Science.gov

Sample records for hot stamping process

  1. The effect of cushion-ram pulsation on hot stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgrebe, Dirk; Rautenstrauch, Anja; Kunke, Andreas; Polster, Stefan; Kriechenbauer, Sebastian; Mauermann, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Hot stamping is an important technology for manufacturing high-strength components. This technology offers the possibility to achieve significant weight reductions. In this study, cushion-ram pulsation (CRP), a new technology for hot stamping on servo-screw presses, was investigated and applied for hot stamping. Compared to a conventional process, the tests yielded a significantly higher drawing depth. In this paper, the CRP technology and the first test results with hot stamping were described in comparison to the conventional process.

  2. Quenching and Partitioning Process Development to Replace Hot Stamping of High Strength Automotive Steel

    SciTech Connect

    De Moor, Emmanuel

    The present project investigated Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) to process cold rolled steels to develop high strength sheet steels that exhibit superior ductility compared to available grades with the intent to allow forming of high strength parts at room temperature to provide an alternative to hot stamping of parts. Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is the current technology to manufacture thinner gauge sections in automotive structures to guarantee anti-intrusion during collisions whilst improving fuel efficiency by decreasing vehicle weight. Hot stamping involves reheating steel to 900 °C or higher followed by deformation and quenching in the die to producemore » ultra-high strength materials. Hot stamping requires significant energy to reheat the steel and is less productive than traditional room temperature stamping operations. Stamping at elevated temperature was developed due to the lack of available steels with strength levels of interest possessing sufficient ductility enabling traditional room temperature forming. This process is seeing growing demand within the automotive industry and, given the reheating step in this operation, increased energy consumption during part manufacturing results. The present research program focused on the development of steel grades via Q&P processing that exhibit high strength and formability enabling room temperature forming to replace hot stamping. The main project objective consisted of developing sheet steels exhibiting minimum ultimate tensile strength levels of 1200 MPa in combination with minimum tensile elongation levels of 15 pct using Q&P processing through judicious alloy design and heat treating parameter definition. In addition, detailed microstructural characterization and study of properties, processing and microstructure interrelationships were pursued to develop strategies to further enhance tensile properties. In order to accomplish these objectives, alloy design was conducted towards achieving

  3. Investigation of the influence of process parameters on adhesive wear under hot stamping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschlögl, P.; Weldi, M.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Current challenges like increasing safety standards and reducing fuel consumption motivate lightweight construction in modern car bodies. Besides using lightweight workpiece materials like aluminum, hot stamping has been established as a key technology for producing safety relevant components. Producing hot stamped parts out of ultra-high strength steels offers the possibility to improve the crash performance. At the same time the weight of car structure is reduced by using thinner sheet thicknesses. In order to avoid oxide scale formation and ensure corrosion protection, AlSi coatings are commonly deposited on the sheet surfaces used for direct hot stamping. This workpiece coating has a critical impact on the tribological conditions within the forming process and, as a consequence, influences the quality of hot stamped parts as well as tool wear. AlSi coatings have been identified as major reason for adhesive wear, which represents the main wear mechanism in hot stamping. Within this study, the influence of the process parameters on adhesive wear are investigated in dependency of workpiece and tool temperatures, drawing velocities and contact pressures. The tribological behavior is analyzed based on strip drawing experiments under direct hot stamping conditions. The experiments are performed with AlSi coated 22MnB5 in contact with the hot working tool steel 1.2367. For analyzing the amount of adhesion on the friction jaws, the surfaces are characterized by optical measurements. The experiments indicate that higher workpiece temperatures cause severe adhesive wear on the tool surface, while an increase of drawing velocity or contact pressure led to reduced adhesion. The measured friction coefficients decreased with rising amount of adhesion and remained at a constant level after a certain adhesive layer was built up on the tool surface.

  4. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  5. Prediction of Proper Temperatures for the Hot Stamping Process Based on the Kinetics Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadian, P.; Parsa, M. H.; Mirzadeh, H.

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, the application of kinetics models for predicting microstructures of steels subjected to thermo-mechanical treatments has increased to minimize direct experimentation, which is costly and time consuming. In the current work, the final microstructures of AISI 4140 steel sheets after the hot stamping process were predicted using the Kirkaldy and Li kinetics models combined with new thermodynamically based models in order for the determination of the appropriate process temperatures. In this way, the effect of deformation during hot stamping on the Ae3, Acm, and Ae1 temperatures was considered, and then the equilibrium volume fractions of phases at different temperatures were calculated. Moreover, the ferrite transformation rate equations of the Kirkaldy and Li models were modified by a term proposed by Åkerström to consider the influence of plastic deformation. Results showed that the modified Kirkaldy model is satisfactory for the determination of appropriate austenitization temperatures for the hot stamping process of AISI 4140 steel sheets because of agreeable microstructure predictions in comparison with the experimental observations.

  6. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  7. FE Simulation Models for Hot Stamping an Automobile Component with Tailor-Welded High-Strength Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bingtao; Wang, Qiaoling; Wei, Zhaohui; Meng, Xianju; Yuan, Zhengjun

    2016-05-01

    Ultra-high-strength in sheet metal parts can be achieved with hot stamping process. To improve the crash performance and save vehicle weight, it is necessary to produce components with tailored properties. The use of tailor-welded high-strength steel is a relatively new hot stamping process for saving weight and obtaining desired local stiffness and crash performance. The simulation of hot stamping boron steel, especially tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) stamping, is more complex and challenging. Information about thermal/mechanical properties of tools and sheet materials, heat transfer, and friction between the deforming material and the tools is required in detail. In this study, the boron-manganese steel B1500HS and high-strength low-alloy steel B340LA are tailor welded and hot stamped. In order to precisely simulate the hot stamping process, modeling and simulation of hot stamping tailor-welded high-strength steels, including phase transformation modeling, thermal modeling, and thermal-mechanical modeling, is investigated. Meanwhile, the welding zone of tailor-welded blanks should be sufficiently accurate to describe thermal, mechanical, and metallurgical parameters. FE simulation model using TWBs with the thickness combination of 1.6 mm boron steel and 1.2 mm low-alloy steel is established. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of the hot stamped automotive component (mini b-pillar), hardness and microstructure at each region are investigated. The comparisons between simulated results and experimental observations show the reliability of thermo-mechanical and metallurgical modeling strategies of TWBs hot stamping process.

  8. Prevention of crack in stretch flanging process using hot stamping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafiq, Y. Mohd; Hamedon, Z.; Azila Aziz, Wan; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Demand for enhancing of passenger safety as well as weight reduction of automobiles has increased the use of high strength steel sheets. As a sheet metal is a lightweight having high strength is suitable for producing automotive parts such as white body panel. The stretch flanging of the high strength steel sheet is a problem due to high springback and easy to crack. This study uses three methods to stretch flange the sheets; using lubricants, shear-edge polishing and hot stamping. The effectiveness of these methods will be measured by comparing the flange length of each methods can achieved. For stretch flange with lubricant and polished sheared edge, the flange length failed to achieve the target 15 mm while hot stamping improved the formability of the sheet and preventing the occurrence of the springback and crack. Hot stamping not only improved formability of the sheet but also transformed the microstructure into martensite thus improve the hardness and the strength of the sheet after been quenched with the dies.

  9. Design of Channel Type Indirect Blank Holder for Prevention of Wrinkling and Fracture in Hot Stamping Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hong-seok; Ha, Se-yoon; Cha, Seung-hoon; kang, Chung-gil; Kim, Byung-min

    2011-08-01

    The hot stamping process has been used in the automotive industry to reduce the weight of the body-in-white and to increase passenger safety via improved crashworthiness. In this study, a new form die with a simple structure that can prevent defects such as wrinkle and fracture is proposed for the manufacture of hot stamped components. The wrinkling at the flange cannot be eliminated when using a conventional form die. It is known that the initiation of wrinkling is influenced by many factors such as the mechanical properties of the sheet material, geometry of the sheet and tool, and other process parameters, including the blank holding force (BHF) and the contact conditions. In this research, channel type indirect blank holder (CIBH) is introduced to replace general blank holder for manufacturing the hot stamped center pillar. First, we investigate the tension force acting on the blank according to the channel shapes. We determine the appropriate range by comparing the tension force with the upper and lower BHFs in a conventional stamping process. We then use FE-analysis to study the influence of the slope angle and corner radius of the channel on the formability. Finally, the center pillar is manufactured using the form die with the selected channel.

