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Sample records for hot electron transistor

  1. Going ballistic: Graphene hot electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaziri, S.; Smith, A. D.; Östling, M.; Lupina, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Lippert, G.; Mehr, W.; Driussi, F.; Venica, S.; Di Lecce, V.; Gnudi, A.; König, M.; Ruhl, G.; Belete, M.; Lemme, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art in ballistic hot electron transistors that utilize two-dimensional base contacts made from graphene, i.e. graphene base transistors (GBTs). Early performance predictions that indicated potential for THz operation still hold true today, even with improved models that take non-idealities into account. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the basic functionality, with on/off current switching over several orders of magnitude, but further developments are required to exploit the full potential of the GBT device family. In particular, interfaces between graphene and semiconductors or dielectrics are far from perfect and thus limit experimental device integrity, reliability and performance.

  2. Transport of electrons in monolithic hot electron Si transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berz, F.

    1986-12-01

    The transport of electrons across the base of monolithic hot electron transistors is studied using a simplified model. The base is assumed to be limited by abrupt barriers and no account is taken of backscattering from the collector region. The collisions in the base are considered to be of only one type which represents an average between interactions with optical and acoustic phonons. A fundamental part in the analysis is played by the function PEX( i, x), ( i = 1, 2, …) which gives the total probability of exit into the collector of an electron whose ith collision occurs at a point of abscissa x within the base. The function PEX( i, x) is determined iteratively for decreasing values of i, using the theorem of compound probabilities, and from there the transport factor α across the base is derived. Programs have been written to this effect, and the results are illustrated by means of examples which demonstrate the effect on the transport factor α of the various parameters of the device, and show some comparisons with a previous theory[4].

  3. Transport Properties of III-N Hot Electron Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntrup, Donald J., III

    Unipolar hot electron transistors (HETs) represent a tantalizing alternative to established bipolar transistor technologies. During device operation electrons are injected over a large emitter barrier into the base where they travel along the device axis with very high velocity. Upon arrival at the collector barrier, high-energy electrons pass over the barrier and contribute to collector current while low-energy electrons are quantum mechanically reflected back into the base. Designing the base with thickness equal to or less than the hot electron mean free path serves to minimize scattering events and thus enable quasi-ballistic operation. Large current gain is achieved by increasing the ratio of transmitted to reflected electrons. Although III-N HETs have undergone substantial development in recent years, there remain ample opportunities to improve key device metrics. In order to engineer improved device performance, a deeper understanding of the operative transport physics is needed. Fortunately, the HET provides fertile ground for studying several prominent electron transport phenomena. In this thesis we present results from several studies that use the III-N HET as both emitter and analyzer of hot electron momentum states. The first provides a measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN; the second relies on a new technique called electron injection spectroscopy to investigate the effects of barrier height inhomogeneity in the emitter. To supplement our analysis we develop a comprehensive theory of coherent electron transport that allows us to model the transfer characteristics of complex heterojunctions. Such a model provides a theoretical touchstone with which to compare our experimental results. While these studies are of potential interest in their own right, we interpret the results with an eye toward improving next-generation device performance.

  4. Long-Wavelength-Infrared Hot-Electron Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Liu, John K.; Park, Jin S.; Lin, True-Lon

    1995-01-01

    Dark current reduced by energy-discriminating quantum filter. Very long-wavelength-infrared hot-electron transistor developed. Device detects photons at wavelengths around 16 micrometers. Comprises photodector integrated with energy-discriminating quantum filter in multiple-quantum-well structure. Made of variously doped and undoped layers of GaAs (quantum wells) and Al(x)Ga(1-x)As (barriers between wells). In transistor, bound-to-continuum GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As multiple-quantum-well infrared photodectors (QWIP) serves as photosensitive emitter. Wide quantum well serves as base, and there is thick barrier between base and collector. Combination of barrier and base quantum well acts as energy-discriminating filter: electrons with higher energies pass through filter to collector, those with lower energies blocked and diverted from output-current path through base contact.

  5. Structure and Process of Infrared Hot Electron Transistor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Richard

    2012-01-01

    An infrared hot-electron transistor (IHET) 5 × 8 array with a common base configuration that allows two-terminal readout integration was investigated and fabricated for the first time. The IHET structure provides a maximum factor of six in improvement in the photocurrent to dark current ratio compared to the basic quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP), and hence it improved the array S/N ratio by the same factor. The study also showed for the first time that there is no electrical cross-talk among individual detectors, even though they share the same emitter and base contacts. Thus, the IHET structure is compatible with existing electronic readout circuits for photoconductors in producing sensitive focal plane arrays. PMID:22778655

  6. Design of III-Nitride Hot Electron Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Geetak

    III-Nitride based devices have made great progress over the past few decades in electronics and photonics applications. As the technology and theoretical understanding of the III-N system matures, the limitations on further development are based on very basic electronic properties of the material, one of which is electron scattering (or ballistic electron effects). This thesis explores the design space of III-N based ballistic electron transistors using novel design, growth and process techniques. The hot electron transistor (HET) is a unipolar vertical device that operates on the principle of injecting electrons over a high-energy barrier (φBE) called the emitter into an n-doped region called base and finally collecting the high energy electrons (hot electrons) over another barrier (φBC) called the collector barrier. The injected electrons traverse the base in a quasi-ballistic manner. Electrons that get scattered in the base contribute to base current. High gain in the HET is thus achieved by enabling ballistic transport of electrons in the base. In addition, low leakage across the collector barrier (I BCleak) and low base resistance (RB) are needed to achieve high performance. Because of device attributes such as vertical structure, ballistic transport and low-resistance n-type base, the HET has the potential of operating at very high frequencies. Electrical measurements of a HET structure can be used to understand high-energy electron physics and extract information like mean free path in semiconductors. The III-Nitride material system is particularly suited for HETs as it offers a wide range of DeltaEcs and polarization charges which can be engineered to obtain barriers which can inject hot-electrons and have low leakage at room temperature. In addition, polarization charges in the III-N system can be engineered to obtain a high-density and high-mobility 2DEG in the base, which can be used to reduce base resistance and allow vertical scaling. With these

  7. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Jr., Carlos M.; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications. PMID:27581550

  8. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M., Jr.; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  9. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L

    2016-01-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications. PMID:27581550

  10. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  11. High-Current Gain Two-Dimensional MoS₂-Base Hot-Electron Transistors.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos M; Lan, Yann-Wen; Zeng, Caifu; Chen, Jyun-Hong; Kou, Xufeng; Navabi, Aryan; Tang, Jianshi; Montazeri, Mohammad; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Zhong, Yuan-Liang; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Chii-Dong; Wang, Kang L

    2015-12-01

    The vertical transport of nonequilibrium charge carriers through semiconductor heterostructures has led to milestones in electronics with the development of the hot-electron transistor. Recently, significant advances have been made with atomically sharp heterostructures implementing various two-dimensional materials. Although graphene-base hot-electron transistors show great promise for electronic switching at high frequencies, they are limited by their low current gain. Here we show that, by choosing MoS2 and HfO2 for the filter barrier interface and using a noncrystalline semiconductor such as ITO for the collector, we can achieve an unprecedentedly high-current gain (α ∼ 0.95) in our hot-electron transistors operating at room temperature. Furthermore, the current gain can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude with the collector-base voltage albeit this feature currently presents a drawback in the transistor performance metrics such as poor output resistance and poor intrinsic voltage gain. We anticipate our transistors will pave the way toward the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density, low-energy, and high-frequency hot-carrier electronic applications. PMID:26524388

  12. Electron interactions in the two-dimensional electron-gas base of a vertical hot-electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, P.; Kelly, M. J.; Law, V. J.; Hasko, D. G.; Pepper, M.; Stobbs, W. M.; Ahmed, H.; Peacock, D. C.; Frost, J. E. F.; Ritchie, D. A.; Jones, G. A. C.

    1990-12-01

    We present results on the interaction of hot and cold electrons in a large-area two-dimensional electron-gas-base hot-electron transistor. Four-terminal magnetoresistance measurements of the cold electrons in the two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) base, as a function of forward-emitter bias, VEB, show significant deviations from the zero-bias condition. We identify two distinct regimes: (i) an enhanced interface scattering as the 2DEG is forced against the collector-barrier heterojunction for low biases before emitter-current injection and (ii) an electron-heating effect in the 2DEG once current injection occurs. We invoke a simple heat-exchange argument to analyze the relaxation of the injected hot carriers.

  13. Negative differential resistance in GaN tunneling hot electron transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhichao; Nath, Digbijoy; Rajan, Siddharth

    2014-11-17

    Room temperature negative differential resistance is demonstrated in a unipolar GaN-based tunneling hot electron transistor. Such a device employs tunnel-injected electrons to vary the electron energy and change the fraction of reflected electrons, and shows repeatable negative differential resistance with a peak to valley current ratio of 7.2. The device was stable when biased in the negative resistance regime and tunable by changing collector bias. Good repeatability and double-sweep characteristics at room temperature show the potential of such device for high frequency oscillators based on quasi-ballistic transport.

  14. Electroluminescence of hot electrons in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors under radio frequency operation

    SciTech Connect

    Brazzini, Tommaso Sun, Huarui; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin; Casbon, Michael A.; Lees, Jonathan; Tasker, Paul J.; Jung, Helmut; Blanck, Hervé

    2015-05-25

    Hot electrons in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors are studied during radio frequency (RF) and DC operation by means of electroluminescence (EL) microscopy and spectroscopy. The measured EL intensity is decreased under RF operation compared to DC at the same average current, indicating a lower hot electron density. This is explained by averaging the DC EL intensity over the measured load line used in RF measurements, giving reasonable agreement. In addition, the hot electron temperature is lower by up to 15% under RF compared to DC, again at least partially explainable by the weighted averaging along the specific load line. However, peak electron temperature under RF occurs at high V{sub DS} and low I{sub DS} where EL is insignificant suggesting that any wear-out differences between RF and DC stress of the devices will depend on the balance between hot-carrier and field driven degradation mechanisms.

  15. Mechanism of hot electron electroluminescence in GaN-based transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazzini, Tommaso; Sun, Huarui; Sarti, Francesco; Pomeroy, James W.; Hodges, Chris; Gurioli, Massimo; Vinattieri, Anna; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The nature of hot electron electroluminescence (EL) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors is studied and attributed to Bremsstrahlung. The spectral distribution has been corrected, for the first time, for interference effects due to the multilayered device structure, and this was shown to be crucial for the correct interpretation of the data, avoiding artefacts in the spectrum and misinterpretation of the results. An analytical expression for the spectral distribution of emitted light is derived assuming Bremsstrahlung as the only origin and compared to the simplified exponential model for the high energy tail commonly used for electron temperature extraction: the electron temperature obtained results about 20% lower compared to the approximated exponential model. Comparison of EL intensity for devices from different wafers illustrated the dependence of EL intensity on the material quality. The polarization of electroluminescence also confirms Bremsstrahlung as the dominant origin of the light emitted, ruling out other possible main mechanisms.

  16. Modeling and Design of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors through Monte Carlo Particle-based Device Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soligo, Riccardo

    In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the description of the simulation tool used to obtain the results shown in this work. Moreover, a separate section is dedicated the set up of a procedure to validate to the tunneling algorithm recently implemented in the simulator. Chapter 2 introduces High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), state-of-art devices characterized by highly non linear transport phenomena that require the use of advanced simulation methods. The techniques for device modeling are described applied to a recent GaN-HEMT, and they are validated with experimental measurements. The main techniques characterization techniques are also described, including the original contribution provided by this work. Chapter 3 focuses on a popular technique to enhance HEMTs performance: the down-scaling of the device dimensions. In particular, this chapter is dedicated to lateral scaling and the calculation of a limiting cutoff frequency for a device of vanishing length. Finally, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 describe the modeling of Hot Electron Transistors (HETs). The simulation approach is validated by matching the current characteristics with the experimental one before variations of the layouts are proposed to increase the current gain to values suitable for amplification. The frequency response of these layouts is calculated, and modeled by a small signal circuit. For this purpose, a method to directly calculate the capacitance is developed which provides a graphical picture of the capacitative phenomena that limit the frequency response in devices. In Chapter 5 the properties of the hot electrons are investigated for different injection energies, which are obtained by changing the layout of the emitter barrier. Moreover, the large signal characterization of the

  17. Resonant plasmonic terahertz detection in vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze dynamic properties of vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors (GB-HETs) and consider their operation as detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the developed device model. The GB-HET model accounts for the tunneling electron injection from the emitter, electron propagation across the barrier layers with the partial capture into the GB, and the self-consistent oscillations of the electric potential and the hole density in the GB (plasma oscillations), as well as the quantum capacitance and the electron transit-time effects. Using the proposed device model, we calculate the responsivity of GB-HETs operating as THz detectors as a function of the signal frequency, applied bias voltages, and the structural parameters. The inclusion of the plasmonic effect leads to the possibility of the GB-HET operation at the frequencies significantly exceeding those limited by the characteristic RC-time. It is found that the responsivity of GB-HETs with a sufficiently perfect GB exhibits sharp resonant maxima in the THz range of frequencies associated with the excitation of plasma oscillations. The positions of these maxima are controlled by the applied bias voltages. The GB-HETs can compete with and even surpass other plasmonic THz detectors.

  18. Resonant plasmonic terahertz detection in vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-11-28

    We analyze dynamic properties of vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors (GB-HETs) and consider their operation as detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the developed device model. The GB-HET model accounts for the tunneling electron injection from the emitter, electron propagation across the barrier layers with the partial capture into the GB, and the self-consistent oscillations of the electric potential and the hole density in the GB (plasma oscillations), as well as the quantum capacitance and the electron transit-time effects. Using the proposed device model, we calculate the responsivity of GB-HETs operating as THz detectors as a function of the signal frequency, applied bias voltages, and the structural parameters. The inclusion of the plasmonic effect leads to the possibility of the GB-HET operation at the frequencies significantly exceeding those limited by the characteristic RC-time. It is found that the responsivity of GB-HETs with a sufficiently perfect GB exhibits sharp resonant maxima in the THz range of frequencies associated with the excitation of plasma oscillations. The positions of these maxima are controlled by the applied bias voltages. The GB-HETs can compete with and even surpass other plasmonic THz detectors.

  19. Current gain above 10 in sub-10 nm base III-Nitride tunneling hot electron transistors with GaN/AlN emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhichao; Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-05-01

    We report on a tunneling hot electron transistor amplifier with common-emitter current gain greater than 10 at a collector current density in excess of 40 kA/cm2. The use of a wide-bandgap GaN/AlN (111 nm/2.5 nm) emitter was found to greatly improve injection efficiency of the emitter and reduce cold electron leakage. With an ultra-thin (8 nm) base, 93% of the injected hot electrons were collected, enabling a common-emitter current gain up to 14.5. This work improves understanding of the quasi-ballistic hot electron transport and may impact the development of high speed devices based on unipolar hot electron transport.

  20. Trapping in GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor transistors: Role of high drain bias and hot electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghini, M. Bisi, D.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2014-04-07

    This paper describes an extensive analysis of the role of off-state and semi-on state bias in inducing the trapping in GaN-based power High Electron Mobility Transistors. The study is based on combined pulsed characterization and on-resistance transient measurements. We demonstrate that—by changing the quiescent bias point from the off-state to the semi-on state—it is possible to separately analyze two relevant trapping mechanisms: (i) the trapping of electrons in the gate-drain access region, activated by the exposure to high drain bias in the off-state; (ii) the trapping of hot-electrons within the AlGaN barrier or the gate insulator, which occurs when the devices are operated in the semi-on state. The dependence of these two mechanisms on the bias conditions and on temperature, and the properties (activation energy and cross section) of the related traps are described in the text.

  1. Current gain in sub-10 nm base GaN tunneling hot electron transistors with AlN emitter barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhichao Zhang, Yuewei; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Rajan, Siddharth; Khurgin, Jacob B.

    2015-01-19

    We report on Gallium Nitride-based tunneling hot electron transistor amplifier with common-emitter current gain greater than 1. Small signal current gain up to 5 and dc current gain of 1.3 were attained in common-emitter configuration with collector current density in excess of 50 kA/cm{sup 2}. The use of a combination of 1 nm GaN/3 nm AlN layers as an emitter tunneling barrier was found to improve the energy collimation of the injected electrons. These results represent demonstration of unipolar vertical transistors in the III-nitride system that can potentially lead to higher frequency and power microwave devices.

  2. Electron-electron scattering-induced channel hot electron injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with high-k/metal gate stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Ho, Szu-Han; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen

    2014-10-06

    This work investigates electron-electron scattering (EES)-induced channel hot electron (CHE) injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (n-MOSFETs) with high-k/metal gate stacks. Many groups have proposed new models (i.e., single-particle and multiple-particle process) to well explain the hot carrier degradation in nanoscale devices and all mechanisms focused on Si-H bond dissociation at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. However, for high-k dielectric devices, experiment results show that the channel hot carrier trapping in the pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. Therefore, we propose a model of EES-induced CHE injection to illustrate the trapping-dominant mechanism in nanoscale n-MOSFETs with high-k/metal gate stacks.

  3. Ensemble Monte Carlo particle investigation of hot electron induced source-drain burnout characteristics of GaAs field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moglestue, C.; Buot, F. A.; Anderson, W. T.

    1995-08-01

    The lattice heating rate has been calculated for GaAs field-effect transistors of different source-drain channel design by means of the ensemble Monte Carlo particle model. Transport of carriers in the substrate and the presence of free surface charges are also included in our simulation. The actual heat generation was obtained by accounting for the energy exchanged with the lattice of the semiconductor during phonon scattering. It was found that the maximum heating rate takes place below the surface near the drain end of the gate. The results correlate well with a previous hydrodynamic energy transport estimate of the electronic energy density, but shifted slightly more towards the drain. These results further emphasize the adverse effects of hot electrons on the Ohmic contacts.

  4. Enhanced thermal radiation in terahertz and far-infrared regime by hot phonon excitation in a field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Pei-Kang; Yen, Shun-Tung

    2014-11-14

    We demonstrate the hot phonon effect on thermal radiation in the terahertz and far-infrared regime. A pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor is used for efficiently exciting hot phonons. Boosting the hot phonon population can enhance the efficiency of thermal radiation. The transistor can yield at least a radiation power of 13 μW and a power conversion efficiency higher than a resistor by more than 20%.

  5. Velocity Saturation of Hot Carriers in Two-Dimensional Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Jonathan

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides, have emerged in recent years as possible ``channel-replacement'' materials for use in future generations of post-CMOS devices. Realizing the full potential of these materials requires strategies to maximize their current-carrying capacity, while minimizing Joule losses to its environment. A major source of dissipation for hot carriers in any semiconductor is spontaneous optical-phonon emission, resulting in saturation of the drift velocity. In this presentation, I discuss the results of studies of velocity saturation in both graphene and molybdenum-disulphide transistors, emphasizing how this phenomenon impacts resulting transistor operation. While in graphene the large intrinsic optical-phonon energies promise high saturation velocities, experiments to date have revealed a significant degradation of the drift velocity that arises from the loss of energy from hot carriers to the underlying substrate. I discuss here how this problem can be overcome by implementing a strategy of nanosecond electrical pulsing [H. Ramamoorthy et al., Nano Lett., under review], as a means to drive graphene's hot carriers much faster than substrate heating can occur. In this way we achieve saturation velocities that approach the Fermi velocity near the Dirac point, and which exceed those reported for suspended graphene and for devices fabricated on boron nitride substrates. Corresponding current densities reach those found in carbon nanotubes, and in graphene-on-diamond transistors. In this sense we are able to ``free'' graphene from the influence of its substrate, revealing a pathway to achieve the superior electrical performance promised by this material. Velocity saturation is also found to be important for the operation of monolayer molybdenum-disulphide transistors, where it limits the drain current observed in saturation [G. He et al., Nano Lett. 15, 5052 (2015)]. The implications of these

  6. Kondo Effect in a Single Electron Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    1998-03-01

    When a field-effect transistor is made very small, and electrons in the channel are separated from those in the leads by tunnel junctions, the transistor turns on and off every time an extra electron is added to the channel. The droplet of electrons confined in the channel of such a single-electron transistor (SET) interacts with electrons in the leads. This is in close analogy to an impurity atom interacting with the delocalized electrons in a metal, the traditional system for studying the Kondo effect.(Y. Meir, N.S. Wingreen, and P.A. Lee. PRL) 70, 2601 (1993) I will discuss measurements on a new generation of SETs that display all the aspects of the Kondo effect:(D. Goldhaber-Gordon, Hadas Shtrikman, D. Mahalu, D. Abusch-Magder, U. Meirav, and M.A. Kastner. To be published in Nature). a spin singlet forms between a localized electron in the channel and delocalized electrons in the leads, causing an enhancement of the zero-bias conductance, when the number of electrons on the artificial atom is odd but not when it is even. The system can be studied out of equilibrium by applying a voltage between the two leads, an impossible procedure in bulk Kondo systems. The spin singlet is altered by applying such a voltage or a magnetic field or by increasing the temperature, all in ways that agree with predictions. In addition, the tunability of an SET allows study of the system over a range of parameters not easily accessible to previous calculations or experiments.

  7. Extended characterization of the damage by hot charge carriers in gate oxide by short channel MOS field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnkopf, Reinhard

    Transistors from several technologies are tested by measurements of the capacities and the characteristic curves. A model allows obtaining of the gate and substrate currents. The damages at the phase limit and in the oxide are characterized by macroscopic current and voltage variations and by generated charge densities. For p-MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) transistors, the production of oxide charges is the most important fact, in relation to the injected hot electrons; for n-MOS transistors, the generation of phase limit states is the main phenomenon. It is proved that the damages are located at the chain contact in the lateral direction but appear in the transistor channel with increasing functioning time or voltage.

  8. Bipolar transistor degradation under dynamic hot carrier stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Tadahiko; David Burnett, J.; Hu, Chenming

    1995-04-01

    Hot carrier induced bipolar transistor degradation under dynamic stress is studied. The model, ΔIB ∝ ( IR1.8t) 0.5, established from d.c. emitter-base reverse bias stress measurements is found to be still valid under pulse stress down to 20 ns pulse width, where ΔIB is drift of base current, IR is reverse emitter-base current under stress and t is stress time. Although partial degradation recovery is observed under d.c. emitter-base forward bias, ΔIB from alternating reverse-forward stress representative BiCMOS circuit operation agrees with the ΔIB model with no significant recovery effect. This is explained by a higher degradation rate after recovery of previous damage. An experimental basis of BiCMOS circuit reliability testing simulation is thus provided.

  9. Silicon Hot-Electron Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Mitchell, Robert R.; Isenberg, Hal D.; Stahle, Carl M.; Cao, Nga T.; Schneider, Gideon; Travers, Douglas E.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a new type of direct detector, a silicon hot-electron bolometer, for measurements in the far-infrared and submillimeter spectral ranges. High performance bolometers can be made using the electron-phonon conductance in heavily doped silicon to provide thermal isolation from the cryogenic bath. Noise performance is expected to be near thermodynamic limits, allowing background limited performance for many far infrared and submillimeter photometric and spectroscopic applications.

  10. Impact ionization in N-polar AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Killat, N. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Uren, M. J.; Kuball, M. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Keller, S.; Kolluri, S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2014-08-11

    The existence of impact ionization as one of the open questions for GaN device reliability was studied in N-polar AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. Electroluminescence (EL) imaging and spectroscopy from underneath the device gate contact revealed the presence of hot electrons in excess of the GaN bandgap energy even at moderate on-state bias conditions, enabling impact ionization with hole currents up to several hundreds of pA/mm. The detection of high energy luminescence from hot electrons demonstrates that EL analysis is a highly sensitive tool to study degradation mechanisms in GaN devices.

  11. Examination of hot-carrier stress induced degradation on fin field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yi-Lin Yen, Tzu-Sung; Ku, Chao-Chen; Wu, Tai-Hsuan; Wang, Tzuo-Li; Li, Chien-Yi; Wu, Bing-Tze; Zhang, Wenqi; Hong, Jia-Jian; Wong, Jie-Chen; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Lin, Shih-Hung

    2014-02-24

    Degradation in fin field-effect transistor devices was investigated in detail under various hot-carrier stress conditions. The threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) shift, substrate current (I{sub B}), and subthreshold swing were extracted to determine the degradation of a device. The power-law time exponent of the V{sub TH} shift was largest at V{sub G} = 0.3 V{sub D}, indicating that the V{sub TH} shift was dominated by interface state generation. Although the strongest impact ionization occurred at V{sub G} = V{sub D}, the V{sub TH} shift was mainly caused by electron trapping resulting from a large gate leakage current.

  12. A unified electrothermal hot-carrier transport model for silicon bipolar transistor simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Simon; Reif, Rafael

    1989-04-01

    A transport model which consistently takes into account carrier and lattice heating is proposed for silicon bipolar transistor simulations. Unlike earlier nonisothermal and hot-carrier transport formulations, neither the carrier temperatures nor the device (lattice) temperature is required to be uniform. Their spatial dependence is determined from the corresponding energy balance equations. The two previous transport approaches are coupled by a new lattice heat generation model which accounts for mutual energy transfers among the carriers and the lattice through their temperature differences. By applying this model to the heat flow equation, hot-carrier induced lattice heating for a submicron npn structure is simulated. The effect of lattice heating on electron temperature distributions is discussed. Our simulation is also able to predict velocity overshoot and the Kirk effect. To study the problem of device heating, the effects on the lattice temperature due to thermal boundary characteristics and the proximity of heat sinks to the base-collector junction are investigated numerically. Device characteristics are also compared with those obtained from SEDAN.

  13. Electrolyte-gated transistors for organic and printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyun; Hong, Kihyon; Xie, Wei; Lee, Keun Hyung; Zhang, Sipei; Lodge, Timothy P; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Here we summarize recent progress in the development of electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) for organic and printed electronics. EGTs employ a high capacitance electrolyte as the gate insulator; the high capacitance increases drive current, lowers operating voltages, and enables new transistor architectures. Although the use of electrolytes in electronics is an old concept going back to the early days of the silicon transistor, new printable, fast-response polymer electrolytes are expanding the potential applications of EGTs in flexible, printed digital circuits, rollable displays, and conformal bioelectronic sensors. This report introduces the structure and operation mechanisms of EGTs and reviews key developments in electrolyte materials for use in printed electronics. The bulk of the article is devoted to electrical characterization of EGTs and emerging applications.

  14. Calculating drain delay in high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffie, R.

    2015-12-01

    An expression for the signal delay (drain delay) associated with electrons traveling through the gate-drain depletion region has been obtained for nonuniform electron velocity. Due to the presence of the gate metal, the signal delay through the gate-drain depletion region was shown to be larger than the signal delay in the base-collector depletion region of a bipolar transistor when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. Drain delay is also shown to be larger in transistors with field plates (independent of field plate connection) compared to transistors without field plates when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. For the case of constant velocity, two expressions for the proportionality constant relating drain delay and electron transit time across the depletion were obtained.

  15. Hot electron production and heating by hot electrons in fast ignitor research

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M.H.; Estabrook, K.; Hammel, B.

    1997-12-01

    In an experimental study of the physics of fast ignition the characteristics of the hot electron source at laser intensities up to 10(to the 20th power) Wcm{sup -2} and the heating produced at depth by hot electrons have been measured. Efficient generation of hot electrons but less than the anticipated heating have been observed.

  16. Single-ZnO-Nanobelt-Based Single-Electron Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiao-Fan; Xu, Zheng; Cao, Shuo; Qiu, Kang-Sheng; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Xi-Tian; Xu, Xiu-Lai

    2014-06-01

    We fabricate single electron transistors based on a single ZnO nanobelt using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The transport properties of the devices are characterized at room temperature and at low temperature (4.2 K). At room temperature, the source-drain current increases linearly as the bias voltage increases, indicating a good ohmic contact in the transistors. At 4.2 K, a Coulomb blockade regime is observed up to a bias voltage of a few millivolts. With scanning the back gate voltage, Coulomb oscillations can be clearly resolved with a period around 1 V. From the oscillations, the charging energy for the single electron transistor is calculated to be about 10 meV, which suggests that confined quantum dots exist with sizes around 35 nm in diameter. The irregular Coulomb diamonds are observed due to the multi-tunneling junctions between dots in the nanobelt.

  17. Multiplexing of Radio-Frequency Single Electron Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Pellerano, F. A.; Stahle, C. M.; Aidala, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present results on wavelength division multiplexing of radio-frequency single electron transistors. We use a network of resonant impedance matching circuits to direct applied rf carrier waves to different transistors depending on carrier frequency. A two-channel demonstration of this concept using discrete components successfully reconstructed input signals with small levels of cross coupling. A lithographic version of the rf circuits had measured parameters in agreement with electromagnetic modeling, with reduced cross capacitance and inductance, and should allow 20 to 50 channels to be multiplexed.

  18. Charge sensitivity of superconducting single-electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkov, Alexander N.

    1996-10-01

    It is shown that the noise-limited charge sensitivity of a single-electron transistor using superconductors (of either SISIS- or NISIN-type) operating near the threshold of quasiparticle tunneling, can be considerably higher than that of a similar transistor made of normal metals or semiconductors. The reason is that the superconducting energy gap, in contrast to the Coulomb blockade, is not smeared by the finite temperature. We also discuss the increase of the maximum operation temperature due to superconductivity and the peaklike features on the I-V curve of SISIS structures.

  19. Electronic transport characteristics in silicon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Guangcun; Wang, Yu; Huang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    The successful synthesis of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) has been reported, making these nanostructures a new novel candidate for future nanodevices. By self-consistently solving the Poisson equations using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism, we investigate the electronic transport and the role of gate bias in affecting the drive current of single-walled silicon nanotube (SW-SiNT) field-effect transistors (FETs). By comparison of a SW-CNT FET, it is found that the SW-SiNT with a high- k HfO gate oxide is a promising candidate for nanotube transistor with better performance. The results discussed here would serve as a versatile and powerful guideline for future experimental studies of SW-SiNT-based transistor with the purpose of exploring device application for nanoelectronics.

  20. Hot electron spin transport in C60 fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, Luis Eduardo; Gobbi, Marco; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Golmar, Federico; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Felix

    2012-02-01

    Carbon-based molecular materials are interesting for spin transport application mainly due to their small sources of spin relaxation [1]. However, spin coherence lengths reported in many molecular films do not exceed a few tens of nanometers [2]. In this work we will present results showing how hot spin-polarized electrons injected well above the Fermi level in C60 fullerene films travel coherently for hundreds of nanometers. We fabricated hot-electron vertical transistors, in which the current created across an Al/Al2O3 junction is polarized by a metallic Co/Cu/Py spin valve trilayer and subsequently injected in the molecular thin film. This geometry allows us to determine the energy level alignment at each interface between different materials. Moreover, the collector magnetocurrent excess 85%, even for C60 films thicknesses of 300 nm. We believe these results show the importance of hot spin-polarized electron injection and propagation in molecular materials. [1] V. Dediu, L.E. Hueso, I. Bergenti, C. Taliani, Nature Mater. 8, 707 (2009) [2] M. Gobbi, F. Golmar, R. Llopis, F. Casanova, L.E. Hueso, Adv. Mater. 23, 1609 (2011)

  1. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Lopez, M A; Wondmagegn, W T; Alshareef, H N; Ramirez-Bon, R; Gnade, B E

    2011-06-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed.

  2. Reconfigurable Boolean Logic Using Magnetic Single-Electron Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M. Fernando; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Zarbo, Liviu P.; Irvine, Andrew C.; Campion, Richard C.; Gallagher, Bryan L.; Jungwirth, Tomas; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid single-electron device for reprogrammable low-power logic operations, the magnetic single-electron transistor (MSET). The device consists of an aluminium single-electron transistor with a GaMnAs magnetic back-gate. Changing between different logic gate functions is realized by reorienting the magnetic moments of the magnetic layer, which induces a voltage shift on the Coulomb blockade oscillations of the MSET. We show that we can arbitrarily reprogram the function of the device from an n-type SET for in-plane magnetization of the GaMnAs layer to p-type SET for out-of-plane magnetization orientation. Moreover, we demonstrate a set of reprogrammable Boolean gates and its logical complement at the single device level. Finally, we propose two sets of reconfigurable binary gates using combinations of two MSETs in a pull-down network. PMID:25923789

  3. Reconfigurable Boolean logic using magnetic single-electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M Fernando; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Zarbo, Liviu P; Irvine, Andrew C; Campion, Richard C; Gallagher, Bryan L; Jungwirth, Tomas; Ferguson, Andrew J; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid single-electron device for reprogrammable low-power logic operations, the magnetic single-electron transistor (MSET). The device consists of an aluminium single-electron transistor with a GaMnAs magnetic back-gate. Changing between different logic gate functions is realized by reorienting the magnetic moments of the magnetic layer, which induces a voltage shift on the Coulomb blockade oscillations of the MSET. We show that we can arbitrarily reprogram the function of the device from an n-type SET for in-plane magnetization of the GaMnAs layer to p-type SET for out-of-plane magnetization orientation. Moreover, we demonstrate a set of reprogrammable Boolean gates and its logical complement at the single device level. Finally, we propose two sets of reconfigurable binary gates using combinations of two MSETs in a pull-down network.

  4. Hot electron plasmon-protected solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kong, J; Rose, A H; Yang, C; Wu, X; Merlo, J M; Burns, M J; Naughton, M J; Kempa, K

    2015-09-21

    A solar cell based on a hot electron plasmon protection effect is proposed and made plausible by simulations, non-local modeling of the response, and quantum mechanical calculations. In this cell, a thin-film, plasmonic metamaterial structure acts as both an efficient photon absorber in the visible frequency range and a plasmonic resonator in the IR range, the latter of which absorbs and protects against phonon emission the free energy of the hot electrons in an adjacent semiconductor junction. We show that in this structure, electron-plasmon scattering is much more efficient than electron-phonon scattering in cooling-off hot electrons, and the plasmon-stored energy is recoverable as an additional cell voltage. The proposed structure could become a prototype of a new generation of high efficiency solar cells. PMID:26406739

  5. Metamaterial perfect absorber based hot electron photodetection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Valentine, Jason

    2014-06-11

    While the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process that limits the performance of plasmonic devices, it has recently been shown that it can be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors. Unfortunately, the quantum efficiency of hot electron devices remains low due to poor electron injection and in some cases low optical absorption. Here, we demonstrate how metamaterial perfect absorbers can be used to achieve near-unity optical absorption using ultrathin plasmonic nanostructures with thicknesses of 15 nm, smaller than the hot electron diffusion length. By integrating the metamaterial with a silicon substrate, we experimentally demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional hot electron photodetector with a photoresponsivity that is among the highest yet reported. We also show how the spectral bandwidth and polarization-sensitivity can be manipulated through engineering the geometry of the metamaterial unit cell. These perfect absorber photodetectors could open a pathway for enhancing hot electron based photovoltaic, sensing, and photocatalysis systems. PMID:24837991

  6. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Matthew S.; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-01-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1 pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing. PMID:23918992

  7. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Matthew S; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1 pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing.

  8. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Matthew S.; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1 pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing.

  9. Coherent Hot-Electron Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Nobuya; Furuya, Kazuhito

    2001-01-01

    The structure and principle of an electron emitter ejecting electron waves with ultimate value of product of wavefront spread and current density in a solid-state condition is proposed. By introducing an additional electrode, the gate, to a double-barrier resonant-tunneling emitter, an electron flux with a single wavelength, a wide wavefront spread and high current density can be achieved. We justify the principle by electrostatic theory. This emitter might also be used for various types of solid-state spectroscopy.

  10. Superconducting Quantum Interference Single-Electron Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrico, Emanuele; Giazotto, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    We propose the concept of a quantized single-electron source based on the interplay between Coulomb blockade and magnetic flux-controllable superconducting proximity effect. We show that flux dependence of the induced energy gap in the density of states of a nanosized metallic wire can be exploited as an efficient tunable energy barrier which enables charge-pumping configurations with enhanced functionalities. This control parameter strongly affects the charging landscape of a normal metal island with non-negligible Coulombic energy. Under a suitable evolution of a time-dependent magnetic flux the structure behaves like a turnstile for single electrons in a fully electrostatic regime.

  11. Electronic transport in benzodifuran single-molecule transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, An; Li, Hui; Chen, Songjie; Liu, Shi-Xia; Decurtins, Silvio; Bai, Meilin; Hou, Shimin; Liao, Jianhui

    2015-04-01

    Benzodifuran (BDF) single-molecule transistors have been fabricated in electromigration break junctions for electronic measurements. The inelastic electron tunneling spectrum validates that the BDF molecule is the pathway of charge transport. The gating effect is analyzed in the framework of a single-level tunneling model combined with transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS). The analysis reveals that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the thiol-terminated BDF molecule dominates the charge transport through Au-BDF-Au junctions. Moreover, the energy shift of the HOMO caused by the gate voltage is the main reason for conductance modulation. In contrast, the electronic coupling between the BDF molecule and the gold electrodes, which significantly affects the low-bias junction conductance, is only influenced slightly by the applied gate voltage. These findings will help in the design of future molecular electronic devices.Benzodifuran (BDF) single-molecule transistors have been fabricated in electromigration break junctions for electronic measurements. The inelastic electron tunneling spectrum validates that the BDF molecule is the pathway of charge transport. The gating effect is analyzed in the framework of a single-level tunneling model combined with transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS). The analysis reveals that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the thiol-terminated BDF molecule dominates the charge transport through Au-BDF-Au junctions. Moreover, the energy shift of the HOMO caused by the gate voltage is the main reason for conductance modulation. In contrast, the electronic coupling between the BDF molecule and the gold electrodes, which significantly affects the low-bias junction conductance, is only influenced slightly by the applied gate voltage. These findings will help in the design of future molecular electronic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The fabrication procedure for BDF single

  12. Intrinsic magnetic refrigeration of a single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccarelli, C.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we show that aluminium doped with low concentrations of magnetic impurities can be used to fabricate quantum devices with intrinsic cooling capabilities. We fabricate single electron transistors made of aluminium doped with 2% Mn by using a standard multi angle evaporation technique and show that the quantity of metal used to fabricate the devices generates enough cooling power to achieve a drop of 160 mK in the electron temperature at the base temperature of our cryostat (300 mK). The cooling mechanism is based on the magneto-caloric effect from the diluted Mn moments.

  13. Electron density window for best frequency performance, lowest phase noise and slowest degradation of GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulionis, Arvydas

    2013-07-01

    The problems in the realm of nitride heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) are discussed in terms of a novel fluctuation-dissipation-based approach impelled by a recent demonstration of strong correlation of hot-electron fluctuations with frequency performance and degradation of the devices. The correlation has its genesis in the dissipation of the LO-mode heat accumulated by the non-equilibrium longitudinal optical phonons (hot phonons) confined in the channel that hosts the high-density hot-electron gas subjected to a high electric field. The LO-mode heat causes additional scattering of hot electrons and facilitates defect formation in a different manner than the conventional heat contained mainly in the acoustic phonon mode. We treat the heat dissipation problem in terms of the hot-phonon lifetime responsible for the conversion of the non-migrant hot phonons into migrant acoustic modes and other vibrations. The lifetime is measured over a wide range of electron density and supplied electric power. The optimal conditions for the dissipation of the LO-mode heat are associated with the plasmon-assisted disintegration of hot phonons. Signatures of plasmons are experimentally resolved in fluctuations, dissipation, hot-electron transport, transistor frequency performance, transistor phase noise and transistor reliability. In particular, a slower degradation and a faster operation of GaN-based HFETs take place inside the electron density window where the resonant plasmon-assisted ultrafast dissipation of the LO-mode heat comes into play. A novel heterostructure design for the possible improvement of HFET performance is proposed, implemented and tested.

  14. Hot electron dynamics in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Meng-Chieh

    2011-01-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structure allotrope of carbon atoms, has a long history since the invention of the pencil [Petroski (1989)] and the linear dispersion band structure proposed by Wallace [Wal]; however, only after Novoselov et al. successively isolated graphene from graphite [Novoselov et al. (2004)], it has been studied intensively during the recent years. It draws so much attentions not only because of its potential application in future electronic devices but also because of its fundamental properties: its quasiparticles are governed by the two-dimensional Dirac equation, and exhibit a variety of phenomena such as the anomalous integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) [Novoselov et al. (2005)] measured experimentally, a minimal conductivity at vanishing carrier concentration [Neto et al. (2009)], Kondo effect with magnetic element doping [Hentschel and Guinea (2007)], Klein tunneling in p-n junctions [Cheianov and Fal’ko (2006), Beenakker (2008)], Zitterbewegung [Katsnelson (2006)], and Schwinger pair production [Schwinger (1951); Dora and Moessner (2010)]. Although both electron-phonon coupling and photoconductivity in graphene also draws great attention [Yan et al. (2007); Satou et al. (2008); Hwang and Sarma (2008); Vasko and Ryzhii (2008); Mishchenko (2009)], the nonequilibrium behavior based on the combination of electronphonon coupling and Schwinger pair production is an intrinsic graphene property that has not been investigated. Our motivation for studying clean graphene at low temperature is based on the following effect: for a fixed electric field, below a sufficiently low temperature linear eletric transport breaks down and nonlinear transport dominates. The criteria of the strength of this field [Fritz et al. (2008)] is eE = T2/~vF (1.1) For T >√eE~vF the system is in linear transport regime while for T <√eE~vF the system is in nonlinear transport regime. From the scaling’s point of view, at the nonlinear transport regime

  15. Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kocabas, Coskun; Kim, Hoon-sik; Banks, Tony; Rogers, John A.; Pesetski, Aaron A.; Baumgardner, James E.; Krishnaswamy, S. V.; Zhang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    The potential to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in advanced electronics represents a continuing, major source of interest in these materials. However, scalable integration of SWNTs into circuits is challenging because of difficulties in controlling the geometries, spatial positions, and electronic properties of individual tubes. We have implemented solutions to some of these challenges to yield radio frequency (RF) SWNT analog electronic devices, such as narrow band amplifiers operating in the VHF frequency band with power gains as high as 14 dB. As a demonstration, we fabricated nanotube transistor radios, in which SWNT devices provide all of the key functions, including resonant antennas, fixed RF amplifiers, RF mixers, and audio amplifiers. These results represent important first steps to practical implementation of SWNTs in high-speed analog circuits. Comparison studies indicate certain performance advantages over silicon and capabilities that complement those in existing compound semiconductor technologies. PMID:18227509

  16. Exploiting plasmon-induced hot electrons in molecular electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Conklin, David; Nanayakkara, Sanjini; Park, Tae-Hong; Lagadec, Marie F; Stecher, Joshua T; Chen, Xi; Therien, Michael J; Bonnell, Dawn A

    2013-05-28

    Plasmonic nanostructures can induce a number of interesting responses in devices. Here we show that hot electrons can be extracted from plasmonic particles and directed into a molecular electronic device, which represents a new mechanism of transfer from light to electronic transport. To isolate this phenomenon from alternative and sometimes simultaneous mechanisms of plasmon-exciton interactions, we designed a family of hybrid nanostructure devices consisting of Au nanoparticles and optoelectronically functional porphyin molecules that enable precise control of electronic and optical properties. Temperature- and wavelength-dependent transport measurements are analyzed in the context of optical absorption spectra of the molecules, the Au particle arrays, and the devices. Enhanced photocurrent associated with exciton generation in the molecule is distinguished from enhancements due to plasmon interactions. Mechanisms of plasmon-induced current are examined, and it is found that hot electron generation can be distinguished from other possibilities. PMID:23550717

  17. Single electron transistor with P-type sidewall spacer gates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Li, Dong Hua; Lee, Joung-Eob; Kang, Kwon-Chil; Kim, Kyungwan; Park, Byung-Gook

    2011-07-01

    A single-electron transistor (SET) is one of the promising solutions to overcome the scaling limit of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). Up to now, various kinds of SETs are being proposed and SETs with a dual gate (DG) structure using an electrical potential barrier have been demonstrated for room temperature operation. To operate DG-SETs, however, extra bias of side gates is necessary. It causes new problems that the electrode for side gates and the extra bias for electrical barrier increase the complexity in circuit design and operation power consumption, respectively. For the reason, a new mechanism using work function (WF) difference is applied to operate a SET at room temperature by three electrodes. Its structure consists of an undoped active region, a control gate, n-doped source/drain electrodes, and metal/silicide or p-type silicon side gates, and a SET with metal/silicide gates or p-type silicon gates forms tunnel barriers induced by work function between an undoped channel and grounded side gates. Via simulation, the effectiveness of the new mechanism is confirmed through various silicide materials that have different WF values. Furthermore, by considering the realistic conditions of the fabrication process, SET with p-type sidewall spacer gates was designed, and its brief fabrication process was introduced. The characteristics of its electrical barrier and the controllability of its control gate were also confirmed via simulation. Finally, a single-hole transistor with n-type sidewall spacer gates was designed. PMID:22121580

  18. Reliable strain measurement in transistor arrays by robust scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun; Kim, Joong Jung; Jung, Younheum; Lee, Kyungwoo; Byun, Gwangsun; Hwang, KyoungHwan; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Kyupil

    2013-09-15

    Accurate measurement of the strain field in the channels of transistor arrays is critical for strain engineering in modern electronic devices. We applied atomic-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy to quantitative measurement of the strain field in transistor arrays. The quantitative strain profile over 20 transistors was obtained with high reliability and a precision of 0.1%. The strain field was found to form homogeneously in the channels of the transistor arrays. Furthermore, strain relaxation due to the thin foil effect was quantitatively investigated for thicknesses of 35 to 275 nm.

  19. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-25

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV∼γI{sup 3}, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g{sub e−ph}≈1 W/K cm{sup 2} at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  20. Electronic Model of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A pair of electronic models has been developed of a Ferroelectric Field Effect transistor. These models can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The models use the Schmitt trigger circuit as a basis for their design. One model uses bipolar junction transistors and one uses MOSFET's. Each model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current from each model has similar values to an actual FFET that was measured experimentally. T'he input and o Output resistance in the models are also similar to that of the FFET. The models are valid for all frequencies below RF levels. No attempt was made to model the high frequency characteristics of the FFET. Each model can be used to design circuits using FFET's with standard electrical simulation packages. These circuits can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The models consist of only standard electrical components, such as BJT's, MOSFET's, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. Each model is compared to the experimental data measured from an actual FFET.

  1. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroter, Michael

    At the nanoscale carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have higher carrier mobility and carrier velocity than most incumbent semiconductors. Thus CNT based field-effect transistors (FETs) are being considered as strong candidates for replacing existing MOSFETs in digital applications. In addition, the predicted high intrinsic transit frequency and the more recent finding of ways to achieve highly linear transfer characteristics have inspired investigations on analog high-frequency (HF) applications. High linearity is extremely valuable for an energy efficient usage of the frequency spectrum, particularly in mobile communications. Compared to digital applications, the much more relaxed constraints for CNT placement and lithography combined with already achieved operating frequencies of at least 10 GHz for fabricated devices make an early entry in the low GHz HF market more feasible than in large-scale digital circuits. Such a market entry would be extremely beneficial for funding the development of production CNTFET based process technology. This talk will provide an overview on the present status and feasibility of HF CNTFET technology will be given from an engineering point of view, including device modeling, experimental results, and existing roadblocks. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics.

  2. Ambipolar Organic Tri-Gate Transistor for Low-Power Complementary Electronics.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fabrizio; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Smits, Edsger C P; Roelofs, Christian W S; Janssen, René A J; Gelinck, Gerwin H; Kovács-Vajna, Zsolt M; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2016-01-13

    Ambipolar transistors typically suffer from large off-current inherently due to ambipolar conduction. Using a tri-gate transistor it is shown that it is possible to electrostatically switch ambipolar polymer transistors from ambipolar to unipolar mode. In unipolar mode, symmetric characteristics with an on/off current ratio of larger than 10(5) are obtained. This enables easy integration into low-power complementary logic and volatile electronic memories. PMID:26573767

  3. Spin-dependent transport properties in GaMnAs-based spin hot-carrier transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Ohya, Shinobu; Hai, Pham Nam; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2007-04-01

    The authors have investigated the spin-dependent transport properties of GaMnAs-based "three-terminal" semiconductor spin hot-carrier transistor (SSHCT) structures. The emitter-base bias voltage VEB dependence of the collector current IC, emitter current IE, and base current IB shows that the current transfer ratio α (=IC/IE) and the current gain β (=IC/IB) are 0.8-0.95 and 1-10, respectively, which means that GaMnAs-based SSHCTs have current amplification capability. In addition, the authors observed an oscillatory behavior of the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio with the increasing bias, which can be explained by the resonant tunneling effect in the GaMnAs quantum well.

  4. Electron and hole transport in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Saudari, Sangameshwar R.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2015-01-21

    Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both electron and hole transport simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for electrons and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for electrons than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured electron than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV.

  5. All-electric spin control in interference single electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Donarini, Andrea; Begemann, Georg; Grifoni, Milena

    2009-08-01

    Single particle interference lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. The archetypal double-slit experiment(1) has been repeated with electrons in vacuum(2,3) up to the more massive C(60) molecules.(4) Mesoscopic rings threaded by a magnetic flux provide the solid-state analogues.(5,6) Intramolecular interference has been recently discussed in molecular junctions.(7-11) Here we propose to exploit interference to achieve all-electrical control of a single electron spin in quantum dots, a highly desirable property for spintronics(12-14) and spin-qubit applications.(15-19) The device consists of an interference single electron transistor,(10,11) where destructive interference between orbitally degenerate electronic states produces current blocking at specific bias voltages. We show that in the presence of parallel polarized ferromagnetic leads the interplay between interference and the exchange interaction on the system generates an effective energy renormalization yielding different blocking biases for majority and minority spins. Hence, by tuning the bias voltage full control over the spin of the trapped electron is achieved.

  6. Fabrication and single-electron-transfer operation of a triple-dot single-electron transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Mingyu Uchida, Takafumi; Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Akira; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Ono, Yukinori; Inokawa, Hiroshi

    2015-12-07

    A triple-dot single-electron transistor was fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafer using pattern-dependent oxidation. A specially designed one-dimensional silicon wire having small constrictions at both ends was converted to a triple-dot single-electron transistor by means of pattern-dependent oxidation. The fabrication of the center dot involved quantum size effects and stress-induced band gap reduction, whereas that of the two side dots involved thickness modulation because of the complex edge structure of two-dimensional silicon. Single-electron turnstile operation was confirmed at 8 K when a 100-mV, 1-MHz square wave was applied. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that such a device with inhomogeneous tunnel and gate capacitances can exhibit single-electron transfer.

  7. Quantum criticality in ferromagnetic single-electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Stefan; Zhu, Lijun; Si, Qimiao; Natelson, D

    2005-12-27

    Considerable evidence exists for the failure of the traditional theory of quantum critical points, pointing to the need to incorporate novel excitations. The destruction of Kondo entanglement and the concomitant critical Kondo effect may underlie these emergent excitations in heavy fermion metals (a prototype system for quantum criticality), but the effect remains poorly understood. Here, we show how ferromagnetic single-electron transistors can be used to study this effect. We theoretically demonstrate a gate-voltage-induced quantum phase transition. The critical Kondo effect is manifested in a fractional-power-law dependence of the conductance on temperature (T). The AC conductance and thermal noise spectrum have related power-law dependences on frequency (omega) and, in addition, show an omega/T scaling. Our results imply that the ferromagnetic nanostructure constitutes a realistic model system to elucidate magnetic quantum criticality that is central to the heavy fermions and other bulk materials with non-Fermi liquid behavior. PMID:16354834

  8. Single-Electron Stochastic Resonance Using Si Nanowire Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Akira

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate stochastic resonance (SR) with single electrons (SEs) using nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Input signal applied to a MOSFET modulates SE transport in an average manner based on nonlinear characteristics. On the other hand, an individual SE goes through the MOSFET in a completely random manner, which corresponds to shot noise. SEs transferred to a storage node are counted precisely by the other MOSFET and used as an output signal. The correlation between the input and output signals is improved by taking advantage of extrinsic noise as well as the intrinsic shot noise composed of SEs. It is confirmed that the shot-noise-assisted SR allows fast operation with a simple system. Pattern perception utilizing SR is also demonstrated.

  9. On the importance of electron-electron scattering for hot-carrier degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyaginov, Stanislav; Bina, Markus; Franco, Jacopo; Wimmer, Yannick; Kaczer, Ben; Grasser, Tibor

    2015-04-01

    Using our physics based model for hot-carrier degradation (HCD) we analyze the importance of the effect of electron-electron scattering (EES) on HCD in transistors with different channel lengths. The model is based on a thorough treatment of carrier transport and is implemented into the deterministic Boltzmann transport equation solver ViennaSHE. Two competing mechanism of Si-H bond-breakage are captured by the model: the one triggered by the multiple vibrational excitation of the bond and another which is due to excitation of one of the bonding electrons to an antibonding state by a solitary hot carrier. These processes are considered self-consistently as competing pathways of the same dissociation reaction. To analyze the importance of the EES process we use a series of nMOSFETs with identical architecture but different gate lengths. The gate length varies in the wide range of 44-300 nm to cover short-channel MOSFETs as well as their longer counterparts. According to previous findings, EES starts to become important at a channel length of 180 nm. This situation is captured in the targeted gate length interval. Our results show that the channel length alone is not a sufficient criterion on the importance of EES and that the applied bias conditions have to be taken into account as well.

  10. Theory of hot electron photoemission from graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Lay Kee; Liang, Shijun

    Motivated by the development of Schottky-type photodetectors, some theories have been proposed to describe how the hot carriers generated by the incident photon are transported over the Schottky barrier through the internal photoelectric effect. One of them is Fowler's law proposed as early as 1931, which studied the temperature dependence of photoelectric curves of clean metals. This law is very successful in accounting for mechanism of detecting photons of energy lower than the band gap of semiconductor based on conventional metal/semiconductor Schottky diode. With the goal of achieving better performance, graphene/silicon contact-based- graphene/WSe2 heterostructure-based photodetectors have been fabricated to demonstrate superior photodetection efficiency. However, the theory of how hot electrons is photo-excited from graphene into semiconductor remains unknown. In the current work, we first examine the photoemission process from suspended graphene and it is found that traditional Einstein photoelectric effect may break down for suspended graphene due to the unique linear band structure. Furthermore, we find that the same conclusion applies for 3D graphene analog (e.g. 3D topological Dirac semi-metal). These findings are very useful to further improve the performance of graphene-based photodetector, hot-carrier solar cell and other kinds of sensor.

