressure combinatorial process integrating hot isostatic pressing.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Morita, Hiroki; Goshima, Yuji; Ito, Shigeru

    2013-12-01

    A high-pressure combinatorial process integrating hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was developed by providing a reaction vessel with a high-pressure tightness based on a commercial flange. The reaction vessel can be used up to 200 MPa and 500 °C under HIP processing condition. Preparation of spinel-type MgAl2O4 from Mg(OH)2, Al(OH)3 and AlOOH was performed using the reaction vessel under 200 MPa and 500 °C as demonstration. The entire powder library was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction patterns, and the single phase of spinel-type MgAl2O4 was obtained from Mg(OH)2+Al(OH)3. These assessments corresponded with previously published data. PMID:24168067

  12. Abduction of Toe-excavation Induced Failure Process from LEM and FDM for a Dip Slope with Rock Anchorage in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-S.; Lin, M.-L.; Liu, H.-C.; Lin, H.-H.

    2012-04-01

    On April 25, 2010, without rainfall and earthquake triggering a massive landslide (200000 m3) covered a 200m stretch of Taiwan's National Freeway No. 3, killing 4 people, burying three cars and destroying a bridge. The failure mode appears to be a dip-slope type failure occurred on a rock anchorage cut slope. The strike of Tertiary sedimentary strata is northeast-southwest and dip 15˚ toward southeast. Based on the investigations of Taiwan Geotechnical Society, there are three possible factors contributing to the failure mechanism as follow:(1) By toe-excavation during construction in 1998, the daylight of the sliding layer had induced the strength reduction in the sliding layer. It also caused the loadings of anchors increased rapidly and approached to their ultimate capacity; (2) Although the excavated area had stabilized soon with rock anchors and backfills, the weathering and groundwater infiltration caused the strength reduction of overlying rock mass; (3) The possible corrosion and age of the ground anchors deteriorate the loading capacity of rock anchors. Considering the strength of sliding layer had reduced from peak to residual strength which was caused by the disturbance of excavation, the limit equilibrium method (LEM) analysis was utilized in the back analysis at first. The results showed the stability condition of slope approached the critical state (F.S.≈1). The efficiency reduction of rock anchors and strength reduction of overlying stratum (sandstone) had been considered in following analysis. The results showed the unstable condition (F.S. <1). This research also utilized the result of laboratory test, geological strength index(GSI) and finite difference method (FDM, FLAC 5.0) to discuss the failure process with the interaction of disturbance of toe-excavation, weathering of rock mass, groundwater infiltration and efficiency reduction of rock anchors on the stability of slope. The analysis indicated that the incremental load of anchors have

  13. The Process of Thinking among Junior High School Students in Solving HOTS Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakry, Md Nor Bin Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) is one of the important aspect of teaching and learning mathematics. By using HOTS, student will be able to acquire a deep understand of mathematical concepts and can be applied in real life. Students ability to develop the capacity of the HOTS is closely related with thinking processes while solving mathematics…

  14. DIPS Space Exploration Initiative safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, Terry E.

    The Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem has been identified for potential applications for the Space Exploration Initiative. A qualitative safety assessment has been performed to demonstrate the overall safety adequacy of the Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem for these applications. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and Martian flights. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for all mission phases. Safety issue were then identified. The safety issues included radiation exposure, fuel containment, criticality, diversion, toxic materials, heat flux to the extravehicular mobility unit, and disposal. The design was reviewed for areas where safety might be further improved. Safety would be improved by launching the fuel separate from the rest of the subsystem on expendable launch vehicles, using a fuel handling tool during unloading of the hot fuel canister, and constructing a cage-like structure around the reversible heat removal system lithium heat pipes. The results of the safety assessment indicate that the DIPS design with minor modifications will produce a low risk concept.

  15. Powder processing of nitrides (excluding hot isostatic processing). (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and processing of metal nitride ceramics and refractories. Citations consider compacting and sintering processes. Phase transformations, crystallization, and devitrification processes are considered. Aluminum nitride, boron nitride, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and titanium nitride are among materials discussed. The use of hot isostatic pressing is considered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  17. Deformation processes at the down-dip limit of the seismogenic zone: the example of Shimanto belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzin, Giulia; Raimbourg, Hugues

    2015-04-01

    The metamorphic terranes of Shimanto belt (southwestern Japan) have been recognized as a fossil accretionary prism and offer a good opportunity to study the deep part of the seismogenic zone in subduction contexts. The Hyuga and Makimine units have been strongly deformed for temperature conditions of ~250-280 and 300°C (Mukoyoshi et al., Island Arc 2009), respectively, providing a lower limit in temperature to the seismogenic portion of the plate interface. In both units, the ductile fabrics consist principally in the formation of a phyllosilicate-rich foliation and the deformation of pre-existing quartz veins. The deformation mechanisms in the quartz from the two units are nevertheless very contrasted: in the lower temperature Hyuga unit, quartz deformation results principally from micro-fracturing and dissolution precipitation, with very limited plastic deformation and dynamic recrystallization. In the higher temperature Makimine unit, most of the quartz domains are dynamically recrystallized. Both deformation processes are associated with a strong crystallographic preferred orientation: the lower-temperature processes result in c-axes being parallel to the elongation direction, while the higher-temperature processes result in c-axes being perpendicular to foliation plane. Dissolution-precipitation of quartz constitutes therefore a transitional process, for a temperature between 250 and 300°C, between the low-temperature, brittle portion and the high-temperature, plastic portion of the plate interface. We finally derive estimates of the shear stresses associated with this transitional domain of the plate interface.

  18. Deformation processes at the down-dip limit of the seismogenic zone: The example of Shimanto accretionary complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzin, G.; Raimbourg, H.; Famin, V.; Jolivet, L.; Kusaba, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2016-09-01

    In order to constrain deformation processes close to the brittle-ductile transition in seismogenic zone, we have carried out a microstructural study in the Shimanto accretionary complex (Japan), the fossil equivalent of modern Nankai accretionary prisms. The Hyuga Tectonic Mélange was sheared along the plate interface at mean temperatures of 245 °C ± 30 °C, as estimated by Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). It contains strongly elongated quartz ribbons, characterized by very high fluid inclusions density, as well as micro-veins of quartz. Both fluid inclusion planes and micro-veins are preferentially developed orthogonal to the stretching direction. Furthermore, crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz c-axes in the ribbons has maxima parallel to the stretching direction. Recrystallization to a small grain size is restricted to rare deformation bands cutting across the ribbons. In such recrystallized quartz domains, CPO of quartz c-axes are orthogonal to foliation plane. The evolution of deformation micro-processes with increasing temperature can be further analyzed using the Foliated Morotsuka, a slightly higher-grade metamorphic unit (342 ± 30 °C by RSCM) from the Shimanto accretionary complex. In this unit, in contrast to Hyuga Tectonic Mélange, recrystallization of quartz veins is penetrative. CPO of quartz c-axes is concentrated perpendicularly to foliation plane. These variations in microstructures and quartz crystallographic fabric reflect a change in the dominant deformation mechanism with increasing temperatures: above ~ 300 °C, dislocation creep is dominant and results in intense quartz dynamic recrystallization. In contrast, below ~ 300 °C, quartz plasticity is not totally activated and pressure solution is the major deformation process responsible for quartz ribbons growth. In addition, the geometry of the quartz ribbons with respect to the phyllosilicate-rich shear zones shows that bulk rheology is controlled by

  19. Deformation processes at the down-dip limit of the seismogenic zone: The example of Shimanto accretionary complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzin, G.; Raimbourg, H.; Famin, V.; Jolivet, L.; Kusaba, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2016-09-01

    In order to constrain deformation processes close to the brittle-ductile transition in seismogenic zone, we have carried out a microstructural study in the Shimanto accretionary complex (Japan), the fossil equivalent of modern Nankai accretionary prisms. The Hyuga Tectonic Mélange was sheared along the plate interface at mean temperatures of 245 °C ± 30 °C, as estimated by Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). It contains strongly elongated quartz ribbons, characterized by very high fluid inclusions density, as well as micro-veins of quartz. Both fluid inclusion planes and micro-veins are preferentially developed orthogonal to the stretching direction. Furthermore, crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz c-axes in the ribbons has maxima parallel to the stretching direction. Recrystallization to a small grain size is restricted to rare deformation bands cutting across the ribbons. In such recrystallized quartz domains, CPO of quartz c-axes are orthogonal to foliation plane. The evolution of deformation micro-processes with increasing temperature can be further analyzed using the Foliated Morotsuka, a slightly higher-grade metamorphic unit (342 ± 30 °C by RSCM) from the Shimanto accretionary complex. In this unit, in contrast to Hyuga Tectonic Mélange, recrystallization of quartz veins is penetrative. CPO of quartz c-axes is concentrated perpendicularly to foliation plane. These variations in microstructures and quartz crystallographic fabric reflect a change in the dominant deformation mechanism with increasing temperatures: above 300 °C, dislocation creep is dominant and results in intense quartz dynamic recrystallization. In contrast, below 300 °C, quartz plasticity is not totally activated and pressure solution is the major deformation process responsible for quartz ribbons growth. In addition, the geometry of the quartz ribbons with respect to the phyllosilicate-rich shear zones shows that bulk rheology is controlled by

  20. A controlled wet-spinning and dip-coating process for preparation of high-permeable TiO2 hollow fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Hua; Fan, Xinfei; Chen, Shuo; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the permeate flux of photocatalytic membranes, we present an approach for coupling TiO2 with ceramic hollow fiber membranes. The ceramic hollow fiber membranes with high permeate flux were fabricated by a controlled wet-spinning process using polyethersulfone (PESf) and ceramic powder as precursors and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as solvent, and the subsequent TiO2 coating was performed by a dip-coating process using tetra-n-butyl titanate as precursor. It has been found that the PESf/ceramic powder ratio could influence the structure of the membranes. Here the as-prepared TiO2 hollow fiber membranes had a pure water flux of 4,450 L/(m(2)·h). The performance of the TiO2 hollow fiber membrane was evaluated using humic acid (HA) as a test substance. The results demonstrated that this membrane exhibited a higher permeate flux under UV irradiation than in the dark and the HA removal efficiency was enhanced. The approach described here provides an operable route to the development of high-permeable photocatalytic membranes for water treatment.

  1. A controlled wet-spinning and dip-coating process for preparation of high-permeable TiO2 hollow fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Hua; Fan, Xinfei; Chen, Shuo; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the permeate flux of photocatalytic membranes, we present an approach for coupling TiO2 with ceramic hollow fiber membranes. The ceramic hollow fiber membranes with high permeate flux were fabricated by a controlled wet-spinning process using polyethersulfone (PESf) and ceramic powder as precursors and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as solvent, and the subsequent TiO2 coating was performed by a dip-coating process using tetra-n-butyl titanate as precursor. It has been found that the PESf/ceramic powder ratio could influence the structure of the membranes. Here the as-prepared TiO2 hollow fiber membranes had a pure water flux of 4,450 L/(m(2)·h). The performance of the TiO2 hollow fiber membrane was evaluated using humic acid (HA) as a test substance. The results demonstrated that this membrane exhibited a higher permeate flux under UV irradiation than in the dark and the HA removal efficiency was enhanced. The approach described here provides an operable route to the development of high-permeable photocatalytic membranes for water treatment. PMID:26901713

  2. In-process weld sampling during hot end welds of type W overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-08-27

    Establish the criteria and process controls to be used in obtaining, testing, and evaluating in-process weld sample during the hot end welding of Type W Overpack capsules used to overpack CsCl capsules for storage at WESF.

  3. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotubes infiltrated by TiO2 nanoparticles using a dipping-rinsing-hydrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lu-Yin; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Tsai, Keng-Wei; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Vittal, R.; Wu, Chun-Guey; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-12-01

    An efficient back-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is made with a flexible Ti-foil based photoanode composed of a composite TiO2 film with TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP). The composite TiO2 film is fabricated through a novel dipping-rinsing-hydrolysis (DRH) process by inserting TiO2 into TNT and sintering the product to form TNP inside TNT. By directly placing TiO2 nanoparticles into TNT, the former grow internally from the base of TNT to occupy it completely. This solves previous problems of incomplete filling of TNP into TNT, which used partial penetration of TiCl4 reactant from the top of the TNT. In the present case, the TNP are grown from the base of TNT. A DSSC containing TNT and TNP prepared in this way shows a photoelectric efficiency of 6.45%, which is much higher than that (4.21%) of a DSSC with untreated TNT. The films are characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The improvement in the photoelectric efficiency is explained by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) analysis, and UV-absorption spectra analysis.

  4. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.; Ricks, Herbert E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and or wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities.

  5. Tackling a Hot Paradox: Laminar Soot Processes-2 (LSP-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, Gerard M.; Urban, David L.; Over, Ann (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The last place you want to be in traffic is behind the bus or truck that is belching large clouds of soot onto your freshly washed car. Besides looking and smelling bad, soot is a health hazard. Particles range from big enough to see to microscopic and can accumulate in the lungs, potentially leading to debilitating or fatal lung diseases. Soot is wasted energy, and therein lies an interesting paradox: Soot forms in a flame's hottest regions where you would expect complete combustion and no waste. Soot enhances the emissions of other pollutants (carbon monoxide and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) from flames and radiates unwanted heat to combustion chambers (a candle's yellowish glow is soot radiating heat), among other effects. The mechanisms of soot formation are among the most important unresolved problems of combustion science because soot affects contemporary life in so many ways. Although we have used fire for centuries, many fundamental aspects of combustion remain elusive, in part because of limits imposed by the effects of gravity on Earth. Hot or warm air rises quickly and draws in fresh cold air behind it, thus giving flames the classical teardrop shape. Reactions occur in a very small zone, too fast for scientists to observe, in detail, what is happening inside the flame. The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiments aboard STS-107 will use the microgravity environment of space to eliminate buoyancy effects and thus slow the reactions inside a flame so they can be more readily studied. 'Laminar' means a simple, smooth fuel jet burning in air, somewhat like a butane lighter. This classical flame approximates combustion in diesel engines, aircraft jet propulsion engines, and furnaces and other devices. LSP-2 will expand on surprising results developed from its first two flights in 1997. The data suggest the existence of a universal relationship, the soot paradigm, that, if proven, will be used to model and control combustion systems on Earth. STS-107

  6. Multi-field coupled numerical simulation of hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sendong; Zhang, Liwen; Ruan, Jinhua; Mei, Hongyu; Zhen, Yu; Shi, Xinhua

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, based on rolling technology of hot reversible rolling mill, a multi-filed coupled finite element (FE) model of hot reversible rolling process of large dimension cross-section GCr15 steel rod is established. Thermal, mechanical and microstructural phenomena during the rolling process are coupled in the model. By employing grain growth experiment, double and single hit hot compression experiments, the austenite grain size growth mathematical model and recrystallization behavior mathematical models are determined. And a designed subprogram is coupled in the FE model. Actual hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel is simulated using the model and the distribution and evolution of different filed-variables, such as temperature, effective strain and austenite grain size are obtained. To verify the model predictions, hot rolling experiments are carried out and the temperature and microstructure of the rolling metal are compared with the predicted results. The comparison between the two sets of data shows a good agreement.

  7. Modeling and FE Simulation of Quenchable High Strength Steels Sheet Metal Hot Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Bao, Jun; Xing, Zhongwen; Zhang, Dejin; Song, Baoyu; Lei, Chengxi

    2011-08-01

    High strength steel (HSS) sheet metal hot forming process is investigated by means of numerical simulations. With regard to a reliable numerical process design, the knowledge of the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties is essential. In this article, tensile tests are performed to examine the flow stress of the material HSS 22MnB5 at different strains, strain rates, and temperatures. Constitutive model based on phenomenological approach is developed to describe the thermo-mechanical properties of the material 22MnB5 by fitting the experimental data. A 2D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model is developed to simulate the HSS sheet metal hot forming process for U-channel part. The ABAQUS/explicit model is used conduct the hot forming stage simulations, and ABAQUS/implicit model is used for accurately predicting the springback which happens at the end of hot forming stage. Material modeling and FE numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the processing parameters on the hot forming process. The processing parameters have significant influence on the microstructure of U-channel part. The springback after hot forming stage is the main factor impairing the shape precision of hot-formed part. The mechanism of springback is advanced and verified through numerical simulations and tensile loading-unloading tests. Creep strain is found in the tensile loading-unloading test under isothermal condition and has a distinct effect on springback. According to the numerical and experimental results, it can be concluded that springback is mainly caused by different cooling rats and the nonhomogengeous shrink of material during hot forming process, the creep strain is the main factor influencing the amount of the springback.

  8. Structure and Process of Infrared Hot Electron Transistor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Richard

    2012-01-01

    An infrared hot-electron transistor (IHET) 5 × 8 array with a common base configuration that allows two-terminal readout integration was investigated and fabricated for the first time. The IHET structure provides a maximum factor of six in improvement in the photocurrent to dark current ratio compared to the basic quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP), and hence it improved the array S/N ratio by the same factor. The study also showed for the first time that there is no electrical cross-talk among individual detectors, even though they share the same emitter and base contacts. Thus, the IHET structure is compatible with existing electronic readout circuits for photoconductors in producing sensitive focal plane arrays. PMID:22778655

  9. Dip coating process: Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the low-cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, J. D.; Maciolek, R. B.; Harrison, W. B.; Wolner, H. A.; Hendrickson, G.; Nelson, L. D.

    1976-01-01

    To date, an experimental dip-coating facility was constructed. Using this facility, relatively thin (1 mm) mullite and alumina substrates were successfully dip-coated with 2.5 - 3.0 ohm-cm, p-type silicon with areas of approximately 20 sq cm. The thickness and grain size of these coatings are influenced by the temperature of the melt and the rate at which the substrate is pulled from the melt. One mullite substrate had dendrite-like crystallites of the order of 1 mm wide and 1 to 2 cm long. Their axes were aligned along the direction of pulling. A large variety of substrate materials were purchased or developed enabling the program to commence a substrate definition evaluation. Due to the insulating nature of the substrate, the bottom layer of the p-n junction may have to be made via the top surface. The feasibility of accomplishing this was demonstrated using single crystal wafers.

  10. Process window limiting hot spot monitoring for high-volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochemsen, Marinus; Anunciado, Roy; Timoshkov, Vadim; Hunsche, Stefan; Zhou, Xinjian; Jones, Chris; Callan, Neal

    2016-03-01

    As process window margins for cutting edge DUV lithography continue to shrink, the impact of systematic patterning defects on final yield increases. Finding process window limiting hot spot patterns and monitoring them in high volume manufacturing (HVM) is increasingly challenging with conventional methods, as the size of critical defects can be below the resolution of traditional HVM inspection tools. We utilize a previously presented computational method of finding hot spot patterns by full chip simulation and use this to guide high resolution review tools by predicting the state of the hot spots on all fields of production wafers. In experiments with a 10nm node Metal LELELE vehicle we show a 60% capture rate of after-etch defects down to 3nm in size, at specific hot spot locations. By using the lithographic focus and dose correction knobs we can reduce the number of patterning defects for this test case by ~60%.

  11. Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2001-10-01

    The project goal is to develop a numerical modeling capability to optimize the hot rolling process used to produce aluminum plate. This tool will be used in the forming process so that loss of product will be minimized. Product lost in the rolling process requires the energy-intensive steps of remelting and reforming into an ingot.

  12. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  13. Extended Characterization of Chemical Processes in Hot Cells Using Environmental Swipe Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Thomas, M-L; Lepel, Elwood A.; Brunson, Ronald R.; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer

    2012-09-15

    Environmental sampling is used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verification of information from State declarations or a facility’s design regarding nuclear activities occurring within the country or a specific facility. Environmental sampling of hot cells within a facility under safeguards is conducted using 10.2 cm x 10.2 cm cotton swipe material or cellulose swipes. Traditional target analytes used by the IAEA to verify operations within a facility include a select list of gamma-emitting radionuclides and total and isotopic U and Pu. Analysis of environmental swipe samples collected within a hot-cell facility where chemical processing occurs may also provide information regarding specific chemicals used in fuel processing. However, using swipe material to elucidate what specific chemical processes were/are being used within a hot cell has not been previously evaluated. Staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) teamed to evaluate the potential use of environmental swipe samples as collection media for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. This evaluation was initiated with sample collection during a series of Coupled End-to-End (CETE) reprocessing runs at ORNL. The study included measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides, total and isotopic U and Pu, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. These results allowed us to elucidate what chemical processes used in the hot cells during reprocessing of power reactor and identify other legacy chemicals used in hot cell operations which predate the CETE process.

  14. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems. PMID:22701059

  15. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems.

  16. An Approach to Optimize Size Parameters of Forging by Combining Hot-Processing Map and FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H. E.; Wang, X. Y.; Deng, L.

    2014-11-01

    The size parameters of 6061 aluminum alloy rib-web forging were optimized by using hot-processing map and finite element method (FEM) based on high-temperature compression data. The results show that the stress level of the alloy can be represented by a Zener-Holloman parameter in a hyperbolic sine-type equation with the hot deformation activation energy of 343.7 kJ/mol. Dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization concurrently preceded during high-temperature deformation of the alloy. Optimal hot-processing parameters for the alloy corresponding to the peak value of 0.42 are 753 K and 0.001 s-1. The instability domain occurs at deformation temperature lower than 653 K. FEM is an available method to validate hot-processing map in actual manufacture by analyzing the effect of corner radius, rib width, and web thickness on workability of rib-web forging of the alloy. Size parameters of die forgings can be optimized conveniently by combining hot-processing map and FEM.

  17. The influences of fluorine and process variations on polysilicon film stress and MOSFET hot carrier effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Lynn E.; Macwilliams, Kenneth P.; Isaac, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The use of fluorinated gate oxides may provide an improvement in nMOSFET reliability by enhancing hot carrier resistance. In order to clarify the mechanisms by which polysilicon processing and fluorination influence the oxide behavior, a matrix of nMOSFET structures was prepared using various processing, doping, and implantation strategies. These structures were evaluated for crystalline morphology and chemical element distribution. Mechanical stress measurements were taken on the polysilicon films from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. These examinations showed that fluorination of a structure with randomly oriented polysilicon can reduce residual mechanical stress and improve hot carrier resistance at room temperature.

  18. Preparation of high temperature superconducting coated wires by dipping and post annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Provenzano, V.; Singh, A.K.; Imam, M.A.; Tritt, T.M.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a process for coating a film on a wire substrate, it comprises: melting a superconducting metal oxide mixture in a crucible to form a melt; coating the substrate with a diffusion barrier; dipping the coated wire substrate into the melt; cooling the coated wire substrate at a rate sufficiently slow to avoid thermal shock and hot cracking; and post-annealing the cooled, coated wire substrate to relieve thermal stresses in the coating, whereupon the superconducting metal-oxide mixture forms a perovskite coating upon the wire substrate.

  19. Current hot questions on the s process in AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaro, M.; Campbell, S. W.; D'Orazi, V.; Karakas, A. I.; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Tagliente, G.; Iliadis, C.; Rauscher, T.

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are a main site of production of nuclei heavier than iron via the s process. In massive (>4 M⊙) AGB stars the operation of the 22Ne neutron source appears to be confirmed by observations of high Rb enhancements, while the lack of Tc in these stars rules out 13C as a main source of neutrons. The problem is that the Rb enhancements are not accompanied by Zr enhancements, as expected by s-process models. This discrepancy may be solved via a better understanding of the complex atmospheres of AGB stars. Second- generation stars in globular clusters (GCs), on the other hand, do not show enhancements in any s-process elements, not even Rb. If massive AGB stars are responsible for the composition of these GC stars, they may have evolved differently in GCs than in the field. In AGB stars of lower masses, 13C is the main source of neutrons and we can potentially constrain the effects of rotation and proton-ingestion episodes using the observed composition of post-AGB stars and of stardust SiC grains. Furthermore, independent asteroseismology observations of the rotational velocities of the cores of red giants and of white dwarves will play a fundamental role in helping us to better constrain the effect of rotation. Observations of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars enriched in both Ba and Eu may require a neutron flux in-between the s and the r process, while the puzzling increase of Ba as function of the age in open clusters, not accompanied by increase in any other element heavier than iron, require further observational efforts. Finally, stardust SiC provides us high-precision constraints to test nuclear inputs such as neutron-capture cross sections of stable and unstable isotopes and the impact of excited nuclear states in stellar environments.

  20. Improving the granule strength of roller-compacted ibuprofen sodium for hot-melt coating processing.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Diogo Gomes; Garsuch, Verena; Becker, Karin; Paudel, Amrit; Stehr, Michael; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2016-08-20

    Solvent-free hot-melt coating processing is a novel and cost-efficient approach to manufacturing taste-masked multiparticulate systems. However, most API powders are fine and cohesive and not processable by hot-melt coating. The aim of this study was to produce dense and abrasion-resistant granules with high drug content (>80%) via roller compaction for hot-melt coating process optimization. The selected API was ibuprofen sodium dihydrate, a salt of ibuprofen with improved bioavailability and poor intrinsic compactibility. The formulation and roller compaction process were developed for the production of granules with 94%w/w of API and low friability (∼30%), using sorbitol and isomalt as excipients. The strong bonding mechanism relied on powder jamming prior to the rollers and was investigated via scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and small and wide angle X-ray scattering. It was shown that sorbitol crystals are solubilized during roller compaction and recrystallize as sorbitol hydrate, acting as strong solid bridges. The robustness of the roller compaction process and the re-compaction of fines were investigated. A statistical design of experiments was conducted to evaluate the hot-melt coating process for taste masking of ibuprofen sodium granules. Taste masking required coating ratios higher than 40%w/w of granule batch, emphasizing the need for high-drug-content and abrasion-resistant granules.

  1. Improving the granule strength of roller-compacted ibuprofen sodium for hot-melt coating processing.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Diogo Gomes; Garsuch, Verena; Becker, Karin; Paudel, Amrit; Stehr, Michael; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2016-08-20

    Solvent-free hot-melt coating processing is a novel and cost-efficient approach to manufacturing taste-masked multiparticulate systems. However, most API powders are fine and cohesive and not processable by hot-melt coating. The aim of this study was to produce dense and abrasion-resistant granules with high drug content (>80%) via roller compaction for hot-melt coating process optimization. The selected API was ibuprofen sodium dihydrate, a salt of ibuprofen with improved bioavailability and poor intrinsic compactibility. The formulation and roller compaction process were developed for the production of granules with 94%w/w of API and low friability (∼30%), using sorbitol and isomalt as excipients. The strong bonding mechanism relied on powder jamming prior to the rollers and was investigated via scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and small and wide angle X-ray scattering. It was shown that sorbitol crystals are solubilized during roller compaction and recrystallize as sorbitol hydrate, acting as strong solid bridges. The robustness of the roller compaction process and the re-compaction of fines were investigated. A statistical design of experiments was conducted to evaluate the hot-melt coating process for taste masking of ibuprofen sodium granules. Taste masking required coating ratios higher than 40%w/w of granule batch, emphasizing the need for high-drug-content and abrasion-resistant granules. PMID:27346416

  2. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Forming Quality of C-Shaped Thermosetting Composite Laminates in Hot Diaphragm Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, X. X.; Gu, Y. Z.; Sun, J.; Li, M.; Liu, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of processing temperature and vacuum applying rate on the forming quality of C-shaped carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite laminates during hot diaphragm forming process were investigated. C-shaped prepreg preforms were produced using a home-made hot diaphragm forming equipment. The thickness variations of the preforms and the manufacturing defects after diaphragm forming process, including fiber wrinkling and voids, were evaluated to understand the forming mechanism. Furthermore, both interlaminar slipping friction and compaction behavior of the prepreg stacks were experimentally analyzed for showing the importance of the processing parameters. In addition, autoclave processing was used to cure the C-shaped preforms to investigate the changes of the defects before and after cure process. The results show that the C-shaped prepreg preforms with good forming quality can be achieved through increasing processing temperature and reducing vacuum applying rate, which obviously promote prepreg interlaminar slipping process. The process temperature and forming rate in hot diaphragm forming process strongly influence prepreg interply frictional force, and the maximum interlaminar frictional force can be taken as a key parameter for processing parameter optimization. Autoclave process is effective in eliminating voids in the preforms and can alleviate fiber wrinkles to a certain extent.

  3. Synthesis of silicon nanowires using tin catalyst by hot wire chemical vapor processing

    SciTech Connect

    Meshram, Nagsen; Kumbhar, Alka; Dusane, R.O.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Silicon nanowires are grown by hot wire chemical vapor processing at 400 °C using Sn as catalyst material via VLS. ► For nanowire synthesis Sn nanotemplates are formed with hot wire generated atomic hydrogen. ► The TEM image reveals the crystalline nature of nanowire. - Abstract: Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been synthesized at temperatures in the range 300–400 °C by the hot wire chemical vapor processing (HWCVP) using tin nanotemplate. The tin nano-template is formed by hot wire atomic hydrogen treatment of thermally evaporated Sn films (∼300 nm thick) on glass substrates. Silicon nanowires are then grown using hot wire induced dissociation of SiH{sub 4} gas over the nanotemplate. Growth conditions like growth time and temperature were varied to study their effect on the tin nanoparticle size and on the silicon nanowire dimensions thereafter. From the observations, it is clear that the nanowire diameters and lengths depend on the size of nanoparticles and the growth time respectively. Though SiNWs were observed to grow at temperatures as low as 300 °C, nanowires with a narrow diameter distribution were achieved at 400 °C. Raman spectra and transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveal the crystalline nature of the silicon nanowires.

  4. Polycarbonate as an elasto-plastic material model for simulation of the microstructure hot imprint process.

    PubMed

    Narijauskaitė, Birutė; Palevičius, Arvydas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Janušas, Giedrius; Sakalys, Rokas

    2013-08-22

    The thermal imprint process of polymer micro-patterning is widely applied in areas such as manufacturing of optical parts, solar energy, bio-mechanical devices and chemical chips. Polycarbonate (PC), as an amorphous polymer, is often used in thermoforming processes because of its good replication characteristics. In order to obtain replicas of the best quality, the imprint parameters (e.g., pressure, temperature, time, etc.) must be determined. Therefore finite element model of the hot imprint process of lamellar periodical microstructure into PC has been created using COMSOL Multiphysics. The mathematical model of the hot imprint process includes three steps: heating, imprinting and demolding. The material properties of amorphous PC strongly depend on the imprint temperature and loading pressure. Polycarbonate was modelled as an elasto-plastic material, since it was analyzed below the glass transition temperature. The hot imprint model was solved using the heat transfer and the solid stress-strain application modes with thermal contact problem between the mold and polycarbonate. It was used for the evaluation of temperature and stress distributions in the polycarbonate during the hot imprint process. The quality of the replica, by means of lands filling ratio, was determined as well.

  5. Radioactive spent resins conditioning by the hot super-compaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Andreas; Centner, Baudouin; Lemmens, Alain

    2007-07-01

    Spent ion exchanger media are considered to be problematic waste that, in many cases, requires special approaches and precautions during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. The waste acceptance criteria define, among others, the quality of waste forms for disposal, and therefore will sometimes define appropriate treatment options. The selection of treatment options for spent ion exchange materials must consider their physical and chemical characteristics. Basically, the main methods for the treatment of spent organic ion exchange materials, following to pretreatment methods are: - Direct immobilization, producing a stable end product by using Cement, Bitumen, Polymer or High Integrity Containers, - The destruction of the organic compounds by using Thermochemical processes or Oxidation to produce an inorganic intermediate product that may or may not be further conditioned for storage and/or disposal, - The complete removal of the resin inner structural water by a thermal process. After a thorough technical economical analysis, Tractebel Engineering selected the Resin Hot Compaction Process to be installed at Tihange Nuclear Power Plant. The Resin Hot Compaction Process is used to make dense homogenous organic blocks from a wide range of particulate waste. In this process spent resins are first dewatered and dried to remove the inner structural water content. The drying takes place in a drying vessel that holds the contents of two 200 L drums (Figure). In the oil heated drying and mixing unit, the resins are heated to the necessary process temperature for the hot pressing step and then placed into special metal drums, which are automatically lidded and immediately transferred to a high force compactor. After high force compaction the pellets are transferred to a measuring unit, where the dose rate, height and weight are automatically measured and recorded. A volume reduction factor of approximately up to four (depending on the type of

  6. Thermal performance of a photographic laboratory process: Solar Hot Water System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. A.; Jensen, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal performance of a solar process hot water system is described. The system was designed to supply 22,000 liters (5,500 gallons) per day of 66 C (150 F) process water for photographic processing. The 328 sq m (3,528 sq. ft.) solar field has supplied 58% of the thermal energy for the system. Techniques used for analyzing various thermal values are given. Load and performance factors and the resulting solar contribution are discussed.

  7. The Influence of Thermal Conductivity of Die Material on the Efficiency of Hot-Stamping Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Zhou, Luhai; Wu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yun; Li, Junwan

    2016-09-01

    To improve the production efficiency of the hot-stamping process from the perspective of the die materials, a numerical model of a B-pillar component was established to investigate the effects of the thermal conductivity of the die material on the cooling behavior, microstructure, and mechanical evolution of the formed component, as well as the temperature distribution of the die during the hot-stamping process. The results showed that the thermal conductivity of the die material has a more significant influence on the quenching stage than the forming stage. Under the specified simulation and boundary conditions, when the thermal conductivity of the die material improves by 76.23% at 25-300 °C, the maximum cooling rate of the component increases by 48.49% and consequently improves the quenching efficiency of the hot-stamping process by 31.82%. As the thermal conductivity of the die steel increases, the maximum temperature of the die decreases and its temperature uniformity improves. Moreover, to improve the efficiency of the hot-stamping process, steels that possess high thermal conductivity at low temperature ranges are favorable.

  8. Powder processing of nitrides (excluding hot isostatic processing). (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and processing of metal nitride ceramics and refractories. Citations consider compacting and sintering processes. Phase transformations, crystallization, and devitrification processes are considered. Aluminum nitride, boron nitride, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and titanium nitride are among materials discussed. The use of hot isostatic pressing is considered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Radioactive Spent Resins Conditioning by the Hot Supercompaction Process at Tihange NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Centner, B.; Vanderperre, S.

    2008-07-01

    Spent ion-exchange media are considered to be problematic waste that, in many cases, requires special approaches and precautions during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. The waste acceptance criteria define, among others, the quality of waste forms for disposal, and therefore will sometimes define appropriate treatment options. The selection of treatment options for spent ion-exchange materials must consider their physical and chemical characteristics. Basically, the main methods for the treatment of spent organic ion-exchange materials, following to pre-treatment methods are: - Direct immobilization, producing a stable end product by using cement, bitumen, polymer or high integrity containers; - The destruction of the organic compounds by using thermochemical processes or oxidation to produce an inorganic intermediate product that may or may not be further conditioned for storage and/or disposal; - The complete removal of the resin inner structural water by a thermal process, followed by a supercompaction of the hot dried resins. At Tihange Nuclear Power Plant, spent ion-exchange resins were conditioned by embedding in a polymer matrix with a mobile processing installation. For safety and cost reasons, Electrabel, the Belgian Utility, decided to investigate by which process the former one should be replaced. To carry out this mission, Electrabel entrusted Tractebel Engineering with the selection of the most suitable process available on the international market. After a thorough technical economical analysis, Tractebel Engineering selected the Resin Hot Supercompaction Process to be installed at Tihange Nuclear Power Plant. The Resin Hot Supercompaction Process is used to make water free dense homogeneous organic blocks from a wide range of particulate waste. In this process, spent resins are first dewatered and dried to remove the inner structural water content. The drying takes place in a drying vessel that holds the contents of

  10. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment of the hot conditioning system and process

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1996-10-10

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. A series of analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the proposed Hot Conditioning System and process for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The analyses were performed using a series of thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the Hot Conditioning System. The subject efforts focus on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms, flow distributions within the multi-canister overpack, and performing process simulations for various purge gases under consideration for the Hot Conditioning System, as well as obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology- based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the Hot Conditioning System design bases.

  11. Hot deformation behavior and processing map of a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic ODS steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Zhangjian; Sun, Hongying; Zou, Lei; Wang, Man; Li, Shaofu

    2014-12-01

    The hot deformation behavior of 9Cr oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steel fabricated through the process of mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) as investigated through hot compression deformation tests on the Gleeble-1500D simulator in the temperature range of 1050-1200 °C and strain rate range of 0.001 s-1-1 s-1. The relationship between the rheological stress and the strain rate was also studied. The activation energy and the stress and material parameters of the hyperbolic-sine equation were resolved according to the data obtained. The processing map was also proposed. The results show that the flow stress decreases as the temperature increases, and that decreasing of the strain rate of the 9Cr ODS steel results in a positive strain rate sensitivity. It is clear that dynamic recrystallization is influenced by both temperature and strain rate. The results of this study may provide a good reference for the selection of hot working parameters for 9Cr ODS steel. The optimum processing domains are at 1200 °C with a strain rate of 1 s-1 and in the range of 1080-1100 °C with a strain rate between 0.018 s-1 and 0.05 s-1.

  12. Hot Isostatic Press Manufacturing Process Development for Fabrication of RERTR Monolithic Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Crapps, Justin M.; Clarke, Kester D.; Katz, Joel D.; Alexander, David J.; Aikin, Beverly; Vargas, Victor D.; Montalvo, Joel D.; Dombrowski, David E.; Mihaila, Bogdan

    2012-06-06

    We use experimentation and finite element modeling to study a Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) manufacturing process for U-10Mo Monolithic Fuel Plates. Finite element simulations are used to identify the material properties affecting the process and improve the process geometry. Accounting for the high temperature material properties and plasticity is important to obtain qualitative agreement between model and experimental results. The model allows us to improve the process geometry and provide guidance on selection of material and finish conditions for the process strongbacks. We conclude that the HIP can must be fully filled to provide uniform normal stress across the bonding interface.

  13. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yun-Qing; Fan, Tian-Xing; Mou, Jie-Gang; Yu, Wei-Bo; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis.

  14. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yun-Qing; Fan, Tian-Xing; Mou, Jie-Gang; Yu, Wei-Bo; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis. PMID:27022235

  15. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yun-qing; Fan, Tian-xing; Mou, Jie-gang; Yu, Wei-bo; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis. PMID:27022235

  16. Hot Deformation Characteristics and Processing Maps of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Ag Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Chai, Zhe; Volinsky, Alex A.; Sun, Huili; Tian, Baohong; Liu, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Ag alloy has been investigated by hot compressive tests in the 650-950 °C temperature and 0.001-10 s-1 strain rate ranges using Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. The microstructure evolution of the alloy during deformation was characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopy. The flow stress decreases with the deformation temperature and increases with the strain rate. The apparent activation energy for hot deformation of the alloy was 343.23 kJ/mol. The constitutive equation of the alloy based on the hyperbolic-sine equation was established to characterize the flow stress as a function of the strain rate and the deformation temperature. The processing maps were established based on the dynamic material model. The optimal processing parameters for hot deformation of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Ag alloy are 900-950 °C and 0.001-0.1 s-1 strain rate. The evolution of DRX microstructure strongly depends on the deformation temperature and the strain rate.

  17. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  18. Recent developments in modeling of hot rolling processes: Part I - Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Gerhard; Bambach, Markus; Seuren, Simon; Henke, Thomas; Lohmar, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    The numerical simulation of industrial rolling processes has gained substantial relevance over the past decades. A large variety of models have been put forward to simulate single and multiple rolling passes taking various interactions between the process, the microstructure evolution and the rolling mill into account. On the one hand, these include sophisticated approaches which couple models on all scales from the product's microstructure level up to the elastic behavior of the roll stand. On the other hand, simplified but fast models are used for on-line process control and automatic pass schedule optimization. This publication gives a short overview of the fundamental equations used in modeling of hot rolling of metals. Part II of this paper will present selected applications of hot rolling simulations.

  19. Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Becker, R; Rhee, M; Li, M

    2004-09-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participated in a U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Industrial Technology sponsored research project 'Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery', as a Cooperative Agreement TC-02028 with the Alcoa Technical Center (ATC). The objective of the joint project with Alcoa is to develop a numerical modeling capability to optimize the hot rolling process used to produce aluminum plate. Product lost in the rolling process and subsequent recycling, wastes resources consumed in the energy-intensive steps of remelting and reprocessing the ingot. The modeling capability developed by project partners will be used to produce plate more efficiently and with reduced product loss.

  20. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through "cool" (i.e., not emotionally laden) and "hot" (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals' emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  1. Imaging-based optical caliper for objects in hot manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Howard

    2013-04-03

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), in conjunction with its industrial and academic partners, proposes to develop an Imaging-Based Optical Caliper (hereafter referred to as OC) for Objects in Hot Manufacturing Processes. The goal is to develop and demonstrate the OC with the synergy of OGT's current technological pool and other innovations to provide a light weight, robust, safe and accurate portable dimensional measurement device for hot objects with integrated wireless communication capacity to enable real time process control. The technical areas of interest in this project are the combination of advanced imaging, Sensor Fusion, and process control. OGT believes that the synergistic interactions between its current set of technologies and other innovations could deliver products that are viable and have high impact in the hot manufacture processes, such as steel making, steel rolling, open die forging, and glass industries, resulting in a new energy efficient control paradigm in the operations through improved yield, prolonged tool life and improved quality. In-line dimension measurement and control is of interest to the steel makers, yet current industry focus is on the final product dimension only instead of whole process due to the limit of man power, system cost and operator safety concerns. As sensor technologies advances, the industry started to see the need to enforce better dimensional control throughout the process, but lack the proper tools to do so. OGT along with its industrial partners represent the indigenous effort of technological development to serve the US steel industry. The immediate market that can use and get benefited from the proposed OC is the Steel Industry. The deployment of the OC has the potential to provide benefits in reduction of energy waste, CO2 emission, waste water amount, toxic waste, and so forth. The potential market after further expended function includes Hot Forging and Freight Industries. The OC prototypes were fabricated, and

  2. Application of a hot-melt granulation process to enhance fenofibrate solid dose manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rakesh Singh; Amankwaa, Edward; Kumar, Sandeep; Hu, Tom; Chan, Mohamed; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of hot-melt granulation of fenofibrate and croscarmellose sodium and its cooling time for the molten mass in a ratio of 55:45 was conducted to assess the manufacturing process capability to produce an acceptable granulation which flows well on Korsch PH300 tablet compression machine. The formation of the drug-polymer eutectic mixture was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The physical properties of the hot-melt was determined by examining the milled blocks after solidification and milling after cooling periods of 10, 20 and 30 d. The milled material was assessed for the effect of hold time of the blend on the solid dose compression characteristics. The impact of cooling on the processing of the blocks was assessed after 10, 20 and 30 d of cooling. The study suggests that after the hot-melt formed the fenofibrate crystallized independently and a solid solution with croscarmellose sodium was not formed. The age of the blocks determined the hardness of the crystals, changing the processing nature of the granules with respect to compression and powder flow characteristics. The blocks processed after 20 d and beyond produced granules with a characteristic suitable for holding the blend for 14 d in the bin with no impact on flow properties and compressibility of the blend. There was no chipping, capping, sticking or picking observed and a higher compression speed was achieved.

  3. Physical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding and Processing of Nickel-Base Alloys Using Hot Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rule, James R.; Lippold, John C.

    2013-08-01

    The Gleeble hot torsion test was utilized in an attempt to simulate the friction stir-processed microstructure of three Ni-base alloys: Hastelloy X, Alloy 625, and Alloy 718. The simulation temperatures were based on actual thermal cycles measured by embedded thermocouples during friction stir processing of these alloys. Peak process temperatures were determined to be approximately 1423 K (1150 °C) for Hastelloy X and Alloy 625 K and 1373 K (352 °C and 1100 °C) for Alloy 718. The peak temperature and cooling rates were programed into the Gleeble™ 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator to reproduce the stir zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) microstructures. The TMAZ was successfully simulated using this technique, but the stir zone microstructure could not be accurately reproduced, with hot torsion samples exhibiting larger grain size than actual friction stir processing trials. Shear stress and strain rates as a function of temperature were determined for each material using hot torsion simulation.

  4. Solar process heat technology in action: The process hot water system at the California Correctional Institution at Tehachapi

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, R. ); Gee, R.; May, K. )

    1991-12-01

    Solar process heat technology relates to solar thermal energy systems for industry, commerce, and government. Applications include water preheating and heating, steam generation, process hot air, ventilation air heating, and refrigeration. Solar process heat systems are available for commercial use. At the present time, however, they are economically viable only in niche markets. This paper describes a functioning system in one such market. The California Department of Corrections (CDOC), which operates correctional facilities for the state of California, uses a solar system for providing hot water and space heating at the California Correctional Institute at Tehachapi (CCI/Tehachapi). CCI/Tehachapi is a 5100-inmate facility. The CDOC does not own the solar system. Rather, it buys energy from private investors who own the solar system located on CCI/Tehachapi property; this arrangement is part of a long-term energy purchase agreement. United Solar Technologies (UST) of Olympia Washington is the system operator. The solar system, which began operating in the fall of 1990, utilizes 2677 m{sup 2} (28,800 ft{sup 2}) of parabolic through solar concentrators. Thermal energy collected by the system is used to generate hot water for showers, kitchen operations, and laundry functions. Thermal energy collected by the system is also used for space heating. At peak operating conditions, the system is designed to meet approximately 80 percent of the summer thermal load. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Fully automated microvessel counting and hot spot selection by image processing of whole tumour sections in invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Beliën, J A; Somi, S; de Jong, J S; van Diest, P J; Baak, J P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manual counting of microvessels is subjective and may lead to unacceptable interobserver variability, which may explain conflicting results. AIMS: To develop and test an automated method for microvessel counting and objective selection of the hot spot, based on image processing of whole sections, and to compare this with manual selection of a hot spot and counting of microvessels. METHODS: Microvessels were stained by CD31 immunohistochemistry in 10 cases of invasive breast cancer. The number of microvessels was counted manually in a subjectively selected hot spot, and also in the same complete tumour sections by interactive and automated image processing methods. An algorithm identified the hot spots from microvessel maps of the whole tumour section. RESULTS: No significant difference in manual microvessel counts was found between two observers within the same hot spot, and counts were significantly correlated. However, when the hot spot was reselected, significantly different results were found between repeated counts by the same observer. Counting all microvessels manually within the entire tumour section resulted in significantly different hot spots than manual counts in selected hot spots by the same observer. Within the entire tumour section no significant differences were found between the hot spots of the manual and automated methods using an automated microscope. The hot spot was found using an eight connective path search algorithm, was located at or near the border of the tumour, and (depending on the size of the hot spot) did not always contain the field with the largest number of microvessels. CONCLUSIONS: The automated counting of microvessels is preferable to the manual method because of the reduction in measurement time when the complete tumour is scanned, the greater accuracy and objectivity of hot spot selection, and the possibility of visual inspection and relocation of each measurement field afterwards. Images PMID:10450177

  6. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOEpatents

    Leininger, Thomas F.; Robin, Allen M.; Wolfenbarger, James K.; Suggitt, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, HCl, HF, H.sub.2 S, COS, N.sub.2, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000.degree. F.

  7. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOEpatents

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  8. Experiences of the Application of Hot Gas Filtration to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, B.T.

    2002-09-18

    Hot Gas Filtration (HGF) is defined as the dry scrubbing of gaseous process effluent above 250 degrees. The potential applications for this technology can be found in Atmospheric Pollution Control (APC) and In-Line Equipment Protection (ILETP). In recent years novel rigid refractory filter media have emerged with several advantages over conventional fabric bag filters and other particulate arrestment systems e.g. electrostatic precipitators. A study has been made of the effect of a wide range of operational conditions, including gas volume and velocity, temperature, particle size distribution, and organic/moisture content, in real process situations on filter elements performance and life expectancy.