  10. Determination of Proper Austenitization Temperatures for Hot Stamping of AISI 4140 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadian, Pedram; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Shakeri, Amid

    2014-04-01

    High strength steels are desirable materials for use in automobile bodies in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase the safety of car passengers, but steel grades with high strength commonly show poor formability. Recently, steels with controlled microstructures and compositions are used to gain adequate strength after hot stamping while maintaining good formability during processing. In this study, microstructure evolutions and changes in mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel sheets resulting from the hot stamping process at different austenitization temperatures were investigated. To determine the proper austenitization temperatures, the results were compared with those of the cold-worked and cold-worked plus quench-tempered specimens. Comparisons showed that the austenitization temperatures of 1000 and 1100 °C are proper for hot stamping of 3-mm-thick AISI 4140 steel sheets due to the resultant martensitic microstructure which led to the yield and ultimate tensile strength of 1.3 and 2.1 GPa, respectively. Such conditions resulted in more favorable simultaneous strength and elongation than those of hot-stamped conventional boron steels.

  11. An Optimization Study of Hot Stamping Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoo, Bonyoung; Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu; Averill, Ron

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, 3-dimensional finite element analyses for hot-stamping processes of Audi B-pillar product are conducted using JSTAMP/NV and HEEDS. Special attention is paid to the optimization of simulation technology coupling with thermal-mechanical formulations. Numerical simulation based on FEM technology and optimization design using the hybrid adaptive SHERPA algorithm are applied to hot stamping operation to improve productivity. The robustness of the SHERPA algorithm is found through the results of the benchmark example. The SHERPA algorithm is shown to be far superior to the GA (Genetic Algorithm) in terms of efficiency, whose calculation time is about 7 times faster than that of the GA. The SHERPA algorithm could show high performance in a large scale problem having complicated design space and long calculation time.

  12. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  13. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. PMID:28788046

  14. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-04-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  15. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of High-Strength Steel Controlled by Hot Stamping Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Hang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Junrui; Li, Guangyao; Cui, Junjia

    2018-03-01

    A novel design and manufacturing method, dubbed "precast," of the cooling system and tools for a hot forming process was proposed in this paper. The integrated structures of the punch and blank holder were determined by analyzing the bending and reverse-bending deformation of the forming parts. The desired crashworthiness performance of an automotive front bumper constructed with this process was obtained by a tailored phase transformation, which generated martensite-bainite in the middle and full martensite transformation in the corner areas. Varying cooling effects in the formed parts caused the highest temperature to be located in the bottom and the lowest on the end of the formed parts. Moreover, the microstructural distributions demonstrated that the bottom possessed a relatively lower content of martensite, while, conversely, the end possessed a higher content. This was precisely the most desired phase distributions for the hot formed parts. For the six-process cycle stamping, the temperatures reached a stable status after an initial rapid increase in the first three process cycles. The microstructural results verified the feasibility of the hot forming tools under multiprocess cycles.

  16. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.

    2011-05-01

    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  18. Numerical simulation of temperature field, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of HSS during hot stamping

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Dongyong; Liu, Wenquan; Ying, Liang, E-mail: pinghu@dlut.edu.cn

    The hot stamping of boron steels is widely used to produce ultra high strength automobile components without any spring back. The ultra high strength of final products is attributed to the fully martensitic microstructure that is obtained through the simultaneous forming and quenching of the hot blanks after austenization. In the present study, a mathematical model incorporating both heat transfer and the transformation of austenite is presented. A FORTRAN program based on finite element technique has been developed which permits the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution of high strength steel during hot stamping process. Two empirical diffusion-dependent transformation models undermore » isothermal conditions were employed respectively, and the prediction capability on mechanical properties of the models were compared with the hot stamping experiment of an automobile B-pillar part.« less

  19. Effect of Al-Si Coating on Weld Microstructure and Properties of 22MnB5 Steel Joints for Hot Stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenhu; Li, Fang; Wu, Dongsheng; Chen, Xiaoguan; Hua, Xueming; Pan, Hua

    2018-03-01

    22MnB5 hot stamping steels are gradually being used in tailor-welded blank applications. In this experiment, 1-mm-thick Al-Si coated and de-coated 22MnB5 steels were laser-welded and then hot-stamped. The chemical compositions, solidification process, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated to reveal the effect of Al-Si coating and heat treatment. In the welded condition, the coated joints had an Al content of approximately 2.5 wt.% in the fusion zone and the de-coated joints had 0.5 wt.% Al. The aluminum promoted the δ-ferrite formation as the skeletal structure during solidification. In the high-aluminum weld, the microstructure consisted of martensite and long and band-like δ-ferrite. Meanwhile, the low-aluminum weld was full of lath martensite. After the hot stamping process, the δ-ferrite fraction increased from 10 to 24% in the coated joints and the lath martensite became finer in the de-coated joints. The tensile strengths of the coated joints or de-coated joints were similar to that before hot stamping, but the strength of the coated joints was reduced heavily after hot stamping compared to the de-coated joints and base material. The effect of δ-ferrite on the tensile properties became stronger when the fusion zone was soft and deformed first in the hot-stamped specimens. The coated weld showed a brittle fracture surface with many cleavage planes, and the de-coated weld showed a ductile fracture surface with many dimples in hot-stamped conditions.

  20. Application of a Model for Quenching and Partitioning in Hot Stamping of High-Strength Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Yanan; Rolfe, Bernard; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yisheng

    2018-04-01

    Application of quenching and partitioning process in hot stamping has proven to be an effective method to improve the plasticity of advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs). In this study, the hot stamping and partitioning process of advanced high-strength steel 30CrMnSi2Nb is investigated with a hot stamping mold. Given the specific partitioning time and temperature, the influence of quenching temperature on the volume fraction of microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the above steel are studied in detail. In addition, a model for quenching and partitioning process is applied to predict the carbon diffusion and interface migration during partitioning, which determines the retained austenite volume fraction and final properties of the part. The predicted trends of the retained austenite volume fraction agree with the experimental results. In both cases, the volume fraction of retained austenite increases first and then decreases with the increasing quenching temperature. The optimal quenching temperature is approximately 290 °C for 30CrMnSi2Nb with the partition conditions of 425 °C and 20 seconds. It is suggested that the model can be used to help determine the process parameters to obtain retained austenite as much as possible.

  1. Influence of temperature and friction on the 22MnB5 formability under hot stamping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturato, G.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2018-05-01

    The need to increase the safety and decrease the weight of the car body-in-white has determined the success of the direct hot stamping process as a primary technology for the automotive sector. Thanks to this process, parts with high strength-to-weight ratio can be obtained along with high stiffness and increase of the crashworthiness properties. Moreover, the thinner metal sheets used to manufacture the pieces lead to a decrease of the total weight of the car body-in-white, with a consequent reduction of the CO2 emissions. The direct hot stamping process is becoming the key to obtain pieces with high mechanical properties, thanks to the quenching stage that allows the manufacture of complex shapes characterized by a fully martensitic structure, thanks to the forming stage at elevated temperature and subsequent hardening inside the cooled dies. The aim of this paper is the investigation of the influence that the forming temperature may have on the formability of 22MnB5 steel sheets, commonly used in the hot stamping process of automotive components. Nakajima tests were carried out at different temperatures and the Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) at rupture were obtained and analysed. The temperature influenced both the major and the minor strain at which the sheet failed, indicating that not only the formability increased at increasing temperature, but there was also a modification of the strain path, which means a modification of the strain states through which the part passes during the deformation process. Moreover, the influence of friction is studied using a model developed in the LS-Dyna FEM environment. The obtained data are of great importance for an accurate calibration of Finite Element (FE) models of the hot stamping of real components in order to get optimal process parameters to obtain defects-free pieces.

  2. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit, R.; Hofmann, H.; Kolleck, R.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating. In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  3. Holding fixture for a hot stamping press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A hand held guide for manually positioning a work piece between the anvil rib and tool of a hot die stamping press is described. A groove completed by interchangeable cover plates attached at one end of the guide conforms to a cross sectional dimension common to similar workpieces and, with a force fit, retentively holds each of the workpieces.

  4. Improving the Quality of Hot Stamping Parts with Innovative Press Technology and Inline Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, R.; Palm, C.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing number of hot stamped parts in the automotive industry is challenging different process areas. This paper presents a method how to improve the production rates over the whole life cycle of a hot forming part. In the core element of a hot forming line, the hydraulic press, mainly two processing steps are performed. Forming and quenching of the sheet metal part. In addition to the forming operation, it is inevitable to optimize the quenching condition in the bottom dead centre in order to reach a fully martensitic structure and tight geometrical tolerances of the part. Deviations in the blank thickness, tool wear, polishing of classical tools impair the quenching condition and therefore the part quality over the time. A new press and tool design has been developed to counter this effect by providing homogenous contact pressure over the whole die. Especially with a multi cavity tool, the new method is advantageous. Test series have shown that the new tool and press concept can produce parts with a blank thickness of 1.0 mm within 8.0 s cycle time. The so called PCH flex principle makes it possible to produce such high output rates under reliable conditions.