  11. Graphene vertical hot-electron terahertz detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, V.; Satou, A.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2014-09-21

    We propose and analyze the concept of the vertical hot-electron terahertz (THz) graphene-layer detectors (GLDs) based on the double-GL and multiple-GL structures with the barrier layers made of materials with a moderate conduction band off-set (such as tungsten disulfide and related materials). The operation of these detectors is enabled by the thermionic emissions from the GLs enhanced by the electrons heated by incoming THz radiation. Hence, these detectors are the hot-electron bolometric detectors. The electron heating is primarily associated with the intraband absorption (the Drude absorption). In the frame of the developed model, we calculate the responsivity and detectivity as functions of the photon energy, GL doping, and the applied voltage for the GLDs with different number of GLs. The detectors based on the cascade multiple-GL structures can exhibit a substantial photoelectric gain resulting in the elevated responsivity and detectivity. The advantages of the THz detectors under consideration are associated with their high sensitivity to the normal incident radiation and efficient operation at room temperature at the low end of the THz frequency range. Such GLDs with a metal grating, supporting the excitation of plasma oscillations in the GL-structures by the incident THz radiation, can exhibit a strong resonant response at the frequencies of several THz (in the range, where the operation of the conventional detectors based on A{sub 3}B{sub 5} materials, in particular, THz quantum-well detectors, is hindered due to a strong optical phonon radiation absorption in such materials). We also evaluate the characteristics of GLDs in the mid- and far-infrared ranges where the electron heating is due to the interband absorption in GLs.

  12. Towards parallel fabrication of single electron transistors using carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Muhammad R.; Joung, Daeha; Khondaker, Saiful I.

    2015-05-01

    Single electron transistors (SETs) are considered to be promising building blocks for post CMOS era electronic devices, however, a major bottleneck for practical realization of SET based devices is a lack of a parallel fabrication approach. Here, we have demonstrated a technique for the scalable fabrication of SETs using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The approach is based on the integration of solution processed individual SWNTs via dielectrophoresis (DEP) at the selected position of the circuit with a 100 nm channel length, where the metal-SWNT Schottky contact works as a tunnel barrier. Measurements carried out at a low temperature (4.2 K) show that the majority of the devices with a contact resistance (RT) > 100 kΩ display SET behavior. For the devices with 100 kΩ < RT < 1 MΩ, periodic, well-defined Coulomb diamonds with a charging energy of ~14 meV, corresponding to the transport through a single quantum dot (QD) was observed. For devices with high RT (>1 MΩ) multiple QD behavior was observed. From the transport study of 50 SWNT devices, a total of 38 devices show SET behavior giving a yield of 76%. The results presented here are a significant step forward for the practical realization of SET based devices.Single electron transistors (SETs) are considered to be promising building blocks for post CMOS era electronic devices, however, a major bottleneck for practical realization of SET based devices is a lack of a parallel fabrication approach. Here, we have demonstrated a technique for the scalable fabrication of SETs using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The approach is based on the integration of solution processed individual SWNTs via dielectrophoresis (DEP) at the selected position of the circuit with a 100 nm channel length, where the metal-SWNT Schottky contact works as a tunnel barrier. Measurements carried out at a low temperature (4.2 K) show that the majority of the devices with a contact resistance (RT) > 100 kΩ display SET

  13. Ab initio studies of phosphorene island single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. J.; Venkata Kamalakar, M.; Chowdhury, R.

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorene is a newly unveiled two-dimensional crystal with immense potential for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Its unique electronic structure and two dimensionality also present opportunities for single electron devices. Here we report the behaviour of a single electron transistor (SET) made of a phosphorene island, explored for the first time using ab initio calculations. We find that the band gap and the charging energy decrease monotonically with increasing layer numbers due to weak quantum confinement. When compared to two other novel 2D crystals such as graphene and MoS2, our investigation reveals larger adsorption energies of gas molecules on phosphorene, which indicates better a sensing ability. The calculated charge stability diagrams show distinct changes in the presence of an individual molecule which can be applied to detect the presence of different molecules with sensitivity at a single molecular level. The higher charging energies of the molecules within the SET display operational viability at room temperature, which is promising for possible ultra sensitive detection applications.

  14. Probing Spin Accumulation induced Magnetocapacitance in a Single Electron Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Teik-Hui; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between spin and charge in solids is currently among the most discussed topics in condensed matter physics. Such interplay gives rise to magneto-electric coupling, which in the case of solids was named magneto-electric effect, as predicted by Curie on the basis of symmetry considerations. This effect enables the manipulation of magnetization using electrical field or, conversely, the manipulation of electrical polarization by magnetic field. The latter is known as the magnetocapacitance effect. Here, we show that non-equilibrium spin accumulation can induce tunnel magnetocapacitance through the formation of a tiny charge dipole. This dipole can effectively give rise to an additional serial capacitance, which represents an extra charging energy that the tunneling electrons would encounter. In the sequential tunneling regime, this extra energy can be understood as the energy required for a single spin to flip. A ferromagnetic single-electron-transistor with tunable magnetic configuration is utilized to demonstrate the proposed mechanism. It is found that the extra threshold energy is experienced only by electrons entering the islands, bringing about asymmetry in the measured Coulomb diamond. This asymmetry is an unambiguous evidence of spin accumulation induced tunnel magnetocapacitance, and the measured magnetocapacitance value is as high as 40%. PMID:26348794

  15. THz Hot-Electron Photon Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Sergeev, Andrei V.

    2004-01-01

    We present a concept for the hot-electron transition-edge sensor capable of counting THz photons. The main need for such a sensor is a spectroscopy on future space telescopes where a background limited NEP approx. 10(exp -20) W/H(exp 1/2) is expected at around 1 THz. Under these conditions, the rate of photon arrival is very low and any currently imaginable detector with sufficient sensitivity will operate in the photon counting mode. The Hot-Electron Photon Counter based on a submicron-size Ti bridge has a very low heat capacity which provides a high enough energy resolution (approx.140 GHz) at 0.3 K. With the sensor time constant of a few microseconds, the dynamic range would be approx. 30 dB. The sensor couples to radiation via a planar antenna and is read by a SQUID amplifier or by a 1-bit RSFQ ADC. A compact array of the antenna-coupled counters can be fabricated on a silicon wafer without membranes.

  16. Free electron gas primary thermometer: The bipolar junction transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.

    2013-11-04

    The temperature of a bipolar transistor is extracted probing its carrier energy distribution through its collector current, obtained under appropriate polarization conditions, following a rigorous mathematical method. The obtained temperature is independent of the transistor physical properties as current gain, structure (Homo-junction or hetero-junction), and geometrical parameters, resulting to be a primary thermometer. This proposition has been tested using off the shelf silicon transistors at thermal equilibrium with water at its triple point, the transistor temperature values obtained involve an uncertainty of a few milli-Kelvin. This proposition has been successfully tested in the temperature range of 77–450 K.

  17. Flute-interchange stability in a hot electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several topics in the kinetic stability theory of flute-interchange modes in a hot electron plasma are discussed. The stability analysis of the hot-electron, curvature-driven flute-interchange mode, previously performed in a slab geometry, is extended to a cylindrical plasma. The cold electron concentration necessary for stability differs substantially from previous criteria. The inclusion of a finite temperature background plasma in the stability analysis results in an ion curvature-driven flute-interchange mode which may be stabilized by either hot-electron diamagnetic effects, hot-electron plasma density, or finite (ion) Larmor radius effects.

  18. Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots.

    PubMed

    Harutyunyan, Hayk; Martinson, Alex B F; Rosenmann, Daniel; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Besteiro, Lucas V; Govorov, Alexander O; Wiederrecht, Gary P

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of light and matter in metallic nanosystems is mediated by the collective oscillation of surface electrons, called plasmons. After excitation, plasmons are absorbed by the metal electrons through inter- and intraband transitions, creating a highly non-thermal distribution of electrons. The electron population then decays through electron-electron interactions, creating a hot electron distribution within a few hundred femtoseconds, followed by a further relaxation via electron-phonon scattering on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In the spectral domain, hot plasmonic electrons induce changes to the plasmonic resonance of the nanostructure by modifying the dielectric constant of the metal. Here, we report on the observation of anomalously strong changes to the ultrafast temporal and spectral responses of these excited hot plasmonic electrons in hybrid metal/oxide nanostructures as a result of varying the geometry and composition of the nanostructure and the excitation wavelength. In particular, we show a large ultrafast, pulsewidth-limited contribution to the excited electron decay signal in hybrid nanostructures containing hot spots. The intensity of this contribution correlates with the efficiency of the generation of highly excited surface electrons. Using theoretical models, we attribute this effect to the generation of hot plasmonic electrons from hot spots. We then develop general principles to enhance the generation of energetic electrons through specifically designed plasmonic nanostructures that could be used in applications where hot electron generation is beneficial, such as in solar photocatalysis, photodetectors and nonlinear devices.

  19. Whistler Solitons in Plasma with Anisotropic Hot Electron Admixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse modulation instability of whistler waves in plasma, with a small admixture of hot anisotropic electrons, is discussed. If the hot particles temperature anisotropy is positive, it is found that, in such plasma, longitudinal perturbations can lead to soliton formation for frequencies forbidden in cold plasma. The soliton is enriched by hot particles. The frequency region unstable to transverse modulation in cold plasma in the presence of hot electrons is divided by stable domains. For both cases the role of hot electrons is more significant for whistlers with smaller frequencies.

  20. Towards parallel fabrication of single electron transistors using carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad R; Joung, Daeha; Khondaker, Saiful I

    2015-06-01

    Single electron transistors (SETs) are considered to be promising building blocks for post CMOS era electronic devices, however, a major bottleneck for practical realization of SET based devices is a lack of a parallel fabrication approach. Here, we have demonstrated a technique for the scalable fabrication of SETs using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The approach is based on the integration of solution processed individual SWNTs via dielectrophoresis (DEP) at the selected position of the circuit with a 100 nm channel length, where the metal-SWNT Schottky contact works as a tunnel barrier. Measurements carried out at a low temperature (4.2 K) show that the majority of the devices with a contact resistance (RT) > 100 kΩ display SET behavior. For the devices with 100 kΩ < RT < 1 MΩ, periodic, well-defined Coulomb diamonds with a charging energy of ∼14 meV, corresponding to the transport through a single quantum dot (QD) was observed. For devices with high RT (>1 MΩ) multiple QD behavior was observed. From the transport study of 50 SWNT devices, a total of 38 devices show SET behavior giving a yield of 76%. The results presented here are a significant step forward for the practical realization of SET based devices.

  1. Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg; Shur, Michael

    2015-05-07

    We present theoretical studies of the response time of the two-dimensional gated electron gas to femtosecond pulses. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the device response to a short pulse or a step-function signal is either smooth or oscillating time-decay at low and high mobility, μ, values, respectively. At small gate voltage swings, U{sub 0} = U{sub g} − U{sub th}, where U{sub g} is the gate voltage and U{sub th} is the threshold voltage, such that μU{sub 0}/L < v{sub s}, where L is the channel length and v{sub s} is the effective electron saturation velocity, the decay time in the low mobility samples is on the order of L{sup 2}/(μU{sub 0}), in agreement with the analytical drift model. However, the decay is preceded by a delay time on the order of L/s, where s is the plasma wave velocity. This delay is the ballistic transport signature in collision-dominated devices, which becomes important during very short time periods. In the high mobility devices, the period of the decaying oscillations is on the order of the plasma wave velocity transit time. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors, mixers, delay lines, and phase shifters in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits.

  2. Coulomb Blockade Oscillations in Coupled Single-Electron Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Mincheol; Lee, Seongjae; Park, Kyoung Wan

    2000-03-01

    The system we consider in this work is parallel coupled single-electron transistors (SETs) at strong coupling. For weak coupling, the transport characteristics of our coupled SETs are the same as those of the single SET, with the stability diagram exhibiting usual Coulomb diamonds. When the coupling becomes sufficiently strong, however, electron-hole binding and transport become important. In contrast to the previous works carried out in the cotunneling-dominating Coulomb blockade regime [1,2], we study e-h binding in the sequential-tunneling-dominating conducting regime. The major findings in this work are that the Coulomb diamonds in the conducting regime break up into fine internal structures at strong coupling, and that, although the cotunneling processes are much less frequent, they nonetheless play a crucial role. [1] D. V. Averin, A. N. Korotkov, and Yu. V. Nazarov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2818 (1991). [2] M. Matters, J. J. Versluys, and J. E. Mooij, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2469 (1997).

  3. Ionization damage in NPN transistors caused by lower energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingji; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Chaoming; Zhao, Zhiming; Geng, Hongbin; Lan, Mujie; Yang, Dezhuang; He, Shiyu

    2010-09-01

    Electrical degradation of two type NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) with different emitter sizes was examined under exposures of 70 and 110 keV electrons. Base and collector currents as a function of base-emitter voltage were in-situ measured during exposure. Experimental results show that both the 70 and 110 keV electrons produce an evident ionization damage to the NPN BJTs. With increasing fluence, collector currents of the NPN BJTs hardly change in the whole range of base-emitter voltage from 0 to 1.2 V, while base currents increase in a gradually mitigative trend. Base currents vary more at lower base-emitter voltages than at higher ones for a given fluence. The change in the reciprocal of current gain at a fixed base-emitter voltage of 0.65 V increases non-linearly at lower fluences and tends to be gradually saturated at higher fluences. Sensitivity to ionization damage increases for BJTs with an emitter having a larger perimeter-to-area ratio.

  4. Towards parallel fabrication of single electron transistors using carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad R; Joung, Daeha; Khondaker, Saiful I

    2015-06-01

    Single electron transistors (SETs) are considered to be promising building blocks for post CMOS era electronic devices, however, a major bottleneck for practical realization of SET based devices is a lack of a parallel fabrication approach. Here, we have demonstrated a technique for the scalable fabrication of SETs using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The approach is based on the integration of solution processed individual SWNTs via dielectrophoresis (DEP) at the selected position of the circuit with a 100 nm channel length, where the metal-SWNT Schottky contact works as a tunnel barrier. Measurements carried out at a low temperature (4.2 K) show that the majority of the devices with a contact resistance (RT) > 100 kΩ display SET behavior. For the devices with 100 kΩ < RT < 1 MΩ, periodic, well-defined Coulomb diamonds with a charging energy of ∼14 meV, corresponding to the transport through a single quantum dot (QD) was observed. For devices with high RT (>1 MΩ) multiple QD behavior was observed. From the transport study of 50 SWNT devices, a total of 38 devices show SET behavior giving a yield of 76%. The results presented here are a significant step forward for the practical realization of SET based devices. PMID:25962565

  5. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Li Qiang Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai; Zhu, Li Qiang

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  6. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li Qiang; Zhu, Li Qiang; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai

    2015-08-01

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO2 electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO2 electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  7. Inorganic proton conducting electrolyte coupled oxide-based dendritic transistors for synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Zhu, Li Qiang; Zhou, Ju Mei; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Ionic/electronic hybrid devices with synaptic functions are considered to be the essential building blocks for neuromorphic systems and brain-inspired computing. Here, artificial synapses based on indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton-conducting electrolyte films are fabricated on glass substrates. Spike-timing dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation are successfully mimicked in an individual bottom-gate transistor. Most importantly, dynamic logic and dendritic integration established by spatiotemporally correlated spikes are also mimicked in dendritic transistors with two in-plane gates as the presynaptic input terminals.Ionic/electronic hybrid devices with synaptic functions are considered to be the essential building blocks for neuromorphic systems and brain-inspired computing. Here, artificial synapses based on indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton-conducting electrolyte films are fabricated on glass substrates. Spike-timing dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation are successfully mimicked in an individual bottom-gate transistor. Most importantly, dynamic logic and dendritic integration established by spatiotemporally correlated spikes are also mimicked in dendritic transistors with two in-plane gates as the presynaptic input terminals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The structures and transfer characteristics of the IZO junctionless transistor working in bottom-gate mode and in-plane gate mode. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05882d

  8. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Luisa; Münzenrieder, Niko; Vogt, Christian; Faber, Hendrik; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Tröster, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular

  9. Electron-hole asymmetry in the electron-phonon coupling in top-gated phosphorene transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Biswanath; Nath Gupta, Satyendra; Singh, Anjali; Kuiri, Manabendra; Kumar, Chandan; Muthu, D. V. S.; Das, Anindya; Waghmare, U. V.; Sood, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    Using in situ Raman scattering from phosphorene channel in an electrochemically top-gated field effect transistor, we show that phonons with A g symmetry depend much more strongly on concentration of electrons than that of holes, wheras phonons with B g symmetry are insensitive to doping. With first-principles theoretical analysis, we show that the observed electon-hole asymmetry arises from the radically different constitution of its conduction and valence bands involving π and σ bonding states respectively, whose symmetry permits coupling with only the phonons that preserve the lattice symmetry. Thus, Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive tool for measuring electron concentration in phosphorene-based nanoelectronic devices.

  10. Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Louie, Steven G

    2015-04-28

    Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron-phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron-phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron-phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials.

  11. Elastic scattering by hot electrons and apparent lifetime of longitudinal optical phonons in gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Khurgin, Jacob B.; Bajaj, Sanyam; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-12-28

    Longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in GaN generated in the channel of high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) are shown to undergo nearly elastic scattering via collisions with hot electrons. The net result of these collisions is the diffusion of LO phonons in the Brillouin zone causing reduction of phonon and electron temperatures. This previously unexplored diffusion mechanism explicates how an increase in electron density causes reduction of the apparent lifetime of LO phonons, obtained from the time resolved Raman studies and microwave noise measurements, while the actual decay rate of the LO phonons remains unaffected by the carrier density. Therefore, the saturation velocity in GaN HEMT steadily declines with increased carrier density, in a qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  12. Elastic scattering by hot electrons and apparent lifetime of longitudinal optical phonons in gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurgin, Jacob B.; Bajaj, Sanyam; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in GaN generated in the channel of high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) are shown to undergo nearly elastic scattering via collisions with hot electrons. The net result of these collisions is the diffusion of LO phonons in the Brillouin zone causing reduction of phonon and electron temperatures. This previously unexplored diffusion mechanism explicates how an increase in electron density causes reduction of the apparent lifetime of LO phonons, obtained from the time resolved Raman studies and microwave noise measurements, while the actual decay rate of the LO phonons remains unaffected by the carrier density. Therefore, the saturation velocity in GaN HEMT steadily declines with increased carrier density, in a qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  13. Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J. R.; Hajenius, M..; Yang, Z. Q.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Khosropanah, P..; Barends, R..; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2007-06-01

    We highlight the progress on NbN hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers achieved through fruitful collaboration between SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research and Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. This includes the best receiver noise temperatures of 700 K at 1.63 THz using a twin-slot antenna mixer and 1050 K at 2.84 THz using a spiral antenna coupled HEB mixer. The mixers are based on thin NbN films on Si and fabricated with a new contact-process and-structure. By reducing their areas HEB mixers have shown an LO power requirement as low as 30 nW. Those small HEB mixers have demonstrated equivalent sensitivity as those with large areas provided the direct detection effect due to broadband radiation is removed. To manifest that a HEB based heterodyne receiver can in practice be used at arbitrary frequencies above 2 THz, we demonstrate a 2.8 THz receiver using a THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) as local oscillator.

  14. An investigation of electron and oxygen ion damage in Si npn RF power transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpa, N.; Gnana Prakash, A. P.; Praveen, K. C.; Cressler, John D.; Revannasiddaiah, D.

    The effects of 8 MeV electrons and 60 and 95 MeV oxygen ions on the electrical properties of Si npn RF power transistors have been investigated as a function of fluence. The dc current gain (hFE), displacement damage factor, excess base current (Δ IB=IBpost-IBpre), excess collector current (Δ IC=ICpost-ICpre), collector saturation current (ICS) and deep level transient spectroscopy trap signatures of the irradiated transistors were systematically evaluated.

  15. Trap state passivation improved hot-carrier instability by zirconium-doping in hafnium oxide in a nanoscale n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistors with high-k/metal gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Chen, Ching-En; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Lin, Chien-Yu; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Ye, Yi-Han

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates the effect on hot carrier degradation (HCD) of doping zirconium into the hafnium oxide high-k layer in the nanoscale high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. Previous n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistor studies demonstrated that zirconium-doped hafnium oxide reduces charge trapping and improves positive bias temperature instability. In this work, a clear reduction in HCD is observed with zirconium-doped hafnium oxide because channel hot electron (CHE) trapping in pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. However, this reduced HCD became ineffective at ultra-low temperature, since CHE traps in the deeper bulk defects at ultra-low temperature, while zirconium-doping only passivates shallow bulk defects.

  16. Unipolar complementary circuits using double electron layer tunneling transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, J.S.; Simmons, J.A.; Blount, M.A.; Reno, J.L.; Hafich, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate unipolar complementary circuits consisting of a pair of resonant tunneling transistors based on the gate control of two-dimensional{endash}two-dimensional interlayer tunneling, where a single transistor{emdash}in addition to exhibiting a well-defined negative-differential resistance{emdash}can be operated with either positive or negative transconductance. Details of the device operation are analyzed in terms of the quantum capacitance effect and bandbending in a double quantum well structure, and show good agreement with experiment. Application of resonant tunneling complementary logic is discussed by demonstrating complementary static random access memory using two devices connected in series. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron–phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron–phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron–phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials. PMID:25870287

  18. Degradation in InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors as monitored by low-frequency noise measurements: Hot phonon effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayis, C.; Ferreyra, R. A.; Wu, M.; Li, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Matulionis, A.; Morkoç, H.

    2011-08-01

    Low-frequency noise technique was applied to analyze performance of nearly lattice-matched InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors and their degradation caused by electrical stress. Nearly identical devices from the same wafer have undergone a 7 h DC electrical stress at a fixed DC drain bias of VDS = 20 V and different gate biases. We noted up to 32 dB/Hz higher low-frequency noise for stressed devices over the entire frequency range of 1 Hz-100 kHz. The measurements showed the minimum degradation at a gate-controlled two-dimensional electron gas density of 9.4 × 1012 cm-2. This result is in good agreement with the reported stress effect on drain-current degradation and current-gain-cutoff-frequency measurements and consistent with the ultrafast decay of hot-phonons due to the phonon-plasmon coupling.

  19. Superconducting hot-electron bolometer: from the discovery of hot-electron phenomena to practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurakov, A.; Lobanov, Y.; Goltsman, G.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of hot-electron phenomena in a thin superconducting film in the last century was followed by numerous experimental studies of its appearance in different materials aiming for a better understanding of the phenomena and consequent implementation of terahertz detection systems for practical applications. In contrast to the competitors such as superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions and Schottky diodes, the hot electron bolometer (HEB) did not demonstrate any frequency limitation of the detection mechanism. The latter, in conjunction with a decent performance, rapidly made the HEB mixer the most attractive candidate for heterodyne observations at frequencies above 1 THz. The successful operation of practical instruments (the Heinrich Hertz Telescope, the Receiver Lab Telescope, APEX, SOFIA, Hershel) ensures the importance of the HEB technology despite the lack of rigorous theoretical routine for predicting the performance. In this review, we provide a summary of experimental and theoretical studies devoted to understanding the HEB physics, and an overview of various fabrication routes and materials.

  20. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT ~ 0.9 GHz, fMAX ~ 1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics. PMID:25295573

  1. Hot electron bolometer development at Chalmers University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Harald F.; Cherednichenko, Sergey; Khosropanah, Pourya; Ottosson, Therese; Baubert, Jean; Kollberg, Erik L.

    2004-10-01

    In this paper recent developments of Hot Electron Bolometric receivers performed at Chalmers are summarized. This comprises progress on the mixers for HIFI and membrane HEB. All devices are modelled using Hot Spot model taking Andreev reflection at the interface between the normal conductor and the superconductor into account.

  2. Revisiting hot electron generation in ignition-scale hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruer, William; Thomas, Cliff; Strozzi, David; Meezan, Nathan; Landen, Otto; Robey, Harry

    2014-10-01

    Recent work invoking hot electron preheat in NIC ignition experiments is motivating a fresh look at hot electron generation in ignition-scale hohlraums. Various mechanisms for high energy electron generation are considered, with particular attention to their time dependence and the potential role of the two plasmon decay instability in the main laser pulse. The energy at risk calculations are updated to include the effects of cross beam energy transfer on the time-dependent energy and intensity of the inner beams as well as improvements in the calculated plasma conditions. The generation of hot electrons by the Raman-scattered light driving the two plasmon decay instability and the effect of the Weibel instability on the propagation of the hot electrons are also briefly considered. Uncertainties in interpreting the energy in hot electrons from hard x-ray measurements and techniques to reduce hot electron generation are discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Embedding plasmonic nanostructure diodes enhances hot electron emission.

    PubMed

    Knight, Mark W; Wang, Yumin; Urban, Alexander S; Sobhani, Ali; Zheng, Bob Y; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-04-10

    When plasmonic nanostructures serve as the metallic counterpart of a metal-semiconductor Schottky interface, hot electrons due to plasmon decay are emitted across the Schottky barrier, generating measurable photocurrents in the semiconductor. When the plasmonic nanostructure is atop the semiconductor, only a small percentage of hot electrons are excited with a wavevector permitting transport across the Schottky barrier. Here we show that embedding plasmonic structures into the semiconductor substantially increases hot electron emission. Responsivities increase by 25× over planar diodes for embedding depths as small as 5 nm. The vertical Schottky barriers created by this geometry make the plasmon-induced hot electron process the dominant contributor to photocurrent in plasmonic nanostructure-diode-based devices. PMID:23452192

  4. Cooling of hot electrons in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhaghen, R.; Hulin, D.; Cuzeau, S.; White, J.O.

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of the cooling rate of hot carriers in amorphous silicon are made with a two-pump, one-probe technique. The experiment is simulated with a rate-equation model describing the energy transfer between a population of hot carriers and the lattice. An energy transfer rate proportional to the temperature difference is found to be consistent with the experimental data while an energy transfer independent of the temperature difference is not. This contrasts with the situation in crystalline silicon. The measured cooling rates are sufficient to explain the difficulty in observing avalanche effects in amorphous silicon.

  5. Cryogenic Preamplification of a Single-Electron-Transistor using a Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Matthew J.; England, Troy Daniel; Bishop, Nathaniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carr, Stephen M; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-05-21

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10–100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. Furthermore, the transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 μW for the investigated range of operation. We found that the circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  6. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, M. J.; England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.; Carr, S. M.

    2015-05-18

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10–100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 μW for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  7. Cryogenic Preamplification of a Single-Electron-Transistor using a Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor

    DOE PAGES

    Curry, Matthew J.; England, Troy Daniel; Bishop, Nathaniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carr, Stephen M; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-05-21

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10–100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. Furthermore, the transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to withoutmore » the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 μW for the investigated range of operation. We found that the circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.« less

  8. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, M. J.; England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carr, S. M.; Carroll, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10-100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 μW for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  9. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, Sanyam; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-10-01

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 107 cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 1011 cm-2. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  10. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, Sanyam Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-10-12

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  11. Three-terminal graphene single-electron transistor fabricated using feedback-controlled electroburning

    SciTech Connect

    Puczkarski, Paweł; Gehring, Pascal Lau, Chit S.; Liu, Junjie; Warner, Jamie H.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Mol, Jan A.; Ardavan, Arzhang

    2015-09-28

    We report room-temperature Coulomb blockade in a single layer graphene three-terminal single-electron transistor fabricated using feedback-controlled electroburning. The small separation between the side gate electrode and the graphene quantum dot results in a gate coupling up to 3 times larger compared to the value found for the back gate electrode. This allows for an effective tuning between the conductive and Coulomb blocked state using a small side gate voltage of about 1 V. The technique can potentially be used in the future to fabricate all-graphene based room temperature single-electron transistors or three terminal single molecule transistors with enhanced gate coupling.

  12. Theoretical analysis of hot electron dynamics in nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Kumarasinghe, Chathurangi S.; Premaratne, Malin; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2015-01-01

    Localised surface plasmons create a non-equilibrium high-energy electron gas in nanostructures that can be injected into other media in energy harvesting applications. Here, we derive the rate of this localised-surface-plasmon mediated generation of hot electrons in nanorods and the rate of injecting them into other media by considering quantum mechanical motion of the electron gas. Specifically, we use the single-electron wave function of a particle in a cylindrical potential well and the electric field enhancement factor of an elongated ellipsoid to derive the energy distribution of electrons after plasmon excitation. We compare the performance of nanorods with equivolume nanoparticles of other shapes such as nanospheres and nanopallets and report that nanorods exhibit significantly better performance over a broad spectrum. We present a comprehensive theoretical analysis of how different parameters contribute to efficiency of hot-electron harvesting in nanorods and reveal that increasing the aspect ratio can increase the hot-electron generation and injection, but the volume shows an inverse dependency when efficiency per unit volume is considered. Further, the electron thermalisation time shows much less influence on the injection rate. Our derivations and results provide the much needed theoretical insight for optimization of hot-electron harvesting process in highly adaptable metallic nanorods. PMID:26202823

  13. Full counting statistics for a single-electron transistor: nonequilibrium effects at intermediate conductance.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Golubev, Dmitri S; Schön, Gerd

    2006-03-01

    We evaluate the current distribution for a single-electron transistor with intermediate strength tunnel conductance. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh approach and the drone (Majorana) fermion representation, we account for the renormalization of system parameters. Nonequilibrium effects induce a lifetime broadening of the charge-state levels, which suppress large current fluctuations.

  14. Reliable determination of the Cu/n-Si Schottky barrier height by using in-device hot-electron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Parui, Subir E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Ribeiro, Mário; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Sun, Xiangnan; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E. E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu

    2015-11-02

    We show the operation of a Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu/n-Si hot-electron transistor for the straightforward determination of a metal/semiconductor energy barrier height even at temperatures below carrier-freeze out in the semiconductor. The hot-electron spectroscopy measurements return a fairly temperature independent value for the Cu/n-Si barrier of 0.66 ± 0.04 eV at temperatures below 180 K, in substantial accordance with mainstream methods based on complex fittings of either current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The Cu/n-Si hot-electron transistors exhibit an OFF current of ∼2 × 10{sup −13} A, an ON/OFF ratio of ∼10{sup 5}, and an equivalent subthreshold swing of ∼96 mV/dec at low temperatures, which are suitable values for potential high frequency devices.

  15. Wavelength Division Multiplexing Scheme for Radio-Frequency Single Electron Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Pellerano, F. A.; Stahle, C. M.; Aidala, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We describe work on a wavelength division multiplexing scheme for radio-frequency single electron transistors. We use a network of resonant impedance matching circuits to direct applied rf carrier waves to different transistors depending on carrier frequency. Using discrete components, we made a two-channel demonstration of this concept and successfully reconstructed input signals with small levels of cross coupling. A lithographic version of the rf circuits had measured parameters in agreement with electromagnetic modeling, with reduced cross capacitance and inductance, and should allow 20 to 50 channels to be multiplexed.

  16. Light quasiparticles dominate electronic transport in molecular crystal field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. Q.; Podzorov, V.; Sai, N.; Martin, Michael C.; Gershenson, M. E.; Di Ventra, M.; Basov, D. N.

    2007-03-01

    We report on an infrared spectroscopy study of mobile holes in the accumulation layer of organic field-effect transistors based on rubrene single crystals. Our data indicate that both transport and infrared properties of these transistors at room temperature are governed by light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands with the effective masses m[small star, filled]comparable to free electron mass. Furthermore, the m[small star, filled]values inferred from our experiments are in agreement with those determined from band structure calculations. These findings reveal no evidence for prominent polaronic effects, which is at variance with the common beliefs of polaron formation in molecular solids.

  17. Light quasiparticles dominate electronic transport in molecularcrystal field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.Q.; Podzorov, V.; Sai, N.; Martin, M.C.; Gershenson, M.E.; Di Ventra, M.; Basov, D.N.

    2007-04-30

    We report on an infrared spectroscopy study of mobile holesin the accumulation layer of organic field effect transistors based onrubrene single crystals. Our data indicate that both transport andinfrared properties of these transistors at room temperature are governedby light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands with the effectivemasses m* comparable to free electron mass. Furthermore, the m* valuesinferred from our experiments are in agreement with those determined fromband structure calculations. These findings reveal no evidence forprominent polaronic effects, which is at variance with the common beliefsof polaron formation in molecular solids.

  18. Ponderomotive Acceleration of Hot Electrons in Tenuous Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    V. I. Geyko; Fraiman, G. M.; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-02-01

    The oscillation-center Hamiltonian is derived for a relativistic electron injected with an arbitrary momentum in a linearly polarized laser pulse propagating in tenuous plasma, assuming that the pulse length is smaller than the plasma wavelength. For hot electrons generated at collisions with ions under intense laser drive, multiple regimes of ponderomotive acceleration are identified and the laser dispersion is shown to affect the process at plasma densities down to 1017 cm-3. Assuming a/Υg << 1, which prevents net acceleration of the cold plasma, it is also shown that the normalized energy Υ of hot electrons accelerated from the initial energy Υo < , Γ does not exceed Γ ~ aΥg, where a is the normalized laser field, and Υg is the group velocity Lorentz factor. Yet Υ ~ Γ is attained within a wide range of initial conditions; hence a cutoff in the hot electron distribution is predicted.

  19. Effect of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Organic Semiconductor and Its Application for Transistor-Based Dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Joon; Ha, Jun Mok; Lee, Hyeok Moo; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Ji Won; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-08-01

    The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the organic semiconductor rubrene and its application as a dosimeter was investigated. Through the measurements of photoluminescence and the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, we found that electron-beam irradiation induces n-doping of rubrene. Additionally, we fabricated rubrene thin-film transistors with pristine and irradiated rubrene, and discovered that the decrease in transistor properties originated from the irradiation of rubrene and that the threshold voltages are shifted to the opposite directions as the irradiated layers. Finally, a highly sensitive and air-stable electron dosimeter was fabricated based on a rubrene transistor.

  20. Effect of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Organic Semiconductor and Its Application for Transistor-Based Dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Joon; Ha, Jun Mok; Lee, Hyeok Moo; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Ji Won; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-08-01

    The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the organic semiconductor rubrene and its application as a dosimeter was investigated. Through the measurements of photoluminescence and the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, we found that electron-beam irradiation induces n-doping of rubrene. Additionally, we fabricated rubrene thin-film transistors with pristine and irradiated rubrene, and discovered that the decrease in transistor properties originated from the irradiation of rubrene and that the threshold voltages are shifted to the opposite directions as the irradiated layers. Finally, a highly sensitive and air-stable electron dosimeter was fabricated based on a rubrene transistor. PMID:27399874

  1. Electron acoustic wave driven vortices with non-Maxwellian hot electrons in magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Q.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Zakir, U.

    2014-07-15

    Linear dispersion characteristics of the Electron Acoustic Wave (EAW) and the corresponding vortex structures are investigated in a magnetoplasma in the presence of non-Maxwellian hot electrons. In this regard, kappa and Cairns distributed hot electrons are considered. It is noticed that the nonthermal distributions affect the phase velocity of the EAW. Further, it is found that the phase velocity of EAW increases for Cairns and decreases for kappa distributed hot electrons. Nonlinear solutions in the form of dipolar vortices are also obtained for both stationary and non-stationary ions in the presence of kappa distributed hot electrons and dynamic cold electrons. It is found that the amplitude of the nonlinear vortex structures also reduces with kappa factor like the electron acoustic solitons.

  2. Hot-electron-mediated surface chemistry: toward electronic control of catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Young; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Hyosun; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I

    2015-08-18

    Energy dissipation at surfaces and interfaces is mediated by excitation of elementary processes, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface during exothermic chemical processes. Nonadiabatic electronic excitation in exothermic catalytic reactions results in the flow of energetic electrons with an energy of 1-3 eV when chemical energy is converted to electron flow on a short (femtosecond) time scale before atomic vibration adiabatically dissipates the energy (in picoseconds). These energetic electrons that are not in thermal equilibrium with the metal atoms are called "hot electrons". The detection of hot electron flow under atomic or molecular processes and understanding its role in chemical reactions have been major topics in surface chemistry. Recent studies have demonstrated electronic excitation produced during atomic or molecular processes on surfaces, and the influence of hot electrons on atomic and molecular processes. We outline research efforts aimed at identification of the intrinsic relation between the flow of hot electrons and catalytic reactions. We show various strategies for detection and use of hot electrons generated by the energy dissipation processes in surface chemical reactions and photon absorption. A Schottky barrier localized at the metal-oxide interface of either catalytic nanodiodes or hybrid nanocatalysts allows hot electrons to irreversibly transport through the interface. We show that the chemicurrent, composed of hot electrons excited by the surface reaction of CO oxidation or hydrogen oxidation, correlates well with the turnover rate measured separately by gas chromatography. Furthermore, we show that hot electron flows generated on a gold thin film by photon absorption (or internal photoemission) can be amplified by localized surface plasmon resonance. The influence of hot charge carriers on the chemistry at the metal-oxide interface are discussed for the cases of Au, Ag, and Pt

  3. Hot-electron-mediated surface chemistry: toward electronic control of catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Young; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Hyosun; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I

    2015-08-18

    Energy dissipation at surfaces and interfaces is mediated by excitation of elementary processes, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface during exothermic chemical processes. Nonadiabatic electronic excitation in exothermic catalytic reactions results in the flow of energetic electrons with an energy of 1-3 eV when chemical energy is converted to electron flow on a short (femtosecond) time scale before atomic vibration adiabatically dissipates the energy (in picoseconds). These energetic electrons that are not in thermal equilibrium with the metal atoms are called "hot electrons". The detection of hot electron flow under atomic or molecular processes and understanding its role in chemical reactions have been major topics in surface chemistry. Recent studies have demonstrated electronic excitation produced during atomic or molecular processes on surfaces, and the influence of hot electrons on atomic and molecular processes. We outline research efforts aimed at identification of the intrinsic relation between the flow of hot electrons and catalytic reactions. We show various strategies for detection and use of hot electrons generated by the energy dissipation processes in surface chemical reactions and photon absorption. A Schottky barrier localized at the metal-oxide interface of either catalytic nanodiodes or hybrid nanocatalysts allows hot electrons to irreversibly transport through the interface. We show that the chemicurrent, composed of hot electrons excited by the surface reaction of CO oxidation or hydrogen oxidation, correlates well with the turnover rate measured separately by gas chromatography. Furthermore, we show that hot electron flows generated on a gold thin film by photon absorption (or internal photoemission) can be amplified by localized surface plasmon resonance. The influence of hot charge carriers on the chemistry at the metal-oxide interface are discussed for the cases of Au, Ag, and Pt

  4. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroter, Michael

    At the nanoscale carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have higher carrier mobility and carrier velocity than most incumbent semiconductors. Thus CNT based field-effect transistors (FETs) are being considered as strong candidates for replacing existing MOSFETs in digital applications. In addition, the predicted high intrinsic transit frequency and the more recent finding of ways to achieve highly linear transfer characteristics have inspired investigations on analog high-frequency (HF) applications. High linearity is extremely valuable for an energy efficient usage of the frequency spectrum, particularly in mobile communications. Compared to digital applications, the much more relaxed constraints for CNT placement and lithography combined with already achieved operating frequencies of at least 10 GHz for fabricated devices make an early entry in the low GHz HF market more feasible than in large-scale digital circuits. Such a market entry would be extremely beneficial for funding the development of production CNTFET based process technology. This talk will provide an overview on the present status and feasibility of HF CNTFET technology will be given from an engineering point of view, including device modeling, experimental results, and existing roadblocks.

  5. Fabrication of Tunnel Junctions For Direct Detector Arrays With Single-Electron Transistor Readout Using Electron-Beam Lithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Rhee, K. W.; Teufel, J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the fabrication of small aluminum tunnel junctions for applications in astronomy. Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions with integrated single-electron transistor readout have the potential for photon-counting sensitivity at sub-millimeter wavelengths. The junctions for the detector and single-electron transistor can be made with electron-beam lithography and a standard self-aligned double-angle deposition process. However, high yield and uniformity of the junctions is required for large-format detector arrays. This paper will describe how measurement and modification of the sensitivity ratio in the resist bilayer was used to greatly improve the reliability of forming devices with uniform, sub-micron size, low-leakage junctions.

  6. Effects of hot electron inertia on electron-acoustic solitons and double layers

    SciTech Connect

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.

    2015-07-15

    The propagation of arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitons and double layers is investigated in a plasma containing cold positive ions, cool adiabatic and hot isothermal electrons, with the retention of full inertial effects for all species. For analytical tractability, the resulting Sagdeev pseudopotential is expressed in terms of the hot electron density, rather than the electrostatic potential. The existence domains for Mach numbers and hot electron densities clearly show that both rarefactive and compressive solitons can exist. Soliton limitations come from the cool electron sonic point, followed by the hot electron sonic point, until a range of rarefactive double layers occurs. Increasing the relative cool electron density further yields a switch to compressive double layers, which ends when the model assumptions break down. These qualitative results are but little influenced by variations in compositional parameters. A comparison with a Boltzmann distribution for the hot electrons shows that only the cool electron sonic point limit remains, giving higher maximum Mach numbers but similar densities, and a restricted range in relative hot electron density before the model assumptions are exceeded. The Boltzmann distribution can reproduce neither the double layer solutions nor the switch in rarefactive/compressive character or negative/positive polarity.

  7. Terahertz oscillations of hot electrons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekwao, Samwel Kedmon

    Once a uniform electric field is turned on in graphene, carriers accelerate ballistically until they are scattered by optic phonons and the process repeats itself. In this dissertation, I will show that the oscillatory nature of the motion of the carrier distribution function manifests in damped oscillations of carrier drift velocity and average energy. In appropriate fields, the frequency of such oscillations can be in the terahertz (THz) range. The randomizing nature of optical phonon scattering on graphene's linear band structure further limits terahertz observation to a range of sample lengths. I will also show that when an ac field is superimposed onto the appropriate dc field, hot carriers in graphene undergo an anomalous parametric resonance. Such resonance occurs at about half the frequency oF = 2pieF/hoOP , where 2pi/oF is the time taken for carriers to accelerate ballistically to the optic phonon energy ho OP in a dc field F. For weak elastic scattering, the phase difference between the current and the ac field has a nonzero minimum at resonance. Dephasing increases with ac frequency for stronger elastic scattering. The overall effect could also be seen in long-range spatially periodic potentials under steady state conditions. This dissertation also shows that the soft parametric resonance (SPR) at o = etaoF is temperature independent, and the resonance factor eta ˜ 0.56 is weakly dependent on the dc field Fo. This ensures tunability of resonant frequencies in the terahertz range by varying Fo. A small signal analysis (SSA) of the time-dependent Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) reveals a second resonance peak at eta ˜ 1. This peak is prevalent at temperatures T ≤ 77 K, and appears as a weak shoulder at T = 300 K. Finally, this dissertation shows that in graphene, the motion of carriers under the influence of temporarily and spatially modulated scattering is characterized by sharp resonances. Such resonances occur when the period of the ac field

  8. Electron Scattering in Hot/Warm Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2008-01-18

    Electrical and thermal conductivities are presented for aluminum, iron and copper plasmas at various temperatures, and for gold between 15000 and 30000 Kelvin. The calculations are based on the continuum wave functions computed in the potential of the temperature and density dependent self-consistent 'average atom' (AA) model of the plasma. The cross sections are calculated by using the phase shifts of the continuum electron wave functions and also in the Born approximation. We show the combined effect of the thermal and radiative transport on the effective Rosseland mean opacities at temperatures from 1 to 1000 eV. Comparisons with low temperature experimental data are also presented.

  9. Atomically resolved real-space imaging of hot electron dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lock, D.; Rusimova, K. R.; Pan, T. L.; Palmer, R. E.; Sloan, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of hot electrons are central to understanding the properties of many electronic devices. But their ultra-short lifetime, typically 100 fs or less, and correspondingly short transport length-scale in the nanometre range constrain real-space investigations. Here we report variable temperature and voltage measurements of the nonlocal manipulation of adsorbed molecules on the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface in the scanning tunnelling microscope. The range of the nonlocal effect increases with temperature and, at constant temperature, is invariant over a wide range of electron energies. The measurements probe, in real space, the underlying hot electron dynamics on the 10 nm scale and are well described by a two-dimensional diffusive model with a single decay channel, consistent with 2-photon photo-emission (2PPE) measurements of the real time dynamics. PMID:26387703

  10. Atomically resolved real-space imaging of hot electron dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lock, D; Rusimova, K R; Pan, T L; Palmer, R E; Sloan, P A

    2015-09-21

    The dynamics of hot electrons are central to understanding the properties of many electronic devices. But their ultra-short lifetime, typically 100 fs or less, and correspondingly short transport length-scale in the nanometre range constrain real-space investigations. Here we report variable temperature and voltage measurements of the nonlocal manipulation of adsorbed molecules on the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface in the scanning tunnelling microscope. The range of the nonlocal effect increases with temperature and, at constant temperature, is invariant over a wide range of electron energies. The measurements probe, in real space, the underlying hot electron dynamics on the 10 nm scale and are well described by a two-dimensional diffusive model with a single decay channel, consistent with 2-photon photo-emission (2PPE) measurements of the real time dynamics.

  11. Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-01

    Highly efficient hot electron transport represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot electron capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the `excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot electron transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot electron/hole transport efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.

  12. Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-07

    Highly efficient hot electron transport represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot electron capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the 'excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot electron transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot electron/hole transport efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.

  13. SUBMM wave superconduction hot-electron direct detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; Delaet, B.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we have presented a concept for a hot-electron direct detector (HEDD) capable of counting single millimeter-wave photons. Such a detector meets the needs of future space far-infrared applications and can be used for background-limited detector arrays on missions like SPIRIT, 10-m filled aperture telescope, SAFIR, and SPECS.

  14. Ultrafast demagnetization by hot electrons: Diffusion or super-diffusion?

    PubMed Central

    Salvatella, G.; Gort, R.; Bühlmann, K.; Däster, S.; Vaterlaus, A.; Acremann, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast demagnetization of ferromagnetic metals can be achieved by a heat pulse propagating in the electron gas of a non-magnetic metal layer, which absorbs a pump laser pulse. Demagnetization by electronic heating is investigated on samples with different thicknesses of the absorber layer on nickel. This allows us to separate the contribution of thermalized hot electrons compared to non-thermal electrons. An analytical model describes the demagnetization amplitude as a function of the absorber thickness. The observed change of demagnetization time can be reproduced by diffusive heat transport through the absorber layer.

  15. Cylindrical and spherical electron acoustic solitary waves with nonextensive hot electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pakzad, Hamid Reza

    2011-08-15

    Nonlinear propagation of cylindrical and spherical electron-acoustic solitons in an unmagnetized plasma consisting cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a nonextensive distribution and stationary ions, are investigated. For this purpose, the standard reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the cylindrical/spherical Korteweg-de-Vries equation, which governs the dynamics of electron-acoustic solitons. The effects of nonplanar geometry and nonextensive hot electrons on the behavior of cylindrical and spherical electron acoustic solitons are also studied by numerical simulations.

  16. Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium zinc oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guodong; Wan, Changjin; Zhou, Jumei; Zhu, Liqiang; Wan, Qing

    2014-03-01

    Low-voltage (1.5 V) indium zinc oxide (IZO)-based electric-double-layer (EDL) thin-film transistors (TFTs) gated by nanogranular proton conducting SiO2 electrolyte films are fabricated on paper substrates. Both enhancement-mode and depletion-mode operation are obtained by tuning the thickness of the IZO channel layer. Furthermore, such flexible IZO protonic/electronic hybrid EDL TFTs can be used as artificial synapses, and synaptic stimulation response and short-term synaptic plasticity function are demonstrated. The protonic/electronic hybrid EDL TFTs on paper substrates proposed here are promising for low-power flexible paper electronics, artificial synapses and bioelectronics.

  17. Electric field perturbation due to impurities in GaAs through single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, S.

    2009-11-01

    The present work shows the presence of inevitable impurities in the semi-insulating GaAs domains when one is developing a single electron transistor (SET) and alters the quantization mechanism of single electron tunneling through the island. It is also indicated that these impurities decrease the amount of energy required to change the number of electrons on the island, which leads to a drastic reduction of SET quality. A theoretical model has been presented for elucidating the I- V characteristics of GaAs nano-crystals. It is found that this proposed model fits well the experimental data.

  18. Bias dependence of synergistic radiation effects induced by electrons and protons on silicon bipolar junction transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Li, Xingji; Yang, Jianqun; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi

    2015-06-01

    Bias dependence on synergistic radiation effects caused by 110 keV electrons and 170 keV protons on the current gain of 3DG130 NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) is studied in this paper. Experimental results indicate that the influence induced by 170 keV protons is always enhancement effect during the sequential irradiation. However, the influence induced by 110 keV electrons on the BJT under various bias cases is different during the sequential irradiation. The transition fluence of 110 keV electrons is dependent on the bias case on the emitter-base junction of BJT.

  19. Dependence of magnetic field and electronic transport of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-Electron Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Alvar; Singh, Simranjeet; Haque, Firoze; Del Barco, Enrique; Nguyen, Tu; Christou, George

    2012-02-01

    Dependence of magnetic field and electronic transport of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-Electron Transistor A. Rodriguez, S. Singh, F. Haque and E. del Barco Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816 USA T. Nguyen and G. Christou Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 USA Abstract We have performed single-electron transport measurements on a series of Mn-based low-nuclearity single-molecule magnets (SMM) observing Coulomb blockade. SMMs with well isolated and low ground spin states, i.e. S = 9/2 (Mn4) and S = 6 (Mn3) were chosen for these studies, such that the ground spin multiplet does not mix with levels of other excited spin states for the magnetic fields (H = 0-8 T) employed in the experiments. Different functionalization groups were employed to change the mechanical, geometrical and transport characteristics of the molecules when deposited from liquid solution on the transistors. Electromigration-broken three-terminal single-electron transistors were used. Results obtained at temperatures down to 240 mK and in the presence of high magnetic fields will be shown.

  20. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-10-08

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT~0.9 GHz, fMAX~1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics.

  1. Flexible Electronics Powered by Mixed Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrs, Michael

    A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN diode backplane technology for large area flexible digital x-ray detectors has been developed to create 7.9-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide TFT and a-Si PIN photodiode process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication and assembly of the flexible detectors. Mixed oxide semiconductor TFTs on flexible plastic substrates suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer improves both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment to the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors. Low temperature (200°C) processed amorphous silicon photodiodes were developed successfully by balancing the tradeoffs

  2. Terahertz signal detection in a short gate length field-effect transistor with a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Vostokov, N. V. Shashkin, V. I.

    2015-11-28

    We consider the problem of non-resonant detection of terahertz signals in a short gate length field-effect transistor having a two-dimensional electron channel with zero external bias between the source and the drain. The channel resistance, gate-channel capacitance, and quadratic nonlinearity parameter of the transistor during detection as a function of the gate bias voltage are studied. Characteristics of detection of the transistor connected in an antenna with real impedance are analyzed. The consideration is based on both a simple one-dimensional model of the transistor and allowance for the two-dimensional distribution of the electric field in the transistor structure. The results given by the different models are discussed.

  3. Back-action-induced excitation of electrons in a silicon quantum dot with a single-electron transistor charge sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Horibe, Kosuke; Oda, Shunri; Kodera, Tetsuo

    2015-02-02

    Back-action in the readout of quantum bits is an area that requires a great deal of attention in electron spin based-quantum bit architecture. We report here back-action measurements in a silicon device with quantum dots and a single-electron transistor (SET) charge sensor. We observe the back-action-induced excitation of electrons from the ground state to an excited state in a quantum dot. Our measurements and theoretical fitting to the data reveal conditions under which both suitable SET charge sensor sensitivity for qubit readout and low back-action-induced transition rates (less than 1 kHz) can be achieved.

  4. Optimization of Plasmon Decay Through Scattering and Hot Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJarnette, Drew

    Light incident on metal nanoparticles induce localized surface oscillations of conductive electrons, called plasmons, which is a means to control and manipulate light. Excited plasmons decay as either thermal energy as absorbed phonons or electromagnetic energy as scattered photons. An additional decay pathway for plasmons can exist for gold nanoparticles situated on graphene. Excited plasmons can decay directly to the graphene as through hot electron transfer. This dissertation begins by computational analysis of plasmon resonance energy and bandwidth as a function of particle size, shape, and dielectric environment in addition to diffractive coupled in lattices creating a Fano resonance. With this knowledge, plasmon resonance was probed with incident electrons using electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. Nanoparticles were fabricated using electron beam lithography on 50 nanometer thick silicon nitride with some particles fabricated with a graphene layer between the silicon nitride and metal structure. Plasmon resonance was compared between ellipses on and off graphene to characterize hot electron transfer as a means of plasmon decay. It was observed that the presence of graphene caused plasmon energy to decrease by as much as 9.8% and bandwidth to increase by 25%. Assuming the increased bandwidth was solely from electron transfer as an additional plasmon decay route, a 20% efficiency of plasmon decay to graphene was calculated for the particular ellipses analyzed.

  5. Terahertz hot electron bolometric detectors based on graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fatimy, A.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Boyd, A. K.; Daniels, K. M.; Gaskill, D. K.; Barbara, P.

    2015-03-01

    We study graphene quantum dots patterned from epitaxial graphene on SiC with a resistance strongly dependent on temperature. The combination of weak electron-phonon coupling and small electronic heat capacity in graphene makes these quantum dots ideal hot-electron bolometers. We measure and characterize the THz optical response of devices with different dot sizes, at operating temperatures from 2.5K to 80K. The high responsivity, the potential for operation above 80 K and the process scalability show great promise towards practical applications of graphene quantum dot THz detectors. This work was sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (Award Number N000141310865).

  6. Measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Suntrup, Donald J.; Gupta, Geetak; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2014-12-29

    We present a method for measuring the mean free path and extracting the momentum relaxation time of hot electrons in GaN using the hot electron transistor (HET). In this device, electrons are injected over a high energy emitter barrier into the base where they experience quasi-ballistic transport well above the conduction band edge. After traversing the base, high energy electrons either surmount the base-collector barrier and become collector current or reflect off the barrier and become base current. We fabricate HETs with various base thicknesses and measure the common emitter transfer ratio (α) for each device. The mean free path is extracted by fitting α to a decaying exponential as a function of base width and the relaxation time is computed using a suitable injection velocity. For devices with an injection energy of ∼1 eV, we measure a hot electron mean free path of 14 nm and calculate a momentum relaxation time of 16 fs. These values are in agreement with theoretical calculations where longitudinal optical phonon scattering is the dominant momentum relaxation mechanism.