  9. Simulation and Evaluation of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Response in the Hot Stamping Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, Mats; Åkerström, Paul; Bergman, Greger; Salomonsson, Per

    2007-05-01

    When producing thin ultra high strength steel components with the hot stamping process it is essential that the final component achieves desirable material properties. This applies in particular to passive automotive safety components. Often the desirable microstructure consists of a mix of martensite and bainite. Therefore, it is of great importance to accurately predict the final microstructure of the component early in the product development process. In this work a model to predict the austenite decomposition into ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite during arbitrary cooling paths for thin sheet boron steel is used. The decomposition model is based on Kirkaldy's rate equations and later modifications by Li et al. The modified model accounts for the effect from the added boron. The model is implemented as part of a material subroutine in the Finite Element Program LS-DYNA 970. Both the simulated volume fractions of micro-constituents and hardness profiles show good agreement with the corresponding experimental observations. The phase proportions affect both the thermal and the mechanical properties during the process of continuous cooling and deformation of the material. A thermo-elastic-plastic constitutive model including effects from changes in the microstructure as well as transformation plasticity is implemented in the LS-DYNA code. The material model is used in combination with a thermal shell formulation with quadratic temperature interpolation in the thickness direction to simulate the complete process of simultaneous forming and quenching of sheet metal components. The implemented model is used in coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of the hot stamping process and evaluated by comparing the results from hot stamping experiments. The results from simulations such as local thickness variations, hardness distribution and spring-back in the component show good agreement with experimental results.

  10. Simulation and Evaluation of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Response in the Hot Stamping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Mats; Salomonsson, Per; Aakerstroem, Paul; Bergman, Greger

    2007-05-17

    When producing thin ultra high strength steel components with the hot stamping process it is essential that the final component achieves desirable material properties. This applies in particular to passive automotive safety components. Often the desirable microstructure consists of a mix of martensite and bainite. Therefore, it is of great importance to accurately predict the final microstructure of the component early in the product development process. In this work a model to predict the austenite decomposition into ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite during arbitrary cooling paths for thin sheet boron steel is used. The decomposition model is based on Kirkaldy's rate equations and later modifications by Li et al. The modified model accounts for the effect from the added boron. The model is implemented as part of a material subroutine in the Finite Element Program LS-DYNA 970. Both the simulated volume fractions of micro-constituents and hardness profiles show good agreement with the corresponding experimental observations. The phase proportions affect both the thermal and the mechanical properties during the process of continuous cooling and deformation of the material. A thermo-elastic-plastic constitutive model including effects from changes in the microstructure as well as transformation plasticity is implemented in the LS-DYNA code. The material model is used in combination with a thermal shell formulation with quadratic temperature interpolation in the thickness direction to simulate the complete process of simultaneous forming and quenching of sheet metal components. The implemented model is used in coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of the hot stamping process and evaluated by comparing the results from hot stamping experiments. The results from simulations such as local thickness variations, hardness distribution and spring-back in the component show good agreement with experimental results.0.

  11. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through “cool” (i.e., not emotionally laden) and “hot” (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  12. Dip-molded t-shaped cannula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyles, H. F.; Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1978-01-01

    Cannula, fabricated out of polyetherurethane, has been designed for long-term service. Improved cannula is T-shaped to collect blood from both directions, thus replacing two conventional cannulas that are usually required and eliminating need for large surgical wound. It is fabricated by using dip-molding process that can be adapted to other elastomeric objects having complex shapes. Dimensions of cannula were chosen to optimize its blood-flow properties and to reduce danger of excessive clotting, making it suitable for continuous service up to 21 days in vein or artery of patient.

  13. Achieving Superplasticity in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Processed by Hot Extrusion and Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Wu, Mengling; Ma, Wenliang; Lu, Yi; Yuan, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on ultrafine-grained AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet which was prepared through nano-grained powders processed by hot extrusion at 300 °C plus hot-rolling for four passes at 200. The superplastic behavior had been evaluated in a low-temperature range of 423-523 K and strain rates varied from 5 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-3 s-1. The experiment results showed that tensile testing revealed the superplastic elongations with a maximum measured elongation of 227% when tested at 523 K and strain rate of 5 × 10-4 s-1. The superplastic deformation behavior was attributed to the ultrafine-grained microstructures. The measured elongations mainly depended upon the initial strain rate and temperature, and the strain rate sensitivity m was ~0.5 for this condition. The results indicated that powder metallurgy and subsequent hot extrusion plus rolling were promising approaches to produce the ultrafine-grained magnesium alloy sheet with superplasticity.

  14. Hot Deformation Characteristics of 13Cr-4Ni Stainless Steel Using Constitutive Equation and Processing Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Brij; Chaudhari, G. P.; Nath, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    Hot compression tests were performed to study the hot deformation characteristics of 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel. The tests were performed in the strain rate range of 0.001-10 s-1 and temperature range of 900-1100 °C using Gleeble® 3800 simulator. A constitutive equation of Arrhenius type was established based on the experimental data to calculate the different material constants, and average value of apparent activation energy was found to be 444 kJ/mol. Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z, was estimated in order to characterize the flow stress behavior. Power dissipation and instability maps developed on the basis of dynamic materials model for true strain of 0.5 show optimum hot working conditions corresponding to peak efficiency range of about 28-32%. These lie in the temperature range of 950-1025 °C and corresponding strain rate range of 0.001-0.01 s-1 and in the temperature range of 1050-1100 °C and corresponding strain rate range of 0.01-0.1 s-1. The flow characteristics in these conditions show dynamic recrystallization behavior. The microstructures are correlated to the different stability domains indicated in the processing map.

  15. 9 CFR 72.25 - Dipping methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dipping methods. 72.25 Section 72.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... CATTLE § 72.25 Dipping methods. Dipping is accomplished by thoroughly wetting the entire skin by...

  16. 9 CFR 72.25 - Dipping methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dipping methods. 72.25 Section 72.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.25 Dipping methods. Dipping...

  17. 9 CFR 72.25 - Dipping methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dipping methods. 72.25 Section 72.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.25 Dipping methods. Dipping...

  18. 9 CFR 72.25 - Dipping methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dipping methods. 72.25 Section 72.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... CATTLE § 72.25 Dipping methods. Dipping is accomplished by thoroughly wetting the entire skin by...

  19. A New Process for Hot Metal Production at Low Fuel Rate - Phase 1 Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Wei-Kao Lu

    2006-02-01

    The project is part of the continuing effort by the North American steel industry to develop a coal-based, cokeless process for hot metal production. The objective of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of designing and constructing a pilot scale facility with the capacity of 42,000 mtpy of direct reduced iron (DRI) with 95% metallization. The primary effort is performed by Bricmont, Inc., an international engineering firm, under the supervision of McMaster University. The study focused on the Paired Straight Hearth furnace concept developed previously by McMaster University, The American Iron and Steel Institute and the US Department of Energy.

  20. A Review of Hot-Melt Extrusion: Process Technology to Pharmaceutical Products

    PubMed Central

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boateng, Joshua S.; Snowden, Martin J.; Douroumis, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades industrial adaptability has allowed hot-melt extrusion (HME) to gain wide acceptance and has already established its place in the broad spectrum of manufacturing operations and pharmaceutical research developments. HME has already been demonstrated as a robust, novel technique to make solid dispersions in order to provide time controlled, modified, extended, and targeted drug delivery resulting in improved bioavailability as well as taste masking of bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This paper reviews the innumerable benefits of HME, based on a holistic perspective of the equipment, processing technologies to the materials, novel formulation design and developments, and its varied applications in oral drug delivery systems. PMID:23326686

  1. Characterization of Hot Deformation Behavior of Hastelloy C-276 Using Constitutive Equation and Processing Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Liwen; Shen, Wenfei; Li, Mengfei; Gu, Sendong

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify the microstructural evolution and workability of Hastelloy C-276 during hot forming to get excellent mechanical properties, the hot deformation behavior of this superalloy is characterized. The cylindrical specimens were isothermal compressed in the temperature range of 1000-1200 °C and strain rate range of 0.001-5 s-1 on a Gleeble 1500 thermal-mechanical simulator. The flow curves and microstructural investigation indicates that dynamic recrystallization is the prime softening mechanism at the evaluated deformation conditions. The constitutive equation was presented as a function of the deformation temperature, strain rate, and strain, and the deformation activation energy was about 450 kJ/mol. The processing maps based on dynamic materials model at the strains of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 were established, and the processing map at 1.0 strain shows good correspondence to the microstructural observation. The domains in processing map in which the efficiency of power dissipation (η) is higher than 0.25 are corresponding to sufficient dynamic recyrstallization phenomenon, which are suggested to be the optimum working areas for Hastelloy C-276.

  2. Estimation of Thermal Contact Conductance between Blank and Tool Surface in Hot Stamping Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Zahari; Hanafiah Shaharudin, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    In hot stamping, the determination of the thermal contact conductance values between the blank and tool surface during the process is crucial for the purpose of simulating the blank rapid cooling inside the tool using finite element analysis (FEA). The thermal contact conductance value represents the coefficient of the heat transfer at the surface of two solid bodies in contact and is known to be influenced greatly by the applied pressure. In order to estimate the value and its dependency on applied pressure, the process of hot stamping was replicated and simplified into a process of compression of heated flat blank in between the tool at different applied pressure. The temperature of the blank and tool surface were measured by means of thermocouples installed inside the tool. Based on the measured temperature, the thermal contact conductance between the surfaces was calculated using Newton's cooling law equation. The calculated value was then used to simulate the blank cooling inside the tool using FEA commercial software. This paper describes an experimental approach to estimate the thermal contact conductance between a blank made of Boron Steel (USIBOR 1500) and tool made of Tool Steel (STAVAX). Its dependency on applied pressure is also studied and the experimental results were then compared with FEA simulations.

  3. Dip-coating of yield stress fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, M.; Bleyer, J.; Andrieux, A. L.; Boujlel, J.; Coussot, P.

    2016-05-01

    We review and discuss the characteristics of dip-coating of yield stress fluids on the basis of theoretical considerations, numerical simulations of the flow in the bath, and experimental data with different materials. We show that in general, due to the yield stress, viscous dissipations are sufficiently large for capillary effects to be negligible in the process. Dip-coating with yield stress fluids is thus essentially governed by an equilibrium between viscous and gravity effects. In contrast with simple liquids, the coated thickness is uniform and remains fixed to the plate. At low velocities, it appears to tend to a value significantly smaller than the Derjaguin and Levi prediction [B. V. Derjaguin and S. M. Levi, Film Coating Theory (The Focal Press, London, 1964)], i.e., critical thickness of stoppage of a free surface flow along a vertical plate. We show that this comes from the fact that in the bath only a relatively small layer of fluid is in its liquid regime along the moving plate, while the rest of the material is in a solid regime. From numerical simulations, we describe the general trends of this liquid layer, and in particular, its thickness as a function of the rheological characteristics and plate velocity. We finally propose a model for the dip-coating of yield stress fluid, assuming that the solid volume of fluid finally fixed to the plate results from the mass flux of the liquid layer in the bath minus a mass flux due to some downward flow under gravity in the transition zone. A good agreement between this model and experimental data is found for a fluid with a yield stress larger than 20 Pa.

  4. r-Process Nucleosynthesis in Hot Accretion Disk Flows from Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Surman, Rebecca; Mclaughlin, Gail C; Ruffert, Maximilian; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Hix, William Raphael

    2008-01-01

    We consider hot accretion disk outflows from black hole-neutron star mergers in the context of the nucleosynthesis they produce. We begin with a three-dimensional numerical model of a black hole-neutron star merger and calculate the neutrino and antineutrino fluxes emitted from the resulting accretion disk. We then follow the element synthesis in material outflowing the disk along parameterized trajectories. We find that at least a weak r-process is produced, and in some cases a main r-process as well. The neutron-rich conditions required for this production of r-process nuclei stem directly from the interactions of the neutrinos emitted by the disk with the free neutrons and protons in the outflow.

  5. r-Process Nucleosynthesis in Hot Accretion Disk Flows from Black Hole - Neutron Star Mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Surman, Rebecca; Mclaughlin, Gail C; Ruffert, Maximilian; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Hix, William Raphael

    2008-01-01

    We consider hot accretion disk outflows from black hole-neutron star mergers in the context of the nucleosynthesis they produce. We begin with a three-dimensional numerical model of a black hole-neutron star merger and calculate the neutrino and antineutrino fluxes emitted from the resulting accretion disk. We then follow the element synthesis in material outflowing the disk along parameterized trajectories. We find that at least a weak r-process is produced, and in some cases a main r-process as well. The neutron-rich conditions required for this production of r-process nuclei stem directly from the interactions of the neutrinos emitted by the disk with the free neutrons and protons in the outflow.

  6. Process improvement in laser hot wire cladding for martensitic stainless steel based on the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zilin; Wang, Gang; Wei, Shaopeng; Li, Changhong; Rong, Yiming

    2016-09-01

    Laser hot wire cladding, with the prominent features of low heat input, high energy efficiency, and high precision, is widely used for remanufacturing metal parts. The cladding process, however, needs to be improved by using a quantitative method. In this work, volumetric defect ratio was proposed as the criterion to describe the integrity of forming quality for cladding layers. Laser deposition experiments with FV520B, one of martensitic stainless steels, were designed by using the Taguchi method. Four process variables, namely, laser power ( P), scanning speed ( V s), wire feed rate ( V f), and wire current ( I), were optimized based on the analysis of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Metallurgic observation of cladding layer was conducted to compare the forming quality and to validate the analysis method. A stable and continuous process with the optimum parameter combination produced uniform microstructure with minimal defects and cracks, which resulted in a good metallurgical bonding interface.

  7. Process improvement in laser hot wire cladding for martensitic stainless steel based on the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zilin; Wang, Gang; Wei, Shaopeng; Li, Changhong; Rong, Yiming

    2016-07-01

    Laser hot wire cladding, with the prominent features of low heat input, high energy efficiency, and high precision, is widely used for remanufacturing metal parts. The cladding process, however, needs to be improved by using a quantitative method. In this work, volumetric defect ratio was proposed as the criterion to describe the integrity of forming quality for cladding layers. Laser deposition experiments with FV520B, one of martensitic stainless steels, were designed by using the Taguchi method. Four process variables, namely, laser power (P), scanning speed (V s), wire feed rate (V f), and wire current (I), were optimized based on the analysis of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Metallurgic observation of cladding layer was conducted to compare the forming quality and to validate the analysis method. A stable and continuous process with the optimum parameter combination produced uniform microstructure with minimal defects and cracks, which resulted in a good metallurgical bonding interface.

  8. Development and characterization of polymers-metallic hot embossing process for manufacturing metallic micro-parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, M.; Millot, C.; Gelin, J.-C.; Barrière, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years, hot embossing process becomes a promising process for the replication of polymer micro-structures associated to its manufacturing capability related to a relatively low component cost. This rising demand has prompted the development of various micro-manufacturing techniques in an attempt to get micro-parts in large batch. The paper investigates the way to get metallic micro-parts through the hot embossing process. The micro-manufacturing process consists in three stages. In the first one, the different metallic feedstocks with 50 to 60% powder loading in volume have been prepared with adapted polymers/powders formulations. In a second stage, an elastomeric master has been used to obtain micro-parts on a plastic loaded substrate with developed mixture based on polypropylene, paraffin wax and stearic acid. Finally, a thermal debinding stage in nitrogen atmosphere followed by a solid state pre-sintering stage has been applied, in order to eliminate the pores between powder particles in the debinded components. Then the porous components are agglomerated by solid state diffusion after heating to a temperature slightly lower than the melting temperature related to the material used in the process, to form an homogenous structure when full densification is achieved. The advantages of this approach include: rapid manufacturing of injection tools with high-quality, easy demoulding of metallic parts from the elastomeric moulds and great flexibility related to the choices of material. The paper describes all the processing stages and the way to characterize the geometrical, physical and mechanical properties of the resulting micro-parts.

  9. Environmental natural processes that achieve thermal comfort in multifamily buildings in hot-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Paola

    Buildings, especially in hot climates, consume a lot of energy when people want to be comfortable inside them, which translates to very expensive fees each month. The most innovative response to this problem is renewable energy, that is used, in this case, to run mechanical HVAC systems. Renewable energy is the solution for many problems, but to avoid urban heat islands when using excessive HVAC systems (powered by renewables), and to solve thermal comfort-related problems, there has to be other solution. The major challenge to find it would be to have a change of thinking process. If a building in a hot-arid region uses natural processes to emulate the functions of HVAC systems, and the proper passive strategies, then, it will provide thermal comfort to its users, diminishing the need of a mechanical system. This hypothesis will be carried out by extracting the natural processes found in a specific case in nature, applying them into a building's design, and then simulating its energy efficiency with the adequate software. There will be a comparison of the same proposed building without the natural processes, to have tangible numbers showing that these proposed strategies, in fact, work. With explanatory detailed diagrams and the energy analysis, the hypothesis could be proven correct or incorrect. The significance of this approach relies on the proximity to the natural processes that have been working in different aspects of life since the beginning of time. They have been there all the time, waiting until architects, engineers, and people in general use them, instead of making more new energy-using inventions. By having the numbers from a conventional building and the ones of the proposed building, and the right environmental diagrams, the experiment should be valid. In the near future, there should be more research focused on nature and its processes, in order to be able to reduce the use of mechanical systems, and with that, reduce the energy use and the carbon

  10. Hot Deformation Processing Map and Microstructural Evaluation of the Ni-Based Superalloy IN-738LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajjadi, S. A.; Chaichi, A.; Ezatpour, H. R.; Maghsoudlou, A.; Kalaie, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Hot deformation behavior of the Ni-based superalloy IN-738LC was investigated by means of hot compression tests over the temperature range of 1000-1200 °C and strain rate range of 0.01-1 s-1. The obtained peak flow stresses were related to strain rate and temperature through the hyperbolic sine equation with activation energy of 950 kJ/mol. Dynamic material model was used to obtain the processing map of IN-738LC. Analysis of the microstructure was carried out in order to study each domain's characteristic represented by the processing map. The results showed that dynamic recrystallization occurs in the temperature range of 1150-1200 °C and strain rate of 0.1 s-1 with the maximum power dissipation efficiency of 35%. The unstable domain was exhibited in the temperature range of 1000-1200 °C and strain rate of 1 s-1 on the occurrence of severe deformation bands and grain boundary cracking.

  11. Novel Controlled Release Polymer-Lipid Formulations Processed by Hot Melt Extrusion.

    PubMed

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Islam, Muhammad T; Halsey, Sheelagh; Amin, Devyani; Douroumis, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of novel polymer/lipid formulations on the dissolution rates of the water insoluble indomethacin (INM), co-processed by hot melt extrusion (HME). Formulations consisted of the hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose polymer (HPMCAS) and stearoyl macrogol-32 glycerides-Gelucire 50/13 (GLC) were processed with a twin screw extruder to produce solid dispersions. The extrudates characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage microscopy (HSM) indicated the presence of amorphous INM within the polymer/lipid matrices. In-line monitoring via near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy revealed significant peak shifts indicating possible interactions and H-bonding formation between the drug and the polymer/lipid carriers. Furthermore, in vitro dissolution studies showed a synergistic effect of the polymer/lipid carrier with 2-h lag time in acidic media followed by enhanced INM dissolution rates at pH > 5.5.

  12. Analysis of Operational Parameters Affecting the Sulfur Content in Hot Metal of the COREX Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shengli; Wang, Laixin; Kou, Mingyin; Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Jiacong

    2016-10-01

    The COREX process, which has obvious advantages in environment protection, still has some disadvantages. It has a higher sulfur content in hot metal (HM) than the blast furnace has. In the present work, the distribution and transfer of sulfur in the COREX have been analyzed and several operational parameters related to the sulfur content in HM ([pct S]) have been obtained. Based on this, the effects of the coal rate, slag ratio, temperature of HM, melting rate, binary basicity (R 2), the ratio of MgO/Al2O3, utilization of reducing gas, top gas consumption per ton burden solid, metallization rate, oxidation degree of reducing gas, and coal and DRI distribution index on the sulfur content in HM are investigated. What's more, a linear model has been developed and subsequently used for predicting and controlling the S content in HM of the COREX process.

  13. Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process has demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)

  14. Development of Hot Pressing as a Low Cost Processing Technique for Fuel Cell Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Sarin, V

    2003-01-14

    Dependable, plentiful, and economical energy has been the driving force for financial, industrial, and political growth in the US since the mid 19th century. For a country whose progress is so deeply rooted in abundant energy and whose current political agenda involves stabilizing world fossil fuel prices, the development of a reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly power generating source seems compulsory. The maturing of high technology fuel cells may be the panacea the country will find indispensable to free itself from foreign dependence. Fuel cells offer an efficient, combustion-less, virtually pollution-free power source, capable of being sited in downtown urban areas or in remote regions. Fuel cells have few moving parts and run almost silently. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly to electrical energy. Unlike batteries, which store a finite amount of energy, fuel cells will generate electricity continuously, as long as fuel and oxidant are available to the electrodes. Additionally, fuel cells offer clean, efficient, and reliable power and they can be operated using a variety of fuels. Hence, the fuel cell is an extremely promising technology. Over the course of this research, the fundamental knowledge related to ceramic processing, sintering, and hot pressing to successfully hot press a single operational SOFC in one step has been developed. Ceramic powder processing for each of the components of an SOFC has bene tailored towards this goal. Processing parameter for the electrolyte and cathode have been studied and developed until they converted. Several anode fabrication techniques have been developed. Additionally, a novel anode structured has been developed and refined. These individual processes have been cultivated until a single cell SOFC has been fabricated in one step.

  15. Evaluation of a Mobile Hot Cell Technology for Processing Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    B.J. Orchard; L.A. Harvego; R.P. Miklos; F. Yapuncich; L. Care

    2009-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently does not have the necessary capabilities to process all remote-handled wastes resulting from the Laboratory’s nuclear-related missions. Over the years, various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored programs undertaken at the INL have produced radioactive wastes and other materials that are categorized as remote-handled (contact radiological dose rate > 200 mR/hr). These materials include Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), transuranic (TRU) waste, waste requiring geological disposal, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (both radioactive and hazardous per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA]), and activated and/or radioactively-contaminated reactor components. The waste consists primarily of uranium, plutonium, other TRU isotopes, and shorter-lived isotopes such as cesium and cobalt with radiological dose rates up to 20,000 R/hr. The hazardous constituents in the waste consist primarily of reactive metals (i.e., sodium and sodium-potassium alloy [NaK]), which are reactive and ignitable per RCRA, making the waste difficult to handle and treat. A smaller portion of the waste is contaminated with other hazardous components (i.e., RCRA toxicity characteristic metals). Several analyses of alternatives to provide the required remote-handling and treatment capability to manage INL’s remote-handled waste have been conducted over the years and have included various options ranging from modification of existing hot cells to construction of new hot cells. Previous analyses have identified a mobile processing unit as an alternative for providing the required remote-handled waste processing capability; however, it was summarily dismissed as being a potentially viable alternative based on limitations of a specific design considered. In 2008 INL solicited expressions of interest from Vendors who could provide existing, demonstrated technology that could be applied to the retrieval, sorting, treatment (as required), and

  16. A Processing Map for Hot Deformation of an Ultrafine-Grained Aluminum-Magnesium-Silicon Alloy Prepared by Mechanical Milling and Hot Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh, Hamed; Rahbar Niazi, Masoud; Simchi, Abdolreza

    2015-12-01

    Uniaxial compression test at different temperatures [573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C)] and strain rates (0.01 to 1 s-1) was employed to study the hot deformation behavior of an ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al6063 alloy prepared by the powder metallurgy route. The UFG alloy with an average grain size of ~0.3 µm was prepared by mechanical milling of a gas-atomized aluminum alloy powder for 20 hours followed by hot powder extrusion at 723 K (450 °C). To elaborate the effect of grain size, the aluminum alloy powder was extruded without mechanical milling to attain a coarse-grained (CG) structure with an average grain size of about 2.2 µm. By employing the dynamic materials model, processing maps for the hot deformation of the UFG and CG Al alloy were constructed. For investigation of microstructural evolutions and deformation instability occurring upon hot working, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were utilized. It is shown that the grain refinement increases the deformation flow stress while reducing the strain hardening and power dissipation efficiency during the deformation process at the elevated temperatures. Restoration mechanisms, including dynamic recovery and recrystallization are demonstrated to control microstructural evolutions and thus the deformation behavior. Coarsening of the grain structure in the UFG alloy is illustrated, particularly when the deformation is performed at high temperatures and low strain rates. The manifestations of instability are observed in the form of cracking and void formation.

  17. Hot Compression of TC8M-1: Constitutive Equations, Processing Map, and Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ke; Chen, Zhiyong; Liu, Jianrong; Wang, Qingjiang; Fang, Bo; Dou, Lijun

    2016-06-01

    Hot compression of TC8M-1 was carried out under isothermal working conditions with temperature from 1173 K to 1323 K (900 °C to 1050 °C), strain rate from 0.001 to 10/s, and height reduction from 20 to 80 pct (corresponding true strain from 0.22 to 1.61). Constitutive equations were constructed and apparent activation energies of 149.5 and 617.4 kJ/mol were obtained for deformation in the β and upper α/ β phase regions, respectively. Microstructure examination confirmed the dominant role of dynamic recrystallization in the α/ β phase region and that of dynamic recovery in the β phase region, with the occurrence of grain boundary sliding at very low strain rate (0.001/s) in both regions. Based on the dynamic materials model, processing maps were constructed, providing optimal domains for hot working at the temperature of 1253 K (980 °C) and the strain rate of 0.01 to 0.1/s, or at 1193 K to 1213 K (920 °C to 940 °C) and 0.001/s. Moreover, our results indicated that the initial temperature non-uniformity along the specimen axis before compression existed and influenced the strain distribution, which contributed to the abnormal oscillations and/or abrupt rise-up of true stress and inhomogeneous deformation.

  18. Application of mixed models to assess exposures monitored by construction workers during hot processes.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, S M; Weaver, M; Taylor, D; Kupper, L; Susi, P

    1999-10-01

    Particulate exposures were assessed among construction workers engaged in hot processes in four jobs (boilermakers, ironworkers, pipefitters and welder-fitters) at nine sites in the U.S. After being trained by occupational hygienists, the workers obtained shift-long personal samples at each site for total particulates (TP). Selected samples were also assayed for manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Workers provided information about process- and task-related covariates that were present on the days of monitoring. Data were investigated with mixed-model regression analyses that designated the jobs and covariates as fixed effects and the worker and error terms as random effects. Results indicated that the within-worker variance components, but not the between-worker variance components, could be pooled among jobs. Mean air levels for a given agent varied by roughly six to 100 fold among the jobs, with boilermakers and ironworkers experiencing much higher levels of TP and Mn than pipefitters and welder-fitters. Limited data also suggested that welder-fitters were exposed to greater levels of Ni and Cr than pipefitters. Sufficient sample sizes were available to evaluate the effects of covariates upon exposures to TP and Mn. As expected, processes involving more than 50% hot work led to substantially higher levels of TP and Mn than those involving shorter durations of hot work. Local-exhaust or mechanical ventilation reduced exposure to TP (but not Mn) by as much as 44%, and shielded or manual arc welding increased exposure to Mn (but not TP) by about 80%. Parameters estimated with these mixed models were used to calculate probabilities that workers were exposed at levels above U.S. occupational exposure limits (OELs). Regarding TP and Mn, these calculations suggested that 26-95% of exposures to boilermakers and pipefitters and 2-13% of exposures to pipefitters and welder-fitters exceeded the current Threshold Limit Values. Among welder-fitters, limited data

  19. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Richard L.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  20. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2015-10-15

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  1. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2015-10-01

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  2. Effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on processing characteristics and eating quality of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Klassen, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on the processing characteristics, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of ground beef was evaluated. Hot water treatment (85°C for 40s) substantially enhanced the microbial quality of trimmings during refrigerated storage and this was independent of the fat level of the trimmings. Treatment had no effect on the oxidative stability of trimmings stored up to 7days, ground beef displayed in a retail cabinet for up to 3days, and had minimal effect on textural properties. Instrumental results demonstrate that ground beef from hot water treated trimmings was slightly lighter and tended to have less red color compared to non-treated beef. These color differences did not impact the consumer acceptance of raw patties, and in addition, hot water treatment did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability of cooked patty attributes. PMID:26610290

  3. Process window and defect monitoring using high-throughput e-beam inspection guided by computational hot spot detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Fang, Wei; Liu, Kevin; Jau, Jack; Wang, Lester; Wan, Alex; Hunsche, Stefan; Halder, Sandip; Leray, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    As design rules for leading edge devices have shrunk to 1x nm size and below, device patterns have become sensitive to sub-10nm size defects. Additionally, defectivity and yield are now increasingly dominated by systematic patterning defects. A method for identifying and inspecting these hot spot (HS) locations is necessary for both technology development and High Volume Manufacturing (HVM). In order to achieve sufficient statistical significance across the wafer for a specific product and layer, a guided, high-speed e-beam inspection system is needed to cover a significant amount of high-volume hot spot locations for process window monitoring. In this paper, we explore the capabilities of a novel, highthroughput e-beam hot spot inspection tool, SkyScanTM 5000, on a 10nm back-end-of-line (BEOL) wafer patterned using a triple lithography-etch process. ASML's high-resolution, design-aware computational hot spot inspection is used to identify relevant hot spot locations, including overlay-sensitive patterns. We guide the e-beam tool to these Points of Interest (POI) and obtain experimental data from inspection of 430k wafer locations. The large amount of data allows detection of wafer-level and intra-field defect signatures for a large number of hot spot patterns.

  4. DIP: The Database of Interacting Proteins

    DOE Data Explorer

    The DIP Database catalogs experimentally determined interactions between proteins. It combines information from a variety of sources to create a single, consistent set of protein-protein interactions. By interaction, the DIP Database creators mean that two amino acid chains were experimentally identified to bind to each other. The database lists such pairs to aid those studying a particular protein-protein interaction but also those investigating entire regulatory and signaling pathways as well as those studying the organisation and complexity of the protein interaction network at the cellular level. The data stored within the DIP database were curated, both, manually by expert curators and also automatically using computational approaches that utilize the knowledge about the protein-protein interaction networks extracted from the most reliable, core subset of the DIP data. It is a relational database that can be searched by protein, sequence, motif, article information, and pathBLAST. The website also serves as an access point to a number of projects related to DIP, such as LiveDIP, The Database of Ligand-Receptor Partners (DLRP) and JDIP. Users have free and open access to DIP after login. [Taken from the DIP Guide and the DIP website] (Specialized Interface) (Registration Required)

  5. Recent developments in modeling of hot rolling processes: Part II - Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Gerhard; Bambach, Markus; Seuren, Simon; Henke, Thomas; Lohmar, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    This publication gives a short overview of current developments in modeling and simulation of hot rolling processes of metals at the Institute of Metal Forming of RWTH Aachen University. It is based on the fundamentals treated in Part I also contained in this conference issue. It features applications in the field of fast on-line models, where a fast multi-stage rolling model and an analytical approach for predicting the through-thickness shear distribution are presented. In addition, a new concept for sensitivity analysis by automatic differentiation is introduced and discussed. Finally, applications of rolling simulations in the field of integrated computational materials engineering are presented with a focus on TWIP and linepipe steels as well as aluminum.

  6. Effect of calcinations temperature on microstructures, photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning property of TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangchay, Weerachai

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of calcinations temperature on phase transformation, crystallite size, morphology, photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties of TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2 thin films. The thin films were preparation by sol-gel dip coating process and calcinations at the temperature of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C for 2 h with the heating rate of 10 °C/mim. The microstructures of the fabricated thin films were characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. The photocatalytic activity of the thin films was also tested via the degradation of methylene blue solution under UV irradiation. Finally, self-cleaning properties of thin films were evaluated by measuring the contact angle of water droplet on the thin films with and without UV irradiation. It was found that SnO2/TiO2 thin films calcinations at the temperature of 500 °C shows the highest of photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties.

  7. Information Use Differences in Hot and Cold Risk Processing: When Does Information About Probability Count in the Columbia Card Task?

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Łukasz; Kubińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to provide insight into information processing differences between hot and cold risk taking decision tasks within a single domain. Decision theory defines risky situations using at least three parameters: outcome one (often a gain) with its probability and outcome two (often a loss) with a complementary probability. Although a rational agent should consider all of the parameters, s/he could potentially narrow their focus to only some of them, particularly when explicit Type 2 processes do not have the resources to override implicit Type 1 processes. Here we investigate differences in risky situation parameters' influence on hot and cold decisions. Although previous studies show lower information use in hot than in cold processes, they do not provide decision weight changes and therefore do not explain whether this difference results from worse concentration on each parameter of a risky situation (probability, gain amount, and loss amount) or from ignoring some parameters. Methods: Two studies were conducted, with participants performing the Columbia Card Task (CCT) in either its Cold or Hot version. In the first study, participants also performed the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) to monitor their ability to override Type 1 processing cues (implicit processes) with Type 2 explicit processes. Because hypothesis testing required comparison of the relative importance of risky situation decision weights (gain, loss, probability), we developed a novel way of measuring information use in the CCT by employing a conjoint analysis methodology. Results: Across the two studies, results indicated that in the CCT Cold condition decision makers concentrate on each information type (gain, loss, probability), but in the CCT Hot condition they concentrate mostly on a single parameter: probability of gain/loss. We also show that an individual's CRT score correlates with information use propensity in cold but not hot tasks. Thus, the affective dimension of

  8. Response of Vibrio parahaemolyticus 03:K6 to a hot water/cold shock pasteurization process.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L S; DeBlanc, S; Veal, C D; Park, D L

    2003-04-01

    Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are natural inhabitants of estuarine environments world wide. Pathogenic strains of these bacteria are often transmitted to humans through consumption of raw oysters, which flourish in the same estuaries. Previous studies reported the effective use of hot water pasteurization followed by cold shock to eliminate from raw oysters naturally and artificially incurred environmental strains of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus common to the Gulf of Mexico. The present study focused on the use of the same pasteurization method to reduce a highly process resistant Vibrio strain, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 to non-detectable levels. Oysters were artificially contaminated with 10(4) and 10(6) V. parahaemolyticus 03:K6 cfu g(-1) oyster meat. Contaminated oysters were pasteurized between 50 and 52 degrees C for up to 22 min. Samples of processed oysters were enumerated for V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 at 2-min intervals beginning after the 'come-up time' to achieve an oyster internal temperature of at least 50 degrees C. The D value (D(52)deg C) was 1.3-1.6 min. V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 proved more process resistant than non-pathogenic environmental strains found in Gulf of Mexico waters. A total processing time of at least 22 min at 52 degrees C was recommended to reduce this bacterium to non-detectable levels (< 3 g(-1) oyster meat).

  9. Recrystallization behavior of Ti40 burn-resistant titanium alloy during hot working process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yun-jin; Xin, She-wei; Zhang, Ping-xiang; Zhao, Yong-qing; Ma, Fan-jiao; Liu, Xiang-hong; Feng, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The recrystallization behavior of deformed Ti40 alloy during a heat-treatment process was studied using electron backscatter diffraction and optical microscopy. The results show that the microstructural evolution of Ti40 alloy is controlled by the growth behavior of grain-boundary small grains during the heating process. These small grains at the grain boundaries mostly originate during the forging process because of the alloy's inhomogeneous deformation. During forging, the deformation first occurs in the grain-boundary region. New small recrystallized grains are separated from the parent grains when the orientation between deformation zones and parent grains exceeds a certain threshold. During the heating process, the growth of these small recrystallized grains results in a uniform grain size and a decrease in the average grain size. The special recrystallization behavior of Ti40 alloy is mainly a consequence of the alloy's high β-stabilized elemental content and high solution strength of the β-grains, which partially explains the poor hot working ability of Ti-V-Cr-type burn-resistant titanium alloys. Notably, this study on Ti40 burn-resistant titanium alloy yields important information related to the optimization of the microstructures and mechanical properties.

  10. Pretreatment of rice straw by a hot-compressed water process for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoce; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Seiichi; Endo, Takashi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Hot-compressed water (HCW) is among several cost-effective pretreatment processes of lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present work investigated the characteristics of HCW pretreatment of rice straw including sugar production and inhibitor formation in the liquid fraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated material. Pretreatment was carried out at a temperature ranging from 140 to 240 degrees C for 10 or 30 min. Soluble oligosaccharides were found to constitute almost all the components of total sugars in the liquid fraction. The maximal production of total glucose at 180 degrees C and below accounted for 4.4-4.9% of glucan in raw material. Total xylose production peaked at 180 degrees C, accounting for 43.3% of xylan in raw material for 10-min pretreatment and 29.8% for 30-min pretreatment. The production of acetic acid increased at higher temperatures and longer treatment time, indicating more significant disruption of lignocellulosic structure, and furfural production achieved the maximum (2.8 mg/ml) at 200 degrees C for both 10-min and 30-min processes. The glucose yield by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw was no less than 85% at 180 degrees C and above for 30-min pretreatment and at 200 degrees C and above for 10-min pretreatment. Considering sugar recovery, inhibitor formation, and process severity, it is recommended that a temperature of 180 degrees C for a time of 30 min can be the most efficient process for HCW pretreatment of rice straw.

  11. Geo-processing workflow driven wildfire hot pixel detection under sensor web environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nengcheng; Di, Liping; Yu, Genong; Gong, Jianya

    2010-03-01

    Integrating Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) services with Geo-Processing Workflows (GPW) has become a bottleneck for Sensor Web-based applications, especially remote-sensing observations. This paper presents a common GPW framework for Sensor Web data service as part of the NASA Sensor Web project. This abstract framework includes abstract GPW model construction, GPW chains from service combination, and data retrieval components. The concrete framework consists of a data service node, a data processing node, a data presentation node, a Catalogue Service node, and a BPEL engine. An abstract model designer is used to design the top level GPW model, a model instantiation service is used to generate the concrete Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), and the BPEL execution engine is adopted. This framework is used to generate several kinds of data: raw data from live sensors, coverage or feature data, geospatial products, or sensor maps. A prototype, including a model designer, model instantiation service, and GPW engine-BPELPower is presented. A scenario for an EO-1 Sensor Web data service for wildfire hot pixel detection is used to test the feasibility of the proposed framework. The execution time and influences of the EO-1 live Hyperion data wildfire classification service framework are evaluated. The benefits and high performance of the proposed framework are discussed. The experiments of EO-1 live Hyperion data wildfire classification service show that this framework can improve the quality of services for sensor data retrieval and processing.

  12. Piezoresistive pens for dip-pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, A. K.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.; Simao, P.

    2013-03-01

    The conventional approach to measurement of the deflection of microfabricated cantilevers centers on the use of an optical lever. The use of optical lever technology increases the size, complexity, and cost of systems using microfabricated cantilevers. Occasionally, piezoresistors have been used to sense deflection. But, for atomic force microscope applications in particular, topographical sensitivity has demanded the higher sensitivity of the optical lever. For dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) microfabricated cantilevers do not require the same degree of deflection sensitivity. So, for these applications, piezoresistors can be used to sense deflection. In this work, we present a novel approach to an integrated DPN pen. Piezoresistive silicon stress sensors are integrated into a silicon nitride cantilever. The device design, process design, and fabrication methods for building these sensors, and sensor-actuators, are demonstrated. Integration of heaters, along with the piezoresistors, is also demonstrated.

  13. Material transport in dip-pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Keith A.; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Liao, Xing; He, Shu; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-06-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is a useful method for directly printing materials on surfaces with sub-50 nm resolution. Because it involves the physical transport of materials from a scanning probe tip to a surface and the subsequent chemical interaction of that material with the surface, there are many factors to consider when attempting to understand DPN. In this review, we overview the physical and chemical processes that are known to play a role in DPN. Through a detailed review of the literature, we classify inks into three general categories based on their transport properties, and highlight the myriad ways that DPN can be used to perform chemistry at the tip of a scanning probe.

  14. Fabrication of Luminescent Nanostructures by Dip-Pen Nanolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Noy, A; Miller, A E; Klare, J E; Weeks, B L; Woods, B W; DeYoreo, J J

    2002-06-25

    We used a combination of dip-pen nanolithography and scanning optical confocal microscopy to fabricate and visualize luminescent nanoscale patterns of various materials on glass substrates. We show that this method can be used successfully to push the limits of dip-pen nanolithography down to controlled deposition of single molecules. We also demonstrate that this method is able to create and visualize protein patterns on surfaces. Finally, we show that our method can be used to fabricate polymer nanowires of controlled size using conductive polymers. We also present a kinetic model that accurately describes the deposition process.

  15. Mass loss and a possible Population II lithium dip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, David S. P.; Schramm, David N.; Hobbs, L. M.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the recent observation of a subplateau lithium abundance for a high-surface-temperature Population II star relative to the Population II lithium plateau can be explained by main-sequence mass loss. This explanation is identical to a previously proposed explanation for the Population I lithium dip and predicts a similar dip for Population II. It is assumed that the main-sequence mass loss in both cases is associated with the instability strip intersecting the main sequence. This mass-loss process can also decrease globular cluster ages by about 1 Gyr.

  16. Semi-quantitative predictions of hot tearing and cold cracking in aluminum DC casting using numerical process simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subroto, T.; Miroux, A.; Mortensen, D.; M'Hamdi, M.; Eskin, D. G.; Katgerman, L.

    2012-07-01

    Cracking is one of the most critical defects that may occur during aluminum direct-chill (DC) casting. There are two types of cracking typical of DC casting: hot tearing and cold cracking. To study and predict such defects, currently we are using a process simulator, ALSIM. ALSIM is able to provide semi-quantitative predictions of hot tearing and cold cracking susceptibility. In this work, we performed benchmark tests using predictions of both types of cracks and experimental results of DC casting trials. The trials series resulted in billets with hot tearing as well as cold cracking. The model was also used to study the influence of several casting variables such as casting speed and inlet geometry with respect to the cracking susceptibility in the ingots. In this work, we found that the sump geometry was changed by the feeding scheme, which played an important role in hot tear occurrence. Moreover, increasing the casting speed also increased the hot tear and cold crack susceptibility. In addition, from the result of simulation, we also observed a phenomenon that supported the hypotheses of connection between hot tearing and cold cracking.

  17. Flow Behavior and Processing Maps of a Low-Carbon Steel During Hot Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiawei; Li, Wenya

    2015-12-01

    The hot isothermal compression tests of a low-carbon steel containing 0.20 pct C were performed in the temperature range of 973 K to 1273 K (700 °C to 1000 °C) and at the strain rate range of 0.001 to 1 s-1. The results show that the flow stress is dependent on deformation temperature and strain rate (decreasing with increasing temperature and/or increasing with increasing strain rate). The flow stress predicted by Arrhenius-type and artificial neural network models were both in a good agreement with experimental data, while the prediction accuracy of the latter is better than the former. A processing map can be obtained by superimposing an instability map on a power dissipation map. Finally, an FEM model was successfully established to simulate the compression test process of this steel. The processing map combined with the FEM model can be very beneficial to solve the problems of residual stress, distortion, and flow instability of components.

  18. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation.

  19. Dynamic recrystallization and texture evolution of Mg–Y–Zn alloy during hot extrusion process

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, L.B.; Li, X.; Zhang, D.P.; Cheng, L.R.; Meng, J.; Zhang, H.J.

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and texture evolution of Mg{sub 98.5}Y{sub 1}Zn{sub 0.5} and Mg{sub 92.5}Y{sub 5}Zn{sub 2.5} (atomic percent) alloys during hot extrusion were systematically investigated. The coarse LPSO phases with higher volume fraction (∼ 57%) suppressed the twinning generation in the initial stage of extrusion, and accelerated the dynamic recrystallization through the particle deformation zones. Therefore, the volume fraction of DRXed grains in as-extruded Mg{sub 92.5}Y{sub 5}Zn{sub 2.5} alloy was much higher than that of Mg{sub 98.5}Y{sub 1}Zn{sub 0.5} alloy. The intensive recrystallization process resulted in the conventional basal texture weakening, although the texture evolution was mainly dominated by flow behavior. The dynamic recrystallization behavior in Mg{sub 92.5}Y{sub 5}Zn{sub 2.5} alloy restricted the formation of deformation texture, and thus the more random texture was observed during the whole extrusion process. - Highlights: • The densely coarse LPSO phases suppressed the twinning deformation. • Coarse LPSO phases induced the particle stimulated nucleation effect. • Dynamic recrystallization resulted in the basal texture weakening effect.

  20. Distributed image processing system for the monitoring of hot steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Paul; Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf

    2003-05-01

    In a prototype for monitoring hot steel wire different technologies are integrated to achieve a robust, flexibly configurable and scalable imaging system. It is designed as a distributed system with private network and Tuplespace communication implementable on a LINUX Server. Intelligent cameras grab and process the image data. For real time communication between the cameras and standard industrial I/O-modules (IEC-61131) MODBUS/TCP messaging is applied. A switch with integrated firewall makes services available to the supervisory control system. Results are available as XML-logfiles. The image processing defines the upper and lower edges of the material by minimum/maximum filtering of the y-gradient. Dual Grassmanian coordinates are used to fit two parallel lines to the edge points by singular value decomposition. This gives the distance between the lines and the confidence interval of each measurement simultaneously, whereas latter is used to reject poor data. Changes of the distance are analysed computing local central moments. Presently, 12 images per second are acquired. The application is able to detect spontaneous rotation of the wire around the axis of rolling directly at the rolling stands and treats also poor images (due to steam of cooling water). It indicates resulting defects, which may go undetected otherwise.

  1. The Constitutive Relationship and Processing Map of Hot Deformation in A100 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongkang; Yin, Zongmei; Luo, Junting; Chunxiang, Zhang; Zhang, Yanshu

    2016-04-01

    Isothermal compression tests were conducted on A100 steel using a Gleeble 1500 thermal simulator at a temperature range of 900-1,200°C and strain rate range of 0.001-3 s-1. Results show that the A100 steel has higher strength than the Aermet 100 steel at high temperatures. Constant values, such as A, α, and n, and activate energy Q were obtained through the regression processing of the stress-strain data curves under different strains. A set of constitutive equations for A100 steel was proposed by using an Arrhenius-type equation. The optimum processing craft ranges for A100 steel based on the analysis of the hot working diagram and deformation mechanism are as follows: temperature range of 1,000-1,100°C and strain rate range of 0.01-0.1 s-1. The average grain size within this working range is 7-22.5 μm.

  2. Investigation of passive and active silica-tin oxide nanostructured optical fibers fabricated by "inverse dip-coating" and "powder in tube" method based on the chemical sol-gel process and laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, G.; Restoin, C.; Roy, P.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Duclere, J.-R.; Lecomte, A.; Dauliat, R.; Blondy, J.-M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a study of original nanostructured optical fibers based on the SiO2-SnO2-(Yb3+) system. Two different processes have been developed and compared: the sol-gel chemical method associated to the "inverse dip-coating" (IDC) and the "powder in tube" (PIT). The microstructural and optical properties of the fibers are studied according to the concentration of SnO2. X-Ray Diffraction as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy studies show that the SnO2 crystallizes into the cassiterite phase as nanoparticles with a diameter ranging from 4 to 50 nm as a function of tin oxide concentration. A comparative study highlights a better conservation of SnO2 into the fiber core with the PIT approach according to the refractive index profile and energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry measurement. The attenuation evaluated by the classic cut-back method gives respectively values higher than 3 dB/m and 0.2 dB/m in the visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) ranges for the PIT fibers whereas background losses reach 0.5 dB/m in the VIS range for IDC fibers. The introduction of ytterbium ions into the core of PIT fibers, directly in the first chemical step, leads to a laser emission (between 1050 and 1100 nm) according to the fiber length under 850 nm wavelength pumping. Luminescence studies have demonstrated the influence of the tin oxide on the rare earth optical properties especially by the modification of the absorption (850 to 1000 nm) and emission (950 to 1100 nm) by discretization of the bands, as well as on the IR emission lifetime evaluated to 10 μs.