  5. Advancements in tailored hot stamping simulations: Cooling channel and distortion analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billur, Eren; Wang, Chao; Bloor, Colin; Holecek, Martin; Porzner, Harald; Altan, Taylan

    2013-12-01

    Hot stamped components have been widely used in the automotive industry in the last decade where ultra high strength is required. These parts, however, may not provide sufficient toughness to absorb crash energy. Therefore, these components are "tailored" by controlling the microstructure at various locations. Simulation of tailored hot stamped components requires more detailed analysis of microstructural changes. Furthermore, since the part is not uniformly quenched, severe distortion can be observed. CPF, together with ESI have developed a number of techniques to predict the final properties of a tailored part. This paper discusses the recent improvements in modeling distortion and die design with cooling channels.

  6. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-04-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  7. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-06-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  8. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOEpatents

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  9. Identification of a process window for tailored carburization of sheet metals in hot stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Alexander; Merklein, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Due to governmental regulations concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions and increasing safety standards, hot stamping of high strength boron manganese steel sheets has evolved into a state of the art process for manufacturing structural car body parts. The combined forming and in-die quenching process enables the formation of a fully martensitic microstructure. Therefore, press hardened steels offer high strength, but low ductility. In order to further improve passenger safety, a tailored configuration of mechanical properties is desired. Besides state of the art methods, like the application of locally different heat treatment temperatures or varying quenching rates, the adjustment of mechanical properties of sheet metals by a tailored carburization is a novel approach. For the carburization process, the specimens are first coated with graphite and subsequently heat treated. Within this contribution, different coating strategies as well as heat treatment temperatures and dwell times are investigated. For the determination of a process window, mechanical properties such as tensile strength and microhardness will be analyzed and correlated with the resulting microstructure.

  10. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-01-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful. PMID:21765568

  11. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Toughening Mechanisms of a New Hot Stamping-Bake Toughening Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tao; Song, Hong-Wu; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Cheng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Jie; Chen, Yun

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the hot stamping-bake toughening process has been proposed following the well-known concept of bake hardening. The influences of the bake time on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the hot stamped-baked part were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical tests at room temperature. The results show that the amount of the retained austenite was nearly not changed by the bake process. Also observed were spherical Cu-rich precipitates of about 15 nm in martensite laths. According to the Orowan mechanism, their contribution of the Cu-rich precipitates to the strength is approximately 245 MPa. With the increase of the bake time, the tensile strength of the part was decreased, whereas both the ductility and the product of the tensile strength and ductility were increased then decreased. The tensile strength and ductility product and the tensile strength are as high as 21.9 GPa pct, 2086 MPa, respectively. The excellent combined properties are due to the transformation-induced plasticity effect caused by retained austenite.

  12. Finite Element Modelling Full Vehicle Side Impact with Ultrahigh Strength Hot Stamped Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, T.; Fourlaris, G.; Cafolla, J.

    2016-10-01

    "Hot stamped boron steel" 22MnB5 has been imperative in meeting the automotive industry's demand for materials exhibiting higher tensile strength in the final component. In this paper, the crash performance of three experimental grades developed for automotive hot stamping technologies, exhibiting wider tensile property ranges than 22MnB5, was validated by finite element modelling full vehicle side impact with the experimental material data applied to the B-pillar reinforcement. The superior anti-intrusive crash performance of grade 38MnB5 was demonstrated, with 11 mm less intrusion of the B-pillar reinforcement compared to 22MnB5. Moreover, the superior "impact-energy absorptive" crash performance of grade 15MnCr5 was demonstrated, with 0.15 kJ greater impact-energy absorption by the B-pillar reinforcement compared to 22MnB5.

  13. Experimental study on the warm forming and quenching behavior for hot stamping of high-strength aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degner, J.; Horn, A.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Within the last decades, stringent regulations on fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and product recyclability forced the automotive sector to implement new strategies within the field of car body manufacturing. Due to their low density and good corrosion resistance, aluminum became one of the most relevant lightweight materials. Recently, especially high- strength aluminum alloys for structural components gained importance. Since the low formability of these alloys limits their application, there is a need for novel process strategies in order to enhance the forming behavior. One promising approach is the hot stamping of aluminum alloys. The combination of quenching and forming in one step after solution heat treatment leads to a significant improvement of the formability. Furthermore, higher manufacturing accuracy can be achieved due to reduced spring back. Within this contribution, the influence of forming temperature on the subsequent material behavior and the heat transfer during quenching will be analyzed. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal material characteristics such as flow behavior and heat transfer coefficient during hot stamping are investigated.

  14. Failure Mechanisms of the Protective Coatings for the Hot Stamping Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chen

    In the present study, four different nitriding techniques were carried on the ductile irons NAAMS-D6510 and cast steels NAAMS-S0050A, which are widely used stamping die materials; duplex treatments (PVD CrN coating+nitriding) were carried on H13 steels, which are common inserts for the hot stamping dies. Inclined impact-sliding wear tests were performed on the nitriding cases under simulated stamping conditions. Surface profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate the wear and failure mechanisms of the protective coatings. It was found that the nitrided ductile iron samples performed better than the nitrided cast steel specimens. High temperature inclined impact-sliding wear tests were carried out on the CrN coatings. It was found that the coating performed better at elevated temperature. XPS analysis indicated the top surface layer (about 3-4nm) of the coating was oxidized at 400 °C and formed a Cr2O3 protective film. The in-situ formation of the thin Cr2O3 protective layer likely led to the change of wear mechanisms from severe adhesive failure to mild abrasive wear.

  15. Impact of Si on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 22MnB5 Hot Stamping Steel Treated by Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linke, Bernd M.; Gerber, Thomas; Hatscher, Ansgar; Salvatori, Ilaria; Aranguren, Iñigo; Arribas, Maribel

    2018-01-01

    Based on 22MnB5 hot stamping steel, three model alloys containing 0.5, 0.8, and 1.5 wt pct Si were produced, heat treated by quenching and partitioning (Q&P), and characterized. Aided by DICTRA calculations, the thermal Q&P cycles were designed to fit into industrial hot stamping by keeping partitioning times ≤ 30 seconds. As expected, Si increased the amount of retained austenite (RA) stabilized after final cooling. However, for the intermediate Si alloy the heat treatment exerted a particularly pronounced influence with an RA content three times as high for the one-step process compared to the two-step process. It appeared that 0.8 wt pct Si sufficed to suppress direct cementite formation from within martensite laths but did not sufficiently stabilize carbon-soaked RA at higher temperatures. Tensile and bending tests showed strongly diverging effects of austenite on ductility. Total elongation improved consistently with increasing RA content independently from its carbon content. In contrast, the bending angle was not impacted by high-carbon RA but deteriorated almost linearly with the amount of low-carbon RA.

  16. Development of Methods and Equipment for Sheet Stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botashev, A. Yu; Bisilov, N. U.; Malsugenov, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    New methods of sheet stamping were developed: the gas forming with double-sided heating of a blank part and the gas molding with backpressure. In case of the first method the blank part is heated to the set temperature by means of a double-sided impact of combustion products of gas mixtures, after which, under the influence of gas pressure a stamping process is performed. In case of gas molding with backpressure, the blank part is heated to the set temperature by one-sided impact of the combustion products, while backpressure is created on the opposite side of the blank part by compressed air. In both methods the deformation takes place in the temperature range of warm or hot treatment due to the heating of a blank part. This allows one to form parts of complicated shape within one technological operation, which significantly reduces the cost of production. To implement these methods, original devices were designed and produced, which are new types of forging and stamping equipment. Using these devices, an experimental research on the stamping process was carried out and high-quality parts were obtained, which makes it possible to recommend the developed methods of stamping in the industrial production. Their application in small-scale production will allow one to reduce the cost price of stamped parts 2 or 3 times.