  7. Metabolic transistor strategy for controlling electron transfer chain activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Tuli, Leepika; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-03-01

    A novel strategy to finely control a large metabolic flux by using a "metabolic transistor" approach was established. In this approach a small change in the level or availability of an essential component for the process is controlled by adding a competitive reaction that affects a precursor or an intermediate in its biosynthetic pathway. The change of the basal level of the essential component, considered as a base current in a transistor, has a large effect on the flux through the major pathway. In this way, the fine-tuning of a large flux can be accomplished. The "metabolic transistor" strategy was applied to control electron transfer chain function by manipulation of the quinone synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. The achievement of a theoretical yield of lactate production under aerobic conditions via this strategy upon manipulation of the biosynthetic pathway of the key participant, ubiquinone-8 (Q8), in an E. coli strain provides an in vivo, genetically tunable means to control the activity of the electron transfer chain and manipulate the production of reduced products while limiting consumption of oxygen to a defined amount.

  8. Hot Electron Diagnostics using X-rays and Cerenkov Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J; Fill, E E; Pretzler, G; Brandl, F; Kuba, J; Habs, D

    2003-12-21

    The propagation of laser-generated hot electrons through matter and across narrow vacuum gaps is studied. We use the ATLAS titanium-sapphire laser of Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik to irradiate 10 {proportional_to}m to 100 {proportional_to}m thick copper foils at intensities up to 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, generating electrons with temperatures in the MeV-range. After propagating through the target the electrons are detected via Cerenkov radiation generated in a suitable medium and by hard X-rays emitted from an X-ray ''fluor''. In some experiments a plastic scintillator was used to monitor the electrons. These diagnostics allow to characterize the electrons with respect to their energy, number and directionality. We also investigate the propagation of the hot electrons across narrow vacuum gaps, with a width ranging from several 100 {proportional_to}m down to 25 {proportional_to}m. The effect of self-generated fields in preventing electrons to cross the gap is demonstrated. Implications of these experiments with respect to pumping of X-ray lasers, isochoric heating by X-rays and developing optics for 4th-generation light sources will be discussed.

  9. A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; McGrath, William R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Gershenson, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    A hot-electron transition-edge superconducting bolometer with adjustable thermal relaxation speed is proposed. The bolometer contacts are made from a superconductor with high critical temperature which blocks the thermal diffusion of hot carriers into the contacts. Thus electron-phonon interaction is the only mechanism for heat removal. The speed of thermal relaxation for hot electrons in a nanometer-size superconducting bolometer with T(sub c) = 100-300 mK is controlled by the elastic electron mean free path l. The relaxation rate behaves as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures and can be reduced by a factor of 10-100 by decreasing 1. Then an antenna- or wave guide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. = 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) s will exhibit photon-noise limited performance at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEPtau = 10(exp -22) - 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) times better (ie: smaller) than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. A tremendous increase in speed and sensitivity will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications.

  10. Hot electron pump: a plasmonic rectifying antenna (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanik, Ahmet A.; Hossain, Golam I.

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely explored to improve absorption efficiency of conventional solar cells, either by employing them as a light scatterer, or as a source of local field enhancement. Unavoidable ohmic loss associated with the plasmonic metal nanostructures in visible spectrum, limits the efficiency improvement of photovoltaic devices by employing this local photon density of states (LDOS) engineering approach. Instead of using plasmonic structures as efficiency improving layer, recently, there has been a growing interest in exploring plasmoinc nanoparticle as the active medium for photovoltaic device. By extracting hot electrons that are created in metallic nanoparticles in a non-radiative Landau decay of surface plasmons, many novel plasmonic photovoltaic devices have been proposed. Moreover, these hot electrons in metal nanoparticles promises high efficiency with a spectral response that is not limited by the band gap of the semiconductors (active material of conventional solar cell). In this work, we will show a novel photovoltaic configuration of plasmonic nanoparticle that acts as an antenna by capturing free space ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic wave and rectify them through an ultrafast hot electron pump and eventually inject DC current in the contact of the device. We will introduce a bottom-up quantum mechanical approach model to explain fundamental physical processes involved in this hot electron pump rectifying antenna and it's ultrafast dynamics. Our model is based on non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, a robust theoretical framework to investigate transport and design nanoscale electronic devices. We will demonstrate some fundamental limitations that go the very foundations of quantum mechanics.

  11. Biofunctionalized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor for DNA hybridization detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Resham; Alur, Siddharth; Kim, Kyusang; Tong, Fei; Sharma, Yogesh; Kim, Moonil; Ahyi, Claude; Dai, Jing; Wook Hong, Jong; Bozack, Michael; Williams, John; Son, Ahjeong; Dabiran, Amir; Park, Minseo

    2012-06-01

    Label-free electrical detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization was demonstrated using an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based transducer with a biofunctionalized gate. The HEMT DNA sensor employed the immobilization of amine-modified single strand DNA on the self-assembled monolayers of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The sensor exhibited a substantial current drop upon introduction of complimentary DNA to the gate well, which is a clear indication of the hybridization. The application of 3 base-pair mismatched target DNA showed little change in output current characteristics of the transistor. Therefore, it can be concluded that our DNA sensor is highly specific to DNA sequences.

  12. Simulations of Electron Transport in Laser Hot Spots

    SciTech Connect

    S. Brunner; E. Valeo

    2001-08-30

    Simulations of electron transport are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial transport, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the electron plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background.

  13. Modeling of high composition AlGaN channel high electron mobility transistors with large threshold voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, Sanyam Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Akyol, Fatih; Nath, Digbijoy; Rajan, Siddharth

    2014-12-29

    We report on the potential of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) consisting of high composition AlGaN channel and barrier layers for power switching applications. Detailed two-dimensional (2D) simulations show that threshold voltages in excess of 3 V can be achieved through the use of AlGaN channel layers. We also calculate the 2D electron gas mobility in AlGaN channel HEMTs and evaluate their power figures of merit as a function of device operating temperature and Al mole fraction in the channel. Our models show that power switching transistors with AlGaN channels would have comparable on-resistance to GaN-channel based transistors for the same operation voltage. The modeling in this paper shows the potential of high composition AlGaN as a channel material for future high threshold enhancement mode transistors.

  14. Electric field driven plasmon dispersion in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ren-Bing; Qin, Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Wen

    2013-11-01

    We present a theoretical study on the electric field driven plasmon dispersion of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). By introducing a drifted Fermi—Dirac distribution, we calculate the transport properties of the 2DEG in the AlGaN/GaN interface by employing the balance-equation approach based on the Boltzmann equation. Then, the nonequilibrium Fermi—Dirac function is obtained by applying the calculated electron drift velocity and electron temperature. Under random phase approximation (RPA), the electric field driven plasmon dispersion is investigated. The calculated results indicate that the plasmon frequency is dominated by both the electric field E and the angle between wavevector q and electric field E. Importantly, the plasmon frequency could be tuned by the applied source—drain bias voltage besides the gate voltage (change of the electron density).

  15. A Heteroepitaxial Perovskite Metal-Base Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.; /Tokyo U. /JST, PRESTO /SLAC

    2011-08-11

    'More than Moore' captures a concept for overcoming limitations in silicon electronics by incorporating new functionalities in the constituent materials. Perovskite oxides are candidates because of their vast array of physical properties in a common structure. They also enable new electronic devices based on strongly-correlated electrons. The field effect transistor and its derivatives have been the principal oxide devices investigated thus far, but another option is available in a different geometry: if the current is perpendicular to the interface, the strong internal electric fields generated at back-to-back heterojunctions can be used for oxide electronics, analogous to bipolar transistors. Here we demonstrate a perovskite heteroepitaxial metal-base transistor operating at room temperature, enabled by interface dipole engineering. Analysis of many devices quantifies the evolution from hot-electron to permeable-base behaviour. This device provides a platform for incorporating the exotic ground states of perovskite oxides, as well as novel electronic phases at their interfaces.

  16. Aluminum gallium nitride/gallium nitride high electron mobility transistor fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disanto, David W.

    In the last decade, Al1-xGaxN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) have been intensively studied because their intrinsic electrical properties make them attractive for high power microwave device applications. Despite much progress, current slump continues to be a problem, limiting output power, reducing reliability, and complicating device modelling. In this work, a complete Al1-xGaxN/GaN HEMT fabrication procedure was developed, and electrical characteristics related to current slump, microwave modelling, and delay time analysis were explored. Low resistance ohmic contacts were achieved, enabling high channel current densities. Schottky contacts were developed with a new ion implant isolation architecture, enabling gate leakage currents 2 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than typical results from the literature. Through pulsed current-voltage measurements, the importance of bias stresses in the gate-source region was demonstrated for the first time. In contrast to the conventional "virtual gate" model, gate-source stresses were shown to be more important than gate-drain stresses when biased near threshold. Slow slump transients were studied by passivating transistor surfaces with ultra-thin layers. These results excluded dielectric strain and electron injection reduction as viable passivation mechanisms. A novel model was proposed associating slow slump behaviour with trapping of many electrons at screw dislocation sites. The effect of slump on RF properties was examined through microwave measurements by extracting the parasitic source and drain resistances without special biasing. Besides significantly improving the accuracy of small-signal modelling, we were able to show the bias dependence of parasitic resistances which confirmed the effect of source-side bias stressing. The question of channel electron velocities in nitride transistors remains controversial. We determined an effective electron velocity of ˜ 1.9 x 107 cm/s through two methods. We

  17. Radiation Effects in GaN-Based High Electron Mobility Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearton, S. J.; Hwang, Ya-Shi; Ren, F.

    2015-07-01

    GaN-based devices are more radiation hard than their Si and GaAs counterparts due to the high bond strength in III-nitride materials. In this paper, we review data on the radiation resistance of GaN-based transistors such as AlGaN/GaN and InAlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) to different types of ionizing radiation. The primary energy levels introduced by different forms of radiation, carrier removal rates and role of existing defects are discussed. The carrier removal rates are a function of initial carrier concentration, dose and dose rate but not of hydrogen concentration in the nitride material grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Proton and electron irradiation damage in HEMTs creates positive threshold voltage shifts due to a decrease in the two-dimensional electron gas concentration resulting from electron trapping at defect sites, as well as a decrease in carrier mobility and degradation of drain current and transconductance. Neutron irradiation created more extended damage regions and at high doses leads to Fermi level pinning, while 60Co γ-ray irradiation leads to much smaller changes in HEMT drain current relative to the other forms of radiation.

  18. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircombe, N. J.; Hughes, S. J.

    2013-11-01

    Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC) code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  19. Ultrasensitive hot-electron nanobolometers for terahertz astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Olaya, David; Karasik, Boris S; Pereverzev, Sergey V; Sergeev, Andrei V; Gershenson, Michael E

    2008-08-01

    The submillimetre or terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum contains approximately half of the total luminosity of the Universe and 98% of all the photons emitted since the Big Bang. This radiation is strongly absorbed in the Earth's atmosphere, so space-based terahertz telescopes are crucial for exploring the evolution of the Universe. Thermal emission from the primary mirrors in these telescopes can be reduced below the level of the cosmic background by active cooling, which expands the range of faint objects that can be observed. However, it will also be necessary to develop bolometers-devices for measuring the energy of electromagnetic radiation-with sensitivities that are at least two orders of magnitude better than the present state of the art. To achieve this sensitivity without sacrificing operating speed, two conditions are required. First, the bolometer should be exceptionally well thermally isolated from the environment; second, its heat capacity should be sufficiently small. Here we demonstrate that these goals can be achieved by building a superconducting hot-electron nanobolometer. Its design eliminates the energy exchange between hot electrons and the leads by blocking electron outdiffusion and photon emission. The thermal conductance between hot electrons and the thermal bath, controlled by electron-phonon interactions, becomes very small at low temperatures ( approximately 1 x 10-16 W K-1 at 40 mK). These devices, with a heat capacity of approximately 1 x 10-19 J K-1, are sufficiently sensitive to detect single terahertz photons in submillimetre astronomy and other applications based on quantum calorimetry and photon counting. PMID:18685638

  20. Few-electron edge-state quantum dots in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Benoit; Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Renard, Julien; Jehl, Xavier; Barraud, Sylvain; Triozon, François; Vinet, Maud; Duchemin, Ivan; Niquet, Yann-Michel; de Franceschi, Silvano; Sanquer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the gate-induced onset of few-electron regime through the undoped channel of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. By combining low-temperature transport measurements and self-consistent calculations, we reveal the formation of one-dimensional conduction modes localized at the two upper edges of the channel. Charge traps in the gate dielectric cause electron localization along these edge modes, creating elongated quantum dots with characteristic lengths of ∼10 nm. We observe single-electron tunneling across two such dots in parallel, specifically one in each channel edge. We identify the filling of these quantum dots with the first few electrons, measuring addition energies of a few tens of millielectron volts and level spacings of the order of 1 meV, which we ascribe to the valley orbit splitting. The total removal of valley degeneracy leaves only a 2-fold spin degeneracy, making edge quantum dots potentially promising candidates for silicon spin qubits.

  1. Computational study of hot electron generation and energy transport in intense laser produced hot dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rohini

    Present ultra high power lasers are capable of producing high energy density (HED) plasmas, in controlled way, with a density greater than solid density and at a high temperature of keV (1 keV ˜ 11,000,000° K). Matter in such extreme states is particularly interesting for (HED) physics such as laboratory studies of planetary and stellar astrophysics, laser fusion research, pulsed neutron source etc. To date however, the physics in HED plasma, especially, the energy transport, which is crucial to realize applications, has not been understood well. Intense laser produced plasmas are complex systems involving two widely distinct temperature distributions and are difficult to model by a single approach. Both kinetic and collisional process are equally important to understand an entire process of laser-solid interaction. By implementing atomic physics models, such as collision, ionization, and radiation damping, self consistently, in state-of-the-art particle-in-cell code (PICLS) has enabled to explore the physics involved in the HED plasmas. Laser absorption, hot electron transport, and isochoric heating physics in laser produced hot dense plasmas are studied with a help of PICLS simulations. In particular, a novel mode of electron acceleration, namely DC-ponderomotive acceleration, is identified in the super intense laser regime which plays an important role in the coupling of laser energy to a dense plasma. Geometric effects on hot electron transport and target heating processes are examined in the reduced mass target experiments. Further, pertinent to fast ignition, laser accelerated fast electron divergence and transport in the experiments using warm dense matter (low temperature plasma) is characterized and explained.

  2. Multiscale modeling and computation of nano-electronic transistors and transmembrane proton channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic transistors, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. In biology, proton dynamics and transport across membrane proteins are of paramount importance to the normal function of living cells. Similar physical characteristics are behind the two subjects, and model simulations share common mathematical interests/challenges. In this thesis work, multiscale and multiphysical models are proposed to study the mechanisms of nanotransistors and proton transport in transmembrane at the atomic level. For nano-electronic transistors, we introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions on an equal footing at nano-scale. Additionally, this model includes layered structures and random doping effect of nano-transistors. For transmembrane proton channels, we describe proton dynamics quantum mechanically via a density functional approach while implicitly treat numerous solvent molecules as a dielectric continuum. The densities of all other ions in the solvent are assumed to obey the Boltzmann distribution. The impact of protein molecular structure and its charge polarization on the proton transport is considered in atomic details. We formulate a total free energy functional to include kinetic and potential energies of protons, as well as electrostatic energy of all other ions on an equal footing. For both nano-transistors and proton channels systems, the variational principle is employed to derive nonlinear governing equations. The Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations are derived for nano-transistors while the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and Kohn-Sham equation are obtained for proton channels. Related numerical

  3. Strain-effect transistors: Theoretical study on the effects of external strain on III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Shervin, Shahab; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa; Bulashevich, Kirill; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2015-11-09

    This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.

  4. Electronic transport mechanisms in scaled gate-all-around silicon nanowire transistor arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Clément, N. E-mail: guilhem.larrieu@laas.fr; Han, X. L.; Larrieu, G. E-mail: guilhem.larrieu@laas.fr

    2013-12-23

    Low-frequency noise is used to study the electronic transport in arrays of 14 nm gate length vertical silicon nanowire devices. We demonstrate that, even at such scaling, the electrostatic control of the gate-all-around is sufficient in the sub-threshold voltage region to confine charges in the heart of the wire, and the extremely low noise level is comparable to that of high quality epitaxial layers. Although contact noise can already be a source of poor transistor operation above threshold voltage for few nanowires, nanowire parallelization drastically reduces its impact.

  5. The operation cutoff frequency of high electron mobility transistor measured by terahertz method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y. M. Zhuang, S. L.

    2014-07-07

    Commonly, the cutoff frequency of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) can be measured by vector network analyzer (VNA), which can only measure the sample exactly in low frequency region. In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the cutoff frequency of HEMT by terahertz (THz) technique. One example shows the cutoff frequency of our HEMT is measured at ∼95.30 GHz, which is reasonable agreement with that estimated by VNA. It is proved THz technology a potential candidate for the substitution of VNA for the measurement of high-speed devices even up to several THz.

  6. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  7. Room temperature operational single electron transistor fabricated by focused ion beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karre, P. Santosh Kumar; Bergstrom, Paul L.; Mallick, Govind; Karna, Shashi P.

    2007-07-01

    We present the fabrication and room temperature operation of single electron transistors using 8nm tungsten islands deposited by focused ion beam deposition technique. The tunnel junctions are fabricated using oxidation of tungsten in peracetic acid. Clear Coulomb oscillations, showing charging and discharging of the nanoislands, are seen at room temperature. The device consists of an array of tunnel junctions; the tunnel resistance of individual tunnel junction of the device is calculated to be as high as 25.13GΩ. The effective capacitance of the array of tunnel junctions was found to be 0.499aF, giving a charging energy of 160.6meV.

  8. Giant fluctuations of superconducting order parameter in ferromagnet-superconductor single-electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Johansson, J; Korenivski, V; Haviland, D B; Brataas, Arne

    2004-11-19

    Spin dependent transport in a ferromagnet-superconductor single-electron transistor is studied theoretically taking into account spin accumulation, spin relaxation, gap suppression, and charging effects. A strong dependence of the gap on the magnetic state of the electrodes is found, which gives rise to a magnetoresistance of up to 100%. We predict that fluctuations of the spin accumulation can play such an important role as to cause the island to fluctuate between the superconducting and normal states. Furthermore, the device exhibits a nearly complete gate-controlled spin-valve effect. PMID:15601050

  9. Electron and hole photoemission detection for band offset determination of tunnel field-effect transistor heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Qin; Kirillov, Oleg A.; Levin, Igor; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J.; Nguyen, N. V. E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn; Bijesh, R.; Datta, S.; Liang, Yiran; Peng, Lian-Mao; Liang, Xuelei E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn

    2014-11-24

    We report experimental methods to ascertain a complete energy band alignment of a broken-gap tunnel field-effect transistor based on an InAs/GaSb hetero-junction. By using graphene as an optically transparent electrode, both the electron and hole barrier heights at the InAs/GaSb interface can be quantified. For a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InAs/GaSb layer structure, the barrier height from the top of the InAs and GaSb valence bands to the bottom of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} conduction band is inferred from electron emission whereas hole emissions reveal the barrier height from the top of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} valence band to the bottom of the InAs and GaSb conduction bands. Subsequently, the offset parameter at the broken gap InAs/GaSb interface is extracted and thus can be used to facilitate the development of predicted models of electron quantum tunneling efficiency and transistor performance.

  10. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-28

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The I{sub d}-V{sub g} characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0–60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  11. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-01

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The Id-Vg characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)90H10 FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0-60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  12. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J.; Wang, Jiannong

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4 eV at a small forward bias larger than ∼2 V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a “universal” property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  13. Electronic transport properties of silicon junctionless nanowire transistors fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu-Hong, Ma; Wei-Hua, Han; Hao, Wang; Qi-feng, Lyu; Wang, Zhang; Xiang, Yang; Fu-Hua, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Silicon junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT) is fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing on a heavily n-doped SOI substrate. The performances of the transistor, i.e., current drive, threshold voltage, subthreshold swing (SS), and electron mobility are evaluated. The device shows good gate control ability and low-temperature instability in a temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. The drain currents increasing by steps with the gate voltage are clearly observed from 10 K to 50 K, which is attributed to the electron transport through one-dimensional (1D) subbands formed in the nanowire. Besides, the device exhibits a better low-field electron mobility of 290 cm2·V-1·s-1, implying that the silicon nanowires fabricated by femtosecond laser have good electrical properties. This approach provides a potential application for nanoscale device patterning. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61376096, 61327813, and 61404126) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB934104).

  14. Electronic transport properties of silicon junctionless nanowire transistors fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu-Hong, Ma; Wei-Hua, Han; Hao, Wang; Qi-feng, Lyu; Wang, Zhang; Xiang, Yang; Fu-Hua, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Silicon junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT) is fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing on a heavily n-doped SOI substrate. The performances of the transistor, i.e., current drive, threshold voltage, subthreshold swing (SS), and electron mobility are evaluated. The device shows good gate control ability and low-temperature instability in a temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. The drain currents increasing by steps with the gate voltage are clearly observed from 10 K to 50 K, which is attributed to the electron transport through one-dimensional (1D) subbands formed in the nanowire. Besides, the device exhibits a better low-field electron mobility of 290 cm2·V‑1·s‑1, implying that the silicon nanowires fabricated by femtosecond laser have good electrical properties. This approach provides a potential application for nanoscale device patterning. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61376096, 61327813, and 61404126) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB934104).

  15. Electron conductivity in warm and hot dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrett, Charles; Charest, Marc; Feinblum, David; Burrill, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The electronic conductivity of warm and hot dense matter is investigated by combining the Ziman-Evans approach with the recently developed pseudo-atom molecular dynamics (PAMD) method. PAMD gives an accurate description of the electronic and ionic structure of the plasma. The Ziman-Evans approach to conductivity, which takes the electronic and ionic structures as inputs, has been widely used but with numerous different assumptions on these inputs. Here we present a systematic study of these assumptions by comparing results to gold-standard QMD results that are thought to be accurate but are very expensive to produce. The study reveals that some assumptions yield very inaccurate results and should not be used, while others give consistently reasonable results. Finally, we show that the Thomas-Fermi version of PAMD can also be used to give accurate conductivities very rapidly, taking a few minutes per point on a single processor.

  16. Hot-electron noise properties of graphene-like systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustagi, A.; Stanton, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We study the hot-electron noise properties of two-dimensional materials with a graphene-like energy dispersion under a strong applied electric field which drives the system far from equilibrium. Calculations are based on a Boltzmann-Green-function method within a two-relaxation-time approximation that allows for both inelastic scattering coming from electron-phonon scattering and elastic scattering coming from electron-impurity scattering. The steady-state distribution function is used to calculate the average current and the low-frequency spectral density for current fluctuations (noise) in the nonequilibrium steady-state. We find that as the electric field strength increases, the noise decreases from its equilibrium thermal noise value. This is in contrast with semiconductors with a quadratic energy-wave-vector dispersion where the noise increases in a constant-relaxation-time model with the square of the electric field due to the Joule heating of the electron gas by the electric field. We have also studied these properties for an electronic dispersion with a gap introduced into the Dirac spectrum. The inclusion of the gap in the electronic dispersion causes an initial increase in the noise as a function of external electric field due to the heating of the electron gas for large gap values. At high electric fields, the noise decreases with increasing electric field as in the case of gapless dispersion at higher fields.

  17. High Electron Mobility Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates Using CMOS Compatible Processing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl; Alterovitz, Samuel; Croke, Edward; Ponchak, George

    2004-01-01

    System-on-a-chip (SOC) processes are under intense development for high-speed, high frequency transceiver circuitry. As frequencies, data rates, and circuit complexity increases, the need for substrates that enable high-speed analog operation, low-power digital circuitry, and excellent isolation between devices becomes increasingly critical. SiGe/Si modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) with high carrier mobilities are currently under development to meet the active RF device needs. However, as the substrate normally used is Si, the low-to-modest substrate resistivity causes large losses in the passive elements required for a complete high frequency circuit. These losses are projected to become increasingly troublesome as device frequencies progress to the Ku-band (12 - 18 GHz) and beyond. Sapphire is an excellent substrate for high frequency SOC designs because it supports excellent both active and passive RF device performance, as well as low-power digital operations. We are developing high electron mobility SiGe/Si transistor structures on r-plane sapphire, using either in-situ grown n-MODFET structures or ion-implanted high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures. Advantages of the MODFET structures include high electron mobilities at all temperatures (relative to ion-implanted HEMT structures), with mobility continuously improving to cryogenic temperatures. We have measured electron mobilities over 1,200 and 13,000 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature and 0.25 K, respectively in MODFET structures. The electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm at room and liquid helium temperature, respectively, denoting excellent carrier confinement. Using this technique, we have observed electron mobilities as high as 900 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature at a carrier density of 1.3 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm. The temperature dependence of mobility for both the MODFET and HEMT structures provides insights into the mechanisms that allow for enhanced

  18. Electron transport in InGaAs/AlInAs heterostructures and its impact on transistor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahurak, John K.; Lliadis, Agis A.; Rishton, Stephen A.; Masselink, W. Ted

    1994-12-01

    We have studied electron transport in a variety of doped and modulation-doped InGaAs/AlInAs quantum wells within the context of field-effect transistor performance. Both quantum-well width and doping profile were varied with all layers lattice matched to the InP substrate. Electron transport properties in the structures were characterized using Hall, geometric magnetoresistance, and microwave velocity-field measurements, and transistor performance in terms of transconductance and channel current in 1.8- and 0.5-micron gate-length devices. Transconductances in 0.5-micron gate-length transistors were as high as 590 mS/mm and were more directly correlated to the peak electron velocity than to the low-field mobility.

  19. Record Low NEP in the Hot-Electron Titanium Nanobolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Olaya, David; Wei, Jian; Pereverzev, Sergey; Gershenson, Michael E.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; McGrath, William R.; Sergeev, Andrei V.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing hot-electron superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) capable of counting THz photons and operating at T = 0.3K. We fabricated superconducting Ti nanosensors with Nb contacts with a volume of approx. 3x10(exp -3) cu microns on planar Si substrate and have measured the thermal conductance due to the weak electron-phonon coupling in the material G = 4x10(exp -14) W/K at 0.3 K. The corresponding phonon-noise NEP = 3x10(exp -19) W/Hz(sup 1/2). Detection of single optical photons (1550nm and 670nm wavelength) has been demonstrated for larger devices and yielded the thermal time constants of 30 microsec at 145 mK and of 25 microsec at 190 mK. This Hot-Electron Direct Detector (HEDD) is expected to have a sufficient energy resolution for detecting individual photons with (nu) > 1 THz where NEP approx. 3x10(exp -20) W/Hz(sup 1/2) is needed for spectroscopy in space.

  20. Diffusion-Cooled Tantalum Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, Anders; McGrath, William; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry

    2004-01-01

    A batch of experimental diffusion-cooled hot-electron bolometers (HEBs), suitable for use as mixers having input frequencies in the terahertz range and output frequencies up to about a gigahertz, exploit the superconducting/normal-conducting transition in a thin strip of tantalum. The design and operation of these HEB mixers are based on mostly the same principles as those of a prior HEB mixer that exploited the superconducting/normal- conducting transition in a thin strip of niobium and that was described elsewhere.

  1. Impact of barrier thickness on transistor performance in AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, David A. Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J.; Bass, Robert; Binari, Steven C.; Gougousi, Theodosia; Evans, Keith R.

    2014-09-01

    A series of six ultrathin AlN/GaN heterostructures with varied AlN thicknesses from 1.5–6 nm have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were fabricated from the set in order to assess the impact of barrier thickness and homo-epitaxial growth on transistor performance. Room temperature Hall characteristics revealed mobility of 1700 cm{sup 2}/V s and sheet resistance of 130 Ω/□ for a 3 nm thick barrier, ranking amongst the lowest room-temperature sheet resistance values reported for a polarization-doped single heterostructure in the III-Nitride family. DC and small signal HEMT electrical characteristics from submicron gate length HEMTs further elucidated the effect of the AlN barrier thickness on device performance.

  2. The Helium Field Effect Transistor (I): Storing Surface State Electrons on Helium Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashari, M.; Rees, D. G.; Kono, K.; Scheer, E.; Leiderer, P.

    2012-04-01

    We present investigations of surface state electrons on liquid helium films in confined geometry, using a suitable substrate structure microfabricated on a silicon wafer, similar to a Field Effect Transistor (FET). The sample has a source and drain region, separated by a gate structure, which consists of two gold electrodes with a narrow gap (channel) through which the transport of the surface state electrons takes place. The sample is illuminated to provide a sufficient number of free carriers in the silicon substrate, such that a well-defined potential distribution is achieved. The eventual goal of these experiments is to study the electron transport through a narrow channel in the various states of the phase diagram of the 2D electron system. In the present work we focus on storing the electrons in the source area of the FET, and investigate the spatial distribution of these electrons. It is shown that under the influence of a potential gradient in the silicon substrate the electrons accumulate in front of the potential barrier of the gate. The electron distribution, governed by Coulomb repulsion and by the substrate potential, is determined experimentally. The result is found to be in good agreement with a parallel-plate capacitor model of the system, developed with the aid of a finite element calculation of the surface potential profile of the device.

  3. Optical and electron beam studies of gamma-irradiated AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anupama; Glasscock, Cameron; Flitsiyan, Elena; Chernyak, Leonid; Lubomirsky, Igor; Khodorov, Sergey; Salzman, Joseph; Meyler, Boris; Coppola, Carlo; Guay, Sebestian; Boivin, Jasques

    2016-03-01

    The impact of 60Co gamma-irradiation on n-channel AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors was studied by means of temperature-dependent electron beam-induced current (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques. For the doses up to ∼250 Gy, an enhancement of minority carrier transport was observed as evident from the EBIC measurements. This enhancement is associated with internal electron irradiation induced by the primary gamma photons. For the doses above ∼250 Gy, deterioration in minority carrier transport was explained by carrier scattering on radiation-induced defects. It is shown that calculated activation energy from the EBIC and CL measurements follows exactly the same trend, which implies that the same underlying phenomenon is responsible for observed findings.

  4. High Electron Mobility SiGe/Si Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.; Ponchak, George E.

    2003-01-01

    SiGe/Si n-type modulation doped field effect structures and transistors (n-MODFETs) have been fabricated on r-plane sapphire substrates. The structures were deposited using molecular beam epitaxy, and antimony dopants were incorporated via a delta doping process. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) indicates that the peak antimony, concentration was approximately 4 x 10(exp19) per cubic cm. The electron mobility was over 1,200 and 13,000 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature and 0.25 K, respectively. At these two temperatures, the electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12) per sq cm, thus demonstrating that carrier confinement was excellent. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations were observed at 0.25 K, thus confirming the two-dimensional nature of the carriers. Transistors, with gate lengths varying from 1 micron to 5 microns, were fabricated using these structures and dc characterization was performed at room temperature. The saturated drain current region extended over a wide source-to-drain voltage (V(sub DS)) range, with (V(sub DS)) knee voltages of approximately 0.5 V and increased leakage starting at voltages slightly higher than 4 V.

  5. The Helium Field Effect Transistor (II): Gated Transport of Surface-State Electrons Through Micro-constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, F.; Ashari, M.; Lorenz, T.; Rau, R.; Scheer, E.; Kono, K.; Rees, D. G.; Leiderer, P.

    2016-11-01

    We present transport measurements of surface-state electrons on liquid helium films in confined geometry. The measurements are taken using split-gate devices similar to a field effect transistor. The number of electrons passing between the source and drain areas of the device can be precisely controlled by changing the length of the voltage pulse applied to the gate electrode. We find evidence that the effective driving potential depends on electron-electron interactions, as well as the electric field applied to the substrate. Our measurements indicate that the mobility of electrons on helium films can be high and that microfabricated transistor devices allow electron manipulation on length scales close to the interelectron separation. Our experiment is an important step toward investigations of surface-state electron properties at much higher densities, for which the quantum melting of the system to a degenerate Fermi gas should be observed.

  6. The Helium Field Effect Transistor (II): Gated Transport of Surface-State Electrons Through Micro-constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, F.; Ashari, M.; Lorenz, T.; Rau, R.; Scheer, E.; Kono, K.; Rees, D. G.; Leiderer, P.

    2016-06-01

    We present transport measurements of surface-state electrons on liquid helium films in confined geometry. The measurements are taken using split-gate devices similar to a field effect transistor. The number of electrons passing between the source and drain areas of the device can be precisely controlled by changing the length of the voltage pulse applied to the gate electrode. We find evidence that the effective driving potential depends on electron-electron interactions, as well as the electric field applied to the substrate. Our measurements indicate that the mobility of electrons on helium films can be high and that microfabricated transistor devices allow electron manipulation on length scales close to the interelectron separation. Our experiment is an important step toward investigations of surface-state electron properties at much higher densities, for which the quantum melting of the system to a degenerate Fermi gas should be observed.

  7. Electrical NEP in Hot-Electron Titanium Superconducting Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Pereverzev, Sergey V.; Olaya, David; Wei, Jian; Gershenson, Michael E.; Sergeev, Andrei V.

    2008-01-01

    We are presenting the current progress on the titanium (Ti) hot-electron transition-edge devices. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a submillimeter Hot-Electron Direct Detector (HEDD) with the noise equivalent power NEP = 10(sup -1) - 10(sup -20) W/Hz(sup 1/2) for the moderate resolution spectroscopy and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) studies on future space telescope (e.g., SPICA, SAFIR, SPECS, CMBPol) with cryogenically cooled (approximately 4-5 K) mirrors. Recently, we have achieved the extremely low thermal conductance (approximately 20 fW/K at 300 mK and approximately 0.1 fW/K at 40 mK) due to the electron-phonon decoupling in Ti nanodevices with niobium (Nb) Andreev contacts. This thermal conductance translates into the "phonon-noise" NEP approximately equal to 3 x 10(sup -21) W/Hz(sup 1/2) at 40 mK and NEP approximately equal to 3 x 10(sup -19) W/Hz(sup 1/2) at 300 mK. These record data indicate the great potential of the hot-electron detector for meeting many application needs. Beside the extremely low phonon-noise NEP, the nanobolometers have a very low electron heat capacitance that makes them promising as detectors of single THz photons. As the next step towards the practical demonstration of the HEDD, we fabricated and tested somewhat larger than in Ref.1 devices (approximately 6 micrometers x 0.35 micrometers x 40 nm) whose critical temperature is well reproduced in the range 300-350 mK. The output electrical noise measured in these devices with a low-noise dc SQUID is dominated by the thermal energy fluctuations (ETF) aka "phonon noise". This indicates the high electrothermal loop gain that effectively suppresses the contributions of the Johnson noise and the amplifier (SQUID) noise. The electrical NEP = 6.7 x 10(sup -18) W/Hz(sup 1/2) derived from these measurements is in good agreement with the predictions based on the thermal conductance data. The very low NEP and the high speed (approximately microns) are a unique combination not

  8. Hot electron generation by aluminum oligomers in plasmonic ultraviolet photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Sinha, Raju; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kaya, Serkan; Pala, Nezih

    2016-06-13

    We report on an integrated plasmonic ultraviolet (UV) photodetector composed of aluminum Fano-resonant heptamer nanoantennas deposited on a Gallium Nitride (GaN) active layer which is grown on a sapphire substrate to generate significant photocurrent via formation of hot electrons by nanoclusters upon the decay of nonequilibrium plasmons. Using the plasmon hybridization theory and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, it is shown that the generation of hot carriers by metallic clusters illuminated by UV beam leads to a large photocurrent. The induced Fano resonance (FR) minimum across the UV spectrum allows for noticeable enhancement in the absorption of optical power yielding a plasmonic UV photodetector with a high responsivity. It is also shown that varying the thickness of the oxide layer (Al2O3) around the nanodisks (tox) in a heptamer assembly adjusted the generated photocurrent and responsivity. The proposed plasmonic structure opens new horizons for designing and fabricating efficient opto-electronics devices with high gain and responsivity. PMID:27410381

  9. Planar microcavity-integrated hot-electron photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Kai; Zhan, Yaohui; Giannini, Vincenzo; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-05-01

    Hot-electron photodetectors are attracting increasing interest due to their capability in below-bandgap photodetection without employing classic semiconductor junctions. Despite the high absorption in metallic nanostructures via plasmonic resonance, the fabrication of such devices is challenging and costly due to the use of high-dimensional sub-wavelength nanostructures. In this study, we propose a planar microcavity-integrated hot-electron photodetector (MC-HE PD), in which the TCO/semiconductor/metal (TCO: transparent conductive oxide) structure is sandwiched between two asymmetrically distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and a lossless buffer layer. Finite-element simulations demonstrate that the resonant wavelength and the absorption efficiency of the device can be manipulated conveniently by tailoring the buffer layer thickness and the number of top DBR pairs. By benefitting from the largely increased electric field at the resonance frequency, the absorption in the metal can reach 92%, which is a 21-fold enhancement compared to the reference without a microcavity. Analytical probability-based electrical calculations further show that the unbiased responsivity can be up to 239 nA mW-1, which is more than an order of magnitude larger than that of the reference. Furthermore, the MC-HE PD not only exhibits a superior photoelectron conversion ability compared to the approach with corrugated metal, but also achieves the ability to tune the near infrared multiband by employing a thicker buffer layer.

  10. Hot electron generation by aluminum oligomers in plasmonic ultraviolet photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Sinha, Raju; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kaya, Serkan; Pala, Nezih

    2016-06-13

    We report on an integrated plasmonic ultraviolet (UV) photodetector composed of aluminum Fano-resonant heptamer nanoantennas deposited on a Gallium Nitride (GaN) active layer which is grown on a sapphire substrate to generate significant photocurrent via formation of hot electrons by nanoclusters upon the decay of nonequilibrium plasmons. Using the plasmon hybridization theory and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, it is shown that the generation of hot carriers by metallic clusters illuminated by UV beam leads to a large photocurrent. The induced Fano resonance (FR) minimum across the UV spectrum allows for noticeable enhancement in the absorption of optical power yielding a plasmonic UV photodetector with a high responsivity. It is also shown that varying the thickness of the oxide layer (Al2O3) around the nanodisks (tox) in a heptamer assembly adjusted the generated photocurrent and responsivity. The proposed plasmonic structure opens new horizons for designing and fabricating efficient opto-electronics devices with high gain and responsivity.

  11. Quantum dots in single electron transistors with ultrathin silicon-on-insulator structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, S.; Andreev, A.; Williams, D. A.; Kodera, T.; Oda, S.

    2015-07-01

    We report on fabrication and transport properties of lithographically defined single quantum dots (QDs) in single electron transistors with ultrathin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. We observed comparatively large charging energy E C ˜ 20 meV derived from the stability diagram at a temperature of 4.2 K. We also carried out three-dimensional calculations of the capacitance matrix and transport properties through the QD for the real structure geometry and found an excellent quantitative agreement with experiment of the calculated main parameters of stability diagram (charging energy, period of Coulomb oscillations, and asymmetry of the diamonds). The obtained results confirm fabrication of well-defined integrated QDs as designed with ultrathin SOI that makes it possible to achieve relatively large QD charging energies, which is useful for stable and high temperature operation of single electron devices.

  12. Prostate specific antigen detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-09-01

    Antibody-functionalized Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA). The PSA antibody was anchored to the gate area through the formation of carboxylate succinimdyl ester bonds with immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when target PSA in a buffer at clinical concentrations was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. The authors could detect a wide range of concentrations from 10pg/mlto1μg/ml. The lowest detectable concentration was two orders of magnitude lower than the cutoff value of PSA measurements for clinical detection of prostate cancer. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of portable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for PSA screening.

  13. In situ electrical characterization of palladium-based single electron transistors made by electromigration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Arzubiaga, L.; Llopis, R.; Golmar, F.; Casanova, F.; Hueso, L. E.

    2014-11-15

    We report the fabrication of single electron transistors (SETs) by feedback-controlled electromigration of palladium and palladium-nickel alloy nanowires. We have optimized a gradual electromigration process for obtaining devices consisting of three terminals (source, drain and gate electrodes), which are capacitively coupled to a metallic cluster of nanometric dimensions. This metal nanocluster forms into the inter-electrode channel during the electromigration process and constitutes the active element of each device, acting as a quantum dot that rules the electron flow between source and drain electrodes. The charge transport of the as-fabricated devices shows Coulomb blockade characteristics and the source to drain conductance can be modulated by electrostatic gating. We have thus achieved the fabrication and in situ measurement of palladium-based SETs inside a liquid helium cryostat chamber.

  14. Characterization of Cross-Sectioned Gallium Nitride High-Electron-Mobility Transistors with In Situ Biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, A. M.; Brown, J. L.; Moore, E. A.; Hoelscher, J. A.; Heller, E. R.; Dorsey, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) were characterized in cross-section by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) during in situ biasing. The HEMTs used in this study were specially designed to maintain full and representative transistor functionality after cross-sectioning perpendicular to the gate width dimension to expose the active channel from source to drain. A cross-sectioning procedure was established that produces samples with high-quality surfaces and minimal degradation in initial transistor performance. A detailed description of the cross-sectioning procedure is provided. Samples were characterized by KPFM, effectively mapping the surface potential of the device in two-dimensional cross-section, including under metallization layers (i.e., gate, field plates, and ohmic contacts). Under the gate and field plate layers are where electric field, temperature, and temperature gradients are all most commonly predicted to have peak values, and where degradation and failure are most likely, and so this is where direct measurements are most critical. In this work, the surface potential of the operating device was mapped in cross-section by KPFM. Charge redistribution was observed during and after biasing, and the surface potential was seen to decay with time back to the prebias condition. This work is a first step toward directly mapping and localizing the steady-state and transient charge distribution due to point defects (traps) before, during, and after device operation, including normally inaccessible regions such as under metallization layers. Such measurements have not previously been demonstrated for GaN HEMT technology.

  15. {open_quotes}Hot{close_quotes} - Electron laser using a Bragg reflection of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Malov, Yu.A.; Babadzhan, E.I.

    1995-12-31

    Authors of paper (1) have suggested developing FEL which uses hot ballistic electrons in a superlattices under the assumption that the superlattices is short, equivalently, one would be dealing with the motion of electrons within a single band. The single-band model is valid if the reflection coefficient of the superlattices less unit. In the present paper analyze a {open_quote}hot{close_quotes}-ballistic-electron laser under the condition that there is a Bragg reflection of electrons from the superlattices or, equivalently, under the condition that the energy of a hot electron is close to the bottom of one of the quasibands of the superlattices. In this case the interaction of the electron with the superlattices is not weak and the reflection coefficient is approximately unit. If the photon energy is greater than the width of the quasigap {open_quotes}vertical{close_quotes} transitions can occur between the edges of neighboring quasibands, corresponding to a stimulated emission. If the lower quasiband is not filled, there would be essentially no absorption. The IR gain in the area 0.1-0.4 eV is approximately 100 %. The possibility of experimentally observing the effect is discussed for realistic values of the parameters of the superlattices and of the injected electron beam.

  16. Specific detection of mercury(II) irons using AlGaAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengyan; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Min; Cui, Lijie; Ding, Kai; Zhang, Bintian; Lin, Zhang; Huang, Feng; Zeng, Yiping

    2015-09-01

    As one of the most environmentally important cations, mercury(II) iron has the biological toxicity which impacts wild life ecology and human health heavily. A Hg2+ biosensor based on AlGaAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors with high sensitivity and short response time is demonstrated experimentally. To achieve highly specific detection of Hg2+, an one-end thiol-modified ssDNA with lots of T thymine is immobilized to the Au-coated gate area of the high electron mobility transistors by a covalent modification method. The introduction of Hg2+ to the gate of the high electron mobility transistors affects surface charges, which leads to a change in the concentration of the two-dimensional electron gas in the AlGaAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors. Thus, the saturation current curves can be shifted with the modification of the gate areas and varied concentrations of Hg2+. Under the bias of 100 mV, a detection limit for the Hg2+ as low as10 nM is achieved. Successful detection with minute quantity of the sample indicates that the sensor has great potential in practical screening for a wide population. In addition, the dimension of the active area of the sensor is 20×50 μm2 and that of the entire sensor chip is 1×2 mm2, which make the Hg2+ biosensor portable.

  17. High Electron Mobility SiGe/Si Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.; Ponchak, George E.

    2004-01-01

    SiGe/Si n-type modulation doped field effect structures and transistors (n-MODFETs) have been fabricated on r-plane sapphire substrates. The structures were deposited using molecular beam epitaxy, and antimony dopants were incorporated via a delta doping process. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) indicates that the peak antimony concentration was approximately 4 x 10(exp 19) per cubic centimeter. At these two temperatures, the electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12) per square centimeter, thus demonstrating that carrier confinement was excellent. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations were observed at 0.25 K, thus confirming the two-dimensional nature of the carriers. Transistors, with gate lengths varying from 1 micron to 5 microns, were fabricated using these structures and dc characterization was performed at room temperature. The saturated drain current region extended over a wide source-to-drain voltage (V (sub DS)) range, with V (sub DS) knee voltages of approximately 0.5 V and increased leakage starting at voltages slightly higher than 4 V.

  18. Research Update: Molecular electronics: The single-molecule switch and transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Sotthewes, Kai; Heimbuch, René Kumar, Avijit; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Geskin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In order to design and realize single-molecule devices it is essential to have a good understanding of the properties of an individual molecule. For electronic applications, the most important property of a molecule is its conductance. Here we show how a single octanethiol molecule can be connected to macroscopic leads and how the transport properties of the molecule can be measured. Based on this knowledge we have realized two single-molecule devices: a molecular switch and a molecular transistor. The switch can be opened and closed at will by carefully adjusting the separation between the electrical contacts and the voltage drop across the contacts. This single-molecular switch operates in a broad temperature range from cryogenic temperatures all the way up to room temperature. Via mechanical gating, i.e., compressing or stretching of the octanethiol molecule, by varying the contact's interspace, we are able to systematically adjust the conductance of the electrode-octanethiol-electrode junction. This two-terminal single-molecule transistor is very robust, but the amplification factor is rather limited.

  19. Superconducting single electron transistor for charge sensing in Si/SiGe-based quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen

    Si-based quantum devices, including Si/SiGe quantum dots (QD), are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (quits), which are a potential platform for quantum information processing. Meanwhile, qubit readout remains a challenging task related to semiconductor-based quantum computation. This thesis describes two readout devices for Si/SiGe QDs and the techniques for developing them from a traditional single electron transistor (SET). By embedding an SET in a tank circuit and operating it in the radio-frequency (RF) regime, a superconducting RF-SET has quick response as well as ultra high charge sensitivity and can be an excellent charge sensor for the QDs. We demonstrate such RF-SETs for QDs in a Si/SiGe heterostructure. Characterization of the SET in magnetic fields is studied for future exploration of advanced techniques such as spin detection and spin state manipulation. By replacing the tank circuit with a high-quality-factor microwave cavity, the embedded SET will be operated in the supercurrent regime as a single Cooper pair transistor (CPT) to further increase the charge sensitivity and reduce any dissipation. The operating principle and implementation of the cavity-embedded CPT (cCPT) will be introduced.

  20. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa-1, a fast response time of <10 ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of <1 mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  1. Nonplasmonic Hot-Electron Photocurrents from Mn-Doped Quantum Dots in Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yitong; Rossi, Daniel; Parobek, David; Son, Dong Hee

    2016-03-01

    We report the measurement of the hot-electron current in a photoelectrochemical cell constructed from a glass/ITO/Al2 O3 (ITO=indium tin oxide) electrode coated with Mn-doped quantum dots, where hot electrons with a large excess kinetic energy were produced through upconversion of the excitons into hot electron hole pairs under photoexcitation at 3 eV. In our recent study (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 5549), we demonstrated the generation of hot electrons in Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor quantum dots and their usefulness in photocatalytic H2 production reaction, taking advantage of the more efficient charge transfer of hot electrons compared with band-edge electrons. Here, we show that hot electrons produced in Mn-doped CdS/ZnS quantum dots possess sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the energy barrier from a 5.4-7.5 nm thick Al2 O3 layer producing a hot-electron current in photoelectrochemical cell. This work demonstrates the possibility of harvesting hot electrons not only at the interface of the doped quantum dot surface, but also far away from it, thus taking advantage of the capability of hot electrons for long-range electron transfer across a thick energy barrier.

  2. Progressive failure site generation in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under OFF-state stress: Weibull statistics and temperature dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Huarui Bajo, Miguel Montes; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin

    2015-01-26

    Gate leakage degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under OFF-state stress is investigated using a combination of electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The generation of leakage “hot spots” at the edge of the gate is found to be strongly temperature accelerated. The time for the formation of each failure site follows a Weibull distribution with a shape parameter in the range of 0.7–0.9 from room temperature up to 120 °C. The average leakage per failure site is only weakly temperature dependent. The stress-induced structural degradation at the leakage sites exhibits a temperature dependence in the surface morphology, which is consistent with a surface defect generation process involving temperature-associated changes in the breakdown sites.

  3. Copolymer semiconductors comprising thiazolothiazole or benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazole electron acceptor subunits, and electron donor subunits, and their uses in transistors and solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Jenekhe, Samson A; Subramaniyan, Selvam; Ahmed, Eilaf; Xin, Hao; Kim, Felix Sunjoo

    2014-10-28

    The inventions disclosed, described, and/or claimed herein relate to copolymers comprising copolymers comprising electron accepting A subunits that comprise thiazolothiazole, benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazoles rings, and electron donating subunits that comprise certain heterocyclic groups. The copolymers are useful for manufacturing organic electronic devices, including transistors and solar cells. The invention also relates to certain synthetic precursors of the copolymers. Methods for making the copolymers and the derivative electronic devices are also described.

  4. Protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor gated by chitosan and its full-swing low voltage inverter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Jin Yu; Zhu, Li Qiang Xiao, Hui; Yuan, Zhi Guo

    2015-12-21

    Modulation of charge carrier density in condensed materials based on ionic/electronic interaction has attracted much attention. Here, protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by chitosan based electrolyte were obtained. The chitosan-based electrolyte illustrates a high proton conductivity and an extremely strong proton gating behavior. The transistor illustrates good electrical performances at a low operating voltage of ∼1.0 V such as on/off ratio of ∼3 × 10{sup 7}, subthreshold swing of ∼65 mV/dec, threshold voltage of ∼0.3 V, and mobility of ∼7 cm{sup 2}/V s. Good positive gate bias stress stabilities are obtained. Furthermore, a low voltage driven resistor-loaded inverter was built by using an IZO transistor in series with a load resistor, exhibiting a linear relationship between the voltage gain and the supplied voltage. The inverter is also used for decreasing noises of input signals. The protonic/electronic hybrid IZO transistors have potential applications in biochemical sensors and portable electronics.

  5. Protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor gated by chitosan and its full-swing low voltage inverter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Jin Yu; Zhu, Li Qiang; Xiao, Hui; Yuan, Zhi Guo

    2015-12-01

    Modulation of charge carrier density in condensed materials based on ionic/electronic interaction has attracted much attention. Here, protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by chitosan based electrolyte were obtained. The chitosan-based electrolyte illustrates a high proton conductivity and an extremely strong proton gating behavior. The transistor illustrates good electrical performances at a low operating voltage of ˜1.0 V such as on/off ratio of ˜3 × 107, subthreshold swing of ˜65 mV/dec, threshold voltage of ˜0.3 V, and mobility of ˜7 cm2/V s. Good positive gate bias stress stabilities are obtained. Furthermore, a low voltage driven resistor-loaded inverter was built by using an IZO transistor in series with a load resistor, exhibiting a linear relationship between the voltage gain and the supplied voltage. The inverter is also used for decreasing noises of input signals. The protonic/electronic hybrid IZO transistors have potential applications in biochemical sensors and portable electronics.

  6. High Electron Mobility Thin‐Film Transistors Based on Solution‐Processed Semiconducting Metal Oxide Heterojunctions and Quasi‐Superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen‐Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Labram, John G.; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Sygellou, Labrini; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Hastas, Nikolaos A.; Li, Ruipeng; Zhao, Kui; Amassian, Aram; Treat, Neil D.; McLachlan, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    High mobility thin‐film transistor technologies that can be implemented using simple and inexpensive fabrication methods are in great demand because of their applicability in a wide range of emerging optoelectronics. Here, a novel concept of thin‐film transistors is reported that exploits the enhanced electron transport properties of low‐dimensional polycrystalline heterojunctions and quasi‐superlattices (QSLs) consisting of alternating layers of In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO grown by sequential spin casting of different precursors in air at low temperatures (180–200 °C). Optimized prototype QSL transistors exhibit band‐like transport with electron mobilities approximately a tenfold greater (25–45 cm2 V−1 s−1) than single oxide devices (typically 2–5 cm2 V−1 s−1). Based on temperature‐dependent electron transport and capacitance‐voltage measurements, it is argued that the enhanced performance arises from the presence of quasi 2D electron gas‐like systems formed at the carefully engineered oxide heterointerfaces. The QSL transistor concept proposed here can in principle extend to a range of other oxide material systems and deposition methods (sputtering, atomic layer deposition, spray pyrolysis, roll‐to‐roll, etc.) and can be seen as an extremely promising technology for application in next‐generation large area optoelectronics such as ultrahigh definition optical displays and large‐area microelectronics where high performance is a key requirement.

  7. A comparison of radiation damage in transistors from cobalt-60 gamma rays and 2.2 MeV electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    The total ionizing dose response of ten bipolar transistor types has been measured using Co-60 gamma rays and 2.2 MeV electrons from exposure levels of 750, 1500, and 3000 Gy(Si). Gain measurements were made for a range of collector-emitter voltages and collector currents.