  3. Powder processing of nitrides by hot isostatic pressing. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of hot isostatic pressing to process metal nitrides. Citations discuss the fabrication of components for internal combustion, advanced heat, and gas turbine engines. Ceramic matrix composites are considered. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Study on the Hot Processing Parameters-Impact Toughness Correlation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohui; Zeng, Weidong; Sun, Yu; Han, Yuanfei; Zhao, Yongqing

    2016-05-01

    In this research, the hot processing parameters-impact toughness correlation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is studied. Fifty-four groups of hot processing treatments with different forging temperatures (930, 950, 970 °C), deformation degrees (20, 50, 80%), annealing temperatures (600, 700, 800 °C), and annealing time (1 and 5 h) were conducted. The orthogonal design was used to find the primary hot processing parameters influencing the impact toughness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The results show that the annealing temperature can exert the biggest influence on impact toughness. Low annealing temperature is essential to achieve high impact toughness value. In addition, the BP neural network was used to describe the quantitative correlation between hot processing parameters and impact toughness. The results show that the BP neural network exhibits good performance in predicting the impact toughness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The prediction error is within 5%. The BP neural network and the orthogonal design method are mutually confirmed in the present work. Finally, based on the microstructure analysis, the reasons responsible for above experimental results are explained.

  5. 9 CFR 72.13 - Permitted dips and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.13 Permitted dips and procedures. (a) Dipping requirements; facilities; handling. The dipping of cattle for interstate movement shall be done only with a permitted dip and at places where proper equipment is provided for dipping and for handling the cattle in a manner to...

  6. 9 CFR 72.13 - Permitted dips and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.13 Permitted dips and procedures. (a) Dipping requirements; facilities; handling. The dipping of cattle for interstate movement shall be done only with a permitted dip and at places where proper equipment is provided for dipping and for handling the cattle in a manner to...

  7. Dip-separated structural filtering using seislet transform and adaptive empirical mode decomposition based dip filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangkang

    2016-07-01

    The seislet transform has been demonstrated to have a better compression performance for seismic data compared with other well-known sparsity promoting transforms, thus it can be used to remove random noise by simply applying a thresholding operator in the seislet domain. Since the seislet transform compresses the seismic data along the local structures, the seislet thresholding can be viewed as a simple structural filtering approach. Because of the dependence on a precise local slope estimation, the seislet transform usually suffers from low compression ratio and high reconstruction error for seismic profiles that have dip conflicts. In order to remove the limitation of seislet thresholding in dealing with conflicting-dip data, I propose a dip-separated filtering strategy. In this method, I first use an adaptive empirical mode decomposition based dip filter to separate the seismic data into several dip bands (5 or 6). Next, I apply seislet thresholding to each separated dip component to remove random noise. Then I combine all the denoised components to form the final denoised data. Compared with other dip filters, the empirical mode decomposition based dip filter is data-adaptive. One only needs to specify the number of dip components to be separated. Both complicated synthetic and field data examples show superior performance of my proposed approach than the traditional alternatives. The dip-separated structural filtering is not limited to seislet thresholding, and can also be extended to all those methods that require slope information.

  8. Thermoplastic polymers surfaces for Dip-Pen Nanolithography of oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, Raffaella; Biella, Serena; Cesura, Federico; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    Different thermoplastic polymers were spin-coated to prepare smooth surfaces for the direct deposition of end-group modified oligonucleotides by Dip-Pen Nanolithography. A study of the diffusion process was done in order to investigate the dependence of calibration coefficient and quality of deposited features on environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and ink's molecular weight and functionality. The optimization of the process parameters led to the realization of high quality and density nanoarrays on plastics.

  9. Fabrication of a polymeric vertical microlens with the dip method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Chao; Huang, Yun-Hsun; Peng, Te-Chin; Wu, Meng-Chyi; Ho, Chong-Long; Hong, Chao-Chi; Liu, I.-Ming; Tsai, Yao-Tsong

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a process based on the dip method to fabricate a polymeric vertical microlens (PVM). After the primary dip step, the PVM is formed by hanging the liquid SU-8 on a wall in virtue of the strong adhesive force and liquid cohesion. The microlens is then baked and exposed in ultraviolet light to further cross-link the negative photoresist SU-8 to enhance thermal stability and reliability. According to the experimental results, the radius of curvature of the fabricated vertical microlens varies from 120.8 to 34.2 μm, which relates to the dip depth or the thickness of the dipped pool. To characterize the PVM, an edge-emitting laser diode (λ=1.31 μm) is then bonded onto the optical bench and a detector is utilized to observe the beam divergence with and without the lens insertion. Compared with an angle of 40.8° without the microlens, the beam passing through a suitable PVM shows a vertical far-field angle of 3.32°. Furthermore, the lens efficiency, approximately 83.4%, is also specified by the measurements.

  10. 9 CFR 72.13 - Permitted dips and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., APHIS. Before a dip will be specifically approved as a permitted dip for the eradication of ticks, APHIS... effectually eradicate ticks without injury to the animals dipped. (d) Tissue residues; restriction...

  11. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  12. Large Capacity SMES for Voltage Dip Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatani, Yu; Saito, Fusao; Ito, Toshinobu; Shimada, Mamoru; Ishida, Satoshi; Shimanuki, Yoshio

    Voltage dips of power grids due to thunderbolts, snow damage, and so on, cause serious damage to production lines of precision instruments, for example, semiconductors. In recent years, in order to solve this problem, uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS) are used. UPS, however, has small capacity, so a great number of UPS are needed in large factories. Therefore, we have manufactured the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for voltage dip compensation able to protect loads with large capacity collectively. SMES has advantages such as space conservation, long lifetime and others. In field tests, cooperating with CHUBU Electric Power Co., Inc. we proved that SMES is valuable for compensating voltage dips. Since 2007, 10MVA SMES improved from field test machines has been running in a domestic liquid crystal display plant, and in 2008, it protected plant loads from a number of voltage dips. In this paper, we report the action principle and components of the improved SMES for voltage dip compensation, and examples of waveforms when 10MVA SMES compensated voltage dips.

  13. Process Optimization of Dual-Laser Beam Welding of Advanced Al-Li Alloys Through Hot Cracking Susceptibility Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yingtao; Robson, Joseph D.; Riekehr, Stefan; Kashaev, Nikolai; Wang, Li; Lowe, Tristan; Karanika, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Laser welding of advanced Al-Li alloys has been developed to meet the increasing demand for light-weight and high-strength aerospace structures. However, welding of high-strength Al-Li alloys can be problematic due to the tendency for hot cracking. Finding suitable welding parameters and filler material for this combination currently requires extensive and costly trial and error experimentation. The present work describes a novel coupled model to predict hot crack susceptibility (HCS) in Al-Li welds. Such a model can be used to shortcut the weld development process. The coupled model combines finite element process simulation with a two-level HCS model. The finite element process model predicts thermal field data for the subsequent HCS hot cracking prediction. The model can be used to predict the influences of filler wire composition and welding parameters on HCS. The modeling results have been validated by comparing predictions with results from fully instrumented laser welds performed under a range of process parameters and analyzed using high-resolution X-ray tomography to identify weld defects. It is shown that the model is capable of accurately predicting the thermal field around the weld and the trend of HCS as a function of process parameters.

  14. Influence of blanching and grinding process with hot water on beany and non-beany flavor in soymilk.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yan-Chun; Song, Huan-Lu; Li, Xin; Wu, Liang; Guo, Shun-Tang

    2011-01-01

    A total of 8 beany odor-active compounds and 4 non-beany aroma-active compounds of traditional soymilk were identified through dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). To eliminate the beany flavors, soymilk was processed with hot water blanching and grinding for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min with a temperature between 80 and 100 °C. A total of 5 beany odor-active compounds and 3 non-beany aroma-active compounds of this soymilk were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). As a result, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity gradually decreased by hot water treatment with time, and with the decrease of Lox activity, the 5 beany odor-active compounds and 3 non-beany aroma-active compounds were significantly decreased. However, the reduction in non-beany flavor compounds was smaller than for beany odor compounds. Therefore, a balance between beany and non-beany flavors can be reached in soymilk. When the soaked soybeans were blanched and ground with hot water for 2 to 6 min, the LOX activity was between 38% and 57% of the beginning activity. For these processing times, the non-beany compounds could be largely maintained. The ratio of the total peak area of the 3 non-beany aroma compounds and 5 beany flavor compounds was between 0.07 and 0.12, and the sensory scores of the aromas were higher than that of the off-flavors. Practical Application: Beany flavors in soymilk could be reduced with hot water blanching and grinding at temperature above 80 °C. However, the treatment of hot water blanching affected the non-beany aromas of soymilk. A suitable blanching and grinding time is necessary to achieve a balance of soymilk flavors.

  15. Replication of microchannel structures in WC-Co feedstock using elastomeric replica moulds by hot embossing process.

    PubMed

    Sahli, M; Gelin, J-C; Barrière, T

    2015-10-01

    Hot embossing is a net shaping process that is able to produce the micro-components of polymers with intrinsic and complex shapes at lower cost compared with machining and injection moulding. However, the emboss of hard metals, such as WC-Co, is more challenging due to their high thermal conductivity and ease of agglomeration. Thus, a WC-Co alloy mixed with a wax-based binder feedstock was selected. The formed feedstock exhibited pseudo-plastic flow and was successfully embossed (green part). Here, we developed a novel process that is used to replicate polymer microfluidic chips while simultaneously reducing the channel surface roughness of the mould insert, yielding optical-grade (less than 100 nm surface roughness) channels and reservoirs. This paper concerns the replication of metallic microfluidic mould inserts in WC-Co and the parameters associated with feedstock formation via a hot embossing process. A suitable formulation for micro-powder hot embossing has been established and characterised by thermogravimetric analyses and measurements of mixing torques to verify and quantify the homogeneity of the proposed feedstocks. The relative density of the samples increased with processing temperature, and almost fully dense materials were obtained. In this work, the effects of the sintering temperature on the physical properties were systematically analysed. The evolution of the metal surface morphology during the hot embossing process was also investigated. The results indicate that the feedstock can be used to manufacture micro-fluidic die mould cavities with a low roughness, proper dimensions and good shape retention. The shrinkage of the sintered part was approximately 19-24% compared with that of the brown part. PMID:26117760

  16. Preparation of monolithic matrices for oral drug delivery using a supercritical fluid assisted hot melt extrusion process.

    PubMed

    Lyons, John G; Hallinan, Mark; Kennedy, James E; Devine, Declan M; Geever, Luke M; Blackie, Paul; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2007-02-01

    The use of supercritical fluids as plasticisers in polymer processing has been well documented. The body of work described in this research paper outlines the use of a supercritical CO(2) assisted extrusion process in the preparation of a hot melt extruded monolithic polymer matrix for oral drug delivery. Several batches of matrix material were prepared with Carvedilol used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). These batches were subsequently extruded both with and without supercritical CO(2) incorporation. The resultant matrices were characterised using steady-state parallel plate rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-thermal analysis (microTA) and dissolution testing. Dissolution analysis showed that the use of supercritical CO(2) during the extrusion process resulted in a faster dissolution of API when compared with unassisted extrusion. The supercritical CO(2) incorporation also resulted in reduced viscosity during processing, therefore allowing for quicker throughput and productivity. The results detailed within this paper indicate that supercritical fluid assisted hot melt extrusion is a viable enhancement to conventional hot melt extrusion for the production of monolithic dosage forms.

  17. PolDIP2 interacts with human PrimPol and enhances its DNA polymerase activities

    PubMed Central

    Guilliam, Thomas A.; Bailey, Laura J.; Brissett, Nigel C.; Doherty, Aidan J.

    2016-01-01

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) employs specialized DNA polymerases to bypass replication fork stalling lesions. PrimPol was recently identified as a TLS primase and polymerase involved in DNA damage tolerance. Here, we identify a novel PrimPol binding partner, PolDIP2, and describe how it regulates PrimPol's enzymatic activities. PolDIP2 stimulates the polymerase activity of PrimPol, enhancing both its capacity to bind DNA and the processivity of the catalytic domain. In addition, PolDIP2 stimulates both the efficiency and error-free bypass of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxoG) lesions by PrimPol. We show that PolDIP2 binds to PrimPol's catalytic domain and identify potential binding sites. Finally, we demonstrate that depletion of PolDIP2 in human cells causes a decrease in replication fork rates, similar to that observed in PrimPol−/− cells. However, depletion of PolDIP2 in PrimPol−/− cells does not produce a further decrease in replication fork rates. Together, these findings establish that PolDIP2 can regulate the TLS polymerase and primer extension activities of PrimPol, further enhancing our understanding of the roles of PolDIP2 and PrimPol in eukaryotic DNA damage tolerance. PMID:26984527

  18. Optimizing microfluidic ink delivery for dip pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debjyoti; Amro, Nabil A.; Fragala, Joe

    2004-01-01

    This work demonstrates the design optimization, fabrication process development, process optimization and testing of a microfluidic ink delivery apparatus (called "Inkwells") for simultaneously coating an array of DPN pens with different inks. The objective of this work is to deliver between 4 and 10 different inks from reservoirs into appropriately spacd microwell array. A tips of the multi-pen array are coated with different inks by dipping them into the microwell array. The reservoirs, microwells and their connecting micro-channels were etched in silicon wafers using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). Fluid actuation was achieved by capillary wicking. The optimum layouts for different applications were selected with respect to the volume requirement of inks, the efficacy of ink-well filling, to obviate the problem of bubble formation, and to test the operations of dipping and writing with a parallel array of pens.

  19. Optimizing microfluidic ink delivery for dip pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debjyoti; Amro, Nabil A.; Fragala, Joe

    2003-12-01

    This work demonstrates the design optimization, fabrication process development, process optimization and testing of a microfluidic ink delivery apparatus (called "Inkwells") for simultaneously coating an array of DPN pens with different inks. The objective of this work is to deliver between 4 and 10 different inks from reservoirs into appropriately spacd microwell array. A tips of the multi-pen array are coated with different inks by dipping them into the microwell array. The reservoirs, microwells and their connecting micro-channels were etched in silicon wafers using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). Fluid actuation was achieved by capillary wicking. The optimum layouts for different applications were selected with respect to the volume requirement of inks, the efficacy of ink-well filling, to obviate the problem of bubble formation, and to test the operations of dipping and writing with a parallel array of pens.

  20. Plant uptake and the leaching of metals during the hot EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction process.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chun-Ling; Shen, Zhen-Guo; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Using pot experiments, the effect of the application of the biodegradable chelating agent S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) in hot solutions at 90 degrees C on the uptake of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd by corn (Zea mays L. cv. Nongda No. 108) and beans (P vulgaris L. white bean), and the potential leaching of metals from soil, were studied. When EDDS was applied as a hot solution at the rate of 1 mmol kg(-1), the concentrations and total phytoextraction of metals in plant shoots exceeded or approximated those in the shoots of plants treated with normal EDDS at the rate of 5 mmol kg(-1). On the other hand, the leaching of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd after the application of the hot EDDS solution at the rate of 1 mmol kg(-1) was reduced by 46%, 21%, 57%, and 35% in comparison with that from the application of normal EDDS at 5 mmol kg(-1), respectively. For treatment with 1 mmol kg(-1) of EDDS, the leached metals decreased to the levels of the control group (that without EDDS amendment) 14 d after the application of EDDS. The soil amendment with biodegradable EDDS in hot solutions may provide a good alternative to chelate-enhanced phytoextraction in enhancing metal uptake by plants and limiting metals from leaching out of the soil.

  1. Are hot Neptunes partially evaporated hot Jupiters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boué, G.; Figueira, P.; Correia, A. C. M.; Santos, N. C.

    2011-10-01

    The detection of short period planets (hot Jupiters and their lower mass counterparts, hot Neptunes and super-Earths) still defies the models of planet formation and evolution. Several possibilities have been proposed to explain the nature and formation process of the lower mass population, including in situ formation, disk migration, planet-planet scattering and kozai evolution, and the evaporation of a higher mass hot Jupiter. Using dynamical models and the best estimates for evaporation velocities, we show that under reasonable (and observed) physical conditions, hot Jupiter evaporation may explain the observed population of hot Neptunes/super-Earths.

  2. Are Hot Neptunes Partialy Evaporated Hot Jupiters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Nuno; Boue, G.; Figueira, P.; Correia, A.

    2011-09-01

    The detection of short period planets (hot Jupiters and their lower mass counterparts, hot neptunes and super-earths) still defies the models of planet formation and evolution. Several possibilities have been proposed to explain the nature and formation process of the lower mass population, including in situ formation, disk migration, planet-planet scattering and kozai evolution, and the evaporation of a higher mass hot Jupiter. Using dynamical models and the best estimates for evaporation velocities, we show that under reasonable (and observed) physical conditions, hot Jupiter evaporation can explain the observed population of hot Neptunes/super-Earths.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  4. 78 FR 21159 - Additional Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks); Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR... Operations (Dip Tanks); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's Approval of the Information... Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) (29 CFR 1910.126(g)(4)). DATES: Comments must be submitted...

  5. What Can Be Learned from X-Ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in the Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Both solar wind charge exchange emission and diffuse thermal emission from the Local Bubble are strongly dominated in the soft X-ray band by lines from highly ionized elements. While both processes share many of the same lines, the spectra should differ significantly due to the different production mechanisms, abundances, and ionization states. Despite their distinct spectral signatures, current and past observatories have lacked the spectral resolution to adequately distinguish between the two sources. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy instrumentation proposed for future missions has the potential to answer fundamental questions such as whether there is any hot plasma in the Local Hot Bubble, and if so, what are the abundances of the emitting plasma and whether the plasma is in equilibrium. Such instrumentation will provide dynamic information about the solar wind including data on ion species which are currently difficult to track. It will also make possible remote sensing of the solar wind.

  6. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium chloride is one of the primary contaminants that enter gas turbine engines and contribute, either directly or indirectly, to the hot corrosion degradation of hot-gas-path components. The paper surveys the results of laboratory experiments along with thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, intended for elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments. It is shown that besides being a source of sodium for the formation of corrosive liquid Na2SO4, the NaCl itself contributes in other indirect ways to the material degradation associated with the high-temperature environmental attack. In addition, the experimental results lend credence to the conceptual scheme presented schematically (behavior of NaCl in a turbine engine combustion gas environment) and resolve conflicting aspects of relevant NaCl misconceptions.

  7. Solar production of industrial-process hot water. Phase 3: Operation and evaluation of the York Building Products Co., Inc. solar facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, J. M.; Kaplan, N.; Wilkening, H. A., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    A solar heating system to provide hot water for curing concrete blocks is discussed. The objective is to operate, collect data, and evaluate the solar system for a 3 year period. The solar facility utilizes 35 collectors. The system is designed to deliver a water/ethylene glycol solution at 2000 F to a heat exchanger, which, in turn, supplies water at 1800 F to a rotorclave (underground tank) for the concrete block curing process. A fossil fuel boiler system also supplies the rotorclave with processed hot water to supplement the solar system. The program demonstrates the technical feasibility of generating industrial process hot water with solar energy.

  8. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition chamber and process with multiple gas inlets

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Povolny, Henry S.

    2004-06-29

    A thin film deposition method uses a vacuum confinement cup that employs a dense hot filament and multiple gas inlets. At least one reactant gas is introduced into the confinement cup both near and spaced apart from the heated filament. An electrode inside the confinement cup is used to generate plasma for film deposition. The method is used to deposit advanced thin films (such as silicon based thin films) at a high quality and at a high deposition rate.

  9. A regenerable sorbent injection/filtration process for H{sub 2}S removal from hot gas

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, R.J.; Ji, W.; Connors, M.J.; Jones, J.F.; Goldsmith, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    The operational characteristics of a hot gas desulfurization process involving regenerable sorbent injection and its subsequent collection with a ceramic filtration device were studied utilizing a bench-scale transport reactor. Hydrogen sulfide removal from simulated hot gas was evaluated as a function of both zinc oxide-based sorbent physical and chemical characteristics and various process parameters. In addition, the sorbent capture efficiency and regenerability of the ceramic filtration device were evaluated, and regeneration of sulfided sorbents via injection into an oxidizing gas was studied. For both sorbent sulfidation and spent sorbent regeneration, gas-solid reaction occurred both in the duct and within layers of partially reacted sorbent captured by the ceramic filter. Very high sulfur removal efficiencies were obtained only in highly reducing hot gas compositions at or above about 700 C, using stoichiometric ratio (defined as ZnO/H{sub 2}S ratio) values of about 1.5, and sorbent particles of about 20 {micro}m or less in diameter. Under such conditions, the experimental data indicated that reaction of H{sub 2}S with zinc vapor formed by reduction of zinc oxide contributed appreciably to sulfur removal. Negligible zinc loss from the hot zone of the reactor was detected, apparently due to rapid formation of zinc sulfide product layers on zinc oxide particles. The ceramic filtration devices captured 100% of all sorbent particles and were fully regenerable over periods of several tens of injection/backpulse cleaning cycles. Spent sorbent could be fully regenerated rapidly at 850 C without problems due to exotherm generation.

  10. Elastic modeling and steep dips: unraveling the reflected wavefield

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelting, C. J.; Gherasim, M.; House, L. S.; Marfurt, K. J.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a larger elastic numerical modeling project, we have been investigating how energy reflected from steeply dipping interfaces is recorded using typical multicomponent acquisition geometries. Specifically, we have been interpreting how rcflection events from the flanks of salt dome structures are distributed on 3C and 4C phones for vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) and ocean bottom seismic (OBS) or land surface surveys. The ultimate goal of this investigation is to improve the structural imaging of steeply dipping interfaces and eventually to evaluate the usc of the recorded elastic wavefield for fluid description near these interfaces. In the current work, we focus on a common assumption used when processing converted wave reflection seismic data that most PP energy is recorded on the vertical geophone and/or the hydrophone and that most PS energy is recorded on the horizontal geophones. This is a useful assumption when it is valid, because it eliminates the need for separation of the recorded wavefield into P and S wavetypes. Using two elastic models and different acquisition geometries, we examine the validity of this assumption in the presence of steeply dipping interfaces and discuss the implications for converted-wave and vector imaging of salt flanks.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.

    2011-05-04

    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  12. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui; Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng

    2013-12-16

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully.

  13. What can be Learned from X-ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Steve

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from x-ray spectroscopy in observing hot gas in local bubble and charge exchange processes depends on spectral resolution, instrumental grasp, instrumental energy band, signal-to-nose, field of view, angular resolution and observatory location. Early attempts at x-ray spectroscopy include ROSAT; more recently, astronomers have used diffuse x-ray spectrometers, XMM Newton, sounding rocket calorimeters, and Suzaku. Future observations are expected with calorimeters on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission, and the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX). The Geospheric SWCX may provide remote sensing of the solar wind and magnetosheath and remote observations of solar CMEs moving outward from the sun.

  14. Trapping dynamics of diindenoperylene (DIP) in self-assembled monolayers using molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Ananth P.; Clancy, Paulette

    2011-07-01

    All-atom Molecular Dynamics simulation methods employing a well-tested intermolecular potential model, MM3 (Molecular Mechanics 3), demonstrate the propensity for diindenoperylene (DIP) molecules to insert between molecules of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) during a deposition process intended to grow a thin film of this organic semiconductor molecule onto the surface of self-assembled monolayers. The tendency to insert between SAM molecules is fairly prevalent at normal growth temperatures and conditions, but is most strongly dependent on the density and the nature of the SAM. We posit the existence of an optimal density to favor surface adsorption over insertion for this system. DIP is less likely to insert in fluorinated SAMs, like FOTS (fluorooctatrichlorosilane), than its unfluorinated analog, OTS (octatrichlorosilane). It is also less likely to insert between shorter SAMs (e.g., less insertion in OTS than ODTS (octadecyltrichlorosilane)). Very short length, surface-coating molecules, like HDMS (hexamethyldisilazane), are more likely to scatter energetic incoming DIP molecules with little insertion on first impact (depending on the incident energy of the DIP molecule). Grazing angles of incidence of the depositing molecules generally favor surface adsorption, at least in the limit of low coverage, but are shown to be dependent on the nature of the SAM. The validity of these predictions is confirmed by comparison of the predicted sticking coefficients of DIP at a variety of incident energies on OTS, ODTS, and FOTS SAMs with results obtained experimentally by Desai et al. (2010) [23]. The simulation predictions of the tendency of DIP to insert can be explained, in large part, in terms of binding energies between SAM and DIP molecules. However, we note that entropic and stochastic events play a role in the deposition outcomes. Preliminary studies of multiple deposition events, emulating growth, show an unexpected diffusion of DIP molecules inserted within the

  15. Hot deformation behavior of uniform fine-grained GH4720Li alloy based on its processing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qiu-ying; Yao, Zhi-hao; Dong, Jian-xin

    2016-01-01

    The hot deformation behavior of uniform fine-grained GH4720Li alloy was studied in the temperature range from 1040 to 1130°C and the strain-rate range from 0.005 to 0.5 s-1 using hot compression testing. Processing maps were constructed on the basis of compression data and a dynamic materials model. Considerable flow softening associated with superplasticity was observed at strain rates of 0.01 s-1 or lower. According to the processing map and observations of the microstructure, the uniform fine-grained microstructure remains intact at 1100°C or lower because of easily activated dynamic recrystallization (DRX), whereas obvious grain growth is observed at 1130°C. Metallurgical instabilities in the form of non-uniform microstructures under higher and lower Zener-Hollomon parameters are induced by local plastic flow and primary γ' local faster dissolution, respectively. The optimum processing conditions at all of the investigated strains are proposed as 1090-1130°C with 0.08-0.5 s-1 and 0.005-0.008 s-1 and 1040-1085°C with 0.005-0.06 s-1.

  16. Spike-dip transformation of Setaria viridis.

    PubMed

    Saha, Prasenjit; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Traditional method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the generation of tissue culture had limited success for Setaria viridis, an emerging C4 monocot model. Here we present an efficient in planta method for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis using spike dip. Pre-anthesis developing spikes were dipped into a solution of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter to standardize and optimize conditions for transient as well as stable transformations. A transformation efficiency of 0.8 ± 0.1% was obtained after dipping of 5-day-old S3 spikes for 20 min in Agrobacterium cultures containing S. viridis spike-dip medium supplemented with 0.025% Silwet L-77 and 200 μm acetosyringone. Reproducibility of this method was demonstrated by generating stable transgenic lines expressing β-glucuronidase plus (GUSplus), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter genes driven by either CaMV35S or intron-interrupted maize ubiquitin (Ubi) promoters from three S. viridis genotypes. Expression of these reporter genes in transient assays as well as in T1 stable transformed plants was monitored using histochemical, fluorometric GUS activity and fluorescence microscopy. Molecular analysis of transgenic lines revealed stable integration of transgenes into the genome, and inherited transgenes expressed in the subsequent generations. This approach provides opportunities for the high-throughput transformation and potentially facilitates translational research in a monocot model plant. PMID:26932666

  17. Experimental discovery of charge-exchange-caused dips in spectral lines from laser-produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Leboucher-Dalimier, E; Oks, E; Dufour, E; Sauvan, P; Angelo, P; Schott, R; Poquerusse, A

    2001-12-01

    We report the first experimental observation of charge-exchange-caused dips (also called x dips) in spectral lines of multicharged ions in laser-produced plasmas. Specifically, in the process of a laser irradiation of targets made out of aluminum carbide, we observed two x dips in the Ly(gamma) line of Al XIII perturbed by fully stripped carbon. From the practical point of view, this opens up a way to experimentally produce not-yet-available fundamental data on charge exchange between multicharged ions, virtually inaccessible by other experimental methods. From the theoretical viewpoint, the results are important because the x dips are the only one signature of charge exchange in profiles of spectral lines emitted by plasmas and they are the only one quasimolecular phenomenon that could be observed at relatively "low" densities of laser-produced plasmas. PMID:11736229

  18. One step 'dip' and 'use' Ag nanostructured thin films for ultrahigh sensitive SERS Detection.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Kanakaraj; Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Mangalaraj, Devanesan; Rajendra Kumar, Ramasamy Thangavelu

    2016-11-01

    A simple one step galvanic displacement method which involves dipping of the silicon substrate in the AgNO3/HF solution and using it for SERS application without any further process is demonstrated. The size and shape of the Ag nanoparticles changes as the deposition time is increased. Initially the shape of the particles was nearly spherical and as it grows, becomes oblong and then coalesce to form a discontinuous film with vertically grown hierarchical Ag nanostructures. The sizes of the deposited particles were in the ranges from 30nm to a discontinuous film. It also demonstrated a highly sensitive chemical detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G dye, down to 10(-16)M concentration. Prepared samples were able to detect lower concentrations of Melamine. Discontinuous thin films with hierarchical Ag nanostructures were obtained for 5min Ag deposition. The formation of Hot spots between the discontinuous islands and also along the hierarchical structures is responsible for the high SERS enhancement. This simple one step, fast, non-lithographic and cost effective method can be applied for various label free detection of analytes of importance.

  19. One step 'dip' and 'use' Ag nanostructured thin films for ultrahigh sensitive SERS Detection.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Kanakaraj; Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Mangalaraj, Devanesan; Rajendra Kumar, Ramasamy Thangavelu

    2016-11-01

    A simple one step galvanic displacement method which involves dipping of the silicon substrate in the AgNO3/HF solution and using it for SERS application without any further process is demonstrated. The size and shape of the Ag nanoparticles changes as the deposition time is increased. Initially the shape of the particles was nearly spherical and as it grows, becomes oblong and then coalesce to form a discontinuous film with vertically grown hierarchical Ag nanostructures. The sizes of the deposited particles were in the ranges from 30nm to a discontinuous film. It also demonstrated a highly sensitive chemical detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G dye, down to 10(-16)M concentration. Prepared samples were able to detect lower concentrations of Melamine. Discontinuous thin films with hierarchical Ag nanostructures were obtained for 5min Ag deposition. The formation of Hot spots between the discontinuous islands and also along the hierarchical structures is responsible for the high SERS enhancement. This simple one step, fast, non-lithographic and cost effective method can be applied for various label free detection of analytes of importance. PMID:27524085

  20. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Shallow Dip-Slip Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenishi, K.

    2010-12-01

    , Japan in 2008, for example, seem to support the need for careful mechanical consideration. In this contribution, utilizing two-dimensional dynamic photoelasticity in conjunction with high speed digital cinematography, we try to perform "fully controlled" laboratory experiments of dip-slip faulting and observe the propagation of interface pulses and corner waves mentioned above. A birefringent material containing a (model) dip-slip fault plane is prepared, and rupture is initiated in that material using an Nd:YAG laser system, and the evolution of time-dependent isochromatic fringe patterns (contours of maximum in-plane shear stress) associated with the dynamic process of shallow dip-slip faulting is recorded. Use of Nd:YAG laser pulses, instead of ignition of explosives, for rupture initiation may enhance the safety of laboratory fracture experiments and enable us to evaluate the energy entering the material (and hence the energy balance in the system) more precisely, possibly in a more controlled way.

  1. A surface diffusion model for Dip Pen Nanolithography line writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sourabh K.; Culpepper, Martin L.

    2010-06-01

    Dip Pen Nanolithography is a direct write process that creates nanoscale dots and lines. Models typically predict dot and line size via assumption of constant ink flow rate from tip to substrate. This is appropriate for dot writing. It is however well-known, though models rarely reflect, that the ink flow rate depends upon writing speed during line writing. Herein, we explain the physical phenomenon that governs line writing and use this to model tip-substrate diffusion in line writing. We accurately predict (i) the increase in flow rate with writing speed and (ii) line width within 12.5%.

  2. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  3. Temperature Adaptations in the Terminal Processes of Anaerobic Decomposition of Yellowstone National Park and Icelandic Hot Spring Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Sandbeck, Kenneth A.; Ward, David M.

    1982-01-01

    The optimum temperatures for methanogenesis in microbial mats of four neutral to alkaline, low-sulfate hot springs in Yellowstone National Park were between 50 and 60°C, which was 13 to 23°C lower than the upper temperature for mat development. Significant methanogenesis at 65°C was only observed in one of the springs. Methane production in samples collected at a 51 or 62°C site in Octopus Spring was increased by incubation at higher temperatures and was maximal at 70°C. Strains of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum were isolated from 50, 55, 60, and 65°C sites in Octopus Spring at the temperatures of the collection sites. The optimum temperature for growth and methanogenesis of each isolate was 65°C. Similar results were found for the potential rate of sulfate reduction in an Icelandic hot spring microbial mat in which sulfate reduction dominated methane production as a terminal process in anaerobic decomposition. The potential rate of sulfate reduction along the thermal gradient of the mat was greatest at 50°C, but incubation at 60°C of the samples obtained at 50°C increased the rate. Adaptation to different mat temperatures, common among various microorganisms and processes in the mats, did not appear to occur in the processes and microorganisms which terminate the anaerobic food chain. Other factors must explain why the maximal rates of these processes are restricted to moderate temperatures of the mat ecosystem. PMID:16346109

  4. Cyclic fatigue resistance of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals with hot isostatic press processing.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Taku; Sato, Toru; Yoshinari, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of surface roughness and cyclic loading on fatigue resistance in Y-TZP subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Fifty Y-TZP cylinders 3.0 mm in diameter were divided into Group A (polished by centerless method; TZP-CP) or Group B (blasted and acid-etched: TZP-SB150E). Twenty five cp-titanium cylinders (Ti-SB150E) were used as a control. Static and cyclic tests were carried out according to ISO 14801. The cyclic fatigue test was performed in distilled water at 37°C. Surface morphology and roughness as well as crystal phase on the surfaces were also evaluated. Fracture force under the static test was 1,765N (TZP-CP), 1,220N (TZP-SB150E), and 850 N (yield force, Ti-SB150E). Fracture values under the cyclic test decreased to approximately 70% of those under the static tests. These results indicate that HIPed Y-TZP with a 3.0-mm diameter has sufficient durability for application to dental implants. PMID:23207222

  5. Preparation of Substrate for Flavorant from Chicken Bone Residue with Hot-Pressure Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Dong, Xian-Bing; Yue, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Jia, Wei; Li, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Hot-pressure extraction (HPE), which is regarded as a "green" technology, was applied to extract nutrients (protein, collagen, and minerals) from chicken bone residue (CBR). Amino acids (AA), color, and volatile flavor compounds of chicken bone extract (CBE) were also investigated. Results showed that contents of protein, total soluble solids, minerals, and collagen of CBE were positively correlated with extraction time and temperature. High ratios of protein (83.51%) and collagen (96.81%) were obtained with 135 °C and 120 min. Essential AA accounted for 31.03% to 47.73% of total AA in CBE. The percentage of bitter AA in TAA decreased from 28.94% to 25.02% at 0 min to 20.19% and 21.41% at 120 min, although fresh AA increased from 46.35% to 50.84% (0 min) to 53.14% (120 min) at 130 and 135 °C, respectively, indicating CBE was nutritionally beneficial with good flavor. Color and volatile flavor of CBE improved significantly after extraction, although calcium in CBE (4.2 to 4.8 mg/100 g) was relatively low compared with that of CBR (1078 mg/100 g). It can be concluded that HPE is a promising way to transform CBR into a nutritious flavorant substrate, but it is not an efficient way to extract calcium. PMID:26809140

  6. Constitutive Modeling for Flow Stress Behavior of Nimonic 80A Superalloy During Hot Deformation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sendong; Zhang, Liwen; Zhang, Chi; Shen, Wenfei

    2016-03-01

    The hot deformation characteristics of nickel-based alloy Nimonic 80A were investigated by isothermal compression tests conducted in the temperature range of 1,000-1,200°C and the strain rate range of 0.01—5 s-1 on a Gleeble-1500 thermomechanical simulator. In order to establish the constitutive models for dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior and flow stress of Nimonic 80A, the material constants α, n and DRX activation energy Q in the constitutive models were calculated by the regression analysis of the experimental data. The dependences of initial stress, saturation stress, steady-state stress, dynamic recovery (DRV) parameter, peak strain, critical strain and DRX grain size on deformation parameters were obtained. Then, the Avrami equation including the critical strain for DRX and the peak strain as a function of strain was established to describe the DRX volume fraction. Finally, the constitutive model for flow stress of Nimonic 80A was developed in DRV region and DRX region, respectively. The flow stress values predicted by the constitutive model are in good agreement with the experimental ones, which indicates that the constitutive model can give an accurate estimate for the flow stress of Nimonic 80A under the deformation conditions.

  7. Preparation of Substrate for Flavorant from Chicken Bone Residue with Hot-Pressure Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Dong, Xian-Bing; Yue, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Jia, Wei; Li, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Hot-pressure extraction (HPE), which is regarded as a "green" technology, was applied to extract nutrients (protein, collagen, and minerals) from chicken bone residue (CBR). Amino acids (AA), color, and volatile flavor compounds of chicken bone extract (CBE) were also investigated. Results showed that contents of protein, total soluble solids, minerals, and collagen of CBE were positively correlated with extraction time and temperature. High ratios of protein (83.51%) and collagen (96.81%) were obtained with 135 °C and 120 min. Essential AA accounted for 31.03% to 47.73% of total AA in CBE. The percentage of bitter AA in TAA decreased from 28.94% to 25.02% at 0 min to 20.19% and 21.41% at 120 min, although fresh AA increased from 46.35% to 50.84% (0 min) to 53.14% (120 min) at 130 and 135 °C, respectively, indicating CBE was nutritionally beneficial with good flavor. Color and volatile flavor of CBE improved significantly after extraction, although calcium in CBE (4.2 to 4.8 mg/100 g) was relatively low compared with that of CBR (1078 mg/100 g). It can be concluded that HPE is a promising way to transform CBR into a nutritious flavorant substrate, but it is not an efficient way to extract calcium.

  8. Simple Dip-Coating Process for the Synthesis of Small Diameter Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes—Effect of Catalyst Composition and Catalyst Particle Size on Chirality and Diameter

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report on a dip-coating method to prepare catalyst particles (mixture of iron and cobalt) with a controlled diameter distribution on silicon wafer substrates by changing the solution's concentration and withdrawal velocity. The size and distribution of the prepared catalyst particles were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Carbon nanotubes were grown by chemical vapor deposition on the substrates with the prepared catalyst particles. By decreasing the catalyst particle size to below 10 nm, the growth of carbon nanotubes can be tuned from few-walled carbon nanotubes, with homogeneous diameter, to highly pure single-walled carbon nanotubes. Analysis of the Raman radial breathing modes, using three different Raman excitation wavelengths (488, 633, and 785 nm), showed a relatively broad diameter distribution (0.8–1.4 nm) of single-walled carbon nanotubes with different chiralities. However, by changing the composition of the catalyst particles while maintaining the growth parameters, the chiralities of single-walled carbon nanotubes were reduced to mainly four different types, (12, 1), (12, 0), (8, 5), and (7, 5), accounting for about 70% of all nanotubes. PMID:22741029

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 7075 aluminum alloy nanostructured composites processed by mechanical milling and indirect hot extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Campos, R.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.; Herrera-Ramirez, J.M.

    2012-01-15

    Nanostructured composites of 7075 aluminum alloy and carbon coated silver nanoparticles were produced by mechanical milling and indirect hot extrusion. The milling products were obtained in a high energy SPEX ball mill, and then were compacted by uniaxial load and pressure-less sintered under argon atmosphere. Finally, the sintered product was hot extruded. Carbon coated silver nanoparticles were well distributed in the matrix of the extruded material. Tensile tests were carried out to corroborate the hypothesis that second phase particles, well dispersed in the matrix, improve the strength of the material. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was employed to locate and make sure that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously and finely dispersed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7075 Al nanostructured composites can be produced by mechanical milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon coated silver nanoparticles are well dispersed into aluminum matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ductile Ag-C NP's improve the mechanical properties of the 7075 Al-alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C NP's content has an important effect in the particle and crystallite size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C NP's keep their morphology after milling and conformation processes.

  10. Electron Capture and Its Reverse Process in Hot and Dense Astronuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei-jie; Wang, Guo-hua; Liu, Yu-xin

    2008-05-01

    Electron capture rate, e-neutrino absorption rate, and e-neutrino absorption mean free path in hot and dense astronuclear matter are calculated in the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. Their dependence on the density, temperature, and the neutrino abundance of the matter is investigated. We find that the electron capture rate and the neutrino absorption rate are proportional to the cube of the value of the temperature as e-neutrinos are trapped in the stellar matter, and the e-neutrino absorption mean free path is proportional to the inverse of the square of the temperature. The reaction rates increase with the density and the neutrino abundance of the matter. Exact calculation of the reaction rates and the neutrino absorption mean free path is compared with that utilizing the degeneracy approximation. It shows that the latter is inappropriate under the following circumstances: when the stellar matter has a low neutrino abundance, when the density is about or less than the nuclear saturation density, and when the temperature of the matter has a relatively high value, being of the order of 10 MeV or even higher. Kinematically suppressed electron capture or neutrino absorption can be reopened by increasing the temperature of the matter, and its threshold value is about several MeVs when the density of the stellar matter is around the nuclear saturation density. We also discuss the case which is out of beta equilibrium, and the relaxation timescale is estimated. In addition, we show that the strong interactions manifested by the RMF theory decrease the electron capture rate and enlarge the neutrino mean free path if the neutrinos are trapped.

  11. "Hot" Facilitation of "Cool" Processing: Emotional Distraction Can Enhance Priming of Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Arni; Oladottir, Berglind; Most, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional stimuli often capture attention and disrupt effortful cognitive processing. However, cognitive processes vary in the degree to which they require effort. We investigated the impact of emotional pictures on visual search and on automatic priming of search. Observers performed visual search after task-irrelevant neutral or emotionally…

  12. Temperature effects in dip-tube manometry

    SciTech Connect

    Keisch, B; Suda, S

    1980-01-01

    A simple mathematical treatment of the temperature dependence of manometric data for dip-tubes is described. It is shown that the pressure probe measurement is a function of the mass, temperature, and liquid level heights below and above the effective tip of the probe. The resulting equations explain why, for example, high- and low-level probes exhibit temperature sensitivity that is opposite in sign to one another. The derived equations are successful in the prediction of actual data obtained for two differently-shaped vessels containing two different liquids.

  13. Process design and control of a twin screw hot melt extrusion for continuous pharmaceutical tamper-resistant tablet production.

    PubMed

    Baronsky-Probst, J; Möltgen, C-V; Kessler, W; Kessler, R W

    2016-05-25

    Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a well-known process within the plastic and food industries that has been utilized for the past several decades and is increasingly accepted by the pharmaceutical industry for continuous manufacturing. For tamper-resistant formulations of e.g. opioids, HME is the most efficient production technique. The focus of this study is thus to evaluate the manufacturability of the HME process for tamper-resistant formulations. Parameters such as the specific mechanical energy (SME), as well as the melt pressure and its standard deviation, are important and will be discussed in this study. In the first step, the existing process data are analyzed by means of multivariate data analysis. Key critical process parameters such as feed rate, screw speed, and the concentration of the API in the polymers are identified, and critical quality parameters of the tablet are defined. In the second step, a relationship between the critical material, product and process quality attributes are established by means of Design of Experiments (DoEs). The resulting SME and the temperature at the die are essential data points needed to indirectly qualify the degradation of the API, which should be minimal. NIR-spectroscopy is used to monitor the material during the extrusion process. In contrast to most applications in which the probe is directly integrated into the die, the optical sensor is integrated into the cooling line of the strands. This saves costs in the probe design and maintenance and increases the robustness of the chemometric models. Finally, a process measurement system is installed to monitor and control all of the critical attributes in real-time by means of first principles, DoE models, soft sensor models, and spectroscopic information. Overall, the process is very robust as long as the screw speed is kept low. PMID:26386253

  14. Process design and control of a twin screw hot melt extrusion for continuous pharmaceutical tamper-resistant tablet production.

    PubMed

    Baronsky-Probst, J; Möltgen, C-V; Kessler, W; Kessler, R W

    2016-05-25

    Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a well-known process within the plastic and food industries that has been utilized for the past several decades and is increasingly accepted by the pharmaceutical industry for continuous manufacturing. For tamper-resistant formulations of e.g. opioids, HME is the most efficient production technique. The focus of this study is thus to evaluate the manufacturability of the HME process for tamper-resistant formulations. Parameters such as the specific mechanical energy (SME), as well as the melt pressure and its standard deviation, are important and will be discussed in this study. In the first step, the existing process data are analyzed by means of multivariate data analysis. Key critical process parameters such as feed rate, screw speed, and the concentration of the API in the polymers are identified, and critical quality parameters of the tablet are defined. In the second step, a relationship between the critical material, product and process quality attributes are established by means of Design of Experiments (DoEs). The resulting SME and the temperature at the die are essential data points needed to indirectly qualify the degradation of the API, which should be minimal. NIR-spectroscopy is used to monitor the material during the extrusion process. In contrast to most applications in which the probe is directly integrated into the die, the optical sensor is integrated into the cooling line of the strands. This saves costs in the probe design and maintenance and increases the robustness of the chemometric models. Finally, a process measurement system is installed to monitor and control all of the critical attributes in real-time by means of first principles, DoE models, soft sensor models, and spectroscopic information. Overall, the process is very robust as long as the screw speed is kept low.

  15. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector. PMID:25261762

  16. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector.

  17. Low temperature diffusion process using rare earth-Cu eutectic alloys for hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Akiya, T. Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Liu, J.; Hono, K.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.

    2014-05-07

    The low temperature grain boundary diffusion process using RE{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} (RE = Pr, Nd) eutectic alloy powders was applied to sintered and hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets. Although only marginal coercivity increase was observed in sintered magnets, a substantial enhancement in coercivity was observed when the process was applied to hot-deformed anisotropic bulk magnets. Using Pr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} eutectic alloy as a diffusion source, the coercivity was enhanced from 1.65 T to 2.56 T. The hot-deformed sample expanded along c-axis direction only after the diffusion process as RE rich intergranular layers parallel to the broad surface of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are thickened in the c-axis direction.

  18. Solar production of industrial process hot water. Phase 3: Operation and evaluation of the York Building Products Company, Incorporated. Solar Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, J. M.; Kaplan, N.; Wilkening, H. A., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    The solar facility utilizes 35 collectors with a total aperture area of 8960 sq ft. The system is designed to deliver a water/ethylene glycol solution at 200 F to a heat exchanger, which, in turn, supplies water at 180 F to a rotoclave (underground tank) for the concrete block curing process. A fossil fuel boiler system also supplies the rotoclave with processed hot water to supplement the solar system. The system was operational 92.5% of the days during which the data acquisition system was functional. Sufficient solar heating was available to deliver hot water to the heat exchanger on 448 days, or 81.8% of the days on which reliable data was recorded. Total fuel saved during the three year period was 10,284 gallons. Thus, this program successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process hot water with solar energy.

  19. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm(2), which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10(-11) cm(-1) absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10(-23) cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed. PMID:27263858

  20. Hydrodynamically driven colloidal assembly in dip coating.

    PubMed

    Colosqui, Carlos E; Morris, Jeffrey F; Stone, Howard A

    2013-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca(2/3)/sqrt[Bo] < 0.7, where Ca and Bo are the capillary and Bond numbers, respectively. An analytical model and numerical simulations are presented for the case of two-dimensional flow with circular particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.

  1. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-06-06

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm(2), which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10(-11) cm(-1) absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10(-23) cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  2. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10−11 cm−1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10−23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed. PMID:27263858

  3. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10‑11 cm‑1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10‑23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  4. Hydrodynamically Driven Colloidal Assembly in Dip Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colosqui, Carlos E.; Morris, Jeffrey F.; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca2/3/Bo<0.7, where Ca and Bo are the capillary and Bond numbers, respectively. An analytical model and numerical simulations are presented for the case of two-dimensional flow with circular particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.

  5. Evolution of r-process elements in the hot supernova bubble

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Woosley, S.E.