  17. STAMPS: Software Tool for Automated MRI Post-processing on a supercomputer.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Don C; Aksu, Yaman; Miller, David J; Yang, Qing X

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes a Software Tool for Automated MRI Post-processing (STAMP) of multiple types of brain MRIs on a workstation and for parallel processing on a supercomputer (STAMPS). This software tool enables the automation of nonlinear registration for a large image set and for multiple MR image types. The tool uses standard brain MRI post-processing tools (such as SPM, FSL, and HAMMER) for multiple MR image types in a pipeline fashion. It also contains novel MRI post-processing features. The STAMP image outputs can be used to perform brain analysis using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) or single-/multi-image modality brain analysis using Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Since STAMPS is PBS-based, the supercomputer may be a multi-node computer cluster or one of the latest multi-core computers.

  18. Microstructure and Properties of a New Cr - Mn Steel without Boron Additions for Use in Hot Stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Zhu, G.; Li, Q.; Chen, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Anew hot-stamping steel that is alloyed with chromium and manganese and does not contain boron additions has been developed. The effect of reheating temperature and cooling rates on the mechanical properties and structure of the steel is determined. Atreatment regime that increases the ductility of the steel without a noticeable decrease in its strength is proposed.

  19. Tribological performances of new steel grades for hot stamping tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medea, F.; Venturato, G.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, the use of High Strength Steels (HSS) as structural parts in car body-in-white manufacturing has rapidly increased thanks to their favourable strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness, which allow a reduction of the fuel consumption to accommodate the new restricted regulations for CO2 emissions control. The survey of the technical and scientific literature shows a large interest in the development of different coatings for the blanks from the traditional Al-Si up to new Zn-based coatings and on the analysis of hard PVD, CVD coatings and plasma nitriding applied on the tools. By contrast, fewer investigations have been focused on the development and test of new tools steels grades capable to improve the wear resistance and the thermal properties that are required for the in-die quenching during forming. On this base, the paper deals with the analysis and comparison the tribological performances in terms of wear, friction and heat transfer of new tool steel grades for high-temperature applications, characterized by a higher thermal conductivity than the commonly used tools. Testing equipment, procedures as well as measurements analyses to evaluate the friction coefficient, the wear and heat transfer phenomena are presented. Emphasis is given on the physical simulation techniques that were specifically developed to reproduce the thermal and mechanical cycles on the metal sheets and dies as in the industrial practice. The reference industrial process is the direct hot stamping of the 22MnB5 HSS coated with the common Al-Si coating for automotive applications.

  20. Massively Parallel Processing for Fast and Accurate Stamping Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Siguang; Joshi, Ramesh; Wang, Chuan-tao; Paul, Sabu

    2005-08-01

    The competitive automotive market drives automotive manufacturers to speed up the vehicle development cycles and reduce the lead-time. Fast tooling development is one of the key areas to support fast and short vehicle development programs (VDP). In the past ten years, the stamping simulation has become the most effective validation tool in predicting and resolving all potential formability and quality problems before the dies are physically made. The stamping simulation and formability analysis has become an critical business segment in GM math-based die engineering process. As the simulation becomes as one of the major production tools in engineering factory, the simulation speed and accuracy are the two of the most important measures for stamping simulation technology. The speed and time-in-system of forming analysis becomes an even more critical to support the fast VDP and tooling readiness. Since 1997, General Motors Die Center has been working jointly with our software vendor to develop and implement a parallel version of simulation software for mass production analysis applications. By 2001, this technology was matured in the form of distributed memory processing (DMP) of draw die simulations in a networked distributed memory computing environment. In 2004, this technology was refined to massively parallel processing (MPP) and extended to line die forming analysis (draw, trim, flange, and associated spring-back) running on a dedicated computing environment. The evolution of this technology and the insight gained through the implementation of DM0P/MPP technology as well as performance benchmarks are discussed in this publication.

  1. Influence of heat-treated Al-Si coating on the weldability and microstructural inhomogeneity for hot stamped steel resistance nut projection welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Eun-Joon; Lim, Sung-Sang; Kim, Young-Tae; Nam, Ki-Sung; Kim, Young-Min; Park, Young-Whan; Murugan, Siva Prasad; Park, Yeong-Do

    2018-03-01

    Resistance nut projection weldability of Al-Si coated hot stamped steel (HSS) was investigated under the viewpoint of weldable current range and joint strength (pull-out load). The microstructural inhomogeneities in the welds were also studied in order to elucidate the factors affecting the joint strength of the welds. The weldability of the given Al-Si coated HSS was compared with the weldability of an identical HSS without the Al-Si coating (Al-Si coating was polished out) and Zn coated dual phase steel. The weldable current range of Al-Si coated HSS was found to be narrower than that of the other materials. Furthermore, the average pull-out load within the weldable current range of the Al-Si coated HSS was the lowest among the three materials. The reason for poor weld mechanical property of the Al-Si coated hot-stamped steel was attributed to the microstructural inhomogeneities such as unmixed Al-Si coating layer at the edge of the nugget and the second phase Fe3(Al, Si) intermetallic compound. The formation of Fe3(Al, Si) phase was attributed to the solidification segregation of Al and Si during the weld solidification and was confirmed with the numerical analysis of solidification segregation.

  2. Evaluation of hot forming effects mapping for CAE analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoerr, L.; Faath, T.; Dykeman, J.; Malcolm, S.

    2016-08-01

    Hot forming has grown significantly in the manufacturing of structural components within the vehicle Body-In-White construction. The superior strength of press hardened steels not only guarantee high resistance to deformation, it also brings a significant weight saving compared to conventional cold formed products. However, the benefit of achieving ultrahigh strength with hot stamping, comes with a reduction in ductility of the press hardened part. This will require advanced material modeling to capture the predicted performances accurately. A technique to optically measure and map the thinning distribution after hot stamping has shown to improve numerical analysis for fracture prediction. The proposed method to determine the forming effects and mapping to CAE models can be integrated into the Vehicle Development Process to shorten the time to production.

  3. Optical force stamping lithography

    PubMed Central

    Nedev, Spas; Urban, Alexander S.; Lutich, Andrey A.; Feldmann, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce a new paradigm of far-field optical lithography, optical force stamping lithography. The approach employs optical forces exerted by a spatially modulated light field on colloidal nanoparticles to rapidly stamp large arbitrary patterns comprised of single nanoparticles onto a substrate with a single-nanoparticle positioning accuracy well beyond the diffraction limit. Because the process is all-optical, the stamping pattern can be changed almost instantly and there is no constraint on the type of nanoparticle or substrates used. PMID:21992538

  4. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  5. Research on the Micro Sheet Stamping Process Using Plasticine as Soft Punch

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Di; Gu, Chunxing; Shen, Zongbao; Liu, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Plasticine is widely used in the analysis of metal forming processes, due to its excellent material flow ability. In this study, plasticine is used as the soft punch to fabricate array micro-channels on metal sheet in the micro sheet stamping process. This is because plasticine can produce a large material flow after being subjected to force and through the material flow, the plasticine can cause the sheet to fill into the micro-channels of the rigid die, leading to the generation of micro-channels in the sheet. The distribution of array micro-channels was investigated as well as the influence of load forces on the sheet deformations. It was found that the depth of micro-channels increases as the load force increases. When the load force reaches a certain level, a crack can be observed. The micro sheet stamping process was also investigated by the method of numerical simulation. The obtained experimental and numerical results for the stamping process showed that they were in good agreement. Additionally, from the simulation results, it can be seen that the corner region of the micro-channel-shape work piece has a risk to crack due to the existence of maximum von Mises stress and significant thinning. PMID:28788668

  6. Setting Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steels for Rapid Hot Forming Processes

    PubMed Central

    Löbbe, Christian; Hering, Oliver; Hiegemann, Lars; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2016-01-01

    Hot stamping of sheet metal is an established method for the manufacturing of light weight products with tailored properties. However, the generally-applied continuous roller furnace manifests two crucial disadvantages: the overall process time is long and a local setting of mechanical properties is only feasible through special cooling techniques. Hot forming with rapid heating directly before shaping is a new approach, which not only reduces the thermal intervention in the zones of critical formability and requested properties, but also allows the processing of an advantageous microstructure characterized by less grain growth, additional fractions (e.g., retained austenite), and undissolved carbides. Since the austenitization and homogenization process is strongly dependent on the microstructure constitution, the general applicability for the process relevant parameters is unknown. Thus, different austenitization parameters are analyzed for the conventional high strength steels 22MnB5, Docol 1400M, and DP1000 in respect of the mechanical properties. In order to characterize the resulting microstructure, the light optical and scanning electron microscopy, micro and macro hardness measurements, and the X-ray diffraction are conducted subsequent to tensile tests. The investigation proves not only the feasibility to adjust the strength and ductility flexibly, unique microstructures are also observed and the governing mechanisms are clarified. PMID:28773354

  7. Studies on the finite element simulation in sheet metal stamping processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying

    The sheet metal stamping process plays an important role in modern industry. With the ever-increasing demand for shape complexity, product quality and new materials, the traditional trial and error method for setting up a sheet metal stamping process is no longer efficient. As a result, the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) method has now been widely used. From a physical point of view, the formability and the quality of a product are influenced by several factors. The design of the product in the initial stage and the motion of the press during the production stage are two of these crucial factors. This thesis focuses on the numerical simulation for these two factors using FEM. Currently, there are a number of commercial FEM software systems available in the market. These software systems are based on an incremental FEM process that models the sheet metal stamping process in small incremental steps. Even though the incremental FEM is accurate, it is not suitable for the initial conceptual design for its needing of detailed design parameters and enormous calculation times. As a result, another type of FEM, called the inverse FEM method or one-step FEM method, has been proposed. While it is less accurate than that of the incremental method, this method requires much less computation and hence, has a great potential. However, it also faces a number of unsolved problems, which limits its application. This motivates the presented research. After the review of the basic theory of the inverse method, a new modified arc-length search method is proposed to find better initial solution. The methods to deal with the vertical walls are also discussed and presented. Then, a generalized multi-step inverse FEM method is proposed. It solves two key obstacles: the first one is to determine the initial solution of the intermediate three-dimensional configurations and the other is to control the movement of nodes so they could only slide on constraint surfaces during the search by

  8. Mechanical behavior and modelisation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet under hot stamping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirvin, Q.; Velay, V.; Bonnaire, R.; Penazzi, L.

    2017-10-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is widely used for the manufacture of aeronautical and automotive parts (solid parts). In aeronautics, this alloy is employed for its excellent mechanical behavior associated with low density, outstanding corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties up to 600°C. It is especially used for the manufacture of fuselage frames, on the pylon for carrying out the primary structure (machining forged blocks) and the secondary structure in sheet form. In this last case, the sheet metal forming can be done through various methods: at room temperature by drawing operation, at very high temperature (≃900°C) by superplastic forming (SPF) and at intermediate temperature (≥750°C) by hot forming (HF). In order to reduce production costs and environmental troubles, the cycle times reduction associated with a decrease of temperature levels are relevant. This study focuses on the behavior modelling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at temperatures above room temperature to obtained greater formability and below SPF condition to reduce tools workshop and energy costs. The displacement field measurement obtained by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is based on innovative surface preparation pattern adapted to high temperature exposures. Different material parameters are identified to define a model able to predict the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under hot stamping conditions. The hardening plastic model identified is introduced in FEM to simulate an omega shape forming operation.

  9. Odontophilately: dentistry on stamps.

    PubMed

    Drinnan, Alan J

    2004-11-01

    The collecting of stamps can be a rewarding exercise and may be as intense or as superficial as one would wish. Some collectors concentrate on the technical aspects of stamp production, whereas others concentrate on the details of their issue by the postal authorities. Others collect stamps with the view to buying and selling them for financial gain. Some are more interested in the "social" aspects of a stamp (e.g., facts about the country issuing it, location of the country, population, government structure, main industries, place of dentistry within the society). A collection of topical stamps on odontophilately with the details of those types listed above should stimulate anyone with the imagination to appreciate the wide and sometimes romantic stories behind every stamp.

  10. Postage stamps: A convergence of metallurgy, art, and history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habashi, Fathi

    2002-04-01

    Postage stamps have been used around the world to commemorate, in miniature, significant events and people, including those of importance in the history of metals and mineral production. From the presence of gold artifacts in an ancient Egyptian tomb to the role of uranium in nuclear power, stamps have captured the evolution of metallurgical processes. This article highlights some of those stamps.

  11. Effect of cooling rate during hot stamping on low cyclic fatigue of boron steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Chang Hee; Jang, Won Seok; Oh, Sang Kyun; Lee, Rac Gyu; Jung, Yun-Chul; Kim, Young Suk

    2012-08-01

    Boron steel is widely used throughout the automobile industry due to its high tensile strength and hardenability. When boron steel is used for body parts, only high strength is required for crashworthiness. However, when boron steel is used for chassis parts, a high fatigue life is needed. The microstructure of boron steel is mainly affected by the cooling rate during hot stamping. Therefore, this study investigated the low cyclic fatigue life according to the cooling rate. The fatigue life increased at a low strain amplitude when the cooling rate was fast. However, at a high strain amplitude, the fatigue life decreased, due to the low ductility and fracture toughness of the martensite formed by rapid cooling. Martensite formed by a fast cooling rate shows excellent fatigue life at a low total strain amplitude; however, a multiphase microstructure formed by a slow cooling rate is recommended if the parts experience high and low total strain amplitudes alternately. In addition, the cooling rate has little effect on the distribution of solute boron and boron precipitations, so it is expected that boron rarely affects low cyclic fatigue.

  12. STS-8 postal Stamp envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    STS-8 postal Stamp envelope with Challenger insignia, USA eagle stamp, 25th NASA anniversary stamp. The envelope is stamped with various postmarks, one saying Kennedy Space Center, Fl., another saying 'Returned to earth, Edwards AFB, CA'.

  13. Constitutive Modeling of High-Temperature Flow Behavior of an Nb Micro-alloyed Hot Stamping Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiqi; Feng, Ding; Huang, Yunhua; Wei, Shizhong; Mohrbacher, Hardy; Zhang, Yue

    2016-03-01

    The thermal deformation behavior and constitutive models of an Nb micro-alloyed 22MnB5 steel were investigated by conducting isothermal uniaxial tensile tests at the temperature range of 873-1223 K with strain rates of 0.1-10 s-1. The results indicated that the investigated steel showed typical work hardening and dynamic recovery behavior during hot deformation, and the flow stress decreased with a decrease in strain rate and/or an increase in temperature. On the basis of the experimental data, the modified Johnson-Cook (modified JC), modified Norton-Hoff (modified NH), and Arrhenius-type (AT) constitutive models were established for the subject steel. However, the flow stress values predicted by these three models revealed some remarkable deviations from the experimental values for certain experimental conditions. Therefore, a new combined modified Norton-Hoff and Arrhenius-type constitutive model (combined modified NH-AT model), which accurately reflected both the work hardening and dynamic recovery behavior of the subject steel, was developed by introducing the modified parameter k ɛ. Furthermore, the accuracy of these constitutive models was assessed by the correlation coefficient, the average absolute relative error, and the root mean square error, which indicated that the flow stress values computed by the combined modified NH-AT model were highly consistent with the experimental values (R = 0.998, AARE = 1.63%, RMSE = 3.85 MPa). The result confirmed that the combined modified NH-AT model was suitable for the studied Nb micro-alloyed hot stamping steel. Additionally, the practicability of the new model was also verified using finite element simulations in ANSYS/LS-DYNA, and the results confirmed that the new model was practical and highly accurate.

  14. Analysis of roll-stamped light guide plate fabricated with laser-ablated stamper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyunjun; Hong, Seokkwan; Kim, Jongsun; Hwang, Jeongho; Joo, Byungyun; Yoon, Kyunghwan; Kang, Jeongjin

    2017-12-01

    LGP (light guide plate) is one of the major components of LCD (liquid crystal display), and it makes surface illumination for LCD backlit. LGP is a transparent plastic plate usually produced by injection molding process. On the back of LGP there are micron size patterns for extraction of light. Recently a roll-stamping process has achieved the high mass productivity of thinner LGPs. In order to fabricate optical patterns on LGPs, a fabricating tool called as a stamper is used. Micro patterns on metallic stampers are made by several micro machining processes such as chemical etching, LIGA-reflow, and laser ablation. In this study, a roll-stamping process by using a laser ablated metallic stamper was dealt with in consideration of the compatibility with the roll-stamping process. LGP fabricating tests were performed using a roll-stamping process with four different roll pressures. Pattern shapes on the stamper fabricated by laser ablation and transcription ratios of the roll-stamping process were analyzed, and LGP luminance was evaluated. Based on the evaluation, optical simulation model for LGP was made and simulation accuracy was evaluated. Simulation results showed good agreements with optical performance of LGPs in the brightness and uniformity. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP has the possibility of better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP with the laser ablated stamper is potential to have better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP.