  8. Hot-electron effect in spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic Germanium.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Wu, M W

    2015-07-01

    The hot-electron effect in the spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic germanium is investigated by the kinetic spin Bloch equations both analytically and numerically. It is shown that in the weak-electric-field regime with E ≲ 0.5 kV cm(-1), our calculations have reasonable agreement with the recent transport experiment in the hot-electron spin-injection configuration (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 257204). We reveal that the spin relaxation is significantly enhanced at low temperature in the presence of weak electric field E ≲ 50 V cm(-1), which originates from the obvious center-of-mass drift effect due to the weak electron-phonon interaction, whereas the hot-electron effect is demonstrated to be less important. This can explain the discrepancy between the experimental observation and the previous theoretical calculation (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 085202), which deviates from the experimental results by about two orders of magnitude at low temperature. It is further shown that in the strong-electric-field regime with 0.5 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1), the spin relaxation is enhanced due to the hot-electron effect, whereas the drift effect is demonstrated to be marginal. Finally, we find that when 1.4 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1) which lies in the strong-electric-field regime, a small fraction of electrons (≲5%) can be driven from the L to Γ valley, and the spin relaxation rates are the same for the Γ and L valleys in the intrinsic sample without impurity. With the negligible influence of the spin dynamics in the Γ valley to the whole system, the spin dynamics in the L valley can be measured from the Γ valley by the standard direct optical transition method.

  9. Quasioptical superconducting hot electron bolometer for submillmeter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gousev, Yu. P.; Gol'Tsman, G. N.; Karasik, B. S.; Gershenzon, E. M.; Semenov, A. D.; Barowski, H. S.; Nebosis, R. S.; Renk, K. F.

    1996-02-01

    We report on a superconducting hot electron bolometer coupled to radiation via a broadband antenna. The bolometer, a structured NbN film, was patterned on a thin dielectric membrane between terminals of a gold slotline antenna. We investigated the response to submillimeter radiation (wave-lengths ˜ 0.1 mm to 0.7 mm) in the fundamental Gaussian mode. We found that the directivity of the antenna was constant within a factor of 2.5 through the whole experimental range. The noise equivalent power of the bolometer at 119 µm was ˜ 3 · 10-13 W/Hz1/2; a time constant of ˜ 160 ps was estimated.

  10. Hot electron induced NIR detection in CdS films

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Rahul; Bhattacharyya, Biplab; Husale, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of random Au nanoislands to enhance the absorption of CdS photodetectors at wavelengths beyond its intrinsic absorption properties from visible to NIR spectrum enabling a high performance visible-NIR photodetector. The temperature dependent annealing method was employed to form random sized Au nanoparticles on CdS films. The hot electron induced NIR photo-detection shows high responsivity of ~780 mA/W for an area of ~57 μm2. The simulated optical response (absorption and responsivity) of Au nanoislands integrated in CdS films confirms the strong dependence of NIR sensitivity on the size and shape of Au nanoislands. The demonstration of plasmon enhanced IR sensitivity along with the cost-effective device fabrication method using CdS film enables the possibility of economical light harvesting applications which can be implemented in future technological applications. PMID:26965055

  11. Hot Electron Generation and Transport Using K(alpha) Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Akli, K U; Stephens, R B; Key, M H; Bartal, T; Beg, F N; Chawla, S; Chen, C D; Fedosejevs, R; Freeman, R R; Friesen, H; Giraldez, E; Green, J S; Hey, D S; Higginson, D P; Hund, J; Jarrott, L C; Kemp, G E; King, J A; Kryger, A; Lancaster, K; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Mackinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; McLean, H S; Murphy, C; Norreys, P A; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P K; Ping, Y; Sawada, H; Schumacher, D; Theobald, W; Tsui, Y Y; Van Woerkom, L D; Wei, M S; Westover, B; Yabuuchi, T

    2009-10-15

    We have conducted experiments on both the Vulcan and Titan laser facilities to study hot electron generation and transport in the context of fast ignition. Cu wires attached to Al cones were used to investigate the effect on coupling efficiency of plasma surround and the pre-formed plasma inside the cone. We found that with thin cones 15% of laser energy is coupled to the 40{micro}m diameter wire emulating a 40{micro}m fast ignition spot. Thick cone walls, simulating plasma in fast ignition, reduce coupling by x4. An increase of prepulse level inside the cone by a factor of 50 reduces coupling by a factor of 3.

  12. Subthreshold behavior of AlInSb/InSb high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodore Chandra, S.; B. Balamurugan, N.; G. Lakshmi, Priya; Manikandan, S.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a scaling theory for single gate AlInSb/InSb high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by solving the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation. In our model, the effective conductive path effect (ECPE) is taken into account to overcome the problems arising from the device scaling. The potential in the effective conducting path is developed and a simple scaling equation is derived. This equation is solved to obtain the minimum channel potential Φdeff,min and the new scaling factor α to model the subthreshold behavior of the HEMTs. The developed model minimizes the leakage current and improves the subthreshold swing degradation of the HEMTs. The results of the analytical model are verified by numerical simulation with a Sentaurus TCAD device simulator. Project supported by the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), Government of India under the SRF Scheme (Sanction Letter No: 08/237(0005)/2012-EMR-I).

  13. Nanoscale investigation of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontserè, A.; Pérez-Tomás, A.; Placidi, M.; Llobet, J.; Baron, N.; Chenot, S.; Cordier, Y.; Moreno, J. C.; Jennings, M. R.; Gammon, P. M.; Fisher, C. A.; Iglesias, V.; Porti, M.; Bayerl, A.; Lanza, M.; Nafría, M.

    2012-10-01

    AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are devices which are strongly influenced by surface properties such as donor states, roughness or any kind of inhomogeneity. The electron gas is only a few nanometers away from the surface and the transistor forward and reverse currents are considerably affected by any variation of surface property within the atomic scale. Consequently, we have used the technique known as conductive AFM (CAFM) to perform electrical characterization at the nanoscale. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT ohmic (drain and source) and Schottky (gate) contacts were investigated by the CAFM technique. The estimated area of these highly conductive pillars (each of them of approximately 20-50 nm radius) represents around 5% of the total contact area. Analogously, the reverse leakage of the gate Schottky contact at the nanoscale seems to correlate somehow with the topography of the narrow AlGaN barrier regions producing larger currents.

  14. Phonon-Assisted Resonant Tunneling of Electrons in Graphene-Boron Nitride Transistors.

    PubMed

    Vdovin, E E; Mishchenko, A; Greenaway, M T; Zhu, M J; Ghazaryan, D; Misra, A; Cao, Y; Morozov, S V; Makarovsky, O; Fromhold, T M; Patanè, A; Slotman, G J; Katsnelson, M I; Geim, A K; Novoselov, K S; Eaves, L

    2016-05-01

    We observe a series of sharp resonant features in the differential conductance of graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene tunnel transistors over a wide range of bias voltages between 10 and 200 mV. We attribute them to electron tunneling assisted by the emission of phonons of well-defined energy. The bias voltages at which they occur are insensitive to the applied gate voltage and hence independent of the carrier densities in the graphene electrodes, so plasmonic effects can be ruled out. The phonon energies corresponding to the resonances are compared with the lattice dispersion curves of graphene-boron nitride heterostructures and are close to peaks in the single phonon density of states. PMID:27203338

  15. Field effect transistors and photodetectors based on nanocrystalline graphene derived from electron beam induced carbonaceous patterns.

    PubMed

    Kurra, Narendra; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G U

    2012-10-26

    We describe a transfer-free method for the fabrication of nanocrystalline graphene (nc-graphene) on SiO(2) substrates directly from patterned carbonaceous deposits. The deposits were produced from the residual hydrocarbons present in the vacuum chamber without any external source by using an electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD) process. Thermal treatment under vacuum conditions in the presence of Ni catalyst transformed the EBIC deposit into nc-graphene patterns, confirmed using Raman and TEM analysis. The nc-graphene patterns have been employed as an active p-type channel material in a field effect transistor (FET) which showed a hole mobility of ~90 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The nc-graphene also proved to be suitable material for IR detection.

  16. Field-effect transistors based on thermally treated electron beam-induced carbonaceous patterns.

    PubMed

    Kurra, Narendra; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G U

    2012-02-01

    Electron beam-induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD) derived from residual hydrocarbons in the vacuum chamber has many fascinating properties. It is known to be chemically complex but robust, structurally amorphous, and electrically insulating. The present study is an attempt to gain more insight into its chemical and electrical nature based on detailed measurements such as Raman, XPS, TEM, and electrical. Interestingly, EBIC patterns are found to be blue fluorescent when excited with UV radiation, a property which owes much to sp(2) carbon clusters amidst sp(3) matrix. Temperature-dependent Raman and electrical measurements have confirmed the graphitization of the EBICD through the decomposition of functional groups above 300 °C. Finally, graphitized EBIC patterns have been employed as active p-type channel material in the field-effect transistors to obtain mobilities in the range of 0.2-4 cm(2)/V s.

  17. Field effect transistors and photodetectors based on nanocrystalline graphene derived from electron beam induced carbonaceous patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurra, Narendra; Srinu Bhadram, Venkata; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2012-10-01

    We describe a transfer-free method for the fabrication of nanocrystalline graphene (nc-graphene) on SiO2 substrates directly from patterned carbonaceous deposits. The deposits were produced from the residual hydrocarbons present in the vacuum chamber without any external source by using an electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD) process. Thermal treatment under vacuum conditions in the presence of Ni catalyst transformed the EBIC deposit into nc-graphene patterns, confirmed using Raman and TEM analysis. The nc-graphene patterns have been employed as an active p-type channel material in a field effect transistor (FET) which showed a hole mobility of ˜90 cm2 V-1 s-1. The nc-graphene also proved to be suitable material for IR detection.

  18. Nanoscale investigation of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistors.

    PubMed

    Fontserè, A; Pérez-Tomás, A; Placidi, M; Llobet, J; Baron, N; Chenot, S; Cordier, Y; Moreno, J C; Jennings, M R; Gammon, P M; Fisher, C A; Iglesias, V; Porti, M; Bayerl, A; Lanza, M; Nafría, M

    2012-10-01

    AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are devices which are strongly influenced by surface properties such as donor states, roughness or any kind of inhomogeneity. The electron gas is only a few nanometers away from the surface and the transistor forward and reverse currents are considerably affected by any variation of surface property within the atomic scale. Consequently, we have used the technique known as conductive AFM (CAFM) to perform electrical characterization at the nanoscale. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT ohmic (drain and source) and Schottky (gate) contacts were investigated by the CAFM technique. The estimated area of these highly conductive pillars (each of them of approximately 20-50 nm radius) represents around 5% of the total contact area. Analogously, the reverse leakage of the gate Schottky contact at the nanoscale seems to correlate somehow with the topography of the narrow AlGaN barrier regions producing larger currents.

  19. InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures for high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, S. O.; Sakharov, A. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Lundin, V. W.; Zavarin, E. E.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Egorkin, V. I.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The results of development of InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on them are presented. The dependencies of the InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure properties on epitaxial growth conditions were investigated. The optimal indium content and InAlN barrier layer thicknesses of the heterostructures for HEMT s were determined. The possibility to improve the characteristics of HEMTs by in-situ passivation by Si3N4 thin protective layer deposited in the same epitaxial process was demonstrated. The InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on sapphire substrate with diameter of 100 mm were obtained with sufficiently uniform distribution of sheet resistance. The HEMTs with saturation current of 1600 mA/mm and transconductance of 230 mS/mm are demonstrated.

  20. Ultrawide electrical tuning of light matter interaction in a high electron mobility transistor structure

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Shovon; Nong, Hanond; Markmann, Sergej; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Valentin, Sascha R.; Scholz, Sven; Ludwig, Arne; Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich; Wieck, Andreas D.; Jukam, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between intersubband resonances (ISRs) and metamaterial microcavities constitutes a strongly coupled system where new resonances form that depend on the coupling strength. Here we present experimental evidence of strong coupling between the cavity resonance of a terahertz metamaterial and the ISR in a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. The device is electrically switched from an uncoupled to a strongly coupled regime by tuning the ISR with epitaxially grown transparent gate. The asymmetric potential in the HEMT structure enables ultrawide electrical tuning of ISR, which is an order of magnitude higher as compared to an equivalent square well. For a single heterojunction with a triangular confinement, we achieve an avoided splitting of 0.52 THz, which is a significant fraction of the bare intersubband resonance at 2 THz. PMID:26578287

  1. Trap states in AlGaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, ShengLei; Zhang, Kai; Ha, Wei; Chen, YongHe; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue; Ma, XiaoHua

    2013-11-18

    Frequency dependent capacitance and conductance measurements were performed to analyze the trap states in the AlGaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). The trap state density in the AlGaN channel HEMTs decreases from 1.26 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} at the energy of 0.33 eV to 4.35 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} at 0.40 eV. Compared with GaN channel HEMTs, the trap states in the AlGaN channel HEMTs have deeper energy levels. The trap with deeper energy levels in the AlGaN channel HEMTs is another reason for the reduction of the reverse gate leakage current besides the higher Schottky barrier height.

  2. Low-frequency electronic noise in single-layer MoS2 transistors.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Vinod K; Arnold, Heather N; Jariwala, Deep; Marks, Tobin J; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-09-11

    Ubiquitous low-frequency 1/f noise can be a limiting factor in the performance and application of nanoscale devices. Here, we quantitatively investigate low-frequency electronic noise in single-layer transition metal dichalcogenide MoS2 field-effect transistors. The measured 1/f noise can be explained by an empirical formulation of mobility fluctuations with the Hooge parameter ranging between 0.005 and 2.0 in vacuum (<10(-5) Torr). The field-effect mobility decreased, and the noise amplitude increased by an order of magnitude in ambient conditions, revealing the significant influence of atmospheric adsorbates on charge transport. In addition, single Lorentzian generation-recombination noise was observed to increase by an order of magnitude as the devices were cooled from 300 to 6.5 K.

  3. Random telegraph signals by alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles in chemically assembled single-electron transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kano, Shinya; Azuma, Yasuo; Tanaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Smith, Luke W.; Smith, Charles G.; Majima, Yutaka

    2013-12-14

    We have studied random telegraph signals (RTSs) in a chemically assembled single-electron transistor (SET) at temperatures as low as 300 mK. The RTSs in the chemically assembled SET were investigated by measuring the source–drain current, using a histogram of the RTS dwell time, and calculating the power spectrum density of the drain current–time characteristics. It was found that the dwell time of the RTS was dependent on the drain voltage of the SET, but was independent of the gate voltage. Considering the spatial structure of the chemically assembled SET, the origin of the RTS is attributed to the trapped charges on an alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticle positioned near the SET. These results are important as they will help to realize stable chemically assembled SETs in practical applications.

  4. Phase transitions in trajectories of a superconducting single-electron transistor coupled to a resonator.

    PubMed

    Genway, Sam; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor; Armour, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Recent progress in the study of dynamical phase transitions has been made with a large-deviation approach to study trajectories of stochastic jumps using a thermodynamic formalism. We study this method applied to an open quantum system consisting of a superconducting single-electron transistor, near the Josephson quasiparticle resonance, coupled to a resonator. We find that the dynamical behavior shown in rare trajectories can be rich even when the mean dynamical activity is small, and thus the formalism gives insights into the form of fluctuations. The structure of the dynamical phase diagram found from the quantum-jump trajectories of the resonator is studied, and we see that sharp transitions in the dynamical activity may be related to the appearance and disappearance of bistabilities in the state of the resonator as system parameters are changed. We also demonstrate that for a fast resonator, the trajectories of quasiparticles are similar to the resonator trajectories. PMID:23004718

  5. Normally-ON/OFF AlN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C. Y.; Lo, C. F.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Dabiran, A. M.; Cui, B.; Chow, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the novel normally-on/off AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. With simple oxygen plasma exposure, the threshold voltage can be tuned from -2.76 V to +1.13 V depending on the treatment time. The gate current was reduced and gate current-voltage curve show metal-oxide semiconductor diode-like characteris-tics after oxygen plasma exposure. The extrinsic trans-conductance of HEMTs decreased with increasing oxy-gen plasma exposure time due to the thicker Al oxide formed on the gate area. The unity current gain cut-off frequency, fT, and the maximum frequency of oscillation, fmax, were 20.4 GHz and 36.5 GHz, respectively, for a enhancement-mode HEMT with the gate dimension of 0.4 100 m2.

  6. An analytical model for bio-electronic organic field-effect transistor sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchia, Eleonora; Giordano, Francesco; Magliulo, Maria; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2013-09-01

    A model for the electrical characteristics of Functional-Bio-Interlayer Organic Field-Effect Transistors (FBI-OFETs) electronic sensors is here proposed. Specifically, the output current-voltage characteristics of a streptavidin (SA) embedding FBI-OFET are modeled by means of the analytical equations of an enhancement mode p-channel OFET modified according to an ad hoc designed equivalent circuit that is also independently simulated with pspice. An excellent agreement between the model and the experimental current-voltage output characteristics has been found upon exposure to 5 nM of biotin. A good agreement is also found with the SA OFET parameters graphically extracted from the device transfer I-V curves.

  7. Self-aligned placement of biologically synthesized Coulomb islands within nanogap electrodes for single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Shinya; Yoshii, Shigeo; Matsukawa, Nozomu; Nishio, Kazuaki; Tsukamoto, Rikako; Yamashita, Ichiro

    2009-02-01

    Biological synthesis and self-aligned placement of a Coulomb island was demonstrated for single electron transistor (SET) fabrication using a cage-shaped protein, apoferritin. Homogenous ϕ7 nm Co3O4 and In oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized utilizing the apoferritin cavity as a spatially restricted chemical reaction chamber. Apoferritin accommodating a NP (Co3O4, In oxide) showed specific affinity to a Ti surface and self-aligned itself between a pair of Au/Ti nanogap electrodes. After the protein cage was eliminated, two tunnel junctions between the NP and each electrode had the same gap, thereby forming an ideal SET structure. The produced SET exhibited a Coulomb-staircase/oscillation at 4.2 K.

  8. A Hot-Electron Far-Infrared Direct Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers at millimeter, submillimeter and far-infrared wavelengths. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or super-conductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature (Nb, Pb etc.) then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10-100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant about 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) s at T approximately equals 0.1-0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and submillimeter range. The choice of the bolometer material is a tradeoff between a low electron heat capacity and fabrication. A state-of-the-art bolometer currently offers NEP = 10(exp -17) W(Square root of (Hz)) at 100 mK along with a approximately equals 2 msec time constant. The bolometer we propose will have a figure-of-merit, NEP(square root (r)), which is 10(exp 3) times smaller. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity. This device can significantly increase a science return and reduce the cost for future observational missions. This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was sponsored by NASA, Office of Space Science.

  9. Integration hybride de transistors a un electron sur un noeud technologique CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouvet, Nicolas

    This study deals with the hybrid integration of single electron transistors (SET) on a CMOS technology nod. SET devices possess a high potential, especially regarding energy efficiency, but aren't fit to completely replace CMOS components in electrical circuits. However, this problem can be solved through hybrid combination of SETs and MOS, leading to very low operating power circuits, and high integration density. This thesis investigates the use of the nanodamascene process, developed by C. Dubuc, for back-end-of-line (BEOL) SET fabrication, meaning creation of SETs in the oxide encapsulating CMOS devices. The assets the nanodamascene process presents are quite interesting: fabrication of SETs with a large operation margin, high repeatability, and potential for BEOL fabrication. This last point, in particular, makes this process promising. Indeed, it opens the path to the fabrication of numerous layers of SETs, stacked one upon the other, and forming 3D circuits, created on top of 2D CMOS layer. Thus a high gain to existing CMOS wafers could be generated. Devices created through the use of the nanodamascene process, adapted for BEOL SET fabrication, are presented. Limits and improvement perspectives of the technique's transfer are discussed. Electrical characterizations of the devices are also presented. They have demonstrated the created devices functionality, thus validating the successful adaption of the nanodamascene process. They have also allowed for the identification of numerous traps located at the heart of fabricated devices. Fabricated SET devices potential for hybrid SET-CMOS circuits was studied through simulations. Possible architectures showing good potential for early hybrid circuits' realization were identified. Keywords: MOSFET, single electron transistor (SET), nanotechnology, microfabrication, nanodamascene, electrical characterization.

  10. Temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongkyong; Gang, Suhyun; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang Im, Hyunsik

    2014-07-28

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100 nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.

  11. Gate controlled electronic transport in monolayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. F.; Wang, B.; Yu, Y. J.; Wei, Y. D. E-mail: jianwang@hku.hk; Xian, H. M.; Wang, J. E-mail: jianwang@hku.hk

    2015-03-14

    The electronic spin and valley transport properties of a monolayer MoS{sub 2} are investigated using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. Due to the presence of strong Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI), the electronic valence bands of monolayer MoS{sub 2} are split into spin up and spin down Zeeman-like texture near the two inequivalent vertices K and K′ of the first Brillouin zone. When the gate voltage is applied in the scattering region, an additional strong RSOI is induced which generates an effective magnetic field. As a result, electron spin precession occurs along the effective magnetic field, which is controlled by the gate voltage. This, in turn, causes the oscillation of conductance as a function of the magnitude of the gate voltage and the length of the gate region. This current modulation due to the spin precession shows the essential feature of the long sought Datta-Das field effect transistor (FET). From our results, the oscillation periods for the gate voltage and gate length are found to be approximately 2.2 V and 20.03a{sub B} (a{sub B} is Bohr radius), respectively. These observations can be understood by a simple spin precessing model and indicate that the electron behaviors in monolayer MoS{sub 2} FET are both spin and valley related and can easily be controlled by the gate.

  12. Few-electron edge-state quantum dots in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Benoit; Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Renard, Julien; Jehl, Xavier; Barraud, Sylvain; Triozon, François; Vinet, Maud; Duchemin, Ivan; Niquet, Yann-Michel; de Franceschi, Silvano; Sanquer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the gate-induced onset of few-electron regime through the undoped channel of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. By combining low-temperature transport measurements and self-consistent calculations, we reveal the formation of one-dimensional conduction modes localized at the two upper edges of the channel. Charge traps in the gate dielectric cause electron localization along these edge modes, creating elongated quantum dots with characteristic lengths of ∼10 nm. We observe single-electron tunneling across two such dots in parallel, specifically one in each channel edge. We identify the filling of these quantum dots with the first few electrons, measuring addition energies of a few tens of millielectron volts and level spacings of the order of 1 meV, which we ascribe to the valley orbit splitting. The total removal of valley degeneracy leaves only a 2-fold spin degeneracy, making edge quantum dots potentially promising candidates for silicon spin qubits. PMID:24611581

  13. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO{sub 2} nanogranular films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Li Qiang Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui

    2014-12-15

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO{sub 2} nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ∼8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics.

  14. Single shot spin readout with a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Tracy, Lisa A.; Luhman, Dwight R.; Carr, Stephen M.; Bishop, Nathaniel C.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Pluym, Tammy; Wendt, Joel R.; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2016-02-08

    We use a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor circuit to amplify the current from a single electron transistor, allowing for demonstration of single shot readout of an electron spin on a single P donor in Si with 100 kHz bandwidth and a signal to noise ratio of ~9. In order to reduce the impact of cable capacitance, the amplifier is located adjacent to the Si sample, at the mixing chamber stage of a dilution refrigerator. For a current gain of ~2.7 x 103 the power dissipation of the amplifier is 13 μW, the bandwidth is ~1.3 MHz, and for frequencies above 300more » kHz the current noise referred to input is ≤ 70 fA/√Hz. Furthermore, with this amplification scheme, we are able to observe coherent oscillations of a P donor electron spin in isotopically enriched 28Si with 96% visibility.« less

  15. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO2 nanogranular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui

    2014-12-01

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO2 nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ˜8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics.

  16. Effect of annealing on electronic carrier transport properties of gamma-irradiated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anupama; Schwarz, Casey; Shatkhin, Max; Wang, Luther; Flitsiyan, Elena; Chernyak, Leonid; Liu, Lu; Hwang, Ya; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Department of Physics, University of Central Florida Collaboration; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida Collaboration; Department of Materials Science; Engineering, University of Florida Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors were irradiated with 60Co gamma-ray doses from 100Gy to 1000Gy, in order to analyze the effects of irradiation on the devices' transport properties. Temperature dependent Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) measurements, conducted on the devices before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation, allowed for the obtaining of activation energy related to radiation-induced defects due to nitrogen vacancies. Later, the devices were annealed at 200o C for 25 minutes. All the measurements were performed again to study the effect of annealing on the gamma-irradiated devices. Annealing of gamma-irradiated transistors shows that partial recovery of device performance is possible at this temperature. DC current-voltage measurements were also conducted on the transistors to assess the impact of gamma-irradiation and annealing on transfer, gate and drain characteristics.

  17. Spontaneous Hot-Electron Light Emission from Electron-Fed Optical Antennas.

    PubMed

    Buret, Mickael; Uskov, Alexander V; Dellinger, Jean; Cazier, Nicolas; Mennemanteuil, Marie-Maxime; Berthelot, Johann; Smetanin, Igor V; Protsenko, Igor E; Colas-des-Francs, Gérard; Bouhelier, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    Nanoscale electronics and photonics are among the most promising research areas providing functional nanocomponents for data transfer and signal processing. By adopting metal-based optical antennas as a disruptive technological vehicle, we demonstrate that these two device-generating technologies can be interfaced to create an electronically driven self-emitting unit. This nanoscale plasmonic transmitter operates by injecting electrons in a contacted tunneling antenna feedgap. Under certain operating conditions, we show that the antenna enters a highly nonlinear regime in which the energy of the emitted photons exceeds the quantum limit imposed by the applied bias. We propose a model based upon the spontaneous emission of hot electrons that correctly reproduces the experimental findings. The electron-fed optical antennas described here are critical devices for interfacing electrons and photons, enabling thus the development of optical transceivers for on-chip wireless broadcasting of information at the nanoscale.

  18. Electrical Instability Induced by Electron Trapping in Low-Bandgap Donor-Acceptor Polymer Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hung; Wang, Ming; Bazan, Guillermo C; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2015-11-18

    The mechanism of electrical instability and the double slope of p-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) fabricated from low-bandgap donor-acceptor copolymers are resolved. Those polymers enable electron conduction in the device, which leads to electron trapping and consequent formation of -SiO(-). This causes a turn-on voltage shift, hole-mobility increase, and double-slope occurrence. These findings tremendously impact the molecular design and device engineering of OFETs. PMID:26441385

  19. A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or superconductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as 7(exp 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10 - 100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) S at T approx. = 0.1 - 0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and subn-millimeter range. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEk square root of tau approx. = 10(exp -22) 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) times smaller than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, JPL, California Institute of Technology, under the contract for NASA.

  20. Capacitively Coupled Hot-Electron Nanobolometer with SIN Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Leonid S.; Fominsky, M.; Kalabukhov, A.; Golubev, D.; Tarasov, M.

    2003-02-01

    A capacitively coupled hot-electron nanobolometer (CC-HEB) is the simplest and most effective antenna-coupled bolometer. The bolometer consists of a small absorber connected to the superconducting antenna by tunnel junctions. The tunnel junctions used for high-frequency coupling also give perfect thermal isolation of hot electrons in the small volume of the absorber. The same tunnel junctions are used for temperature measurements and electron cooling. This bolometer does not suffer from the frequency limitations in the submillimeter range due to the high potential barrier of the tunnel junctions as does the microbolometer with Andreev mirrors (A-HEB), which is limited by the superconducting gap. Theoretical analyses show that the two-junction configuration more than doubles the sensitivity of the bolometer in current-biased mode compared to the single-junction configuration used for A-HEB. Another important advantage of CC-HEB is its simple two-layer technology for sample fabrication. Samples were fabricated with an absorber made of a bilayer of Cr and Al to match the impedance of the antenna. Electrodes were made of Al and tunnel junctions were formed over the Al oxide layer. The coupling capacitances of the tunnel junctions, C ≍ 20 fF, in combination with the inductance of the 10 μm absorber create a bandpass filter with a central frequency around 300 GHz. Bolometers are integrated with log-periodic and double-dipole planar antennas made of Au. The temperature response of bolometer structures was measured at temperatures down to 256 mK. In our experiment we observed dV/dT=1.3 mV/K, corresponding to responsivity S=0.2.109 V/W. For amplifier noise Vna=3nV/Hz1/2 at 1 kHz the estimated total noise equivalent power is NEP=1.5.10-17 W/Hz1/2. The intrinsic bolometer self noise Vnbol=0.5 nV/Hz1/2 corresponds to NEP=3.10-18 W/Hz1/2. For microwave evaluation of bolometer sensitivity we used a black body radiation source comprising a thin NiCr stimulator placed on the

  1. Hot-electron photodetection with a plasmonic nanostripe antenna.

    PubMed

    Chalabi, Hamidreza; Schoen, David; Brongersma, Mark L

    2014-03-12

    Planar metal-oxide-metal structures can serve as photodetectors that do not rely on the usual electron-hole pair generation in a semiconductor. Instead, absorbed light in one of the metals can produce a current of hot electrons when the incident photon energy exceeds the oxide barrier energy. Despite the desirable traits of convenient fabrication and room-temperature operation at zero bias of this type of device, the low power conversion efficiency has limited its use. Here, we demonstrate the benefits of reshaping one of the metallic contacts into a plasmonic stripe antenna. We use measurements of the voltage-dependence, spectral-dependence, stripe-width dependence, and polarization-dependence of the photocurrent to show that surface plasmon excitations can result in a favorable redistribution in the electric fields in the stripe that enhances the photocurrent. We also provide a theoretical model that quantifies the spectral photocurrent in terms of the electrical and optical properties of the junction. This model provides an accurate estimate of the bias dependence of the external quantum efficiency of different devices and shows that both the spatial and vectorial properties of the electric field distribution are important to its operation.

  2. Investigation of VLSI Bipolar Transistors Irradiated with Electrons, Ions and Neutrons for Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, P.; Fallica, G.; Galbiati, A.; Mangoni, R.; Modica, R.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.

    2006-04-01

    A systematic investigation of radiation effects on a BICMOS technology manufactured by STM has been undertaken. Bipolar transistors were irradiated by neutrons, C, Ar and Kr ions, and recently by electrons. Fast neutrons, as well as other types of particles, produce defects mainly by displacing silicon atoms from their lattice positions to interstitial locations, i.e. generating vacancy-interstitial pairs (the so-called Frenkel pairs). Although imparted doses differ largely, the experimental results indicate that the gain (β) variation is mostly related to the non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) deposition for neutrons, ions and electrons. The variation of the inverse of the gain degradation, Δ(1/β), is found to be linearly related (as predicted by the Messenger-Spratt equation for neutron irradiations) to the concentrations of the Frenkel pairs generated independently of the kind of incoming particle. For space applications, this linear dependence on the concentration of Frenkel pairs allows to evaluate the total amount of the gain degradation of VLSI components due to the flux of charged particles during the full life of operation of any pay-load. In fact, the total amount of expected Frenkel pairs can be estimated taking into account the isotopic spectra. It has to be point out that in cosmic rays there is relevant flux of electrons and isotopes up to Ni, which are within the range of particles presently investigated.

  3. Study of surface leakage current of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, YongHe; Zhang, Kai; Cao, MengYi; Zhao, ShengLei; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue; Ma, XiaoHua

    2014-04-14

    Temperature-dependent surface current measurements were performed to analyze the mechanism of surface conductance of AlGaN/GaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors by utilizing process-optimized double gate structures. Different temperatures and electric field dependence have been found in surface current measurements. At low electric field, the mechanism of surface conductance is considered to be two-dimensional variable range hopping. At elevated electric field, the Frenkel–Poole trap assisted emission governs the main surface electrons transportation. The extracted energy barrier height of electrons emitting from trapped state near Fermi energy level into a threading dislocations-related continuum state is 0.38 eV. SiN passivation reduces the surface leakage current by two order of magnitude and nearly 4 orders of magnitude at low and high electric fields, respectively. SiN also suppresses the Frenkel–Poole conductance at high temperature by improving the surface states of AlGaN/GaN. A surface treatment process has been introduced to further suppress the surface leakage current at high temperature and high field, which results in a decrease in surface current of almost 3 orders of magnitude at 476 K.

  4. Theory and experiments of electron-hole recombination at silicon/silicon dioxide interface traps and tunneling in thin oxide MOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jin

    2000-10-01

    Surface recombination and channel have dominated the electrical characteristics, performance and reliability of p/n junction diodes and transistors. This dissertation uses a sensitive direct-current current voltage (DCIV) method to measure base terminal currents (IB) modulated by the gate bias (VGB) and forward p/n junction bias (VPN) in a MOS transistor (MOST). Base terminal currents originate from electron-hole recombination at Si/SiO2 interface traps. Fundamental theories which relate DCIV characteristics to device and material parameters are presented. Three theory-based applications are demonstrated on both the unstressed as well as hot-carrier-stressed MOSTs: (1) determination of interface trap density and energy levels, (2) spatial profile of interface traps in the drain/base junction-space-charge region and in the channel region, and (3) determination of gate oxide thickness and impurity doping concentrations. The results show that interface trap energy levels are discrete, which is consistent with those from silicon dangling bonds; in unstressed MOS transistors interface trap density in the channel region rises sharply toward source and drain, and after channel-hot-carrier stress, interface trap density increases mostly in the junction space-charge region. As the gate oxide thins below 3 nm, the gate oxide leakage current via quantum mechanical tunneling becomes significant. A gate oxide tunneling theory which refined the traditional WKB tunneling probability is developed for modeling tunneling currents at low electric fields through a trapezoidal SiO2 barrier. Correlation with experimental data on thin oxide MOSTs reveals two new results: (1) hole tunneling dominates over electron tunneling in p+gate p-channel MOSTs, and (2) the small gate/drain overlap region passes higher tunneling currents than the channel region under depletion to flatband gate voltages. The good theory-experimental correlation enables the extraction of impurity doping concentrations

  5. Final report on LDRD Project: The double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT)

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.A.; Moon, J.S.; Blount, M.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project ``Double Electron Layer Tunneling Transistor.`` The main goal of this project was to investigate whether the recently discovered phenomenon of 2D-2D tunneling in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells (DQWs), investigated in a previous LDRD, could be harnessed and implemented as the operating principle for a new type of tunneling device the authors proposed, the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT). In parallel with this main thrust of the project, they also continued a modest basic research effort on DQW physics issues, with significant theoretical support. The project was a considerable success, with the main goal of demonstrating a working prototype of the DELTT having been achieved. Additional DELTT advances included demonstrating good electrical characteristics at 77 K, demonstrating both NMOS and CMOS-like bi-stable memories at 77 K using the DELTT, demonstrating digital logic gates at 77 K, and demonstrating voltage-controlled oscillators at 77 K. In order to successfully fabricate the DELTT, the authors had to develop a novel flip-chip processing scheme, the epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) technique. This technique was latter improved so as to be amenable to electron-beam lithography, allowing the fabrication of DELTTs with sub-micron features, which are expected to be extremely high speed. In the basic physics area they also made several advances, including a measurement of the effective mass of electrons in the hour-glass orbit of a DQW subject to in-plane magnetic fields, and both measurements and theoretical calculations of the full Landau level spectra of DQWs in both perpendicular and in-plane magnetic fields. This last result included the unambiguous demonstration of magnetic breakdown of the Fermi surface. Finally, they also investigated the concept of a far-infrared photodetector based on photon assisted tunneling in a DQW. Absorption calculations showed a

  6. Design, fabrication, and performance analysis of GaN vertical electron transistors with a buried p/n junction

    SciTech Connect

    Yeluri, Ramya Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Hurni, Christophe A.; Browne, David A.; Speck, James S.; Chowdhury, Srabanti

    2015-05-04

    The Current Aperture Vertical Electron Transistor (CAVET) combines the high conductivity of the two dimensional electron gas channel at the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction with better field distribution offered by a vertical design. In this work, CAVETs with buried, conductive p-GaN layers as the current blocking layer are reported. The p-GaN layer was regrown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and the subsequent channel regrowth was done by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy to maintain the p-GaN conductivity. Transistors with high ON current (10.9 kA/cm{sup 2}) and low ON-resistance (0.4 mΩ cm{sup 2}) are demonstrated. Non-planar selective area regrowth is identified as the limiting factor to transistor breakdown, using planar and non-planar n/p/n structures. Planar n/p/n structures recorded an estimated electric field of 3.1 MV/cm, while non-planar structures showed a much lower breakdown voltage. Lowering the p-GaN regrowth temperature improved breakdown in the non-planar n/p/n structure. Combining high breakdown voltage with high current will enable GaN vertical transistors with high power densities.

  7. The effect of hot electrons and surface plasmons on heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Si Woo; Moon, Song Yi; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-01

    Hot electrons and surface-plasmon-driven chemistry are amongst the most actively studied research subjects because they are deeply associated with energy dissipation and the conversion processes at the surface and interfaces, which are still open questions and key issues in the surface science community. In this topical review, we give an overview of the concept of hot electrons or surface-plasmon-mediated hot electrons generated under various structural schemes (i.e. metals, metal–semiconductor, and metal–insulator–metal) and their role affecting catalytic activity in chemical reactions. We highlight recent studies on the relation between hot electrons and catalytic activity on metallic surfaces. We discuss possible mechanisms for how hot electrons participate in chemical reactions. We also introduce controlled chemistry to describe specific pathways for selectivity control in catalysis on metal nanoparticles.

  8. Basic Equations for the Modeling of Gallium Nitride (gan) High Electron Mobility Transistors (hemts)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a most promising wide band-gap semiconductor for use in high-power microwave devices. It has functioned at 320 C, and higher values are well within theoretical limits. By combining four devices, 20 W has been developed at X-band. GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) are unique in that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is supported not by intentional doping, but instead by polarization charge developed at the interface between the bulk GaN region and the AlGaN epitaxial layer. The polarization charge is composed of two parts: spontaneous and piezoelectric. This behavior is unlike other semiconductors, and for that reason, no commercially available modeling software exists. The theme of this document is to develop a self-consistent approach to developing the pertinent equations to be solved. A Space Act Agreement, "Effects in AlGaN/GaN HEMT Semiconductors" with Silvaco Data Systems to implement this approach into their existing software for III-V semiconductors, is in place (summer of 2002).

  9. Resonant tunneling assisted propagation and amplification of plasmons in high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Shubhendu; Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Xing, Huili Grace; Rajan, Siddharth; Volakis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    A rigorous theoretical and computational model is developed for the plasma-wave propagation in high electron mobility transistor structures with electron injection from a resonant tunneling diode at the gate. We discuss the conditions in which low-loss and sustainable plasmon modes can be supported in such structures. The developed analytical model is used to derive the dispersion relation for these plasmon-modes. A non-linear full-wave-hydrodynamic numerical solver is also developed using a finite difference time domain algorithm. The developed analytical solutions are validated via the numerical solution. We also verify previous observations that were based on a simplified transmission line model. It is shown that at high levels of negative differential conductance, plasmon amplification is indeed possible. The proposed rigorous models can enable accurate design and optimization of practical resonant tunnel diode-based plasma-wave devices for terahertz sources, mixers, and detectors, by allowing a precise representation of their coupling when integrated with other electromagnetic structures.

  10. Electron transport in endohedral metallofullerene Ce@C{sub 82} single-molecule transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Naoya; Yoshida, Kenji; Sakata, Shuichi; Hirakawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-26

    We have investigated the electron transport in endohedral metallofullerene Ce@C{sub 82} single-molecule transistors (SMTs) together with that in reference C{sub 84} SMTs. The vibrational modes (bending and stretching) of the encapsulated single Ce atom in the C{sub 82} cage appear in Coulomb stability diagrams for the single-electron tunneling through Ce@C{sub 82} molecules, demonstrating the single-atom sensitivity of the transport measurements. When a bias voltage larger than 100 mV is applied across the source/drain electrodes, large hysteretic behavior is observed in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. At the same time, the pattern in the Coulomb stability diagram is changed. No such hysteretic behavior is observed in the I-V curves of hollow-cage C{sub 84} SMTs, even when the bias voltage exceeds 500 mV. This hysteretic change in the I-V characteristics is induced by a nanomechanical change in the configuration of the Ce@C{sub 82} molecule in the nanogap electrode due to the electric dipole that exists in Ce@C{sub 82}.

  11. Electrical detection of biomaterials using AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.

    2008-08-01

    Chemical sensors can be used to analyze a wide variety of environmental and biological gases and liquids and may need to be able to selectively detect a target analyte. Different methods, including gas chromatography, chemiluminescence, selected ion flow tube, and mass spectroscopy, have been used to measure biomarkers. These methods show variable results in terms of sensitivity for some applications and may not meet the requirements for a handheld biosensor. A promising sensing technology utilizes AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). HEMT structures have been developed for use in microwave power amplifiers due to their high two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility and saturation velocity. The conducting 2DEG channel of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is very close to the surface and extremely sensitive to adsorption of analytes. HEMT sensors can be used for detecting gases, ions, pH values, proteins, and DNA. In this paper we review recent progress on functionalizing the surface of HEMTs for specific detection of glucose, kidney marker injury molecules, prostate cancer, and other common substances of interest in the biomedical field.

  12. Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by dual-grating-gate high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Faltermeier, P.; Olbrich, P.; Probst, W.; Schell, L.; Ganichev, S. D.; Watanabe, T.; Boubanga-Tombet, S. A.; Otsuji, T.

    2015-08-28

    We report on the observation of a radiation helicity sensitive photocurrent excited by terahertz (THz) radiation in dual-grating-gate (DGG) InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). For a circular polarization, the current measured between source and drain contacts changes its sign with the inversion of the radiation helicity. For elliptically polarized radiation, the total current is described by superposition of the Stokes parameters with different weights. Moreover, by variation of gate voltages applied to individual gratings, the photocurrent can be defined either by the Stokes parameter defining the radiation helicity or those for linear polarization. We show that artificial non-centrosymmetric microperiodic structures with a two-dimensional electron system excited by THz radiation exhibit a dc photocurrent caused by the combined action of a spatially periodic in-plane potential and spatially modulated light. The results provide a proof of principle for the application of DGG HEMT for all-electric detection of the radiation's polarization state.

  13. Size and temperature dependence of the electron-phonon scattering by donors in nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bescond, M.; Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Berrada, S.; Cavassilas, N.; Lannoo, M.

    2016-08-01

    Due to the constant size reduction, single-donor-based nanowire transistors receive an increasing interest from the semi-conductor industry. In this work we theoretically investigate the coupled influence of electron-phonon scattering, temperature and size (cross-section and channel length) on the properties of such systems. The aim is to determine under what conditions the localized character of the donor has a remarkable impact on the current characteristics. We use a quantum non-equilibrium Green's function approach in which the acoustic electron-phonon scattering is treated through local self-energies. We first show how this widely used approach, valid at high temperatures, can be extended to lower temperatures. Our simulations predict a hysteresis in the current when reducing the temperature down to 150 K. We also find that acoustic phonons degrade the current characteristics while their optical counterparts might have a beneficial impact with an increase of the ON-current. Finally we discuss the influence of nanowire length and cross-section and emphasize the complexity of precisely controlling the dopant level at room temperature.

  14. Characterization of MgB2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnane, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Wolak, M. A.; Acharya, N.; Tan, T.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers have proven to be the best tool for high-resolution spectroscopy at the Terahertz frequencies. However, the current state of the art NbN mixers suffer from a small intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth as well as a low operating temperature. MgB2 is a promising material for HEB mixer technology in view of its high critical temperature and fast thermal relaxation allowing for a large IF bandwidth. In this work, we have fabricated and characterized thin-film (approximately 15 nanometers) MgB2-based spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers on SiC substrate. We achieved the IF bandwidth greater than 8 gigahertz at 25 degrees Kelvin and the device noise temperature less than 4000 degrees Kelvin at 9 degrees Kelvin using a 600 gigahertz source. Using temperature dependencies of the radiation power dissipated in the device we have identified the optical loss in the integrated microantenna responsible as a cause of the limited sensitivity of the current mixer devices. From the analysis of the current-voltage (IV) characteristics, we have derived the effective thermal conductance of the mixer device and estimated the required local oscillator power in an optimized device to be approximately 1 microwatts.

  15. Target heating due to the shock produced hot electrons in the shock ignition scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Somayeh; Farahbod, Amir Hossein; Jafari, Mohammad Jafar; Sobhanian, Samad

    2016-09-01

    Hot electrons are produced as a result of ignitor-corona interaction of the shock ignition scheme. In the present paper, penetration depth and energy deposition of such energetic electrons have been qualitatively discussed applying Monte Carlo simulations. Target real conditions for propagating hot electrons were taken from 1-D hydrodynamic simulations. It has been found that compressing target up to 10.4 ns helps to stop hot electrons at a proper distance thus, preventing fuel preheating. In addition, embedding hot electron energy source into the hydrodynamic code, changes of parameters p, ρ and ρR are calculated. Monoenergetic electron beams have been launched at different times of target compression. The simulation results indicate the creation of high ablation pressure as well as maximum shell areal density by a 50 keV monoenergetic electron beam with intensity 1 PW/cm2 irradiated on the compressed target at a proper time which indeed improves the implosion processes.

  16. Multiplexing of Hot-Electron Nanobolometers Using Microwave SQUIDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Day, Peter K.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry G.

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained the first data on the multiplexed operation of titanium hot-electron bolometers (HEB). Because of their low thermal conductance and small electron heat capacity nanobolometers are particularly interesting as sensors for far-infrared spectroscopy and mid- and near-IR calorimetry. However, the short time constant of these devices (approximately microseconds at 300-400 mK) makes time domain or audio-frequency domain multiplexing impractical. The Microwave SQUID (MSQUID) approach pursued in this work uses dc SQUIDs coupled to X-band microresonators which are, in turn, coupled to a transmission line. We used a 4-element array of Ti HEBs operated at 415 mK in a He3 dewar with an optical fiber access. The microwave signal exhibited 10-MHz wide resonances at individual MSQUD frequencies between 9 GHz and 10 GHz. The resonance depth is modulated by the current through the bolometer via a change of the SQUID flux state. The transmitted signal was amplified by a cryogenic amplifier and downconverted to baseband using an IQ mixer. A 1-dB per ??/2 responsivity was sufficient for keeping the system noise at the level of 2 pA/Hz1/2. This is more than an order of magnitude smaller than phonon noise in the HEB. The devices were able to detect single near- IR photons (1550 nm) with a time constant of 3.5 ?s. Follow-on work will scale the array to larger size and will address the microwave frequency signal generation and processing using a digital transceiver.

  17. Electronic properties of ZnO field-effect transistors fabricated by spray pyrolysis in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamopoulos, George; Bashir, Aneeqa; Wöbkenberg, Paul H.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2009-09-01

    We report the application of spray pyrolysis (SP) for the deposition of high quality zinc oxide (ZnO) films and the fabrication of thin-film transistors. The chemical, structural, optical, and electronic properties of as-deposited ZnO films are studied using infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopic ellipsometry, and field-effect measurements. SP ZnO films are found to be uniform and polycrystalline with a band gap of 3.32 eV. ZnO transistors exhibit n-channel characteristics with electron mobility in the range 10-22 cm2/Vs. Device performance is found to depend on the work function of source/drain metal electrodes and on the device architecture employed.

  18. Design and simulation of a novel GaN based resonant tunneling high electron mobility transistor on a silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Subhra; Chattaraj, Swarnabha; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2015-04-01

    For the first time, we have introduced a novel GaN based resonant tunneling high electron mobility transistor (RTHEMT) on a silicon substrate. A monolithically integrated GaN based inverted high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) and a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) are designed and simulated using the ATLAS simulator and MATLAB in this study. The 10% Al composition in the barrier layer of the GaN based RTD structure provides a peak-to-valley current ratio of 2.66 which controls the GaN based HEMT performance. Thus the results indicate an improvement in the current-voltage characteristics of the RTHEMT by controlling the gate voltage in this structure. The introduction of silicon as a substrate is a unique step taken by us for this type of RTHEMT structure.

  19. Impact of pressure on transport properties of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinbo; Ji, Dong; Lu, Yanwu

    2015-11-01

    The properties of AlxGa1-xN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) impacted by pressure are characterized quantitatively. The results indicate that the dislocation density increases as the critical thickness decreases with increasing pressure. The two-dimensional electron gas density was found to be linearly changeable with the pressure. A simulation has been completed to verify the influence of electron mobility. The results show that the misfit dislocation scattering induced by the pressure is a major limiting factor for the properties of HEMT.

  20. DC and small-signal physical models for the AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarker, J. C.; Purviance, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models are developed for the microwave small-signal performance, such as transconductance, gate-to-source capacitance, current gain cut-off frequency and the optimum cut-off frequency of the AlGaAs/GaAs High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT), in both normal and compressed transconductance regions. The validated I-V characteristics and the small-signal performances of four HeMT's are presented.

  1. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2014-08-25

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  2. A steep-slope transistor based on abrupt electronic phase transition.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Nikhil; Thathachary, Arun V; Agrawal, Ashish; Paik, Hanjong; Aziz, Ahmedullah; Schlom, Darrell G; Gupta, Sumeet Kumar; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Datta, Suman

    2015-08-07

    Collective interactions in functional materials can enable novel macroscopic properties like insulator-to-metal transitions. While implementing such materials into field-effect-transistor technology can potentially augment current state-of-the-art devices by providing unique routes to overcome their conventional limits, attempts to harness the insulator-to-metal transition for high-performance transistors have experienced little success. Here, we demonstrate a pathway for harnessing the abrupt resistivity transformation across the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2), to design a hybrid-phase-transition field-effect transistor that exhibits gate controlled steep ('sub-kT/q') and reversible switching at room temperature. The transistor design, wherein VO2 is implemented in series with the field-effect transistor's source rather than into the channel, exploits negative differential resistance induced across the VO2 to create an internal amplifier that facilitates enhanced performance over a conventional field-effect transistor. Our approach enables low-voltage complementary n-type and p-type transistor operation as demonstrated here, and is applicable to other insulator-to-metal transition materials, offering tantalizing possibilities for energy-efficient logic and memory applications.

  3. A steep-slope transistor based on abrupt electronic phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Nikhil; Thathachary, Arun V.; Agrawal, Ashish; Paik, Hanjong; Aziz, Ahmedullah; Schlom, Darrell G.; Gupta, Sumeet Kumar; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Datta, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Collective interactions in functional materials can enable novel macroscopic properties like insulator-to-metal transitions. While implementing such materials into field-effect-transistor technology can potentially augment current state-of-the-art devices by providing unique routes to overcome their conventional limits, attempts to harness the insulator-to-metal transition for high-performance transistors have experienced little success. Here, we demonstrate a pathway for harnessing the abrupt resistivity transformation across the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2), to design a hybrid-phase-transition field-effect transistor that exhibits gate controlled steep (‘sub-kT/q') and reversible switching at room temperature. The transistor design, wherein VO2 is implemented in series with the field-effect transistor's source rather than into the channel, exploits negative differential resistance induced across the VO2 to create an internal amplifier that facilitates enhanced performance over a conventional field-effect transistor. Our approach enables low-voltage complementary n-type and p-type transistor operation as demonstrated here, and is applicable to other insulator-to-metal transition materials, offering tantalizing possibilities for energy-efficient logic and memory applications. PMID:26249212

  4. Control of charging energy in chemically assembled nanoparticle single-electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Shinya; Tanaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We show the control of a charging energy in chemically assembled nanoparticle single-electron transistors (SETs) by altering the core diameter of Au nanoparticles. The charging energy is a fundamental parameter that decides the operating temperature of SETs. Practical application of SETs requires us to regulate the value of the charging energy by tuning the diameter of quantum dots. In this study, we used 3.0, 5.0 and 6.2 nm diameter synthesized Au nanoparticles as a quantum dot in the SETs. The total capacitances and charging energy of the SETs were evaluated from the rhombic Coulomb diamonds attributed to a single Coulomb island. The capacitance and charging energy matched with a concentric sphere model much better than with a simple sphere model. The operating temperatures of the SETs suggested that a charging energy 2.2 times greater than the thermal energy was required for stable operation, in theory. These results will help us to select an appropriate core diameter for the Au nanoparticles in practical SETs.

  5. Current fluctuation of electron and hole carriers in multilayer WSe2 field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Kim, Yong Jin; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Jin, Jun Eon; Shin, Minju; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional materials have outstanding scalability due to their structural and electrical properties for the logic devices. Here, we report the current fluctuation in multilayer WSe2 field effect transistors (FETs). In order to demonstrate the impact on carrier types, n-type and p-type WSe2 FETs are fabricated with different work function metals. Each device has similar electrical characteristics except for the threshold voltage. In the low frequency noise analysis, drain current power spectral density (SI) is inversely proportional to frequency, indicating typical 1/f noise behaviors. The curves of the normalized drain current power spectral density (NSI) as a function of drain current at the 10 Hz of frequency indicate that our devices follow the carrier number fluctuation with correlated mobility fluctuation model. This means that current fluctuation depends on the trapping-detrapping motion of the charge carriers near the channel interface. No significant difference is observed in the current fluctuation according to the charge carrier type, electrons and holes that occurred in the junction and channel region.

  6. Isolated photosystem I reaction centers on a functionalized gated high electron mobility transistor.

    PubMed

    Eliza, Sazia A; Lee, Ida; Tulip, Fahmida S; Mostafa, Salwa; Greenbaum, Elias; Ericson, M Nance; Islam, Syed K

    2011-09-01

    In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers (RC) called Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II). The captured photon triggers rapid charge separation and the photon energy is converted into an electrostatic potential across the nanometer-scale (~6 nm) reaction centers. The exogenous photovoltages from a single PS I RC have been previously measured using the technique of Kelvin force probe microscopy (KFM). However, biomolecular photovoltaic applications require two-terminal devices. This paper presents for the first time, a micro-device for detection and characterization of isolated PS I RCs. The device is based on an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs show high current throughputs and greater sensitivity to surface charges compared to other field-effect devices. PS I complexes immobilized on the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs resulted in significant changes in the device characteristics under illumination. An analytical model has been developed to estimate the RCs of a major orientation on the functionalized gate surface of the HEMTs. PMID:21926029

  7. Isolated photosystem I reaction centers on a functionalized gated high electron mobility transistor.

    PubMed

    Eliza, Sazia A; Lee, Ida; Tulip, Fahmida S; Mostafa, Salwa; Greenbaum, Elias; Ericson, M Nance; Islam, Syed K

    2011-09-01

    In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers (RC) called Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II). The captured photon triggers rapid charge separation and the photon energy is converted into an electrostatic potential across the nanometer-scale (~6 nm) reaction centers. The exogenous photovoltages from a single PS I RC have been previously measured using the technique of Kelvin force probe microscopy (KFM). However, biomolecular photovoltaic applications require two-terminal devices. This paper presents for the first time, a micro-device for detection and characterization of isolated PS I RCs. The device is based on an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs show high current throughputs and greater sensitivity to surface charges compared to other field-effect devices. PS I complexes immobilized on the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs resulted in significant changes in the device characteristics under illumination. An analytical model has been developed to estimate the RCs of a major orientation on the functionalized gate surface of the HEMTs.