    1993-02-01

    We review some of the recent arguments as to why the r-process is thought to be associated with supernovae and how the high-temperature, high-entropy inner region of a core-collapse supernova is an ideal r-process site. We present preliminary extensions of our earlier work on the formation of the high-entropy ``bubble`` that describe more accurately its late-time evolution and the ejection of the neutrino-energized wind from the surface of the nascent neutron star. This site leads naturally to a distribution of temperature, density, neutron excess, and entropy for material ejected at different times in the wind as required by Solar abundances. We present simple analytic expressions which approximate these distributions. This site also predicts an amount of reprocess material ejected per event in agreement with simple galactic evolution arguments. However, it is not yet clear whether the entropy in this model is high enough (or the electron fraction is low enough) to produce an optimum fit to the Solar r-process abundance curve and additional mechanisms may be required to increase the entropy per baryon. We conclude with a discussion of nuclear measurements which would help to probe this r-process environment.

  6. High pressure processing with hot sauce flavoring enhances sensory quality for raw oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the feasibility of flavoring raw oysters by placing them under pressure in the presence of selected flavorings. Hand-shucked raw oysters were processed at high pressure (600 MPa), in the presence or absence of (Sriracha®) flavoring, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel 3 an...

  7. Optimising Drug Solubilisation in Amorphous Polymer Dispersions: Rational Selection of Hot-melt Extrusion Processing Parameters.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Tian, Yiwei; Jones, David S; Andrews, Gavin P

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article was to construct a T-ϕ phase diagram for a model drug (FD) and amorphous polymer (Eudragit® EPO) and to use this information to understand the impact of how temperature-composition coordinates influenced the final properties of the extrudate. Defining process boundaries and understanding drug solubility in polymeric carriers is of utmost importance and will help in the successful manufacture of new delivery platforms for BCS class II drugs. Physically mixed felodipine (FD)-Eudragit(®) EPO (EPO) binary mixtures with pre-determined weight fractions were analysed using DSC to measure the endset of melting and glass transition temperature. Extrudates of 10 wt% FD-EPO were processed using temperatures (110°C, 126°C, 140°C and 150°C) selected from the temperature-composition (T-ϕ) phase diagrams and processing screw speed of 20, 100 and 200rpm. Extrudates were characterised using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), optical, polarised light and Raman microscopy. To ensure formation of a binary amorphous drug dispersion (ADD) at a specific composition, HME processing temperatures should at least be equal to, or exceed, the corresponding temperature value on the liquid-solid curve in a F-H T-ϕ phase diagram. If extruded between the spinodal and liquid-solid curve, the lack of thermodynamic forces to attain complete drug amorphisation may be compensated for through the use of an increased screw speed. Constructing F-H T-ϕ phase diagrams are valuable not only in the understanding drug-polymer miscibility behaviour but also in rationalising the selection of important processing parameters for HME to ensure miscibility of drug and polymer.

  8. Flavor and texture of banana chips dried by combinations of hot air, vacuum, and microwave processing.

    PubMed

    Mui, Winnie W Y; Durance, Timothy D; Scaman, Christine H

    2002-03-27

    The behavior of 16 volatile compounds of banana during a combination of air-drying (AD) and vacuum microwave-drying (VMD) of banana chips was characterized. Samples were AD to remove 60, 70, 80, or 90% of moisture (wet basis) and then subjected to VMD to achieve a final moisture content of 3% (dry basis). Banana slices were also dehydrated using only AD, VMD, and freeze-drying (FD) for comparison. Samples that underwent more VMD had significantly lower levels of volatile compounds, which is attributed to the decreased formation of an impermeable solute layer on the surface of the chips. High values for water solubility and relative volatility of compounds correlated with losses during VMD; however, additional factors appear to influence the behavior of compounds during VMD processing. The optimal process of 90%AD/10%VMD yielded crisper banana chips with significantly higher volatile levels and sensory ratings than AD chips.

  9. Evaluation of an advanced process control solution to detect wafer positioning issues within the hot and cold plate modules of a lithography track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Olivier; Bouchardy, Marc; Armellin, Louis-Pierre

    2006-03-01

    To run the various steps of the process, multiple robot arm transfers within the Hot and Cold Plate modules which directly influence the critical dimension of the production wafers were performed on the lithography track. Wafer positioning inside these modules was found to be one of the key parameters to obtain the best critical dimensional uniformity across the wafer. With the currently realized track monitoring and conventional Statistical Process Control (SPC), potential process drifts or errors within these modules can only be detected from wafers measured during the post process control of product parameters. To catch all potential non-conformal production wafers directly at the tool, minimize equipment downtime and identify the root cause of maintenance issues, the real-time control of tool and process parameters is required. This paper presents the results of the evaluation of an Advanced Process Control (APC) solution used to detect in real-time mode any wafer positioning issues within the Hot and Cold Plate modules of a lithography track based on the monitoring of the plate temperature profile during wafer processing. After an explanation of the methodology used to collect the data from the tool, an initial phase of analysis of the temperature profile of the different Hot Plate modules was carried out. The monitoring of the temperature range was identified as the key parameter for the detection of wafer positioning issues where the temperature profile depends on the number of resistive heating elements, temperature settings and process conditions of the Hot Plate. The wafer tilt was simulated to compare the temperature profile to standard process conditions and in turn determine the detection capability. For the Cold Plate module, it was necessary to know the time between the end of the hot step and the start of the following cold step in order to detect a real tilt issue.

  10. Solar production of industrial process hot water: operation and evaluation of the Campbell Soup hot water solar facility. Final report, September 1, 1979-December 10, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kull, J. I.; Niemeyer, W. N.; Youngblood, S. B.

    1980-12-01

    The operation and evaluation of a solar hot water facility designed by Acurex Corporation and installed (November 1977) at the Campbell Soup Company Sacramento, California canning plant is summarized. The period of evaluation was for 12 months from October 1979 through September 1980. The objective of the work was to obtain additional, long term data on the operation and performance of the facility. Minor modifications to the facility were completed. The system was operated for 15 months, and 12 months of detailed data were evaluated. The facility was available for operation 99% of the time during the last 8 months of evaluation. A detailed description of the solar facility and of the operating experience is given, and a summary of system performance for the 12 month operation/evaluation period is presented. Recommendations for large-scale solar facilities based on this project's experience are given, and an environmental impact assessment for the Campbell Soup solar facility is provided. (WHK)

  11. Theoretical study on the cooperative exciton dissociation process based on dimensional and hot charge-transfer state effects in an organic photocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Tomomi; Nakajima, Takahito

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the exciton dissociation process at the donor-acceptor interface in organic photocells. In our previous study, we introduced a local temperature to handle the hot charge-transfer (CT) state and calculated the exciton dissociation probability based on the 1D organic semiconductor model [T. Shimazaki and T. Nakajima, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 12538 (2015)]. Although the hot CT state plays an essential role in exciton dissociations, the probabilities calculated are not high enough to efficiently separate bound electron-hole pairs. This paper focuses on the dimensional (entropy) effect together with the hot CT state effect and shows that cooperative behavior between both effects can improve the exciton dissociation process. In addition, we discuss cooperative effects with site-disorders and external-electric-fields.

  12. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  13. Diploma in Hospital Infection Control (Dip HIC)

    PubMed

    Emmerson, A M; Spencer, R C; Cookson, B D; Roberts, C; Drasar, B S

    1997-11-01

    The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) has established a Diploma in Hospital Infection Control (Dip-HIC). The course for this new Diploma is run under the auspices of the Hospital Infection Society (HIS) and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) and will commence in October 1997. The aim of this course is to provide infection control staff with systematic training in the sciences relevant to hospital infection control which will allow them to provide, and to take responsibility for, a broad-based infection control service. Topics will include the epidemiology of infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, health care economics, statistics, surveillance methods and patient management. The course will be multi-disciplinary and open to UK and overseas students, both medical and non-medical.

  14. Surfactant Activated Dip-Pen Nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Direct nanoscale patterning of maleimide-linked biotin on mercaptosilane-functionalized glass substrates using dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is facilitated by the addition of a small amount of the biocompatible nonionic surfactant Tween-20. A correlation was found between activated ink transfer from the AFM tip when surfactant was included in the ink and an increase in the wettability of the partially hydrophobic silanized substrate. Surfactant concentration represents a new control variable for DPN that complements relative humidity, tip-substrate contact force, scan speed, and temperature. Using surfactants systematically as ink additives expands the possible ink-substrate combinations that can be used for patterning biotin and other molecules. For example, we are currently exploring the possibility of developing nickel/nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-maleimide based inks that will bind to mercaptosilanized glass surfaces for the reversible immobilization of biomolecules containing polyhistidine tags.

  15. Temperature controlled dip-pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanedrin, R. G.; Amro, N. A.; Rendlen, J.; Nelson, M.

    2010-03-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) has emerged as a powerful tool for creating sophisticated micron- and nanoscale features of various molecules, such as small organic molecules, on a variety of substrates. Despite significant advances in recent years, the influence of temperature on molecular transport for nanostructure fabrication has not been fully explored. Herein, it is shown how the dimensions of patterned organic nanostructures can be controlled by using a cooling/heating module. This method allows nanometer-sized feature fabrication of a variety of small organic molecules, including 'inks' that have been deemed very difficult to write under ambient conditions. Features with dimensions as small as 30 nm have been successfully reproduced using the newly developed temperature control device in conjunction with DPN.

  16. Magnetic dips in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrowolny, M.; Bavassano, B.; Mariani, F.; Ness, N.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1978-01-01

    Using magnetic data from the HELIOS 1 fluxgate magnetometer, with a 0.2 sec resolution, the structures of several interplanetary discontinuities involving magnetic dips and rotations of the magnetic field vector were investigated. A minimum variance analysis illustrates the behavior of the magnetic field through the transition in the plane of its maximum variation. Using this analysis, quite different structures have been individuated and, in particular, narrow transitions resembling almost one dimensional reconnected neutral sheets. For the thinner cases (scale lengths of the magnetic rotation of the order or smaller than 1,000 km), results show the observed structures could be the nonlinear effect of a resistive tearing mode instability having developed on an originally one dimensional neutral sheet at the solar corona.

  17. Radioactive Spent Ion-Exchange Resins Conditioning by the Hot Supercompaction Process at Tihange NPP - Early Experience - 12200

    SciTech Connect

    Braet, Johan; Charpentier, David; Centner, Baudouin; Vanderperre, Serge

    2012-07-01

    Spent ion-exchange resins are considered to be problematic waste that, in many cases, requires special approaches and precautions during their conditioning to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. In Belgium, for economical reasons, the Volume Reduction Factor is a key criterion. After Tractebel Engineering performed a technical and economical comparison of the industrially available systems, Tihange NPP decided to install a spent ion-exchange resins hot supercompaction unit with Tractebel Engineering in the role of architect-engineer. The treatment and conditioning unit processes the spent ion-exchange resins through the following steps: dewatering of the resins, drying the resins under deep vacuum, discharging the dried resins into compactable drums, super-compacting the drums to generate pellets, grouting the pellets into standard 400 litres waste drums (overpacks) licensed for final disposal in the near-surface repository in Belgium. Several developments were required to adapt the reference process and equipment to PWR spent ion-exchange bead resins and Belgian radioactive waste acceptance criteria. In order to avoid cracks on the compacted drum, and external surface contamination from resin leaks, some improvements were achieved to minimize spring-back as well as the risk of cracking the drum wall. Placing the compactable drum inside a second, slightly larger drum, guarantees clean and reproducible pellets. Currently the commissioning phase is on-going. Numerous process validation tests have been completed. An acceptance file was transmitted to the Belgian Waste Management Authority recently. This will be followed by demonstration tests necessary to obtain their final acceptance of the installation. More than 3 800 drums of mixed powdered and bead resins have been processed by the reference Hot Compaction process, achieving a Volume Reduction Factor (VRF) of 2.5. The equipment has been proven to be a reliable technology with low operation and maintenance

  18. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  19. Enzymatic saccharification of woody biomass micro/nanofibrillated by continuous extrusion process II: effect of hot-compressed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Inoue, Seiichi; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Endo, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    An extrusion process involving a twin-screw extruder was used for the micro/nanofibrillation of Douglas fir and Eucalyptus treated with hot-compressed water (HCW). Partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin by HCW treatment effectively improved the fibrillation by extrusion. Only HCW treatment produced glucose less than 5 weight percent (wt.%) in Douglas fir in a temperature range of 140-180 degrees C by enzymatic hydrolysis. Glucose production yields of 18 and 26 wt.% were obtained by HCW treatment at 170 and 180 degrees C, respectively, in Eucalyptus. Use of extrusion after HCW treatment drastically improved monosaccharide production yield in both woods. In the case of Douglas fir, the obtained values were 5 times higher than those obtained by HCW treatment alone. Total monosaccharide production yields were higher in Eucalyptus than in Douglas fir. The extruded production had a fine fibrous morphology on a sub-micro/nanoscopic scale. This result shows the great potential of the extrusion process after HCW treatment as a cost-effective pretreatment for enzymatic saccharification of woody biomass.

  20. Hot deformation characterization of duplex low-density steel through 3D processing map development

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamadizadeh, A.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H.R.; Mehtonen, S.; Porter, D.

    2015-09-15

    The high temperature deformation behavior of duplex low-density Fe–18Mn–8Al–0.8C steel was investigated at temperatures in the range of 600–1000 °C. The primary constitutive analysis indicated that the Zener–Hollomon parameter, which represents the coupled effects of temperature and strain rate, significantly varies with the amount of deformation. Accordingly, the 3D processing maps were developed considering the effect of strain and were used to determine the safe and unsafe deformation conditions in association with the microstructural evolution. The deformation at efficiency domain I (900–1100 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}) was found to be safe at different strains due to the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization in austenite. The safe efficiency domain II (700–900 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1}), which appeared at logarithmic strain of 0.4, was characterized by deformation induced ferrite formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microband formation and crack initiation at ferrite\\austenite interphases were the main causes of deformation instability at 600–800 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}. The degree of instability was found to decrease by increasing the strain due to the uniformity of microbanded structure obtained at higher strains. The shear band formation at 900–1100 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1} was verified by electron backscattered diffraction. The local dynamic recrystallization of austenite and the deformation induced ferrite formation were observed within shear-banded regions as the results of flow localization. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The 3D processing map is developed for duplex low-density Fe–Mn–Al–C steel. • The efficiency domains shrink, expand or appear with increasing strain. • The occurrence of DRX and DIFF increases the power efficiency. • Crack initiation

  1. Numerical investigations on hot-zone modified DS furnace for mc-Si growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmugavel, S.; Srinivasan, M.; Aravinth, K.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    A transient global numerical model has been carried out to simulate the multi-crystalline silicon growth process by the directional solidification method using CGSim 15.1. A two dimensional axisymmetric model was used. The conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer problems were coupled with our model and these problems were solved iteratively using the finite volume method. In the present work we have modified the heater element to produce a high quality ingot from multi-crystalline silicon. The change has been made to control the temperature distribution. By controlling the temperature distribution, we can also control the melt crystal interface of the ingot. The shape of the melt-crystal interface of the ingot, the temperature distribution in the crucible and the heat flux from the melt as well as from the crystal have been studied. Finally, the simulation results show that the modification in the heater element keeps the melt-crystal interface as planar in the DS system, also it gives better results than conventional system.

  2. Experiments to Further the Understanding of the Triple-Alpha Process in Hot Astrophysical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N. R.; Greife, U.; Rehm, K. E.; Greene, J.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lee, H. Y.; Pardo, R.; Teh, K.; Deibel, C. M.; Notani, M.; Marley, S. T.; Tang, X. D.

    2009-03-04

    In astrophysics, the first excited 0{sup +} state of {sup 12}C at 7.654 MeV (Hoyle state) is the most important in the triple-{alpha} process for carbon nucleosynthesis. In explosive scenarios like supernovae, where temperatures of several 10{sup 9} K are achieved, the interference of the Hoyle state with the second 0{sup +} state located at 10.3 MeV in {sup 12}C becomes significant. The recent NACRE compilation of astrophysical reaction rates assumes a 2{sup +} resonance at 9.1 MeV for which no experimental evidence exists. Thus, it is critical to explore in more detail the 7-10 MeV excitation energy region, especially the minimum between the two 0{sup +} resonances for carbon nucleosynthesis. The states in {sup 12}C were populated through the {beta}-decay of {sup 12}B and {sup 12}N produced at the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System) in-flight facility. The decay of {sup 12}C into three alphas is detected in a Frisch grid twin ionization chamber, acting as a low-threshold calorimeter. This minimizes the effects of {beta}-summing and allowed us to investigate the minimum above the Hoyle state with much higher accuracy than previously possible. A detailed data analysis will include an R-matrix fit to determine an upper limit on the 2{sup +} resonance width.

  3. Benefits of dipped vertical alignments for rail transit routes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.N.; Schonfeld, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Dipped track profiles between rail transit stations can significantly reduce propulsive energy, braking energy, and travel times. This work quantifies their potential benefits for circumstances reflected in various values for dips, speed and acceleration limits, station spacings, and available power. A deterministic simulation model has been developed to precisely estimate train motions and performance using basic equations for kinematics, resistance, power, and braking. For a 1% dip (i.e., a vertical dip equal to 1% of station spacing) in which gradients never exceed 4%, the results show savings (compared with level tracks) exceeding 9% for propulsive energy, 15% for braking energy, and 5% for travel time between stations.

  4. Assessment of anti-Salmonella activity of boot dip samples.

    PubMed

    Rabie, André J; McLaren, Ian M; Breslin, Mark F; Sayers, Robin; Davies, Rob H

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of pathogens from the external environment into poultry houses via the boots of farm workers and visitors presents a significant risk. The use of boot dips containing disinfectant to help prevent this from happening is common practice, but the effectiveness of these boot dips as a preventive measure can vary. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-Salmonella activity of boot dips that are being used on poultry farms. Boot dip samples were collected from commercial laying hen farms in the UK and tested within 24 hours of receipt at the laboratory to assess their anti-Salmonella activity. All boot dip samples were tested against a field strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis using three test models: pure culture, paper disc surface matrix and yeast suspension model. Of the 112 boot dip samples tested 83.6% were effective against Salmonella in pure culture, 37.3% in paper disc surface matrix and 44.5% in yeast suspension model. Numerous factors may influence the efficacy of the disinfectants. Disinfectants used in the dips may not always be fully active against surface or organic matter contamination; they may be inaccurately measured or diluted to a concentration other than that specified or recommended; dips may not be changed regularly or may have been exposed to rain and other environmental elements. This study showed that boot dips in use on poultry farms are frequently ineffective. PMID:25650744

  5. DipM, a new factor required for peptidoglycan remodelling during cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Möll, Andrea; Schlimpert, Susan; Briegel, Ariane; Jensen, Grant J; Thanbichler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    In bacteria, cytokinesis is dependent on lytic enzymes that facilitate remodelling of the cell wall during constriction. In this work, we identify a thus far uncharacterized periplasmic protein, DipM, that is required for cell division and polarity in Caulobacter crescentus. DipM is composed of four peptidoglycan binding (LysM) domains and a C-terminal lysostaphin-like (LytM) peptidase domain. It binds to isolated murein sacculi in vitro, and is recruited to the site of constriction through interaction with the cell division protein FtsN. Mutational analyses showed that the LysM domains are necessary and sufficient for localization of DipM, while its peptidase domain is essential for function. Consistent with a role in cell wall hydrolysis, DipM was found to interact with purified murein sacculi in vitro and to induce cell lysis upon overproduction. Its inactivation causes severe defects in outer membrane invagination, resulting in a significant delay between cytoplasmic compartmentalization and final separation of the daughter cells. Overall, these findings indicate that DipM is a periplasmic component of the C. crescentus divisome that facilitates remodelling of the peptidoglycan layer and, thus, coordinated constriction of the cell envelope during the division process.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of High-Temperature Constitutive Equations and Hot Processing Maps for As-Cast SA508-3 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Dashan; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Lingling; Gao, Liang; Cui, Zhenshan

    2016-08-01

    The hot deformation behavior and hot workability characteristics of as-cast SA508-3 steel were studied by modeling the constitutive equations and developing hot processing maps. The isothermal compression experiments were carried out at temperatures of 950°C, 1050°C, 1150°C, and 1250°C and strain rates of 0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, and 1 s-1 respectively. The two-stage flow stress models were established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening, and the solution of activation energy for hot deformation was 355.0 kJ mol-1 K-1. Based on the dynamic material model, the power dissipation and instability maps were developed separately at strains of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. The power dissipation rate increases with both the increase of temperature and the decrease of strain rate, and the instable region mainly appears on the conditions of low temperature and high strain rate. The optimal hot working parameters for as-cast SA508-3 steel are 1050-1200°C/0.001-0.1 s-1, with about 25-40% peak efficiency of power dissipation.

  7. Early MAVEN Deep Dip campaign reveals thermosphere and ionosphere variability.

    PubMed

    Bougher, S; Jakosky, B; Halekas, J; Grebowsky, J; Luhmann, J; Mahaffy, P; Connerney, J; Eparvier, F; Ergun, R; Larson, D; McFadden, J; Mitchell, D; Schneider, N; Zurek, R; Mazelle, C; Andersson, L; Andrews, D; Baird, D; Baker, D N; Bell, J M; Benna, M; Brain, D; Chaffin, M; Chamberlin, P; Chaufray, J-Y; Clarke, J; Collinson, G; Combi, M; Crary, F; Cravens, T; Crismani, M; Curry, S; Curtis, D; Deighan, J; Delory, G; Dewey, R; DiBraccio, G; Dong, C; Dong, Y; Dunn, P; Elrod, M; England, S; Eriksson, A; Espley, J; Evans, S; Fang, X; Fillingim, M; Fortier, K; Fowler, C M; Fox, J; Gröller, H; Guzewich, S; Hara, T; Harada, Y; Holsclaw, G; Jain, S K; Jolitz, R; Leblanc, F; Lee, C O; Lee, Y; Lefevre, F; Lillis, R; Livi, R; Lo, D; Ma, Y; Mayyasi, M; McClintock, W; McEnulty, T; Modolo, R; Montmessin, F; Morooka, M; Nagy, A; Olsen, K; Peterson, W; Rahmati, A; Ruhunusiri, S; Russell, C T; Sakai, S; Sauvaud, J-A; Seki, K; Steckiewicz, M; Stevens, M; Stewart, A I F; Stiepen, A; Stone, S; Tenishev, V; Thiemann, E; Tolson, R; Toublanc, D; Vogt, M; Weber, T; Withers, P; Woods, T; Yelle, R

    2015-11-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and variability at altitudes down to ~130 kilometers in the subsolar region. This altitude range contains the diffusively separated upper atmosphere just above the well-mixed atmosphere, the layer of peak extreme ultraviolet heating and primary reservoir for atmospheric escape. In situ measurements of the upper atmosphere reveal previously unmeasured populations of neutral and charged particles, the homopause altitude at approximately 130 kilometers, and an unexpected level of variability both on an orbit-to-orbit basis and within individual orbits. These observations help constrain volatile escape processes controlled by thermosphere and ionosphere structure and variability.

  8. Early MAVEN Deep Dip campaign reveals thermosphere and ionosphere variability.

    PubMed

    Bougher, S; Jakosky, B; Halekas, J; Grebowsky, J; Luhmann, J; Mahaffy, P; Connerney, J; Eparvier, F; Ergun, R; Larson, D; McFadden, J; Mitchell, D; Schneider, N; Zurek, R; Mazelle, C; Andersson, L; Andrews, D; Baird, D; Baker, D N; Bell, J M; Benna, M; Brain, D; Chaffin, M; Chamberlin, P; Chaufray, J-Y; Clarke, J; Collinson, G; Combi, M; Crary, F; Cravens, T; Crismani, M; Curry, S; Curtis, D; Deighan, J; Delory, G; Dewey, R; DiBraccio, G; Dong, C; Dong, Y; Dunn, P; Elrod, M; England, S; Eriksson, A; Espley, J; Evans, S; Fang, X; Fillingim, M; Fortier, K; Fowler, C M; Fox, J; Gröller, H; Guzewich, S; Hara, T; Harada, Y; Holsclaw, G; Jain, S K; Jolitz, R; Leblanc, F; Lee, C O; Lee, Y; Lefevre, F; Lillis, R; Livi, R; Lo, D; Ma, Y; Mayyasi, M; McClintock, W; McEnulty, T; Modolo, R; Montmessin, F; Morooka, M; Nagy, A; Olsen, K; Peterson, W; Rahmati, A; Ruhunusiri, S; Russell, C T; Sakai, S; Sauvaud, J-A; Seki, K; Steckiewicz, M; Stevens, M; Stewart, A I F; Stiepen, A; Stone, S; Tenishev, V; Thiemann, E; Tolson, R; Toublanc, D; Vogt, M; Weber, T; Withers, P; Woods, T; Yelle, R

    2015-11-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and variability at altitudes down to ~130 kilometers in the subsolar region. This altitude range contains the diffusively separated upper atmosphere just above the well-mixed atmosphere, the layer of peak extreme ultraviolet heating and primary reservoir for atmospheric escape. In situ measurements of the upper atmosphere reveal previously unmeasured populations of neutral and charged particles, the homopause altitude at approximately 130 kilometers, and an unexpected level of variability both on an orbit-to-orbit basis and within individual orbits. These observations help constrain volatile escape processes controlled by thermosphere and ionosphere structure and variability. PMID:26542579

  9. Production of thin glass mirrors by hot slumping for x-ray telescopes: present process and ongoing development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, B.; Basso, S.; Brizzolari, C.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.

    2014-07-01

    Thin glass foils are considered good candidates to build a segmented X-ray telescope with effective area as large as 2 m2 and angular resolution better than 5 arcsec. In order to produce thin glass mirror segments, we developed a direct hot slumping technique assisted by pressure, in which the shape of a mould is replicated onto the optical surface of the glass. In this paper we present the result obtained with AF32 (by Schott) and EAGLE XG (by Corning) glass types. The selected mould material is Zerodur K20, as it does not require any anti-sticking layer and has a good matching, in terms of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, with both glass types. Our group already produced a few prototypes, reaching angular resolution near 20 arcsec. In this work, relevant steps forward aimed at attaining a 5 arcsec angular resolution are described, along with the tuning of few key parameters in the slumping process. The results obtained on a newly procured cylindrical Zerodur K20 mould are presented.

  10. Ultrafine-Grained Aluminum Processed by a Combination of Hot Isostatic Pressing and Dynamic Plastic Deformation: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirras, G.; Chauveau, T.; Abdul-Latif, A.; Gubicza, J.; Ramtani, S.; Bui, Q.; Hegedűs, Z.; Bacroix, B.

    2012-04-01

    Commercial-purity (99 wt pct), bulk, ultrafine-grained aluminum samples were produced by a two-step process that combines powder consolidation by hot isostatic pressing and dynamic plastic deformation. The compaction step yielded crystallographic texture-free specimens with an average grain size of approximately 2 μm. Then, some of the consolidated specimens were deformed dynamically at room temperature at an initial strain rate of 370 seconds-1 and up to an axial strain of ɛ = 1.25. After dynamic plastic deformation, the grain size and the dislocation density were approximately 500 nm and 1014 m-2, respectively. The yield strength was approximately 77 MPa for the as-consolidated sample, which increased up to approximately 103 MPa and 120 MPa for the impacted samples along the axial and radial directions, respectively. The compression stress as a function of strain showed saturation behavior for the axially deformed samples, whereas the specimens deformed along the radial direction exhibited significant strain softening. The latter behavior is explained mainly by the weakening of the crystallographic texture that occurred because of the strain-path change along the radial direction.

  11. Hot-melt granulation in a twin screw extruder: effects of processing on formulations with caffeine and Ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Weatherley, Sharleen; Mu, Bo; Thompson, Michael R; Sheskey, Paul J; O'Donnell, Kevin P

    2013-12-01

    Hot-melt granulation (HMG) by twin screw extrusion is a novel technology for the continuous processing of pharmaceuticals but confidence must still be gained regarding whether the environment affects drug properties. In this preliminary study, granulation was studied for a model product containing lactose monohydrate and active ingredients of differing water solubility, namely ibuprofen versus caffeine. The formulations were granulated at 220 rpm and 100°C with polyethylene glycol binders of differing molecular weights and at concentrations between 6.5% and 20%. In terms of granule properties, the low melting point of ibuprofen had a dominant influence by producing larger, stronger granules, whereas the caffeine products were more comparable to a blank containing no active ingredient. Drug degradation was study by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and high-pressure liquid chromatography. The only detected change was the dehydration of lactose monohydrate for the caffeine and blank products, whereas the lubricating influence of the ibuprofen protected its granules. The short residence time (∼60 s) was consider to be influential in minimizing damage of the drug despite the high temperature and shear attributed to HMG inside a twin screw extruder.

  12. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  13. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  14. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  15. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  16. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  17. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  18. Novel blast furnace operation process involving charging with low-titanium vanadium-titanium magnetite carbon composite hot briquette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Chu, Man-sheng; Wang, Hong-tao; Liu, Zheng-gen; Tang, Ya-ting

    2016-05-01

    An innovative process of blast furnace (BF) operation involving charging with low-titanium vanadium-titanium magnetite carbon composite hot briquette (LVTM-CCB) was proposed for utilizing LVTM and conserving energy. In this study, the effect of LVTM-CCB charging ratio on the softening, melting, and dripping behaviors of the mixed burden was explored systemically, and the migration of valuable elements V and Cr was extensively investigated. The results show that with increasing LVTM-CCB charging ratio, the softening interval T 40 - T 4 increases from 146.1°C to 266.1°C, and the melting interval T D - T S first decreases from 137.2°C to 129.5°C and then increases from 129.5°C to 133.2°C. Moreover, the cohesive zone becomes narrower and then wider, and its location shifts slightly downward. In addition, the recovery ratios of V and Cr in dripped iron first increase and then decrease, reaching maximum values of 14.552% and 28.163%, respectively, when the charging ratio is 25%. A proper LVTM-CCB charging ratio would improve the softening-melting behavior of the mixed burden; however, Ti(C,N) would be generated rapidly in slag when the charging ratio exceeds 25%, which is not favorable for BF operation. When considering the comprehensive softening-melting behavior of the mixed burden and the recovery ratios of V and Cr, the recommended LVTM-CCB charging ratio is 20%.

  19. Recovery comparisons--hot nitrogen Vs steam regeneration of toxic dichloromethane from activated carbon beds in oil sands process.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Shivaji G; Pré, Pascaline; Giraudet, Sylvain; Le Coq, Laurence; Le Cloirec, Pierre; Baudouin, Olivier; Déchelotte, Stéphane

    2012-02-29

    The regeneration experiments of dichloromethane from activated carbon bed had been carried out by both hot nitrogen and steam to evaluate the regeneration performance and the operating cost of the regeneration step. Factorial Experimental Design (FED) tool had been implemented to optimize the temperature of nitrogen and the superficial velocity of the nitrogen to achieve maximum regeneration at an optimized operating cost. All the experimental results of adsorption step, hot nitrogen and steam regeneration step had been validated by the simulation model PROSIM. The average error percentage between the simulation and experiment based on the mass of adsorption of dichloromethane was 2.6%. The average error percentages between the simulations and experiments based on the mass of dichloromethane regenerated by nitrogen regeneration and steam regeneration were 3 and 12%, respectively. From the experiments, it had been shown that both the hot nitrogen and steam regeneration had regenerated 84% of dichloromethane. But the choice of hot nitrogen or steam regeneration depends on the regeneration time, operating costs, and purity of dichloromethane regenerated. A thorough investigation had been made about the advantages and limitations of both the hot nitrogen and steam regeneration of dichloromethane.

  20. Hot Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  1. Effect of Hot Rolling Process on Microstructure and Properties of Low-Carbon Al-Killed Steels Produced Through TSCR Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, S. K.; Ahmed, U.; Megahed, G. M.

    2011-10-01

    Low-carbon Al-killed hot rolled strips for direct forming, cold rolling, and galvanizing applications are produced from the similar chemistry at Ezz Flat Steel (EFS) through thin slab casting and rolling (TSCR) technology. The desired mechanical and microstructural properties in hot bands for different applications are achieved through control of hot rolling parameters, which in turn control the precipitation and growth of AlN. Nitrogen in solid solution strongly influences the yield strength (YS), ductility, strain aging index (SAI), and other formability properties of steel. The equilibrium solubility of AlN in austenite at different temperatures and its isothermal precipitation have been studied. To achieve the formability properties for direct forming, soluble nitrogen is fixed as AlN by coiling the strip at higher temperatures. For stringent cold forming, boron was added below the stoichiometric ratio with nitrogen, which improved the formability properties dramatically. The requirements of hot band for processing into cold rolled and annealed deep drawing sheets are high SAI and fine-grain microstructure. Higher finish rolling and low coiling temperatures are used to achieve these. Fully processed cold rolled sheets from these hot strips at customer's end have shown good formability properties. Coil break marks observed in some coils during uncoiling were found to be associated with yielding phenomenon. The spike height (difference between upper and lower yield stresses) and yield point elongation (YPE) were found to be the key material parameters for the break marks. Factors affecting these parameters have been studied and the coiling temperature optimized to overcome the problem.

  2. Gold nanoparticle-loaded filter paper: a recyclable dip-catalyst for real-time reaction monitoring by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangchao; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge

    2015-03-18

    We report a robust and recyclable 'dip-catalyst' based on a gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-loaded filter paper composite, prepared by a simple dip-coating process using concentrated Au NP suspensions in toluene. While acting as catalysts, the composites display excellent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) efficiency, allowing the real-time monitoring of chemical reactions.

  3. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  4. Active probes and microfluidic ink delivery for Dip Pen Nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, Bjoern; Duenas, Terrisa; Banerjee, Debjyoti; Shile, Roger; Amro, Nabil; Rendlen, Jeff

    2004-03-01

    Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPNTM) is a scanning probe technique for nanoscale lithography: A sharp tip is coated with a functional molecule (the "ink") and then brought into contact with a surface where it deposits ink via a water meniscus. The DPN process is a direct-write pattern transfer technique with nanometer resolution and is inherently general with respect to usable inks and substrates including biomolecules such as proteins and oligonucleotides. We present functional extensions of the basic DPN process by showing actuated multi-probes as well as microfluidic ink delivery. We present the fabrication process and characterization of such active probes that use the bimorph effect to induce deflection of individual cantilevers as well as the integration of these probes. We also developed the capability to write with multiple inks on the probe array permitting the fabrication of multi-component nanodevices in one writing session. For this purpose, we fabricate passive microfluidic devices and present microfluidic behavior and ink loading performance of these components.

  5. Non-dipping status in arterial hypertension: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sarigianni, Maria; Dimitrakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tsapas, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Non-dipping is a common pattern of arterial hypertension and it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, as suggested in recent guidelines, could further increase its prevalence among subjects with hypertension. In this review we discuss assessment, relevance and associated factors. Non-dipping could be addressed through chronotherapy, the use of specific classes of anti-hypertensives, such as renin-angiotensin blockers, or modification of associated factors. However, more data are needed in order to comprehensively estimate factors associated with non-dipping and how they could be modified.

  6. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  7. STIS CCD Hot Pixel Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Svea

    2013-10-01

    This purpose of this activity is to repair radiation induced hot pixel damage to theSTIS CCD by warming the CCD to the ambient instrument temperature and annealing radiation damaged pixels. Radiation damage creates hot pixels in the STIS CCD Detector. Many of these hot pixels can be repaired by warming the CCD from its normal operating temperature near-83 C to the ambient instrument temperature { +5 C} for several hours. The number of hot pixels repaired is a function of annealing temperature. The effectiveness of the CCD hot pixel annealing process is assessed by measuring the dark current behavior before and after annealing and by searching for any window contamination effects.

  8. SAS 3 observations of Cygnus X-1 - The intensity dips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remillard, R. A.; Canizares, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    In general, the dips are observed to occur near superior conjunctions of the X-ray source, but one pair of 2-minute dips occurs when the X-ray source is closer to the observer than is the supergiant companion. The dips are analyzed spectrally with the aid of seven energy channels in the range 1.2-50 keV. Essentially, there is no change in the spectral index during the dips. Reductions in the count rates are observed at energies exceeding 6 keV for some of the dips, but the dip amplitude is always significantly greater in the 1.2-3 keV band. It is believed that absorption by partially ionized gas may best explain these results, since the observations of Pravdo et al. (1980) rule out absorption by unionized material. Estimates for the intervening gas density, extent, and distance from the X-ray source are presented. Attention is also given to the problems confronting the models for the injection of gas through the line of sight, believed to be inclined by approximately 30 deg from the binary pole.

  9. Chemical processes involved in the initiation of hot corrosion of B-1900 and NASA-TRW VIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium sulfate induced hot corrosion of B-1900 and NASA-TRW VIA at 900 C was studied with special emphasis on the chemical reactions occurring during and immediately after the induction period. Thermogravimetric tests were run for set periods of time after which the samples were washed with water and water soluable metal salts and/or residual sulfates were analyzed chemically. Element distributions within the oxide layer were obtained from electron microprobe X-ray micrographs. A third set of samples were subjected to surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Evolution of SO2 was monitored throughout many of the hot corrosion tests. Results are interpreted in terms of acid-base fluxing mechanisms.

  10. Hot Accretion Disks Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoernsson, Gunnlaugur; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Chen, Xingming; Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    1996-08-01

    All previous studies of hot (Tp 1010-1012 K), optically thin accretion disks have neglected either the presence of e+ e- pairs or advective cooling. Thus all hot disk models constructed previously have not been self-consistent. In this paper we calculate local disk models including pair physics, relevant radiative processes in the hot plasma, and the effect of advective cooling. We use a modification of the Björnsson & Svensson mapping method. We find that the role of e+ e- pairs in the structure of hot, optically thin accretion disks is far less significant than was previously thought. The improved description of the radiation-matter interactions provided in the present paper modify the previously obtained values of the critical parameters characterizing advectively dominated flows.

  11. 3D Model of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    The Neal Hot Springs geothermal system lies in a left-step in a north-striking, west-dipping normal fault system, consisting of the Neal Fault to the south and the Sugarloaf Butte Fault to the north (Edwards, 2013). The Neal Hot Springs 3D geologic model consists of 104 faults and 13 stratigraphic units. The stratigraphy is sub-horizontal to dipping <10 degrees and there is no predominant dip-direction. Geothermal production is exclusively from the Neal Fault south of, and within the step-over, while geothermal injection is into both the Neal Fault to the south of the step-over and faults within the step-over.

  12. Detection of pyridaben residue levels in hot pepper fruit and leaves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: effect of household processes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Choi, Ok-Ja; Rhee, Gyu-Seek; Chang, Moon-Ik; Kim, Heejung; Abid, Morad D N; Shin, Sung Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-07-01

    Following quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) and LC/MS/MS analysis, pyridaben residual levels were determined in unprocessed and processed hot pepper fruit and leaves. The linearities were satisfactory with determination coefficients (R(2)) in excess of 0.995 in processed and unprocessed pepper fruit and leaves. Recoveries at various concentrations were 79.9-105.1% with relative standard deviations ≤15%. The limits of quantitation of 0.003-0.012 mg/kg were very low compared with the maximum residue limits (2-5 mg/kg) set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Republic of Korea. The effects of various household processes, including washing, blanching, frying and drying under different conditions (water volume, blanching time and temperature) on residual concentrations were evaluated. Both washing and blanching (in combination with high water volume and time factor) significantly reduced residue levels in hot pepper fruit and leaves compared with other processes. In sum, the developed method was satisfactory and could be used to accurately detect residues in unprocessed and processed pepper fruit and leaves. It is recommended that pepper fruit/leaves be blanched after washing before being consumed to protect consumers from the negative health effects of detected pesticide residues.

  13. Lipid dip-pen nanolithography on self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavutis, Martynas; Navikas, Vytautas; Rakickas, Tomas; Vaitekonis, Šarūnas; Valiokas, Ramūnas

    2016-02-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) with lipids as an ink enables functional micro/nanopatterning on different substrates at high process speeds. However, only a few studies have addressed the influence of the physicochemical properties of the surface on the structure and phase behavior of DPN-printed lipid assemblies. Therefore, by combining the scanning probe and optical imaging techniques in this work we have analyzed lipid microdomain formation on the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold as well-defined model surfaces that displayed hydrophilic (protein-repellent) or hydrophobic (protein-adhesive) characteristics. We have found that on the tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated SAM the lipid ink transfer was fast (~10-1 μm3 s-1), quasi-linear and it yielded unstable, sparsely packed lipid microspots. Contrary to this, on the methyl-terminated SAM the lipid transfer was ~20 times slower, nonlinear, and the obtained stable dots of ~1 μm in diameter consisted of lipid multilayers. Our comparative analysis indicated that the measured lipid transfer was consistent with the previously reported so-called polymer transfer model (Felts et al 2012, Nanotechnology 23 215301). Further on, by employing the observed distinct contrast in the DPN ink behavior we constructed confined lipid microdomains on pre-patterned SAMs, in which the lipids assembled either into monolayer or multilamellar phases. Such microdomains can be further utilized for lipid membrane mimetics in microarray and lab-on-a-chip device formats.

  14. Capillary bridge rupture in dip-pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J; Brown, Keith A; Mirkin, Chad A

    2014-08-14

    Here, we explore fluid transfer from a nanoscale tip to a surface and elucidate the role of fluid flows in dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) of liquid inks. We find that while fluid transfer in this context is affected by dwell time and tip retraction speed from the substrate, their specific roles are dictated by the contact angle of the ink on the surface. This is shown by two observations: (1) the power law scaling of transferred fluid with dwell time depends on contact angle, and (2) slower retraction speeds result in more transfer on hydrophilic surfaces, but less transfer on hydrophobic surfaces. These trends, coupled with the observation of a transition from quasi-static to dynamic capillary rupture at a capillary number of 6 × 10(-6), show that the transfer process is a competition between surface energy and viscosity. Based on this, we introduce retraction speed as an important parameter in DPN and show that it is possible to print polymer features as small as 14 nm. Further explorations of this kind may provide a useful platform for studying capillary phenomena at the nanoscale. PMID:24965488

  15. A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Phosphorus Partition between CaO-based Slags and Hot Metal during Hot Metal Dephosphorization Pretreatment Process Based on the Ion and Molecule Coexistence Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-min; Li, Jin-yan; Chai, Guo-ming; Duan, Dong-ping; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    A thermodynamic model for predicting phosphorus partition L P between a CaO-based slags and hot metal during hot metal dephosphorization pretreatment process has been developed based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT), i.e., the IMCT- L P model. The reaction abilities of structural units or ion couples in the CaO-based slags have been represented by the calculated mass action concentrations N i through the developed IMCT- N i model based on the IMCT. The developed IMCT- L P model has been verified to be valid through comparing with the measured L P as well as the predicted L P by two reported L P models from the literature. Besides the total phosphorus partition L P between the CaO-based slag and hot metal, the respective phosphorus partitions L P, i of nine dephosphorization products as P2O5, 3FeO·P2O5, 4FeO·P2O5, 2CaO·P2O5, 3CaO·P2O5, 4CaO·P2O5, 2MgO·P2O5, 3MgO·P2O5, and 3MnO·P2O5 can also be accurately predicted by the developed IMCT- L P model. The formed 3CaO·P2O5 accounts for 99.20 pct of dephosphorization products comparing with the generated 4CaO·P2O5 for 0.08 pct. The comprehensive effect of CaO+Fe t O, which can be described by the mass percentage ratio (pct Fe t O)/(pct CaO) or the mass action concentration ratio N_{Fe}t O/N_{Fe}t O N_{CaO}. N_{CaO}} as well as the mass percentage product (pct Fe t O) × (pct CaO) or the mass action concentration product N_{{{{Fe}}t {{O}}}}5 × N_{{CaO}}3 , controls dephosphorization ability of the CaO-based slags. A linear relationship of L P against (pct Fe t O)/(pct CaO) can be correlated compared with a parabolic relationship of L P against N_{Fe}t O/N_{Fe}t O N_{CaO}. N_{CaO}, while the linear relationship of L P against (pct Fe t O) × (pct CaO) or N_{Fe}t O5 × N_{CaO}3 can be established. Thus, the mass percentage product (pct Fe t O) × (pct CaO) and the mass action concentration product N_{Fe}t O5 × N_{CaO}3 are recommended to represent the comprehensive effect of CaO+Fe t O on

  16. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of W-2Ti and W-1TiC processed by hot isostatic pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, A.; Savoini, B.; Tejado, E.; Monge, M. A.; Pastor, J. Y.; Pareja, R.

    2014-12-01

    W-2Ti and W-1TiC alloys were produced by mechanical alloying and consolidation by hot isostatic pressing. The composition and microstructural characteristics of these alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersion spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical behavior of the consolidated alloys was characterized by microhardness measurements and three point bending tests. The mechanical characteristics of the W-2Ti alloy appear to be related to solution hardening. In W-1TiC, the residual porosity should be responsible for the poor behavior observed in comparison with W-2Ti.

  17. Database of Ligand-Receptor Partners, a DIP subset

    DOE Data Explorer

    Graeber, Thomas G.; Eisenberg, David

    The Database of Ligand-Receptor Partners (DLRP) is a subset of DIP (Database of Interacting Proteins). The DLRP is a database of protein ligand and protein receptor pairs that are known to interact with each other. By interact we mean that the ligand and receptor are members of a ligand-receptor complex and, unless otherwise noted, transduce a signal. In some instances the ligand and/or receptor may form a heterocomplex with other ligands/receptors in order to be functional. We have entered the majority of interactions in DLRP as full DIP entries, with links to references and additional information (see the DIP User's Guide). DLRP is a web supplement for: Thomas G. Graeber and David Eisenberg. Bioinformatic identification of potential autocrine signaling loops in cancers from gene expression profiles. Nature Genetics, 29(3):295-300 (November 2001). [Quoted from the DLRP homepage at http://dip.doe-mbi.ucla.edu/dip/DLRP.cgi] Also available from this page is the DLRP chemokine subset.

  18. Winter evaluation of a postmilking powdered teat dip.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J J; Murdough, P A; Howard, A B; Drechsler, P A; Pankey, J W; Ledbetter, G A; Day, L L; Day, J D

    1994-03-01

    A powdered teat dip designed for winter usage was evaluated for bacteriological efficacy and teat conditioning qualities. A positive control, natural exposure field trial was conducted for 3 mo on 509 lactating cows. Two sets of cows, primiparous and multiparous, were used. The trial compared efficacy of a powdered teat dip with a teat dip of 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin. Bacteriological efficacy among primiparous cows was equivalent for all major mastitis pathogens, environmental pathogens, and streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae. Efficacy was not equivalent against coagulase-negative staphylococci and all mastitis pathogens. Results suggested that the positive control product was more efficacious. Among multiparous cows, efficacy was equivalent against environmental mastitis pathogens and bacteriologically negative, clinical mastitis. The products were not equivalent against Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, or all major mastitis pathogens, once again suggesting that the positive control product was more efficacious. Data indicated that germicidal activity of the powdered dip was not sufficient to reduce the incidence of new IMI caused by contagious or minor pathogens normally associated with teat skin. Application of a powdered postmilking teat dip during 3 winter mo in Idaho resulted in improved teat end condition among primiparous and multiparous dairy cows. Teat skin condition improved among primiparous but not among multiparous cows. PMID:8169283

  19. Synthesis and decay process of superheavy nuclei with Z=119-122 via hot-fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahramany, N.; Ansari, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this research article attempts have been made to calculate the superheavy-nuclei synthesis characteristics including, the potential energy parameters, fusion probability, fusion and evaporation residue (ER) cross sections as well as, decay properties of compound nucleus and the residue nuclei formation probability for elements with Z=119-122 by using the hot-fusion reactions. It is concluded that, although a selection of double magic projectiles such as 48Ca with high binding energy, simplifies the calculations significantly due to spherical symmetric shape of the projectile, resulting in high evaporation residue cross section, unfortunately, nuclei with Z > 98 do not exist in quantities sufficient for constructing targets for the hot-fusion reactions. Therefore, practically our selection is fusion reactions with titanium projectile because the mass production of target nuclei for experimental purposes is more feasible. Based upon our findings, it is necessary, for new superheavy-nuclei production with Z > 119, to use neutron-rich projectiles and target nuclei. Finally, the maximal evaporation residue cross sections for the synthesis of superheavy elements with Z=119-122 have been calculated and compared with the previously founded ones in the literature.