  15. Influence of prepreg characteristics on stamp consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L. L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2017-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. The development of automated lay-up technologies further extends the applicability of stamp forming by allowing rapid lay-up of tailored blanks and partial preconsolidation. This partial preconsolidation makes the influence of prepreg more critical compared to conventional preconsolidation methods which provide full preconsolidation. This paper aims to highlight consolidation challenges that can appear when stamp forming blanks manufactured by automated lay-up. Important prepreg characteristics were identified based on an experimental study where a comparison was made between various prepreg in their as-received, deconsolidated and stamp consolidated state. It was found that adding up small thickness variations across the width of a prepreg when stacking plies into a blank by automated lay-up can cause non-uniform consolidation. Additionally, deconsolidation of the prepreg does not seem to obstruct interlaminar bonding, while intralaminar voids initially present in a prepreg cannot be removed during stamp forming. An additional preconsolidation step after automated lay-up seems necessary to remove blank thickness variations and intralaminar voids for the current prepregs. Eliminating this process step and the successful combination of rapid automated lay-up and stamp forming requires prepregs which are void-free and have less thickness variation.

  16. A unique patterned diamond stamp for a periodically hierarchical nanoarray structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Shen, Yanting; Xu, Weiqing; Xu, Shuping; Li, Hongdong

    2016-09-23

    A diamond stamp with a hierarchical pattern was designed for the direct preparation of a periodic nanoarray structure, which was prepared by the reactive ion etching technique with a hierarchical ultrathin alumina membrane (HUTAM) as a mask. The optimal etching conditions for fabricating the diamond stamp were discussed in order to realize a vertical nanopore structure, avoiding structural damage from lateral etching. By using this diamond stamp, a polymer film with the desired hierarchical nanorod array structure can be obtained easily via the simple stamping process, which greatly simplifies the processing procedure. More importantly, the stamp is reusable because of its super-hardness, which ensures the reproducibility of the nanorod array pattern. Another merit is that the smooth surface of the etched diamond can avoid the use of a release agent. Our results prove that this hard stamp can be used for quick preparation of an elaborate periodic nanoarray structure. This study is significant in that it solves the problems of high cost and easy damage of stamps in nanoimprint lithography, and it might inspire more sophisticated applications of such an ordered structure in nanoplasmonics, biochemical sensing and nanophotonic devices.

  17. Stamping Out Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of rubber hand-stamps to generate molecular pictures. These stamps (prepared with shapes of atoms and molecules at little cost by small, local print shops) can be used in creating pictures representing the microscopic state that can be linked to macroscopic descriptions for active conceptual exploration. (JN)

  18. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  19. Stamp of Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Joan; Curtis, David

    1977-01-01

    In an age of exquisite graphic art, perhaps the most universally viewed examples are to be found in the commemorative stamps issued by the Postal Service. At Corona del Mar High School, Newport Beach, California, students cooperated to design a stamp and display their work before the public. They therefore learn how the Postal Service selects a…

  20. Photovoltaic cells with a graded active region achieved using stamp transfer printing

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lee, Jun Yeob; Cho, Yong Joo

    Disclosed herein are processes for fabricating organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices with a vertical compositionally graded organic active layer. The processes use either a single-stamp or double-stamp printing technique to transfer the vertical compositionally graded organic active layer from a starting substrate to a device layer.

  1. Improvement in current density of nano- and micro-structured Si solar cells by cost-effective elastomeric stamp process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kiseok; Jee, Hongsub; Lim, Sangwoo; Park, Min Joon; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2018-03-01

    Effective incident light should be controlled for improving the current density of solar cells by employing nano- and micro-structures on silicon surface. The elastomeric stamp process, which is more cost effective and simpler than conventional photolithography, was proposed for the fabrication of nano- and micro-structures. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was poured on a mother pattern with a diameter of 6 μm and a spacing of 2 μm; then, curing was performed to create a PDMS mold. The regular micropattern was stamped on a low-viscosity resin-coated silicon surface, followed by the simple reactive ion etching process. Nano-structures were formed using the Ag-based electroless etching process. As etching time was increased to 6 min, reflectance decreased to 4.53% and current density improved from 22.35 to 34.72 mA/cm2.

  2. Usage and Recall of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK) by Food Stamp Applicants in 4 California Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate recall and usage of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK), a set of nutrition education materials designed for use in food stamp offices. Design: Client intercept exit surveys, an environmental scan, and individual observations of clients in the food stamp office. Setting: Four food stamp offices in California.…

  3. Hot forming and quenching pilot process development for low cost and low environmental impact manufacturing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Roger W.; Foster, Alistair; Herrmann Praturlon, Anja

    2017-09-01

    The Hot Forming and in-tool Quenching (HFQ®) process is a proven technique to enable complex shaped stampings to be manufactured from high strength aluminium. Its widespread uptake for high volume production will be maximised if it is able to wholly amortise the additional investment cost of this process compared to conventional deep drawing techniques. This paper discusses the use of three techniques to guide some of the development decisions taken during upscaling of the HFQ® process. Modelling of Process timing, Cost and Life-cycle impact were found to be effective tools to identify where development budget could be focused in order to be able to manufacture low cost panels of different sizes from many different alloys in a sustainable way. The results confirm that raw material cost, panel trimming, and artificial ageing were some of the highest contributing factors to final component cost. Additionally, heat treatment and lubricant removal stages played a significant role in the overall life-cycle assessment of the final products. These findings confirmed development priorities as novel furnace design, fast artificial ageing and low-cost alloy development.

  4. Food Stamps. Learning Packet No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse for Offender Literacy Programs.

    This package of instructional materials is designed to aid adults in prison to perform the functional skill of applying for food stamps. The materials consist of instructions for teachers, a sample application for food stamps, a student's work sheet and answer sheet, vocabulary flash cards, and resource materials on food stamps. (MKM)

  5. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    United States Postal Service Vice President of Finance Steve Masse, left, and NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, unveil two USPS stamps to commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Audio signal analysis for tool wear monitoring in sheet metal stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubhayaratne, Indivarie; Pereira, Michael P.; Xiang, Yong; Rolfe, Bernard F.

    2017-02-01

    Stamping tool wear can significantly degrade product quality, and hence, online tool condition monitoring is a timely need in many manufacturing industries. Even though a large amount of research has been conducted employing different sensor signals, there is still an unmet demand for a low-cost easy to set up condition monitoring system. Audio signal analysis is a simple method that has the potential to meet this demand, but has not been previously used for stamping process monitoring. Hence, this paper studies the existence and the significance of the correlation between emitted sound signals and the wear state of sheet metal stamping tools. The corrupting sources generated by the tooling of the stamping press and surrounding machinery have higher amplitudes compared to that of the sound emitted by the stamping operation itself. Therefore, a newly developed semi-blind signal extraction technique was employed as a pre-processing technique to mitigate the contribution of these corrupting sources. The spectral analysis results of the raw and extracted signals demonstrate a significant qualitative relationship between wear progression and the emitted sound signature. This study lays the basis for employing low-cost audio signal analysis in the development of a real-time industrial tool condition monitoring system.

  7. Impact Of The Material Variability On The Stamping Process: Numerical And Analytical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, Yann; Sergent, Alain; Arrieux, Robert

    2007-05-01

    The finite element simulation is a very useful tool in the deep drawing industry. It is used more particularly for the development and the validation of new stamping tools. It allows to decrease cost and time for the tooling design and set up. But one of the most important difficulties to have a good agreement between the simulation and the real process comes from the definition of the numerical conditions (mesh, punch travel speed, limit conditions,…) and the parameters which model the material behavior. Indeed, in press shop, when the sheet set changes, often a variation of the formed part geometry is observed according to the variability of the material properties between these different sets. This last parameter represents probably one of the main source of process deviation when the process is set up. That's why it is important to study the influence of material data variation on the geometry of a classical stamped part. The chosen geometry is an omega shaped part because of its simplicity and it is representative one in the automotive industry (car body reinforcement). Moreover, it shows important springback deviations. An isotropic behaviour law is assumed. The impact of the statistical deviation of the three law coefficients characterizing the material and the friction coefficient around their nominal values is tested. A Gaussian distribution is supposed and their impact on the geometry variation is studied by FE simulation. An other approach is envisaged consisting in modeling the process variability by a mathematical model and then, in function of the input parameters variability, it is proposed to define an analytical model which leads to find the part geometry variability around the nominal shape. These two approaches allow to predict the process capability as a function of the material parameter variability.