  8. Localized Tail States and Electron Mobility in Amorphous ZnON Thin Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia; Ye, Yan; Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2015-01-01

    The density of localized tail states in amorphous ZnON (a-ZnON) thin film transistors (TFTs) is deduced from the measured current-voltage characteristics. The extracted values of tail state density at the conduction band minima (Ntc) and its characteristic energy (kTt) are about 2 × 1020 cm−3eV−1 and 29 meV, respectively, suggesting trap-limited conduction prevails at room temperature. Based on trap-limited conduction theory where these tail state parameters are considered, electron mobility is accurately retrieved using a self-consistent extraction method along with the scaling factor ‘1/(α + 1)’ associated with trapping events at the localized tail states. Additionally, it is found that defects, e.g. oxygen and/or nitrogen vacancies, can be ionized under illumination with hv ≫ Eg, leading to very mild persistent photoconductivity (PPC) in a-ZnON TFTs. PMID:26304606

  9. A sensitive charge scanning probe based on silicon single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lina, Su; Xinxing, Li; Hua, Qin; Xiaofeng, Gu

    2016-04-01

    Single electron transistors (SETs) are known to be extremely sensitive electrometers owing to their high charge sensitivity. In this work, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a silicon-on-insulator-based SET scanning probe. The fabricated SET is located about 10 μm away from the probe tip. The SET with a quantum dot of about 70 nm in diameter exhibits an obvious Coulomb blockade effect measured at 4.1 K. The Coulomb blockade energy is about 18 meV, and the charge sensitivity is in the order of 10-5-10-3 e/Hz1/2. This SET scanning probe can be used to map charge distribution and sense dynamic charge fluctuation in nanodevices or circuits under test, realizing high sensitivity and high spatial resolution charge detection. Project supported by the Instrument Developing Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. YZ201152), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11403084), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (Nos. JUSRP51510, JUDCF12032), and the Graduate Student Innovation Program for Universities of Jiangsu Province (No. CXLX12_0724).

  10. Current fluctuation of electron and hole carriers in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Jin, Jun Eon; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Young Keun; Shin, Minju

    2015-12-14

    Two-dimensional materials have outstanding scalability due to their structural and electrical properties for the logic devices. Here, we report the current fluctuation in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs). In order to demonstrate the impact on carrier types, n-type and p-type WSe{sub 2} FETs are fabricated with different work function metals. Each device has similar electrical characteristics except for the threshold voltage. In the low frequency noise analysis, drain current power spectral density (S{sub I}) is inversely proportional to frequency, indicating typical 1/f noise behaviors. The curves of the normalized drain current power spectral density (NS{sub I}) as a function of drain current at the 10 Hz of frequency indicate that our devices follow the carrier number fluctuation with correlated mobility fluctuation model. This means that current fluctuation depends on the trapping-detrapping motion of the charge carriers near the channel interface. No significant difference is observed in the current fluctuation according to the charge carrier type, electrons and holes that occurred in the junction and channel region.

  11. AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on sapphire substrates for Ka band applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xubo, Song; Yuanjie, Lü; Guodong, Gu; Yuangang, Wang; Xin, Tan; Xingye, Zhou; Shaobo, Dun; Peng, Xu; Jiayun, Yin; Bihua, Wei; Zhihong, Feng; Shujun, Cai

    2016-04-01

    We report the DC and RF characteristics of AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with the gate length of 100 nm on sapphire substrates. The device exhibits a maximum drain current density of 1.29 A/mm and a peak transconductance of 440 mS/mm. A current gain cutoff frequency and a maximum oscillation frequency of 119 GHz and 155 GHz have been obtained, respectively. Furthermore, the large signal load pull characteristics of the AlN/GaN HEMTs were measured at 29 GHz. An output power density of 429 mW/mm has been demonstrated at a drain bias of 10 V. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the earliest demonstration of power density at the Ka band for AlN/GaN HEMTs in the domestic, and also a high frequency of load-pull measurements for AlN/GaN HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61306113).

  12. Conductance of a single electron transistor with a retarded dielectric layer in the gate capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalov, O. G.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Fedorov, S. A.; Beloborodov, I. S.

    2015-11-01

    We study the conductance of a single electron transistor (SET) with a ferroelectric (or dielectric) layer placed in the gate capacitor. We assume that the ferroelectric (FE) has a retarded response with arbitrary relaxation time. We show that in the case of "fast" but still retarded response of the FE (dielectric) layer an additional contribution to the Coulomb blockade effect appears leading to the suppression of the SET conductance. We take into account fluctuations of the FE (dielectric) polarization using Monte Carlo simulations. For "fast" FE, these fluctuations partially suppress the additional Coulomb blockade effect. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the transition from "fast" to "slow" FE. For high temperatures, the peak value of the SET conductance is almost independent of the FE relaxation time. For temperatures close to the FE Curie temperature, the conductance peak value nonmonotonically depends on the FE relaxation time. A maximum appears when the FE relaxation time is of the order of the SET discharging time. Below the Curie point the conductance peak value decreases with increasing the FE relaxation time. The conductance shows the hysteresis behavior for any FE relaxation time at temperatures below the FE transition point. We show that conductance hysteresis is robust against FE internal fluctuations.

  13. Probing Majorana bound states via counting statistics of a single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zeng-Zhao; Lam, Chi-Hang; You, J. Q.

    2015-06-01

    We propose an approach for probing Majorana bound states (MBSs) in a nanowire via counting statistics of a nearby charge detector in the form of a single-electron transistor (SET). We consider the impacts on the counting statistics by both the local coupling between the detector and an adjacent MBS at one end of a nanowire and the nonlocal coupling to the MBS at the other end. We show that the Fano factor and the skewness of the SET current are minimized for a symmetric SET configuration in the absence of the MBSs or when coupled to a fermionic state. However, the minimum points of operation are shifted appreciably in the presence of the MBSs to asymmetric SET configurations with a higher tunnel rate at the drain than at the source. This feature persists even when varying the nonlocal coupling and the pairing energy between the two MBSs. We expect that these MBS-induced shifts can be measured experimentally with available technologies and can serve as important signatures of the MBSs.

  14. Effect of buffer structures on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Xi, Y. Y.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Laboutin, O.; Cao, Yu; Johnson, Wayne J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I

    2012-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with three different types of buffer layers, including a GaN/AlGaN composite layer, or 1 or 2 lm GaN thick layers, were fabricated and their reliability compared. The HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layer showed the lowest critical voltage (Vcri) during off-state drain step-stress, but this was increased by around 50% and 100% for devices with the composite AlGaN/GaN buffer layers or thinner GaN buffers, respectively. The Voff - state for HEMTs with thin GaN and composite buffers were 100 V, however, this degraded to 50 60V for devices with thick GaN buffers due to the difference in peak electric field near the gate edge. A similar trend was observed in the isolation breakdown voltage measurements, with the highest Viso achieved based on thin GaN or composite buffer designs (600 700 V), while a much smaller Viso of 200V was measured on HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layers. These results demonstrate the strong influence of buffer structure and defect density on AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance and reliability.

  15. Suppression of Low-Frequency Electronic Noise in Polymer Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lezzi, Francesca; Ferrari, Giorgio; Pennetta, Cecilia; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-11-11

    The authors report on the reduction of low-frequency noise in semiconductor polymer nanowires with respect to thin-films made of the same organic material. Flicker noise is experimentally investigated in polymer nanowires in the range of 10-10(5) Hz by means of field-effect transistor architectures. The noise in the devices is well described by the Hooge empirical model and exhibits an average Hooge constant, which describes the current power spectral density of fluctuations, suppressed by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to thin-film devices. To explain the Hooge constant reduction, a resistor network model is developed, in which the organic semiconducting nanostructures or films are depicted through a two-dimensional network of resistors with a square-lattice structure, accounting for the different anisotropy and degree of structural disorder of the active nanowires and films. Results from modeling agree well with experimental findings. These results support enhanced structural order through size-confinement in organic nanostructures as effective route to improve the noise performance in polymer electronic devices. PMID:26479330

  16. Isolated Photosystem I Reaction Centers on a Functionalized Gated High Electron Mobility Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Eliza, Sazia A.; Lee, Ida; Tulip, Fahmida S; Islam, Syed K; Mostafa, Salwa; Greenbaum, Elias; Ericson, Milton Nance

    2011-01-01

    In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers (RC) called Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II). The captured photon triggers rapid charge separation and the photon energy is converted into an electrostatic potential across the nanometer-scale nm reaction centers. The exogenous photovoltages from a single PS I RC have been previously measured using the technique of Kelvin force probe microscopy (KFM). However, biomolecular photovoltaic applications require two-terminal devices. This paper presents for the first time, a micro-device for detection and characterization of isolated PS I RCs. The device is based on an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs show high current throughputs and greater sensitivity to surface charges compared to other field-effect devices. PS I complexes immobilized on the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs resulted in significant changes in the device characteristics under illumination. An analytical model has been developed to estimate the RCs of a major orientation on the functionalized gate surface of the HEMTs.

  17. Chemical and engineering approaches to enable organic field-effect transistors for electronic skin applications.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Anatoliy N; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Bettinger, Christopher J; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-03-20

    Skin is the body's largest organ and is responsible for the transduction of a vast amount of information. This conformable material simultaneously collects signals from external stimuli that translate into information such as pressure, pain, and temperature. The development of an electronic material, inspired by the complexity of this organ is a tremendous, unrealized engineering challenge. However, the advent of carbon-based electronics may offer a potential solution to this long-standing problem. In this Account, we describe the use of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) architecture to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli into electrical signals. In developing this mimic of human skin, we thought of the sensory elements of the OFET as analogous to the various layers and constituents of skin. In this fashion, each layer of the OFET can be optimized to carry out a specific recognition function. The separation of multimodal sensing among the components of the OFET may be considered a "divide and conquer" approach, where the electronic skin (e-skin) can take advantage of the optimized chemistry and materials properties of each layer. This design of a novel microstructured gate dielectric has led to unprecedented sensitivity for tactile pressure events. Typically, pressure-sensitive components within electronic configurations have suffered from a lack of sensitivity or long mechanical relaxation times often associated with elastomeric materials. Within our method, these components are directly compatible with OFETs and have achieved the highest reported sensitivity to date. Moreover, the tactile sensors operate on a time scale comparable with human skin, making them ideal candidates for integration as synthetic skin devices. The methodology is compatible with large-scale fabrication and employs simple, commercially available elastomers. The design of materials within the semiconductor layer has led to the incorporation of selectivity and sensitivity within

  18. Characterization and reliability of aluminum gallium nitride/gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Erica Ann

    Compound semiconductor devices, particularly those based on GaN, have found significant use in military and civilian systems for both microwave and optoelectronic applications. Future uses in ultra-high power radar systems will require the use of GaN transistors operated at very high voltages, currents and temperatures. GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have proven power handling capability that overshadows all other wide band gap semiconductor devices for high frequency and high-power applications. Little conclusive research has been reported in order to determine the dominating degradation mechanisms of the devices that result in failure under standard operating conditions in the field. Therefore, it is imperative that further reliability testing be carried out to determine the failure mechanisms present in GaN HEMTs in order to improve device performance, and thus further the ability for future technologies to be developed. In order to obtain a better understanding of the true reliability of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs and determine the MTTF under standard operating conditions, it is crucial to investigate the interaction effects between thermal and electrical degradation. This research spans device characterization, device reliability, and device simulation in order to obtain an all-encompassing picture of the device physics. Initially, finite element thermal simulations were performed to investigate the effect of device design on self-heating under high power operation. This was then followed by a study of reliability of HEMTs and other tests structures during high power dc operation. Test structures without Schottky contacts showed high stability as compared to HEMTs, indicating that degradation of the gate is the reason for permanent device degradation. High reverse bias of the gate has been shown to induce the inverse piezoelectric effect, resulting in a sharp increase in gate leakage current due to crack formation. The introduction of elevated

  19. Measurement of brightness temperature of two-dimensional electron gas in channel of a high electron mobility transistor at ultralow dissipation power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Turutanov, O. G.; Shnyrkov, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    A technically simple and physically clear method is suggested for direct measurement of the brightness temperature of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the channel of a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). The usage of the method was demonstrated with the pseudomorphic HEMT as a specimen. The optimal HEMT dc regime, from the point of view of the "back action" problem, was found to belong to the unsaturated area of the static characteristics possibly corresponding to the ballistic electron transport mode. The proposed method is believed to be a convenient tool to explore the ballistic transport, electron diffusion, 2DEG properties and other electrophysical processes in heterostructures.

  20. Superconducting Hot-Electron Submillimeter-Wave Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting hot-electron bolometer has been built and tested as a prototype of high-sensitivity, rapid-response detectors of submillimeter-wavelength radiation. There are diverse potential applications for such detectors, a few examples being submillimeter spectroscopy for scientific research; detection of leaking gases; detection of explosive, chemical, and biological weapons; and medical imaging. This detector is a superconducting-transition- edge device. Like other such devices, it includes a superconducting bridge that has a low heat capacity and is maintained at a critical temperature (T(sub c)) at the lower end of its superconducting-transition temperature range. Incident photons cause transient increases in electron temperature through the superconducting-transition range, thereby yielding measurable increases in electrical resistance. In this case, T(sub c) = 6 K, which is approximately the upper limit of the operating-temperature range of silicon-based bolometers heretofore used routinely in many laboratories. However, whereas the response speed of a typical silicon- based laboratory bolometer is characterized by a frequency of the order of a kilohertz, the response speed of the present device is much higher characterized by a frequency of the order of 100 MHz. For this or any bolometer, a useful figure of merit that one seeks to minimize is (NEP)(tau exp 1/2), where NEP denotes the noise-equivalent power (NEP) and the response time. This figure of merit depends primarily on the heat capacity and, for a given heat capacity, is approximately invariant. As a consequence of this approximate invariance, in designing a device having a given heat capacity to be more sensitive (to have lower NEP), one must accept longer response time (slower response) or, conversely, in designing it to respond faster, one must accept lower sensitivity. Hence, further, in order to increase both the speed of response and the sensitivity, one must make the device very small in

  1. Evidence for hot electron magnetocurrent in a double barrier tunnel junction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladak, S.; Hicken, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    Hot electron transport has been studied in three terminal Ta /TaOx/Co/AlOx/Ni81Fe19 structures fabricated by magnetron sputtering through shadow masks. With the Co base and Ta collector connected together via a small resistor, the collector current contains contributions first from hot electrons injected from the Ni81Fe19 emitter, and second from a geometrical artifact that leads to tunneling from the Fermi level in the base. Both sources of collector current lead to a room temperature magnetocurrent effect. The hot electron contribution begins to dominate as the emitter-base voltage -Veb exceeds 0.3 V.

  2. Investigation on hot electron generation and propagation in interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2002-04-01

    Hot electron generation and propagation have been investigated in the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with solid targets. The hot election generation and absorption mechanisms of ultrashort laser pulses have been studied at intensities of 5¡Á1016 7¡Á1017 Wcm-2 [1,2]. The competition between vacuum heating and resonance absorption has been found to be the main reason for a double-temperature distribution of hot electrons [3,4]. The effects of charge-separation-potential have been found to play a main role in the interaction process [5]. The effects of laser polarization on the hot electron emission have also been studied [6]. Outgoing hot electrons collimated in the polarization direction has been observed for the s-polarized laser irradiation, whereas for the p-polarized irradiation, very directional emission of outgoing hot electrons has been found close to the normal direction of the target. Dependence of the jet emission of hot electrons on the plasma scale-length has been obtained. The angular distribution has been found to be dependent on the energy of hot electrons. Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations have confirmed most of the observations [1,3,7]. The propagation process of hot electrons through solids have also been investigated [8]. References [1] Q.L. Dong, J. Zhang and H. Teng, Phys. Rev. E64, 026411 (2001). [2] L.M Chen, J.Zhang, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2925 (2001). [3] Q.L. Dong, J. Zhang, Phys. Plasmas 8,1025 (2001). [4] H. Lin, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8,1707 (2001). [5] L.M. Chen, J. Zhang, et al., Phys. Rev. E63,036403 (2001). [6] L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001 (2001). [7] Z.M. Sheng, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5340 (2000). [8] Y.T. Li, J. Zhang, et al., Phys. Rev. E64, 046407 (2001).

  3. Solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors and bootstrapped inverters for disintegratable, transient electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Sung Hun E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr Shin, Jongmin; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr; Han, Sang Youn; Lee, Dong Joon; Lee, Chi Hwan; Rogers, John A. E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr

    2014-07-07

    This paper presents materials, device designs, and physical/electrical characteristics of a form of nanotube electronics that is physically transient, in the sense that all constituent elements dissolve and/or disperse upon immersion into water. Studies of contact effects illustrate the ability to use water soluble metals such as magnesium for source/drain contacts in nanotube based field effect transistors. High mobilities and on/off ratios in transistors that use molybdenum, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide enable full swing characteristics for inverters at low voltages (∼5 V) and with high gains (∼30). Dissolution/disintegration tests of such systems on water soluble sheets of polyvinyl alcohol demonstrate physical transience within 30 min.

  4. Small signal modeling of high electron mobility transistors on silicon and silicon carbide substrate with consideration of substrate loss mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, A. K.; Subramani, N. K.; Nallatamby, J. C.; Sylvain, L.; Loyez, C.; Quere, R.; Medjdoub, F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comparative study on small-signal modeling of AlN/GaN/AlGaN double hetero-structure high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown on silicon (Si) and silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. The traditional small signal equivalent circuit model is modified to take into account the transmission loss mechanism of coplanar waveguide (CPW) line which cannot be neglected at high frequencies. CPWs and HEMTs-on-AlN/GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers are fabricated on both the Si and SiC substrates. S-parameter measurements at room temperature are performed over the frequency range from 0.5 GHz to 40 GHz. Transmission loss of CPW lines are modeled with a distributed transmission line (TL) network and an equivalent circuit model is included in the small-signal transistor model topology. Measurements and simulations are compared and found to be in good agreement.

  5. Ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ using oligonucleotide-functionalized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Junjie; Li, Jiadong; Miao, Bin; Wang, Jine; Wu, Zhengyan; Wu, Dongmin; Pei, Renjun

    2014-08-01

    An oligonucleotide-functionalized ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was fabricated to detect trace amounts of Hg2+. The advantages of ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN HEMT and highly specific binding interaction between Hg2+ and thymines were combined. The current response of this Hg2+ ultrasensitive transistor was characterized. The current increased due to the accumulation of Hg2+ ions on the surface by the highly specific thymine-Hg2+-thymine recognition. The dynamic linear range for Hg2+ detection has been determined in the concentrations from 10-14 to 10-8 M and a detection limit below 10-14 M level was estimated, which is the best result of AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensors for Hg2+ detection till now.

  6. Fast detection of a protozoan pathogen, Perkinsus marinus, using AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Chu, B. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T. P.; Papadi, G.; Coleman, J. K.; Sheppard, B. J.; Dungen, C. F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.; Ren, F.

    2009-06-01

    Antibody-functionalized, Au-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect Perkinsus marinus. The antibody was anchored to the gate area through immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5 s when the infected solution was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. The sensor can be recycled with a phosphate buffered saline wash. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of field-deployable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for Perkinsus marinus detection.

  7. Direct strain measurement in a 65 nm node strained silicon transistor by convergent-beam electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Peng; Istratov, Andrei A.; Weber, Eicke R.; Kisielowski, Christian; He, Haifeng; Nelson, Chris; Spence, John C.H

    2006-01-01

    Using the energy-filtered convergent-beam electron diffraction !CBED" technique in a transmission electron microscope, the authors report here a direct measurement of the lattice parameters of uniaxially strained silicon as close as 25 nm below the gate in a 65 nm node p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with SiGe source and drain. It is found that the dominant strain component (0.58%) is compressive along the source-drain direction. The compressive stress is 1.1 GPa along this direction. These findings demonstrate that CBED can serve as a strain metrology technique for the development of strained silicon device technology

  8. Amplification of hot electron flow by the surface plasmon effect on metal-insulator-metal nanodiodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhwan; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I; Lee, Young Keun; Ahn, Changui; Lee, Hyosun; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jeong Young

    2015-11-01

    Au-TiO2-Ti nanodiodes with a metal-insulator-metal structure were used to probe hot electron flows generated upon photon absorption. Hot electrons, generated when light is absorbed in the Au electrode of the nanodiode, can travel across the TiO2, leading to a photocurrent. Here, we demonstrate amplification of the hot electron flow by (1) localized surface plasmon resonance on plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by annealing the Au-TiO2-Ti nanodiodes, and (2) reducing the thickness of the TiO2. We show a correlation between changes in the morphology of the Au electrodes caused by annealing and amplification of the photocurrent. Based on the exponential dependence of the photocurrent on TiO2 thickness, the transport mechanism for the hot electrons across the nanodiodes is proposed. PMID:26451470

  9. Amplification of hot electron flow by the surface plasmon effect on metal-insulator-metal nanodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhwan; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I.; Lee, Young Keun; Ahn, Changui; Lee, Hyosun; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jeong Young

    2015-11-01

    Au-TiO2-Ti nanodiodes with a metal-insulator-metal structure were used to probe hot electron flows generated upon photon absorption. Hot electrons, generated when light is absorbed in the Au electrode of the nanodiode, can travel across the TiO2, leading to a photocurrent. Here, we demonstrate amplification of the hot electron flow by (1) localized surface plasmon resonance on plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by annealing the Au-TiO2-Ti nanodiodes, and (2) reducing the thickness of the TiO2. We show a correlation between changes in the morphology of the Au electrodes caused by annealing and amplification of the photocurrent. Based on the exponential dependence of the photocurrent on TiO2 thickness, the transport mechanism for the hot electrons across the nanodiodes is proposed.

  10. Scanning photocurrent microscopy reveals electron-hole asymmetry in ionic liquid-gated WS{sub 2} transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ubrig, Nicolas Kuzmenko, Alexey B.; Jo, Sanghyun; Morpurgo, Alberto F.; Berger, Helmuth

    2014-04-28

    We perform scanning photocurrent microscopy on WS{sub 2} ionic liquid-gated field effect transistors exhibiting high-quality ambipolar transport. By properly biasing the gate electrode, we can invert the sign of the photocurrent showing that the minority photocarriers are either electrons or holes. Both in the electron- and hole-doping regimes the photocurrent decays exponentially as a function of the distance between the illumination spot and the nearest contact, in agreement with a two-terminal Schottky-barrier device model. This allows us to compare the value and the doping dependence of the diffusion length of the minority electrons and holes on a same sample. Interestingly, the diffusion length of the minority carriers is several times larger in the hole accumulation regime than in the electron accumulation regime, pointing out an electron-hole asymmetry in WS{sub 2}.

  11. Electron Transport in Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistor under Bias and Gate Voltages: Isochemical Potential Approach.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeonghun; Lee, Geunsik; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-07-01

    Zigzag graphene nanoribbon (zGNR) of narrow width has a moderate energy gap in its antiferromagnetic ground state. So far, first-principles electron transport calculations have been performed using nonequilibrium Green function (NEGF) method combined with density functional theory (DFT). However, the commonly practiced bottom-gate control has not been studied computationally due to the need to simulate an electron reservoir that fixes the chemical potential of electrons in the zGNR and electrodes. Here, we present the isochemical potential scheme to describe the top/back-gate effect using external potential. Then, we examine the change in electronic state under the modulation of chemical potential and the subsequent electron transport phenomena in zGNR transistor under substantial top-/back-gate and bias voltages. The gate potential can activate the device states resulting in a boosted current. This gate-controlled current-boosting could be utilized for designing novel zGNR field effect transistors (FETs). PMID:27299184

  12. Transport of charge carriers through the thin base of a heterobipolar transistor under the impact of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Puzanov, A. S. Obolenskii, S. V. Kozlov, V. A.

    2015-01-15

    The transport of electrons in heterobipolar transistors with radiation defects is studied under conditions where the characteristic sizes of defect clusters and the distances between them can be comparable or can even exceed the sizes of the device base. It is shown that, under some levels of irradiation, neutron radiation can bring about a decrease in the time of flight of hot electrons through the base, which retards the degradation of the transistor parameters.

  13. Hot electron extraction from CdTe quantum dots via beta carotene molecular energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazhanivel, T.; Nataraj, D.; Devarajan, V. P.; Senthil, K.; Seol, M.; Yong, K.

    2012-06-01

    We report our findings related to hot electron extraction from CdTe quantum dots, and we were able to do this by using beta carotene as an electron acceptor. Transient absorption spectra with two slow recovering negative bleaches at the absorption maximum of the molecule and quantum dot have indicated the slowing down of cooling process and the existence of hot carriers in this hybrid system.

  14. Devices using ballistic transport of two dimensional electron gas in delta doped gallium arsenide high electron mobility transistor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungmu

    In this thesis, devices using the ballistic transport of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs High Electron Mobility Transistor(HEMT) structure is fabricated and their dc and ac properties are characterized. This study gives insight on operation and applications of modern submicron devices with ever reduced gate length comparable to electron mean free path. The ballistic transport is achieved using both temporal and spatial limits in this thesis. In temporal limit, when frequency is higher than the scattering frequency (1/(2pitau)), ballistic transport can be achieved. At room temperature, generally the scattering frequency is around 500 GHz but at cryogenic temperature (≤4K) with high mobility GaAs HEMT structure, the frequency is much lower than 2 GHz. On this temporal ballistic transport regime, effect of contact impedance and different dc mobility on device operation is characterized with the ungated 2DEG of HEMT structure. In this ballistic regime, impedance and responsivity of plasma wave detector are investigated using the gated 2DEG of HEMT at different ac boundary conditions. Plasma wave is generated at asymmetric ac boundary conditions of HEMTs, where source is short to ground and drain is open while rf power is applied to gate. The wave velocity can be tuned by gate bias voltage and induced drain to source voltage(Vds ) shows the resonant peak at odd number of fundamental frequency. Quantitative power coupling to plasma wave detector leads to experimental characterization of resonant response of plasma wave detector as a function of frequency. Because plasma wave resonance is not limited by transit time, the physics learned in this study can be directly converted to room temperature terahertz detection by simply reducing gate length(Lgate) to submicron for the terahertz application such as non destructive test, bio medical analysis, homeland security, defense and space. In same HEMT structure, the dc and rf characterization on device is also

  15. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    DOEpatents

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  16. Graphene-Semiconductor Catalytic Nanodiodes for Quantitative Detection of Hot Electrons Induced by a Chemical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyosun; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Changhwan; Choi, Hongkyw; Choi, Jin Sik; Choi, Choon-Gi; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-03-01

    Direct detection of hot electrons generated by exothermic surface reactions on nanocatalysts is an effective strategy to obtain insight into electronic excitation during chemical reactions. For this purpose, we fabricated a novel catalytic nanodiode based on a Schottky junction between a single layer of graphene and an n-type TiO2 layer that enables the detection of hot electron flows produced by hydrogen oxidation on Pt nanoparticles. By making a comparative analysis of data obtained from measuring the hot electron current (chemicurrent) and turnover frequency, we demonstrate that graphene's unique electronic structure and extraordinary material properties, including its atomically thin nature and ballistic electron transport, allow improved conductivity at the interface between the catalytic Pt nanoparticles and the support. Thereby, graphene-based nanodiodes offer an effective and facile way to approach the study of chemical energy conversion mechanisms in composite catalysts with carbon-based supports.

  17. Hot Electron-Based Near-Infrared Photodetection Using Bilayer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Klots, Andrey; Prasai, Dhiraj; Yang, Yuanmu; Bolotin, Kirill I; Valentine, Jason

    2015-11-11

    Recently, there has been much interest in the extraction of hot electrons generated from surface plasmon decay, as this process can be used to achieve additional bandwidth for both photodetectors and photovoltaics. Hot electrons are typically injected into semiconductors over a Schottky barrier between the metal and semiconductor, enabling generation of photocurrent with below bandgap photon illumination. As a two-dimensional semiconductor single and few layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been demonstrated to exhibit internal photogain and therefore becomes an attractive hot electron acceptor. Here, we investigate hot electron-based photodetection in a device consisting of bilayer MoS2 integrated with a plasmonic antenna array. We demonstrate sub-bandgap photocurrent originating from the injection of hot electrons into MoS2 as well as photoamplification that yields a photogain of 10(5). The large photogain results in a photoresponsivity of 5.2 A/W at 1070 nm, which is far above similar silicon-based hot electron photodetectors in which no photoamplification is present. This technique is expected to have potential use in future ultracompact near-infrared photodetection and optical memory devices.

  18. Hot-electron-based solar energy conversion with metal-semiconductor nanodiodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Changhwan; Hwang, Euyheon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-29

    Energy dissipation at metal surfaces or interfaces between a metal and a dielectric generally results from elementary excitations, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface/interface during exothermic chemical processes or an electromagnetic wave incident. In this paper, we outline recent research activities to develop energy conversion devices based on hot electrons. We found that photon energy can be directly converted to hot electrons and that hot electrons flow through the interface of metal-semiconductor nanodiodes where a Schottky barrier is formed and the energy barrier is much lower than the work function of the metal. The detection of hot electron flow can be successfully measured using the photocurrent; we measured the photoyield of photoemission with incident photons-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE). We also show that surface plasmons (i.e. the collective oscillation of conduction band electrons induced by interaction with an electromagnetic field) are excited on a rough metal surface and subsequently decay into secondary electrons, which gives rise to enhancement of the IPCE. Furthermore, the unique optical behavior of surface plasmons can be coupled with dye molecules, suggesting the possibility for producing additional channels for hot electron generation. PMID:27168177

  19. Hot-electron-based solar energy conversion with metal-semiconductor nanodiodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Changhwan; Hwang, Euyheon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-29

    Energy dissipation at metal surfaces or interfaces between a metal and a dielectric generally results from elementary excitations, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface/interface during exothermic chemical processes or an electromagnetic wave incident. In this paper, we outline recent research activities to develop energy conversion devices based on hot electrons. We found that photon energy can be directly converted to hot electrons and that hot electrons flow through the interface of metal-semiconductor nanodiodes where a Schottky barrier is formed and the energy barrier is much lower than the work function of the metal. The detection of hot electron flow can be successfully measured using the photocurrent; we measured the photoyield of photoemission with incident photons-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE). We also show that surface plasmons (i.e. the collective oscillation of conduction band electrons induced by interaction with an electromagnetic field) are excited on a rough metal surface and subsequently decay into secondary electrons, which gives rise to enhancement of the IPCE. Furthermore, the unique optical behavior of surface plasmons can be coupled with dye molecules, suggesting the possibility for producing additional channels for hot electron generation.

  20. Hot-electron-based solar energy conversion with metal–semiconductor nanodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Changhwan; Hwang, Euyheon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-01

    Energy dissipation at metal surfaces or interfaces between a metal and a dielectric generally results from elementary excitations, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface/interface during exothermic chemical processes or an electromagnetic wave incident. In this paper, we outline recent research activities to develop energy conversion devices based on hot electrons. We found that photon energy can be directly converted to hot electrons and that hot electrons flow through the interface of metal–semiconductor nanodiodes where a Schottky barrier is formed and the energy barrier is much lower than the work function of the metal. The detection of hot electron flow can be successfully measured using the photocurrent; we measured the photoyield of photoemission with incident photons-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE). We also show that surface plasmons (i.e. the collective oscillation of conduction band electrons induced by interaction with an electromagnetic field) are excited on a rough metal surface and subsequently decay into secondary electrons, which gives rise to enhancement of the IPCE. Furthermore, the unique optical behavior of surface plasmons can be coupled with dye molecules, suggesting the possibility for producing additional channels for hot electron generation.

  1. Electron and hole polaron accumulation in low-bandgap ambipolar donor-acceptor polymer transistors imaged by infrared microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatib, O.; Mueller, A. S.; Stinson, H. T.; Yuen, J. D.; Heeger, A. J.; Basov, D. N.

    2014-12-01

    A resurgence in the use of the donor-acceptor approach in synthesizing conjugated polymers has resulted in a family of high-mobility ambipolar systems with exceptionally narrow energy bandgaps below 1 eV. The ability to transport both electrons and holes is critical for device applications such as organic light-emitting diodes and transistors. Infrared spectroscopy offers direct access to the low-energy excitations associated with injected charge carriers. Here we use a diffraction-limited IR microscope to probe the spectroscopic signatures of electron and hole injection in the conduction channel of an organic field-effect transistor based on an ambipolar DA polymer polydiketopyrrolopyrrole-benzobisthiadiazole. We observe distinct polaronic absorptions for both electrons and holes and spatially map the carrier distribution from the source to drain electrodes for both unipolar and ambipolar biasing regimes. For ambipolar device configurations, we observe the spatial evolution of hole-induced to electron-induced polaron absorptions throughout the transport path. Our work provides a platform for combined transport and infrared studies of organic semiconductors on micron length scales relevant to functional devices.

  2. Ab initio simulation of single- and few-layer MoS2 transistors: Effect of electron-phonon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Áron; Rhyner, Reto; Luisier, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present full-band atomistic quantum transport simulations of single- and few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) including electron-phonon scattering. The Hamiltonian and the electron-phonon coupling constants are determined from ab initio density-functional-theory calculations. It is observed that the phonon-limited electron mobility is enhanced with increasing layer thicknesses and decreases at high charge concentrations. The electrostatic control is found to be crucial even for a single-layer MoS2 device. With a single-gate configuration, the double-layer MoS2 FET shows the best intrinsic performance with an ON current, ION=685 μ A /μ m , but with a double-gate contact the transistor with a triple-layer channel delivers the highest current with ION=1850 μ A /μ m . The charge in the channel is almost independent of the number of MoS2 layers, but the injection velocity increases significantly with the channel thickness in the double-gate devices due to the reduced electron-phonon scattering rates in multilayer structures. We demonstrate further that the ballistic limit of transport is not suitable for the simulation of MX 2 FETs because of the artificial negative differential resistance it predicts.

  3. Metal-oxide based transparent conductive oxides and thin film transistors for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indluru, Anil

    The object of this study is to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) and to study the properties of metal oxide transparent conductive oxides for wide range of flexible electronic applications. Initially, a study has been done to improve the conductivity of ITO (indium tin oxide) films on PEN (p olyethylene naphthalate) by inserting a thin layer of silver layer between two ITO layers. The multilayer with an optimum Ag mid-layer thickness, of 8 nm, exhibited excellent photopic average transmittance (˜ 88 %), resistivity (˜ 2.7 x 10-5 micro-cm.) and has the best Hackee figure of merit (41.0 x 10-3 O -1). The electrical conduction is dominated by two different scattering mechanisms depending on the thickness of the Ag mid-layer. Optical transmission is explained by scattering losses and absorption of light due to inter-band electronic transitions. A systematic study was carried out to improve the performance/stability of the TFTs on PEN. The performance and stability of a-Si:H and a-IZO (amorphous indium zinc oxide) TFTs were improved by performing a systematic low temperature (150 °C) anneals for extended times. For 96 hours annealed a-Si:H TFTs, the sub-threshold slope and off-current were reduced by a factor ˜ 3 and by 2 orders of magnitude, respectively when compared to unannealed a-Si:H TFTs. For a-IZO TFTs, 48 hours of annealing is found to be the optimum time for the best performance and elevated temperature stability. These devices exhibit saturation mobility varying between 4.5--5.5 cm2/V-s, ION/IOFF ratio was 10 6 and a sub-threshold swing variation of 1--1.25 V/decade. An in-depth study on the mechanical and electromechanical stress response on the electrical properties of the a-IZO TFTs has also been investigated. Finally, the a-Si:H TFTs were exposed to gamma radiation to examine their radiation resistance. The interface trap density (Nit) values range from 5 to 6 x 1011 cm-2 for only electrical

  4. Characteristics of light-induced electron transport from P3HT to ZnO-nanowire field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Minhyeok; Hoon Lee, Byoung; Park, Woojin; Kang, Jang-Won; Jeong, Sehee; Hun Lee, Byoung; Lee, Kwanghee; Park, Seong-Ju; Cho, Kyungjune; Lee, Takhee; Hong, Woong-Ki

    2013-11-25

    We fabricated ZnO-nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs) coated with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and characterized the electron-transfer characteristics from the P3HT to the ZnO NWs. Under irradiation by laser light with a wavelength of 532 nm, photo-induced electrons were created in the P3HT and then transported to the ZnO NWs, constituting a source-drain current in the initially enhancement-mode P3HT-coated ZnO-NW FETs. As the intensity of the light increased, the current increased, and its threshold voltage shifted to the negative gate-bias direction. We estimated the photo-induced electron density and the electron-transfer characteristics, which will be helpful for understanding organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  5. Hot electrons in group-III nitrides at moderate electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, E. A.; Kim, K. W.; Kochelap, V. A.

    2002-04-01

    By the use of the Monte Carlo method, we studied the distribution function and the basic characteristics of hot electrons in InN, GaN, and AlN under moderate electric fields. We found that in relatively low fields (of the order of kV/cm) the optical phonon emission dominates in the electron kinetics. This strongly inelastic process gives rise to a spindle-shaped distribution function and an extended portion of a quasisaturation of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics (the streaming-like regime). Formation of this regime is induced by a suppression of the electron spreading over the momenta perpendicular to the electric field. We prove that this is a universal character of the hot electron behavior for all three nitrides. The effects can be detected by the measurement of the I-V characteristics, or the thermopower of hot electrons in the transverse direction.

  6. Hot electron injection from graphene quantum dots to TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kenrick J; Nelson, Cory A; Yan, Xin; Li, Liang-Shi; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2013-02-26

    The Shockley-Queisser limit is the maximum power conversion efficiency of a conventional solar cell based on a single semiconductor junction. One approach to exceed this limit is to harvest hot electrons/holes that have achieved quasi-equilibrium in the light absorbing material with electronic temperatures higher than the phonon temperature. We argue that graphene based materials are viable candidates for hot carrier chromophores. Here we probe hot electron injection and charge recombination dynamics for graphene quantum dots (QDs, each containing 48 fused benzene rings) anchored to the TiO₂(110) surface via carboxyl linkers. We find ultrafast electron injection from photoexcited graphene QDs to the TiO₂ conduction band with time constant τ(i) < 15 fs and charge recombination dynamics characterized by a fast channel (τ(r1) = 80-130 fs) and a slow one (τ(r2) = 0.5-2 ps). The fast decay channel is attributed to the prompt recombination of the bound electron-hole pair across the interface. The slow channel depends strongly on excitation photon energy or sample temperature and can be explained by a "boomerang" mechanism, in which hot electrons are injected into bulk TiO₂, cooled down due to electron-phonon scattering, drifted back to the interface under the transient electric field, and recombine with the hole on graphene QDs. We discuss feasibilities of implementing the hot carrier solar cell using graphene nanomaterials. PMID:23347000

  7. Hot electron injection from graphene quantum dots to TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kenrick J; Nelson, Cory A; Yan, Xin; Li, Liang-Shi; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2013-02-26

    The Shockley-Queisser limit is the maximum power conversion efficiency of a conventional solar cell based on a single semiconductor junction. One approach to exceed this limit is to harvest hot electrons/holes that have achieved quasi-equilibrium in the light absorbing material with electronic temperatures higher than the phonon temperature. We argue that graphene based materials are viable candidates for hot carrier chromophores. Here we probe hot electron injection and charge recombination dynamics for graphene quantum dots (QDs, each containing 48 fused benzene rings) anchored to the TiO₂(110) surface via carboxyl linkers. We find ultrafast electron injection from photoexcited graphene QDs to the TiO₂ conduction band with time constant τ(i) < 15 fs and charge recombination dynamics characterized by a fast channel (τ(r1) = 80-130 fs) and a slow one (τ(r2) = 0.5-2 ps). The fast decay channel is attributed to the prompt recombination of the bound electron-hole pair across the interface. The slow channel depends strongly on excitation photon energy or sample temperature and can be explained by a "boomerang" mechanism, in which hot electrons are injected into bulk TiO₂, cooled down due to electron-phonon scattering, drifted back to the interface under the transient electric field, and recombine with the hole on graphene QDs. We discuss feasibilities of implementing the hot carrier solar cell using graphene nanomaterials.

  8. Infrared light emission from nano hot electron gas created in atomic point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, T.; Klein, H. R.; Iazykov, M.; Dumas, Ph.

    2016-06-01

    Gold atomic point contacts are prototype systems to evidence ballistic electron transport. The typical dimension of the nanojunction being smaller than the electron-phonon interaction length, even at room temperature, electrons transfer their excess energy to the lattice only far from the contact. At the contact however, favored by huge current densities, electron-electron interactions result in a nano hot electron gas acting as a source of photons. Using a home built Mechanically Controlled Break Junction, it is reported here, for the first time, that this nano hot electron gas also radiates in the infrared range (0.2 eV to 1.2 eV). Moreover, following the description introduced by Tomchuk et al. (Sov. Phys.-Solid State, 8 (1966) 2510), we show that this radiation is compatible with a black-body-like spectrum emitted from an electron gas at temperatures of several thousands of kelvins.

  9. Infrared light emission from nano hot electron gas created in atomic point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, T.; Klein, H. R.; Iazykov, M.; Dumas, Ph.

    2016-06-01

    Gold atomic point contacts are prototype systems to evidence ballistic electron transport. The typical dimension of the nanojunction being smaller than the electron-phonon interaction length, even at room temperature, electrons transfer their excess energy to the lattice only far from the contact. At the contact however, favored by huge current densities, electron-electron interactions result in a nano hot electron gas acting as a source of photons. Using a home built Mechanically Controlled Break Junction, it is reported here, for the first time, that this nano hot electron gas also radiates in the infrared range (0.2 eV to 1.2 eV). Moreover, following the description introduced by Tomchuk et al. (Sov. Phys.-Solid State, 8 (1966) 2510), we show that this radiation is compatible with a black-body–like spectrum emitted from an electron gas at temperatures of several thousands of kelvins.

  10. Hot electron transport in a strongly correlated transition-metal oxide

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Kumari Gaurav; Yajima, Takeaki; Parui, Subir; Kemper, Alexander F.; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.; Banerjee, Tamalika

    2013-01-01

    Oxide heterointerfaces are ideal for investigating strong correlation effects to electron transport, relevant for oxide-electronics. Using hot-electrons, we probe electron transport perpendicular to the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)- Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) interface and find the characteristic hot-electron attenuation length in LSMO to be 1.48 ± 0.10 unit cells (u.c.) at −1.9 V, increasing to 2.02 ± 0.16 u.c. at −1.3 V at room temperature. Theoretical analysis of this energy dispersion reveals the dominance of electron-electron and polaron scattering. Direct visualization of the local electron transport shows different transmission at the terraces and at the step-edges. PMID:23429420

  11. Antenna-Coupled Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with Single-Electron Transistor Readout for Detection of Sub-mm Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Wollack, E. J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Teufel, J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junction detectors have the potential for photon-counting sensitivity at sub-mm wavelengths. The device consists of an antenna structure to couple radiation into a small superconducting volume and cause quasiparticle excitations, and a single-electron transistor to measure currents through tunnel junction contacts to the absorber volume. We will describe optimization of device parameters, and recent results on fabrication techniques for producing devices with high yield for detector arrays. We will also present modeling of expected saturation power levels, antenna coupling, and rf multiplexing schemes.

  12. Physisorption of functionalized gold nanoparticles on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for sensing applications

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, M. S.; Kim, S.; Gaillard, M.; Janes, D.; Manfra, M. J.; Bryan, I.; Sitar, Z.; Arellano, C.; Xie, J.; Collazo, R.; Ivanisevic, A.

    2013-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to measure electrical characteristics of physisorbed gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with alkanethiols with a terminal methyl, amine, or carboxyl functional group. Additional alkanethiol was physisorbed onto the NP treated devices to distinguish between the effects of the Au NPs and alkanethiols on HEMT operation. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and electrical measurements were used to characterize the treatment effects. The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this region. The Au NP/HEMT system electrically detected functional group differences on adsorbed NPs which is pertinent to biosensor applications. PMID:23509411

  13. Physisorption of functionalized gold nanoparticles on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Makowski, M S; Kim, S; Gaillard, M; Janes, D; Manfra, M J; Bryan, I; Sitar, Z; Arellano, C; Xie, J; Collazo, R; Ivanisevic, A

    2013-02-18

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to measure electrical characteristics of physisorbed gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with alkanethiols with a terminal methyl, amine, or carboxyl functional group. Additional alkanethiol was physisorbed onto the NP treated devices to distinguish between the effects of the Au NPs and alkanethiols on HEMT operation. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and electrical measurements were used to characterize the treatment effects. The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this region. The Au NP/HEMT system electrically detected functional group differences on adsorbed NPs which is pertinent to biosensor applications.

  14. Physisorption of functionalized gold nanoparticles on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, M. S.; Kim, S.; Gaillard, M.; Janes, D.; Manfra, M. J.; Bryan, I.; Sitar, Z.; Arellano, C.; Xie, J.; Collazo, R.; Ivanisevic, A.

    2013-02-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to measure electrical characteristics of physisorbed gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with alkanethiols with a terminal methyl, amine, or carboxyl functional group. Additional alkanethiol was physisorbed onto the NP treated devices to distinguish between the effects of the Au NPs and alkanethiols on HEMT operation. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and electrical measurements were used to characterize the treatment effects. The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this region. The Au NP/HEMT system electrically detected functional group differences on adsorbed NPs which is pertinent to biosensor applications.

  15. Observation of ambipolar switching in a silver nanoparticle single-electron transistor with multiple molecular floating gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Makoto; Shinohara, Shuhei; Tamada, Kaoru; Ishii, Hisao; Noguchi, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Ambipolar switching behavior was observed in a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based single-electron transistor (SET) with tetra-tert-butyl copper phthalocyanine (ttbCuPc) as a molecular floating gate. Depending on the wavelength of the incident light, the stability diagram shifted to the negative and positive directions along the gate voltage axis. These results were explained by the photoinduced charging of ttbCuPc molecules in the vicinity of AgNPs. Moreover, multiple device states were induced by the light irradiation at a wavelength of 600 nm, suggesting that multiple ttbCuPc molecules individually worked as a floating gate.

  16. Extrinsic and intrinsic causes of the electrical degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulong, Fang; Shaobo, Dun; Bo, Liu; Jiayun, Yin; Shujun, Cai; Zhihong, Feng

    2012-05-01

    Electrical stress experiments under different bias configurations for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors were performed and analyzed. The electric field applied was found to be the extrinsic cause for the device instability, while the traps were recognized as the main intrinsic factor. The effect of the traps on the device degradation was identified by recovery experiments and pulsed I-V measurements. The total degradation of the devices consists of two parts: recoverable degradation and unrecoverable degradation. The electric field induced traps combined with the inherent ones in the device bulk are mainly responsible for the recoverable degradation.

  17. Thermal instability and the growth of the InGaAs/AlGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor system

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, Joseph G.; Qadri, Syed B.; Mahadik, Nadeemullah A.; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Tseng, Wen F.; Thurber, Robert; Gajewski, Donald; Guyer, Jonathan

    2007-03-12

    The effects of temperature overshoot during molecular beam epitaxy growth on the transport properties of conventionally and delta-doped pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (pHEMT) structures have been examined. A diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS)-controlled versus a thermocouple (TC)-controlled, growth scheme is compared. Several advantages of the DRS-grown pHEMTs over the TC-controlled version were observed. Modest improvements in mobility, on the order of 2%-3%, were observed in addition to a 20% reduction in carrier freeze-out for the DRS-grown pHEMTs at 77 K.

  18. Experimental and Simulated Results of Room Temperature Single Electron Transistor Formed by Atomic Force Microscopy Nano-Oxidation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoh, Yoshitaka; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Bubanja, Vladimir; Vazquez, Francisco; Maeda, Tatsuro; Harris, James S.

    2000-04-01

    A planar-type single electron transistor (SET) was fabricated by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) nano-oxidation process. The fabricated SET showed the Coulomb oscillation characteristic with the period of about 2 V at room temperature. From the three-dimensional simulation, it is found out that the smaller the SET island size, the smaller the tunnel junction capacitance, and the tunnel junction capacitance shows a weak dependence on the tunnel junction width. Using the analytical model, the reason for this weak dependence was clarified.

  19. Chemically assembled double-dot single-electron transistor analyzed by the orthodox model considering offset charge

    SciTech Connect

    Kano, Shinya; Maeda, Kosuke; Majima, Yutaka; Tanaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2015-10-07

    We present the analysis of chemically assembled double-dot single-electron transistors using orthodox model considering offset charges. First, we fabricate chemically assembled single-electron transistors (SETs) consisting of two Au nanoparticles between electroless Au-plated nanogap electrodes. Then, extraordinary stable Coulomb diamonds in the double-dot SETs are analyzed using the orthodox model, by considering offset charges on the respective quantum dots. We determine the equivalent circuit parameters from Coulomb diamonds and drain current vs. drain voltage curves of the SETs. The accuracies of the capacitances and offset charges on the quantum dots are within ±10%, and ±0.04e (where e is the elementary charge), respectively. The parameters can be explained by the geometrical structures of the SETs observed using scanning electron microscopy images. Using this approach, we are able to understand the spatial characteristics of the double quantum dots, such as the relative distance from the gate electrode and the conditions for adsorption between the nanogap electrodes.

  20. Chemically assembled double-dot single-electron transistor analyzed by the orthodox model considering offset charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Shinya; Maeda, Kosuke; Tanaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    We present the analysis of chemically assembled double-dot single-electron transistors using orthodox model considering offset charges. First, we fabricate chemically assembled single-electron transistors (SETs) consisting of two Au nanoparticles between electroless Au-plated nanogap electrodes. Then, extraordinary stable Coulomb diamonds in the double-dot SETs are analyzed using the orthodox model, by considering offset charges on the respective quantum dots. We determine the equivalent circuit parameters from Coulomb diamonds and drain current vs. drain voltage curves of the SETs. The accuracies of the capacitances and offset charges on the quantum dots are within ±10%, and ±0.04e (where e is the elementary charge), respectively. The parameters can be explained by the geometrical structures of the SETs observed using scanning electron microscopy images. Using this approach, we are able to understand the spatial characteristics of the double quantum dots, such as the relative distance from the gate electrode and the conditions for adsorption between the nanogap electrodes.

  1. Dopant-free GaN/AlN/AlGaN radial nanowire heterostructures as high electron mobility transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yat; Xiang, Jie; Qian, Fang; Gradecak, Silvija; Wu, Yue; Yan, Hao; Blom, Douglas A; Lieber, Charles M

    2006-07-01

    We report the rational synthesis of dopant-free GaN/AlN/AlGaN radial nanowire heterostructures and their implementation as high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The radial nanowire heterostructures were prepared by sequential shell growth immediately following nanowire elongation using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal that the GaN/AlN/AlGaN radial nanowire heterostructures are dislocation-free single crystals. In addition, the thicknesses and compositions of the individual AlN and AlGaN shells were unambiguously identified using cross-sectional high-angle annular darkfield scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). Transport measurements carried out on GaN/AlN/AlGaN and GaN nanowires prepared using similar conditions demonstrate the existence of electron gas in the undoped GaN/AlN/AlGaN nanowire heterostructures and also yield an intrinsic electron mobility of 3100 cm(2)/Vs and 21,000 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature and 5 K, respectively, for the heterostructure. Field-effect transistors fabricated with ZrO(2) dielectrics and metal top gates showed excellent gate coupling with near ideal subthreshold slopes of 68 mV/dec, an on/off current ratio of 10(7), and scaled on-current and transconductance values of 500 mA/mm and 420 mS/mm. The ability to control synthetically the electronic properties of nanowires using band structure design in III-nitride radial nanowire heterostructures opens up new opportunities for nanoelectronics and provides a new platform to study the physics of low-dimensional electron gases.

  2. Measurements of hot-electron temperature in laser-irradiated plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Solodov, A. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Edgell, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Myatt, J. F.; Sorce, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-10-26

    In a recently published work1–3 we reported on measuring the total energy of hot electrons produced by the interaction of a nanosecond laser with planar CH-coated molybdenum targets, using the Mo Kα emission. The temperature of the hot electrons in that work was determined by the high-energy bremsstrahlung [hard x-ray (HXR)] spectrum measured by a three-channel fluorescence-photomultiplier detector (HXRD). In the present work, we replaced the HXRD with a nine-channel image-plate (IP)–based detector (HXIP). For the same conditions (irradiance of the order of 1014 W/cm2; 2-ns pulses) the measured temperatures are consistently lower than those measured by the HXRD (bymore » a factor ~1.5 to 1.7). In addition, we supplemented this measurement with three experiments that measure the hot-electron temperature using Kα line-intensity ratios from high-Z target layers, independent of the HXR emission. These experiments yielded temperatures that were consistent with those measured by the HXIP. We showed that the thermal x-ray radiation must be included in the derivation of total energy in hot electrons (Ehot), and that this makes Ehot only weakly dependent on hot-electron temperature. For a given x-ray emission in inertial confinement fusion compression experiments, this result would lead to a higher total energy in hot electrons, but the preheat of the compressed fuel may be lower because of the reduced hot-electron range.« less

  3. Early hot electrons generation and beaming in ICF gas filled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, Eduard; Michel, Pierre; Hartemann, Fred; Milovich, Jose; Hohenberger, Matthias; Divol, Laurent; Landen, Otto; Pak, Arthur; Thomas, Cliff; Doeppner, Tilo; Bachmann, Benjamin; Meezan, Nathan; MacKinnon, Andrew; Hurricane, Omar; Callahan, Debbie; Hinkel, Denise; Edwards, John

    2015-11-01

    In laser driven hohlraum capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility, supra-thermal hot electrons generated by laser plasma instabilities can preheat the capsule. Time resolved hot electron Bremsstrahlung spectra combined with 30 keV x-ray imaging uncover for the first time the directionality of hot electrons onto a high-Z surrogate capsule located at the hohlraum center. In the most extreme case, we observed a collimated beaming of hot electrons onto the capsule poles, reaching 50x higher localized energy deposition than for isotropic electrons. A collective SRS model where all laser beams in a cone drive a common plasma wave provides a physical interpretation for the observed beaming. Imaging data are used to distinguish between this mechanism and 2ωp instability. The amount of hot electrons generated can be controlled by the laser pulse shape and hohlraum plasma conditions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Collisionless microtearing modes in hot tokamaks: Effect of trapped electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, Aditya K.; Ganesh, R.; Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.