  20. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  1. Hot Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  2. Hot Tickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the highlights of this year's BookExpo America (BEA) held at the Los Angeles Convention Center. The attendees at BEA had not minded that the air was recycled, the lighting was fluorescent, and the food was bad. The first hot book sighting came courtesy of Anne Rice. Michelle Moran, author of newly published novel, "The…

  3. Main-sequence mass loss and the lithium dip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Dearborn, David S. P.

    1990-01-01

    The significant dip in observed lithium abundances for Population I stars near M about 1.3 solar mass is discussed. It is noted that this dip occurs near where the instability strip crosses the main sequence on the lower edge of the Delta Scuti stars and that stellar pulsations are expected to give rise to mass loss. A total mass loss of 0.05 solar mass over the main-sequence lifetime of these stars would be sufficient to explain the observations of lithium depletion. The absence of a dip in the Pleiades and of significant depletion of beryllium in the Hyades places tight constraints on the rate of mass loss. These constraints make unlikely the high main-sequence mass-loss rates which would significantly affect globular cluster ages.

  4. Floral-dip transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum) to generate transgenic progenies with a high transformation rate.

    PubMed

    Bastaki, Nasmah K; Cullis, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation via floral-dip is a widely used technique in the field of plant transformation and has been reported to be successful for many plant species. However, flax (Linum usitatissimum) transformation by floral-dip has not been reported. The goal of this protocol is to establish that Agrobacterium and the floral-dip method can be used to generate transgenic flax. We show that this technique is simple, inexpensive, efficient, and more importantly, gives a higher transformation rate than the current available methods of flax transformation. In summary, inflorescences of flax were dipped in a solution of Agrobacterium carrying a binary vector plasmid (T-DNA fragment plus the Linum Insertion Sequence, LIS-1) for 1 - 2 min. The plants were laid flat on their side for 24 hr. Then, plants were maintained under normal growth conditions until the next treatment. The process of dipping was repeated 2 - 3 times, with approximately 10 - 14 day intervals between dipping. The T1 seeds were collected and germinated on soil. After approximately two weeks, treated progenies were tested by direct PCR; 2 - 3 leaves were used per plant plus the appropriate T-DNA primers. Positive transformants were selected and grown to maturity. The transformation rate was unexpectedly high, with 50 - 60% of the seeds from treated plants being positive transformants. This is a higher transformation rate than those reported for Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species, using floral-dip transformation. It is also the highest, which has been reported so far, for flax transformation using other methods for transformation.

  5. Slow earthquakes linked along dip in the Nankai subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Hitoshi; Asano, Youichi; Obara, Kazushige; Kimura, Takeshi; Matsuzawa, Takanori; Tanaka, Sachiko; Maeda, Takuto

    2010-12-10

    We identified a strong temporal correlation between three distinct types of slow earthquakes distributed over 100 kilometers along the dip of the subducting oceanic plate at the western margin of the Nankai megathrust rupture zone, southwest Japan. In 2003 and 2010, shallow very-low-frequency earthquakes near the Nankai trough as well as nonvolcanic tremor at depths of 30 to 40 kilometers were triggered by the acceleration of a long-term slow slip event in between. This correlation suggests that the slow slip might extend along-dip between the source areas of deeper and shallower slow earthquakes and thus could modulate the stress buildup on the adjacent megathrust rupture zone.

  6. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  7. Applying DIP techniques to microscopic biological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Albuquerque Araujo, Arnaldo; de Faria, Bernardo M.; Silva, Marco R.; dos Reis, Helton J.

    2001-05-01

    This work reports and illustrates the application of enhancement techniques to animal nervous system images from a Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope. Images obtained from this equipment are used to help researchers on localizing several organelles and proteins. Different image components of the same tissue sample can be acquired varying the confocal microscope laser beam wavelength. Due to non-ideal acquisition, numerous images contain artifacts, poor distribution of gray levels and unsystematic contrast gradient. Several techniques have been implemented in order to enhance the images, including noise and artifacts reduction, contrast expansion and enhancements on organelles borders, such as emboss and 3D-visualization. A methodology to accurately solve the frequent contrast gradient problem has been implemented. The approach is based on blurring filter, histogram equalization and arithmetic operations. Image coloring is another issue. Each of the acquired components must be merged into one single image with its respective color. The final phase of the work consisted of gathering all implemented techniques to elaborate an application that enclosed facilities to automatically open files from confocal file format (.pic format), apply the developed methodologies to enhance the images, build the multi-component artificial color image and save the results in common formats. This application must deal with large amounts of images easily, providing facilities to batch processing and image indexing and labeling.

  8. IR Hot Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  9. Direct hot slumping and accurate integration process to manufacture prototypal x-ray optical units made of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Proserpio, L.; Spiga, D.; Salmaso, B.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Burwitz, V.; Hartner, G.; Menz, B.; Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.

    2013-09-01

    X-ray telescopes with very large collecting area, like the proposed International X-ray Observatory (IXO, with around 3 m2 at 1 keV), need to be composed of a large number high quality mirror segments, aiming at achieving an angular resolution better than 5 arcsec HEW (Half-Energy-Width). A possible technology to manufacture the modular elements that will compose the entire optical module, named X-ray Optical Units (XOUs), consists of stacking in Wolter-I configuration several layers of thin foils of borosilicate glass, previously formed by hot slumping. The XOUs are subsequently assembled to form complete multi-shell optics with Wolter-I geometry. The achievable global angular resolution of the optic relies on the required surface shape accuracy of slumped foils, on the smoothness of the mirror surfaces and on the correct integration and co-alignment of the mirror segments. The Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF-OAB) is leading a study, supported by ESA, concerning the implementation of the IXO telescopes based on thin slumped glass foils. In addition to the opto-mechanical design, the study foresees the development of a direct hot slumping thin glass foils production technology. Moreover, an innovative assembly concept making use of Wolter-I counter-form moulds and glass reinforcing ribs is under development. The ribs connect pairs of consecutive foils in an XOU stack, playing a structural and a functional role. In fact, as the ribs constrain the foil profile to the correct shape during the bonding, they damp the low-frequency profile errors still present on the foil after slumping. A dedicated semirobotic Integration MAchine (IMA) has been realized to this scope and used to build a few integrated prototypes made of several layers of slumped plates. In this paper we provide an overview of the project, we report the results achieved so far, including full illumination intra-focus X-ray tests of the last integrated prototype that are compliant with a HEW of

  10. Psychopathology and Incest: A DIPS Code Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory-Bills, Therese; Vincent, Ken

    The Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms (DIPS) was used to examine psychopathology in 30 therapy outpatients with histories of incest. Subjects also responded to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Correlations were used to examine characteristics of the sample and to identify circumstances of their experiences of incest which…

  11. 9 CFR 72.13 - Permitted dips and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted dips and procedures. 72.13 Section 72.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS...

  12. Micro-scale prediction method for API-solubility in polymeric matrices and process model for forming amorphous solid dispersion by hot-melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Bochmann, Esther S; Neumann, Dirk; Gryczke, Andreas; Wagner, Karl G

    2016-10-01

    A new predictive micro-scale solubility and process model for amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) by hot-melt extrusion (HME) is presented. It is based on DSC measurements consisting of an annealing step and a subsequent analysis of the glass transition temperature (Tg). The application of a complex mathematical model (BCKV-equation) to describe the dependency of Tg on the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)/polymer ratio, enables the prediction of API solubility at ambient conditions (25°C). Furthermore, estimation of the minimal processing temperature for forming ASDs during HME trials could be defined and was additionally confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction data. The suitability of the DSC method was confirmed with melt rheological trials (small amplitude oscillatory system). As an example, ball milled physical mixtures of dipyridamole, indomethacin, itraconazole and nifedipine in poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinylacetate) (copovidone) and polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus®) were used.

  13. Influence of processing parameters and formulation factors on the bioadhesive, temperature stability and drug release properties of hot-melt extruded films containing miconazole.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiwan; Lu, Jiannan; Deng, Weibin; Singh, Abhilasha; Mohammed, Noorullah Naqvi; Repka, Michael A; Wu, Chuanbin

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the processing parameters and formulation factors on the bioadhesive properties, temperature stability properties, and drug release properties of miconazole in PolyOx® and Klucel® matrix systems produced by Hot-melt Extrusion (HME) technology. Miconazole incorporated into these matrix systems were found to be stable for 8 months by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The addition of miconazole increased area under the curve (AUC) at contact time intervals of 30 and 60 sec, while the bioadhesion decreased with an increase in processing temperatures. The release profiles suggest that a sustained release of miconazole was observed from all of the tested HME film formulations for approximately 10 h. The release from the optimal HME film extruded at 205°C was found to be significantly different than that extruded at 190°C. Therefore, this matrix system may address the present shortcomings of currently available therapy for oral and pharyngeal candidiasis.

  14. Delineating a shallow fault zone and dipping bed rock strata using multichannal analysis of surface waves with a land streamer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Lacombe, P.; Johnson, C.D.; Lane, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) seismic method was used to delineate a fault zone and gently dipping sedimentary bedrock at a site overlain by several meters of regolith. Seismic data were collected rapidly and inexpensively using a towed 30-channel land streamer and a rubberband-accelerated weight-drop seismic source. Data processed using the MASW method imaged the subsurface to a depth of about 20 m and allowed detection of the overburden, gross bedding features, and fault zone. The fault zone was characterized by a lower shear-wave velocity (Vs) than the competent bedrock, consistent with a large-scale fault, secondary fractures, and in-situ weathering. The MASW 2D Vs section was further interpreted to identify dipping beds consistent with local geologic mapping. Mapping of shallow-fault zones and dipping sedimentary rock substantially extends the applications of the MASW method. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  15. Influence of process and formulation parameters on dissolution and stability characteristics of Kollidon® VA 64 hot-melt extrudates.

    PubMed

    Maddineni, Sindhuri; Battu, Sunil Kumar; Morott, Joe; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Murthy, S N; Repka, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of processing variables and formulation factors on the characteristics of hot-melt extrudates containing a copolymer (Kollidon® VA 64). Nifedipine was used as a model drug in all of the extrudates. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was utilized on the physical mixtures and melts of varying drug-polymer concentrations to study their miscibility. The drug-polymer binary mixtures were studied for powder flow, drug release, and physical and chemical stabilities. The effects of moisture absorption on the content uniformity of the extrudates were also studied. Processing the materials at lower barrel temperatures (115-135°C) and higher screw speeds (50-100 rpm) exhibited higher post-processing drug content (~99-100%). DSC and X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that melt extrusion of drug-polymer mixtures led to the formation of solid dispersions. Interestingly, the extrusion process also enhanced the powder flow characteristics, which occurred irrespective of the drug load (up to 40% w/w). Moreover, the content uniformity of the extrudates, unlike the physical mixtures, was not sensitive to the amount of moisture absorbed. The extrusion conditions did not influence drug release from the extrudates; however, release was greatly affected by the drug loading. Additionally, the drug release from the physical mixture of nifedipine-Kollidon® VA 64 was significantly different when compared to the corresponding extrudates (f2 = 36.70). The extrudates exhibited both physical and chemical stabilities throughout the period of study. Overall, hot-melt extrusion technology in combination with Kollidon® VA 64 produced extrudates capable of higher drug loading, with enhanced flow characteristics, and excellent stability.

  16. Development of finite element analysis method for three-dimensional hot bending and direct quench (3DQ) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Hiroaki; Tomizawa, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Okada, Nobuhiro

    2013-05-01

    The automotive industry has been focusing on developing lighter vehicles to improve fuel economy and crash safety. In order to meet these requirements, Three Dimensional Hot Bending and Direct Quench (3DQ) Technology has been developed, which enables a manufacturer to form hollow tubular automotive parts with a tensile strength of 1,470 MPa or over. 3DQ is a type of consecutive forming that allows bending and quenching at the same time, with a tube feeding device, an induction heater, a cooling device, and a bending device. In this research, a coupled thermomechanical-metallurgical finite element analysis (FEA) method has been developed to investigate the deformation behavior and to predict the forming capability of 3DQ. In the developed FEA procedure, the temperature distribution was calculated with electro magnetic and heat transfer analysis, and the flow stress was defined by transformation models and linear mixture rule. An experimental formula was used to track the ferrite-austenite transformation, and a Koistinen-Marburger relationship was employed to describe austenite-martensite change. The simulated results were compared with the experimental measurements, and the effectiveness of the developed FEA method was confirmed. Furthermore, the deformation characteristics of 3DQ, such as the wrinkling limit and the thickness change, were investigated, and simple equations to describe them were proposed.

  17. Fabrication of transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral films by a facile solution surface dip coating method.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanqing; Yu, Ting; Pui, Tzesian; Chen, Peng; Zheng, Lianxi; Liao, Kin

    2011-06-01

    We present a simple solution surface dip coating method for fabricating transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral (CNT/PVB) composite films. This fabrication process is simple to scale production and requires only ethanol and water as solvents, which is green and environment friendly.

  18. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system.

    The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles.

    Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone.

    This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged

  19. Reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications -- Canam Steel Corporation Point of Rocks, MD case study

    SciTech Connect

    Monfet, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications is not an environmental constraint, it is an economic opportunity. This case study shows how the industry can reap economic benefits from VOC reductions while improving air quality. The Canam Steel Corporation plant located in Point of Rocks, MD operates dip tanks for primer application on fabricated steel joists and joist girders. This process is presently subject to a regulation that limits the paint VOC content to 3.5 pounds per gallon of coating less water. As a result of the high paint viscosity associated with that regulation, the paint thickness of the dipped steel is thicker than the customers` specifications. Most of the VOC emissions can therefore be associated with the excess of paint applied to the products rather than to the required thickness of the coating. The higher paint usage rate has more than environmental consequences, it increases the cost of the applied coating. The project is to reduce the paint usage by controlling the viscosity of the coating in the tank. Experimental results as well as actual mass balance calculations show that using a higher VOC content paint would reduce the overall VOC emissions. The author explained the project to the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) Air and Radiation Management Administration. First, the MDE agreed to develop a new RACT determination for fabricated steel dipping operations. The new regulation would limit the amount of VOC than can be emitted to dip coat a ton of fabricated steel. Second, the MDE agreed to allow experimentation of the higher VOC content paint as a pilot project for the new regulation. This paper demonstrates the need for a RACT determination specific to fabricated steel dipping operations.

  20. Hot Meetings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Mary

    2002-01-01

    A colleague walked by my office one time as I was conducting a meeting. There were about five or six members of my team present. The colleague, a man who had been with our institution (The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, a.k.a. APL) for many years, could not help eavesdropping. He said later it sounded like we we re having a raucous argument, and he wondered whether he should stand by the door in case things got out of hand and someone threw a punch. Our Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) team was a hot group, to invoke the language that is fashionable today, although we never thought of ourselves in those terms. It was just our modus operandi. The tenor of the discussion got loud and volatile at times, but I prefer to think of it as animated, robust, or just plain collaborative. Mary Chiu and her "hot" team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory built the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft for NASA. Instruments on the spacecraft continue to collect data that inform us about what's happening on our most important star, the Sun.

  1. The Peak/Dip Picture of the Cosmic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Graziano

    2016-10-01

    The initial shear field plays a central role in the formation of large-scale structures, and in shaping the geometry, morphology, and topology of the cosmic web. We discuss a recent theoretical framework for the shear tensor, termed the `peak/dip picture', which accounts for the fact that halos/voids may form from local extrema of the density field - rather than from random spatial positions; the standard Doroshkevich's formalism is generalized, to include correlations between the density Hessian and shear field at special points in space around which halos/voids may form. We then present the `peak/dip excursion-set-based' algorithm, along with its most recent applications - merging peaks theory with the standard excursion set approach.

  2. Efficacy evaluations on five chlorhexidine teat dip formulations.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, P A; O'Neil, J K; Murdough, P A; Lafayette, A R; Wildman, E E; Pankey, J W

    1993-09-01

    Three developmental postmilking teat dip formulations containing chlorhexidine digluconate were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in sequential experimental exposure trials. Two additional commercial chlorhexidine digluconate teat dip products were evaluated in natural exposure trials. Under conditions of experimental challenge, the developmental formulations were efficacious against Staph. aureus but did not significantly reduce incidence of new IMI by Strep. agalactiae. None of the three formulations of a conventional germicide used as teat sanitizers effectively reduced incidence of new Strep. agalactiae IMI under experimental challenge conditions. In the natural exposure trials with negative controls, a .35% chlorhexidine teat sanitizer had efficacy of 88.7% against Staph. aureus and 51.4% against Strep. agalactiae. The .5% chlorhexidine product reduced Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae IMI by 86 and 56%, respectively. PMID:8227681

  3. Characterization of cobalt-dipped nickel electrodes with fibrex substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngman, Carolyn A.; Reid, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    Nickel electrodes using fibrous substrates have poorer initial utilization of the active material than those using conventional nickel sinter substrates. Previous investigators had shown that utilization can be dramatically improved by dipping these electrodes in a cobalt solution immediately after the electrochemical impregnation, before formation and cycling is carried out. The present study looked at the gas evolution behavior of dipped and undipped electrodes, impedance curves, and the charge-discharge curves to try to understand the reasons for the improvement in utilization. Impedance measurements under open circuit conditions indicate that some of the improvement is due to a reduction in the ohmic resistance of the surface layer of the particles, in agreement with earlier work. The charge-discharge curves suggest that there may also be an additional increase in the ohmic resistance of the surface layer of the undipped electrode during charging.

  4. Dip-angle influence on areal DNAPL recovery by co-solvent flooding with and without pre-flooding.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Glen R; Li, Minghua; Husserl, Johana; Ocampo-Gómez, Ana M

    2006-01-10

    degrees dip angle, which was similar to PCE recovery for injection in the downward flow direction. Lower areal PCE recovery at greater dip angles in either direction of flow was attributed to DNAPL swelling and migration, flood front instabilities and bypassing of the displaced fluid past the extraction wells during the alcohol pre-flood. Additional results demonstrate that the use of an alcohol pre-flood can be beneficial in improving DNAPL recovery in the horizontal orientation, but pre-flooding may reduce areal recovery efficiency in dip-angle orientations. This study also demonstrates the use of theoretical perturbation (fingering) analysis in predicting NAPL recovery efficiency for flooding processes in remediating aquifers with dip angles.

  5. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Ing, E.T.C.

    1997-12-31

    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  6. Design of multihundredwatt DIPS for robotic space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Geng, S. M.; Schreiber, J. G.; Withrow, C. A.; Schmitz, P. C.; Mccomas, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Design of a dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) general purpose heat source (GPHS) and small free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to SEI precursor missions. These are multihundredwatt missions. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel which reduces cost and radiological hazard. However, unlike a conventional DIPS based on turbomachinery converions, the small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred watt unit size while preserving size and weight competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the range where dynamic systems are competitive to hundreds of watts (a power range not previously considered for dynamic systems). The challenge of course is to demonstrate reliability similar to RTG experience. Since the competative potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on the feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Extensive thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries were performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within safe operating limits under all conditions including shutdown of one engine. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred watt units were established.

  7. Large-scale processes relevant to extreme hot and dry summer conditions in the South Central U.S.: Comparing observations with CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J. H.; Hayhoe, K.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, record high temperatures combined with extreme precipitation deficits have led to record-breaking droughts that have affected the Southern Plains. The 2011 drought and heat wave caused over $12B in damages across the SP region. Here, we combine station data with reanalysis to identify the hottest summers in the last 30 years. Consistent with previous analysis, we find that very hot temperatures over the region are highly correlated both precipitation as well as soil moisture deficits. Atmospheric circulation in the SP region during summer is generally dominated by the North Atlantic Subtropical High (NASH), which extends westward from its winter position over the Atlantic. The anticyclonic circulation could play a role in reducing convective precipitation as well as preventing disturbances from moving into the SP region. Examining the NARR reanalysis for the hottest summers of record, we find that the anticyclonic circulation associated with the NASH extends over the SP region relatively earlier in the summer and results in a comparatively stronger anticyclonic circulation, which in turn seems to be influenced by the large-scale climate variability. Specifically, the negative phase of the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern is characterized by high pressure anomalies across the southeastern and south central U.S. during summer. The two hottest years in the last three decades (1980 and 2011) also correlate with the two strongest negative PNA phases over that time. One of the anticipated impacts of human-induced climate change is the increased risk of hot and potentially dry summers across the SP region. For that reason, we also assess to what extent CMIP5 models are able simulate the large-scale processes that, according to reanalysis, are closely related to extreme hot and dry summer conditions over the Southern Plains. Composite maps of extreme heat years simulated in the models do display a stronger-than-average anticyclonic

  8. Process Optimization for High Efficiency Heterojunction c-Si Solar Cells Fabrication Using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Y.; Yuan, H. C.; Page, M.; Nemeth, W.; Roybal, L.; Wang, Q.

    2012-06-01

    The researchers extensively studied the effects of annealing or thermal history of cell process on the minority carrier lifetimes of FZ n-type c-Si wafers with various i-layer thicknesses from 5 to 60 nm, substrate temperatures from 100 to 350 degrees C, doped layers both p- and n-types, and transparent conducting oxide (TCO).

  9. Towards nanowriting on plastics: dip-pen nanolithography of acrylamido-functionalized oligonucleotides on polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Turri, Stefano; Torlaj, Luca; Levi, Marinella

    2010-08-01

    Model high density DNA arrays have been realized by direct deposition with Dip-Pen Nanolithography of acrylamido-functionalized oligonucleotides (23-mer) on spin-coated, flat polystyrene surfaces. A highly specific interaction between the acrylamide end functionality and polystyrene was found. The surface morphology of the model array was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Spots are clearly seen both in topography and demodulation modes. The array withstands the hybridization process with label free, complementary oligonucleotides and the following cleaning procedures. The final AFM characterization showed significant changes especially in demodulation images which may be an indication that molecular recognition between complementary oligos has occurred.

  10. Up-scaling of process-based eco-hydrology model to global scale for identification of hot spots in boundless biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research shows inland water may play some role in continental biogeochemical cycling though its contribution has remained uncertain due to a paucity of data (Battin et al. 2009). The author has developed process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model (Nakayama, 2008a-b, 2010, 2011a-b, 2012a-c, 2013; Nakayama and Fujita, 2010; Nakayama and Hashimoto, 2011; Nakayama and Shankman, 2013a-b; Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004, 2006, 2008a-b; Nakayama et al., 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012), which includes surface-groundwater interactions and down-scaling process from regional to local simulation with finer resolution, and can simulate iteratively nonlinear feedback between hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological processes in east Asia. In this study, NICE was further extended to implement map factor and non-uniform grid through up-scaling process of coordinate transformation from rectangular to longitude-latitude system applicable to global scale. This improved model was applied to several basins in Eurasia to evaluate the impact of coordinate transformation on eco-hydrological changes. Simulated eco-hydrological process after up-scaling corresponded reasonably to that in the original there after evaluating the effect of different latitude. Then, the model was expanded to evaluate global hydrologic cycle by using various global datasets. The simulated result agreed reasonably with that in the previous research (Fan et al., 2013) and extended to clarify further eco-hydrological process in global scale. This simulation system would play important role in identification of spatio-temporal hot spots in boundless biogeochemical cycle along terrestrial-aquatic continuum for global environmental change (Cole et al. 2007; Battin et al. 2009; Frei et al. 2012).

  11. An investigation into the influence of drug-polymer interactions on the miscibility, processability and structure of polyvinylpyrrolidone-based hot melt extrusion formulations.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siok-Yee; Qi, Sheng; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2015-12-30

    While hot melt extrusion is now established within the pharmaceutical industry, the prediction of miscibility, processability and structural stability remains a pertinent issue, including the issue of whether molecular interaction is necessary for suitable performance. Here we integrate the use of theoretical and experimental drug-polymer interaction assessment with determination of processability and structure of dispersions in two polyvinylpyrrolidone-based polymers (PVP and PVP vinyl acetate, PVPVA). Caffeine and paracetamol were chosen as model drugs on the basis of their differing hydrogen bonding potential with PVP. Solubility parameter and interaction parameter calculations predicted a greater miscibility for paracetamol, while ATR-FTIR confirmed the hydrogen bonding propensity of the paracetamol with both polymers, with little interaction detected for caffeine. PVP was found to exhibit greater interaction and miscibility with paracetamol than did PVPVA. It was noted that lower processing temperatures (circa 40°C below the Tg of the polymer alone and Tm of the crystalline drug) and higher drug loadings with associated molecular dispersion up to 50% w/w were possible for the paracetamol dispersions, although molecular dispersion with the non-interactive caffeine was noted at loadings up to 20% w./w. A lower processing temperature was also noted for caffeine-loaded systems despite the absence of detectable interactions. The study has therefore indicated that theoretical and experimental detection of miscibility and drug-polymer interactions may lead to insights into product processing and extrudate structure, with direct molecular interaction representing a helpful but not essential aspect of drug-polymer combination prediction.

  12. TRUEX hot demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  13. Reduction of teat skin mastitis pathogen loads: differences between strains, dips, and contact times.

    PubMed

    Enger, B D; Fox, L K; Gay, J M; Johnson, K A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to (1) assess differences in mastitis pathogen strain sensitivities to teat disinfectants (teat dips), and (2) determine the optimum time for premilking teat dips to remain in contact with teat skin to reduce pathogen loads on teat skin. Two experiments were conducted using the excised teat model. In experiment 1, the differences in mastitis pathogen strain sensitivities to 4 commercially available dips (dip A: 1% H2O2; dip B: 1% chlorine dioxide; dip C: 1% iodophor; and dip D: 0.5% iodophor) were evaluated. Four strains of 11 common mastitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus) were tested. In experiment 2, the percentage log reduction of mastitis pathogens (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) on teat skin with 3 commercially available teat dips: dip A; dip D; and dip E: 0.25% iodophor, using dip contact times of 15, 30, and 45 s, was evaluated. Experiment 1 results indicated significant differences in strain sensitivities to dips within pathogen species: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Species differences were also found where Mycoplasma bovis (97.9% log reduction) was the most sensitive to tested teat dips and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (71.4% log reduction) the most resistant. Experiment 2 results indicated that contact times of 30 and 45 s were equally effective in reducing recovered bacteria for dips D and E and were also significantly more effective than a 15-s contact time. No differences were seen in recovered bacteria between tested contact times after treatment with dip

  14. Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J.; Barker, K.M.

    1994-03-01

    One of the common oil-field wellbore problems is paraffin deposition. Even though hot oiling or hot watering is usually the first method tried for removing paraffin, few operators appreciate the limitations of ``hot oiling`` and the potential for the fluid to aggravate well problems and cause formation damage. Field tests have shown that the chemical and thermal processes that occur during ``hot oiling`` are very complex and that there are significant variations in practices among operators. Key issues include: (1) During a typical hot oiling job, a significant amount of the fluid injected into the well goes into the formation, and hence, particulates and chemicals in the fluid have the potential to damage the formation. (2) Hot oiling can vaporize oil in the tubing faster than the pump lifts oil. This interrupts paraffin removal from the well, and thus the wax is refined into harder deposits, goes deeper into the well, and can stick rods. These insights have been used to determine good ``hot oiling`` practices designed to maximize wax removal and minimize formation damage.

  15. Thermal fatigue resistance of hot work die steel repaired by partial laser surface remelting and alloying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Dalong; Zhou, Hong; Ren, Zhenan; Zhang, Haifeng; Ren, Luquan; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei

    2014-03-01

    In this study, AISI H13 steel was processed using laser surface remelting and alloying with Co-based and iron-based powders for thermal fatigue resistance enhancement. The precracks were produced on the samples before laser treatment. The microstructures of laser treated zones were examined by scanning electron microscope. X-ray diffraction was used to describe the microstructure and identify the phases in molten/alloying zones. Microhardness was measured and the thermal fatigue resistance was investigated with self-controlled thermal fatigue test method. The results indicate that laser surface remelting and alloying can repair a large proportion of thermal cracks. Meanwhile, the strengthening network obtains ultrafine microstructure and super thermal fatigue resistance, which restrains the propagation of thermal cracks. Compared with samples treated with laser surface remelting and laser surface alloying with iron-base powder, samples treated with Co-based powder produce lower cracking susceptibility and higher thermal fatigue resistance.

  16. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  17. Coercivity of the Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets diffusion-processed with low melting temperature glass forming alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelam, U. M. R.; Liu, Lihua; Akiya, T.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Hono, K.

    2016-08-01

    Nd- and Pr-based alloys with bulk glass forming ability and low melting temperatures, Nd60Al10Ni10Cu20 and Pr60Al10Ni10Cu20, were used for grain boundary diffusion process to enhance the coercivity of hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity increment was proportional to the weight gain after the diffusion process. For the sample with 64% weight gain, the coercivity increased up to 2.8 T, which is the highest value for bulk Nd-Fe-B magnets that do not contain heavy rare-earth elements, Dy or Tb. Approximately half of the intergranular regions were amorphous and the remaining regions were crystalline. Magnetic isolation of the Nd2Fe14B grains by the Nd-rich amorphous/crystalline intergranular phases is attributed to the large coercivity enhancement. The coercivity does not change after the crystallization of the intergranular phase, indicating that the coercivity is not influenced by the strain at the interface with the crystalline intergranular phase.

  18. Chemical processes involved in the initiation of hot corrosion of B-1900 and NASA-TRW VIA. [high temperature tests of superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium surface-induced hot corrosion of B-1900 and NASA-TRW VIA alloys at 900 C has been studied, with special attention to the chemical reactions during and immediately after the induction period. Thermogravimetric tests were run and data were obtained by chemical analysis of water soluble metal salts and of residual sulfate. Surface analyses of hot corroded samples were obtained by spectroscopic techniques (ESCA). A chemical mechanism for elucidating Na2SO4-induced hot corrosion is proposed indicating that hot corrosion is initiated by basic fluxing of the protective Al2O3 scale. The sequential, catastrophic corrosion results from molybdenum content. The self-sustaining feature is a consequence of the cyclic nature of the acidic fluxing. It is believed that the mechanism is applicable not only to laboratory results, but also to the practical problem of hot corrosion encountered in gas turbine engines.

  19. Properties of unique hard X-ray dips observed from GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091–3624 and their implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J. S.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Pandey, S. K.

    2013-11-20

    We report a comprehensive study on spectral and timing properties of hard X-ray dips uniquely observed in some so-called variability classes of the micro-quasars GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091–3624. These dips are characterized by a sudden decline in the 2.0-60.0 keV X-ray intensity by a factor of 4-12 simultaneous with the increase in hardness ratio by a factor of 2-4. Using 31 observations of GRS 1915+105 with RXTE/PCA, we show that different behaviors are observed in different types of variability classes, and we find that a dichotomy is observed between classes with abrupt transitions versus those with smoother evolution. For example, both energy-lag spectra and frequency-lag spectra of hard X-ray dips in classes with abrupt transitions and shorter dip intervals show hard-lag (hard photons lag soft photons), while both lag spectra during hard dips in classes with smoother evolution and longer dip intervals show soft-lag. Both lag time-scales are of the order of 100-600 mS. We also show that timing and spectral properties of hard X-ray dips observed in light curves of IGR J17091–3624 during its 2011 outburst are consistent with the properties of the abrupt transitions in GRS 1915+105 rather than smooth evolutions. A global correlation between the X-ray intensity cycle time and hard dip time is observed for both abrupt and smooth transition which may be due to two distinct physical processes whose time-scales are eventually correlated. We discuss implications of our results in the light of some generic models.

  20. Effects of an automatic postmilking teat dipping system on new intramammary infections and iodine in milk.

    PubMed

    Galton, D M

    2004-01-01

    A technology of automatically applying a postmilking teat dip via the milking machine prior to machine detachment was compared to manual postmilking teat dipping with a teat dip cup for effects on new IMI and iodine content in milk. One hundred twenty Holstein cows were experimentally challenged in a 22-wk trial with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus and 148 Holstein cows were experimentally challenged with Streptococcus uberis in another 22-wk trial. The bacterial suspensions were applied to teats of all of the cows after premilking udder preparation and immediately prior to milking machine attachment. In both trials, cows were divided among four treatments: no postmilking teat dipping; manual postmilking teat dipping with a proven efficacious iodophor teat dip; manual postmilking teat dipping with an iodophor teat dip formulated for an automatic postmilking teat dipping system; and automatically postmilking teat dipping via milking machines with an iodophor teat dip formulated for the automatic postmilking teat dipping system. The postmilking teat dipping treatments reduced new Staph. aureus IMI by 64.5, 76.5, and 88.2%; new Strep. agalactiae IMI by 61.5, 77.8, and 94.4%; and new Strep. uberis IMI by 63.5, 82.5, and 93.8%, respectively, against the treatment of no postmilking teat dipping. The treatment applying the postmilking teat dip automatically via milking machines had the lowest number of new IMI caused by the three pathogens. Teat end and teat skin condition were characterized as normal at the end of the study with no differences between treatments. There were no differences with regard to iodine content in milk between treatments. PMID:14765830

  1. Hot Billet Surface Qualifier

    SciTech Connect

    Tzyy-Shuh Chang

    2007-04-30

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), developed a prototype of a Hot Billet Surface Qualifier (“Qualifier”) based on OGT’s patented HotEye™ technology and other proprietary imaging and computing technologies. The Qualifier demonstrated its ability of imaging the cast billets in line with high definition pictures, pictures capable of supporting the detection of surface anomalies on the billets. The detection will add the ability to simplify the subsequent process and to correct the surface quality issues in a much more timely and efficient manner. This is challenging due to the continuous casting environment, in which corrosive water, temperature, vibration, humidity, EMI and other unbearable factors exist. Each installation has the potential of 249,000 MMBTU in energy savings per year. This represents a cost reduction, reduced emissions, reduced water usage and reduced mill scale.

  2. Physical processes taking place in dense plasma focus devices at the interaction of hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials under test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribkov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) device represents a source of powerful streams of penetrating radiations (hot plasma, fast electron and ion beams, x-rays and neutrons) of ns-scale pulse durations. Power flux densities of the radiation types may reach in certain cases the values up to 1013 W cm  -  2. They are widely used at present time in more than 30 labs in the world in the field of radiation material science. Areas of their implementations are testing of the materials perspective for use in modern fusion reactors (FR) of both types, modification of surface layers with an aim of improvements their properties, production of some nanostructures on their surface, and so on. To use a DPF correctly in these applications it is important to understand the mechanisms of generation of the above-mentioned radiations, their dynamics inside and outside of the pinch and processes of interaction of these streams with targets. In this paper, the most important issues on the above matter we discuss in relation to the cumulative hot plasma stream and the beam of fast ions with illustration of experimental results obtained at four DPF devices ranged in the limits of bank energies from 1 kJ to 1 MJ. Among them mechanisms of a jet formation, a current abruption phenomenon, a super-Alfven ion beam propagation inside and outside of DPF plasma, generation of secondary plasma and formation of shock waves in plasma and inside a solid-state target, etc. Nanosecond time-resolved techniques (electric probes, laser interferometry, frame self-luminescent imaging, x-ray/neutron probes, etc) give an opportunity to investigate the above-mentioned events and to observe the process of interaction of the radiation types with targets. After irradiation, we analyzed the specimens by contemporary instrumentation: optical and scanning electron microscopy, local x-ray spectral and structure analysis, atomic force microscopy, the portable x-ray diffractometer that combines x-ray single

  3. Dipping-interface mapping using mode-separated Rayleigh waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is a non-invasive geophysical technique that uses the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves to estimate a vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section is constructed by aligning 1D S-wave velocity profiles at the midpoint of each receiver spread that are contoured using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. Based on the assumption that a dipping-layer model can be regarded as stepped flat layers, high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) has been proposed to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate modes of Rayleigh waves from a multichannel record. With the mode-separation technique, therefore, a dispersion curve that possesses satisfactory accuracy can be calculated using a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. In this study, using synthetic models containing a dipping layer with a slope of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 degrees and a real-world example, we assess the ability of using high-resolution LRT to image and separate fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves from raw surface-wave data and accuracy of dispersion curves generated by a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that a dipping interface with a slope smaller than 15 degrees can be successfully mapped by separated fundamental waves using high-resolution LRT. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  4. Mechanism of force mode dip-pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haijun; Xie, Hui; Wu, Haixia; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining; Guo, Shouwu; Wang, Huabin

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the underlying mechanism of the force mode dip-pen nanolithography (FMDPN) is investigated in depth by analyzing force curves, tapping mode deflection signals, and "Z-scan" voltage variations during the FMDPN. The operation parameters including the relative "trigger threshold" and "surface delay" parameters are vital to control the loading force and dwell time for ink deposition during FMDPN. A model is also developed to simulate the interactions between the atomic force microscope tip and soft substrate during FMDPN, and verified by its good performance in fitting our experimental data.

  5. Mechanism of force mode dip-pen nanolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haijun E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn; Xie, Hui; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining; Wu, Haixia; Guo, Shouwu E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-05-07

    In this work, the underlying mechanism of the force mode dip-pen nanolithography (FMDPN) is investigated in depth by analyzing force curves, tapping mode deflection signals, and “Z-scan” voltage variations during the FMDPN. The operation parameters including the relative “trigger threshold” and “surface delay” parameters are vital to control the loading force and dwell time for ink deposition during FMDPN. A model is also developed to simulate the interactions between the atomic force microscope tip and soft substrate during FMDPN, and verified by its good performance in fitting our experimental data.

  6. Fossilized Dipping Fabrics in Continental Mantle Lithosphere as Possible Remnants of Stacked Oceanic Paleosubductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuska, V.; Plomerova, J.; Vecsey, L.; Munzarova, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have examined seismic anisotropy within the mantle lithosphere of Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic provinces of Europe by means of shear-wave splitting and P-wave travel-time deviations of teleseismic waves observed at dense arrays of seismic stations (e.g., Vecsey et al., Tectonophys. 2007). Lateral variations of seismic-wave anisotropy delimit domains of the mantle lithosphere, each of them having a consistent fabric. The domains, modeled in 3D by olivine aggregates with dipping lineation a, or foliation (a,c), represent microplates or their fragments that preserved their pre-assembly fossil fabrics in the mantle lithosphere. Evaluating seismic anisotropy in 3D, as well as mapping boundaries of the domains helps to decipher processes of the lithosphere formation. Systematically dipping mantle fabrics and other seismological findings seem to support a model of continental lithosphere built from systems of paleosubductions of plates of ancient oceanic lithosphere (Babuska and Plomerova, AGU Geoph. Monograph 1989), or by stacking of the plates (Helmstaedt and Schulze, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 1989). Seismic anisotropy in the oceanic mantle lithosphere, explained mainly by the olivine A- or D-type fabric (Karato et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2008), was discovered a half century ago (Hess, Nature 1964). Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate the oceanic olivine fabric might be preserved in the subducting lithosphere to a depth of at least 200-300 km. We thus interpret the dipping anisotropic fabrics in domains of the European mantle lithosphere as systems of "frozen" paleosubductions (Babuska and Plomerova, PEPI 2006), and the lithosphere base as a boundary between a fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle and an underlying seismic anisotropy related to present-day flow in the asthenosphere (Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010).

  7. Dipping fossil fabrics of continental mantle lithosphere as tectonic heritage of oceanic paleosubductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuska, Vladislav; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek; Munzarova, Helena

    2016-04-01

    Subduction and orogenesis require a strong mantle layer (Burov, Tectonophys. 2010) and our findings confirm the leading role of the mantle lithosphere. We have examined seismic anisotropy of Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic provinces of Europe by means of shear-wave splitting and P-wave travel-time deviations of teleseismic waves observed at dense arrays of seismic stations (e.g., Vecsey et al., Tectonophys. 2007). Lateral variations of seismic-velocity anisotropy delimit domains of the mantle lithosphere, each of them having its own consistent fabric. The domains, modeled in 3D by olivine aggregates with dipping lineation a, or foliation (a,c), represent microplates or their fragments that preserved their pre-assembly fossil fabrics. Evaluating seismic anisotropy in 3D, as well as mapping boundaries of the domains helps to decipher processes of the lithosphere formation. Systematically dipping mantle fabrics and other seismological findings seem to support a model of continental lithosphere built from systems of paleosubductions of plates of ancient oceanic lithosphere (Babuska and Plomerova, AGU Geoph. Monograph 1989), or from stacking of the plates (Helmstaedt and Schulze, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 1989). Seismic anisotropy in the oceanic mantle lithosphere, explained mainly by the olivine A- or D-type fabric (Karato et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2008), was discovered a half century ago (Hess, Nature 1964). Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate the oceanic olivine fabric might be preserved in the subducting lithosphere to a depth of at least 200-300 km. We thus interpret the dipping anisotropic fabrics in domains of the European mantle lithosphere as systems of "frozen" paleosubductions (Babuska and Plomerova, PEPI 2006) and the lithosphere base as a boundary between the fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle and an underlying seismic anisotropy related to present-day flow in the asthenosphere (Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010).

  8. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process....

  9. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process....

  10. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process....

  11. Hot, Fast Faults: Evidence for High-Temperature Slip on Exhumed Faults, and Insights into Seismic Slip Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. P.; Ault, A. K.; Janecke, S. U.; Prante, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    -related heating vs. hydrothermally induced alteration associated with the fault zone. These data suggest that naturally occurring faults reflect a range of coseismic to postseismic thermal processes, and enable us to elucidate and test new ideas for how seismic slip is manifested in faults.

  12. A dipping duration study for optimization of anodized-aluminum pressure-sensitive paint.

    PubMed

    Sakaue, Hirotaka; Ishii, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Anodized-aluminum pressure-sensitive paint (AA-PSP) uses the dipping deposition method to apply a luminophore on a porous anodized-aluminum surface. We study the dipping duration, one of the parameters of the dipping deposition related to the characterization of AA-PSP. The dipping duration was varied from 1 to 100,000 s. The properties characterized are the pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and signal level. The maximum pressure sensitivity of 65% is obtained at the dipping duration of 100 s, the minimum temperature dependency is obtained at the duration of 1 s, and the maximum signal level is obtained at the duration of 1,000 s, respectively. Among the characteristics, the dipping duration most influences the signal level. The change in the signal level is a factor of 8.4. By introducing a weight coefficient, an optimum dipping duration can be determined. Among all the dipping parameters, such as the dipping duration, dipping solvent, and luminophore concentration, the pressure sensitivity and signal level are most influenced by the dipping solvent.

  13. Socioeconomic and Psychosocial Factors Mediate Race Differences in Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping

    PubMed Central

    Spruill, Tanya M.; Gerin, William; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Burg, Matthew; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reduced nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is more prevalent among blacks living in the United States than whites and is associated with increased target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether socioeconomic and psychosocial factors help to explain racial differences in dipping. In order to address the limited reproducibility of dipping measures, we investigated this question in a sample of participants who underwent multiple ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) sessions. METHODS The study sample included 171 black and white normotensive and mildly hypertensive participants who underwent three ABPM sessions, each 1 month apart, and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. RESULTS As expected, blacks showed less dipping than whites, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and mean 24 h BP level (mean difference = 3.3%, P= 0.002). Dipping was related to several of the socioeconomic and psychosocial factors examined, with higher education and income, being married, and higher perceived social support, each associated with a larger dipping percentage. Of these, marital status and education were independently associated with dipping and together accounted for 36% of the effect of race on dipping. CONCLUSIONS We identified a number of socioeconomic and psychosocial correlates of BP dipping and found that reduced dipping among blacks vs. whites is partially explained by marital status (being unmarried) and lower education among blacks. We also present results suggesting that repeated ABPM may facilitate the detection of associations between dipping and other variables. PMID:19325537

  14. Charged-current weak interaction processes in hot and dense matter and its impact on the spectra of neutrinos emitted from protoneutron star cooling.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pinedo, G; Fischer, T; Lohs, A; Huther, L

    2012-12-21

    We perform three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport radiation hydrodynamics simulations covering a period of 3 s after the formation of a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova explosion. Our results show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter as suggested by Reddy et al. [Phys. Rev. D 58, 013009 (1998)] has a strong impact on the luminosities and spectra of the emitted neutrinos. When compared with simulations that neglect mean-field effects on the neutrino opacities, we find that the luminosities of all neutrino flavors are reduced while the spectral differences between electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are increased. Their magnitude depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at subnuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r process. Contrary to previous findings, our results show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth.

  15. Charged-current weak interaction processes in hot and dense matter and its impact on the spectra of neutrinos emitted from protoneutron star cooling.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pinedo, G; Fischer, T; Lohs, A; Huther, L

    2012-12-21

    We perform three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport radiation hydrodynamics simulations covering a period of 3 s after the formation of a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova explosion. Our results show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter as suggested by Reddy et al. [Phys. Rev. D 58, 013009 (1998)] has a strong impact on the luminosities and spectra of the emitted neutrinos. When compared with simulations that neglect mean-field effects on the neutrino opacities, we find that the luminosities of all neutrino flavors are reduced while the spectral differences between electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are increased. Their magnitude depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at subnuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r process. Contrary to previous findings, our results show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth. PMID:23368446

  16. Evaluating the role of hydrostatic gradient and structural dip on subsurface dissolution of evaporites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechner, E.; Konz, M.; Younes, A.; Huggenberger, P.

    2009-04-01

    Typically, four basic requirements are defined for subsurface dissolution of salt (NaCl), or gypsum (CaSO4): (1) a deposit of salt or gypsum against which, or through which water can flow, (2) a supply of water undersaturated with NaCl, or CaSO4, (3) an outlet where the resulting brine can escape, and (4) energy, such as provided by a hydrostatic head, or density gradient, which causes groundwater flow through the system. Based on an approximately 1000m long, and 150m deep 2D field scale model, which represents a setup of two aquifers connected by subvertical fault zones, a series of 2D density-coupled solute transport simulations were conducted. Hydraulic boundary conditions were assigned according to a regional 3D groundwater flow model. The maintained hydrostatic gradient in the 2D model section is a result of both a natural hydrostatic gradient and a superimposed anthropogenic large-scale groundwater withdrawal in the upper aquifer. A numerical model based on Mixed Finite Elements for the fluid flow problem and a combination of Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element and Multi-Point Flux Approximation methods for the transport turned out to be adequate for the simulation of density driven flow. Results indicate that the upconing process of saline groundwater from the deeper aquifer above the halite formation to the upper aquifer occurs under different sets of subsurface parameter constellations and hydraulic boundary conditions. Steady-state of the concentration distribution in the upper aquifer is reached in most simulations after relative short time span, and increased salinities are affecting most parts of the aquifer. The resulting salinity stratification with increase towards the bottom of the upper aquifer corresponds both to field observation data and measurements in laboratory scale flow tank experiments. Moreover, the effect of the anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal on salt dissolution rate is significantly lower than expected. Considerably more

  17. Cosmogenic Neutrinos Challenge the Cosmic-ray Proton Dip Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Jonas; Boncioli, Denise; Bustamante, Mauricio; Winter, Walter

    2016-07-01

    The origin and composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remain a mystery. The proton dip model describes their spectral shape in the energy range above 109 GeV by pair production and photohadronic interactions with the cosmic microwave background. The photohadronic interactions also produce cosmogenic neutrinos peaking around 109 GeV. We test whether this model is still viable in light of recent UHECR spectrum measurements from the Telescope Array experiment and upper limits on the cosmogenic neutrino flux from IceCube. While two-parameter fits have been already presented, we perform a full scan of the three main physical model parameters: source redshift evolution, injected proton maximal energy, and spectral index. We find qualitatively different conclusions compared to earlier two-parameter fits in the literature: a mild preference for a maximal energy cutoff at the sources instead of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff, hard injection spectra, and strong source evolution. The predicted cosmogenic neutrino flux exceeds the IceCube limit for any parameter combination. As a result, the proton dip model is challenged at more than 95% C.L. This is strong evidence against this model independent of mass composition measurements.