  8. Stamp forming optimization for formability and crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donderwinkel, T. G.; Rietman, B.; Haanappel, S. P.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    The stamp forming process is well suited for high volume production of thermoplastic composite parts. The process can be characterized as highly non-isothermal as it involves local quench-cooling of a molten thermoplastic composite blank where it makes contact with colder tooling. The formability of the thermoplastic composite depends on the viscoelastic material behavior of the matrix material, which is sensitive to temperature and degree of crystallinity. An experimental study was performed to determine the effect of temperature and crystallinity on the storage modulus during cooling for a woven glass fiber polyamide-6 composite material. An increase of two decades in modulus was observed during crystallization. As this will significantly impede the blank formability, the onset of crystallization effectively governs the time available for forming. Besides the experimental work, a numerical model is developed to study the temperature and crystallinity throughout the stamp forming process. A process window can be determined by feeding the model with the experimentally obtained data on crystallization.

  9. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, left, Alice Wackermann and Julie Jenkins, right, speak during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, standing left, Alice Wackermann and Julie Jenkins, standing right, speak during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG-53...

  12. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG-53...

  13. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG-53...

  14. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG-53...

  15. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG-53...

  16. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Patty Carpenter, wife of NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, left, Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, and, Alice Wackermann, right, sing the National Anthem during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Time series analysis of tool wear in sheet metal stamping using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignesh Shanbhag, V.; Pereira, P. Michael; Rolfe, F. Bernard; Arunachalam, N.

    2017-09-01

    Galling is an adhesive wear mode that often affects the lifespan of stamping tools. Since stamping tools represent significant economic cost, even a slight improvement in maintenance cost is of high importance for the stamping industry. In other manufacturing industries, online tool condition monitoring has been used to prevent tool wear-related failure. However, monitoring the acoustic emission signal from a stamping process is a non-trivial task since the acoustic emission signal is non-stationary and non-transient. There have been numerous studies examining acoustic emissions in sheet metal stamping. However, very few have focused in detail on how the signals change as wear on the tool surface progresses prior to failure. In this study, time domain analysis was applied to the acoustic emission signals to extract features related to tool wear. To understand the wear progression, accelerated stamping tests were performed using a semi-industrial stamping setup which can perform clamping, piercing, stamping in a single cycle. The time domain features related to stamping were computed for the acoustic emissions signal of each part. The sidewalls of the stamped parts were scanned using an optical profilometer to obtain profiles of the worn part, and they were qualitatively correlated to that of the acoustic emissions signal. Based on the wear behaviour, the wear data can be divided into three stages: - In the first stage, no wear is observed, in the second stage, adhesive wear is likely to occur, and in the third stage severe abrasive plus adhesive wear is likely to occur. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of lumps on the stamping tool, which represents galling behavior. Correlation between the time domain features of the acoustic emissions signal and the wear progression identified in this study lays the basis for tool diagnostics in stamping industry.

  18. Stamping of Thin-Walled Structural Components with Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fuh-Kuo; Chang, Chih-Kun

    2005-08-01

    In the present study, the stamping process for manufacturing cell phone cases with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was studied using both the experimental approach and the finite element analysis. In order to determine the proper forming temperature and set up a fracture criterion, tensile tests and forming limit tests were first conducted to obtain the mechanical behaviors of AZ31 sheets at various elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of Z31 sheets obtained from the experiments were then adopted in the finite element analysis to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of the stamping process of cell phone cases. The finite element simulation results revealed that both the fracture and wrinkle defects could not be eliminated at the same time by adjusting blank-holder force or blank size. A drawbead design was then performed using the finite element simulations to determine the size and the location of drawbead required to suppress the wrinkle defect. An optimum stamping process, including die geometry, forming temperature, and blank dimension, was then determined for manufacturing the cell phone cases. The finite element analysis was validated by the good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. It confirms that the cell phone cases can be produced with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet by the stamping process at elevated temperatures.

  19. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...-FF09M13100] Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... and conservation stamp (Federal Duck Stamp) annually. The stamps are a vital tool for wetland conservation. Ninety-eight cents out of every dollar generated by the sale of Federal Duck Stamps goes directly...

  20. POLYELECTROLYTE MULTILAYER STAMPING IN AQUEOUS PHASE AND NON-CONTACT MODE

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Sumit; Lee, Ilsoon; Liu, Chun; Chan, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) transfer printing has been previously achieved by stamping under dry conditions. Here, we show for the first time, that PEM can be transferred from a stamp to the base substrate under aqueous conditions whereby the two surfaces are in a non-contact mode. Degradable multilayers of (PAA/PEG)10.5 followed by non-degradable multilayers of (PDAC/SPS)80.5 were fabricated under acidic pH conditions on either PDMS or glass (stamp), and subsequently transferred over top of another multilayer prepared on a different substrate (base substrate), with a spacing of ~ 200 μm between the stamping surface and the base substrate. This multilayer transfer was performed under physiological pH conditions. This process is referred to herein as non-contact, aqueous-phase multilayer (NAM) transfer. NAM transfer can be useful for applications such as fabricating three-dimensional (3-D) cellular scaffolds. We attempted to create a 3-D cellular scaffold using NAM transfer, and characterized the scaffolds with conventional and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21860540

  1. RANKL-induced DC-STAMP Is Essential for Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kukita, Toshio; Wada, Naohisa; Kukita, Akiko; Kakimoto, Takashi; Sandra, Ferry; Toh, Kazuko; Nagata, Kengo; Iijima, Tadahiko; Horiuchi, Madoka; Matsusaki, Hiromi; Hieshima, Kunio; Yoshie, Osamu; Nomiyama, Hisayuki

    2004-01-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing, multinucleated giant cells that are essential for bone remodeling and are formed through cell fusion of mononuclear precursor cells. Although receptor activator of nuclear factor–κB ligand (RANKL) has been demonstrated to be an important osteoclastogenic cytokine, the cell surface molecules involved in osteoclastogenesis are mostly unknown. Here, we report that the seven-transmembrane receptor-like molecule, dendritic cell–specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Expression of DC-STAMP is rapidly induced in osteoclast precursor cells by RANKL and other osteoclastogenic stimulations. Targeted inhibition of DC-STAMP by small interfering RNAs and specific antibody markedly suppressed the formation of multinucleated osteoclast-like cells. Overexpression of DC-STAMP enhanced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, DC-STAMP directly induced the expression of the osteoclast marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. These data demonstrate for the first time that DC-STAMP has an essential role in osteoclastogenesis. PMID:15452179

  2. A Mechanical, Microstructural, and Damage Study of Various Tailor Hot Stamped Material Conditions Consisting of Martensite, Bainite, Ferrite, and Pearlite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardelcik, Alexander; Vowles, Caryn J.; Worswick, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the mechanical, microstructural, and damage characteristics of five different material conditions that were created using the tailored hot stamping process with in-die heating. The tailored material conditions, TMC1 to TMC5 (softest-hardest), were created using die temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 400 °C, respectively. The tensile strength (and total elongation) ranged from 615 MPa (0.24) for TMC1 to 1122 MPa (0.11) for TMC5. TMC3 and TMC4 exhibited intermediate strength levels, with almost no increase in total elongation relative to TMC5. FE-SEM microscopy was used to quantify the mixed-phase microstructures, which ranged in volume fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite. High-resolution optical microscopy was used to quantify void accumulation and showed that the total void area fraction at 0.60 thickness strain was low for TMC1 and TMC5 ( 0.09 pct) and highest for TMC3 (0.31 pct). Damage modes were characterized and revealed that the poor damage behavior of TMC3 (martensite/bainite/ferrite composition) was a result of small martensitic grains forming at grain boundaries and grain boundary junctions, which facilitated void nucleation as shown by the highest measured void density for this particular material condition. The excellent ductility of TMC1 was a result of a large grained ferritic/pearlitic microstructure that was less susceptible to void nucleation and growth. Large titanium nitride (TiN) inclusions were observed in all of the tailored material conditions and it was shown that they noticeably contributed to the total void accumulation, specifically for the TMC3 and TMC4 material conditions.

  3. 48 CFR 246.472 - Inspection stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.472 Inspection stamping. (a) DoD quality inspection approval marking designs (stamps) may be used for both prime...) Policies and procedures regarding the use of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) quality...

  4. Volcanology by Courier: Science in Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1981-01-01

    Summarized are five activities involving collection of postage stamps picturing volcanoes or related scenes for use as part of or at the conclusion of the study of volcanoes. Activity topics include volcanic features, location of volcanoes, related land features where volcanoes are not located, and making one's own volcano stamps. (DS)

  5. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    From left, NASA Deputy Director, Planetary Science Division, Science Mission Directorate, Jim Adams, NASA Kennedy Space Center Director of Education and External Relations Cheryl Hurst, United States Postal Service Vice President of Finance Steve Masse, NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, NASA Administrator Charles Boldin, Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Alice Wackermann, Laura Shepard Churchley, and Julie Jenkins, and NASA Kennedy Space Center Director Robert Cabana pose for a photograph during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Integrated software package STAMP for minor planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochetova, O. M.; Shor, Viktor A.