    2015-07-15

    Collisionless microtearing modes have recently been found linearly unstable in sharp temperature gradient regions of large aspect ratio tokamaks. The magnetic drift resonance of passing electrons has been found to be sufficient to destabilise these modes above a threshold plasma β. A global gyrokinetic study, including both passing electrons as well as trapped electrons, shows that the non-adiabatic contribution of the trapped electrons provides a resonant destabilization, especially at large toroidal mode numbers, for a given aspect ratio. The global 2D mode structures show important changes to the destabilising electrostatic potential. The β threshold for the onset of the instability is found to be generally downshifted by the inclusion of trapped electrons. A scan in the aspect ratio of the tokamak configuration, from medium to large but finite values, clearly indicates a significant destabilizing contribution from trapped electrons at small aspect ratio, with a diminishing role at larger aspect ratios.

  5. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn Chi, Li-Feng E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn Wang, Sui-Dong E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn

    2015-03-23

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process.

  6. Optical and Electrical Studies of Gamma-Irradiated AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anupama; Flitsiyan, Elena; Chernyak, Leonid; Ahn, Shihyun; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Lubomirsky, Igor; Khodorov, Sergey

    The impact of 60Co gamma-irradiation on n-channel AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) was studied by means of temperature dependent Cathodoluminescence (CL) and Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) technique. Increase in diffusion length after low dose of gamma-irradiation (<= 200 Gy) is consistent with the decrease in the CL intensity. The observed effect is explained via the mechanism involving trapping of Compton electrons on irradiation induced nitrogen vacancies. For high dose (>200 Gy), diffusion length was observed to decrease which is presumably associated with the mobility degradation. It is shown that calculated activation from the EBIC and CL measurements follows exactly the same trend, which implies that same underlying phenomenon is responsible for observed findings. In addition, DC current-voltage measurements were conducted on the devices in order to relate the material's fundamental properties to the device performance.

  7. Electronic transport properties of inner and outer shells in near ohmic-contacted double-walled carbon nanotube transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuchun; Zhou, Liyan; Zhao, Shangqian; Wang, Wenlong; Liang, Wenjie; Wang, Enge

    2014-06-14

    We investigate electronic transport properties of field-effect transistors based on double-walled carbon nanotubes, of which inner shells are metallic and outer shells are semiconducting. When both shells are turned on, electron-phonon scattering is found to be the dominant phenomenon. On the other hand, when outer semiconducting shells are turned off, a zero-bias anomaly emerges in the dependence of differential conductance on the bias voltage, which is characterized according to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid model describing tunneling into one-dimensional materials. We attribute these behaviors to different contact conditions for outer and inner shells of the double-walled carbon nanotubes. A simple model combining Luttinger liquid model for inner metallic shells and electron-phonon scattering in outer semiconducting shells is given here to explain our transport data at different temperatures.

  8. Transient and persistent current induced conductivity changes in GaAs/AlGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte-Braucks, Christian Valentin, Sascha R.; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.

    2014-03-31

    We report the observation of a current induced change of the low temperature conductivity of two-dimensional electron gases in GaAs/AlGaAs-high-electron-mobility transistors. By applying voltage pulses on the ohmic contacts of a Hall bar-mesa-structure, both sheet-carrier-density n{sub 2D} and electron mobility μ are decreased. At temperatures below 50 K, a persistent change combined with a partial transient recovery of n{sub 2D} has been observed. The transient behaviour and the lateral spreading of the effect are studied. Moreover, a temperature dependent investigation has been done in order to get insight into the addressed defect energy levels. A model based on the phenomenology of the effect is proposed. The observed effect is not a permanent degradation as the original carrier concentration can be restored by warming up the sample to room temperature and recooling it.

  9. Gate-defined Single Electron Transistor in a Graphene-MoS2 van der Waals Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Philip

    We report experimental demonstration of fabrication of laterally confined single electron transistor (SET) on MoS2 transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductor. A few atomic layers of MoS2 single crystals are encapsulated in hBN layers in order to improve mobility of 2-dimensional (2D) electron channel. Graphene layers are employed to provide Ohmic contact to the TMDC channels. The laterally confined quantum dots are formed by electrostatically depleting the near-by 2D channel employing local gate fabricated by electron lithography. Typical SET transport signatures such as gate-tunable Coulomb blockade have been observed. We have demonstrated the quantum confinement can be sensitively tuned to adjust the dot-reservoir coupling. The work paves way for more complicated device structure such as valley-spin filter and vertically coupled quantum dots in Coulomb drag devices.

  10. Effects of plasma composition on backscatter, hot electron production, and propagation in underdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, R. M.; Suter, L. J.; Oades, K.; Kruer, W.; Slark, G. E.; Fournier, K. B.; Meezan, N.; Kauffman, R.; Miller, M.; Glenzer, S.; Niemann, C.; Grun, J.; Davis, J.; Back, C.; Thomas, B.

    2004-05-01

    A series of underdense laser plasma interaction experiments performed on the Helen laser [M. J. Norman et al., Appl. Opt. 41, 3497 (2002)] at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), U.K., using 2ω light have uncovered a strong dependence of laser backscatter and hot electron production on plasma composition. Using low-Z materials, we find a behavior familiar from previous 3ω work, the interchange of stimulated Raman scattering for Brillouin scattering as we change from gases that have high ion wave damping (e.g., C5H12) to gases with low ion wave damping (e.g., CO2). However, as Z is increased, we find that Brillouin scattering drops while Raman scattering remains low. For gases with Z greater than 18, it is possible to have long scalelength, underdense plasmas with both low Brillouin and Raman backscatter losses. Complementary measurements of hot electron production show efficient production of hot electrons in C5H12 plasmas approaching 0.25ncr, but changing the plasma composition can greatly suppress the hot electron production, even near 0.25ncr. Additional experiments indicate that by adding small amounts of high Z dopant, significant changes to the backscatter and hot electron production in C5H12 targets may be produced.

  11. Characterization of strain in sub-100 nm silicon transistors by convergent-beam electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng

    As silicon devices shrink further beyond the 65 nm technology node, strain is increasingly important for the fabrication and operation of nano-devices. According to the latest International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, however, the detection and mapping of strain at the required nanometer spatial resolution has yet to be achieved. The project is to evaluate the convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) technique in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) as a nanoscale strain metrology. In this work, by using energy-filtered CBED under scanning TEM (STEM) mode, we have successfully measured strain in two types of sub-100 nm semiconductor structures: 90 nm node and 65 nm node shallow trench isolation (STI) structures, and a 65 nm node locally strained p-type metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (P-MOSFET, or PMOS) featuring SiGe source and drain (S/D). In the 90 nm STI structures, the strain is generally less than 0.1%. Nevertheless, CBED is sensitive enough to tell the strain difference in two 90 nm STI structures with different oxide trench filling conditions. In the 65 nm STI structure, the strain tensors at different positions around the oxide trench filling are measured. The experimental results are compared with finite element modeling based on isotropic elasticity theory. A large discrepancy is found between experiments and simulation, which suggests that a more sophisticated model is necessary for accurate modeling, and more importantly that CBED strain measurements can be used to check the applicability of models at nanometer scale. In the 65 nm node uniaxially strained PMOS, the lattice parameters of silicon at a distance of 25 nm to 55nm below the gate are measured. It is found that at 25 below the gate, the major stress component, 1.1 GPa, is compressive along the source-drain axis. It is also noticed that in the strained silicon area, all three diagonal components of the strain tensor are compressive. Thus the CBED strain

  12. Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy-efficient electronic switches.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Adrian M; Riel, Heike

    2011-11-16

    Power dissipation is a fundamental problem for nanoelectronic circuits. Scaling the supply voltage reduces the energy needed for switching, but the field-effect transistors (FETs) in today's integrated circuits require at least 60 mV of gate voltage to increase the current by one order of magnitude at room temperature. Tunnel FETs avoid this limit by using quantum-mechanical band-to-band tunnelling, rather than thermal injection, to inject charge carriers into the device channel. Tunnel FETs based on ultrathin semiconducting films or nanowires could achieve a 100-fold power reduction over complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, so integrating tunnel FETs with CMOS technology could improve low-power integrated circuits.

  13. Hot spot formation in electron-doped PCCO nanobridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, S.; Arpaia, R.; Gaudet, J.; Matte, D.; Baghdadi, R.; Löfwander, T.; Golubev, D.; Fournier, P.; Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the transport properties of optimally doped Pr2 -xCexCuO4 -δ (PCCO) nanobridges with width down to 100 nm. The critical current density of the nanobridges approaches the Ginzburg-Landau theoretical limit, which demonstrates nanostructures with properties close to the as-grown films. The current voltage characteristics are hysteretic with a sharp voltage switch, of the order of a few millivolts, that we interpret with the occurrence of a hot spot formation. The values of the retrapping current and the voltage switch obtained by modeling the heat transport in the nanobridges are very close to the experimental ones. This feature, together with the extremely short recombination times, make PCCO nanostructures attractive candidates for ultrafast single photon detectors.

  14. The Current Collapse in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors Can Originate from the Energy Relaxation of Channel Electrons?

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huan-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Influence of the energy relaxation of the channel electrons on the performance of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has been investigated using self-consistent solution to the coupled Schrödinger equation and Poisson equation. The first quantized energy level in the inversion layer rises and the average channel electron density decreases when the channel electric field increases from 20 kV/cm to 120 kV/cm. This research also demonstrates that the energy relaxation of the channel electrons can lead to current collapse and suggests that the energy relaxation should be considered in modeling the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs such as, the gate leakage current, threshold voltage, source-drain current, capacitance-voltage curve, etc.

  15. The Current Collapse in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors Can Originate from the Energy Relaxation of Channel Electrons?

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huan-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Influence of the energy relaxation of the channel electrons on the performance of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has been investigated using self-consistent solution to the coupled Schrödinger equation and Poisson equation. The first quantized energy level in the inversion layer rises and the average channel electron density decreases when the channel electric field increases from 20 kV/cm to 120 kV/cm. This research also demonstrates that the energy relaxation of the channel electrons can lead to current collapse and suggests that the energy relaxation should be considered in modeling the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs such as, the gate leakage current, threshold voltage, source-drain current, capacitance-voltage curve, etc. PMID:26039589

  16. Density matrix description of laser-induced hot electron mediated photodesorption of NO from Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalfrank, Peter; Baer, Roi; Kosloff, Ronnie

    1994-12-01

    Based on the numerical solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation for dissipative systems, the photodesorption dynamics of NO/Pt(111) are studied. Dissipative terms are used to describe the quenching of electronically excited states on the metal, electronic dephasing and the indirect (hot-electron mediated) excitation processes in the DIMET and DIET limits. Norm and energy flow, desorption probabilities and density time-of-flight spectra are computed.

  17. Electronic system for data acquisition to study radiation effects on operating MOSFET transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Juliano Alves; de Melo, Marco Antônio Assis; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present the development of an acquisition system for characterizing transistors under X-ray radiation. The system is able to carry out the acquisition and to storage characteristic transistor curves. To test the acquisition system we have submitted polarized P channel MOS transistors under continuous 10-keV X-ray doses up to 1500 krad. The characterization system can operate in the saturation region or in the linear region in order to observe the behavior of the currents or voltages involved during the irradiation process. Initial tests consisted of placing the device under test (DUT) in front of the X-ray beam direction, while its drain current was constantly monitored through the prototype generated in this work, the data are stored continuously and system behavior was monitored during the test. In order to observe the behavior of the DUT during the radiation tests, we used an acquisition system that consists of an ultra-low consumption16-bit Texas Instruments MSP430 microprocessor. Preliminary results indicate linear behavior of the voltage as a function of the exposure time and fast recovery. These features may be favorable to use this device as a radiation dosimeter to monitor low rate X-ray.

  18. Electronic system for data acquisition to study radiation effects on operating MOSFET transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Alves de Oliveira, Juliano; Assis de Melo, Marco Antônio; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    In this work we present the development of an acquisition system for characterizing transistors under X-ray radiation. The system is able to carry out the acquisition and to storage characteristic transistor curves. To test the acquisition system we have submitted polarized P channel MOS transistors under continuous 10-keV X-ray doses up to 1500 krad. The characterization system can operate in the saturation region or in the linear region in order to observe the behavior of the currents or voltages involved during the irradiation process. Initial tests consisted of placing the device under test (DUT) in front of the X-ray beam direction, while its drain current was constantly monitored through the prototype generated in this work, the data are stored continuously and system behavior was monitored during the test. In order to observe the behavior of the DUT during the radiation tests, we used an acquisition system that consists of an ultra-low consumption16-bit Texas Instruments MSP430 microprocessor. Preliminary results indicate linear behavior of the voltage as a function of the exposure time and fast recovery. These features may be favorable to use this device as a radiation dosimeter to monitor low rate X-ray.

  19. Performance of electronic switching circuits based on bipolar power transistors at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghanam, S. M.; Abdel Basit, W.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the performance of the bipolar power transistor of the type MJE13007 was evaluated under very low temperature levels. The investigation was carried out to establish a baseline on functionality and to determine suitability of this device for use in space applications under cryogenic temperatures. The static and dynamic electrical characteristics of the proposed transistor were studied at low temperature levels ranging from room level (300 K) down to 100 K. From which, it is clear that, several electrical parameters were affected due to operation on such very low temperature range, e.g. the threshold voltage ( V γ) increasing from 0.62 up to 1.05 V; while the current gain h FE decreases significantly from 26 down to 0.54. Also, the capacitance-voltage relationships ( C- V) of the collector-base and emitter-base junctions were studied at cryogenic temperatures, where a pronounced decrease was observed in the capacitances value due to temperature decrease. For example, at F = 50 kHz; CCB and CBE decreased from 2.33 nF down to 0.07 nF and from 36.2 down to 12 nF, respectively due to decreasing of temperature level from 300 down to 100 K. Finally the study was extended to include the dynamic characteristics and switching properties of the tested high power transistor. The dependency of both the rise and fall times ( t r, t f) on the temperature shows great variations with temperature.

  20. HOT ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM ULTRA-INTENSE LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Kruer, W; Patel, P; Shepherd, R

    2008-10-08

    Measurements of electron energy distributions from ultra-intense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions using an electron spectrometer are presented. These measurements were performed on the Vulcan petawatt laser at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Callisto laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The effective hot electron temperatures (T{sub hot}) have been measured for laser intensities (I{lambda}{sup 2}) from 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} for the first time, and T{sub hot} is found to increase as (I{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 0.34} {+-} 0.4. This scaling agrees well with the empirical scaling published by Beg et al. (1997), and is explained by a simple physical model that gives good agreement with experimental results and particle-in-cell simulations.

  1. Tandem-structured, hot electron based photovoltaic cell with double Schottky barriers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Hyosun; Park, Jeong Young

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a tandem-structured, hot electron based photovoltaic cell with double Schottky barriers. The tandem-structured, hot electron based photovoltaic cell is composed of two metal/semiconductor interfaces. Two types of tandem cells were fabricated using TiO2/Au/Si and TiO2/Au/TiO2, and photocurrent enhancement was detected. The double Schottky barriers lead to an additional pathway for harvesting hot electrons, which is enhanced through multiple reflections between the two barriers with different energy ranges. In addition, light absorption is improved by the band-to-band excitation of both semiconductors with different band gaps. Short-circuit current and energy conversion efficiency of the tandem-structured TiO2/Au/Si increased by 86% and 70%, respectively, compared with Au/Si metal/semiconductor nanodiodes, showing an overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 5.3%. PMID:24694838

  2. Coaxial Ag/ZnO/Ag nanowire for highly sensitive hot-electron photodetection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Yaohui; Li, Xiaofeng Wu, Kai; Wu, Shaolong; Deng, Jiajia

    2015-02-23

    Single-nanowire photodetectors (SNPDs) are mostly propelled by p-n junctions, where the detection wavelength is constrained by the band-gap width. Here, we present a simple doping-free metal/semiconductor/metal SNPD, which shows strong detection tunability without such a material constraint. The proposed hot-electron SNPD exhibits superior optical and electrical advantages, i.e., optically the coaxial design leads to a strong asymmetrical photoabsorption and results in a high unidirectional photocurrent, as desired by the hot-electron collection; electrically the hot-electrons are generated in the region very close to the barrier, facilitating the electrical transport. Rigorous calculations predict an unbiased photoresponsivity of ∼200 nA/mW.

  3. Young's double-slit interference observation of hot electrons in semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Kazuhito; Ninomiya, Yasunori; Machida, Nobuya; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki

    2003-11-21

    We have carried out Young's double-slit experiment for the hot-electron wave in man-made semiconductor structures with a 25-nm-space double slit in an InP layer buried within GaInAs, a 190-nm-thick GaInAsP hot-electron wave propagation layer, and a collector array of 80 nm pitch. At 4.2 K, dependences of the collector current on the magnetic field were measured and found to agree clearly with the double-slit interference theory. The present results show evidence for the wave front spread of hot electrons using the three-dimensional state in materials, for the first time, and the possibility of using top-down fabrication techniques to achieve quantum wave front control in materials.

  4. Reversible electron-hole separation in a hot carrier solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limpert, S.; Bremner, S.; Linke, H.

    2015-09-01

    Hot-carrier solar cells are envisioned to utilize energy filtering to extract power from photogenerated electron-hole pairs before they thermalize with the lattice, and thus potentially offer higher power conversion efficiency compared to conventional, single absorber solar cells. The efficiency of hot-carrier solar cells can be expected to strongly depend on the details of the energy filtering process, a relationship which to date has not been satisfactorily explored. Here, we establish the conditions under which electron-hole separation in hot-carrier solar cells can occur reversibly, that is, at maximum energy conversion efficiency. We thus focus our analysis on the internal operation of the hot-carrier solar cell itself, and in this work do not consider the photon-mediated coupling to the Sun. After deriving an expression for the voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell valid under conditions of both reversible and irreversible electrical operation, we identify separate contributions to the voltage from the thermoelectric effect and the photovoltaic effect. We find that, under specific conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a hot-carrier solar cell can exceed the Carnot limit set by the intra-device temperature gradient alone, due to the additional contribution of the quasi-Fermi level splitting in the absorber. We also establish that the open-circuit voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell is not limited by the band gap of the absorber, due to the additional thermoelectric contribution to the voltage. Additionally, we find that a hot-carrier solar cell can be operated in reverse as a thermally driven solid-state light emitter. Our results help explore the fundamental limitations of hot-carrier solar cells, and provide a first step towards providing experimentalists with a guide to the optimal configuration of devices.

  5. Measurements of hot electrons in the Extrap T1 reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welander, A.; Bergsåker, H.

    1998-02-01

    The presence of an anisotropic energetic electron population in the edge region is a characteristic feature of reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. In the Extrap T1 RFP, the anisotropic, parallel heat flux in the edge region measured by calorimetry was typically several hundred 0741-3335/40/2/011/img1. To gain more insight into the origin of the hot electron component and to achieve time resolution of the hot electron flow during the discharge, a target probe with a soft x-ray monitor was designed, calibrated and implemented. The x-ray emission from the target was measured with a surface barrier detector covered with a set of different x-ray filters to achieve energy resolution. A calibration in the range 0.5-2 keV electron energy was performed on the same target and detector assembly using a 0741-3335/40/2/011/img2 cathode electron gun. The calibration data are interpolated and extrapolated numerically. A directional asymmetry of more than a factor of 100 for the higher energy electrons is observed. The hot electrons are estimated to constitute 10% of the total electron density at the edge and their energy distribution is approximated by a half-Maxwellian with a temperature slightly higher than the central electron temperature. Scalings with plasma current, as well as correlations with local 0741-3335/40/2/011/img3 measurements and radial dependences, are presented.

  6. Hot-electron-transfer enhancement for the efficient energy conversion of visible light.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sungju; Kim, Yong Hwa; Lee, Su Young; Song, Hyeon Don; Yi, Jongheop

    2014-10-13

    Great strides have been made in enhancing solar energy conversion by utilizing plasmonic nanostructures in semiconductors. However, current generation with plasmonic nanostructures is still somewhat inefficient owing to the ultrafast decay of plasmon-induced hot electrons. It is now shown that the ultrafast decay of hot electrons across Au nanoparticles can be significantly reduced by strong coupling with CdS quantum dots and by a Schottky junction with perovskite SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The designed plasmonic nanostructure with three distinct components enables a hot-electron-assisted energy cascade for electron transfer, CdS→Au→SrTiO3, as demonstrated by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Consequently, hot-electron transfer enabled the efficient production of H2 from water as well as significant electron harvesting under irradiation with visible light of various wavelengths. These findings provide a new approach for overcoming the low efficiency that is typically associated with plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:25169852

  7. Hot-electron energy relaxation time in Ga-doped ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Šermukšnis, E. Liberis, J.; Ramonas, M.; Matulionis, A.; Toporkov, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2015-02-14

    Hot-electron energy relaxation time is deduced for Ga-doped ZnO epitaxial layers from pulsed hot-electron noise measurements at room temperature. The relaxation time increases from ∼0.17 ps to ∼1.8 ps when the electron density increases from 1.4 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 1.3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}. A local minimum is resolved near an electron density of 1.4 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}. The longest energy relaxation time (1.8 ps), observed at the highest electron density, is in good agreement with the published values obtained by optical time-resolved luminescence and absorption experiments. Monte Carlo simulations provide a qualitative interpretation of our observations if hot-phonon accumulation is taken into account. The local minimum of the electron energy relaxation time is explained by the ultrafast plasmon-assisted decay of hot phonons in the vicinity of the plasmon–LO-phonon resonance.

  8. Hot-electron generation from laser–pre-plasma interactions in cone-guided fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Davies, J. R.; Ma, T.; Mori, W. B.; Tonge, J.; Ren, C.; Solodov, A. A.; Theobald, W.

    2013-05-15

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were performed for the cone-in-shell integrated fast-ignition experiments at the Omega Laser Facility [W. Theobald et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056305 (2011)]. The initial plasma density profile in the PIC simulations was taken from hydrodynamic simulations of the prepulse interaction with the gold cone. Hot-electron generation from laser–pre-plasma interactions and transport up to 100× the critical density (n{sub c}) was studied. The simulation showed a mean divergence half-angle of 68° and 50% absorption for the hot electrons. The simulation results show that the generated hot electrons were dominated in number by low-energy electrons but in energy by multi-MeV electrons. Electron transport between 5 and 100 n{sub c} was ballistic. In the late stage of the simulation, all the results were largely independent of polarization, indicating a stochastic hot-electron–generation mechanism.

  9. Assessment of hot-electron microstability in the initial TMX-U experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, T.A.; Chen, Y.J.; Ellis, R.; James, R.; Lasnier, C.

    1983-04-01

    During the initial TMX-U experiments, we investigated the sloshing-ion and hot-electron distributions. We require these components to ultimately construct a thermal barrier for improved tandem mirror confinement. The plasma parameters we achieved approach values required for thermal barrier operation but have been limited by the power available. This report is concerned with the stability of the hot electron distribution formed. Nonthermal microwave emissions near the electron-cyclotron frequency f/sub ce/ of the minimum end-cell magnetic field indicate the presence of electron microinstabilities, which we have tentatively identified by their frequencies. We observed the upper-hybrid loss-cone mode (f/f/sub ce/ approx. 1.1) during high density operation with a relatively small fraction of hot electrons. At lower density operation with a higher hot electron fraction, we observed emissions consistent with the whistler instability. During emission bursts at 12.5 GHz (f/f/sub ce/ approx. 0.9) we observed a rapid rise in the high frequency thermal emissions, indicating a spreading of the distribution. Some of the more violent bursts are correlated with enhanced end loss currents.

  10. Hot electron production in laser solid interactions with a controlled pre-pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Culfa, O.; Tallents, G. J.; Wagenaars, E.; Ridgers, C. P.; Dance, R. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Brown, C. D. R.; James, S. F.; Hoarty, D. J.; Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Lancaster, K. L.; Pikuz, S. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Kampfer, T.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.

    2014-04-15

    Hot electron generation plays an important role in the fast ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and other applications with ultra-intense lasers. Hot electrons of temperature up to 10–20 MeV have been produced by high contrast picosecond duration laser pulses focussed to intensities of ∼10{sup 20} W cm{sup −2} with a deliberate pre-pulse on solid targets using the Vulcan Petawatt Laser facility. We present measurements of the number and temperature of hot electrons obtained using an electron spectrometer. The results are correlated to the density scale length of the plasma produced by a controlled pre-pulse measured using an optical probe diagnostic. 1D simulations predict electron temperature variations with plasma density scale length in agreement with the experiment at shorter plasma scale lengths (<7.5μm), but with the experimental temperatures (13–17 MeV) dropping below the simulation values (20–25 MeV) at longer scale lengths. The experimental results show that longer interaction plasmas produced by pre-pulses enable significantly greater number of hot electrons to be produced.

  11. Electron beam source molecular beam epitaxial growth of analog graded Al(x)Ga(1-x)As ballistic transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Roger J.; Levi, Anthony F. J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the growth of graded band-gap Al(x)Ga(1-x)As alloys by molecular beam epitaxy which is based upon electron beam evaporation of the group III elements. The metal fluxes are measured and feedback controlled using a modulated ion gauge sensor. The system is computer controlled which allows precise programming of the Ga and Al evaporation rates. The large dynamic response of the metal sources enables growth of variable band-gap III-V alloys with arbitrary composition profiles. This new technique is demonstrated by synthesis of analog graded Al(x)Ga(1-x)As unipolar ballistic electron transistors.

  12. Degradation of dc characteristics of InGaAs/InP single heterojunction bipolar transistors under electron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, A.; Subramanian, S.; Chandrasekhar, S.; Dentai, A.G.; Goodnick, S.M.

    1999-05-01

    The effects of high-energy ({approximately}1 MeV) electron irradiation on the dc characteristics of InGaAs/InP single heterojunction bipolar transistors (SHBT`s) are investigated. The device characteristics do not show any significant change for electron doses <10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}. For higher doses, devices show a decrease in collector current, a degradation of common-emitter current gain, an increase in collector saturation voltage and an increase in the collector output conductance. A simple SPICE-like device model is developed to describe the dc characteristics of SHBT`s. The model parameters extracted from the measured dc characteristics of the devices before and after irradiation are used to get an insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the degradation of the devices.

  13. Compositional variation of nearly lattice-matched InAlGaN alloys for high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, T.; Aidam, R.; Kirste, L.; Waltereit, P.; Quay, R.; Müller, S.; Ambacher, O.

    2010-06-01

    Quaternary InAlGaN semiconductors with AlN mole fractions between 40% and 81% and respective InN contents of 7% and 19% including InAlN as a ternary border case have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The electron mobility in InAlGaN-based heterostructures increases with Ga concentration in the barrier up to 1460 cm2/V s at a sheet electron density of 1.9×1013 cm-2. An advanced spacer comprising an AlN/GaN/AlN triple-layer sequence is inserted between the GaN-buffer and the InAlGaN-barrier. Transistors with thin quaternary barrier show a large current density of 2.3 A/mm and an excellent transconductance of 675 mS/mm.

  14. Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiran, A. M.; Wowchak, A. M.; Osinsky, A.; Xie, J.; Hertog, B.; Cui, B.; Chow, P. P.; Look, D. C.

    2008-08-25

    Low defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures, with very high values of electron mobility (>1800 cm{sup 2}/V s) and sheet charge density (>3x10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}), were grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on sapphire and SiC, resulting in sheet resistivity values down to {approx}100 {omega}/{open_square} at room temperature. Fabricated 1.2 {mu}m gate devices showed excellent current-voltage characteristics, including a zero gate saturation current density of {approx}1.3 A/mm and a peak transconductance of {approx}260 mS/mm. Here, an all MBE growth of optimized AlN/GaN HEMT structures plus the results of thin-film characterizations and device measurements are presented.

  15. Electron transport behaviors through donor-induced quantum dot array in heavily n-doped junctionless nanowire transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Liuhong; Han, Weihua Wang, Hao; Hong, Wenting; Lyu, Qifeng; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Fuhua

    2015-01-21

    We investigated single electron tunneling through a phosphorus donor-induced quantum dot array in heavily n-doped junctionless nanowire transistor. Seven subpeaks splitting in current oscillations are clearly observed due to the coupling of quantum dot array under the bias voltage below 1.0 mV at the temperature of 6 K. The conduction system can be well described by a two-band Hubbard model. The activation energy of phosphorus donors is tuned by the gate voltage to be 7.0 meV for the lower Hubbard band and 4.4 meV for the upper Hubbard band due to the localization effects below threshold voltage. The evolution of electron behaviors in the quantum dots is identified by adjusting the gate voltage from quantum-dot regime to one-dimensional regime.

  16. Metal-related gate sinking due to interfacial oxygen layer in Ir/InAlN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermaier, C.; Pozzovivo, G.; Basnar, B.; Schrenk, W.; Schmid, M.; Tóth, L.; Pécz, B.; Carlin, J.-F.; Gonschorek, M.; Grandjean, N.; Strasser, G.; Pogany, D.; Kuzmik, J.

    2010-06-01

    We report on an annealing-induced "gate sinking" effect in a 2-nm-thin In0.17Al0.83N/AlN barrier high electron mobility transistor with Ir gate. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy linked the effect to an oxygen containing interlayer between the gate metal and the InAlN layer and revealed diffusion of oxygen into iridium during annealing. Below 700 °C the diffusion is inhomogeneous and seems to occur along grain boundaries, which is consistent with the capacitance-voltage analysis. Annealing at 700 °C increased the gate capacitance over a factor 2, shifted the threshold voltage from +0.3 to +1 V and increased the transconductance from 400 to 640 mS/mm.

  17. Oblique firehose instability in hot collisionless plasmas - interplay between protons and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneva, Yana; Lazar, Marian; Vinas, Adolfo; Poedts, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    We solve the linearized kinetic Vlasov-Maxwell dispersion relation for oblique wave propagation in a homogeneous highly anisotropic hot electron-proton plasma. We assume bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions for both species, charge neutrality and current conservation, and consider no differential streaming between the ions and the electrons. We calculate the growth rate of the parallel and oblique proton firehose instabilities for various angles of wave propagation and varios electron plasma properties. We study the transition from stable to unstable scales with increasing electron temperature and temperature anisotropies. We find that for highly anisotropic hot plasma both the oscillatory parallel and the aperiodic oblique proton firehose branches may easily couple to the parallel and oblique electron firehose branches. In other words our work demonstrates the interplay between the proton and electron firehose instabilities, whose scales become fully mixed in hot collisionless plasma when the protons and the electrons are simultaneously anisotropic. In the case of parallel wave propagation both left and right-hand polarized waves are simultaneously excited. As we increase the angle of propagation the electron firehose starts to dominate with excitation of large-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations over a large range of wave-numbers, starting at the protons scales and extending up to the smaller electron scales. Whereas the maximum growth rate of the parallel proton firehose branch remains always at the proton scales, the maximum growth rate for the oblique proton firehose extends down to the electron scales. The observed electron-proton scale mixing can have significant implications for the observed plasma properties and instability thresholds in hot colissionless solar wind streams.

  18. Effect of re-heating on the hot electron temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, K.; Rosen, M.

    1980-06-17

    Resonant absorption is the direct conversion of the transverse laser light to longitudinal electron plasma waves (epw) at the critical density (10/sup 21/ (1.06 ..mu..m/lambda/sub 0/)/sup 2/ cm/sup -3/). The oscillating longitudinal electric field of the epw heats the electrons by accelerating them down the density gradient to a temperature of approximately 21T/sub e//sup 0/ /sup 25/ ((I(W/cm/sup 2/)/10/sup 16/)(lambda/sub 0//1.06 ..mu..m)/sup 2/)/sup 0/ /sup 4/. This section extends the previous work by studying the effects of magnetic fields and collisions (albedo) which return the heated electrons for further heating. A magnetic field increases their temperature and collisions do not.

  19. Hot-Electron Generation with Kilojoule Pulses on OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.; Myatt, J. F.; Stoeckl, C.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; Theobald, W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Zuegel, J. D.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Akli, K. U.; Patel, P. K.; MacKinnon, A. J.

    2009-11-01

    Intense laser--solid interactions generate high-current electron sources with relativistic energies that are important for advanced ignition experiments. Applications include rapid heating for fast ignition and energy deposition in solid material for flash radiography, isochoric heating, and x-ray scattering experiments. Results of laser-electron coupling experiments carried out on the OMEGA EP laser with up to 1.3-kJ, 10-ps-long pulses will be presented. Strong (˜20%) energy coupling to electrons is demonstrated with conversion efficiencies independent of the laser pulse duration. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC02-ER54789 and DE-FC52-08NA28302. (P.M. Nilson, R. Betti, and D.D. Meyerhofer also FSC.)

  20. Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions.

    PubMed

    Buffechoux, S; Psikal, J; Nakatsutsumi, M; Romagnani, L; Andreev, A; Zeil, K; Amin, M; Antici, P; Burris-Mog, T; Compant-La-Fontaine, A; d'Humières, E; Fourmaux, S; Gaillard, S; Gobet, F; Hannachi, F; Kraft, S; Mancic, A; Plaisir, C; Sarri, G; Tarisien, M; Toncian, T; Schramm, U; Tampo, M; Audebert, P; Willi, O; Cowan, T E; Pépin, H; Tikhonchuk, V; Borghesi, M; Fuchs, J

    2010-07-01

    We have analyzed the coupling of ultraintense lasers (at ∼2×10{19}  W/cm{2}) with solid foils of limited transverse extent (∼10  s of μm) by monitoring the electrons and ions emitted from the target. We observe that reducing the target surface area allows electrons at the target surface to be reflected from the target edges during or shortly after the laser pulse. This transverse refluxing can maintain a hotter, denser and more homogeneous electron sheath around the target for a longer time. Consequently, when transverse refluxing takes places within the acceleration time of associated ions, we observe increased maximum proton energies (up to threefold), increased laser-to-ion conversion efficiency (up to a factor 30), and reduced divergence which bodes well for a number of applications. PMID:20867457

  1. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  2. Detection of localized hot electrons in low-pressure large-area microwave discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebessy, Tibor; Kando, Masashi; Kudela, Jozef

    2000-10-01

    A localized hot-electron region was observed in low-pressure (<3 mTorr) large-area microwave discharges. The region appears in the vicinity of the waveguiding plasma-dielectric interface in the place of critical plasma density. The existence of localized hot electrons is explained on the basis of transit time heating in the resonantly enhanced electric field. The phenomenon provides experimental evidence that the plasma resonance region plays an active role in heating mechanism in low-pressure microwave discharges.

  3. Hydrogen Oxidation-Driven Hot Electron Flow Detected by Catalytic Nanodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hervier, Antoine; Renzas, J. Russell; Park, Jeong Y.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-07-20

    Hydrogen oxidation on platinum is shown to be a surface catalytic chemical reaction that generates a steady state flux of hot (>1 eV) conduction electrons. These hot electrons are detected as a steady-state chemicurrent across Pt/TiO{sub 2} Schottky diodes whose Pt surface is exposed to hydrogen and oxygen. Kinetic studies establish that the chemicurrent is proportional to turnover frequency for temperatures ranging from 298 to 373 K for P{sub H2} between 1 and 8 Torr and P{sub O2} at 760 Torr. Both chemicurrent and turnover frequency exhibit a first order dependence on P{sub H2}.

  4. Ab initio phonon coupling and optical response of hot electrons in plasmonic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ana M.; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Goddard, William A.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-08-01

    Ultrafast laser measurements probe the nonequilibrium dynamics of excited electrons in metals with increasing temporal resolution. Electronic structure calculations can provide a detailed microscopic understanding of hot electron dynamics, but a parameter-free description of pump-probe measurements has not yet been possible, despite intensive research, because of the phenomenological treatment of electron-phonon interactions. We present ab initio predictions of the electron-temperature dependent heat capacities and electron-phonon coupling coefficients of plasmonic metals. We find substantial differences from free-electron and semiempirical estimates, especially in noble metals above transient electron temperatures of 2000 K, because of the previously neglected strong dependence of electron-phonon matrix elements on electron energy. We also present first-principles calculations of the electron-temperature dependent dielectric response of hot electrons in plasmonic metals, including direct interband and phonon-assisted intraband transitions, facilitating complete theoretical predictions of the time-resolved optical probe signatures in ultrafast laser experiments.

  5. Plasmon Field Effect Transistor for Plasmon to Electric Conversion and Amplification.

    PubMed

    Shokri Kojori, Hossein; Yun, Ju-Hyung; Paik, Younghun; Kim, Joondong; Anderson, Wayne A; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-01-13

    Direct coupling of electronic excitations of optical energy via plasmon resonances opens the door to improving gain and selectivity in various optoelectronic applications. We report a new device structure and working mechanisms for plasmon resonance energy detection and electric conversion based on a thin film transistor device with a metal nanostructure incorporated in it. This plasmon field effect transistor collects the plasmonically induced hot electrons from the physically isolated metal nanostructures. These hot electrons contribute to the amplification of the drain current. The internal electric field and quantum tunneling effect at the metal-semiconductor junction enable highly efficient hot electron collection and amplification. Combined with the versatility of plasmonic nanostructures in wavelength tunability, this device architecture offers an ultrawide spectral range that can be used in various applications.

  6. Generation and Beaming of Early Hot Electrons onto the Capsule in Laser-Driven Ignition Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, E. L.; Hartemann, F.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J.; Hohenberger, M.; Pak, A.; Landen, O. L.; Divol, L.; Robey, H. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Döppner, T.; Albert, F.; Bachmann, B.; Meezan, N. B.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Callahan, D.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    In hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions on the National Ignition Facility, suprathermal hot electrons, generated by laser plasma instabilities early in the laser pulse ("picket") while blowing down the laser entrance hole (LEH) windows, can preheat the capsule fuel. Hard x-ray imaging of a Bi capsule surrogate and of the hohlraum emissions, in conjunction with the measurement of time-resolved bremsstrahlung spectra, allows us to uncover for the first time the directionality of these hot electrons and infer the capsule preheat. Data and Monte Carlo calculations indicate that for most experiments the hot electrons are emitted nearly isotropically from the LEH. However, we have found cases where a significant fraction of the generated electrons are emitted in a collimated beam directly towards the capsule poles, where their local energy deposition is up to 10 × higher than the average preheat value and acceptable levels for ICF implosions. The observed "beaming" is consistent with a recently unveiled multibeam stimulated Raman scattering model [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055003 (2015)], where laser beams in a cone drive a common plasma wave on axis. Finally, we demonstrate that we can control the amount of generated hot electrons by changing the laser pulse shape and hohlraum plasma.

  7. Hot electron-induced reduction of small molecules on photorecycling metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei; Schlücker, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Noble metals are important photocatalysts due to their ability to convert light into chemical energy. Hot electrons, generated via the non-radiative decay of localized surface plasmons, can be transferred to reactants on the metal surface. Unfortunately, the number of hot electrons per molecule is limited due to charge-carrier recombination. In addition to the reduction half-reaction with hot electrons, also the corresponding oxidation counter-half-reaction must take place since otherwise the overall redox reaction cannot proceed. Here we report on the conceptual importance of promoting the oxidation counter-half-reaction in plasmon-mediated catalysis by photorecycling in order to overcome this general limitation. A six-electron photocatalytic reaction occurs even in the absence of conventional chemical reducing agents due to the photoinduced recycling of Ag atoms from hot holes in the oxidation half-reaction. This concept of multi-electron, counter-half-reaction-promoted photocatalysis provides exciting new opportunities for driving efficient light-to-energy conversion processes.

  8. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.; Akiba, M.

    1995-09-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility ({open_quotes}OHBIS{close_quotes}, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10{sup -4}Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility.

  9. Generation and Beaming of Early Hot Electrons onto the Capsule in Laser-Driven Ignition Hohlraums.

    PubMed

    Dewald, E L; Hartemann, F; Michel, P; Milovich, J; Hohenberger, M; Pak, A; Landen, O L; Divol, L; Robey, H F; Hurricane, O A; Döppner, T; Albert, F; Bachmann, B; Meezan, N B; MacKinnon, A J; Callahan, D; Edwards, M J

    2016-02-19

    In hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions on the National Ignition Facility, suprathermal hot electrons, generated by laser plasma instabilities early in the laser pulse ("picket") while blowing down the laser entrance hole (LEH) windows, can preheat the capsule fuel. Hard x-ray imaging of a Bi capsule surrogate and of the hohlraum emissions, in conjunction with the measurement of time-resolved bremsstrahlung spectra, allows us to uncover for the first time the directionality of these hot electrons and infer the capsule preheat. Data and Monte Carlo calculations indicate that for most experiments the hot electrons are emitted nearly isotropically from the LEH. However, we have found cases where a significant fraction of the generated electrons are emitted in a collimated beam directly towards the capsule poles, where their local energy deposition is up to 10× higher than the average preheat value and acceptable levels for ICF implosions. The observed "beaming" is consistent with a recently unveiled multibeam stimulated Raman scattering model [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055003 (2015)], where laser beams in a cone drive a common plasma wave on axis. Finally, we demonstrate that we can control the amount of generated hot electrons by changing the laser pulse shape and hohlraum plasma. PMID:26943541

  10. Growth parameter optimization and interface treatment for enhanced electron mobility in heavily strained GaInAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Ostinelli, Olivier; Alt, Andreas; Pallin, Angel; Bolognesi, Colombo R.

    2014-01-28

    The optimization of heavily strained Ga{sub 0.25}In{sub 0.75}As/Al{sub 0.48}In{sub 0.52}As high electron mobility transistor structures is discussed in detail. The growth parameters and the channel layer interfaces were optimized in order to maximize the mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. Structures composed of an 11 nm thick channel layer and a 4 nm thick spacer layer exhibited electron mobilities as high as 15 100 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 70 000 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 300 and 77 K, respectively, for channels including InAs strained layers. The sheet carrier density was kept above 2.5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} throughout the entire study.

  11. How well do time-integrated K{sub {alpha}} images represent hot electron spatial distributions?

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Kemp, G. E.; Schumacher, D. W.; Freeman, R. R.; Van Woerkom, L. D.

    2011-07-15

    A computational study is described, which addresses how well spatially resolved time-integrated K{sub {alpha}} images recorded in intense laser-plasma experiments correlate with the distribution of ''hot'' (>1 MeV) electrons as they propagate through the target. The hot electron angular distribution leaving the laser-plasma region is critically important for many applications such as Fast Ignition or laser based x-ray sources; and K{sub {alpha}} images are commonly used as a diagnostic. It is found that K{sub {alpha}} images can easily mislead due to refluxing and other effects. Using the particle-in-cell code LSP, it is shown that a K{sub {alpha}} image is not solely determined by the initial population of forward directed hot electrons, but rather also depends upon ''delayed'' hot electrons, and in fact continues to evolve long after the end of the laser interaction. Of particular note, there is a population of hot electrons created during the laser-plasma interaction that acquire a velocity direction opposite that of the laser and subsequently reflux off the front surface of the target, deflect when they encounter magnetic fields in the laser-plasma region, and then traverse the target in a wide spatial distribution. These delayed fast electrons create significant features in the K{sub {alpha}} time-integrated images. Electrons refluxing from the sides and the back of the target are also found to play a significant role in forming the final K{alpha} image. The relative contribution of these processes is found to vary depending on depth within target. These effects make efforts to find simple correlations between K{alpha} images and, for example, Fast Ignition relevant parameters prone to error. Suggestions for future target design are provided.

  12. Design analysis of a novel hot-electron microbolometer

    SciTech Connect

    Nahum, M.; Richards, P.L. ); Mears, C.A. )

    1992-08-01

    We propose a novel antenna coupled microbolometer which makes use of the weak coupling between electrons and phonons in a metal at low temperatures. The radiation is collected by a planar lithographed antenna and thermalized in a thin metal strip. Resulting temperature rise of the electrons is detected by a tunnel junction, where part of the metal strip forms the normal electrode. All components are deposited directly on a substrate so that arrays can be conveniently produced by conventional lithographic techniques. The active area of the bolometer is thermally decoupled by its small volume, by thermal resistance between electrons an phonons in the strip, and by reflection of quasiparticles at interface between strip and superconducting antenna. Design calculations based on a metal volume of 2 [times] 6[times]0.05 [mu]m[sup 3] at an operating temperature of T=100 mK give an NEP [approx] 3 [times] l0[sup [minus]19] WHz[sup [minus][1/2

  13. Design analysis of a novel hot-electron microbolometer

    SciTech Connect

    Nahum, M.; Richards, P.L.; Mears, C.A.

    1992-08-01

    We propose a novel antenna coupled microbolometer which makes use of the weak coupling between electrons and phonons in a metal at low temperatures. The radiation is collected by a planar lithographed antenna and thermalized in a thin metal strip. Resulting temperature rise of the electrons is detected by a tunnel junction, where part of the metal strip forms the normal electrode. All components are deposited directly on a substrate so that arrays can be conveniently produced by conventional lithographic techniques. The active area of the bolometer is thermally decoupled by its small volume, by thermal resistance between electrons an phonons in the strip, and by reflection of quasiparticles at interface between strip and superconducting antenna. Design calculations based on a metal volume of 2 {times} 6{times}0.05 {mu}m{sup 3} at an operating temperature of T=100 mK give an NEP {approx} 3 {times} l0{sup {minus}19} WHz{sup {minus}{1/2}}, time constant {approx} 10 {minus}s, and responsivity {approx} 10{sup 9} V/W. The calculated sensitivity is almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of the best available direct detectors of millimeter and submillimeter radiation at the same temperature.

  14. Fabrication of metallic single electron transistors featuring plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of tunnel barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbasian, Golnaz

    The continuing increase of the device density in integrated circuits (ICs) gives rise to the high level of power that is dissipated per unit area and consequently a high temperature in the circuits. Since temperature affects the performance and reliability of the circuits, minimization of the energy consumption in logic devices is now the center of attention. According to the International Technology Roadmaps for Semiconductors (ITRS), single electron transistors (SETs) hold the promise of achieving the lowest power of any known logic device, as low as 1x10-18 J per switching event. Moreover, SETs are the most sensitive electrometers to date, and are capable of detecting a fraction of an electron charge. Despite their low power consumption and high sensitivity for charge detection, room temperature operation of these devices is quite challenging mainly due to lithographical constraints in fabricating structures with the required dimensions of less than 10 nm. Silicon based SETs have been reported to operate at room temperature. However, they all suffer from significant variation in batch-to-batch performance, low fabrication yield, and temperature-dependent tunnel barrier height. In this project, we explored the fabrication of SETs featuring metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions. While Si-based SETs suffer from undesirable effect of dopants that result in irregularities in the device behavior, in metal-based SETs the device components (tunnel barrier, island, and the leads) are well-defined. Therefore, metal SETs are potentially more predictable in behavior, making them easier to incorporate into circuits, and easier to check against theoretical models. Here, the proposed fabrication method takes advantage of unique properties of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Chemical mechanical polishing provides a path for tuning the dimensions of the tunnel junctions, surpassing the limits imposed by electron beam

  15. Theoretical analysis of hot electron injection from metallic nanotubes into a semiconductor interface.

    PubMed

    Kumarasinghe, Chathurangi S; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D; Agrawal, Govind P

    2016-07-21

    Metallic nanostructures under optical illumination can generate a non-equilibrium high-energy electron gas (also known as hot electrons) capable of being injected into neighbouring media over a potential barrier at particle boundaries. The nature of this process is highly nanoparticle shape and size dependent. Here, we have derived an analytical expression for the frequency dependent rate of injection of these energetic electrons from a metallic nanotube into a semiconductor layer in contact with its inner boundary. In our derivation, we have considered the quantum mechanical motion of the electron gas confined by the particle boundaries in determining the electron energy spectrum and wave functions. We present a comprehensive theoretical analysis of how different geometric parameters such as the outer to inner radius ratio, length and thickness of a nanotube and illumination frequency affect the hot electron injection and internal quantum efficiency of the nanotube. We reveal that longer nanotubes with thin shells and high inner to outer radius ratios show better performance at visible and infrared frequencies. Our derivations and results provide the much needed theoretical insight for optimization of thin nanotubes for different hot electron based applications. PMID:27332556

  16. Hot electrons injection in carbon nanotubes under the influence of quasi-static ac-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amekpewu, M.; Mensah, S. Y.; Musah, R.; Mensah, N. G.; Abukari, S. S.; Dompreh, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    The theory of hot electrons injection in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where both dc electric field (Ez), and a quasi-static ac field exist simultaneously (i.e. when the frequency ω of ac field is much less than the scattering frequency v (ω ≪ v or ωτ ≪ 1, v =τ-1) where τ is relaxation time) is studied. The investigation is done theoretically by solving semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation with and without the presence of the hot electrons source to derive the current densities. Plots of the normalized current density versus dc field (Ez) applied along the axis of the CNTs in the presence and absence of hot electrons reveal ohmic conductivity initially and finally negative differential conductivity (NDC) provided ωτ ≪ 1 (i.e. quasi- static case). With strong enough axial injection of the hot electrons, there is a switch from NDC to positive differential conductivity (PDC) about Ez ≥ 75 kV / cm and Ez ≥ 140 kV / cm for a zigzag CNT and an armchair CNT respectively. Thus, the most important tough problem for NDC region which is the space charge instabilities can be suppressed due to the switch from the NDC behaviour to the PDC behaviour predicting a potential generation of terahertz radiations whose applications are relevance in current-day technology, industry, and research.

  17. Hot and cold electron dynamics following high-intensity laser matter interaction.

    PubMed

    Antici, P; Fuchs, J; Borghesi, M; Gremillet, L; Grismayer, T; Sentoku, Y; d'Humières, E; Cecchetti, C A; Mancić, A; Pipahl, A C; Toncian, T; Willi, O; Mora, P; Audebert, P

    2008-09-01

    The characteristics of fast electrons laser accelerated from solids and expanding into a vacuum from the rear target surface have been measured via optical probe reflectometry. This allows access to the time- and space-resolved dynamics of the fast electron density and temperature and of the energy partition into bulk (cold) electrons. In particular, it is found that the density of the hot electrons on the target rear surface is bell shaped, and that their mean energy at the same location is radially homogeneous and decreases with the target thickness. PMID:18851222

  18. Hot-electron flux observation in large-area microwave sustained plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Jozef; Terebessy, Tibor; Kando, Masashi

    2000-03-01

    Flux of hot electrons directed away from the waveguiding plasma-dielectric interface was experimentally observed in large-area microwave discharges. The energy of these electrons attains values of some 60 eV, and they are believed to be originating from the resonantly-enhanced electric field region localized near the dielectric. The phenomenon appears to play a significant role in discharge heating mechanism, which is demonstrated by plasma parameter profiles.

  19. An AlN/Al0.85Ga0.15N high electron mobility transistor

    DOE PAGES

    Baca, Albert G.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Douglas, Erica A.; Sanchez, Carlos A.; King, Michael P.; Coltrin, Michael E.; Fortune, Torben R.; Kaplar, Robert J.

    2016-07-22

    An AlN barrier high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on the AlN/Al0.85Ga0.15N heterostructure was grown, fabricated, and electrically characterized, thereby extending the range of Al composition and bandgap for AlGaN channel HEMTs. An etch and regrowth procedure was implemented for source and drain contact formation. A breakdown voltage of 810 V was achieved without a gate insulator or field plate. Excellent gate leakage characteristics enabled a high Ion/Ioff current ratio greater than 107 and an excellent subthreshold slope of 75 mV/decade. A large Schottky barrier height of 1.74 eV contributed to these results. In conclusion, the room temperature voltage-dependent 3-terminalmore » off-state drain current was adequately modeled with Frenkel-Poole emission.« less

  20. CMOS Integrated Single Electron Transistor Electrometry (CMOS-SET) circuit design for nanosecond quantum-bit read-out.

    SciTech Connect

    Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Levy, James E.

    2008-08-01

    Novel single electron transistor (SET) read-out circuit designs are described. The circuits use a silicon SET interfaced to a CMOS voltage mode or current mode comparator to obtain a digital read-out of the state of the qubit. The design assumes standard submicron (0.35 um) CMOS SOI technology using room temperature SPICE models. Implications and uncertainties related to the temperature scaling of these models to 100mK operation are discussed. Using this technology, the simulations predict a read-out operation speed of approximately Ins and a power dissipation per cell as low as 2nW for single-shot read-out, which is a significant advantage over currently used radio frequency SET (RF-SET) approaches.

  1. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-01

    AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1ng/ml using a 20×50μm2 gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  2. Electron Spin Resonance Study of Organic Interfaces in Ion Gel-Gated Rubrene Single-Crystal Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tsuji, Masaki; Yomogida, Yohei; Takenobu, Taishi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Marumoto, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Organic interfaces of rubrene single crystals (RSCs) in ion gel-gated electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs) were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR). The EDLTs were fabricated by laminating ion-gel films onto RSCs. Clear ESR signals due to field-injected holes in RSCs were successfully observed at low gate voltages, showing a high spin concentration due to the high capacitance of EDLTs. The analyses of anisotropic ESR signals and its gate-voltage dependence show that the bulk molecular orientation at RSCs' interfaces is preserved without forming deep trapping levels, which demonstrate that organic interfaces in RSC-EDLTs are clean and undamaged under a strong electric field in EDLTs.

  3. GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistor with WN x /Cu Gate for High-Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ting-En; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Li, Fang-Ming; Shi, Wang-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Xiang; Lan, Wei-Cheng; Chin, Ping-Chieh; Chang, Edward Yi

    2015-12-01

    A GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) with WN x /Cu gate for high-power applications has been investigated. The direct-current (DC) characteristics of the device are comparable to those of conventional Ni/Au-gated GaN HEMTs. The results of high-voltage stress testing indicate that the device is stable after application of 200 V stress for 42 h. The WN x /Cu-gated GaN HEMT exhibited no obvious changes in the DC characteristics or Schottky barrier height before and after annealing at 250°C for 1 h. These results demonstrate that the WN x /Cu gate structure can be used in a GaN HEMT for high-power applications with good thermal stability.