  18. Formation of High Aspect Ratio Microcoil Using Dipping Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Daiji; Yamashita, Shuhei; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Setomoto, Masaru; Hattori, Tadashi

    Coils are used in many electronic devices as inductors in mobile units such as mobile phone, digital cameras, etc. Inductance and quality factor of coils are very important value of the performance. Therefore, the requests for coils are small size, high inductance, low power consumption, etc. However, coils are unsuitable for miniaturization because of its structure. Therefore, we have proposed and developed the microcoils of high aspect ratio with the dipping method and an X-ray lithography technique. In dipping method, centrifugal force and highly viscous photoresist solution were key points to evenly apply resist in the form of thick film on metal bar. The film thickness of resist on bar was achieved about 50 μm after single coating. Using these techniques, we succeeded in creating threaded groove structure with 10 μm lines and spaces on 1 mm brass bar. In this case, the aspect ratio was achieved five. It is very expected the high performance microcoil with high aspect ratio lines could be manufactured in spite of the miniature size.

  19. Hot isostatic pressing: Conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Froes, F.H.; Hebeisen, J.; Widmer, R.

    1996-12-31

    The International Conference on Hot Isostatic Pressing was held on May 20-22, 1996, in Andover, Massachusetts. This conference discussed the state-of-the-art of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and competing compaction techniques. HIP allows complex cost-effective near net shapes to be produced from powder products, densification of castings thereby enhancing performance, retention of metastable structures such as nano-sized grains, and even creative food processing. Sections in the conference covered such items as fundamentals, mathematical modeling, equipment and instrumentation, advanced materials and processes, composite materials, casting densification, surface treatments, HIP bonding, and competing technologies. Forty five papers were processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Oreshkin, E. V.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Artyomov, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  1. Jupiter's Hot, Mushy Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Observations by instruments on the Galileo spacecraft and on telescopes atop Mauna Kea in Hawai'i indicate that lava flows on Io are surprisingly hot, over 1200 oC and possibly as much as 1300 oC; a few areas might have lava flows as hot as 1500 oC. Such high temperatures imply that the lava flows are composed of rock that formed by a very large amount of melting of Io's mantle. This has led Laszlo Keszthelyi and Alfred S. McEwen of the University of Arizona and me to reawaken an old hypothesis that suggests that the interior of Io is a partially-molten mush of crystals and magma. The idea, which had fallen out of favor for a decade or two, explains high-temperature hot spots, mountains, calderas, and volcanic plains on Io. If correct, Io gives us an opportunity to study processes that operate in huge, global magma systems, which scientists believe were important during the early history of the Moon and Earth, and possibly other planetary bodies as well. Though far from proven, the idea that Io has a ocean of mushy magma beneath its crust can be tested with measurements by future spacecraft.

  2. Conformal dip-coating of patterned surfaces for capillary die-to-substrate self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrangeli, M.; Ruythooren, W.; Van Hoof, C.; Celis, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    Capillarity-driven self-assembly of small chips onto planar target substrates is a promising alternative to robotic pick-and-place assembly. It critically relies on the selective deposition of thin fluid films on patterned binding sites, which is anyway normally non-conformal. We found that the addition of a thin wetting sidewall, surrounding the entire site perimeter, enables the conformal fluid coverage of arbitrarily shaped sites through dip-coating, significantly improves the reproducibility of the coating process and strongly reduces its sensitivity to surface defects. In this paper we support the feasibility and potential of this method by demonstrating the conformal dip-coating of square and triangular sites conditioned with combinations of different hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface chemistries. We present both experimental and simulative evidence of the advantages brought by the introduction of the wetting boundary on film coverage accuracy. Application of our surface preparation method to capillary self-assembly could result in higher precision in die-to-substrate registration and larger freedom in site shape design.

  3. Dip listening or modulation masking? Call recognition by green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) in temporally fluctuating noise.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Alejandro; Höbel, Gerlinde; Gordon, Noah M; Bee, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    Despite the importance of perceptually separating signals from background noise, we still know little about how nonhuman animals solve this problem. Dip listening, an ability to catch meaningful 'acoustic glimpses' of a target signal when fluctuating background noise levels momentarily drop, constitutes one possible solution. Amplitude-modulated noises, however, can sometimes impair signal recognition through a process known as modulation masking. We asked whether fluctuating noise simulating a breeding chorus affects the ability of female green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) to recognize male advertisement calls. Our analysis of recordings of the sounds of green treefrog choruses reveal that their levels fluctuate primarily at rates below 10 Hz. In laboratory phonotaxis tests, we found no evidence for dip listening or modulation masking. Mean signal recognition thresholds in the presence of fluctuating chorus-like noises were never statistically different from those in the presence of a non-fluctuating control. An analysis of statistical effects sizes indicates that masker fluctuation rates, and the presence versus absence of fluctuations, had negligible effects on subject behavior. Together, our results suggest that females listening in natural settings should receive no benefits, nor experience any additional constraints, as a result of level fluctuations in the soundscape of green treefrog choruses.

  4. Dip listening or modulation masking? Call recognition by green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) in temporally fluctuating noise

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Alejandro; Höbel, Gerlinde; Gordon, Noah M.; Bee, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of perceptually separating signals from background noise, we still know little about how nonhuman animals solve this problem. Dip listening, an ability to catch meaningful ‘acoustic glimpses’ of a target signal when fluctuating background noise levels momentarily drop, constitutes one possible solution. Amplitude-modulated noises, however, can sometimes impair signal recognition through a process known as modulation masking. We asked whether fluctuating noise simulating a breeding chorus affects the ability of female green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) to recognize male advertisement calls. Our analysis of recordings of the sounds of green treefrog choruses reveal that their levels fluctuate primarily at rates below 10 Hz. In laboratory phonotaxis tests, we found no evidence for dip listening or modulation masking. Mean signal recognition thresholds in the presence of fluctuating chorus-like noises were never statistically different from those in the presence of a non-fluctuating control. An analysis of statistical effects sizes indicates that masker fluctuation rates, and the presence versus absence of fluctuations, had negligible effects on subject behavior. Together, our results suggest that females listening in natural settings should receive no benefits, nor experience any additional constraints, as a result of level fluctuations in the soundscape of green treefrog choruses. PMID:23069882

  5. Pulse Profiles, Accretion Column Dips and a Flare in GX 1+4 During a Faint State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, A. B.; Galloway, D. K.; Greenhill, J. G.; Storey, M. C.; Wilson, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) spacecraft observed the X-ray GX 1+4 for it period of 34 hours on July 19/20 1996. The source faded front an intensity of approximately 20 mcrab to a minimum of <= 0.7 mcrab and then partially recovered towards the end of the observation. This extended minimum lasted approximately 40,000 seconds. Phase folded light curves at a barycentric rotation period of 124.36568 +/- 0.00020 seconds show that near the center of the extended minimum the source stopped pulsing in the traditional sense but retained a weak dip feature at the rotation period. Away from the extended minimum the dips are progressively narrower at higher energies and may be interpreted as obscurations or eclipses of the hot spot by the accretion column. The pulse profile changed from leading-edge bright before the extended minimum to trailing-edge bright after it. Data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) show that a torque reversal occurred < 10 days after our observation. Our data indicate that the observed rotation departs from a constant period with a P/P value of approximately -1.5% per year at a 4.5sigma significance. We infer that we may have serendipitously obtained data, with high sensitivity and temporal resolution about the time of an accretion disk spin reversal. We also observed a rapid flare which had some precursor activity close to the center of the extended minimum.

  6. The role of viscosity on polymer ink transport in dip-pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoliang; Zhou, Yu; Banga, Resham S; Boya, Radha; Brown, Keith A; Chipre, Anthony J; Nguyen, Sonbinh T; Mirkin, Chad A

    2013-05-01

    Understanding how ink transfers to a surface in dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is crucial for designing new ink materials and developing the processes to pattern them. Herein, we investigate the transport of block copolymer inks with varying viscosities, from an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to a substrate. The size of the patterned block copolymer features was determined to increase with dwell time and decrease with ink viscosity. A mass transfer model is proposed to describe this behaviour, which is fundamentally different from small molecule transport mechanisms due to entanglement of the polymeric chains. The fundamental understanding developed here provides mechanistic insight into the transport of large polymer molecules, and highlights the importance of ink viscosity in controlling the DPN process. Given the ubiquity of polymeric materials in semiconducting nanofabrication, organic electronics, and bioengineering applications, this study could provide an avenue for DPN to expand its role in these fields. PMID:23641313

  7. Temperature-dependence of ink transport during thermal dip-pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sungwook; Felts, Jonathan R.; Wang, Debin; King, William P.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the control of tip temperature on feature size during dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) of mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) on Au. Heated atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes operated between 25 °C and 50 °C wrote nanostructures of MHA for various dwell times and tip speeds. The feature size exhibited an exponential dependence on tip temperature with an apparent activation barrier of 165 kJ/mol. Analysis of the ink transfer process shows that, while ˜1/3 of the barrier is from ink dissolution into the meniscus, the rest reflects the barrier to adsorption onto the growing feature, a process that has been ignored in previous DPN models.

  8. Comparative sessile drop and dip pen nanolithography investigation for various hydrophilic ink/surface systems.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pradeep K; Lemoine, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We present a dip pen nanolithography study of various hydrophilic ink/surface systems with application in the field of biosensors and novel nano-materials. The inking process was investigated by studying a number of inks, such as Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Streptavidin, 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) and a 20 nm nanosphere (NS) polystyrene solution onto a range of substrates, namely glass, silicon, gold and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (taC). In the majority of cases, this resulted in patterns with sub-100 nm line widths and dot diameters. Importantly, contact angle measurements in the microl range showed a decrease of contact angle with drop volume, interpreted as a line tension effect. The significance of this to the nanoscale wetting behaviour is discussed. The effect of dwell time and writing speed indicates that the inking process is not solely defined by surface diffusion but also influenced by the ink dissolution rate from the tip. PMID:22523946

  9. Dip-pen nanolithography-assisted protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Ielasi, Francesco S; Hirtz, Michael; Sekula-Neuner, Sylwia; Laue, Thomas; Fuchs, Harald; Willaert, Ronnie G

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate the use of dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) to crystallize proteins on surface-localized functionalized lipid layer arrays. DOPC lipid layers, containing small amounts of biotin-DOPE lipid molecules, were printed on glass substrates and evaluated in vapor diffusion and batch crystallization screening setups, where streptavidin was used as a model protein for crystallization. Independently of the crystallization system used and the geometry of the lipid layers, nucleation of streptavidin crystals occurred specifically on the DPN-printed biotinylated structures. Protein crystallization on lipid array patches is also demonstrated in a microfluidic chip, which opens the way toward high-throughput screening to find suitable nucleation and crystal growth conditions. The results demonstrate the use of DPN in directing and inducing protein crystallization on specific surface locations.

  10. Nanoscale deposition of solid inks via thermal dip pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, P. E.; Whitman, L. J.; King, William P.; Nelson, Brent A.

    2004-08-01

    We demonstrate that nanolithography can be performed using a heated atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever tip to control the deposition of a solid organic "ink." The ink, octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA), has a melting temperature near 100°C and can self-assemble on mica. Postdeposition analysis shows that deposition occurs only when the cantilever tip is heated above OPA's melting temperature, that the deposited structure does not spread significantly while cooling, and that a cool tip coated with OPA does not contaminate the substrate during subsequent imaging. Single lines were written with a width of 100nm. This approach greatly expands the potential of dip pen nanolithography, allowing local control of deposition and deposition of materials typically immobile at room temperature, while avoiding potential problems arising from inadvertent deposition and postdeposition diffusion.

  11. Site-specific dual ink dip pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafday, Omkar A.; Haaheim, Jason R.; Villagran, Fredy; Levesque, Tom

    2009-05-01

    The ability to deposit two different materials with nanoscale precision at user specified locations is a very important attribute of dip pen nanolithography (DPN). However, the potential of DPN goes beyond simple deposition since DPN used in conjunction with lateral force microscopy (LFM) allows site-specific investigations of nanoscale properties. In this work, we use two different inks, 16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) and 1-octadenethiol (ODT) to show sitespecific dual ink DPN enabled exclusively by our proprietary software. A diamond-dot pattern was created by using a layer-to-layer alignment (LLA) algorithm which enables the MHA (diamond) to be written concentric with the ODT (central dot) pattern. This simple demonstration of multi-ink DPN is not specific to alkanethiol ink systems, but is also applicable to other multi-material patterning, interaction and exchange studies.

  12. Liquid-metal dip seal with pneumatic spring

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved liquid-metal dip seal for sealing the annulus between rotating plugs in the reactor vessel head of a liquid-metal fast-breeder nuclear reactor has two legs of differing widths communicating under a seal blade; the wide leg is also in communication with cover gas of the reactor and the narrow leg is also in communication with an isolated plug annulus above the seal. The annulus contains inert gas which acts as a pneumatic spring. Upon increasing cover gas pressure which depresses the level in the wide leg and greatly increases the level in the narrow leg, the pneumatic spring is compressed, and resists further level changes, thus preventing radioactive cover gas from bubbling through the seal.

  13. Development of ballistic hot electron emitter and its applications to parallel processing: active-matrix massive direct-write lithography in vacuum and thin films deposition in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshida, N.; Kojima, A.; Ikegami, N.; Suda, R.; Yagi, M.; Shirakashi, J.; Yoshida, T.; Miyaguchi, H.; Muroyama, M.; Nishino, H.; Yoshida, S.; Sugata, M.; Totsu, K.; Esashi, M.

    2015-03-01

    Making the best use of the characteristic features in nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) ballistic hot electron source, the alternative lithographic technology is presented based on the two approaches: physical excitation in vacuum and chemical reduction in solutions. The nc-Si cold cathode is a kind of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode, composed of a thin metal film, an nc-Si layer, an n+-Si substrate, and an ohmic back contact. Under a biased condition, energetic electrons are uniformly and directionally emitted through the thin surface electrodes. In vacuum, this emitter is available for active-matrix drive massive parallel lithography. Arrayed 100×100 emitters (each size: 10×10 μm2, pitch: 100 μm) are fabricated on silicon substrate by conventional planar process, and then every emitter is bonded with integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) driver using through-silicon-via (TSV) interconnect technology. Electron multi-beams emitted from selected devices are focused by a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) condenser lens array and introduced into an accelerating system with a demagnification factor of 100. The electron accelerating voltage is 5 kV. The designed size of each beam landing on the target is 10×10 nm2 in square. Here we discuss the fabrication process of the emitter array with TSV holes, implementation of integrated ctive-matrix driver circuit, the bonding of these components, the construction of electron optics, and the overall operation in the exposure system including the correction of possible aberrations. The experimental results of this mask-less parallel pattern transfer are shown in terms of simple 1:1 projection and parallel lithography under an active-matrix drive scheme. Another application is the use of this emitter as an active electrode supplying highly reducing electrons into solutions. A very small amount of metal-salt solutions is dripped onto the nc-Si emitter surface, and the emitter is driven without

  14. Efficacy of .18% iodine teat dip against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Boddie, R L; Nickerson, S C

    1989-04-01

    Effective postmilking teat dip products with lower iodine concentrations are being formulated as concern increases about iodine residues in milk. Increased free iodine concentration with greater germicidal activity in teat dip products is also possible with special formulation procedures. Low iodine concentration dips are cheaper and have reduced teat irritation. A concentrated iodine teat dip containing .18% iodine and 8 ppm free iodine upon dilution was evaluated under experimental bacterial challenge to determine efficacy for prevention of new intramammary infections. The undiluted product also contained 15% collagen protein emollient as a teat skin conditioner. Efficacy of the teat dip was 93.6 and 51. 7% for Staphylococcus aureus (Newbould 305) and Streptococcus agalactiae (McDonald 44). No adverse effects of the dip on teat skin were noted. PMID:2663939

  15. An evolutionarily conserved SSNA1/DIP13 homologue is a component of both basal and apical complexes of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Maude F; Berry, Laurence; Besteiro, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-based cytoskeletal structures have fundamental roles in several essential eukaryotic processes, including transport of intracellular constituents as well as ciliary and flagellar mobility. Temporal and spatial organisation of microtubules is determined by microtubule organising centers and a number of appendages and accessory proteins. Members of the SSNA1/DIP13 family are coiled coil proteins that are known to localise to microtubular structures like centrosomes and flagella, but are otherwise poorly characterised. We have identified a homologue of SSNA1/DIP13 in the parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii and found it localises to parasite-specific cytoskeletal structures: the conoid in the apical complex of mature and dividing cells, and the basal complex in elongating daughter cells during cell division. This protein is dispensable for parasite growth in vitro. However, quite remarkably, this coiled coil protein is able to self-associate into higher order structures both in vitro and in vivo, and its overexpression is impairing parasite division. PMID:27324377

  16. An evolutionarily conserved SSNA1/DIP13 homologue is a component of both basal and apical complexes of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Lévêque, Maude F.; Berry, Laurence; Besteiro, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-based cytoskeletal structures have fundamental roles in several essential eukaryotic processes, including transport of intracellular constituents as well as ciliary and flagellar mobility. Temporal and spatial organisation of microtubules is determined by microtubule organising centers and a number of appendages and accessory proteins. Members of the SSNA1/DIP13 family are coiled coil proteins that are known to localise to microtubular structures like centrosomes and flagella, but are otherwise poorly characterised. We have identified a homologue of SSNA1/DIP13 in the parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii and found it localises to parasite-specific cytoskeletal structures: the conoid in the apical complex of mature and dividing cells, and the basal complex in elongating daughter cells during cell division. This protein is dispensable for parasite growth in vitro. However, quite remarkably, this coiled coil protein is able to self-associate into higher order structures both in vitro and in vivo, and its overexpression is impairing parasite division. PMID:27324377

  17. E-DIP: Early Discharge Project. A Model for Throughput and Early Discharge for 1-Day Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyung J; Desai, Neil; Florendo, Angelita; Marshall, Christine; Michalski, Jaime; Lee, Nathan; Dunn, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Short stay admissions that are outside of observation unit models hold challenges for throughput and decreasing length of stay (LOS). In our institution at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, United States, we noticed a lack of communication about potential next-day discharges from the day and night admission teams to the inpatient teams. Our hospitalist division started the Early Discharge Initiation Project (E-DIP), a system of flagging and communicating potential discharges to improve this problem. We used a multidisciplinary approach with PDSA cycles, engaging members of all teams involved in this process, including the nocturnists. We utilized a paper list, an EHR notification order, and email communication to relay potential next-day discharges. We created an awareness and educational campaign to reinforce the process and its importance. We then used a text paging system to remind the inpatient teams for early discharge. After the initiation of E-DIP, the average number of 1-day admissions per day increased from 0.9 to 1.6 (78% increase). Percentage of discharge orders before 11AM increased from 28% to 42%. Mean discharge time improved to 28 minutes earlier. E-DIP was successful in increasing 1-day admissions and mean discharge times. PMID:27335649

  18. Intermittent dipping in a low-mass X-ray binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Duncan K.; Ajamyan, Alishan N.; Upjohn, James; Stuart, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Periodic dips observed in ≈20 per cent of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are thought to arise from obscuration of the neutron star by the outer edge of the accretion disc. We report the detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of two dipping episodes in Aql X-1, not previously a known dipper. The X-ray spectrum during the dips exhibited an elevated neutral column density, by a factor between one and almost two orders of magnitude. Dips were not observed in every cycle of the 18.95-h orbit, so that the estimated frequency for these events is 0.10_{-0.05}^{+0.07} cycle-1. This is the first confirmed example of intermittent dipping in such a system. Assuming that the dips in Aql X-1 occur because the system inclination is intermediate between the non-dipping and dipping sources, implies a range of 72°-79° for the source. This result lends support for the presence of a massive (>2 M⊙) neutron star in Aql X-1, and further implies that ≈30 additional LMXBs may have inclinations within this range, raising the possibility of intermittent dips in those systems also. Thus, we searched for dips from 24 other bursting systems, without success. For the system with the largest number of dip phases covered, 4U 1820-303, the non-detection implies a 95 per cent upper limit to the dip frequency of 1.4 × 10-3 cycle-1.

  19. [DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): as a tobacco-associated disease -- case report].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vitor; Carvalho, Lina

    2004-01-01

    DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia) is an interstitial lung disease with diffuse and uniform accumulation of alveolar macrophages. There is a strong association with tobacco since 90% of the patients are smokers. The interstitial lung diseases related to tobacco are diverse and include tumours, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, RBILD (Respiratory Bronchilites associated Interstitial Lung Disease), DIP and Langerhans Cell Histiocitosis. The authors present a case of DIP. A brief theorycal revision and discussion of a case is made facing the association with tobacco.

  20. HOT WAX.

    PubMed

    Schneberk, Todd; Valenzuela, Rolando G; Sterling, Garrett; Mallon, William K

    2015-09-01

    High-potency marijuana wax smoked via dabbing is a newly encountered phenomenon with relevance to prehospital care providers and emergency physicians.The extract is only recently described in current peer-reviewed literature. The drug may produce paranoia and psychosis and mimic psychiatric problems. The synthetic process for this drug poses a risk for both fire and explosions creating burns and blast injuries. These four cases were encountered in a single ED in Los Angeles in a three-week period, suggesting this could be the tip of an emerging public health problem. All four of these patients were complex cases requiring advanced imaging and ICU care. Emergency personnel need to appreciate this new trend and the implications for pre-hospital care, disposition and ED treatment of these patients. PMID:26554181

  1. Constraints on the long-period moment-dip tradeoff for the Tohoku earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, Victor C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Duputel, Zacharie

    2011-01-01

    Since the work of Kanamori and Given (1981), it has been recognized that shallow, pure dip-slip earthquakes excite long-period surface waves such that it is difficult to independently constrain the moment (M0) and the dip (δ) of the source mechanism, with only the product M0 sin(2δ) being well constrained. Because of this, it is often assumed that the primary discrepancies between the moments of shallow, thrust earthquakes are due to this moment-dip tradeoff. In this work, we quantify how severe this moment-dip tradeoff is depending on the depth of the earthquake, the station distribution, the closeness of the mechanism to pure dip-slip, and the quality of the data. We find that both long-period Rayleigh and Love wave modes have moment-dip resolving power even for shallow events, especially when stations are close to certain azimuths with respect to mechanism strike and when source depth is well determined. We apply these results to USGS W phase inversions of the recent M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and estimate the likely uncertainties in dip and moment associated with the moment- dip tradeoff. After discussing some of the important sources of moment and dip error, we suggest two methods for potentially improving this uncertainty.

  2. Constraints on the long-period moment-dip tradeoff for the Tohoku earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, V.C.; Hayes, G.P.; Duputel, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Since the work of Kanamori and Given (1981), it has been recognized that shallow, pure dip-slip earthquakes excite long-period surface waves such that it is difficult to independently constrain the moment (M0) and the dip (??) of the source mechanism, with only the product M0 sin(2??) being well constrained. Because of this, it is often assumed that the primary discrepancies between the moments of shallow, thrust earthquakes are due to this moment-dip tradeoff. In this work, we quantify how severe this moment-dip tradeoff is depending on the depth of the earthquake, the station distribution, the closeness of the mechanism to pure dip-slip, and the quality of the data. We find that both long-period Rayleigh and Love wave modes have moment-dip resolving power even for shallow events, especially when stations are close to certain azimuths with respect to mechanism strike and when source depth is well determined. We apply these results to USGS W phase inversions of the recent M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and estimate the likely uncertainties in dip and moment associated with the moment-dip tradeoff. After discussing some of the important sources of moment and dip error, we suggest two methods for potentially improving this uncertainty. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Insights into good hot oiling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J. ); Barker, K.M. )

    1992-01-01

    One of the common oil-field wellbore problems is paraffin deposition. Even though hot oiling is usually the first method tried for removing paraffin, few operators appreciate the limitations of hot oiling and the potential for hot oiling to aggravate well problems and cause formation damage. Several hot oiling jobs were monitored to understand old pumpers tales'' and the dynamics of hot oiling. The field work was supported with laboratory analyses of the oil and calculations of thermal effectiveness. This limited study has shown that the chemical and thermal processes that occur during hot oiling are very complex and that there are significant variations in practices among operators. Key findings of this work include: (1) During a typical hot oiling job, a significant amount of the oil injected into the annulus goes into the formation, and hence, has the potential to damage the formation. (2) Organic particulates in stock tank oil may not completely dissolve/met as the oil passes through the hot-oiling-truck heat exchanger, hence, these particulates may plug the formation. (3) Hot oiling can vaporize oil in the tubing faster than the pump lifts oil. This interrupts paraffin removal from the well, and thus, since the wax is not removed from the well the wax is refined into harder deposits, can go deeper into the well, and can stick rods. These insights have been used to determine good hot oiling practices designed to maximize wax removal and minimize formation damage.

  4. Dip-pen nanopatterning of photosensitive conducting polymer using a monomer ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Aslam, Mohammed; Fu, Lei; Wu, Nianqiang; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2004-05-01

    Controlled patterning of conducting polymers at a micro- or nanoscale is the first step towards the fabrication of miniaturized functional devices. Here, we introduce an approach for the nanopatterning of conducting polymers using an improved monomer "ink" in dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The nominal monomer "ink" is converted, in situ, to its conducting solid-state polymeric form after patterned. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed with acid-promoted polymerization of pyrrole in a less reactive environment (tetrahydrofuran). The ratios of reactants are optimized to give an appropriate rate to match the operation of DPN. A similar synthesis process for the same polymer in its bulk form shows a high conductance and crystalline structure. The miniaturized conducting polymer sensors with light detection ability are fabricated by DPN using the improved ink formula, and exhibit excellent response, recovery, and sensitivity parameters.

  5. Electromagnetic disturbances observed near the dip region ahead of dipolarization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, S. Y.; Sun, W. J.; Parks, G. K.; Zong, Q. G.; Shi, Q. Q.; Pu, Z. Y.; Cui, Y. B.; Wu, T.; Liu, J.; Zhou, X. Z.

    2016-04-01

    Dipolarization front (DF) is a thin magnetic structure embedded in fast flows in the magnetotail, which plays an important role in particle acceleration, flow braking, wave excitation, and other related processes. Electromagnetic disturbances near the magnetic dip region in front of DFs are investigated using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probe observations in this paper. Strong magnetic field and electric field fluctuations, with several wave bands below and around the lower hybrid frequency, are found in an event on 21 March 2008. The properties of the wave are similar to that of magnetosonic wave. Detailed analyses show that the phase space density for ions in the perpendicular direction has a positive slope near the local Alfvén speed, which is a possible free-energy source for the generation of the wave. This type of ion distribution could result from the earthward reflected ions ahead of DF, though other forming mechanism could not be fully ruled out.

  6. Hot oiling spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J.

    1996-09-01

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that was distributed as a compiled, public-domain-software spreadsheet. That spreadsheet has evolved into an interactive from on the World Wide Web and has been adapted into a Windows{trademark} program by Petrolite, St. Louis MO. The development of such a tools was facilitated by expressing downhole temperatures in terms of analytic formulas. Considerable algebraic work is required to develop such formulas. Also, the data describing hot oiling is customarily a mixture of practical units that must be converted to a consistent set of units. To facilitate the algebraic manipulations and to assure unit conversions are correct, during development parallel calculations were made using the spreadsheet and a symbolic mathematics program. Derivation of the formulas considered falling film flow in the annulus and started from the transient differential equations so that the effects of the heat capacity of the tubing and casing could be included. While this approach to developing a software product does not have the power and sophistication of a finite element or difference code, it produces a user friendly product that implements the equations solved with a minimum potential for bugs. This allows emphasis in development of the product to be placed on the physics.

  7. A comparison of dynamic mechanical properties of processing-tomato peel as affected by hot lye and infrared radiation heating for peeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the viscoelastic characteristics of tomato skins subjected to conventional hot lye peeling and emerging infrared-dry peeling by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Three DMA testing modes, including temperature ramp, frequency sweep, and creep behavior test, were conduct...

  8. Modeling Napping, Post-Lunch Dip, and Other Variations in Human Sleep Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Bes, Frederik; Jobert, Marc; Schulz, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To model sleep propensity (SP) as a continuous variable across 24 hours and to model the post-noon nap zone, or post-lunch dip in performance, and the early evening trough in SP. Methods: The present model is a variant of the 2-process model with 2 major modifications. (1) The circadian threshold process was replaced by sleep drive R, derived from REM sleep propensity, which shows a strong circadian modulation. (2) The model is based on a multiplicative interaction between the 2 input variables S and R. The model parameters S and R were estimated from experimental data. Thus, SP is modeled by multiplicative interaction of 2 sleep drives, S and R, the former of homeostatic, the latter of circadian nature. In short: SP = S × R. Results: Under the condition of normal phase and duration of nighttime sleep, SP across 24 hours displays 4 characteristics, (a) a major peak at nighttime, (b) a secondary increase, which peaks post-noon, (c) a first local minimum at sleep offset in the morning, and (d) a second local minimum in the early evening hours. Model simulations with either delayed or advanced sleep times suggest that the magnitude of the post-noon nap zone depends on the phase of the major sleep period within 24 hours. While the nap zone is attenuated or disappears when night sleep is delayed, SP increases during daytime when night sleep is advanced. In all conditions, the evening local minimum of SP remained stable. Conclusions: SP can be modeled as a continuous variable, based on the multiplicative interaction of 2 basic sleep drives. The model predictions are in agreement with known variations of SP across 24 hours. Citation: Bes F; Jobert M; Schulz H. Modeling napping, post-lunch dip, and other variations in human sleep propensity. SLEEP 2009;32(3):392-398. PMID:19294959

  9. Germicidal activity of a chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip and a sodium chlorite teat dip during experimental challenge with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Boddie, R L; Nickerson, S C; Adkinson, R W

    1998-08-01

    Three postmilking teat dips were tested for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in two separate studies using experimental challenge procedures that were recommended by the National Mastitis Council. The first study evaluated a barrier teat dip product containing chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide as the germicidal agent, and the second study evaluated a sodium chlorite product with a barrier component as well as a sodium chlorite product without a barrier component. The chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip reduced new intramammary infections (IMI) caused by Staph. aureus by 91.5% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 71.7%. The barrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae by 41.0 and 0%, respectively. The nonbarrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus by 65.6% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 39.1%. Teat skin and teat end conditions were evaluated before and after the second study; no deleterious effects among dipped quarters compared with control quarters were noted for the two sodium chlorite products. PMID:9749396

  10. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-06-08

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study how the hot gas content in early-type galaxies varies with environment. We find that the L{sub X}-L{sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. This suggests that internal processes such as supernovae driven winds or AGN feedback may expel hot gas from low mass field galaxies. Such mechanisms are less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium may confine outflowing material.

  11. Multiplexed Dip Pen Nanolithography patterning by simple desktop nanolithography platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Smetana, Alexander; Stiles, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Multiplexed patterning in the micro-scale has been required in order to accomplish functional bio-materials templating on the subcellular length scale. Multiplexed bio-material patterns can be used in several fields: high sensitivity DNA/protein chip development, cell adhesion/differentiation studies, and biological sensor applications. Especially, two or more materials' patterning in subcellular length scale is highly demanding to develop a multi-functional and highintegrated chip device. The multiplexing patterning of two or more materials is a challenge because of difficulty in an alignment and a precision of patterning. In this work, we demonstrate that multiplexed dip pen nanolithography® (DPN®) patterning up to four different material inks by means of using recently developed new generation nanolithography platform (NLP 2000™, NanoInk, Inc., Skokie, IL). Ink materials were prepared by adding different colored fluorescent dyes to matrix carrier materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) and lipid material (1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DOPC). Finally, dot-array patterns of four different inks were obtained in 50 × 50 μm2 area. This lithography platform is capable of patterning 12 separate materials within micrometer areas by efficient use of the available MEMS accessories. This number can be scaled up further with development of new accessories.

  12. Dip-pen-based direct writing of conducting silver dots.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Sandra; Tuchscherer, André; Lang, Heinrich; Simon, Ulrich

    2013-09-15

    Direct fabrication of micro- and nanoscale metallic structures is advantageous for many applications. Here, we use dip-pen lithography with silver(I) carboxylate [AgO2C(CH2OCH2)3H] in diethylene glycol as precursor ink for the generation of conducting metal structures. After annealing the written dots, solid silver structures are generated. We investigate the influence of several parameters such as substrate functionalization and ink composition on the pattern formation. We found that a substrate coating with perfluorinated silane is necessary, if diethylene glycol will be used as ink carrier. By variation in ink concentration and ink carrier composition, structures with diameters ranging from ~20 μm to ~2 μm and with metal fractions ranging from ~5% to ~80% were fabricated. After gold enhancement of the written patterns, resistivities in the range of 4×10(-5) Ωm on the structures were determined. The ink system introduced here appears promising for the direct fabrication of various metal or metal oxide patterns. PMID:23796451

  13. Modeling nanoscale ink transport in Dip Pen Nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafday, Omkar A.; Vaughn, Mark W.; Haaheim, Jason; Weeks, Brandon L.

    2008-04-01

    In Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®), ink transport is reported to occur through the water meniscus formed between the AFM tip and the substrate by capillary condensation. It is imperative to understand the ink transport mechanisms in order to develop reliable commercial applications of DPN, and NanoInk is at the forefront of these efforts. In this work, we model the dot patterns of 16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) created by evaporative coating of a 1D 18 cantilever array and perform predictive modeling with solution based MHA cantilever inking results. We extend the functionality of the NanoInk 2D nano PrintArray TM (2D array) by measuring the uniformity of 1-octadenethiol (ODT) dot patterns created. Further, we try to quantify the uniformity of patterns created by the 2D array, in a more statistically quantitative way. We do this by measuring the dot diameters of over 200 ODT ink patterns over a 1x1cm2 area and examining the uniformity of the ODT vapor inking protocol developed.

  14. Polymer nanocomposite patterning by dip-pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Ayse Cagil; Erdem, Derya; Ma, Huan; Reiser, Alain; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate aim of this study is to construct polymer nanocomposite patterns by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). Recent investigations have revealed the effect of the amount of ink (Laplace pressure) on the mechanism of liquid ink writing. In this study it is shown that not only the amount of ink, but also physisorption and surface diffusion are relevant. After a few writing steps, physisorption and surface diffusion outweigh the influence of the amount of ink, allowing consistent patterning governed by dwell times and writing speeds. Polymer matrices can be utilized as a delivery medium to deposit functional particles. DPN patterning of polymer nanocomposites allows for local tuning of the functionality and mechanical strength of the written patterns in high resolution, with the benefit of pattern flexibility. Typically polymer matrices with volatile components are used as a delivery medium for nanoparticle deposition, with subsequent removal of loosely bound matrix material by heating or oxygen plasma. In our study, nanocomposite patterns were constructed, and the differences between polymer and nanocomposite patterning were investigated. Cross-sectional SEM and TEM analysis confirmed that nanoparticles can be deposited with the liquid-polymer ink and are evenly distributed in the polymer matrix. PMID:26909592

  15. Numerical simulation of dip-coating in the evaporative regime.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mohar; Doumenc, Frédéric; Guerrier, Béatrice

    2016-02-01

    A hydrodynamic model is used for numerical simulations of a polymer solution in a dip-coating-like experiment. We focus on the regime of small capillary numbers where the liquid flow is driven by evaporation, in contrast to the well-known Landau-Levich regime dominated by viscous forces. Lubrication approximation is used to describe the flow in the liquid phase. Evaporation in stagnant air is considered (diffusion-limited evaporation), which results in a coupling between liquid and gas phases. Self-patterning due to the solutal Marangoni effect is observed for some ranges of the control parameters. We first investigate the effect of evaporation rate on the deposit morphology. Then the role of the spatial variations in the evaporative flux on the wavelength and mean thickness of the dried deposit is ascertained, by comparing the 2D and 1D diffusion models for the gas phase. Finally, for the very low substrate velocities, we discuss the relative importance of diffusive and advective components of the polymer flux, and consequences on the choice of the boundary conditions. PMID:26920522

  16. Modified excised teat model for laboratory screening of teat dips.

    PubMed

    Hall, P A; Yordy, C J

    1981-09-01

    Because of numerous indigenous microorganisms on excised teats that interfere with enumeration of challenge cultures on nonselective media, a series of experiments used various physical and chemical treatments to reduce overall numbers. Physical treatments of teats included autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 15 min, boiling in distilled water for 10 min, and heating by microwaves for 2 min. Chemical treatments included exposing teats to various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, iodophor disinfectant, and combinations of the three. All treatments were unsuitable. Selective and differential media were screened for their ability to restrict bacterial contamination from excised teats while maintaining good recovery of Streptococcus agalactiae. Edwards and NPC agars were superior for recovery of S. agalactiae. Four methods for recovery of S. agalactiae from excised teats were evaluated. Hand agitation of teats in neutralizer and stomaching teats in neutralizer were equally superior to swabbing teats and rinsing teats with neutralizer expelled from a syringe. Studies of elapsed time demonstrated that 1 min or less between challenge exposure and teat dip exposure was just as suitable and more expedient than 5 min.

  17. Radiations from hot nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, F. Bary

    1993-01-01

    The investigation indicates that nuclei with excitation energy of a few hundred MeV to BeV are more likely to radiate hot nuclear clusters than neutrons. These daughter clusters could, furthermore, de-excite emitting other hot nuclei, and the chain continues until these nuclei cool off sufficiently to evaporate primarily neutrons. A few GeV excited nuclei could radiate elementary particles preferentially over neutrons. Impact of space radiation with materials (for example, spacecraft) produces highly excited nuclei which cool down emitting electromagnetic and particle radiations. At a few MeV excitation energy, neutron emission becomes more dominant than gamma-ray emission and one often attributes the cooling to take place by successive neutron decay. However, a recent experiment studying the cooling process of 396 MeV excited Hg-190 casts some doubt on this thinking, and the purpose of this investigation is to explore the possibility of other types of nuclear emission which might out-compete with neutron evaporation.

  18. Hydrological effects of dip-slip fault rupture on a hydrothermal plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, D. E.; Archer, R. A.; Ellis, S. M.; Rowland, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractEarthquakes cause a variety of hydrological effects, including changes in well levels, streamflow, <span class="hlt">hot</span>-spring temperatures, and geyser periodicity. These may be produced by changes in pore-fluid pressure or by changes in permeability. We investigate near-field effects of normal earthquakes on fault-controlled hydrothermal plumes, e.g., at the Te Kopia geothermal system on the Paeroa Fault, New Zealand. A numerical model is detailed that addresses the effects of coseismic pore-pressure and permeability perturbations on geothermal upflow along a <span class="hlt">dip</span>-slip fault. Fluid flow is modeled using the heat and mass transfer code Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer. The 2 m wide fault is impermeable and thus behaves as a partition between fluid flow in the adjacent fault blocks, as well as a structure for upflow to localize upon. A realistic distribution for the coseismic change in mean rock stress is obtained from a plane-strain mechanical model for normal fault rupture in an elastic-plastic-viscous crust. These stress changes are imported into the fluid flow model as pore-fluid pressure changes. In addition, we consider the effects of fault core fracture and damage by introducing an increase in permeability at the fault plane. Results show that short-term effects are dominated by pore-pressure changes, which cause increased heat and mass fluxes at the surface for a period of several weeks. Longer-term, an elevated mass flux remains due to the increase in subsurface permeability. Upflow migrates from the footwall scarp into the hanging wall and away from the fault, because rising fluids are no longer deflected by the fault.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol5-sec1910-126.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol5-sec1910-126.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1910.126 - Additional requirements for special <span class="hlt">dipping</span> and coating operations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... tank with an alarm that will sound if the temperature of the liquid comes within 50 °F (10 °C) of its... to shut down the conveyor supplying work to the tank. (4) If the temperature of the liquid can exceed... under pressure when you fill the <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank or agitate the liquid in the <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank. (b) What...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol5-sec1910-126.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol5-sec1910-126.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1910.126 - Additional requirements for special <span class="hlt">dipping</span> and coating operations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... tank with an alarm that will sound if the temperature of the liquid comes within 50 °F (10 °C) of its... to shut down the conveyor supplying work to the tank. (4) If the temperature of the liquid can exceed... under pressure when you fill the <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank or agitate the liquid in the <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank. (b) What...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title29-vol5-sec1910-126.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title29-vol5-sec1910-126.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1910.126 - Additional requirements for special <span class="hlt">dipping</span> and coating operations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... tank with an alarm that will sound if the temperature of the liquid comes within 50 °F (10 °C) of its... to shut down the conveyor supplying work to the tank. (4) If the temperature of the liquid can exceed... under pressure when you fill the <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank or agitate the liquid in the <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank. (b) What...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol5-sec1910-126.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol5-sec1910-126.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1910.126 - Additional requirements for special <span class="hlt">dipping</span> and coating operations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... tank with an alarm that will sound if the temperature of the liquid comes within 50 °F (10 °C) of its... to shut down the conveyor supplying work to the tank. (4) If the temperature of the liquid can exceed... under pressure when you fill the <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank or agitate the liquid in the <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank. (b) What...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+study+AND+external&pg=5&id=ED146841','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+study+AND+external&pg=5&id=ED146841"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Dip</span>. H.E. Coombe Lodge Report, Study Confererence 74/43.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).</p> <p></p> <p>Papers presented on the <span class="hlt">Dip</span>. H.E., a two-year course in higher education recently developed in Britain include: the future of higher education (W. Taylor); the colleges of education perspective on the <span class="hlt">Dip</span>. H.E. (N. Payne); the colleges of further education perspective (W. Bosley); the polytechnics perspective (A. Sandbach); validating the diploma…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol6-sec529-1044b.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol6-sec529-1044b.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 529.1044b - Gentamicin solution for <span class="hlt">dipping</span> eggs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in turkeys—(1) Amount. The drug is added to clean water...) Indications for use. As an aid in the reduction or elimination of the following microorganisms from turkey...) Limitations. For use in the <span class="hlt">dipping</span> treatment of turkey-hatching eggs only. Eggs which have been <span class="hlt">dipped</span> in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol5-sec1910-124.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol5-sec1910-124.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1910.124 - General requirements for <span class="hlt">dipping</span> and coating operations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>..., Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems; (ii) NFPA 34-1995, Standard for <span class="hlt">Dip</span>.... (6) When you use mechanical ventilation, each <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank must have an independent exhaust system unless... a system that sounds an alarm and automatically shuts down the operation when the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2894630','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2894630"><span id="translatedtitle">Everyday Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure <span class="hlt">Dipping</span> in Black and White Americans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tomfohr, Lianne; Cooper, Denise C.; Mills, Paul J.; Nelesen, Richard A.; Dimsdale, Joel E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Objective Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) <span class="hlt">dipping</span> is closely linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination have also been associated with negative cardiovascular health outcomes. This study investigated whether an association exists between experiences of everyday discrimination and BP <span class="hlt">dipping</span> in a biracial sample of Black and White adults. Methods Seventy-eight hypertensive and normotensive women and men (30 Black and 48 White) reported on their experiences of everyday discrimination (the Everyday Discrimination Scale) and underwent two separate 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) sessions approximately one week apart. Results Correlation analysis revealed that higher endorsement of everyday discrimination was significantly associated with less diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) <span class="hlt">dipping</span> (p <0.05). Subsequent hierarchical regression analyses indicated that everyday discrimination explained 8-11% of the variance in SBP and DBP <span class="hlt">dipping</span> above and beyond other demographic and lifestyle-related factors including race, age, 24-hour BP, body mass index (BMI), and current socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship between discrimination and <span class="hlt">dipping</span> was significantly stronger on the second night of monitoring. Finally, analyses revealed that everyday discrimination mediated the relationship between race and BP <span class="hlt">dipping</span>. Conclusions These findings suggest that experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with less nocturnal SBP and DBP <span class="hlt">dipping</span> above and beyond the effect of known covariates. The use of multiple ABPM sessions may facilitate the detection of relationships between psychological variables and BP <span class="hlt">dipping</span>. PMID:20124424</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4498976','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4498976"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood Pressure <span class="hlt">Dipping</span> and Urban Stressors in Young Adult African Americans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mellman, Thomas A.; Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Abu-Bader, Soleman H.; Lavela, Joseph; Altaee, Duaa; McLaughlin, Latesha; Randall, Otelio S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (BP) <span class="hlt">dipping</span> is an early marker of cardiovascular risk that is prevalent among African Americans. Purpose We evaluated relationships of BP <span class="hlt">dipping</span> to neighborhood and posttraumatic stress and sleep in urban residing young adult African Americans. Methods One hundred thirty six Black, predominately African American, men and women with a mean age of 22.9 (SD = 4.6) filled out surveys, were interviewed and had two, 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. Results Thirty eight percent had BP <span class="hlt">dipping</span> ratios < .10. Wake after sleep onset (WASO), neighborhood disorder and neighborhood poverty rates but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, and other sleep measures, correlated significantly with <span class="hlt">dipping</span> ratios. Models with the neighborhood measures that also included WASO increased the explained variance. Conclusions Studies elucidating mechanisms underlying effects of neighborhoods on BP <span class="hlt">dipping</span> and the role of disrupted sleep, and how they can be mitigated are important directions for future research. PMID:25623895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PASP..128h2001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PASP..128h2001H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hot</span> Subluminous Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heber, U.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hot</span> subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most <span class="hlt">hot</span> subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span> that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor <span class="hlt">hot</span> subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of <span class="hlt">hot</span> subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. <span class="hlt">Hot</span> subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PASP..128h2001H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PASP..128h2001H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hot</span> Subluminous Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heber, U.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hot</span> subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most <span class="hlt">hot</span> subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span> that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor <span class="hlt">hot</span> subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of <span class="hlt">hot</span> subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. <span class="hlt">Hot</span> subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020081039','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020081039"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dip</span> Spectroscopy of the Low Mass X-Ray Binary XB 1254-690</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smale, Alan P.; Church, M. J.; BalucinskaChurch, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We observed the low mass X-ray binary XB 1254-690 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in 2001 May and December. During the first observation strong <span class="hlt">dipping</span> on the 3.9-hr orbital period and a high degree of variability were observed, along with "shoulders" approx. 15% deep during extended intervals on each side of the main <span class="hlt">dips</span>. The first observation also included pronounced flaring activity. The non-<span class="hlt">dip</span> spectrum obtained using the PCA instrument was well-described by a two-component model consisting of a blackbody with kT = 1.30 +/- 0.10 keV plus a cut-off power law representation of Comptonized emission with power law photon index 1.10 +/- 0.46 and a cut-off energy of 5.9(sup +3.0, sub -1.4) keV. The intensity decrease in the shoulders of <span class="hlt">dipping</span> is energy-independent, consistent with electron scattering in the outer ionized regions of the absorber. In deep <span class="hlt">dipping</span> the depth of <span class="hlt">dipping</span> reached 100%, in the energy band below 5 keV, indicating that all emitting regions were covered by absorber. Intensity-selected <span class="hlt">dip</span> spectra were well-fit by a model in which the point-like blackbody is rapidly covered, while the extended Comptonized emission is progressively overlapped by the absorber, with the, covering fraction rising to 95% in the deepest portion of the <span class="hlt">dip</span>. The intensity of this component in the <span class="hlt">dip</span> spectra could be modeled by a combination of electron scattering and photoelectric absorption. <span class="hlt">Dipping</span> did not occur during the 2001 December observation, but remarkably, both bursting and flaring were observed contemporaneously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=130732','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=130732"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Dip</span>Streak, a New Device with an Original Streaking Mechanism for Detection, Counting, and Presumptive Identification of Urinary Tract Pathogens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scarparo, Claudio; Piccoli, Paola; Ricordi, Paolo; Scagnelli, Mariuccia</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dip</span>Streak is a new urine culture device with two types of agar attached back-to-back on a plastic paddle. It combines <span class="hlt">dip</span>-slide technology and an original streaking inoculation mechanism, allowing for bacterial counting and colony isolation. The performance of the <span class="hlt">Dip</span>Streak device with two different medium formulations, CHROMagar and MacConkey media in study A and UriSelect 3 and MacConkey media in study B, was evaluated and compared to that of the reference streak method by using plates of cystine-lactose-electrolyte-deficient (CLED) agar, tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood, and UriSelect 3 medium. In study A, 2,000 urine specimens were <span class="hlt">processed</span> and 511 cultures were found positive. The <span class="hlt">Dip</span>Streak device and the UriSelect 3 and CLED medium plates gave the same detection rate, 99.7%. For the direct identification of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus sp. isolates, the <span class="hlt">Dip</span>Streak device and the UriSelect 3 medium plate showed overall sensitivities of 97 and 93.4%, respectively. In study B, 3,000 urine specimens were <span class="hlt">processed</span> and 714 cultures were found positive. The <span class="hlt">Dip</span>Streak device and the UriSelect 3 and CLED medium plates gave detection rates of 99.4, 99.9, and 99.2%, respectively. For the direct identification of E. coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus sp. isolates, the <span class="hlt">Dip</span>Streak device and the UriSelect 3 medium plate showed overall sensitivities of 88 and 94.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the <span class="hlt">Dip</span>Streak device with both medium formulations represents an attractive and excellent screening method for the reliable detection, counting, and presumptive identification of urinary tract pathogens. It enables bedside urine inoculation and provides a valid means of transporting the sample back to the laboratory, decreasing drastically the rate of false-positive results due to bacterial overgrowth and reducing associated costs. PMID:12037082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27071761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27071761"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI-MS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-APCI and the developed <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI principle. PMID:27071761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27071761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27071761"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI-MS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-APCI and the developed <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the <span class="hlt">DIP</span>-ESI principle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EOSTr..80..248C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EOSTr..80..248C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Deep <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Biosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Craig, Harmon</p> <p></p> <p>The first inhabitants of planet Earth were single-celled microorganisms and they are still with us today. Their name is truly legion, for they live everywhere, from boiling <span class="hlt">hot</span> springs at the Earth's surface and on the seafloor to the coldest waters of the oceans and the Antarctic lakes. They are the masters of evolutionary adaptation, who have colonized the entire range of conditions under which water can exist as a liquid. At some ancient mythic time billions of years ago in a witches' brew of precursory molecules, somewhere, somehow, on a sunny Precambrian day bright with promise some of these molecules came together in the first coupling, learned to replicate, create enzymes, metabolize, and seal themselves into protective membranes inside of which they began the <span class="hlt">process</span> of living. How they did this is our greatest mystery, for they are our primordial ancestors and we do not understand ourselves until we understand them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6959E..0IH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6959E..0IH"><span id="translatedtitle">Commercially available high-throughput <span class="hlt">Dip</span> Pen Nanolithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haaheim, J. R.; Tevaarwerk, E. R.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dip</span> Pen Nanolithography ® (DPN ®) is an inherently additive SPM-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. Massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning with DPN is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray TM, making DPN a high-throughput, flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. By fabricating 55,000 tip-cantilevers across a 1 cm2 chip, we leverage the inherent versatility of DPN and demonstrate large area surface coverage, routinely achieving throughputs of 3x10 7 μm2 per hour. Further, we have engineered the device to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with the NSCRIPTOR's scanner, stage, and sophisticated lithography routines. In this talk we discuss the methods of operating this commercially available device, subsequent results showing sub-100 nm feature sizes and excellent uniformity (standard deviation < 16%), and our continuing development work. Simultaneous multiplexed deposition of a variety of molecules is a fundamental goal of massively parallel 2D nanopatterning, and we will discuss our progress on this front, including ink delivery methods, tip coating, and patterning techniques to generate combinatorial libraries of nanoscale patterns. Another fundamental challenge includes planar leveling of the 2D nano PrintArray, and herein we describe our successful implementation of device viewports and integrated software leveling routines that monitor cantilever deflection to achieve planarity and uniform surface contact. Finally, we will discuss the results of 2D nanopatterning applications such as: 1) rapidly and flexibly generating nanostructures; 2) chemically directed assembly and 3) directly writing biological materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T31C2901C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T31C2901C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dip</span>-dependent variations in LFE duration during ETS events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chestler, S.; Creager, K.; Ghosh, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Using data from the Array of Arrays experiment, we create a new, more spatially complete catalog of LFEs beneath the Olympic Peninsula, WA. Using stacked waveforms produced by stacking 1-minute windows of data from each array over the slowness with the greatest power [Ghosh et al., 2012], we pick out peaks in tremor activity that are consistent over multiple arrays. These peaks are potential LFE detections. Fifteen-second windows of raw data centered on each peak are scanned through time. If the waveform repeats, the detection is used as a new LFE family. Template waveforms for each family are created by stacking all windows that correlate with the initial detection. During an ETS event, activity at a given point on the plate interface (i.e. the activity of an LFE family) typically lasts for 3.5 (downdip) to 5 days (updip). Activity generally begins with a flurry of LFEs lasting 8 hours (downdip) to 20 hours (updip) followed by many short bursts of activity separated by 5 hours or more. Updip families have more bursts (5-10) than downdip families (2-5 bursts). The later bursts often occur during times of encouraging tidal shear stress, while the initial flurries have no significant correlation with tides. While updip LFE families are more active during ETS events than downdip families, they seldom light up between ETS events, which only occur every 12-14 months. On the other hand, downdip LFE families are active much more frequently during the year; the most down-<span class="hlt">dip</span> families exhibit activity every week or so. Because updip families are rarely active between ETS events, it is possible that little stress is released updip during inter-ETS time periods. Hence during ETS events more stress needs to be released updip than downdip, consistent with the longer-duration activity of updip LFE families.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MSMSE..19f5008W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MSMSE..19f5008W"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of deposition of ink molecules on rough substrates in <span class="hlt">dip</span>-pen nanolithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Cheng-Da; Fang, Te-Hua</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The pattern transfer mechanism of an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on various rough surfaces during the <span class="hlt">dip</span>-pen nanolithography (DPN) <span class="hlt">process</span> and pattern characterizations are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The mechanisms of molecular transference, alkanethiol meniscus characteristics, surface adsorbed energy, number of molecular transfer, contact angle and pattern characteristics are evaluated during the DPN <span class="hlt">process</span> at room temperature. The simulation results clearly show that the molecular transfer ability in DPN is optimum for deposition on a smooth surface, because surface defects create a potential diffusion barrier for the control of the spreading of excess ink molecules. The adsorbed area of SAMs, number of molecular transfer and pattern size are significantly inversely proportional to the degrees of roughness of a substrate. The adsorbed area of SAMs is increased by the pull-off <span class="hlt">process</span> and the growth rate of adsorbed area is about 11-38%. The effect of surface roughness on the DPN <span class="hlt">process</span> can be decreased by increasing the indentation depth of a tip.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.........8I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.........8I"><span id="translatedtitle">HZ Her/Her X-1: Study of the light curve <span class="hlt">dips</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Igna, Ciprian Dacian</p> <p></p> <p>The HZ Her/Her X-1 X-ray binary exhibits rapid and variable X-ray absorption features. These were noticed soon after the discovery of its periodic flux variations, such as X-ray pulsations and eclipses, and were named light curve <span class="hlt">dips</span> by Giacconi et al. 1973. Their properties were analyzed, debated and documented ever since. The largest existing set of detailed observations of Her X-1 are contained in the data archive of NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)/Proportional Counter Array (PCA). From this entire light curve, several hundred new light curve <span class="hlt">dips</span> were documented, based on X-ray Softness Ratio (SR), making this thesis the most extensive study of HZ Her/Her X-1's <span class="hlt">dips</span> to date. The <span class="hlt">dips</span> were classified into 12 different categories in order to study their statistical distribution, intensity, duration, symmetry and SR evolution. Some <span class="hlt">dips</span> properties depend on Her X-1's 35-day X-ray cycle, which is caused by the precessing disk around the neutron star. The 35-day phase of <span class="hlt">dips</span> was determined using Turn-On (TO) times calculated from the February 1996 - December 2009 RXTE/All Sky Monitor (ASM) light curve. 147 TOs were found by cross-correlation with X-ray cycle templates, and the 22 Burst and Transient Source Experiment TOs were confirmed. Thus this study also has the longest time period yet for the analysis of the 35-day X-ray cycle. The set of 147 TOs does not correlate with 0.2 or 0.7 orbital phases, disproving the reports over the past 30 years. The ASM-based 35-day cycle lengths range from 33.2 to 36.7 days, with an average of 34.7 +/- 0.2 days. The observed timing of <span class="hlt">dips</span> is illustrated in the 35-day phase vs. orbital phase plot, and compared to models. The current large set of <span class="hlt">dips</span> gives much better detail than that of Crosa & Boynton 1980. A model for <span class="hlt">dips</span> is developed here, which takes <span class="hlt">dips</span> to be caused by blockage of the line of sight to the neutron star by the site of the accretion stream - disk collision. An extensive investigation of the model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16702295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16702295"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficacy of two barrier iodine teat <span class="hlt">dips</span> under natural exposure conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foret, C; Agüero, H; Janowicz, P</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>The efficacy of 2 iodine barrier teat <span class="hlt">dips</span> was compared with a conventional iodine postmilking teat <span class="hlt">dip</span>. The products were evaluated using a natural exposure trial on a 250-cow dairy based on the National Mastitis Council guidelines. Bacteriological samples were taken every 2 wk over 6 mo. All <span class="hlt">dips</span> contained 1.0% available iodine and high levels of free iodine for germicidal efficacy. Barrier 1 was an experimental <span class="hlt">dip</span> containing 14 to 20 ppm of free iodine, barrier 2 contained 8 to 14 ppm of free iodine, and the nonbarrier control contained 12 to 16 ppm of free iodine. The average free iodine for barrier 1 and barrier 2 combined was 14 ppm, which was equal to the average free iodine for the positive control. A 21% reduction of new intramammary infections (IMI) was observed for the 2 barrier <span class="hlt">dips</span> combined when compared with the nonbarrier control. A significant reduction of 38% was observed for the clinical infection rate for barrier 1 when compared with barrier 2; however, barrier 1 did not significantly reduce the subclinical IMI when compared with barrier 2. Barrier 1 significantly reduced the combined clinical and subclinical IMI by 24% when compared with the positive control. The skin condition showed slight variation among the <span class="hlt">dips</span> over the course of the trial, but no difference was observed at the end of the trial. Barrier 1, with the highest concentration of free iodine, gave the best efficacy results of all 3 <span class="hlt">dips</span>. PMID:16702295</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...715618U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...715618U"><span id="translatedtitle">A diffusive ink transport model for lipid <span class="hlt">dip</span>-pen nanolithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urtizberea, A.; Hirtz, M.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Despite diverse applications, phospholipid membrane stacks generated by <span class="hlt">dip</span>-pen nanolithography (DPN) still lack a thorough and systematic characterization that elucidates the whole ink transport <span class="hlt">process</span> from writing to surface spreading, with the aim of better controlling the resulting feature size and resolution. We report a quantitative analysis and modeling of the dependence of lipid DPN features (area, height and volume) on dwell time and relative humidity. The ink flow rate increases with humidity in agreement with meniscus size growth, determining the overall feature size. The observed time dependence indicates the existence of a balance between surface spreading and the ink flow rate that promotes differences in concentration at the meniscus/substrate interface. Feature shape is controlled by the substrate surface energy. The results are analyzed within a modified model for the ink transport of diffusive inks. At any humidity the dependence of the area spread on the dwell time shows two diffusion regimes: at short dwell times growth is controlled by meniscus diffusion while at long dwell times surface diffusion governs the <span class="hlt">process</span>. The critical point for the switch of regime depends on the humidity.Despite diverse applications, phospholipid membrane stacks generated by <span class="hlt">dip</span>-pen nanolithography (DPN) still lack a thorough and systematic characterization that elucidates the whole ink transport <span class="hlt">process</span> from writing to surface spreading, with the aim of better controlling the resulting feature size and resolution. We report a quantitative analysis and modeling of the dependence of lipid DPN features (area, height and volume) on dwell time and relative humidity. The ink flow rate increases with humidity in agreement with meniscus size growth, determining the overall feature size. The observed time dependence indicates the existence of a balance between surface spreading and the ink flow rate that promotes differences in concentration at the meniscus</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5985734','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5985734"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. <span class="hlt">Process</span> and plant design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p>An investigation was performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating a geothermally heated, biomass, motor fuel alcohol plant at Brady's <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Springs. The results of the study are positive, showing that a plant of innovative, yet proven design can be built to adapt current commerical fermentation-distillation technology to the application of geothermal heat energy. The specific method of heat production from the Brady's <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spring wells has been successful for some time at an onion drying plant. Further development of the geothermal resource to add the capacity needed for an ethanol plant is found to be feasible for a plant sized to produce 10 million gallons of motor fuel grade ethanol per year. A very adequate supply of feedgrains is found to be available for use in the plant without impact on the local or regional feedgrain market. The effect of diverting supplies from the animal feedlots in Northern Nevada and California will be mitigated by the by-product output of high-protein feed supplements that the plant will produce. The plant will have a favorable impact on the local farming economies of Fallon, Lovelock, Winnemucca and Elko, Nevada. It will make a positive and significant socioeconomic contribution to Churchill County, providing direct employment for an additional 61 persons. Environmental impact will be negligible, involving mostly a moderate increase in local truck traffic and railroad siding activity. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 deals with the technical design aspects of the plant. The second volume addresses the issue of expanded geothermal heat production at Brady's <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Springs, goes into the details of feedstock supply economics, and looks at the markets for the plant's primary ethanol product, and the markets for its feed supplement by-products. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic viability of the proposed project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARL18004W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARL18004W"><span id="translatedtitle">Electric Field-Assisted <span class="hlt">Dip</span>-Pen Nanolithography on P4VP Polymer Films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaohua; Uppalapati, Suji; Wang, Xin; Fernandez, Rodolfo; Yan, Mingdi; La Rosa, Andres</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dip</span>-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) has attracted increased attention in recent years for its ability to generate nanometer-scale patterns on solid surface using an `ink'-coated atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. Herein we develop a modified DPN modality for creating nanostructures on Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) polymer film, which exploits the mechanical swelling response of the substrate. The underlying working principle consists in delivering acidic ions onto polymer films to very locally trigger the protonation of the polymer film, causing the latter to swell. An AFM tip coated with phosphate buffer solution of pH 4 is used for the patterning <span class="hlt">process</span>. More importantly, a reliable strategy results when applying an electric field between the AFM tip and polymer substrate to control the protonation <span class="hlt">process</span>. We demonstrate the capability of the electric field-assisted DPN technique for reproducibly and reliably fabricating nanostructures originated from the swelling response of P4VP polymer. Our study includes a systematic pattern fabrication under different pattering parameters (applied bias and contact force), and provides evidence on the reversible character of the <span class="hlt">process</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25287353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25287353"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome-wide analysis of methylation in bovine clones by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiefer, Hélène</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span>), when coupled to high-throughput sequencing or microarray hybridization, allows for the identification of methylated loci at a genome-wide scale. Genomic regions affected by incomplete reprogramming after nuclear transfer can potentially be delineated by comparing the Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span> profiles of bovine clones and non-clones. This chapter presents a Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span> protocol largely inspired from Mohn and colleagues (Mohn et al., Methods Mol Biol 507:55-64, 2009), with PCR primers specific for cattle, and when possible, overviews of experimental designs adapted to the comparison between clones and non-clones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8934778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8934778"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Dip</span>-shaped hearing loss of Békésy audiogram in high school students].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Inoue, Y; Inoue, T; Tanaka, Y</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Small <span class="hlt">dip</span>-shaped hearing loss may be frequently observed on Bekesy audiograms in ears without any hearing loss on pure tone audiograms. Hearing tests and otoacoustic emission measurements were performed in club member of 2 senior high schools (K-D School and S-D School), in order to determine any relationship between inner ear impairments and the small <span class="hlt">dips</span> on Bekesy audiograms. In the kendo, soccer, tennis and orchestral music clubs of K-D School micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> in depth over 10 dB were found to have incidences between 40% and 53%, and the micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> were distributed in frequencies above 5 kHz. In the of kendo, tennis, brass band and tea ceremony clubs of S-D School the incidences of micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> ears were between 30% and 48%, and the micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> tended to be distributed in higher frequencies except in the tea ceremony club. The micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> in the ears of the tea ceremony club members were distributed over all the frequencies examined, but most of them disappeared when counted for <span class="hlt">dip</span> size above 15 dB remaining an ear at 7.5 kHz. Incidences of earphone or headphone users as a hobby were in the range of 30 to 70% in members of all clubs. There were no characteristic findings of clubs in the incidences of the earphone or headphone users. The degree of association between the micro-<span class="hlt">dip</span> ears and the use of earphone or headphone was low. C-EOAEs which had a 6 ms or longer duration of evoked otoacoustic emissions were detected with an incidence of 40 to 65% and there was a significant association between the micro-<span class="hlt">dip</span> ears and the C-EOAE ears. Incidences of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were between 26% and 28% in all clubs and there were differences in the incidences between sexes. The frequency distribution of the spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were remarkably different to that of the micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span>. To determine whether the C-EOAEs express a predisposition to inner ear susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss and to ascertain that the micro-<span class="hlt">dip</span> is a precursor notice to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820019316','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820019316"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the impact of <span class="hlt">dipped</span> guideways on urban rail transit systems: Ventilation and safety requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The ventilation and fire safety requirements for subway tunnels with <span class="hlt">dipped</span> profiles between stations as compared to subway tunnels with level profiles were evaluated. This evaluation is based upon computer simulations of a train fire emergency condition. Each of the tunnel configurations evaluated was developed from characteristics that are representative of modern transit systems. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The level tunnel system required about 10% more station cooling than <span class="hlt">dipped</span> tunnel systems in order to meet design requirements; and (2) The emergency ventilation requirements are greater with <span class="hlt">dipped</span> tunnel systems than with level tunnel systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARP34008Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARP34008Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Tunneling Spectral <span class="hlt">Dip</span> Feature in High Tc Cuprates: Experiment and Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zasadzinski, John; Coffey, Liam; Kurter, Cihan; Gray, Ken</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>A fully self-consistent Eliashberg analysis is presented to analyze the spectral <span class="hlt">dip</span> feature observed in tunnel junctions on Bi2212. Methods include SIS break junctions, intrinsic Josephson junctions in mesas and SIN junctions from STM. This analysis is presented for a variety of doping levels and the resulting electron-boson spectral function and self-energy is compared with other spectroscopic probes. Evidence of spectral <span class="hlt">dip</span> features in other high Tc cuprates is presented including Tl2212 to demonstrate the universality of the spectral <span class="hlt">dip</span> and its relation to the mechanism of pairing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8934778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8934778"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Dip</span>-shaped hearing loss of Békésy audiogram in high school students].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Inoue, Y; Inoue, T; Tanaka, Y</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Small <span class="hlt">dip</span>-shaped hearing loss may be frequently observed on Bekesy audiograms in ears without any hearing loss on pure tone audiograms. Hearing tests and otoacoustic emission measurements were performed in club member of 2 senior high schools (K-D School and S-D School), in order to determine any relationship between inner ear impairments and the small <span class="hlt">dips</span> on Bekesy audiograms. In the kendo, soccer, tennis and orchestral music clubs of K-D School micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> in depth over 10 dB were found to have incidences between 40% and 53%, and the micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> were distributed in frequencies above 5 kHz. In the of kendo, tennis, brass band and tea ceremony clubs of S-D School the incidences of micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> ears were between 30% and 48%, and the micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> tended to be distributed in higher frequencies except in the tea ceremony club. The micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span> in the ears of the tea ceremony club members were distributed over all the frequencies examined, but most of them disappeared when counted for <span class="hlt">dip</span> size above 15 dB remaining an ear at 7.5 kHz. Incidences of earphone or headphone users as a hobby were in the range of 30 to 70% in members of all clubs. There were no characteristic findings of clubs in the incidences of the earphone or headphone users. The degree of association between the micro-<span class="hlt">dip</span> ears and the use of earphone or headphone was low. C-EOAEs which had a 6 ms or longer duration of evoked otoacoustic emissions were detected with an incidence of 40 to 65% and there was a significant association between the micro-<span class="hlt">dip</span> ears and the C-EOAE ears. Incidences of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were between 26% and 28% in all clubs and there were differences in the incidences between sexes. The frequency distribution of the spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were remarkably different to that of the micro-<span class="hlt">dips</span>. To determine whether the C-EOAEs express a predisposition to inner ear susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss and to ascertain that the micro-<span class="hlt">dip</span> is a precursor notice to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......213M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......213M"><span id="translatedtitle">Rational fabrication of nanostructures on surfaces using <span class="hlt">Dip</span>-Pen nanolithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maynor, Benjamin Waltz</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Dip</span>-Pen Nanolithography (DPN), an atomic force microscope (AFM) based lithography technique, has been used to create rationally-patterned nanostructures on surfaces from a variety of materials. In DPN, a molecule is coated onto an AFM tip and directly transferred from the tip to an appropriate surface, where it is immobilized on the surface through ink-substrate chemical or physical interactions. Because the AFM tip is a nanosized instrument, DPN is capable of easily producing sub-100 nm nanostructures of molecules that are pre-coated onto the tip. Prior to this work, it had been demonstrated that DPN patterning requires immobilization of a compound on a surface, such as through gold-thiol or silicon-oxygen covalent bonds. In this work, DPN patterning has been extended to other systems by expanding the range of chemical interactions that can be used to immobilize compounds onto surfaces. Covalent chemical interactions between alkylphosphonic acid monolayers and alumina and titania have been used to facilitate patterning on these surfaces and specific oxidation-reduction chemistry has been used to pattern gold nanostructures on silicon surfaces. A related AFM lithography <span class="hlt">process</span>, Electrochemical <span class="hlt">Dip</span>-Pen Nanolithography (E-DPN), has been developed that is capable of fabricating nanostructures on conducting and insulating surfaces. E-DPN is unique because it does not require a specific molecule-surface chemical reaction to immobilize the nanostructures; instead, E-DPN uses an external bias voltage to chemically change tip-applied precursors to immobile surface-adsorbed nanostructures. This <span class="hlt">process</span> is conceptually similar to the well-known <span class="hlt">processes</span> of electrodeposition or electropolymerization. E-DPN has been used to fabricate metallic, semiconducting, and conducting polymer nanostructures on semiconducting, insulating, and metallic surfaces. E-DPN has also been used for the site-specific fabrication of conducting polymer nanodevices. The properties of these devices</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/563209','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/563209"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot Removal System: System description</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot Removal System. Removing the <span class="hlt">hot</span> spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective <span class="hlt">process</span>/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DDA....4710101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DDA....4710101B"><span id="translatedtitle">Origins of <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Jupiters, Revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Greg</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hot</span> Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods less than ~10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances (a > 2AU) in protoplanetary disks, only to subsequently experience large-scale inward migration to the small orbital radii at which they are observed. Here, we propose that a substantial fraction of the <span class="hlt">hot</span> Jupiter population forms in situ, with the Galactically prevalent short-period super-Earths acting as the source population. Our calculations suggest that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated for solid cores of 10-20 Earth masses, in line with the conventional picture of core-nucleated accretion. The planetary conglomeration <span class="hlt">process</span>, coupled with subsequent gravitational contraction and spin down of the host star, drives sweeping secular resonances through the system, increasing the mutual inclinations of exterior, low-mass companions to <span class="hlt">hot</span> Jupiters. Accordingly, this formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that <span class="hlt">hot</span> Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional non-transiting planets, reminiscent of those observed in large numbers by NASA’s Kepler Mission and Doppler velocity surveys. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/349196','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/349196"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced <span class="hlt">hot</span> gas filter development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McMahon, T.J.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Advanced coal-based power generation systems require <span class="hlt">hot</span> gas cleanup under high-temperature, high-pressure <span class="hlt">process</span> conditions in order to realize high efficiency and superior environmental performance. A key component of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion systems is the <span class="hlt">hot</span> gas filtration system, which removes particulate matter from the gas stream before it enters the gas turbine. The US DOE is currently sponsoring a program to develop and test <span class="hlt">hot</span> gas filtration systems, demonstrating their reliability and commercial readiness. Reliability of individual filter elements is a major factor in determining the overall system reliability, and testing has shown that conventional ceramic filter elements are subject to brittle failure and thermal stress damage. In order to increase filter element reliability, a program was initiated to develop ceramic and metal filter elements resistant to brittle failure and thermal stress damage. Filter elements have been developed using advanced materials including continuous fiber ceramic composites, other novel ceramics, and corrosion resistant metals. The general approach taken under this program has been to first develop porous filter media from advanced materials that meet permeability and strength requirements, followed by fabrication of porous media into full scale filter elements. Filter elements and filter media were subjected to laboratory scale corrosion and filtration testing. Filter elements successfully passing laboratory testing have been tested under pilot scale conditions. This paper will summarize the development and testing of these advanced <span class="hlt">hot</span> gas filters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16137869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16137869"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of pressurized carbon dioxide as a temporary plasticizer and foaming agent on the <span class="hlt">hot</span> stage extrusion <span class="hlt">process</span> and extrudate properties of solid dispersions of itraconazole with PVP-VA 64.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verreck, Geert; Decorte, Annelies; Heymans, Koen; Adriaensen, Jef; Cleeren, Dirk; Jacobs, Adri; Liu, Dehua; Tomasko, David; Arien, Albertina; Peeters, Jef; Rombaut, Patrick; Van den Mooter, Guy; Brewster, Marcus E</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The aim of the current research project was to explore the possibilities of combining pressurized carbon dioxide with <span class="hlt">hot</span> stage extrusion during manufacturing of solid dispersions of itraconazole and polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate 64 (PVP-VA 64) and to evaluate the ability of the pressurized gas to act as a temporary plasticizer as well as to produce a foamed extrudate. Pressurized carbon dioxide was injected into a Leistritz Micro 18 intermeshing co-rotating twin-screw melt extruder using an ISCO 260D syringe pump. The physicochemical characteristics of the extrudates with and without injection of carbon dioxide were evaluated with reference to the morphology of the solid dispersion and dissolution behaviour and particle properties. Carbon dioxide acted as plasticizer for itraconazole/PVP-VA 64, reducing the <span class="hlt">processing</span> temperature during the <span class="hlt">hot</span> stage extrusion <span class="hlt">process</span>. Amorphous dispersions were obtained and the solid dispersion was not influenced by the carbon dioxide. Release of itraconazole from the solid dispersion could be controlled as a function of <span class="hlt">processing</span> temperature and pressure. The macroscopic morphology changed to a foam-like structure due to expansion of the carbon dioxide at the extrusion die. This resulted in increased specific surface area, porosity, hygroscopicity and improved milling efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20015562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20015562"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the <span class="hlt">hot</span>-fill water-spray-cooling <span class="hlt">process</span> after continuous pasteurization on the number of decimal reductions and on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 growth in orange juice stored at 35 degrees C.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spinelli, Ana Cláudia N F; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Pacheco-Sanchez, Cristiana P; Massaguer, Pilar R</p> <p>2010-02-28</p> <p>In this study, the influence of the <span class="hlt">hot</span>-fill water-spray-cooling <span class="hlt">process</span> after continuous pasteurization on the number of decimal reductions (gamma) and growth parameters (lag time; lambda, ratio N(f)/N(o); kappa, maximum growth rate; mu) of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 in orange juice stored at 35 degrees C were investigated. Two different inoculum levels of A. acidoterrestris CRA 7152 (10(2) and 10(3) spores/mL) in orange juice (11(0)Brix, pH 3.7) and a Microthermics UHT-HTST pilot plant were used to simulate industrial conditions. Results have shown that regardless of the inoculum level (10(2) or 10(3) spores/mL), the pasteurization <span class="hlt">processes</span> were unable to cause even 1 gamma. Predictive modeling using the Baranyi model showed that only kappa and time to reach 10(4)spores/mL (t10(4) - time to juice spoilage) were affected by the spore inoculum used (p<0.05). It has been concluded that A. acidoterrestris was able to survive the <span class="hlt">hot</span>-fill <span class="hlt">process</span> and to grow and spoil orange juice in 5-6 days when the final storage temperature was 35 degrees C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OptLT..53...51E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OptLT..53...51E"><span id="translatedtitle">Modal dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fibers encompass a central <span class="hlt">dip</span> in the core index profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El-Diasty, Fouad; El-Hennawi, H. A.; El-Ghandoor, H.; Soliman, Mona A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Intermodal and intramodal dispersions signify one of the problems in graded-index multi-mode optical fibers (GRIN) used for LAN communication systems and for sensing applications. A central index <span class="hlt">dip</span> (depression) in the profile of core refractive-index may occur due to the CVD fabrication <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The index <span class="hlt">dip</span> may also be intentionally designed to broaden the fundamental mode field profile toward a plateau-like distribution, which have advantages for fiber-source connections, fiber amplifiers and self-imaging applications. Effect of core central index <span class="hlt">dip</span> on the propagation parameters of GRIN fiber, such as intermodal dispersion, intramodal dispersion and root-mean-square broadening, is investigated. The conventional methods usually study optical signal propagation in optical fiber in terms of mode characteristics and the number of modes, but in this work multiple-beam Fizeau interferometry is proposed as an inductive but alternative methodology to afford a radial approach to determine dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fiber having a central index <span class="hlt">dip</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5058081','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5058081"><span id="translatedtitle">Strike-<span class="hlt">dip</span> determination of fractures in drill cores by an astatic-magnetometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hayashi, M.; Furutani, N.</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>The strike and <span class="hlt">dip</span> of fractures in drillcores from Well HT-4 drilled in the Hatchobaru geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan, have been determined using an astatic-magnetometer. Since the drill cores consist mainly of younger andesite lavas, the measurements of the declination and inclination of remnant magnetism should yield the strike and <span class="hlt">dip</span> of the fractures. The results show that they <span class="hlt">dip</span> generally southward with angles from 40/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ (62.5 on the average), and strike NW-SE or NE-SW. The NW-SE trending fractures predominate in the Pleistocene series, which persists at depths shallower than 1000 m, while the NE-SW trending ones occur in the Neogene system at deeper levels, and are considered to be older than the former. The stress field can also be estimated by the strike-<span class="hlt">dip</span> data and the direction of lineation on a slickenside.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012xmm..prop...34R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012xmm..prop...34R"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the unusual X-ray <span class="hlt">dipping</span> in the luminous Seyfert galaxy Fairall 9</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, Christopher</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>RXTE monitoring of the AGN Fairall 9 (F9) reveals extremely unusual X-ray variability. Instead of the flare-like lightcurve shown by most AGN, F9 shows slow modulations punctuated by short (<15 day), deep <span class="hlt">dips</span>. If due to absorption, the obscurer must be Compton-thick, partially cover the X-ray source, and exist in a pristine environment. If due to accretion instabilities, it implies violent disruption of the inner disk. Here, we propose triggered XMM-Newton observations of F9 of the <span class="hlt">dip</span>-state and the post- <span class="hlt">dip</span> state, triggering from a Swift monitoring campaign proposed for Swift/ Cycle-9. XMM-Newton spectroscopy of these unusual <span class="hlt">dips</span> is guaranteed to yield new insights into the circumnuclear environment and/or accretion physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6747046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6747046"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of linear dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid as a teat <span class="hlt">dip</span> in a commercial dairy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pankey, J W; Boddie, R L; Philpot, W N</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>A postmilking teat <span class="hlt">dip</span> containing 1.94% linear dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid was evaluated for approximately 6 mo on a commercial dairy farm that milked an average of 75 cows. Sixteen Staphylococcus aureus infections were diagnosed, 12 in the undipped control quarters and 4 in the <span class="hlt">dipped</span>. Incidence of intramammary infection with Staphylococcus aureus was reduced 68.1%. Seventy-five infections were diagnosed as micrococci, 42 in control and 33 in the <span class="hlt">dipped</span> group, a 23.6% reduction. A total of 37 Corynebacterium sp. infections were diagnosed, 21 and 16 in control and <span class="hlt">dipped</span> groups, a 25.8% reduction. Teat skin condition did not change during the study. PMID:6747046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanic+AND+activity&pg=2&id=EJ317376','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanic+AND+activity&pg=2&id=EJ317376"><span id="translatedtitle">The Earth's <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vink, Gregory E.; And Others</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hot</span> spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of <span class="hlt">hot</span> spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=off+AND+road&pg=3&id=EJ722766','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=off+AND+road&pg=3&id=EJ722766"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot at Yellowstone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dress, Abby</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Within this huge national park (over two million acres spread across Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) are steaming geysers, <span class="hlt">hot</span> springs, bubbling mudpots, and fumaroles, or steam vents. Drives on the main roads of Yellowstone take tourists through the major <span class="hlt">hot</span> attractions, which also include Norris Geyser Basin, Upper and Lower Geyser Basin, West…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26267408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26267408"><span id="translatedtitle">A diffusive ink transport model for lipid <span class="hlt">dip</span>-pen nanolithography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Urtizberea, A; Hirtz, M</p> <p>2015-10-14</p> <p>Despite diverse applications, phospholipid membrane stacks generated by <span class="hlt">dip</span>-pen nanolithography (DPN) still lack a thorough and systematic characterization that elucidates the whole ink transport <span class="hlt">process</span> from writing to surface spreading, with the aim of better controlling the resulting feature size and resolution. We report a quantitative analysis and modeling of the dependence of lipid DPN features (area, height and volume) on dwell time and relative humidity. The ink flow rate increases with humidity in agreement with meniscus size growth, determining the overall feature size. The observed time dependence indicates the existence of a balance between surface spreading and the ink flow rate that promotes differences in concentration at the meniscus/substrate interface. Feature shape is controlled by the substrate surface energy. The results are analyzed within a modified model for the ink transport of diffusive inks. At any humidity the dependence of the area spread on the dwell time shows two diffusion regimes: at short dwell times growth is controlled by meniscus diffusion while at long dwell times surface diffusion governs the <span class="hlt">process</span>. The critical point for the switch of regime depends on the humidity. PMID:26267408</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22651696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22651696"><span id="translatedtitle">Vapor phase polymerization of EDOT from submicrometer scale oxidant patterned by <span class="hlt">dip</span>-pen nanolithography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Connell, Cathal D; Higgins, Michael J; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Some of the most exciting recent advances in conducting polymer synthesis have centered around the method of vapor phase polymerization (VPP) of thin films. However, it is not known whether the VPP <span class="hlt">process</span> can proceed using significantly reduced volumes of oxidant and therefore be implemented as part of nanolithography approach. Here, we present a strategy for submicrometer scale patterning of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) via in situ VPP. Attolitre (10(-18) L) volumes of oxidant "ink" are controllably deposited using <span class="hlt">dip</span>-pen nanolithography (DPN). DPN patterning of the oxidant ink is facilitated by the incorporation of an amphiphilic block copolymer thickener, an additive that also assists with stabilization of the oxidant. When exposed to EDOT monomer in a VPP chamber, each deposited feature localizes the synthesis of conducting PEDOT structures of several micrometers down to 250 nm in width. PEDOT patterns are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), conductive AFM, two probe electrical measurement, and micro-Raman spectroscopy, evidencing in situ vapor phase synthesis of conducting polymer at a scale (picogram) which is much smaller than that previously reported. Although the <span class="hlt">process</span> of VPP on this scale was achieved, we highlight some of the challenges that need to be overcome to make this approach feasible in an applied setting. PMID:22651696</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ar0060.photos.010146p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ar0060.photos.010146p/"><span id="translatedtitle">6. <span class="hlt">HOT</span> AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Springs National ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. <span class="hlt">HOT</span> AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Springs, Garland County, AR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6894964','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6894964"><span id="translatedtitle">Intra-oceanic crustal seismic reflecting zone below the <span class="hlt">dipping</span> reflectors on Lofoten margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sellevoll, M.A.; Mokhtari, M.</p> <p>1988-07-01</p> <p>Multichannel seismic reflection measurements off Lofoten, Northern Norway, show an uneven, discontinuous reflector within the crystalline oceanic crust at a depth of 7-8 s (two-way travel time). This intra-oceanic crustal reflector is observed seaward as well as beneath sub-basement <span class="hlt">dipping</span> reflectors, which are of disputed (oceanic or continental) origin. These observations indicate that the <span class="hlt">dipping</span> reflectors are an integrated part of the oceanic crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9700E..1BZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9700E..1BZ"><span id="translatedtitle">A modified laminar optical tomography system with small <span class="hlt">dip</span>-angle and the initial validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Huijuan; Wang, Shuang; Jia, Mengyu; Chen, Xueying; Qi, Jin; Tian, Jing; Ma, Wenjuan; Li, Jiao; Gao, Feng</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In a typical laminar optical tomography (LOT) system, the <span class="hlt">dip</span>-angle between the incident light (or the emitting light) and the normal of the detection plane randomly changes during raster-scanning. The inconstant <span class="hlt">dip</span>-angle causes consistency between the measurement and the light transportation model where a fixed <span class="hlt">dip</span>-angle of the incident light is generally required. To eliminate the effect from this <span class="hlt">dip</span> angle, methods such as keeping the angle unchangeable by moving the phantom instead of scanning the light were investigated. In this paper, a LOT system with small <span class="hlt">dip</span>-angle over the whole detection range is developed. Simulation and experimental evaluation show that the <span class="hlt">dip</span>-angle of the modified system is much smaller than that of the traditional system. For example, the relative angle between the two incident light at (x=0mm, y=0mm) and (x=0mm, y=2.5mm) on the image plane is about 0.7° for the traditional system while that is only about 0.02° for the modified system. The main parameters of the system are also evaluated and an image reconstruction algorithm is developed based on Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed images show that the spatial resolution and quantitative ratio is improved by the modified system without loss of the scanning speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22linear+algebra%22&id=EJ894161','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22linear+algebra%22&id=EJ894161"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear Algebra and Image <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allali, Mohamed</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We use the computing technology digital image <span class="hlt">processing</span> (<span class="hlt">DIP</span>) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to <span class="hlt">DIP</span> is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJMES..41..725A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJMES..41..725A"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear algebra and image <span class="hlt">processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allali, Mohamed</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We use the computing technology digital image <span class="hlt">processing</span> (<span class="hlt">DIP</span>) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to <span class="hlt">DIP</span> is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10173771','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10173771"><span id="translatedtitle">TRUEX <span class="hlt">hot</span> demonstration. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This <span class="hlt">hot</span> demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX <span class="hlt">process</span> to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX <span class="hlt">process</span>, operation of a TRUEX <span class="hlt">process</span> to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX <span class="hlt">process</span> raffinates, and <span class="hlt">processing</span> and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction <span class="hlt">processing</span> in a shielded-cell facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441573"><span id="translatedtitle">One-Step <span class="hlt">Dipping</span> Method for Covalently Grafting Polymer Films onto a Si Surface from Aqueous Media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Junhong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Wenqi; Cao, Liqiang</p> <p>2016-08-30</p> <p>A facile and one-pot <span class="hlt">dipping</span> method was proposed in this article for the first time to prepare vinylic polymer films on a silicon (Si) surface. This novel <span class="hlt">process</span> was conducted in acidic aqueous media containing 4-nitrobenzene diazonium (NBD) tetrafluoroborate, hydrofluoric acid (HF), and vinylic monomers at room temperature in the open air and without any apparatus requirement. The formation of the polyvinyl film was confirmed by corroborating evidence from ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. The results revealed that both polymers of poorly water soluble methyl methacrylate (MMA) and water-soluble acrylic acid (AA) monomers were covalently grafted onto the Si surface via this simple <span class="hlt">process</span>. The polyvinyl film was composed of polynitrophenyl (PNP) and polyvinyl, where PNP was doped into polyvinyl chains throughout the entire film. From a mechanistic point of view, the simple <span class="hlt">dipping</span> method took advantage of the ability of the NBD cation to be spontaneously reduced at the Si surface at open circuit potential, providing aryl radicals. These radicals can be covalently bonded to the Si surface to form the PNP primer layer. Although the PNP sublayer was thinner and difficult to detect, it was necessary to graft polyvinyl chains. Furthermore, the aryl radicals were used to initiate the polymerization of vinylic monomers. The radical-terminated polyvinyl chains formed in the solution were then added to the aromatic rings of the primer layer to form the expected polyvinyl film. PMID:27441573</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002eso..presP..26.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002eso..presP..26."><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hot</span> Spot Cosmic Accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p> length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " <span class="hlt">hot</span> spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "<span class="hlt">hot</span> spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "<span class="hlt">hot</span> spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary <span class="hlt">processes</span> at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "<span class="hlt">hot</span> spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4589794','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4589794"><span id="translatedtitle">MeSiC: A Model-Based Method for Estimating 5 mC Levels at Single-CpG Resolution from Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-seq</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xiao, Yun; Yu, Fulong; Pang, Lin; Zhao, Hongying; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Guanxiong; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Hongyi; Fan, Huihui; Zhang, Yan; Pang, Bo; Li, Xia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As the fifth base in mammalian genome, 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) is essential for many biological <span class="hlt">processes</span> including normal development and disease. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-seq), which uses anti-5 mC antibodies to enrich for methylated fraction of the genome, is widely used to investigate methylome at a resolution of 100–500 bp. Considering the CpG density-dependent bias and limited resolution of Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-seq, we developed a Random Forest Regression (RFR) model method, MeSiC, to estimate DNA methylation levels at single-base resolution. MeSiC integrated Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-seq signals of CpG sites and their surrounding neighbors as well as genomic features to construct genomic element-dependent RFR models. In the H1 cell line, a high correlation was observed between MeSiC predictions and actual 5 mC levels. Meanwhile, MeSiC enabled to calibrate CpG density-dependent bias of Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-seq signals. Importantly, we found that MeSiC models constructed in the H1 cell line could be used to accurately predict DNA methylation levels for other cell types. Comparisons with methylCRF and MEDIPS showed that MeSiC achieved comparable and even better performance. These demonstrate that MeSiC can provide accurate estimations of 5 mC levels at single-CpG resolution using Me<span class="hlt">DIP</span>-seq data alone. PMID:26424089</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......159W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......159W"><span id="translatedtitle">A study of the <span class="hlt">processes</span> during high temperature oxidation that control surface <span class="hlt">hot</span> shortness in copper-containing low carbon steels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webler, Bryan A.