  4. Influence of Boron Substitution on Conductance of Pyridine- and Pentane-Based Molecular Single Electron Transistors: First-Principles Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anurag; Santhibhushan, B.; Sharma, Vikash; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Shahzad Khan, Md.; Marathe, Madura; De Sarkar, Abir; Shahid Khan, Mohd.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the modeling of boron-substituted molecular single-electron transistor (SET), under the influence of a weak coupling regime of Coulomb blockade between source and drain metal electrodes. The SET consists of a single organic molecule (pyridine/pentane/1,2-azaborine/butylborane) placed over the dielectric, with boron (B) as a substituent. The impact of B-substitution on pyridine and pentane molecules in isolated, as well as SET, environments has been analyzed by using density functional theory-based ab initio packages Atomistix toolkit-Virtual NanoLab and Gaussian03. The performance of proposed SETs was analyzed through charging energies, total energy as a function of gate potential and charge stability diagrams. The analysis confirms that the B-substituted pentane (butylborane) and the boron-substituted pyridine (1,2-azaborine) show remarkably improved conductance in SET environment in comparison to simple pyridine and pentane molecules.

  5. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-26

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5 nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1 ng/ml using a 20x50 {mu}m{sup 2} gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  6. Role of Fe impurity complexes in the degradation of GaN/AlGaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Puzyrev, Y. S.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2015-02-02

    Recent experiments show that GaN/AlGaN high-electron-mobility transistors suffer from significant current collapse, which is caused by an increase in the concentration of traps with energy levels 0.5–0.6 eV below the conduction-band edge. This increase in trap concentration is consistent with thermally activated defect diffusion, but the responsible defect complexes have not been identified. It has been suggested that the defect complex may contain iron because of the proximity of the Fe-doped GaN substrate. Here, we report first-principles density-functional calculations of substitutional iron complexes, investigate their properties, and show that the Fe{sub Ga}-V{sub N} complex has properties that account for the observed degradation.

  7. An AlN/Al0.85Ga0.15N high electron mobility transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baca, Albert G.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Douglas, Erica A.; Sanchez, Carlos A.; King, Michael P.; Coltrin, Michael E.; Fortune, Torben R.; Kaplar, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    An AlN barrier high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on the AlN/Al0.85Ga0.15N heterostructure was grown, fabricated, and electrically characterized, thereby extending the range of Al composition and bandgap for AlGaN channel HEMTs. An etch and regrowth procedure was implemented for source and drain contact formation. A breakdown voltage of 810 V was achieved without a gate insulator or field plate. Excellent gate leakage characteristics enabled a high Ion/Ioff current ratio greater than 107 and an excellent subthreshold slope of 75 mV/decade. A large Schottky barrier height of 1.74 eV contributed to these results. The room temperature voltage-dependent 3-terminal off-state drain current was adequately modeled with Frenkel-Poole emission.

  8. Equivalent ambipolar carrier injection of electrons and holes with Au electrodes in air-stable field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Ikeda, Susumu; Kumashiro, Ryotaro; Shimotani, Hidekazu E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Shang, Hui; Tanigaki, Katsumi E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-07-27

    Carrier injection from Au electrodes to organic thin-film active layers can be greatly improved for both electrons and holes by nano-structural surface control of organic semiconducting thin films using long-chain aliphatic molecules on a SiO{sub 2} gate insulator. In this paper, we demonstrate a stark contrast for a 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)bithiophene (BP2T) active semiconducting layer grown on a modified SiO{sub 2} dielectric gate insulator between two different modifications of tetratetracontane and poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. Important evidence that the field effect transistor (FET) characteristics are independent of electrode metals with different work functions is given by the observation of a conversion of the metal-semiconductor contact from the Schottky limit to the Bardeen limit. An air-stable light emitting FET with an Au electrode is demonstrated.

  9. Small-signal modeling with direct parameter extraction for impact ionization effect in high-electron-mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, He; Lv, Hongliang; Guo, Hui Zhang, Yuming

    2015-11-21

    Impact ionization affects the radio-frequency (RF) behavior of high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have narrow-bandgap semiconductor channels, and this necessitates complex parameter extraction procedures for HEMT modeling. In this paper, an enhanced small-signal equivalent circuit model is developed to investigate the impact ionization, and an improved method is presented in detail for direct extraction of intrinsic parameters using two-step measurements in low-frequency and high-frequency regimes. The practicability of the enhanced model and the proposed direct parameter extraction method are verified by comparing the simulated S-parameters with published experimental data from an InAs/AlSb HEMT operating over a wide frequency range. The results demonstrate that the enhanced model with optimal intrinsic parameter values that were obtained by the direct extraction approach can effectively characterize the effects of impact ionization on the RF performance of HEMTs.

  10. Analysis of the damage threshold of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiao-Wen; Chai, Chang-Chun; Liu, Yang; Yang, Yin-Tang; Fan, Qing-Yang; Shi, Chun-Lei

    2016-08-01

    An electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced damage model based on the internal damage mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) is established in this paper. With this model, the relationships among the damage power, damage energy, pulse width and signal amplitude are investigated. Simulation results show that the pulse width index from the damage power formula obtained here is higher than that from the empirical formula due to the hotspot transferring in the damage process of the device. It is observed that the damage energy is not a constant, which decreases with the signal amplitude increasing, and then changes little when the signal amplitude reaches up to a certain level. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339900) and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) (Grant No. 2015-0214.XY.K).

  11. Ambipolar organic field-effect transistors based on a low band gap semiconductor with balanced hole and electron mobilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Mikami, Takefumi; Chisaka, Jiro; Yoshida, Yuji; Azumi, Reiko; Yase, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Akihiro; Kubo, Takashi; Morita, Yasushi; Nakasuji, Kazuhiro

    2007-07-01

    The authors have demonstrated the thin-film properties and the ambipolar transport of a delocalized singlet biradical hydrocarbon with two phenalenyl radical moieties (Ph2-IDPL). The organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on Ph2-IDPL exhibit ambipolar transport with balanced hole and electron mobilities in the order of 10-3cm2/Vs. The Ph2-IDPL film is an organic semiconductor with a low band gap of 0.8eV and has small injection barriers from gold electrodes to both the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. A complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-like inverter using two identical Ph2-IDPL based ambipolar OFETs shows a sharp inversion of the input voltage with high gain.

  12. Intra-cavity photon-assisted tunneling collector-base voltage-mediated electron-hole spontaneous-stimulated recombination transistor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, M.; Qiu, Junyi; Wang, C. Y.; Holonyak, N.

    2016-02-01

    Optical absorption in a p-n junction diode for a direct-gap semiconductor can be enhanced by photon-assisted tunneling in the presence of a static or dynamic electrical field. In the transistor laser, the coherent photons generated at the base quantum-well interact with the collector field and "assist" optical cavity electron tunneling from the valence band of the base to the conduction band states of the collector. In the present work, we study the cavity coherent photon intensity effect on intra-cavity photon-assisted tunneling (ICPAT) in the transistor laser and realize photon-field enhanced optical absorption. This ICPAT in a transistor laser is the unique property of voltage (field) modulation and the basis for ultrahigh speed direct laser modulation and switching.

  13. Energy relaxation of hot electrons in lattice-matched AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.-Z.; Dyson, A.; Ridley, B. K.

    2013-12-04

    Using the dielectric continuum model, hot-electron power dissipation and energy relaxation times are calculated for a typical lattice-matched AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructure, including effects of hot phonons and screening from the mobile electrons. The calculated power dissipation and energy relaxation times are very close to the experimental data.

  14. Aerosol jet printed p- and n-type electrolyte-gated transistors with a variety of electrode materials: exploring practical routes to printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kihyon; Kim, Se Hyun; Mahajan, Ankit; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2014-11-12

    Printing electrically functional liquid inks is a promising approach for achieving low-cost, large-area, additive manufacturing of flexible electronic circuits. To print thin-film transistors, a basic building block of thin-film electronics, it is important to have several options for printable electrode materials that exhibit high conductivity, high stability, and low-cost. Here we report completely aerosol jet printed (AJP) p- and n-type electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) using a variety of different electrode materials including highly conductive metal nanoparticles (Ag), conducting polymers (polystyrenesulfonate doped poly(3,4-ethylendedioxythiophene, PEDOT:PSS), transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide), and carbon-based materials (reduced graphene oxide). Using these source-drain electrode materials and a PEDOT:PSS/ion gel gate stack, we demonstrated all-printed p- and n-type EGTs in combination with poly(3-hexythiophene) and ZnO semiconductors. All transistor components (including electrodes, semiconductors, and gate insulators) were printed by AJP. Both kinds of devices showed typical p- and n-type transistor characteristics, and exhibited both low-threshold voltages (<2 V) and high hole and electron mobilities. Our assessment suggests Ag electrodes may be the best option in terms of overall performance for both types of EGTs.

  15. Hot electron plasma equilibrium and stability in the Constance B mirror experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xing

    1988-04-01

    An experimental study of the equilibrium and macroscopic stability property of an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) generated plasma in a minimum-B mirror is presented. The Constance B mirror is a single cell quadrupole magnetic mirror in which high beta (..beta.. less than or equal to 0.3) hot electron plasmas (T/sub e/approx. =400 keV) are created with up to 4 kW of ECRH power. The plasma equilibrium profile is hollow and resembles the baseball seam geometry of the magnet which provides the confining magnetic field. This configuration coincides with the drift orbit of deeply trapped particles. The on-axis hollowness of the hot electron density profile is 50 /+-/ 10%, and the pressure profile is at least as hollow as, if not more than, the hot electron density profile. The hollow plasma equilibrium is macroscopically stable and generated in all the experimental conditions in which the machine has been operated. The hollowness of the plasma pressure profile is not limited by the marginal stability condition. Small macroscopic plasma fluctuations in the range of the hot electron curvature drift frequency sometimes occur but their growth rate is small (..omega../sub i//..omega../sub r/ less than or equal to 10/sup -2/) and saturate at very low level (deltaB//bar B/ less than or equal to 10/sup -3/). Particle drift reversal is predicted to occur for the model pressure profile which best fits the experimental data under the typical operating conditions. No strong instability is observed when the plasma is near the drift reversal parameter regime, despite a theoretical prediction of instability under such conditions. The experiment shows that the cold electron population has no stabilizing effect to the hot electrons, which disagrees with current hot electron stability theories and results of previous maximum-B experiments. A theoretical analysis using MHD theory shows that the compressibility can stabilize a plasma with a hollowness of 20--30% in the

  16. Plasmonic photocatalytic reactions enhanced by hot electrons in a one-dimensional quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. J.; Liu, B.-H.; Lin, C.-T.; Su, W. S.

    2015-11-01

    The plasmonic endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor resulted in light energy transformation through quantum hot charge carriers (QHC), or quantum hot electrons, during a chemical reaction. It is demonstrated with a simple model that light of various intensities enhance the chemical oxidization of ammonium ions in water. It was further observed that light illumination, which induces the formation of plasmons on a platinum (Pt) thin film, provided higher processing efficiency compared with the reaction on a bare glass disk. These induced plasmons generate quantum hot electrons with increasing momentum and energy in the one-dimensional quantum well of a Pt thin film. The energy carried by the quantum hot electrons provided the energy needed to catalyze the chemical reaction. The results indicate that one-dimensional confinement in spherical coordinates (i.e., nanoparticles) is not necessary to provide an extra excited state for QHC generation; an 8 nm Pt thin film for one-dimensional confinement in Cartesian coordinates can also provide the extra excited state for the generation of QHC.

  17. Plasmonic photocatalytic reactions enhanced by hot electrons in a one-dimensional quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. J. E-mail: hhjhuangkimo@gmail.com; Liu, B. H.; Lin, C. T.; Su, W. S.

    2015-11-15

    The plasmonic endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor resulted in light energy transformation through quantum hot charge carriers (QHC), or quantum hot electrons, during a chemical reaction. It is demonstrated with a simple model that light of various intensities enhance the chemical oxidization of ammonium ions in water. It was further observed that light illumination, which induces the formation of plasmons on a platinum (Pt) thin film, provided higher processing efficiency compared with the reaction on a bare glass disk. These induced plasmons generate quantum hot electrons with increasing momentum and energy in the one-dimensional quantum well of a Pt thin film. The energy carried by the quantum hot electrons provided the energy needed to catalyze the chemical reaction. The results indicate that one-dimensional confinement in spherical coordinates (i.e., nanoparticles) is not necessary to provide an extra excited state for QHC generation; an 8 nm Pt thin film for one-dimensional confinement in Cartesian coordinates can also provide the extra excited state for the generation of QHC.

  18. Solution-processed InGaZnO-based thin film transistors for printed electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Shim, Jong Hyun; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Joo, Jinho; Park, Kyung; Jeon, Haseok; Moon, Mi Ran; Jung, Donggeun; Kim, Hyoungsub; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2009-07-01

    This letter reports the utility of using the sol-gel process for exploring the library of multicomponent ZnO-based oxides as an active layer of thin film transistors. We chose InGaZnO as a starting material and modulated the Ga content to examine the potential of this material. Increasing the Ga ratio from 0.1 to 1 brought about a dynamic shift in the electrical behavior from conductor to semiconductor. This exploratory work critically helped us fabricate a device with robust device performance (a mobility of 1˜2 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the 400 °C-sintered samples and 0.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the 300 °C-sintered samples).

  19. Dual-Gate p-GaN Gate High Electron Mobility Transistors for Steep Subthreshold Slope.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-05-01

    A steep subthreshold slope characteristic is achieved through p-GaN gate HEMT with dual-gate structure. Obtained subthreshold slope is less than 120 μV/dec. Based on the measured and simulated data obtained from single-gate device, breakdown of parasitic floating-base bipolar transistor and floating gate charged with holes are responsible to increase abruptly in drain current. In the dual-gate device, on-current degrades with high temperature but subthreshold slope is not changed. To observe the switching speed of dual-gate device and transient response of drain current are measured. According to the transient responses of drain current, switching speed of the dual-gate device is about 10(-5) sec.

  20. Dual-Gate p-GaN Gate High Electron Mobility Transistors for Steep Subthreshold Slope.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-05-01

    A steep subthreshold slope characteristic is achieved through p-GaN gate HEMT with dual-gate structure. Obtained subthreshold slope is less than 120 μV/dec. Based on the measured and simulated data obtained from single-gate device, breakdown of parasitic floating-base bipolar transistor and floating gate charged with holes are responsible to increase abruptly in drain current. In the dual-gate device, on-current degrades with high temperature but subthreshold slope is not changed. To observe the switching speed of dual-gate device and transient response of drain current are measured. According to the transient responses of drain current, switching speed of the dual-gate device is about 10(-5) sec. PMID:27483846

  1. Numerical study of the generation of runaway electrons in a gas diode with a hot channel

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenkov, V. V.; Shklyaev, V. A.

    2015-11-15

    A new method for increasing the efficiency of runaway electron beam generation in atmospheric pressure gas media has been suggested and theoretically proved. The method consists of creating a hot region (e.g., a spark channel or a laser plume) with a decreased numerical density of gas molecules (N) near the cathode. In this method, the ratio E/N (E—electric field strength) is increased by decreasing N instead of increasing E, as has been done in the past. The numerical model that is used allows the simultaneous calculation of the formation of a subnanosecond gas discharge and the generation of runaway electrons in gas media. The calculations have demonstrated the possibility of obtaining current pulses of runaway electrons with amplitudes of hundred of amperes and durations of more than 100 ps. The influence of the hot channel geometry on the parameters of the generated beam has been investigated.

  2. Experimental observation of the hot-electron equilibrium in a minimum-B mirror plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Smatlak, D.L.; Chen, X.; Lane, B.G.; Hokin, S.A.; Post, R.S.

    1987-05-04

    Measurements of the hot-electron (T = 450 keV, n = 2 x 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -3/) equilibrium in the Constance B minimum-B magnetic mirror show that the pressure profile is peaked off the axis and is shaped like the seam on a baseball. This curve is the drift surface of the deeply trapped electrons and the location of the strongest microwave heating. The configuration is stable and decays quiescently on the hot-electron collisional time scale (1--2 s) after the microwave power is turned off. According to 1D pressure-weighted ..integral.. dl/B analysis this plasma configuration is expected to be unstable.

  3. Intermittent laser-plasma interactions and hot electron generation in shock ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, R.; Li, J.; Ren, C.

    2014-06-15

    We study laser-plasma interactions and hot electron generation in the ignition phase of shock ignition through 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations in the regime of long density scale length and moderately high laser intensity. These long-term simulations show an intermittent bursting pattern of laser-plasma instabilities, resulting from a coupling of the modes near the quarter-critical-surface and those in the lower density region via plasma waves and laser pump depletion. The majority of the hot electrons are found to be from stimulated Raman scattering and of moderate energies. However, high energy electrons of preheating threat can still be generated from the two-plasmon-decay instability.

  4. Superconductive hot-electron-bolometer mixer receiver for 800-GHz operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, J.; Blundell, R.; Tong, C.-Y. E.; Papa, D. C.; Hunter, T. R.; Paine, S. N.; Patt, F.; Gol'Tsman, G.; Cherednichenko, S.; Voronov, B.; Gershenzon, E.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a superconductive hot-electron-bolometer mixer receiver designed to operate in the partially transmissive 350-μm atmospheric window. The receiver employs an NbN thin-film microbridge as the mixer element, in which the main cooling mechanism of the hot electrons is through electron-phonon interaction. At a local-oscillator frequency of 808 GHz, the measured double-sideband receiver noise temperature is Trx=970 K, across a 1-GHz intermediate-frequency bandwidth centered at 1.8 GHz. We have measured the linearity of the receiver and the amount of local-oscillator power incident on the mixer for optimal operation, which is PLO ≈ 1 microwatt. This receiver was used in making observations as a facility instrument at the Heinrich Hertz Telescope, Mt. Graham, AZ, during the 1998-1999 winter observing season.

  5. Thermal-noise suppression in nano-scale Si field-effect transistors by feedback control based on single-electron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chida, Kensaku Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Yamahata, Gento; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Fujiwara, Akira

    2015-08-17

    We perform feedback (FB) control for suppressing thermal fluctuation in the number of electrons in a silicon single-electron (SE) device composed of a small transistor and capacitor. SEs enter and leave the capacitor via the transistor randomly at thermal equilibrium, which is monitored in real time using a high-charge-sensitivity detector. In order to suppress such random motion or thermal fluctuation of the electrons, SEs are injected and removed using the transistor according to the monitored change in the number of electrons in the capacitor, which is exactly the FB control. As a result, thermal fluctuation in the number of electrons in a SE device is suppressed by 60%, which corresponds to the so-called FB cooling from 300 to 110 K. Moreover, a thermodynamics analysis of this FB cooling reveals that entropy in the capacitor is reduced and the device is at non-equilibrium; i.e., the free energy of the device increases. Since this entropy reduction originates from information about the electrons' motion monitored by the detector, our results by the FB control represent one type of information-to-energy conversion.

  6. Integrating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor with Si: A comparative study of integration schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, Nagaboopathy; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Manikant,; Soman, Rohith

    2015-10-07

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor stacks deposited on a single growth platform are used to compare the most common transition, AlN to GaN, schemes used for integrating GaN with Si. The efficiency of these transitions based on linearly graded, step graded, interlayer, and superlattice schemes on dislocation density reduction, stress management, surface roughness, and eventually mobility of the 2D-gas are evaluated. In a 500 nm GaN probe layer deposited, all of these transitions result in total transmission electron microscopy measured dislocations densities of 1 to 3 × 10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2} and <1 nm surface roughness. The 2-D electron gas channels formed at an AlGaN-1 nm AlN/GaN interface deposited on this GaN probe layer all have mobilities of 1600–1900 cm{sup 2}/V s at a carrier concentration of 0.7–0.9 × 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}. Compressive stress and changes in composition in GaN rich regions of the AlN-GaN transition are the most effective at reducing dislocation density. Amongst all the transitions studied the step graded transition is the one that helps to implement this feature of GaN integration in the simplest and most consistent manner.

  7. Assessment of pseudo-bilayer structures in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, J. L. Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M.; Medina-Bailón, C.; Gámiz, F.

    2015-06-29

    We investigate the effect of pseudo-bilayer configurations at low operating voltages (≤0.5 V) in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor (HG-EHBTFET) compared to the traditional bilayer structures of EHBTFETs arising from semiclassical simulations where the inversion layers for electrons and holes featured very symmetric profiles with similar concentration levels at the ON-state. Pseudo-bilayer layouts are attained by inducing a certain asymmetry between the top and the bottom gates so that even though the hole inversion layer is formed at the bottom of the channel, the top gate voltage remains below the required value to trigger the formation of the inversion layer for electrons. Resulting benefits from this setup are improved electrostatic control on the channel, enhanced gate-to-gate efficiency, and higher I{sub ON} levels. Furthermore, pseudo-bilayer configurations alleviate the difficulties derived from confining very high opposite carrier concentrations in very thin structures.

  8. Current status and scope of gallium nitride-based vertical transistors for high-power electronics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Srabanti; Swenson, Brian L.; Hoi Wong, Man; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2013-07-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is becoming the material of choice for power electronics to enable the roadmap of increasing power density by simultaneously enabling high-power conversion efficiency and reduced form factor. This is because the low switching losses of GaN enable high-frequency operation which reduces bulky passive components with negligible change in efficiency. Commercialization of GaN-on-Si materials for power electronics has led to the entry of GaN devices into the medium-power market since the performance-over-cost of even first-generation products looks very attractive compared to today's mature Si-based solutions. On the other hand, the high-power market still remains unaddressed by lateral GaN devices. The current and voltage demand for high-power conversion application makes the chip area in a lateral topology so large that it becomes difficult to manufacture. Vertical GaN devices would play a big role alongside silicon carbide (SiC) to address the high-power conversion needs. In this paper vertical GaN devices are discussed with emphasis on current aperture vertical electron transistors (CAVETs) which have shown promising performance. The fabrication-related challenges and the future possibilities enabled by the availability of good-quality, cost-competitive bulk GaN material are also evaluated for CAVETs. This work was done at Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

  9. Highly sensitive hBN/graphene hot electron bolometers with a Johnson noise readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efetov, Dmitri; Gao, Yuanda; Walsh, Evan; Shiue, Ren-Jye; Grosso, Gabriele; Peng, Cheng; Hone, James; Fong, Kin Chun; Englund, Dirk

    Graphene has remarkable opto-electronic and thermo-electric properties that make it an exciting functional material for various photo-detection applications. In particular, owed to graphenes unique combination of an exceedingly low electronic heat capacity and a strongly suppressed electron-phonon thermal conductivity Gth, the electronic and phononic temperatures are highly decoupled allowing an operation principle as a hot electron bolometer (HEB). Here we demonstrate highly sensitive HEBs made of high quality hBN/graphene/hBN stacks and employ a direct electronic temperature read out scheme via Johnson noise thermometry (JNT). We perform combined pump-probe and JNT measurements to demonstrate strongly damped Ce and Gth in the ultra-low impurity σi = 109 cm-2 hBN/G/hBN stacks, which result in unprecedented photo-detection sensitivity and noise equivalent power for graphene HEBs.

  10. Reversible electron-hole separation in a hot carrier solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linke, Heiner

    Hot-carrier solar cells are envisioned to utilize energy filtering to extract power from photogenerated electron-hole pairs before they thermalize with the lattice, and thus potentially offer higher power conversion efficiency compared to conventional, single absorber solar cells. The efficiency of hot-carrier solar cells can be expected to strongly depend on the details of the energy filtering process, a relationship which to date has not been satisfactorily explored. Here, we establish the conditions under which electron-hole separation in hot-carrier solar cells can occur reversibly, that is, at maximum energy conversion efficiency. We find that, under specific conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a hot-carrier solar cell can exceed the Carnot limit set by the intra-device temperature gradient alone, due to the additional contribution of the quasi-Fermi level splitting in the absorber. To achieve this, we consider a highly selective energy filter such as a quantum dot embedded into a one-dimensional conductor. We also establish that the open-circuit voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell is not limited by the band gap of the absorber, due to the additional thermoelectric contribution to the voltage. Additionally, we find that a hot-carrier solar cell can be operated in reverse as a thermally driven solid-state light emitter. In addition this theoretical analysis, I will also report on first experimental results in a nanowire-based energy filter device. Ref: S Limpert, S Bremner, and H Linke, New J. Phys 17, 095004 (2015)

  11. Single-Shot Charge Readout Using a Cryogenic Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Preamplifier Inline with a Silicon Single Electron Transistor at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Matthew; England, Troy; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carr, Stephen; Carroll, Malcolm

    Single-shot readout is a requirement for many implementations of quantum information processing. The single-shot readout fidelity is dependent on the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and bandwidth of the readout detection technique. Several different approaches are being pursued to enhance read-out including RF-reflectometry, RF-transmission, parametric amplification, and transistor-based cryogenic preamplification. The transistor-based cryogenic preamplifier is attractive in part because of the reduced experimental complexity compared with the RF techniques. Here we present single-shot charge readout using a cryogenic Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor (HBT) inline with a silicon SET charge-sensor at millikelvin temperatures. For the relevant range of HBT DC-biasing, the current gain is 100 to 2000 and the power dissipation is 50 nW to 5 μW, with the microfabricated SET and discrete HBT in an integrated package mounted to the mixing chamber stage of a dilution refrigerator. We experimentally demonstrate a SNR of up to 10 with a bandwidth of 1 MHz, corresponding to a single-shot time-domain charge-sensitivity of approximately 10-4 e / √Hz. This measured charge-sensitivity is comparable to the values reported using the RF techniques. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for protein-peptide binding affinity study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Geng-Yen; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Cheng, Hui-Teng; Hsu, Chen-Pin; Hsu, You-Ren; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Huang, Yu-Fen; Sun, Yuh-Chang; Chen, Chih-Chen; Li, Sheng-Shian; Yeh, J Andrew; Yao, Da-Jeng; Ren, Fan; Wang, Yu-Lin

    2013-03-15

    Antibody-immobilized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect a short peptide consisting of 20 amino acids. One-binding-site model and two-binding-site model were used for the analysis of the electrical signals, revealing the number of binding sites on an antibody and the dissociation constants between the antibody and the short peptide. In the binding-site models, the surface coverage ratio of the short peptide on the sensor surface is relevant to the electrical signals resulted from the peptide-antibody binding on the HEMTs. Two binding sites on an antibody were observed and two dissociation constants, 4.404×10(-11) M and 1.596×10(-9) M, were extracted from the binding-site model through the analysis of the surface coverage ratio of the short peptide on the sensor surface. We have also shown that the conventional method to extract the dissociation constant from the linear regression of curve-fitting with Langmuir isotherm equation may lead to an incorrect information if the receptor has more than one binding site for the ligand. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor observed in the experimental result (~10 pM of the short peptide) is very close to the LOD (around 2.7-3.4 pM) predicted from the value of the smallest dissociation constants. The sensitivity of the sensor is not only dependent on the transistors, but also highly relies on the affinity of the ligand-receptor pair. The results demonstrate that the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs cannot only be used for biosensors, but also for the biological affinity study.

  13. Hot Electron Measurement and Modeling for Short-Pulse Laser Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; McLean, S; Patel, P K; Wilks, S C

    2003-09-08

    We measured the hot electron production from short pulse laser plasma interactions using a fiber-array-based compact electron spectrometer that uses permanent magnets for electron energy dispersion and over 100 scintillating fibers coupled to a 1024 x 1024 pixel CCD as the detection system. This spectrometer has electron energy coverage from 10 keV to 60 MeV. The whole spectrometer is compact with dimensions of 8 inch x 7 inch x 4 inch. We performed systematic measurements of electron production on the ultra short pulse laser JanUSP (with pulse width less than 100 fs) at intensity range interest to Fast Ignition scheme from 10{sup 17} Wcm{sup -2} up to 10{sup 19} Wcm{sup -2} at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. The electron distributions were obtained at various laser energies for different solid target materials and observation angles. We determined characteristic temperature of the escaped hot electrons at various incident laser intensity which is confirmed by theoretical simulations using the ZOHAL Particle-in-cell (PIC) code.

  14. Femtosecond cooling of hot electrons in CdSe quantum-well platelets.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Philipp; Albrecht, Wiebke; van der Bok, Johanna C; Van Dijk-Moes, Relinde J A; Hannappel, Thomas; Eichberger, Rainer; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Semiconductor quantum wells are ubiquitous in high-performance optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and lasers. Understanding and controlling of the (hot) carrier dynamics is essential to optimize their performance. Here, we study hot electron cooling in colloidal CdSe quantum-well nanoplatelets using ultrafast two-photon photoemission spectroscopy at low excitation intensities, resulting typically in 1-5 hot electrons per platelet. We observe initial electron cooling in the femtosecond time domain that slows down with decreasing electron energy and is finished within 2 ps. The cooling is considerably faster at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature, and at least for the systems that we studied, independent of the thickness of the platelets (here 3-5 CdSe units) and the presence of a CdS shell. The cooling rates that we observe are orders of magnitude faster than reported for similar CdSe platelets under strong excitation. Our results are understood by a classic cooling mechanism with emission of longitudinal optical phonons without a significant influence of the surface. PMID:25764379

  15. Direct detection of a transport-blocking trap in a nanoscaled silicon single-electron transistor by radio-frequency reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Villis, B. J.; Sanquer, M.; Jehl, X.; Orlov, A. O.; Barraud, S.; Vinet, M.; Fay, P.; Snider, G.

    2014-06-09

    The continuous downscaling of transistors results in nanoscale devices which require fewer and fewer charged carriers for their operation. The ultimate charge controlled device, the single-electron transistor (SET), controls the transfer of individual electrons. It is also the most sensitive electrometer, and as a result the electron transport through it can be dramatically affected by nearby charges. Standard direct-current characterization techniques, however, are often unable to unambiguously detect and resolve the origin of the observed changes in SET behavior arising from changes in the charge state of a capacitively coupled trap. Using a radio-frequency (RF) reflectometry technique, we are able to unequivocally detect this process, in very close agreement with modeling of the trap's occupation probability.

  16. Transport of high intensity laser-generated hot electrons in cone coupled wire targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg, Farhat

    2008-04-01

    In this talk, we present results from a series of experiments where cone-wire targets were employed both to assess hot electron coupling efficiency, and to reveal the source temperature of the hot electrons. Experiments were performed on the petawatt laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. A 500J, 1ps laser (I ˜ 4 x 10^20 W/cm-2) was focused by an f/3 off-axis parabolic mirror into hollow aluminum cones joined at their tip to Cu wires of diameters from 10 to 40 μm. The three main diagnostics fielded were a copper Kalpha Bragg crystal imager, a single hit CCD camera spectrometer and a Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) spectrometer. The resulting data were cross-calibrated to obtain the absolute Kalpha yield. Comparison of the axially diminishing absolute Cu Kα intensity with modeling shows that the penetration of the hot electrons is consistent with one dimensional ohmic potential limited transport (1/e length ˜ 100 μm). The laser coupling efficiency to electron energy within the wire is shown to be proportional to the cross sectional area of the wire, reaching 15% for 40 μm wires. We find that the hot electron temperature within the wire was <=750 keV, significantly lower than that predicted by the ponderomotive scaling. A comparison of the experimental results with 2D hybrid PIC simulations using e-PLAS code will be presented and relevance to Fast Ignition will be discussed at the meeting. *In collaboration with J.A. King, M.H. Key, K.U. Akli, R.R. Freeman, J. Green, S. P. Hatchett, D. Hey, P. Jaanimagi, J. Koch, K. L. Lancaster, T. Ma, A.J. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, R. Mason, P.A. Norreys, P.K Patel, T. Phillips, R. Stephens, W. Theobald, R.P.J. Town, M. Wei, L. Van Woerkom, B. Zhang.

  17. Electrical characterization of electron beam induced damage on sub-10 nm n-channel MOS transistors using nano-probing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jonghyuk; Lee, Sungho; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2016-11-01

    Electron beam induced damage on sub-10 nm n-channel MOS transistors was evaluated using an atomic force microscopy-based nano-probing technique. After electron beam irradiation, all the device parameters shifted including threshold voltage (V th), saturation current, sub-threshold slope and transistor leakage current. A negative shift in V th occurred at low electron beam acceleration voltage (V acc) because of the increase in oxide trapped holes generated by excited plasmons. At high V acc, however, a positive V th shift was observed because of an increased contribution of interface trap generation caused by the deeper electron penetration depth. In addition, interface trap generation not only degraded the sub-threshold slope due to the additional capacitance from the generated interface traps, but also increased transistor leakage current due to changes in junction characteristics. Our studies show that it is critical to avoid electron beam exposure before electrical characterization on sub-10 nm devices even in the range of less than 1.0 kV of V acc using nano-probe systems.

  18. Controlling hot electrons by wave amplification and decay in compressing plasma.

    PubMed

    Schmit, P F; Dodin, I Y; Fisch, N J

    2010-10-22

    Through particle-in-cell simulations, it is demonstrated that a part of the mechanical energy of compressing plasma can be controllably transferred to hot electrons by preseeding the plasma with a Langmuir wave that is compressed together with the medium. Initially, a wave is undamped, so it is amplified under compression due to plasmon conservation. Later, as the phase velocity also changes under compression, Landau damping can be induced at a predetermined instant of time. Then the wave energy is transferred to hot electrons, shaping the particle distribution over a controllable velocity interval, which is wider than that in stationary plasma. For multiple excited modes, the transition between the adiabatic amplification and the damping occurs at different moments; thus, individual modes can deposit their energy independently, each at its own prescribed time.

  19. Participation of hot electrons in oxygen adsorption and ethylene oxidation on metals

    SciTech Connect

    Maganyuk, A.P.; Starkovskii, N.I.; Yurchuk, S.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This paper reports the results obtained in the course of generating hot electrons by a device that is easier to fabricate and has more stability to chemically active compounds that a metal-insulator-metal systems: a Shottky-barrier diode having planar contact between a metal and a donor-doped semiconductor. In order to elucidate the potential effect of the promotion of chemical transformation by hot electrons, two specimens of different barrier heights were used: one a silicon-gold contact, the second a gallium arsenide film coated with layers of silver and a InNi alloy (3% Ni). These contacts were used to measure the current-voltage curve, the peak intensities curves which were proportional to the quantities of oxygen, water and carbon dioxide employed, and the peak intensities proportional to the formation rates of ethylene oxidation products.

  20. Ar plasma treated ZnON transistor for future thin film electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunha E-mail: jeonsh@korea.ac.kr; Benayad, Anass; Kim, HeeGoo; Park, Gyeong-Su; Kim, Taeho; Jeon, Sanghun E-mail: jeonsh@korea.ac.kr

    2015-09-21

    To achieve high-mobility and high-reliability oxide thin film transistors (TFTs), ZnON has been investigated following an anion control strategy based on the substitution of oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO. However, as nitrogen possesses, compared to oxygen, a low reactivity with Zn, the chemical composition of ZnON changes easily, causing in turn a degradation of both the performance and the stability. Here, we have solved the issues of long-time stability and composition non-uniformity while maintaining a high channel mobility by adopting the argon plasma process, which can delay the reaction of oxygen with Zn–O–N; as a result, owing to the formation of very fine nano-crystalline structure in stable glassy phase without changes in the chemical composition, the material properties and stability under e-radiation have significantly improved. In particular, the channel mobility of the ZnON TFTs extracted from the pulsed I−V method was measured to be 138 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  1. Effect of electron density on cutoff frequency of III-N HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulionis, Arvydas; Morkoç, Hadis

    2014-03-01

    Advances in frequency performance of heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) are discussed in terms of dissipative processes. The conditions for fastest dissipation coincide reasonably well with those for fastest operation and slowest device degradation. The correlation has its genesis in dissipation of the hot-phonon heat accumulated by non-equilibrium optical phonons launched by hot electrons. The hot-phonon heat causes defect formation and additional electron scattering in a different manner as compared with the effects due to conventional heat accumulated by acoustic phonons. The desirable ultrafast conversion of hot phonons into acoustic phonons is assisted by plasmons as demonstrated through measurement of hot-phonon lifetime. Signatures of plasmons have been also resolved in hot-electron transport, transistor frequency performance, phase noise, and device reliability. The plasmon-assisted ultrafast dissipation of hot-phonon heat explains the known necessity for application a stronger negative gate bias to a channel with higher as-grown electron density.

  2. Modeling Hot-Electron Measurements in Multibeam Two-Plasmon-Decay Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follett, R. K.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Katz, J.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J. G.; Solodov, A. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Froula, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    Many-beam laser facilities introduce laser-plasma interactions where multiple beams can couple to common daughter waves. Recent theory, modeling, and experiments have suggested that multiple laser beams can drive the two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability through common electron plasma waves. Experiments and modeling suggest that these waves lead to turbulence and the acceleration of electrons to high energies. Experiments on OMEGA used ultraviolet Thomson scattering to observe TPD-driven electron plasma waves and hard x-ray detectors to infer the corresponding hot-electron production. The experiments were modeled in 3-D using a hybrid code (LPSE) that combines a pseudospectral wave solver for calculating the bulk fluid behavior with a particle tracker for calculating nonlinear Landau damping. Detailed comparison of both the hot-electron generation and the turbulent electron plasma wave spectrum are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  3. Pseudopotential-based electron quantum transport: Theoretical formulation and application to nanometer-scale silicon nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jingtian; Vandenberghe, William G.; Fu, Bo; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a formalism to treat quantum electronic transport at the nanometer scale based on empirical pseudopotentials. This formalism offers explicit atomistic wavefunctions and an accurate band structure, enabling a detailed study of the characteristics of devices with a nanometer-scale channel and body. Assuming externally applied potentials that change slowly along the electron-transport direction, we invoke the envelope-wavefunction approximation to apply the open boundary conditions and to develop the transport equations. We construct the full-band open boundary conditions (self-energies of device contacts) from the complex band structure of the contacts. We solve the transport equations and present the expressions required to calculate the device characteristics, such as device current and charge density. We apply this formalism to study ballistic transport in a gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire field-effect transistor with a body-size of 0.39 nm, a gate length of 6.52 nm, and an effective oxide thickness of 0.43 nm. Simulation results show that this device exhibits a subthreshold slope (SS) of ˜66 mV/decade and a drain-induced barrier-lowering of ˜2.5 mV/V. Our theoretical calculations predict that low-dimensionality channels in a 3D GAA architecture are able to meet the performance requirements of future devices in terms of SS swing and electrostatic control.

  4. Unusual impact of electron-phonon scattering in Si nanowire field-effect-transistors: A possible route for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag Chowdhury, Basudev; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan

    2016-09-01

    In the current work, the impact of electron-phonon scattering phenomena on the transport behaviour of silicon nanowire field-effect-transistors with sub-mean free path channel length has been investigated by developing a theoretical model that incorporates the responses of carrier effective mass mismatch between the channel and source/drain. For this purpose, a set of relevant quantum field equations has been solved by non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The obtained device current for a particular set of biases is found to decrease due to phonon scattering below a certain doping level of source/drain, above which it is observed to enhance anomalously. Analyses of the quantified scattering lifetime and power dissipation at various confinement modes of the device indicates that such unusual enhancement of current is originated from the power served by phonons instead of associated decay processes. The power generation has been observed to improve by using high-k materials as gate insulator. Such results may contribute significantly to the future nano-electronic applications for energy harvesting.

  5. Analysis of current instabilities of thin AlN/GaN/AlN double heterostructure high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervos, Ch; Adikimenakis, A.; Bairamis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G.; Georgakilas, A.

    2016-06-01

    The current instabilities of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), based on thin double AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructures (˜0.5 μm total thickness), directly grown on sapphire substrates, have been analyzed and compared for different AlN top barrier thicknesses. The structures were capped by 1 nm GaN and non-passivated 1 μm gate-length devices were processed. Pulsed I-V measurements resulted in a maximum cold pulsed saturation current of 1.4 A mm-1 at a gate-source voltage of +3 V for 3.7 nm AlN thickness. The measured gate and drain lag for 500 ns pulse-width varied between 6%-12% and 10%-18%, respectively. Furthermore, a small increase in the threshold voltage was observed for all the devices, possibly due to the trapping of electrons under the gate contact. The off-state breakdown voltage of V br = 70 V, for gate-drain spacing of 2 μm, was approximately double the value measured for a single AlN/GaN HEMT structure grown on a thick GaN buffer layer. The results suggest that the double AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructures may offer intrinsic advantages for the breakdown and current stability characteristics of high current HEMTs.

  6. Strain- and temperature-induced effects in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saran Yalamarthy, Ananth; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a physics-based model for computing the combined effect of applied strain and temperature on the device characteristics of aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN/GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). More specifically, the electrical response of the HEMT is predicted under applied biaxial strain from ±1% over a wide range of temperatures (300-500 K). In addition, the interface state densities at the Schottky-AlGaN interface are introduced in the model. This physics-based model calculates the charge due to applied, thermal and lattice mismatch strain and temperature effects at the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) interface of the HEMT. Coupled with a model for the 2DEG mobility that includes strain and temperature effects, current-voltage characteristics for the HEMT are derived above the threshold voltage. Regimes with large strain sensitivity and temperature compensation are identified and vice-versa. The analysis from the model clarifies the large range of strain response variations observed in the experimentally measured characteristics of HEMTs in literature. Furthermore, the developed model is a useful tool for predicting the response of HEMTs used in sensing and under the influence of packaging in extreme environments, especially when temperature fluctuation and strain coupling is of concern.

  7. Electronic Structure of Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Amorphous Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Thin-Film Transistor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Socratous, Josephine; Banger, Kulbinder K; Vaynzof, Yana; Sadhanala, Aditya; Brown, Adam D; Sepe, Alessandro; Steiner, Ullrich; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure of low temperature, solution-processed indium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors is complex and remains insufficiently understood. As commonly observed, high device performance with mobility >1 cm2 V−1 s−1 is achievable after annealing in air above typically 250 °C but performance decreases rapidly when annealing temperatures ≤200 °C are used. Here, the electronic structure of low temperature, solution-processed oxide thin films as a function of annealing temperature and environment using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and photothermal deflection spectroscopy is investigated. The drop-off in performance at temperatures ≤200 °C to incomplete conversion of metal hydroxide species into the fully coordinated oxide is attributed. The effect of an additional vacuum annealing step, which is beneficial if performed for short times at low temperatures, but leads to catastrophic device failure if performed at too high temperatures or for too long is also investigated. Evidence is found that during vacuum annealing, the workfunction increases and a large concentration of sub-bandgap defect states (re)appears. These results demonstrate that good devices can only be achieved in low temperature, solution-processed oxides if a significant concentration of acceptor states below the conduction band minimum is compensated or passivated by shallow hydrogen and oxygen vacancy-induced donor levels. PMID:26190964

  8. On the redox origin of surface trapping in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Chen, Di; Tuller, Harry L.; Thompson, Carl V.; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-03-28

    Water-related redox couples in ambient air are identified as an important source of the surface trapping states, dynamic on-resistance, and drain current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Through in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), direct signature of the water-related species—hydroxyl groups (OH) was found at the AlGaN surface at room temperature. It was also found that these species, as well as the current collapse, can be thermally removed above 200 °C in vacuum conditions. An electron trapping mechanism based on the H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2} redox couples is proposed to explain the 0.5 eV energy level commonly attributed to the surface trapping states. Finally, the role of silicon nitride passivation in successfully removing current collapse in these devices is explained by blocking the water molecules away from the AlGaN surface.

  9. Graphene and thin-film semiconductor heterojunction transistors integrated on wafer scale for low-power electronics.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinseong; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Jaeho; Chung, Hyun-Jong; Jeon, Sanghun; Park, Seongjun; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2013-01-01

    Graphene heterostructures in which graphene is combined with semiconductors or other layered 2D materials are of considerable interest, as a new class of electronic devices has been realized. Here we propose a technology platform based on graphene-thin-film-semiconductor-metal (GSM) junctions, which can be applied to large-scale and power-efficient electronics compatible with a variety of substrates. We demonstrate wafer-scale integration of vertical field-effect transistors (VFETs) based on graphene-In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO)-metal asymmetric junctions on a transparent 150 × 150 mm(2) glass. In this system, a triangular energy barrier between the graphene and metal is designed by selecting a metal with a proper work function. We obtain a maximum current on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff) up to 10(6) with an average of 3010 over 2000 devices under ambient conditions. For low-power logic applications, an inverter that combines complementary n-type (IGZO) and p-type (Ge) devices is demonstrated to operate at a bias of only 0.5 V.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide-functionalized high electron mobility transistors for novel recognition pattern label-free DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yue; Liao, Qingliang; Song, Yu; Ma, Siwei

    2013-12-01

    We designed and constructed reduced graphene oxide (rGO) functionalized high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) for rapid and ultra-sensitive detection of label-free DNA in real time. The micrometer sized rGO sheets with structural defects helped absorb DNA molecules providing a facile and robust approach to functionalization. DNA was immobilized onto the surface of HEMT gate through rGO functionalization, and changed the conductivity of HEMT. The real time monitor and detection of DNA hybridization by rGO functionalized HEMT presented interesting current responses: a "two steps" signal enhancement in the presence of target DNA; and a "one step" signaling with random DNA. These two different recognition patterns made the HEMT capable of specifically detecting target DNA sequence. The working principle of the rGO functionalized HEMT can be demonstrated as the variation of the ambience charge distribution. Furthermore, the as constructed DNA sensors showed excellent sensitivity of detect limit at 0.07 fM with linear detect range from 0.1 fM to 0.1 pM. The results indicated that the HEMT functionalized with rGO paves a new avenue to design novel electronic devices for high sensitive and specific genetic material assays in biomedical applications. PMID:23828864

  11. Study of nonlinear electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar space plasma with superthermal hot electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jiu-Ning He, Yong-Lin; Luo, Jun-Hua; Nan, Ya-Gong; Han, Zhen-Hai; Dong, Guang-Xing; Duan, Wen-Shan; Li, Jun-Xiu

    2014-01-15

    With the consideration of the superthermal electron distribution, we present a theoretical investigation about the nonlinear propagation of electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar non-Maxwellian plasma comprised of cold electrons, superthermal hot electrons, and stationary ions. The reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation for nonlinear waves in this plasma. We discuss the effects of various plasma parameters on the time evolution of nonplanar solitary waves, the profile of shock waves, and the nonlinear structure induced by the collision between planar solitary waves. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves and collision-induced nonlinear structure.

  12. Electron - polar acoustical phonon interactions in nitride based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well via hot electron magnetotransport

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering.

  13. Transient simulation of EPROM writing characteristics, with a novel hot electron injection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chimoon; Wang, Tahui

    1995-02-01

    A two-dimensional transient simulation of EPROM writing characteristics is presented. A Monte Carlo-based hot electron injection model which accounts for Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and thermionic emission has been included in the simulation. The simulated EPROM writing transient characteristics is compared favorably with experimental results for channel lengths down to 0.5 μm. The importance of the two injection mechanisms, thermionic emission and quantum tunneling; is evaluated.

  14. Ignition conditions relaxation for central hot-spot ignition with an ion-electron non-equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Bin; Yu, Chengxin; He, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    Fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated >5 keV hot spot with ρRh lower than 0.3 g/cm2 [Döppner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055001 (2015)]. We present an ion-electron non-equilibrium model, in which the hot-spot ion temperature is higher than its electron temperature so that the hot-spot nuclear reactions are enhanced while energy leaks are considerably reduced. Theoretical analysis shows that the ignition region would be significantly enlarged in the hot-spot ρR-T space as compared with the commonly used equilibrium model. Simulations show that shocks could be utilized to create and maintain non-equilibrium conditions within the hot spot, and the hot-spot ρR requirement is remarkably reduced for achieving self-heating.

  15. Ultrafast Surface-Enhanced Raman Probing of the Role of Hot Electrons in Plasmon-Driven Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Nathaniel C; Keller, Emily L; Frontiera, Renee R

    2016-08-18

    Hot electrons generated through plasmonic excitations in metal nanostructures show great promise for efficiently driving chemical reactions with light. However, the lifetime, yield, and mechanism of action of plasmon-generated hot electrons involved in a given photocatalytic process are not well understood. Here, we develop ultrafast surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a direct probe of plasmon-molecule interactions in the plasmon-catalyzed dimerization of 4-nitrobenzenethiol to p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene. Ultrafast SERS probing of these molecular reporters in plasmonic hot spots reveals transient Fano resonances, which we attribute to near-field coupling of Stokes-shifted photons to hot electron-driven metal photoluminescence. Surprisingly, we find that hot spots that yield more photoluminescence are much more likely to drive the reaction, which indirectly proves that plasmon-generated hot electrons induce the photochemistry. These ultrafast SERS results provide insight into the relative reactivity of different plasmonic hot spot environments and quantify the ultrafast lifetime of hot electrons involved in plasmon-driven chemistry. PMID:27488515

  16. Ultrafast Surface-Enhanced Raman Probing of the Role of Hot Electrons in Plasmon-Driven Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Nathaniel C; Keller, Emily L; Frontiera, Renee R

    2016-08-18

    Hot electrons generated through plasmonic excitations in metal nanostructures show great promise for efficiently driving chemical reactions with light. However, the lifetime, yield, and mechanism of action of plasmon-generated hot electrons involved in a given photocatalytic process are not well understood. Here, we develop ultrafast surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a direct probe of plasmon-molecule interactions in the plasmon-catalyzed dimerization of 4-nitrobenzenethiol to p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene. Ultrafast SERS probing of these molecular reporters in plasmonic hot spots reveals transient Fano resonances, which we attribute to near-field coupling of Stokes-shifted photons to hot electron-driven metal photoluminescence. Surprisingly, we find that hot spots that yield more photoluminescence are much more likely to drive the reaction, which indirectly proves that plasmon-generated hot electrons induce the photochemistry. These ultrafast SERS results provide insight into the relative reactivity of different plasmonic hot spot environments and quantify the ultrafast lifetime of hot electrons involved in plasmon-driven chemistry.

  17. Surface-plasmon enhanced photodetection at communication band based on hot electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kai; Zhan, Yaohui E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn; Wu, Shaolong; Deng, Jiajia; Li, Xiaofeng E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn

    2015-08-14

    Surface plasmons can squeeze light into a deep-subwavelength space and generate abundant hot electrons in the nearby metallic regions, enabling a new paradigm of photoconversion by the way of hot electron collection. Unlike the visible spectral range concerned in previous literatures, we focus on the communication band and design the infrared hot-electron photodetectors with plasmonic metal-insulator-metal configuration by using full-wave finite-element method. Titanium dioxide-silver Schottky interface is employed to boost the low-energy infrared photodetection. The photodetection sensitivity is strongly improved by enhancing the plasmonic excitation from a rationally engineered metallic grating, which enables a strong unidirectional photocurrent. With a five-step electrical simulation, the optimized device exhibits an unbiased responsivity of ∼0.1 mA/W and an ultra-narrow response band (FWHM = 4.66 meV), which promises to be a candidate as the compact photodetector operating in communication band.

  18. Surface plasmon assisted hot electron collection in wafer-scale metallic-semiconductor photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Chou, Jeffrey B; Li, Xin-Hao; Wang, Yu; Fenning, David P; Elfaer, Asmaa; Viegas, Jaime; Jouiad, Mustapha; Shao-Horn, Yang; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2016-09-01

    Plasmon assisted photoelectric hot electron collection in a metal-semiconductor junction can allow for sub-bandgap optical to electrical energy conversion. Here we report hot electron collection by wafer-scale Au/TiO2 metallic-semiconductor photonic crystals (MSPhC), with a broadband photoresponse below the bandgap of TiO2. Multiple absorption modes supported by the 2D nano-cavity structure of the MSPhC extend the photon-metal interaction time and fulfill a broadband light absorption. The surface plasmon absorption mode provides access to enhanced electric field oscillation and hot electron generation at the interface between Au and TiO2. A broadband sub-bandgap photoresponse centered at 590 nm was achieved due to surface plasmon absorption. Gold nanorods were deposited on the surface of MSPhC to study localized surface plasmon (LSP) mode absorption and subsequent injection to the TiO2 catalyst at different wavelengths. Applications of these results could lead to low-cost and robust photo-electrochemical applications such as more efficient solar water splitting.

  19. Solar energy conversion via hot electron internal photoemission in metallic nanostructures: Efficiency estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Leenheer, Andrew J.; Narang, Prineha; Atwater, Harry A.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2014-04-07

    Collection of hot electrons generated by the efficient absorption of light in metallic nanostructures, in contact with semiconductor substrates can provide a basis for the construction of solar energy-conversion devices. Herein, we evaluate theoretically the energy-conversion efficiency of systems that rely on internal photoemission processes at metal-semiconductor Schottky-barrier diodes. In this theory, the current-voltage characteristics are given by the internal photoemission yield as well as by the thermionic dark current over a varied-energy barrier height. The Fowler model, in all cases, predicts solar energy-conversion efficiencies of <1% for such systems. However, relaxation of the assumptions regarding constraints on the escape cone and momentum conservation at the interface yields solar energy-conversion efficiencies as high as 1%–10%, under some assumed (albeit optimistic) operating conditions. Under these conditions, the energy-conversion efficiency is mainly limited by the thermionic dark current, the distribution of hot electron energies, and hot-electron momentum considerations.