</p> <p></p> <p>Copper is a problematic residual element in electric arc furnace steel production because it leads to "surface <span class="hlt">hot</span> shortness," a cracking defect that occurs during <span class="hlt">hot</span> rolling of steel. The cracking arises from a liquid, copper-rich phase that penetrates into and embrittles the austenite grain boundaries. The liquid forms because copper is nobler than iron and enriches at the oxide/metal interface during oxidation of iron after casting and reheating prior to <span class="hlt">hot</span> rolling. This cracking can be reduced or eliminated by controlling the distribution of the copper-rich layer, i.e. preventing it from penetrating down the austenite grain boundaries. This study investigated the effect of alloy chemistry on the oxidation behavior and copper-rich liquid phase evolution. Alloy compositions were selected such that effects of copper, nickel, and reactive impurities (manganese, aluminum, and silicon) can be isolated. Industrially produced low carbon steels with varying copper, nickel and silicon contents were also studied. Alloys were oxidized in air or water vapor for times up to one hour at 1150°C. Oxidizing heat treatments were conducted in a thermogravimetric setup where the weight change could be measured during oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate in detail the oxide/metal interfaces. The modeling work focused on describing the enrichment and subsequent growth of the copper-rich layer. A fixed grid finite difference model was developed that predicts the evolution of the enriched region from given oxidation kinetics. The model predictions were validated under a variety of conditions using an iron - 0.3 wt% copper alloy. Deviations from the model predictions in these alloys suggest a critical amount of separated copper is necessary for substantial grain boundary penetration to occur and the required amount decreases when the gas contains water vapor. The parabolic oxidation rate for the iron-copper alloy did not differ from that of pure iron, but</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047029&hterms=HR+diagrams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2528HR%2Bdiagrams%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047029&hterms=HR+diagrams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2528HR%2Bdiagrams%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectropolarimetry of <span class="hlt">hot</span>, luminous stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>I review polarimetric observations of presumably single, <span class="hlt">hot</span> luminous stars. The stellar types discussed are OB stars. B(e) supergiants, Luminous Blue Variables (LBV), Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, and type II supernovae (SN). It is shown that variable, intrinsic polarization is a common phenomenon in that part of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram which these stars occupy. However, much observational work remains to be done before we can answer the most basic, statistical questions about the polarimetric properties of different groups of <span class="hlt">hot</span>, luminous stars. Insight into the diagnostic power of polarization observations has been gained, but cannot be exploited without detailed models. Thus, while polarimetric observations do tell us that the mass-loss <span class="hlt">processes</span> of all types of massive stars are time-dependent and anisotropic, the significance that this might have for the accuracy of their stellar parameters and evolutionary paths remains elusive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6556E..0TH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6556E..0TH"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dip</span> Pen Nanolithography: a maturing technology for high-throughput flexible nanopatterning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haaheim, J. R.; Tevaarwerk, E. R.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement for much of current nanoscience research. Further, depositing a wide range of materials as nanoscale features onto diverse surfaces is a challenging requirement for nanoscale <span class="hlt">processing</span> systems. As a high resolution scanning probe-based direct-write technology, <span class="hlt">Dip</span> Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) satisfies and exceeds these fundamental requirements. Herein we specifically describe the massive scalability of DPN with two dimensional probe arrays (the 2D nano PrintArray). In collaboration with researchers at Northwestern University, we have demonstrated massively parallel nanoscale deposition with this 2D array of 55,000 pens on a centimeter square probe chip. (To date, this is the highest cantilever density ever reported.) This enables direct-writing flexible patterns with a variety of molecules, simultaneously generating 55,000 duplicates at the resolution of single-pen DPN. To date, there is no other way to accomplish this kind of patterning at this unprecedented resolution. These advances in high-throughput, flexible nanopatterning point to several compelling applications. The 2D nano PrintArray can cover a square centimeter with nanoscale features and pattern 10 7 μm2 per hour. These features can be solid state nanostructures, metals, or using established templating techniques, these advances enable screening for biological interactions at the level of a few molecules, or even single molecules; this in turn can enable engineering the cell-substrate interface at sub-cellular resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4675084','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4675084"><span id="translatedtitle">Kondo peak splitting and Kondo <span class="hlt">dip</span> induced by a local moment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Niu, Pengbin; Shi, Yun-Long; Sun, Zhu; Nie, Yi-Hang; Luo, Hong-Gang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many features like spin-orbit coupling, bias and magnetic fields applied, and so on, can strongly influence the Kondo effect. One of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting. However, Kondo peak splitting led by a local moment has not been investigated systematically. In this research we study theoretically electronic transport through a single-level quantum dot exchange coupled to a local magnetic moment in the Kondo regime. We focus on the Kondo peak splitting induced by an anisotropic exchange coupling between the quantum dot and the local moment, which shows rich splitting behavior. We consider the cases of a local moment with S = 1/2 and S = 1. The longitudinal (z-component) coupling plays a role of multivalued magnetic fields and the transverse (x, y-components) coupling lifts the degeneracy of the quantum dot, both of which account for the fine Kondo peak splitting structures. The inter-level or intra-level transition <span class="hlt">processes</span> are identified in detail. Moreover, we find a Kondo <span class="hlt">dip</span> at the Fermi level under the proper parameters. The possible experimental observations of these theoretical results should deepen our understanding of Kondo physics. PMID:26658128</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSG....32..523B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSG....32..523B"><span id="translatedtitle">Aspects and origins of fractured <span class="hlt">dip</span>-domain boundaries in folded carbonate rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bazalgette, L.; Petit, J.-P.; Amrhar, M.; Ouanaïmi, H.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>We present comparative field studies in folded areas (Southern France, Moroccan Western Atlas and Abruzzo, Italy) giving new insights into fracture distribution within folded rocks of the shallow brittle crust. We show that the curvature in folds formed in brittle mechanical units is usually accommodated by multiple "<span class="hlt">dip</span>-domain boundaries" (appearing as curvature discontinuities at fold scale) corresponding to relatively narrow and dense fracture zones, striking parallel or slightly oblique to the fold axis. They separate "<span class="hlt">dip</span>-domains" where curvature is absent or moderate. It is shown that the <span class="hlt">dip</span>-domain boundaries (which are obvious in the case of kink folds or box-fold anticlines) are currently present as multiple subtle hinges even when the curvature appears continuous at first sight. The nature of <span class="hlt">dip</span>-domain boundaries is studied: they often cut through the whole thickness of the mechanical units. Their internal structure varies, and a non-exhaustive typology is proposed. For each type, an interpretative kinematic scenario shows how the <span class="hlt">dip</span>-domain boundaries could initiate and develop. We suggest two kinds of origins: (1) they could correspond to the reactivation of inherited, along-strike fracture zones (opening-mode fracture concentrations such as big joints, fracture corridors, inherited faults, etc.); (2) they could be created as mechanical instabilities during the fold formation (syn-folding origin), in particular through small reverse faults. In both cases, early zones of weakness localize the <span class="hlt">dip</span>-domain boundaries, and control the increase in curvature in association with increasing fracture density within the boundary. Because they represent well-defined vertically and axially persistent sub-seismic fracture zones generally limited to the thickness of the folded unit, <span class="hlt">dip</span>-domain boundaries could enhance the axial permeability of folded and fractured reservoirs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930015939','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930015939"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hot</span> corrosion of the B2 nickel aluminides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ellis, David L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion behavior of the B2 nickel aluminides was studied to determine the inherent <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion resistance of the beta nickel aluminides and to develop a mechanism for the <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides. The effects of the prior <span class="hlt">processing</span> of the material, small additions of zirconium, stoichiometry of the materials, and preoxidation of the samples were also examined. Additions of 2, 5, and 15 w/o chromium were used to determine the effect of chromium on the <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides and the minimum amount of chromium necessary for good <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the beta nickel aluminides have inferior inherent <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion resistance despite their excellent oxidation resistance. Prior <span class="hlt">processing</span> and zirconium additions had no discernible effect on the <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion resistance of the alloys. Preoxidation extended the incubation period of the alloys only a few hours and was not considered to be an effective means of stopping <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion. Stoichiometry was a major factor in determining the <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion resistance of the alloys with the higher aluminum alloys having a definitely superior <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the alloys stopped the <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion attack in the alloys tested. From a variety of experimental results, a complex <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion mechanism was proposed. During the early stages of the <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion of these alloys the corrosion is dominated by a local sulphidation/oxidation form of attack. During the intermediate stages of the <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion, the aluminum depletion at the surface leads to a change in the oxidation mechanism from a protective external alumina layer to a mixed nickel-aluminum spinel and nickel oxide that can occur both externally and internally. The material undergoes extensive cracking during the later portions of the <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020087"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of NaCl in flame chemistry, in the deposition <span class="hlt">process</span>, and in its reactions with protective oxides as related to <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Sodium chloride is believed to be the primary source of turbine engine contamination that contributes to <span class="hlt">hot</span> corrosion. The behavior of NaCl-containing aerosols ingested with turbine intake air is very complex; some of the NaCl may vaporize during combustion while some may remain as particulates. The NaCl can lead to Na2SO4 formation by several possible routes or it can contribute to corrosion directly. Hydrogen or oxygen atom reaction with NaCl(c) was shown to result in the release of Na(g). Gaseous NaCl in flames can be partially converted to gaseous Na2SO4 by homogeneous reactions. The remaining gaseous NaCl and other Na-containing molecules can act as sodium carriers for condensate deposition of Na2SO4 on cool surfaces. A frozen boundary layer theory was developed to predict the rates of deposition. The condensed phase NaCl can be converted directly to condensed Na2SO4 by reaction with sulfur oxides and O2. Reaction of gaseous NaCl with Cr2O3 results in the vapor phase transport of chromium by the formation of complex Cr-containing gaseous molecules. Similar gaseous complexes are formed with molybdenum. The presence of gaseous NaCl was shown to affect the oxidation kinetics of Ni-Cr alloys. It also causes changes in the surface morphology of Al2O3 scales formed on Al-containing alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYAZ8PRxZOo','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYAZ8PRxZOo"><span id="translatedtitle">Saturn's <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Plasma Explosions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of <span class="hlt">hot</span> plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003eso..pres....8.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003eso..pres....8."><span id="translatedtitle">Really <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Spectacular VLT Photos Unveil Mysterious Nebulae Summary Quite a few of the most beautiful objects in the Universe are still shrouded in mystery. Even though most of the nebulae of gas and dust in our vicinity are now rather well understood, there are some which continue to puzzle astronomers. This is the case of a small number of unusual nebulae that appear to be the subject of strong heating - in astronomical terminology, they present an amazingly "high degree of excitation". This is because they contain significant amounts of ions, i.e., atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons. Depending on the atoms involved and the number of electrons lost, this <span class="hlt">process</span> bears witness to the strength of the radiation or to the impact of energetic particles. But what are the sources of that excitation? Could it be energetic stars or perhaps some kind of exotic objects inside these nebulae? How do these peculiar objects fit into the current picture of universal evolution? New observations of a number of such unusual nebulae have recently been obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). In a dedicated search for the origin of their individual characteristics, a team of astronomers - mostly from the Institute of Astrophysics & Geophysics in Liège (Belgium) [1] - have secured the first detailed, highly revealing images of four highly ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, only a few hundred thousand light-years away. In three nebulae, they succeeded in identifying the sources of energetic radiation and to eludicate their exceptional properties: some of the hottest, most massive stars ever seen, some of which are double. With masses of more than 20 times that of the Sun and surface temperatures above 90 000 degrees, these stars are truly extreme. PR Photo 09a/03: Nebula around the <span class="hlt">hot</span> star AB7 in the SMC. PR Photo 09b/03: Nebula near the <span class="hlt">hot</span> Wolf-Rayet star BAT99</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5891392','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5891392"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal <span class="hlt">hot</span> water system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dittell, E.W.</p> <p>1983-05-10</p> <p>Geothermal <span class="hlt">hot</span> water system including a <span class="hlt">hot</span> water tank and a warm water tank which are heated independently of each other by a close loop freon system. The closed loop freon system includes a main condenser which heats water for the warm water tank and a super-heated condenser which heats water for the <span class="hlt">hot</span> water tank, and where the freon passes through a water evaporator which is heated by water such as from a well or other suitable source. The water evaporator in the closed loop freon system passes the water through but no environmental change to the water. An electrical circuit including aquastats in the warm water tank connected therethrough controls operation of the closed loop freon system including respective pumps on the super-heated condenser and main condenser for pumping water. Pumps pump water through the main condenser for the warm tank and through the super-heated condenser for the <span class="hlt">hot</span> tank. The system provides for energy conservation in that the head pressure of the compressor is kept in the lower operating ranges as determined by the discharge flow of the main condenser which varies by the head pressure and temperature flow control which varies by temperature. The geothermal <span class="hlt">hot</span> water system uses a least amount of energy in heating the water in the <span class="hlt">hot</span> tank as well as the warm tank.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII5..105A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII5..105A"><span id="translatedtitle">D Geological Outcrop Characterization: Automatic Detection of 3d Planes (azimuth and <span class="hlt">Dip</span>) Using LiDAR Point Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anders, K.; Hämmerle, M.; Miernik, G.; Drews, T.; Escalona, A.; Townsend, C.; Höfle, B.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Terrestrial laser scanning constitutes a powerful method in spatial information data acquisition and allows for geological outcrops to be captured with high resolution and accuracy. A crucial aspect for numerous geologic applications is the extraction of rock surface orientations from the data. This paper focuses on the detection of planes in rock surface data by applying a segmentation algorithm directly to a 3D point cloud. Its performance is assessed considering (1) reduced spatial resolution of data and (2) smoothing in the course of data pre-<span class="hlt">processing</span>. The methodology is tested on simulations of progressively reduced spatial resolution defined by varying point cloud density. Smoothing of the point cloud data is implemented by modifying the neighborhood criteria during normals estima-tion. The considerable alteration of resulting planes emphasizes the influence of smoothing on the plane detection prior to the actual segmentation. Therefore, the parameter needs to be set in accordance with individual purposes and respective scales of studies. Fur-thermore, it is concluded that the quality of segmentation results does not decline even when the data volume is significantly reduced down to 10%. The azimuth and <span class="hlt">dip</span> values of individual segments are determined for planes fit to the points belonging to one segment. Based on these results, azimuth and <span class="hlt">dip</span> as well as strike character of the surface planes in the outcrop are assessed. Thereby, this paper contributes to a fully automatic and straightforward workflow for a comprehensive geometric description of outcrops in 3D.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10183875','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10183875"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dip</span>-moveout error in transversely isotropic media with linear velocity variation in depth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Larner, K.</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>Levin (1990) modeled the moveout, within Common-midpoint (CMP) gathers, of reflections from plane-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> reflectors beneath homogeneous, transversely isotropic media. For some media, when the axis of symmetry for the anisotropy was vertical, he found departures in stacking velocity from predictions based upon the familiar cosine-of-<span class="hlt">dip</span> correction for isotropic media. Here, I do similar tests, again with transversely isotropic models with vertical axis of symmetry, but now allowing the medium velocity to vary linearly with depth. Results for the same four anisotropic media studied by Levin show behavior of <span class="hlt">dip</span>-corrected stacking velocity with reflector <span class="hlt">dip</span> that, for all velocity gradients considered, differs little from that for the counterpart homogeneous media. As with isotropic media, traveltimes in an inhomogeneous, transversely isotropic medium can be modeled adequately with a homogeneous model with vertical velocity equal to the vertical rms velocity of the inhomogeneous medium. In practice, <span class="hlt">dip</span>-moveout (DMO) is based on the assumption that either the medium is homogeneous or its velocity varies with depth, but in both cases isotropy is assumed. It turns out that for only one of the transversely isotropic media considered here --shale-limestone -- would v(z) DMO fail to give an adequate correction within CMP gathers. For the shale-limestone, fortuitously the constant-velocity DMO gives a better moveout correction than does the v(z) DMO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6951498','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6951498"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dip</span>-moveout error in transversely isotropic media with linear velocity variation in depth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Larner, K.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Levin (1990) modeled the moveout, within Common-midpoint (CMP) gathers, of reflections from plane-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> reflectors beneath homogeneous, transversely isotropic media. For some media, when the axis of symmetry for the anisotropy was vertical, he found departures in stacking velocity from predictions based upon the familiar cosine-of-<span class="hlt">dip</span> correction for isotropic media. Here, I do similar tests, again with transversely isotropic models with vertical axis of symmetry, but now allowing the medium velocity to vary linearly with depth. Results for the same four anisotropic media studied by Levin show behavior of <span class="hlt">dip</span>-corrected stacking velocity with reflector <span class="hlt">dip</span> that, for all velocity gradients considered, differs little from that for the counterpart homogeneous media. As with isotropic media, traveltimes in an inhomogeneous, transversely isotropic medium can be modeled adequately with a homogeneous model with vertical velocity equal to the vertical rms velocity of the inhomogeneous medium. In practice, <span class="hlt">dip</span>-moveout (DMO) is based on the assumption that either the medium is homogeneous or its velocity varies with depth, but in both cases isotropy is assumed. It turns out that for only one of the transversely isotropic media considered here --shale-limestone -- would v(z) DMO fail to give an adequate correction within CMP gathers. For the shale-limestone, fortuitously the constant-velocity DMO gives a better moveout correction than does the v(z) DMO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26395950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26395950"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Nobuo; Ozono, Ryoji; Edahiro, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Kiyomi; Seto, Ayako; Okita, Tomomi; Teramen, Kazushi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kihara, Yasuki</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. However, it is unclear how OSAS contributes to the events. We investigated the impact of non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> on the incidence of cardiovascular events in a retrospective cohort study comprising 251 patients with OSAS. OSAS was diagnosed by overnight polysomnography and all patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> was diagnosed when reduction in sleep blood pressure was <10% of awake blood pressure. Over a mean 43-month follow-up period, 15 patients (6.0%) developed cardiovascular events including stroke, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. Significantly higher cardiovascular events were observed in the non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> group than those without it by Kaplan-Meier analyses. Cox regression analysis revealed that the presence of non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> was significantly and independently associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 3.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-17.41; p < 0.05), after adjusting for severity of OSAS, and CPAP therapy. Thus, non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> was a marker for a poor prognosis in patients with OSAS. PMID:26395950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841526','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841526"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of the <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Strip Mill Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman</p> <p>2005-03-30</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced <span class="hlt">Process</span> Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a <span class="hlt">hot</span> mill. INTEG <span class="hlt">process</span> group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG <span class="hlt">process</span> group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485054','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485054"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate <span class="hlt">Dip</span>-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O’</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Solution <span class="hlt">processed</span> metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution <span class="hlt">processed</span> techniques such as <span class="hlt">dip</span>-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive <span class="hlt">processing</span> of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of <span class="hlt">dip</span>-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a <span class="hlt">dip</span>-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness. PMID:26123117</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/766694','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/766694"><span id="translatedtitle">ADVANCED <span class="hlt">HOT</span> GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe</p> <p>1998-12-22</p> <p>Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable <span class="hlt">hot</span> gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic <span class="hlt">hot</span> gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the <span class="hlt">hot</span> filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in <span class="hlt">process</span> upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537799"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hot</span> atoms in cosmic chemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rossler, K; Jung, H J; Nebeling, B</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>High energy chemical reactions and atom molecule interactions might be important for cosmic chemistry with respect to the accelerated species in solar wind, cosmic rays, colliding gas and dust clouds and secondary knock-on particles in solids. "<span class="hlt">Hot</span>" atoms with energies ranging from a few eV to some MeV can be generated via nuclear reactions and consequent recoil <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The chemical fate of the radioactive atoms can be followed by radiochemical methods (radio GC or HPLC). <span class="hlt">Hot</span> atom chemistry may serve for laboratory simulation of the reactions of energetic species with gaseous or solid interstellar matter. Due to the effective measurement of 10(8)-10(10) atoms only it covers a low to medium dose regime and may add to the studies of ion implantation which due to the optical methods applied are necessarily in the high dose regime. Experimental results are given for the systems: C/H2O (gas), C/H2O (solid, 77 K), N/CH4 (solid, 77K) and C/NH3 (solid, 77 K). Nuclear reactions used for the generation of 2 to 3 MeV atoms are: N(p,alpha) 11C, 16O(p,alpha pn) 11C and 12C(d,n) 13N with 8 to 45 MeV protons or deuterons from a cyclotron. Typical reactions products are: CO, CO2, CH4, CH2O, CH3OH, HCOOH, NH3, CH3NH2, cyanamide, formamidine, guanidine etc. Products of <span class="hlt">hot</span> reactions in solids are more complex than in corresponding gaseous systems, which underlines the importance of solid state reactions for the build-up of precursors for biomolecules in space. As one of the major mechanisms for product formation, the simultaneous or fast consecutive reactions of a <span class="hlt">hot</span> carbon with two target molecules (reaction complex) is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750000238','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750000238"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dip</span> molding to form intricately-shaped medical elastomer devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Broyles, H. F.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Preshaped mandrel mounted on rotating mechanism is partically immersed in tank filled with liquid elastomer. While mandrel rotates, elastomer film forms om mandrel surface due to surface tension and capillary behavior of liquid. Devices with well-defined flanges can be made using <span class="hlt">process</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080572','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080572"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of Terahertz Wave Radiation for InAs Nanowires by Simple <span class="hlt">Dipping</span> into Tap Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Dong Woo; Bin Ji, Young; Hwang, Jehwan; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Jun Oh; Noh, Sam Kyu; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, Tae-In; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Kim, Jin Soo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We report improvement of terahertz (THz) wave radiation for Si-based catalyst-free InAs nanowires (NWs) by simple <span class="hlt">dipping</span> into tap water (DTW). In addition, the possibility of using InAs NWs as a cost-effective method for biomedical applications is discussed by comparison to bulk InAs. The peak-to-peak current signals (PPCSs) of InAs NWs measured from THz time-domain spectroscopy increased with increasing NW height. For example, the PPCS of 10 μm-long InAs NWs was 2.86 times stronger than that of 2.1 μm-long NWs. The THz spectra of the InAs NWs obtained by applying a fast Fourier transformation to the current signals showed a main frequency of 0.5 THz, which can be applied to a variety of medical imaging systems. After the DTW <span class="hlt">process</span>, structural variation was not observed for 2.1 μm-long InAs NWs. However, the top region of several InAs NWs with heights of 4.6 and 5.8 μm merged into a conical structure. InAs NWs with a height of 10 μm resulted in a bundle feature forming above the conical shape, where the length of bundle region was 4 μm. After the DTW <span class="hlt">process</span>, the PPCS for 10 μm-long InAs NWs increased by 15 percent compared to that of the as-grown case. PMID:27782220</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20822773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20822773"><span id="translatedtitle">Water repellent porous silica films by sol-gel <span class="hlt">dip</span> coating method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rao, A Venkateswara; Gurav, Annaso B; Latthe, Sanjay S; Vhatkar, Rajiv S; Imai, Hiroaki; Kappenstein, Charles; Wagh, P B; Gupta, Satish C</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The wetting of solid surfaces by water droplets is ubiquitous in our daily lives as well as in industrial <span class="hlt">processes</span>. In the present research work, water repellent porous silica films are prepared on glass substrate at room temperature by sol-gel <span class="hlt">process</span>. The coating sol was prepared by keeping the molar ratio of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), methanol (MeOH), water (H(2)O) constant at 1:12.90:4.74, respectively, with 2M NH(4)OH throughout the experiments and the molar ratio (M) of MTES/Ph-TMS was varied from 0 to 0.22. A simple <span class="hlt">dip</span> coating technique is adopted to coat silica films on the glass substrates. The static water contact angle as high as 164° and water sliding angle as low as 4° was obtained for silica film prepared from M=0.22. The surface morphological studies of the prepared silica film showed the porous structure with pore sizes typically ranging from 200nm to 1.3μm. The superhydrophobic silica films prepared from M=0.22 retained their superhydrophobicity up to a temperature of 285°C and above this temperature the films became superhydrophilic. The porous and water repellent silica films are prepared by proper alteration of the Ph-TMS in the coating solution. The prepared silica films were characterized by surface profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, humidity tests, chemical aging tests, static and dynamic water contact angle measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6171710','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6171710"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of <span class="hlt">hot</span> gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.</p> <p>1982-08-19</p> <p>An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of <span class="hlt">hot</span> gases in fuel cell operations and chemical <span class="hlt">processes</span> such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the <span class="hlt">hot</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27140075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27140075"><span id="translatedtitle">Refraction near the horizon-an empirical approach. Part 1: terrestrial refraction of the <span class="hlt">dip</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tschudin, Marcel E</p> <p>2016-04-20</p> <p>This study aims at providing improved closed-form refraction estimates for observations near the horizon. In this first part, over 1800 previously published direct measurements of the horizon's depression (<span class="hlt">dip</span>) over the sea are reanalyzed using a nonconventional robust procedure for coping with numerous real, large, and asymmetric outliers from abnormal <span class="hlt">dips</span>. The derived 1-parameter function agrees with those proposed in modern almanacs and for land surveying. It is found that the <span class="hlt">dips</span> of warmer and colder sea surfaces vs. air are best described with two different functions. The two proposed 3-parameter functions, also using temperature difference between air and sea and wind speed, reduce the estimated error of the 1-parameter function by ∼⅓ and the number of outliers by ∼⅔.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..33.7311P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..33.7311P"><span id="translatedtitle">P-wave tomography reveals a westward <span class="hlt">dipping</span> low velocity zone beneath the Kenya Rift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Yongcheol; Nyblade, Andrew A.</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Three teleseismic P-wave travel time data sets (KRISP 1985, 1989-1990 Kenya Broadband Seismic Experiment) have been inverted to obtain a new tomographic model of the upper mantle beneath the Kenya Rift. The model shows a 0.5-1.5% low velocity anomaly below the rift extending to about 150 km depth. Below ~150 km depth, the anomaly broadens to the west toward the Tanzania Craton, suggesting a westward <span class="hlt">dip</span> to the structure. Tomographic images to the south in Tanzania and to the north in Ethiopia also show westward <span class="hlt">dipping</span> low velocity anomalies below depths of ~150-200 km. The presence of westward <span class="hlt">dipping</span> low velocity structures along much of the East African rift (Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania) is difficult to explain with a plume model and is consistent with some models of the African Superplume showing anomalous lower and upper mantle structure connecting at mid-mantle depths under the western side of East Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2229601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2229601"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat <span class="hlt">dip</span> under experimental and natural exposure conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drechsler, P A; Wildman, E E; Pankey, J W</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>A postmilking teat <span class="hlt">dip</span> containing chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide was evaluated by experimental challenge and in two herds under natural exposure. The test product had an efficacy of 78.9% against Staphylococcus aureus and 52.5% against Streptococcus agalactiae in the experimental challenge trial. The product was compared with a 1% iodine product in a 15-mo natural exposure study. Post-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> with chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide reduced incidence of udder infection by major mastitis pathogens 36.1% when data were combined from the two herds. The 1% iodine and the chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide products were not equivalent for major mastitis pathogens; the test product was more effective. Incidence of udder infection by environmental mastitis pathogens was reduced 36.8% in both herds combined. Efficacy of the two teat <span class="hlt">dips</span> was equivalent for environmental pathogens. PMID:2229601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003eso..pres....8.&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003eso..pres....8.&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Really <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Spectacular VLT Photos Unveil Mysterious Nebulae Summary Quite a few of the most beautiful objects in the Universe are still shrouded in mystery. Even though most of the nebulae of gas and dust in our vicinity are now rather well understood, there are some which continue to puzzle astronomers. This is the case of a small number of unusual nebulae that appear to be the subject of strong heating - in astronomical terminology, they present an amazingly "high degree of excitation". This is because they contain significant amounts of ions, i.e., atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons. Depending on the atoms involved and the number of electrons lost, this <span class="hlt">process</span> bears witness to the strength of the radiation or to the impact of energetic particles. But what are the sources of that excitation? Could it be energetic stars or perhaps some kind of exotic objects inside these nebulae? How do these peculiar objects fit into the current picture of universal evolution? New observations of a number of such unusual nebulae have recently been obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). In a dedicated search for the origin of their individual characteristics, a team of astronomers - mostly from the Institute of Astrophysics & Geophysics in Liège (Belgium) [1] - have secured the first detailed, highly revealing images of four highly ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, only a few hundred thousand light-years away. In three nebulae, they succeeded in identifying the sources of energetic radiation and to eludicate their exceptional properties: some of the hottest, most massive stars ever seen, some of which are double. With masses of more than 20 times that of the Sun and surface temperatures above 90 000 degrees, these stars are truly extreme. PR Photo 09a/03: Nebula around the <span class="hlt">hot</span> star AB7 in the SMC. PR Photo 09b/03: Nebula near the <span class="hlt">hot</span> Wolf-Rayet star BAT99</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22916897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22916897"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of an automated <span class="hlt">dipping</span> and backflushing system on somatic cell counts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olde Riekerink, R G M; Ohnstad, I; van Santen, B; Barkema, H W</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Postmilking teat disinfection is an effective management practice to prevent transmission of contagious mastitis pathogens from cow to cow. With farms increasing in size and an increase in the number of rotary milking parlors, the need for automation of postmilking teat disinfection is mounting. Automated teat <span class="hlt">dipping</span> and backflushing (ADB) systems have existed for some years, but their effect on udder health was never examined in a field study on commercial dairy farms. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to evaluate the effect of introducing an ADB system in a herd on (1) bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), (2) individual cow SCC, and (3) the proportion of newly elevated SCC. Dairy herd improvement data were collected over a 30-mo period on 25 sets of 3 farms. Each set of 3 farms contained a farm that installed an ADB system, one that disinfected teats using <span class="hlt">dipping</span> after milking, and one that sprayed teats after milking. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Bulk milk SCC on farms that sprayed or <span class="hlt">dipped</span> before installing an ADB system were 16,000 and 30,000 cells/mL lower in the period 6 to 18 mo after installation, respectively, than on farms that continued spraying or <span class="hlt">dipping</span> the teats after milking. In the same period after installing an ADB system, proportions of cows with elevated SCC were 4.3 and 1.2% lower, respectively, compared with spraying and with <span class="hlt">dipping</span>. Similarly, proportions of cows that had newly elevated SCC were 1.5% lower and 0.3% higher, respectively, compared with farms that sprayed or <span class="hlt">dipped</span>. Installing an ADB system had a beneficial effect on bulk milk SCC, individual cow SCC, and the proportion of newly elevated SCC. The effect was most prominent in the period 6 to 18 mo after installation of an ADB system. PMID:22916897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93T.452B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93T.452B"><span id="translatedtitle">Micro-topography creates biogeochemical <span class="hlt">hot</span> spots in wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Atreyee</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Interventions in wetlands could improve water quality, as wetlands regulate not only nutrients such as nitrogen and sulfur but also pollutants in the waters that flow through them. Biological and chemical <span class="hlt">processes</span> maintain conditions for redox reactions in the wetlands that control the concentration of certain solutes, including nutrients and pollutants. But such biogeochemical <span class="hlt">processes</span> are not evenly distributed and often are localized in “<span class="hlt">hot</span> spots” or take place in bouts known as “<span class="hlt">hot</span> moments.” How these <span class="hlt">hot</span> spots or <span class="hlt">hot</span> moments arise remains poorly understood and is often explained by simply evoking variations in soil properties in the wetlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17280191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17280191"><span id="translatedtitle">Second <span class="hlt">dip</span> as a signature of ultrahigh energy proton interactions with cosmic microwave background radiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berezinsky, V; Gazizov, A; Kachelrieb, M</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We discuss as a new signature for the interaction of extragalactic ultrahigh energy protons with cosmic microwave background radiation a spectral feature located at E= 6.3 x 10(19) eV in the form of a narrow and shallow <span class="hlt">dip</span>. It is produced by the interference of e+e(-)-pair and pion production. We show that this <span class="hlt">dip</span> and, in particular, its position are almost model-independent. Its observation by future ultrahigh energy cosmic ray detectors may give the conclusive confirmation that an observed steepening of the spectrum is caused by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19969434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19969434"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating dental data in missing persons and unidentified remains investigations: the RESOLVE INITIATIVE and <span class="hlt">DIP</span>3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kogon, S; Arnold, J; Wood, R; Merner, L</p> <p>2010-04-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">DIP</span>3, a computerized aid to assist in dental identification, was integrated into the RESOLVE INITIATIVE, a joint endeavour by the Ontario Provincial Police and the Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario, to resolve cases of missing persons (MP) and unidentified remains (UNID). Dental data, from the UNID, collected by the coroner and the dental records of MP, provided by investigating police, are streamed separately for input into a dedicated computer program. All dental management is provided by forensic dentists. The advantage of having experienced dentists managing this data is explained. A description of the RESOLVE INITIATIVE and <span class="hlt">DIP</span>3, including the method used for record transmission is provided.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920046968&hterms=hydrogen+bonds&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhydrogen%2Bbonds','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920046968&hterms=hydrogen+bonds&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhydrogen%2Bbonds"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid hydrogen suction <span class="hlt">dip</span> and slosh wave excitation during draining under normal and reduced gravity environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The paper discusses the dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction <span class="hlt">dip</span>, slosh wave excitation under normal and reduced gravity and different flow rates during liquid hydrogen draining. Liquid residuals at the incipience of suction <span class="hlt">dip</span> increase as the values of gravity decrease. Also liquid residuals increase with the draining flow rates. Lower ratio of Bond number and Weber number are unable to excite slosh waves. Lower flow rates and higher gravity excites waves with lower frequencies and higher wave amplitude slosh waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-05/pdf/2010-7576.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-05/pdf/2010-7576.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 17162 - <span class="hlt">Dipping</span> and Coating Operations (<span class="hlt">Dip</span> Tanks) Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-05</p> <p>... of electrostatic detearing equipment that notifies employees of the minimum safe distance they must maintain between goods undergoing electrostatic detearing and the electrodes or conductors of the equipment used in the <span class="hlt">process</span>. Doing so reduces the likelihood of igniting the explosive chemicals used...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960573"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasmon-induced <span class="hlt">hot</span> carriers in metallic nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manjavacas, Alejandro; Liu, Jun G; Kulkarni, Vikram; Nordlander, Peter</p> <p>2014-08-26</p> <p>Plasmon-induced <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier formation is attracting an increasing research interest due to its potential for applications in photocatalysis, photodetection and solar energy harvesting. However, despite very significant experimental effort, a comprehensive theoretical description of the <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier generation <span class="hlt">process</span> is still missing. In this work we develop a theoretical model for the plasmon-induced <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier <span class="hlt">process</span> and apply it to spherical silver nanoparticles and nanoshells. In this model, the conduction electrons of the metal are described as free particles in a finite spherical potential well, and the plasmon-induced <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier production is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule. We show that the inclusion of many-body interactions has only a minor influence on the results. Using the model we calculate the rate of <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier generation, finding that it closely follows the spectral profile of the plasmon. Our analysis reveals that particle size and <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier lifetime play a central role in determining both the production rate and the energy distribution of the <span class="hlt">hot</span> carriers. Specifically, larger nanoparticle sizes and shorter lifetimes result in higher carrier production rates but smaller energies, and vice versa. We characterize the efficiency of the <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier generation <span class="hlt">process</span> by introducing a figure of merit that measures the number of high energy carriers generated per plasmon. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial distribution and directionality of these excitations. The results presented here contribute to the basic understanding of plasmon-induced <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier generation and provide insight for optimization of the <span class="hlt">process</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551434"><span id="translatedtitle">Reprint of "Characterisation and modelling of the thermorheological properties of pharmaceutical polymers and their blends using capillary rheometry: Implications for <span class="hlt">hot</span> melt <span class="hlt">processing</span> of dosage forms".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, David S; Margetson, Daniel N; McAllister, Mark S; Andrews, Gavin P</p> <p>2015-12-30</p> <p>Given the growing interest in thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span> methods, this study describes the use of an advanced rheological technique, capillary rheometry, to accurately determine the thermorheological properties of two pharmaceutical polymers, Eudragit E100 (E100) and hydroxypropylcellulose JF (HPC) and their blends, both in the presence and absence of a model therapeutic agent (quinine, as the base and hydrochloride salt). Furthermore, the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the cooled extrudates produced using capillary rheometry were characterised using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) thereby enabling correlations to be drawn between the information derived from capillary rheometry and the glass transition properties of the extrudates. The shear viscosities of E100 and HPC (and their blends) decreased as functions of increasing temperature and shear rates, with the shear viscosity of E100 being significantly greater than that of HPC at all temperatures and shear rates. All platforms were readily <span class="hlt">processed</span> at shear rates relevant to extrusion (approximately 200-300s(-1)) and injection moulding (approximately 900s(-1)). Quinine base was observed to lower the shear viscosities of E100 and E100/HPC blends during <span class="hlt">processing</span> and the Tg of extrudates, indicative of plasticisation at <span class="hlt">processing</span> temperatures and when cooled (i.e. in the solid state). Quinine hydrochloride (20% w/w) increased the shear viscosities of E100 and HPC and their blends during <span class="hlt">processing</span> and did not affect the Tg of the parent polymer. However, the shear viscosities of these systems were not prohibitive to <span class="hlt">processing</span> at shear rates relevant to extrusion and injection moulding. As the ratio of E100:HPC increased within the polymer blends the effects of quinine base on the lowering of both shear viscosity and Tg of the polymer blends increased, reflecting the greater solubility of quinine within E100. In conclusion, this study has highlighted the importance of capillary rheometry in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188317','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188317"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation and modelling of the thermorheological properties of pharmaceutical polymers and their blends using capillary rheometry: Implications for <span class="hlt">hot</span> melt <span class="hlt">processing</span> of dosage forms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, David S; Margetson, Daniel N; McAllister, Mark S; Andrews, Gavin P</p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>Given the growing interest in thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span> methods, this study describes the use of an advanced rheological technique, capillary rheometry, to accurately determine the thermorheological properties of two pharmaceutical polymers, Eudragit E100 (E100) and hydroxypropylcellulose JF (HPC) and their blends, both in the presence and absence of a model therapeutic agent (quinine, as the base and hydrochloride salt). Furthermore, the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the cooled extrudates produced using capillary rheometry were characterised using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) thereby enabling correlations to be drawn between the information derived from capillary rheometry and the glass transition properties of the extrudates. The shear viscosities of E100 and HPC (and their blends) decreased as functions of increasing temperature and shear rates, with the shear viscosity of E100 being significantly greater than that of HPC at all temperatures and shear rates. All platforms were readily <span class="hlt">processed</span> at shear rates relevant to extrusion (approximately 200-300 s(-1)) and injection moulding (approximately 900 s(-1)). Quinine base was observed to lower the shear viscosities of E100 and E100/HPC blends during <span class="hlt">processing</span> and the Tg of extrudates, indicative of plasticisation at <span class="hlt">processing</span> temperatures and when cooled (i.e. in the solid state). Quinine hydrochloride (20% w/w) increased the shear viscosities of E100 and HPC and their blends during <span class="hlt">processing</span> and did not affect the Tg of the parent polymer. However, the shear viscosities of these systems were not prohibitive to <span class="hlt">processing</span> at shear rates relevant to extrusion and injection moulding. As the ratio of E100:HPC increased within the polymer blends the effects of quinine base on the lowering of both shear viscosity and Tg of the polymer blends increased, reflecting the greater solubility of quinine within E100. In conclusion, this study has highlighted the importance of capillary rheometry in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4597227','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4597227"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy saving strategies of honeybees in <span class="hlt">dipping</span> nectar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Jianing; Yang, Heng; Yan, Shaoze</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The honeybee’s drinking <span class="hlt">process</span> has generally been simplified because of its high speed and small scale. In this study, we clearly observed the drinking cycle of the Italian honeybee using a specially designed high-speed camera system. We analysed the pattern of glossal hair erection and the movement kinematics of the protracting tongue (glossa). Results showed that the honeybee used two special protraction strategies to save energy. First, the glossal hairs remain adpressed until the end of the protraction, which indicates that the hydraulic resistance is reduced to less than 1/3 of that in the case if the hairs remain erect. Second, the glossa protracts with a specific velocity profile and we quantitatively demonstrated that this moving strategy helps reduce the total energy needed for protraction compared with the typical form of protraction with constant acceleration and deceleration. These findings suggest effective methods to optimise the control policies employed by next-generation microfluidic pumps. PMID:26446300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446300"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy saving strategies of honeybees in <span class="hlt">dipping</span> nectar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Jianing; Yang, Heng; Yan, Shaoze</p> <p>2015-10-08</p> <p>The honeybee's drinking <span class="hlt">process</span> has generally been simplified because of its high speed and small scale. In this study, we clearly observed the drinking cycle of the Italian honeybee using a specially designed high-speed camera system. We analysed the pattern of glossal hair erection and the movement kinematics of the protracting tongue (glossa). Results showed that the honeybee used two special protraction strategies to save energy. First, the glossal hairs remain adpressed until the end of the protraction, which indicates that the hydraulic resistance is reduced to less than 1/3 of that in the case if the hairs remain erect. Second, the glossa protracts with a specific velocity profile and we quantitatively demonstrated that this moving strategy helps reduce the total energy needed for protraction compared with the typical form of protraction with constant acceleration and deceleration. These findings suggest effective methods to optimise the control policies employed by next-generation microfluidic pumps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446300"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy saving strategies of honeybees in <span class="hlt">dipping</span> nectar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Jianing; Yang, Heng; Yan, Shaoze</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The honeybee's drinking <span class="hlt">process</span> has generally been simplified because of its high speed and small scale. In this study, we clearly observed the drinking cycle of the Italian honeybee using a specially designed high-speed camera system. We analysed the pattern of glossal hair erection and the movement kinematics of the protracting tongue (glossa). Results showed that the honeybee used two special protraction strategies to save energy. First, the glossal hairs remain adpressed until the end of the protraction, which indicates that the hydraulic resistance is reduced to less than 1/3 of that in the case if the hairs remain erect. Second, the glossa protracts with a specific velocity profile and we quantitatively demonstrated that this moving strategy helps reduce the total energy needed for protraction compared with the typical form of protraction with constant acceleration and deceleration. These findings suggest effective methods to optimise the control policies employed by next-generation microfluidic pumps. PMID:26446300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6196456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6196456"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersants displace <span class="hlt">hot</span> oiling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wash, R.</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>Laboratory experiments and field testing of dispersants in producing wells have resulted in development of 2 inexpensive paraffin dispersant packages with a broad application range, potential for significant savings over <span class="hlt">hot</span> oiling, and that can be applied effectively by both continuous and batch treating techniques. The 2 dispersants are soluble in the carrier solvent (one soluble in oil, one in water); are able to readily disperse the wax during a <span class="hlt">hot</span> flask test conducted in a laboratory; and leave the producing interval water wet. Field data on the 2 dispersants are tabulated, demonstrating their efficacy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMag...96.1386A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMag...96.1386A"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Ag-TiO2 nanostructures photocatalytic properties prepared by modified <span class="hlt">dip</span> coating method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>AlArfaj, Esam</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this article, titanium dioxide and silver nanostructures were deposited on glass substrates using modified sol-gel methods and <span class="hlt">dip</span>-coating technique. The films were characterised chemically and physically using different techniques (TLC, UV-Vis and XRD) and tested for environmental applications regarding degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanostructures is tested with different small concentrations of phenol in water and reaction mechanisms discussed. Considerable enhancement is observed in the photodegradation activity of Ag-modified (3 wt.%) TiO2 compared to unmodified TiO2 nanostructures for phenol concentrations within the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model for reaction kinetics. The pseudo-first-order global degradation rate constant increased from <0.005 min-1 for TiO2 to 0.013 min-1 for 3 mol% Ag-modified TiO2. The enhancement is attributed to the incorporation of Ag which promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species and increases the carrier recombination life-time. In addition, Ag has been observed to extend the absorption to the visible region by its surface plasmon resonances and to suppress the anatase-rutile phase transformation. Moreover, TiO2 grain size prepared was found to be 10 nm which maximises the active surface area. For phenol initial concentrations as low as 0.0002 M, saturation trend in the degradation <span class="hlt">process</span> occurred at 0.00014 M and the reaction rate can be fitted with half-order LH kinetics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51jND02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51jND02K"><span id="translatedtitle">Lattice-Matched <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Carrier Solar Cell with Energy Selectivity Integrated into <span class="hlt">Hot</span> Carrier Absorber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>König, Dirk; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Conibeer, Gavin</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>We propose a technologically feasible concept of a <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier (HC) solar cell (SC) which fulfills the electronic, optical, and to some extent the phononic criteria required. The energy selective <span class="hlt">process</span> of HCs is implemented into the <span class="hlt">hot</span> carrier absorber (HCA). Its electronic properties are investigated by a Monte-Carlo code which simulates random deviations of structure thickness and a normal distribution of random elastic electron (e-) scattering. The structure can be grown epitaxially as a HC-SC test device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7021117','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7021117"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hot</span> in-place recycling of asphalt concrete. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Button, J.W.; Little, D.N.; Estakhri, C.K.; Mason, L.S.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>;Contents: <span class="hlt">Hot</span> in place recycling <span class="hlt">processes</span> and equipment; HIPR as a tool for asphalt pavement rehabilitation; Mixture design for HIPR <span class="hlt">processes</span>; Relative performance of HIPR pavements; Guidelines for effective use of HIPR; and Conclusions and recommendations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014GeoRL..41.5847S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014GeoRL..41.5847S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluid injection induced seismicity reveals a NE <span class="hlt">dipping</span> fault in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (southern Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stabile, T. A.; Giocoli, A.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Lapenna, V.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>On 2 June 2006 the wastewater produced during the oil and gas field exploitation in High Agri Valley (southern Italy) started to be managed by disposal through pumping the fluids back into the subsurface at the Costa Molina 2 (CM2) injection well, located in the southeastern sector of the valley. The onset of microearthquakes (Ml ≤ 2) after 4 days at about 1.3 km SW of CM2 well suggests fluid injection induced seismicity by the diffusion of pore pressure. Moreover, the space-time evolution of 196 high-resolution relocated events reveals a previously unmapped NE <span class="hlt">dipping</span> fault. We investigate the physical <span class="hlt">processes</span> related to the fluid injection induced seismicity and delineate the previously unmapped fault by jointly analyzing seismicity data, geological observations, fluid injection data, the stratigraphic log of the CM2 well, and the electrical resistivity tomography survey carried out in the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1758..150K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1758..150K"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of ZnO films to glass substrates by the <span class="hlt">dipping</span>-pyrolysis method using organic acid salt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondow, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Kanae</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Transparent ZnO films having more than 1 micrometers in thickness were prepared by one <span class="hlt">dipping</span>-pyrolysis <span class="hlt">process</span>. The starting solution, produced by dissolving zinc 2- ethylhexanoate, dehydrated caster oil fatty acid and dimethyl silicone oil as a leveling agent into an organic solvent, was coated on the plate glass and cured at 200 degree(s)C and heated up to 500 degree(s)C. The thick ZnO films covered with SiO2 films are very useful for UV cut-offs at about 380 nm and for high transparency in the visible region. The ZnO films with the durable films have a possible application to automobile windows and the like. Characterizations are also reported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), optical spectroscopy and Taber abrasion test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GGG....13.2010G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GGG....13.2010G"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal distribution of the seismicity along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores from hydroacoustic data: Insights into seismogenic <span class="hlt">processes</span> in a ridge-<span class="hlt">hot</span> spot context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goslin, J.; Perrot, J.; Royer, J.-Y.; Martin, C.; LourençO, N.; Luis, J.; Dziak, R. P.; Matsumoto, H.; Haxel, J.; Fowler, M. J.; Fox, C. G.; Lau, A. T.-K.; Bazin, S.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The seismicity of the North Atlantic was monitored from May 2002 to September 2003 by the `SIRENA array' of autonomous hydrophones. The hydroacoustic signals provide a unique data set documenting numerous low-magnitude earthquakes along the section of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) located in a ridge-<span class="hlt">hot</span> spot interaction context. During the experiment, 1696 events were detected along the MAR axis between 40°N and 51°N, with a magnitude of completeness level ofmb≈ 2.4. Inside the array, location errors are in the order of 2 km, and errors in the origin time are less than 1 s. From this catalog, 15 clusters were detected. The distribution of source level (SL) versus time within each cluster is used to discriminate clusters occurring in a tectonic context from those attributed to non-tectonic (i.e. volcanic or hydrothermal) <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The location of tectonic and non-tectonic sequences correlates well with regions with positive and negative Mantle Bouguer Anomalies (MBAs), indicating the presence of thinner/colder and thicker/warmer crust respectively. At the scale of the entire array, both the complete and declustered catalogs derived from the hydroacoustic signals show an increase of the seismicity rate from the Azores up to 43°30'N suggesting a diminishing influence of the Azores <span class="hlt">hot</span> spot on the ridge-axis temperature, and well correlated with a similar increase in the along-axis MBAs. The comparison of the MAR seismicity with the Residual MBA (RMBA) at different scales leads us to think that the low-magnitude seismicity rates are directly related to along-axis variations in lithosphere rheology and temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.410a2156K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.410a2156K"><span id="translatedtitle">Random Walk Model for the Growth of Monolayer in <span class="hlt">Dip</span> Pen Nanolithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.; Ha, S.; Jang, J.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>By using a simple random-walk model, we simulate the growth of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) pattern generated in <span class="hlt">dip</span> pen nanolithography (DPN). In this model, the SAM pattern grows mainly via the serial pushing of molecules deposited from the tip. We examine various SAM patterns, such as lines, crosses, and letters by changing the tip scan speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2882541','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2882541"><span id="translatedtitle">Association of polycystic ovary syndrome and a non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> blood pressure pattern in young women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kargili, Ayse; Karakurt, Feridun; Kasapoglu, Benan; Derbent, Aysel; Koca, Cemile; Selcoki, Yusuf</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE The association between polycystic ovarian syndrome and increased cardiovascular disease risk is still a controversial issue. In light of data documenting some common pathways or common end-points, the present study was undertaken to determine whether there is a relationship between sleep blood pressure pattern disturbances and polycystic ovarian syndrome in young women. METHOD The daytime and nighttime ambulatory blood pressures (BPs) were determined for each subject, according to the actual waking and sleeping times recorded in their individual diaries, in this cross-sectional study. RESULTS The study group comprised 168 women (mean age: 25.7±5.5) diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome, while the control group included 52 age- and BMI-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 26.1±5.4). When nocturnal BP declines very little or not at all, with the BP falling less than 10% during sleep compared with waking values, this pattern is classified as a non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> BP pattern. However, the non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> pattern of BP changes was significantly more common in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients compared to the control group (p<0.01). The prevalence of a non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> BP pattern was 43.4% (73 patients) in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients and 3.9% (2 patients) in the control group. CONCLUSION Our cross-sectional study revealed that a non-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> BP pattern is highly prevalent in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients, even if they are young and non-obese. PMID:20535365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1224043','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1224043"><span id="translatedtitle">Directly imaging steeply-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> fault zones in geothermal fields with multicomponent seismic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Ting; Huang, Lianjie</p> <p>2015-07-30</p> <p>For characterizing geothermal systems, it is important to have clear images of steeply-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> fault zones because they may confine the boundaries of geothermal reservoirs and influence hydrothermal flow. Elastic reverse-time migration (ERTM) is the most promising tool for subsurface imaging with multicomponent seismic data. However, conventional ERTM usually generates significant artifacts caused by the cross correlation of undesired wavefields and the polarity reversal of shear waves. In addition, it is difficult for conventional ERTM to directly image steeply-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> fault zones. We develop a new ERTM imaging method in this paper to reduce these artifacts and directly image steeply-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> fault zones. In our new ERTM method, forward-propagated source wavefields and backward-propagated receiver wavefields are decomposed into compressional (P) and shear (S) components. Furthermore, each component of these wavefields is separated into left- and right-going, or downgoing and upgoing waves. The cross correlation imaging condition is applied to the separated wavefields along opposite propagation directions. For converted waves (P-to-S or S-to-P), the polarity correction is applied to the separated wavefields based on the analysis of Poynting vectors. Numerical imaging examples of synthetic seismic data demonstrate that our new ERTM method produces high-resolution images of steeply-<span class="hlt">dipping</span> fault zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25559376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25559376"><span id="translatedtitle">Blue light aids in coping with the post-lunch <span class="hlt">dip</span>: an EEG study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baek, Hongchae; Min, Byoung-Kyong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The 'post-lunch <span class="hlt">dip</span>' is a commonly experienced period of drowsiness in the afternoon hours. If this inevitable period can be disrupted by an environmental cue, the result will be enhanced workplace performance. Because blue light is known to be a critical cue for entraining biological rhythms, we investigated whether blue light illumination can be a practical strategy for coping with the post-lunch <span class="hlt">dip</span>. Twenty healthy participants underwent a continuous performance test, during which the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded under four different illumination conditions: dark ( < 0.3 lx), 33% blue-enriched light, 66% blue-enriched light and white polychromatic light. As a result, exposure to blue-enriched light during the post-lunch <span class="hlt">dip</span> period significantly reduced the EEG alpha activity, and increased task performance. Since desynchronisation of alpha activity reflects enhancement of vigilance, our findings imply that blue light might disrupt the post-lunch <span class="hlt">dip</span>. Subsequent exploration of illumination parameters will be beneficial for possible chronobiological and ergonomic applications. PMID:25559376</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol5-sec1910-124.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol5-sec1910-124.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1910.124 - General requirements for <span class="hlt">dipping</span> and coating operations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. (4) When you use mechanical ventilation, it must conform to the... Liquids. (5) When you use mechanical ventilation, it must draw the flow of air into a hood or exhaust duct. (6) When you use mechanical ventilation, each <span class="hlt">dip</span> tank must have an independent exhaust system...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>