  20. Hot Spot Electron Temperature from X-Ray Continuum Measurements on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrott, Leonard; Chen, Hui; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Khan, Shahab; Ma, Tammy; Nagel, Sabrina; Pak, Arthur; Patel, Pravesh; Schneider, Marilyn; Scott, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We report on direct measurements of the electron temperature within the hot spot of inertially confined, layered, spherical implosions on the National Ignition Facility using a new differential filtering diagnostic. Measurements of the DT and DD ion temperatures using neutron time-of-flight detectors are complicated by the contribution of hot spot motion to the peak width, which may produce an apparent temperature higher than the thermal temperature. The electron temperature is not sensitive to this non-thermal velocity and is thus a valuable input to interpreting the stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we discuss a new electron temperature measurement using the high energy (>15 keV) emitted continuum from the hotspot that can escape with minimal attenuation from the compressed fuel/shell. We will discuss the physics considerations for design of this new large-pinhole, hard x-ray imaging technique, and show preliminary data acquired from symcaps and DT-layered implosions. Validation of this technique against simulations and other diagnostics is performed to estimate the accuracy of the measurement. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Surface plasmon assisted hot electron collection in wafer-scale metallic-semiconductor photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Chou, Jeffrey B; Li, Xin-Hao; Wang, Yu; Fenning, David P; Elfaer, Asmaa; Viegas, Jaime; Jouiad, Mustapha; Shao-Horn, Yang; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2016-09-01

    Plasmon assisted photoelectric hot electron collection in a metal-semiconductor junction can allow for sub-bandgap optical to electrical energy conversion. Here we report hot electron collection by wafer-scale Au/TiO2 metallic-semiconductor photonic crystals (MSPhC), with a broadband photoresponse below the bandgap of TiO2. Multiple absorption modes supported by the 2D nano-cavity structure of the MSPhC extend the photon-metal interaction time and fulfill a broadband light absorption. The surface plasmon absorption mode provides access to enhanced electric field oscillation and hot electron generation at the interface between Au and TiO2. A broadband sub-bandgap photoresponse centered at 590 nm was achieved due to surface plasmon absorption. Gold nanorods were deposited on the surface of MSPhC to study localized surface plasmon (LSP) mode absorption and subsequent injection to the TiO2 catalyst at different wavelengths. Applications of these results could lead to low-cost and robust photo-electrochemical applications such as more efficient solar water splitting. PMID:27607726

  2. Measurement of the relaxation time of hot electrons in laser-solid interaction at relativistic laser intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Shepherd, R; Chung, H K; Dyer, G; Faenov, A; Fournier, K B; Hansen, S B; Hunter, J; Kemp, A; Pikuz, T; Ping, Y; Widmann, K; Wilks, S C; Beiersdorfer, P

    2006-08-22

    The authors have measured the relaxation time of hot electrons in short pulse laser-solid interactions using a picosecond time-resolved x-ray spectrometer and a time-integrated electron spectrometer. Employing laser intensities of 10{sup 17}, 10{sup 18}, and 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, they find increased laser coupling to hot electrons as the laser intensity becomes relativistic and thermalization of hot electrons at timescales on the order of 10 ps at all laser intensities. They propose a simple model based on collisional coupling and plasma expansion to describe the rapid relaxation of hot electrons. The agreement between the resulting K{sub {alpha}} time-history from this model with the experiments is best at highest laser intensity and less satisfactory at the two lower laser intensities.

  3. Particle-in-cell simulations of hot electron generation using defocused laser light in cone targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Pasley, John

    2016-08-01

    The effects of defocusing a high intensity pulse of laser light on the generation of hot electrons in a cone are investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. The results indicate that defocused laser light can soften the electron energy spectrum and increase the coupling efficiency compared to the use of a laser in tight focus. It is shown that this is a consequence of the density profile of plasma produced by the laser prepulse, which is less dense in the case of the defocused laser. The relevance of this result to fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is discussed.

  4. Ion acoustic solitons and supersolitons in a magnetized plasma with nonthermal hot electrons and Boltzmann cool electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rufai, O. R. Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V. Lakhina, G. S.

    2014-08-15

    Arbitrary amplitude, ion acoustic solitons, and supersolitons are studied in a magnetized plasma with two distinct groups of electrons at different temperatures. The plasma consists of a cold ion fluid, cool Boltzmann electrons, and nonthermal energetic hot electrons. Using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique, the effect of nonthermal hot electrons on soliton structures with other plasma parameters is studied. Our numerical computation shows that negative potential ion-acoustic solitons and double layers can exist both in the subsonic and supersonic Mach number regimes, unlike the case of an unmagnetized plasma where they can only exist in the supersonic Mach number regime. For the first time, it is reported here that in addition to solitions and double layers, the ion-acoustic supersoliton solutions are also obtained for certain range of parameters in a magnetized three-component plasma model. The results show good agreement with Viking satellite observations of the solitary structures with density depletions in the auroral region of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  5. Threshold-Voltage Shifts in Organic Transistors Due to Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Dielectric: Evidence for Electronic Coupling and Dipolar Effects.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadi, Mahdieh; Rödel, Reinhold; Zschieschang, Ute; Ocal, Carmen; Boschker, Hans; Weitz, R Thomas; Barrena, Esther; Klauk, Hagen

    2015-10-21

    The mechanisms behind the threshold-voltage shift in organic transistors due to functionalizing of the gate dielectric with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are still under debate. We address the mechanisms by which SAMs determine the threshold voltage, by analyzing whether the threshold voltage depends on the gate-dielectric capacitance. We have investigated transistors based on five oxide thicknesses and two SAMs with rather diverse chemical properties, using the benchmark organic semiconductor dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene. Unlike several previous studies, we have found that the dependence of the threshold voltage on the gate-dielectric capacitance is completely different for the two SAMs. In transistors with an alkyl SAM, the threshold voltage does not depend on the gate-dielectric capacitance and is determined mainly by the dipolar character of the SAM, whereas in transistors with a fluoroalkyl SAM the threshold voltages exhibit a linear dependence on the inverse of the gate-dielectric capacitance. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements indicate this behavior is attributed to an electronic coupling between the fluoroalkyl SAM and the organic semiconductor.

  6. Progress Towards High-Sensitivity Arrays of Detectors of Sub-mm Radiation Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with Integrated Radio Frequency Single-Electron Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Prober, D. E.; Rhee, K. W.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Teufel, J.; Wollack, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    For high resolution imaging and spectroscopy in the FIR and submillimeter, space observatories will demand sensitive, fast, compact, low-power detector arrays with 104 pixels and sensitivity less than 10(exp -20) W/Hz(sup 0.5). Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions with integrated rf single-electron transistor readout amplifiers have the potential for achieving this high level of sensitivity, and can take advantage of an rf multiplexing technique. The device consists of an antenna to couple radiation into a small superconducting volume and cause quasiparticle excitations, and a single-electron transistor to measure current through junctions contacting the absorber. We describe optimization of device parameters, and results on fabrication techniques for producing devices with high yield for detector arrays. We also present modeling of expected saturation power levels, antenna coupling, and rf multiplexing schemes.

  7. High electron mobility thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown by atmospheric ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Stuart R. E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Lin, Yen-Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Adamopoulos, George; Sygellou, Labrini; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Patsalas, Panos A.

    2014-09-01

    We report on thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 400–450 °C. The elemental, electronic, optical, morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the films and devices were investigated using a range of complementary characterisation techniques, whilst the effects of post deposition annealing at higher temperature (700 °C) were also investigated. Both as-grown and post-deposition annealed Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are found to be slightly oxygen deficient, exceptionally smooth and exhibit a wide energy bandgap of ∼4.9 eV. Transistors based on as-deposited Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films show n-type conductivity with the maximum electron mobility of ∼2 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  8. Specular reflectivity and hot-electron generation in high-contrast relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  9. Dose rate dependence of radiation-induced lattice defects and performance degradation in npn Si bipolar transistors by 2-MeV electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayama, K.; Takakura, K.; Ohyama, H.; Kuboyama, S.; Simoen, E.; Mercha, A.; Claeys, C.

    2007-12-01

    Total-dose response of npn Si transistors by 2-MeV electrons is presented for different dose rates. The base current increases after irradiation, whereas the collector current decreases. Therefore, the current gain ( β) decreases by irradiation. The degradation of electrical properties by 2-MeV electrons for low dose rate is higher than that for high dose rate. Similar dose rate dependence of the radiation-induced electron trap densities is observed by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements.

  10. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  11. Collisionless absorption, hot electron generation, and energy scaling in intense laser-target interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Liseykina, T.; Mulser, P.; Murakami, M.

    2015-03-15

    Among the various attempts to understand collisionless absorption of intense and superintense ultrashort laser pulses, a whole variety of models and hypotheses has been invented to describe the laser beam target interaction. In terms of basic physics, collisionless absorption is understood now as the interplay of the oscillating laser field with the space charge field produced by it in the plasma. A first approach to this idea is realized in Brunel's model the essence of which consists in the formation of an oscillating charge cloud in the vacuum in front of the target, therefore frequently addressed by the vague term “vacuum heating.” The investigation of statistical ensembles of orbits shows that the absorption process is localized at the ion-vacuum interface and in the skin layer: Single electrons enter into resonance with the laser field thereby undergoing a phase shift which causes orbit crossing and braking of Brunel's laminar flow. This anharmonic resonance acts like an attractor for the electrons and leads to the formation of a Maxwellian tail in the electron energy spectrum. Most remarkable results of our investigations are the Brunel like spectral hot electron distribution at the relativistic threshold, the minimum of absorption at Iλ{sup 2}≅(0.3−1.2)×10{sup 21} Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2} in the plasma target with the electron density of n{sub e}λ{sup 2}∼10{sup 23}cm{sup −3}μm{sup 2}, the drastic reduction of the number of hot electrons in this domain and their reappearance in the highly relativistic domain, and strong coupling, beyond expectation, of the fast electron jets with the return current through Cherenkov emission of plasmons. The hot electron energy scaling shows a strong dependence on intensity in the moderately relativistic domain Iλ{sup 2}≅(10{sup 18}−10{sup 20}) Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}, a scaling in vague accordance with current published estimates in the range Iλ{sup 2}≅(0.14−3.5)×10{sup 21} Wcm{sup −2}

  12. Energy relaxation of hot electrons in Si-doped GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.-Z. E-mail: jian-zhong.zhang@hull.ac.uk

    2014-05-28

    Energy relaxation of the hot electrons in Si-doped bulk GaN is studied theoretically, taking into account non-equilibrium polar optical phonons, electron degeneracy, and screening from the mobile electrons. The electron power dissipation and energy relaxation time are calculated as functions of the electron temperature T{sub e}, the hot-phonon effect (HPE) is examined by varying the optical phonon lifetime values, and the results are compared with previous calculations for typical GaN-based heterostructures. Particular attention is paid to the distinct temperature T{sub e} dependences of the power loss and the energy relaxation time τ{sub E} at the low and high electron temperatures. At low electron temperatures (T{sub e}<500 K), the exponential rise of phonon generation number, fast weakened screening and HPE result in a rapid increase of power loss and sharp drop of relaxation time with T{sub e}. At high electron temperatures (T{sub e}>1500 K), the power loss increases slowly with T{sub e} due to the decrease in phonon generation rate, and the temperature-dependence of the energy relaxation time depends on the polar optical phonon lifetime—saturation in energy relaxation occurs when the phonon lifetime increases or varies little with T{sub e}. Our calculated temperature dependences of the energy relaxation time are in good agreement with experimental findings [Liberis et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 202117 (2006); Matulionis et al., Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 2585 (2005)]. With no HPE, the electron energy relaxation is much faster in bulk GaN (τ{sub E}∼ several tens femtoseconds) than in the GaN-based heterostructures. However, stronger hot-phonon re-absorption occurs in bulk GaN due to rapid polar-optical phonon emission compared to phonon decay. Therefore, including HPE yields very close power loss and energy relaxation times in bulk and heterostructures with similar densities of electrons (τ{sub E}∼ several tenths of a picosecond). Transparent

  13. Energy relaxation of hot electrons in Si-doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.-Z.

    2014-05-01

    Energy relaxation of the hot electrons in Si-doped bulk GaN is studied theoretically, taking into account non-equilibrium polar optical phonons, electron degeneracy, and screening from the mobile electrons. The electron power dissipation and energy relaxation time are calculated as functions of the electron temperature Te, the hot-phonon effect (HPE) is examined by varying the optical phonon lifetime values, and the results are compared with previous calculations for typical GaN-based heterostructures. Particular attention is paid to the distinct temperature Te dependences of the power loss and the energy relaxation time τE at the low and high electron temperatures. At low electron temperatures (Te<500 K), the exponential rise of phonon generation number, fast weakened screening and HPE result in a rapid increase of power loss and sharp drop of relaxation time with Te. At high electron temperatures (Te>1500 K), the power loss increases slowly with Te due to the decrease in phonon generation rate, and the temperature-dependence of the energy relaxation time depends on the polar optical phonon lifetime—saturation in energy relaxation occurs when the phonon lifetime increases or varies little with Te. Our calculated temperature dependences of the energy relaxation time are in good agreement with experimental findings [Liberis et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 202117 (2006); Matulionis et al., Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 2585 (2005)]. With no HPE, the electron energy relaxation is much faster in bulk GaN (τE˜ several tens femtoseconds) than in the GaN-based heterostructures. However, stronger hot-phonon re-absorption occurs in bulk GaN due to rapid polar-optical phonon emission compared to phonon decay. Therefore, including HPE yields very close power loss and energy relaxation times in bulk and heterostructures with similar densities of electrons (τE˜ several tenths of a picosecond). Transparent expressions for energy relaxation are obtained in the Boltzmann

  14. Transistors for Electric Motor Drives: High-Performance GaN HEMT Modules for Agile Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing transistors with gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors that could be used to make cost-effective, high-performance power converters for a variety of applications, including electric motor drives which transmit power to a motor. A transistor acts like a switch, controlling the electrical energy that flows around an electrical circuit. Most transistors today use low-cost silicon semiconductors to conduct electrical energy, but silicon transistors don’t operate efficiently at high speeds and voltage levels. Transphorm is using GaN as a semiconductor material in its transistors because GaN performs better at higher voltages and frequencies, and it is more energy efficient than straight silicon. However, Transphorm is using inexpensive silicon as a base to help keep costs low. The company is also packaging its transistors with other electrical components that can operate quickly and efficiently at high power levels—increasing the overall efficiency of both the transistor and the entire motor drive.

  15. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy study of hot-deformed gamma-TiAl-based alloy microstructure.

    PubMed

    Chrapoński, J; Rodak, K

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the changes in the microstructure of hot-deformed specimens made of alloys containing 46-50 at.% Al, 2 at.% Cr and 2 at.% Nb (and alloying additions such as carbon and boron) with the aid of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. After homogenization and heat treatment performed in order to make diverse lamellae thickness, the specimens were compressed at 1000 degrees C. Transmission electron microscopy examinations of specimens after the compression test revealed the presence of heavily deformed areas with a high density of dislocation. Deformation twins were also observed. Dynamically recrystallized grains were revealed. For alloys no. 2 and no. 3, the recovery and recrystallization processes were more extensive than for alloy no. 1.

  16. ZnO thin film transistors and electronic connections for adjustable x-ray mirrors: SMART-X telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Wilke, R. L.; Wilke, R. H. T.; Wallace, M.; Ramirez, J. I.; Prieskorn, Z.; Nikoleyczik, J.; Cotroneo, V.; Allured, R.; Schwartz, D. A.; McMuldroch, S.; Reid, P. B.; Burrows, D. N.; Jackson, T. N.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2014-09-01

    The proposed SMART-X telescope consists of a pixelated array of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film deposited on flexible glass substrates. These cells or pixels are used to actively control the overall shape of the mirror surface. It is anticipated that the telescope will consist of 8,000 mirror panels with 400-800 cells on each panel. This creates an enormous number (6.4 million) of traces and contacts needed to address the PZT. In order to simplify the design, a row/column addressing scheme using ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed. In addition, connection of the gate and drain lines on the mirror segment to an external supply via a flexible cable was investigated through use of an anisotropic conductive film (ACF). This paper outlines the design of the ZnO TFTs, use of ACF for bonding, and describes a specially designed electronics box with associated software to address the desired cells.

  17. Detection of prostate-specific antigen with biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-dong; Cheng, Jun-jie; Miao, Bin; Wei, Xiao-wei; Xie, Jie; Zhang, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Zhi-qiang; Wu, Dong-min

    2014-07-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensors, a simple biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure was designed and successfully fabricated for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. UV/ozone was used to oxidize the GaN surface and then a 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTES) self-assembled monolayer was bound to the sensing region. This monolayer serves as a binding layer for attachment of the prostate specific antibody (anti-PSA). The biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor shows a rapid and sensitive response when the target prostate-specific antigen in buffer solution was added to the antibody-immobilized sensing area. The current change showed a logarithm relationship against the PSA concentration from 0.1 pg/ml to 0.993 ng/ml. The sensitivity of 0.215% is determined for 0.1 pg/ml PSA solution. The above experimental result of the biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensor suggested that this biosensor might be a useful tool for prostate cancer screening.

  18. Viscosity-dependent drain current noise of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor in polar liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J. Y.; Hsu, C. P.; Kang, Y. W.; Fang, K. C.; Kao, W. L.; Yao, D. J.; Chen, C. C.; Li, S. S.; Yeh, J. A.; Wang, Y. L.; Lee, G. Y.; Chyi, J. I.; Hsu, C. H.; Huang, Y. F.; Ren, F.

    2013-11-28

    The drain current fluctuation of ungated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) measured in different fluids at a drain-source voltage of 0.5 V was investigated. The HEMTs with metal on the gate region showed good current stability in deionized water, while a large fluctuation in drain current was observed for HEMTs without gate metal. The fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was observed and calculated as standard deviation from a real-time measurement in air, deionized water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, 1,2-butanediol, and glycerol. At room temperature, the fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was found to be relevant to the dipole moment and the viscosity of the liquids. A liquid with a larger viscosity showed a smaller fluctuation in drain current. The viscosity-dependent fluctuation of the drain current was ascribed to the Brownian motions of the liquid molecules, which induced a variation in the surface dipole of the gate region. This study uncovers the causes of the fluctuation in drain current of HEMTs in fluids. The results show that the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs may be used as sensors to measure the viscosity of liquids within a certain range of viscosity.

  19. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  20. Time evolution of off-state degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Bajo, M. Montes E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Sun, H.; Uren, M. J.; Kuball, M. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk

    2014-06-02

    The evolution of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under off-state stress conditions is studied by gate leakage current (I{sub g}) monitoring, electroluminescence (EL), and atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging at room temperature. It is found that the number of off-state failure sites as identified by EL increases over time during stress until it reaches a saturation value. I{sub g} increases accordingly during stress until this saturation number of failure sites is reached. AFM scanning of the device surface stripped of metal contacts and passivation reveals surface pits corresponding to the location of the EL spots. These pits have an elongated shape oriented towards the drain contact whose length is correlated with the distance to the adjacent pits and with the time since their appearance during the stress experiment. A model for the generation and evolution of the off-state stress-related failure sites is proposed consistent with the experimental results, bringing together surface migration of electrochemical species with trap-based leakage mechanisms and resulting in the formation of an exclusion zone around each failure site.

  1. Effect of gate length on breakdown voltage in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Luo; Sheng-Lei, Zhao; Min-Han, Mi; Wei-Wei, Chen; Bin, Hou; Jin-Cheng, Zhang; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Yue, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The effects of gate length LG on breakdown voltage VBR are investigated in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with LG = 1 μm˜ 20 μm. With the increase of LG, VBR is first increased, and then saturated at LG = 3 μm. For the HEMT with LG = 1 μm, breakdown voltage VBR is 117 V, and it can be enhanced to 148 V for the HEMT with LG = 3 μm. The gate length of 3 μm can alleviate the buffer-leakage-induced impact ionization compared with the gate length of 1 μm, and the suppression of the impact ionization is the reason for improving the breakdown voltage. A similar suppression of the impact ionization exists in the HEMTs with LG > 3 μm. As a result, there is no obvious difference in breakdown voltage among the HEMTs with LG = 3 μm˜20 μm, and their breakdown voltages are in a range of 140 V-156 V. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61334002, 61106106, and 61204085).

  2. Damage effect and mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Wen, Xi; Chang-Chun, Chai; Gang, Zhao; Yin-Tang, Yang; Xin-Hai, Yu; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    The damage effect and mechanism of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) are investigated in this paper. By using the device simulation software, the distributions and variations of the electric field, the current density and the temperature are analyzed. The simulation results show that there are three physical effects, i.e., the forward-biased effect of the gate Schottky junction, the avalanche breakdown, and the thermal breakdown of the barrier layer, which influence the device current in the damage process. It is found that the damage position of the device changes with the amplitude of the step voltage pulse. The damage appears under the gate near the drain when the amplitude of the pulse is low, and it also occurs under the gate near the source when the amplitude is sufficiently high, which is consistent with the experimental results. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339900), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) (Grant No. 2015-0214.XY.K).

  3. Influence of electron-beam lithography exposure current level on the transport characteristics of graphene field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sangwoo; Movva, Hema C. P.; Sanne, Atresh; Rai, Amritesh; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2016-03-01

    Many factors have been identified to influence the electrical transport characteristics of graphene field-effect transistors. In this report, we examine the influence of the exposure current level used during electron beam lithography (EBL) for active region patterning. In the presence of a self-assembled hydrophobic residual layer generated by oxygen plasma etching covering the top surface of the graphene channel, we show that the use of low EBL current level results in higher mobility, lower residual carrier density, and charge neutrality point closer to 0 V, with reduced device-to-device variations. We show that this correlation originates from the resist heating dependent release of radicals from the resist material, near its interface with graphene, and its subsequent trapping by the hydrophobic polymer layer. Using a general model for resist heating, we calculate the difference in resist heating for different EBL current levels. We further corroborate our argument through control experiments, where radicals are either intentionally added or removed by other processes. We also utilize this finding to obtain mobilities in excess of 18 000 cm2/V s on silicon dioxide substrates. We believe these results are applicable to other 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides and nanoscale devices in general.

  4. High Current Responsivity and Wide Modulation Bandwidth Terahertz Detector Using High-Electron-Mobility Transistor for Wireless Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Nukariya, T.; Ueda, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Asada, M.

    2016-07-01

    A high-current-responsivity terahertz (THz) detector was fabricated using a broadband bow-tie antenna and an InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) with a short gate length. High-current responsivity can be achieved by using a short gate length; the resulting high transconductance exhibited ballistic transport in the channel. We fabricated the HEMT detector with a 50-nm-long channel; the transconductance was 1.2 S/mm and the subthreshold slope was 120 mV/dec, yielding a high-current responsivity (˜5 A/W) and a cutoff frequency of 460 GHz. We also measured the modulation bandwidth of the THz detector using a heterodyne mixing technique with a uni-traveling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) for providing the radio frequency (RF) and a frequency multiplier as a local oscillator. The intensity of the intermediate signal (IF) was measured by changing the frequency of the UTC-PD; very high bandwidths of up to 26 GHz were obtained. The experimental results agree well with electromagnetic simulations, which indicate that the bandwidth is determined by the external circuit. The conversion gain from RF to IF was -2 dB in the heterodyne mixing by using the HEMT detector.

  5. Project of a Large Superconductor Detector Involving Directed Diffusion of Hot Electrons and Microcalorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Shpinel, V.S.

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, radically new detectors for soft x rays and gamma rays were developed on the basis of superconducting tunnel junctions. These detectors made it possible to attain a very high resolution, but their largest area is overly small for employing them in nuclear spectroscopy. This study is devoted to the problem of designing a superconductor detector whose dimensions are sufficiently large for detecting gamma rays and which is suitable for applications in various fields of science. The detector consists of three units: an absorber, a hot-electron calorimeter, and a tunnel-junction (normal metal-insulator-superconductor) thermometer. The absorber has a multilayer structure consisting of thin superconductor layers arranged in the order of variation of the superconductor energy gap. This structure specifies the direction of hot-electron diffusion. Since quasiparticles diffuse in a specific direction, the diffusion time becomes shorter than that in the case of conventional diffusion. It is necessary that this time be shorter than the time of electron-phonon interaction. Calculations of the diffusion time for the particular structure in question and data from the literature on electron-phonon interaction show that the operating area of the detector can be about 3 to 4 mm{sup 2} and that its thickness can be about 1 mm. These dimensions can be considerably increased in the case of especially pure superconductors.

  6. Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaïtis, A.; Duchateau, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Maheut, Y.; Boutoux, G.; Antonelli, L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Batani, D.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure.

  7. Experimental study of the hot electron plasma equilibrium in a minimum-B magnetic mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Lane, B.G.; Smatlak, D.L.; Post, R.S.; Hokin, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Constance B mirror (in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1984 (IAEA, Vienna, 1985), Vol. II, p. 285) is a single cell quadrupole magnetic mirror in which high-beta (typically 0.3), hot electron plasmas (T/sub e/approx. =400 keV) are created with up to 4 kW of fundamental electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). Details of the plasma equilibrium profile are quantitatively determined by fitting model plasma pressure profiles to the data from four complementary measurements: diamagnetic loops and magnetic probes, x-ray pinhole cameras, visible light TV cameras, and thermocouple probes. The experimental analysis shows that the equilibrium pressure profile of an ECRH generated plasma in a baseball magnetic mirror is hollow and the plasma is concentrated along a baseball-seam-shaped curve. The hollowness of the hot electron density profile is 50% +- 10%. The baseball-seam-shaped equilibrium profile coincides with the drift orbit of deeply trapped electrons in the quadrupole mirror field. Particle drift reversal is predicted to occur for the model pressure profile that best fits the experimental data under the typical operating conditions.

  8. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence induced by sequential hot electron and hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Kalle; Kuosmanen, Päivi; Pusa, Matti; Kulmala, Oskari; Håkansson, Markus; Kulmala, Sakari

    2016-03-17

    Hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution is proposed to occur when oxide-coated aluminum electrode is anodically pulse-polarized by a voltage pulse train containing sufficiently high-voltage anodic pulses. The effects of anodic pulses are studied by using an aromatic Tb(III) chelate as a probe known to produce intensive hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence (HECL) with plain cathodic pulses and preoxidized electrodes. The presently studied system allows injection of hot electrons and holes successively into aqueous electrolyte solutions and can be utilized in detecting electrochemiluminescent labels in fully aqueous solutions, and actually, the system is suggested to be quite close to a pulse radiolysis system providing hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals as the primary radicals in aqueous solution without the problems and hazards of ionizing radiation. The analytical power of the present excitation waveforms are that they allow detection of electrochemiluminescent labels at very low detection limits in bioaffinity assays such as in immunoassays or DNA probe assays. The two important properties of the present waveforms are: (i) they provide in situ oxidation of the electrode surface resulting in the desired oxide film thickness and (ii) they can provide one-electron oxidants for the system by hole injection either via F- and F(+)-center band of the oxide or by direct hole injection to valence band of water at highly anodic pulse amplitudes.

  9. Experimental study of the hot electron plasma equilibrium in a minimum-B magnetic mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Lane, B. G.; Smatlak, D. L.; Post, R. S.; Hokin, S. A.

    1989-03-01

    The Constance B mirror [in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1984 (IAEA, Vienna, 1985), Vol. II, p. 285] is a single cell quadrupole magnetic mirror in which high-beta (typically 0.3), hot electron plasmas (Te≂400 keV) are created with up to 4 kW of fundamental electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). Details of the plasma equilibrium profile are quantitatively determined by fitting model plasma pressure profiles to the data from four complementary measurements: diamagnetic loops and magnetic probes, x-ray pinhole cameras, visible light TV cameras, and thermocouple probes. The experimental analysis shows that the equilibrium pressure profile of an ECRH generated plasma in a baseball magnetic mirror is hollow and the plasma is concentrated along a baseball-seam-shaped curve. The hollowness of the hot electron density profile is 50%±10%. The baseball-seam-shaped equilibrium profile coincides with the drift orbit of deeply trapped electrons in the quadrupole mirror field. Particle drift reversal is predicted to occur for the model pressure profile that best fits the experimental data under the typical operating conditions. When the ECRH resonance is just above the magnetic minimum, the plasma pressure closely approaches the mirror mode beta limit.

  10. Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation.

    PubMed

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Maheut, Y; Boutoux, G; Antonelli, L; Nicolaï, Ph; Batani, D; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-10-01

    We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure.

  11. Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation.

    PubMed

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Maheut, Y; Boutoux, G; Antonelli, L; Nicolaï, Ph; Batani, D; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-10-01

    We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure. PMID:26565161

  12. The role of hot electron refluxing in laser-generated K-alpha sources

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P.; Aurand, B.; Basko, M.; Ecker, B.; Gibbon, P.; Karmakar, A.; Hochhaus, D. C.; Kazakov, E.; Kuehl, T.; Labaune, C.; Rosmej, O.; Tauschwitz, An.

    2010-10-15

    A study of the contribution of refluxing electrons in the production of K-alpha radiation from high-intensity laser irradiated thin targets has been performed. Thin copper foils both freestanding, and backed by a thick substrate were irradiated with laser pulses of energies around 100 J at intensities ranging from below 10{sup 17} to above 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. At high laser intensities we find a strong reduction in the K-alpha yield from targets backed by the substrate. The observed yield reduction is in good agreement with a simple model using hot electron spectra from particle-in-cell simulations or directly inferred from the measured bremsstrahlung emission and can therefore be interpreted as due to the suppression of hot electron refluxing. The study shows that refluxing electrons play a dominant role in high-intensity laser driven K- alpha generation and have to be taken into account in designing targets for laser driven high-flux K-alpha sources.

  13. Probing Electronic, Structural, and Charge Transfer Properties of Organic Semiconductor/Inorganic Oxide Interfaces Using Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalenka, Josef Wade

    Interfaces between organic semiconductors and inorganic oxides provide the functionality for devices including field-effect transistors (FETs) and organic photovoltaics. Organic FETs are sensitive to the physical structure and electronic properties of the few molecular layers of material at the interface between the semiconducting channel and the gate dielectric, and provide quantitative information such as the field-effect mobility of charge carriers and the concentration of trapped charge. In this thesis, FET interfaces between organic small-molecule semiconductors and SiO2, and donor/acceptor interfaces between organic small-molecules and the wide bandgap semiconductor ZnO are studied using electrical measurements of field-effect transistor devices. Monolayer-scale films of dihexyl sexithiophene are shown to have higher hole mobility than other monolayer organic semiconductors, and the origin of the high mobility is discussed. Studies of the crystal structure of the monolayer using X-ray structural probes and atomic force microscopy reveal the crystal structure is different in the monolayer regime compared to thicker films and bulk crystals. Progress and remaining challenges are discussed for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of the dynamic changes in the local crystal structure in organic monolayers due to charge carriers generated during the application of electric fields from the gate electrode in working FETs. Studies were conducted of light sensitive organic/inorganic interfaces that are modified with organic molecules grafted to the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and thin films. These interfaces are models for donor/acceptor interfaces in photovoltaics. The process of exciton dissociation at the donor/acceptor interface was sensitive to the insulating or semiconducting molecules grafted to the ZnO, and the photoinduced charge transfer process is measured by the threshold voltage shift of FETs during illumination. Charge transfer between light sensitive donor

  14. Black Phosphorus RF Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Mattew L.; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Few-layer and thin film form of layered black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP offers a ~ 0.3eV bandgap and high mobility, leading to transistor devices with decent on/off ratio and high on-state current density. Here, we demonstrate the GHz frequency operation of black phosphorus field-effect transistor for the first time. BP transistors demonstrated here show excellent current saturation with an on-off ratio exceeding 2 × 103. The S-parameter characterization is performed for the first time on black phosphorus transistors, giving a 12 GHz short-circuit current-gain cut-off frequency and 20 GHz maximum oscillation frequency in 300 nm channel length devices. A current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm are achieved for hole conductions. The results reveal the promising potential of black phosphorus transistors for enabling the next generation thin film transistor technology that can operate in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.

  15. A Numerical Model for Two-Plasmon-Decay Hot-Electron Production and Mitigation in Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J. G.; Solodov, A. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Short, R. W.; Seka, W.; Follett, R. K.; Edgell, D. H.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.

    2015-11-01

    Hot-electron preheat, caused by laser-plasma instabilities, can impair the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions. It is therefore imperative to understand processes that can generate hot electrons and to design mitigation strategies should preheat be found to be excessive at the ignition scale (laser-plasma interactions do not follow hydrodynamic scaling). For this purpose, a new 3-D model [laser-plasma simulation environment (LPSE)] has been constructed that computes hot-electron generation in direct-drive plasmas based on the assumption that two-plasmon decay is the dominant, hot-electron-producing instability. It uses an established model of TPD-driven turbulence together with a new GPU based hybrid particle method of hot-electron production. The time-dependent hot-electron power, total energy, and energy spectrum are computed and compared with data from recent OMEGA implosion experiments that have sought to mitigate TPD by the use of multilayered (mid- Z) ablators. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  16. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U.; Bergsten, J.; Rorsman, N.

    2015-12-28

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  17. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Bergsten, J.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Rorsman, N.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U.

    2015-12-01

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 1018 cm-3) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 1016 cm-3) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 1018 cm-3) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  18. Multicharacterization approach for studying InAl(Ga)N/Al(Ga)N/GaN heterostructures for high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Naresh-Kumar, G. Trager-Cowan, C.; Vilalta-Clemente, A.; Morales, M.; Ruterana, P.; Pandey, S.; Cavallini, A.; Cavalcoli, D.; Skuridina, D.; Vogt, P.; Kneissl, M.; Behmenburg, H.; Giesen, C.; Heuken, M.; Gamarra, P.; Di Forte-Poisson, M. A.; Patriarche, G.; Vickridge, I.

    2014-12-15

    We report on our multi–pronged approach to understand the structural and electrical properties of an InAl(Ga)N(33nm barrier)/Al(Ga)N(1nm interlayer)/GaN(3μm)/ AlN(100nm)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) heterostructure grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). In particular we reveal and discuss the role of unintentional Ga incorporation in the barrier and also in the interlayer. The observation of unintentional Ga incorporation by using energy dispersive X–ray spectroscopy analysis in a scanning transmission electron microscope is supported with results obtained for samples with a range of AlN interlayer thicknesses grown under both the showerhead as well as the horizontal type MOVPE reactors. Poisson–Schrödinger simulations show that for high Ga incorporation in the Al(Ga)N interlayer, an additional triangular well with very small depth may be exhibited in parallel to the main 2–DEG channel. The presence of this additional channel may cause parasitic conduction and severe issues in device characteristics and processing. Producing a HEMT structure with InAlGaN as the barrier and AlGaN as the interlayer with appropriate alloy composition may be a possible route to optimization, as it might be difficult to avoid Ga incorporation while continuously depositing the layers using the MOVPE growth method. Our present work shows the necessity of a multicharacterization approach to correlate structural and electrical properties to understand device structures and their performance.

  19. Hot Electron Energy Loss Rate in GaN/AlGaN Heterosructures

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, V. S.; Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2011-07-15

    Hot electron energy loss rate P due to acoustic phonons is studied theoretically at low electron temperatures T{sub e}(<20 K). Electron-acoustic phonon coupling is considered via screened acoustic deformation potential and piezoelectric field. Numerical calculations are made for wurtzite Al{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N/AlN/GaN and Al{sub 0.83}In{sub 0.17}N/AlN/GaN heterojunctions and compared with the experimental results. The P vs T{sub e} behavior is agreeing reasonably well but differing in magnitude. The full form of P improves agreement rather than Bloch-Gruinesen power law formula which is often used in the literature.

  20. Origin of fine oscillations in the photoluminescence spectrum of 2-dimensional electron gas formed in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Dipankar Porwal, S.; Oak, S. M.; Sharma, T. K.; Jain, Anubha

    2015-10-28

    An unambiguous identification of the fine oscillations observed in the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of AlGaN/GaN based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures is carried out. In literature, such oscillations have been erroneously identified as the sub-levels of 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at AlGaN/GaN heterointerface. Here, the origin of these oscillations is probed by performing the angle dependent PL and reflectivity measurements under identical conditions. Contrary to the reports available in literature, we find that the fine oscillations are not related to 2DEG sub-levels. The optical characteristics of these oscillations are mainly governed by an interference phenomenon. In particular, peculiar temperature dependent redshift and excitation intensity dependent blueshift, which have been interpreted as the characteristics of 2DEG sub-levels in HEMT structures by other researchers, are understood by invoking the wavelength and temperature dependence of the refractive index of GaN within the framework of interference phenomenon. The results of other researchers are also consistently explained by considering the fine oscillatory features as the interference oscillations.

  1. InAlN high electron mobility transistor Ti/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic contact optimisation assisted by in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. D.; Parbrook, P. J.; O'Mahony, D.; Conroy, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2015-09-14

    This paper correlates the micro-structural and electrical characteristics associated with annealing of metallic multi-layers typically used in the formation of Ohmic contacts to InAlN high electron mobility transistors. The multi-layers comprised Ti/Al/Ni/Au and were annealed via rapid thermal processing at temperatures up to 925 °C with electrical current-voltage analysis establishing the onset of Ohmic (linear IV) behaviour at 750–800 °C. In-situ temperature dependent transmission electron microscopy established that metallic diffusion and inter-mixing were initiated near a temperature of 500 °C. Around 800 °C, inter-diffusion of the metal and semiconductor (nitride) was observed, correlating with the onset of Ohmic electrical behaviour. The sheet resistance associated with the InAlN/AlN/GaN interface is highly sensitive to the anneal temperature, with the range depending on the Ti layer thickness. The relationship between contact resistivity and measurement temperature follow that predicted by thermionic field emission for contacts annealed below 850 °C, but deviated above this due to excessive metal-semiconductor inter-diffusion.

  2. Characterizing Hot Electron Generation and Transport via Bremsstrahlung Emission on the High Intensity OMEGA EP Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, J.; McGuffey, C.; Krauland, C.; Sorokovikova, A.; Qiao, B.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Stephens, R. B.; Chen, C. D.; Westover, B.; McLean, H. S.

    2014-10-01

    The investigation of high intensity laser generated fast electron beams is important for a number of High Energy Density Science applications, which include proton sources and fast ignition among others. A series of experimental campaigns performed using the kilojoule, 10-ps OMEGA EP laser closely examined the impact of a preformed plasma on laser plasma interaction and electron generation. Here we present the analysis of the measured bremsstrahlung x-ray radiation and the inferred results on fast electron characteristics. Simulations, performed with the Monte-Carlo code package ITS 3.0, generate the x-ray response of the target to an injected electron beam with a given temperature, energy and divergence angle. The simulated x-rays are then compared to those collected by the bremsstrahlung spectrometers, which allows us to characterize fast electrons created in the experiment. Preliminary results show a decrease in hot electron temperature with an increase in pre-pulse, which is further corroborated by magnetic electron and Cu-K α spectrometers. This work performed under the auspices of the US DOE under contracts DE-FOA-0000583 (FES, NNSA), DE-NA0002026 (NLUF) and DE-FC02-04ER54789 (FSC).

  3. Ultrasensitive detection of Hg{sup 2+} using oligonucleotide-functionalized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Junjie; Li, Jiadong; Miao, Bin; Wu, Dongmin; Wang, Jine; Pei, Renjun; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-25

    An oligonucleotide-functionalized ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was fabricated to detect trace amounts of Hg{sup 2+}. The advantages of ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN HEMT and highly specific binding interaction between Hg{sup 2+} and thymines were combined. The current response of this Hg{sup 2+} ultrasensitive transistor was characterized. The current increased due to the accumulation of Hg{sup 2+} ions on the surface by the highly specific thymine-Hg{sup 2+}-thymine recognition. The dynamic linear range for Hg{sup 2+} detection has been determined in the concentrations from 10{sup −14} to 10{sup −8} M and a detection limit below 10{sup −14} M level was estimated, which is the best result of AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensors for Hg{sup 2+} detection till now.

  4. Heteroepitaxial growth of In0.30Ga0.70As high-electron mobility transistor on 200 mm silicon substrate using metamorphic graded buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohen, David; Nguyen, Xuan Sang; Yadav, Sachin; Kumar, Annie; Made, Riko I.; Heidelberger, Christopher; Gong, Xiao; Lee, Kwang Hong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Yeo, Yee Chia; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the growth of an In0.30Ga0.70As channel high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) on a 200 mm silicon wafer by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. By using a 3 μm thick buffer comprising a Ge layer, a GaAs layer and an InAlAs compositionally graded strain relaxing buffer, we achieve threading dislocation density of (1.0 ± 0.3) × 107 cm-2 with a surface roughness of 10 nm RMS. No phase separation was observed during the InAlAs compositionally graded buffer layer growth. 1.4 μm long channel length transistors are fabricated from the wafer with IDS of 70 μA/μm and gm of above 60 μS/μm, demonstrating the high quality of the grown materials.

  5. Non-uniform absorption of terahertz radiation on superconducting hot electron bolometer microbridges

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, W.; Zhang, W.; Zhong, J. Q.; Shi, S. C.; Delorme, Y.; Lefevre, R.; Feret, A.; Vacelet, T.

    2014-02-03

    We interpret the experimental observation of a frequency-dependence of superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers by taking into account the non-uniform absorption of the terahertz radiation on the superconducting HEB microbridge. The radiation absorption is assumed to be proportional to the local surface resistance of the HEB microbridge, which is computed using the Mattis-Bardeen theory. With this assumption the dc and mixing characteristics of a superconducting niobium-nitride (NbN) HEB device have been modeled at frequencies below and above the equilibrium gap frequency of the NbN film.

  6. Signatures of hot electrons and fluorescence in Mo Kα emission on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S. B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Rochau, G. A.; Dunham, G.; Ouart, N.; Dasgupta, A.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.

    2014-03-15

    Recent experiments on the Z accelerator have produced high-energy (17 keV) inner-shell K-alpha emission from molybdenum wire array z-pinches. Extensive absolute power and spectroscopic diagnostics along with collisional-radiative modeling enable detailed investigation into the roles of thermal, hot electron, and fluorescence processes in the production of high-energy x-rays. We show that changing the dimensions of the arrays can impact the proportion of thermal and non-thermal K-shell x-rays.

  7. Electron density and currents of AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Bairamis, A.; Zervos, Ch.; Georgakilas, A.; Adikimenakis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G.

    2014-09-15

    AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer have been analyzed theoretically and experimentally, and the effects of the AlN barrier and GaN buffer layer thicknesses on two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and transport properties have been evaluated. HEMT structures consisting of [300 nm GaN/ 200 nm AlN] buffer layer on sapphire were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and exhibited a remarkable agreement with the theoretical calculations, suggesting a negligible influence of the crystalline defects that increase near the heteroepitaxial interface. The 2DEG density varied from 6.8 × 10{sup 12} to 2.1 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} as the AlN barrier thickness increased from 2.2 to 4.5 nm, while a 4.5 nm AlN barrier would result to 3.1 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} on a GaN buffer layer. The 3.0 nm AlN barrier structure exhibited the highest 2DEG mobility of 900 cm{sup 2}/Vs for a density of 1.3 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}. The results were also confirmed by the performance of 1 μm gate-length transistors. The scaling of AlN barrier thickness from 1.5 nm to 4.5 nm could modify the drain-source saturation current, for zero gate-source voltage, from zero (normally off condition) to 0.63 A/mm. The maximum drain-source current was 1.1 A/mm for AlN barrier thickness of 3.0 nm and 3.7 nm, and the maximum extrinsic transconductance was 320 mS/mm for 3.0 nm AlN barrier.

  8. Metal nanoelectrodes for molecular transistor and investigation of electron transport in molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyatin, D. B.; Soldatov, E. S.; Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Samuelson, Lars; Khomutov, G. B.; Gubin, S. P.; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A. N.

    2002-06-01

    Gold nanoelectrodes with gaps of less than 10 nm were formed by conventional E-beam lithography on silicon substrates covered by Al2O3. Molecular films were deposited on the electrodes by Langmuir-Shaefer technique. The I-V curves of such systems show a suppressed conductance indicating a correlated electron tunnelling through the system. All measurements were made at room temperature.

  9. Metal nanoelectrodes for molecular transistor and investigation of electron transport in molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyatin, D. B.; Soldatov, E. S.; Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Samuelson, Lars; Khomutov, G. B.; Gubin, S. P.; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A. N.

    2003-06-01

    Gold nanoelectrodes with gaps of less than 10 nm were formed by conventional E-beam lithography on silicon substrates covered by Al2O3. Molecular films were deposited on the electrodes by Langmuir-Shaefer technique. The I-V curves of such systems show a suppressed conductance indicating a correlated electron tunnelling through the system. All measurements were made at room temperature.

  10. Single electron charge sensitivity of liquid-gated carbon nanotube transistors.

    PubMed

    Sharf, Tal; Wang, Neng-Ping; Kevek, Joshua W; Brown, Morgan A; Wilson, Heather; Heinze, Stefan; Minot, Ethan D

    2014-09-10

    Random telegraph signals corresponding to activated charge traps were observed with liquid-gated CNT FETs. The high signal-to-noise ratio that we observe demonstrates that single electron charge sensing is possible with CNT FETs in liquids at room temperature. We have characterized the gate-voltage dependence of the random telegraph signals and compared to theoretical predictions. The gate-voltage dependence clearly identifies the sign of the activated trapped charge. PMID:25160798

  11. A Novel Compact Electron Spectrometer for Hot Electron Measurement in Pulsed Laser Solid Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Patel, P; Price, D F; Young, B K; Springer, P T; Berry, R; Booth, R; Bruns, C; Nelson, D

    2002-07-05

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interactions provide a unique source of temporally short, broad spectrum electrons, which may be utilized in many varied applications. One such, which we are pursuing, is as part of a novel diagnostic to trace magnetic field lines in a magnetically-confined fusion device. An essential aspect of this scheme is to have a detailed characterization of the electron angular and energy distribution. To this effect we designed and constructed a compact electron spectrometer that uses permanent magnets for electron energy dispersion and over 100 scintillating fibers coupled to a 1024 x 1024 pixel CCD as the detection system. This spectrometer has electron energy coverage from 10 keV to 2 MeV. We tested the spectrometer on a high intensity (10{sup 17} to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}) short pulse (< 100 fs) laser, JanUSP, at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory using various solid targets. The details of the spectrometer and the experimental results will be reported.

  12. Imposed magnetic field and hot electron propagation in inertial fusion hohlraums

    DOE PAGES

    Strozzi, David J.; Perkins, L. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Larson, D. J.; Koning, J. M.; Logan, B. G.

    2015-12-02

    The effects of an imposed, axial magnetic fieldmore » $$B_{z0}$$ on hydrodynamics and energetic electrons in inertial confinement fusion indirect-drive hohlraums are studied. We present simulations from the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA of a low-adiabat ignition design for the National Ignition Facility, with and without $$B_{z0}=70~\\text{T}$$. The field’s main hydrodynamic effect is to significantly reduce electron thermal conduction perpendicular to the field. This results in hotter and less dense plasma on the equator between the capsule and hohlraum wall. The inner laser beams experience less inverse bremsstrahlung absorption before reaching the wall. The X-ray drive is thus stronger from the equator with the imposed field. We study superthermal, or ‘hot’, electron dynamics with the particle-in-cell code ZUMA, using plasma conditions from HYDRA. During the early-time laser picket, hot electrons based on two-plasmon decay in the laser entrance hole (Regan et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 17(2), 2010, 020703) are guided to the capsule by a 70 T field. Twelve times more energy deposits in the deuterium–tritium fuel. For plasma conditions early in peak laser power, we present mono-energetic test-case studies with ZUMA as well as sources based on inner-beam stimulated Raman scattering. Furthermore, the effect of the field on deuterium–tritium deposition depends strongly on the source location, namely whether hot electrons are generated on field lines that connect to the capsule.« less

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of Kα source generated by hot electrons-nanobrush target interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jincui; Zheng, Jianhua; Cao, Lihua; Zhao, Zongqing; Li, Shu; Gu, Yuqiu; Liu, Jie

    2016-09-01

    We focus on the transport processes from hot electrons to Kα x-ray emission in a copper nanobrush target. The physics on the enhancement of Kα photon yield and conversion efficiency from laser to Kα x-ray ηL→Kα is studied by combining Monte Carlo simulations and previous particle-in-cell simulation results. Simulation results show that Kα photon yield and electron- Kα photon conversion efficiency ηe-→Kα from nanobrush targets rise gradually and then stay nearly constant. Kα photon yield from the structured nanobrush target increases with peak number density n0, but the yield is a little less than that from the same-size planar target when the electron temperature T =400 keV and n0=1021 cm-3 . It is because the number density of atoms and ions in the nanobrush target is almost one half of the foil target. Compared to the planar target, Kα photons after the nanobrush target are more than those before the target. Because it is easier for the electrons to enter the structured target surface, and Kα x-ray source is produced in the deeper position of the structured nanobrush target. Considering the realistic number of hot electrons produced by laser-nanobrush and -planar targets interaction, Kα photon yield in nanobrush targets has a significant enhancement of over 2-6 folds relative to laser-foil irradiation. The yield and ηL→K α from the nanobrush target are, respectively, 5.42 ×109 sr-1 and 7.32 ×10-5 when laser strength I λ2≈2 ×1018 W cm-2 μm2 . The yield and ηL→Kα decrease gradually with the laser strength, but the values are always higher than that from the planar target. Therefore, the laser-nanobrush target interaction can produce brighter and smaller-size Kα photon source, compared to a planar target.

  14. Imposed magnetic field and hot electron propagation in inertial fusion hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Strozzi, David J.; Perkins, L. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Larson, D. J.; Koning, J. M.; Logan, B. G.

    2015-12-02

    The effects of an imposed, axial magnetic field $B_{z0}$ on hydrodynamics and energetic electrons in inertial confinement fusion indirect-drive hohlraums are studied. We present simulations from the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA of a low-adiabat ignition design for the National Ignition Facility, with and without $B_{z0}=70~\\text{T}$. The field’s main hydrodynamic effect is to significantly reduce electron thermal conduction perpendicular to the field. This results in hotter and less dense plasma on the equator between the capsule and hohlraum wall. The inner laser beams experience less inverse bremsstrahlung absorption before reaching the wall. The X-ray drive is thus stronger from the equator with the imposed field. We study superthermal, or ‘hot’, electron dynamics with the particle-in-cell code ZUMA, using plasma conditions from HYDRA. During the early-time laser picket, hot electrons based on two-plasmon decay in the laser entrance hole (Regan et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 17(2), 2010, 020703) are guided to the capsule by a 70 T field. Twelve times more energy deposits in the deuterium–tritium fuel. For plasma conditions early in peak laser power, we present mono-energetic test-case studies with ZUMA as well as sources based on inner-beam stimulated Raman scattering. Furthermore, the effect of the field on deuterium–tritium deposition depends strongly on the source location, namely whether hot electrons are generated on field lines that connect to the capsule.

  15. Study of envelope electron acoustic solitary waves under transverse perturbations having kappa distributed hot electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bedi, Chanchal; Gill, T. S.

    2012-06-15

    As is well known, the envelope electron acoustic (EA) nonlinear waves are expressed by nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In this paper, we find that under transverse perturbations, this kind of nonlinear waves can be described by Davey-Stewartson equation. In this work, modulational properties of EA wave and its stability regions in two-dimensional plasma have been studied.

  16. Rhombic Coulomb diamonds in a single-electron transistor based on an Au nanoparticle chemically anchored at both ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Yasuo; Onuma, Yuto; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2016-02-01

    Rhombic Coulomb diamonds are clearly observed in a chemically anchored Au nanoparticle single-electron transistor. The stability diagrams show stable Coulomb blockade phenomena and agree with the theoretical curve calculated using the orthodox model. The resistances and capacitances of the double-barrier tunneling junctions between the source electrode and the Au core (R1 and C1, respectively), and those between the Au core and the drain electrode (R2 and C2, respectively), are evaluated as 4.5 MΩ, 1.4 aF, 4.8 MΩ, and 1.3 aF, respectively. This is determined by fitting the theoretical curve against the experimental Coulomb staircases. Two-methylene-group short octanedithiols (C8S2) in a C8S2/hexanethiol (C6S) mixed self-assembled monolayer is concluded to chemically anchor the core of the Au nanoparticle at both ends between the electroless-Au-plated nanogap electrodes even when the Au nanoparticle is protected by decanethiol (C10S). This is because the R1 value is identical to that of R2 and corresponds to the tunneling resistances of the octanedithiol chemically bonded with the Au core and the Au electrodes. The dependence of the Coulomb diamond shapes on the tunneling resistance ratio (R1/R2) is also discussed, especially in the case of the rhombic Coulomb diamonds. Rhombic Coulomb diamonds result from chemical anchoring of the core of the Au nanoparticle at both ends between the electroless-Au-plated nanogap electrodes.

  17. Trap states induced by reactive ion etching in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Zhao, Sheng-Lei; Mi, Min-Han; Hou, Bin; Yang, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hao, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Frequency-dependent conductance measurements were carried out to investigate the trap states induced by reactive ion etching in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) quantitatively. For the non-recessed HEMT, the trap state density decreases from 2.48 × 1013 cm-2·eV-1 at an energy of 0.29 eV to 2.79 × 1012 cm-2·eV-1 at ET = 0.33 eV. In contrast, the trap state density of 2.38 × 1013-1.10 × 1014 cm-2·eV-1 is located at ET in a range of 0.30-0.33 eV for the recessed HEMT. Thus, lots of trap states with shallow energy levels are induced by the gate recess etching. The induced shallow trap states can be changed into deep trap states by 350 °C annealing process. As a result, there are two different types of trap sates, fast and slow, in the annealed HEMT. The parameters of the annealed HEMT are ET = 0.29-0.31 eV and DT = 8.16 × 1012-5.58 × 1013 cm-2·eV-1 for the fast trap states, and ET = 0.37-0.45 eV and DT = 1.84 × 1013 - 8.50 × 1013 cm-2·eV-1 for the slow trap states. The gate leakage currents are changed by the etching and following annealing process, and this change can be explained by the analysis of the trap states. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61334002 and 61106106).

  18. Nonequilibrium theory of a hot-electron bolometer with normal metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, Dmitri; Kuzmin, Leonid

    2001-06-01

    The operation of the hot-electron bolometer with normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junction as a temperature sensor is analyzed theoretically. The responsivity and the noise equivalent power (NEP) of the bolometer are obtained numerically for typical experimental parameters. Relatively simple approximate analytical expressions for these values are derived. The time constant of the device is also found. We demonstrate that the effect of the electron cooling by the NIS junction, which serves as a thermometer, can improve the sensitivity. This effect is also useful in the presence of the finite background power load. We discuss the effect of the correlation of the shot noise and the heat flow noise in the NIS junction. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Frequency-Domain Analysis of Diffusion-Cooled Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, A.; McGrath, W. R.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.

    1998-01-01

    A new theoretical model is introduced to describe heterodyne mixer conversion efficiency and noise (from thermal fluctuation effects) in diffusion-cooled superconducting hot-electron bolometers. The model takes into account the non-uniform internal electron temperature distribution generated by Wiedemann-Franz heat conduction, and accepts for input an arbitrary (analytical or experimental) superconducting resistance-versus- temperature curve. A non-linear large-signal solution is solved iteratively to calculate the temperature distribution, and a linear frequency-domain small-signal formulation is used to calculate conversion efficiency and noise. In the small-signal solution the device is discretized into segments, and matrix algebra is used to relate the heating modulation in the segments to temperature and resistance modulations. Matrix expressions are derived that allow single-sideband mixer conversion efficiency and coupled noise power to be directly calculated. The model accounts for self-heating and electrothermal feedback from the surrounding bias circuit.

  20. Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.