    1992-01-01

    The integrated software package STAMP allowed for rapid and exact reproduction of the tables of the year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets.' Additionally, STAMP solved the typical problems connected with the use of the year-book. STAMP is described. The year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets' (EMP) is a publication used in many astronomical institutions around the world. It contains all the necessary information on the orbits of the numbered minor planets. Also, the astronomical coordinates are provided for each planet during its suitable observation period.

  7. Damage and Failure Analysis of AZ31 Alloy Sheet in Warm Stamping Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a combined experimental-numerical investigation on the failure of AZ31 Mg alloy sheet in the warm stamping process was carried out based on modified GTN damage model which integrated Yld2000 anisotropic yield criterion. The constitutive equations of material were implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for solver ABAQUS/Explicit and applied to the formability analysis of mobile phone shell. The morphology near the crack area was observed using SEM, and the anisotropic damage evolution at various temperatures was simulated. The distributions of plastic strain, damage evolution, thickness, and fracture initiation obtained from FE simulation were analyzed. The corresponding forming limit diagrams were worked out, and the comparison with the experimental data showed a good agreement.

  8. 44. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST BEHIND THE STAMP BATTERIES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST BEHIND THE STAMP BATTERIES. THIS IS A CLOSE UP VIEW OF THE STAMP SHAFTS WITH THE TAPPETS AND WOODEN STOPS THAT WERE USED TO PLACE THE STAMPS IN AN UP POSITION TO CLEAN OR REPLACE THE STAMP SHOES IN THE MORTAR BOX. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  9. [The stamp technique for direct composite restoration].

    PubMed

    Perrin, Philippe; Zimmerli, Brigitte; Jacky, Daniel; Lussi, Adrian; Helbling, Christoph; Ramseyer, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The indications for direct resin composite restorations are nowadays extended due to the development of modern resin materials with improved material properties. However, there are still some difficulties regarding handling of resin composite material, especially in large restorations. The reconstruction of a functional and individual occlusion is difficult to achieve with direct application techniques. The aim of the present publication was to introduce a new "stamp"-technique for placing large composite restorations. The procedure of this "stamp"-technique is presented by three typical indications: large single-tooth restoration, occlusal rehabilitation of a compromised occlusal surface due to erosions and direct fibre-reinforced fixed partial denture. A step-by-step description of the technique and clinical figures illustrates the method. Large single-tooth restorations can be built-up with individual, two- piece silicone stamps. Large occlusal abrasive and/or erosive defects can be restored by copying the wax-up from the dental technician using the "stamp"-technique. Even fiber-reinforced resin-bonded fixed partial dentures can be formed with this intraoral technique with more precision and within a shorter treatment time. The presented "stamp"-technique facilitates the placement of large restoration with composite and can be recommended for the clinical use.

  10. Molecular scale modeling of polymer imprint nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Chandross, Michael; Grest, Gary S

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of two different nanolithographic processes, step-flash imprint lithography (SFIL), and hot embossing. We insert rigid stamps into an entangled bead-spring polymer melt above the glass transition temperature. After equilibration, the polymer is then hardened in one of two ways, depending on the specific process to be modeled. For SFIL, we cross-link the polymer chains by introducing bonds between neighboring beads. To model hot embossing, we instead cool the melt to below the glass transition temperature. We then study the ability of these methods to retain features by removing the stamps, both with a zero-stress removal process in which stamp atoms are instantaneously deleted from the system as well as a more physical process in which the stamp is pulled from the hardened polymer at fixed velocity. We find that it is necessary to coat the stamp with an antifriction coating to achieve clean removal of the stamp. We further find that a high density of cross-links is necessary for good feature retention in the SFIL process. The hot embossing process results in good feature retention at all length scales studied as long as coated, low surface energy stamps are used.

  11. Estimation Model for Magnetic Properties of Stamped Electrical Steel Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwara, Yoshiyuki; Fujimura, Hiroshi; Okamura, Kazuo; Imanishi, Kenji; Yashiki, Hiroyoshi

    Less deterioration in magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets in the process of stamping out iron-core are necessary in order to maintain its performance. First, the influence of plastic strain and stress on magnetic properties was studied by test pieces, in which plastic strain was added uniformly and residual stress was not induced. Because the influence of plastic strain was expressed by equivalent plastic strain, at each equivalent plastic strain state the influence of load stress was investigated. Secondly, elastic limit was determined about 60% of macroscopic yield point (MYP), and it was found to agree with stress limit inducing irreversible deterioration in magnetic properties. Therefore simulation models, where beyond elastic limit plastic deformation begins and magnetic properties are deteriorated steeply, are proposed. Besides considered points in the deformation analysis are strain-rate sensitivity of flow stress, anisotropy under deformation, and influence of stress triaxiality on fracture. Finally, proposed models have been shown to be valid, because magnetic properties of 5mm width rectangular sheets stamped out from non-oriented electrical steel sheet (35A250 JIS grade) can be estimated with good accuracy. It is concluded that the elastic limit must be taken into account in both stamping process simulation and magnetic field calculation.

  12. DC-STAMP Is an Osteoclast Fusogen Engaged in Periodontal Bone Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Wisitrasameewong, W.; Kajiya, M.; Movila, A.; Rittling, S.; Ishii, T.; Suzuki, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mazda, Y.; Torruella, M.R.; Azuma, M.M.; Egashira, K.; Freire, M.O.; Sasaki, H.; Wang, C.Y.; Han, X.; Taubman, M.A.; Kawai, T.

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) plays a key role in the induction of osteoclast (OC) cell fusion, as well as DC-mediated immune regulation. While DC-STAMP gene expression is upregulated in the gingival tissue with periodontitis, its pathophysiological roles in periodontitis remain unclear. To evaluate the effects of DC-STAMP in periodontitis, anti-DC-STAMP–monoclonal antibody (mAb) was tested in a mouse model of ligature-induced periodontitis (n = 6–7/group) where Pasteurella pneumotropica (Pp)-reactive immune response activated T cells to produce receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), which, in turn, promotes the periodontal bone loss via upregulation of osteoclastogenesis. DC-STAMP was expressed on the cell surface of mature multinuclear OCs, as well as immature mononuclear OCs, in primary cultures of RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb suppressed the emergence of large, but not small, multinuclear OCs, suggesting that DC-STAMP is engaged in the late stage of cell fusion. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also inhibited pit formation caused by RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Attachment of ligature to a second maxillary molar induced DC-STAMP messenger RNA and protein, along with elevated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase–positive (TRAP+) OCs and alveolar bone loss. As we expected, systemic administration of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb downregulated the ligature-induced alveolar bone loss. Importantly, local injection of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also suppressed alveolar bone loss and reduced the total number of multinucleated TRAP+ cells in mice that received ligature attachment. Attachment of ligature induced significantly elevated tumor necrosis factor–α, interleukin-1β, and RANKL in the gingival tissue compared with the control site without ligature (P < 0.05), which was unaffected by local injection with either anti-DC-STAMP-mAb or control-mAb. Neither in vivo anti-Pp IgG antibody nor in vitro anti-Pp T

  13. 26 CFR 1.451-4 - Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1971, its first year of operation, X sells 10 million stamps at $5 per 1,000; it redeems 3 million... trading stamps as follows: Gross receipts from sales (10 million stamps at $5 per 1,000) $50,000 Less... income from sales of stamps 23,000 (b) In 1972, X also sells 10 million stamps at $5 per 1,000 stamps...

  14. Minerals on postage stamps: A mix of art, history, economics and geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Most people would agree that minerals represent some of the most beautiful natural objects known to mankind, especially in the form of precious and semi-precious gemstones. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that they are often illustrated on stamps. Examples are the fine crystalline forms represented as coloured etchings in the French 1986 issue, and the stylized simplicity of the mineral stamps that were part of the Swiss Pro Patria series, issued annually between 1958 and 1961. I aim in this presentation to introduce the beautiful world of mineral illustrations on stamps. The talk cannot be comprehensive because of the very large number of minerals and stamps concerned, but it will introduce the range of minerals depicted on stamps, then look in some greater detail at several sets from France, Southern Africa and East Germany. Minerals become the subject of sets of stamps for many reasons. In many cases, it is part of an attempt by the particular national post office to depict the whole of the natural history of their country in stamp form - a statement of nationality and politics. The 1986 French issue was an example which followed sets of stamps that had already portrayed insects, flowers, trees and birds native to France. We also find that certain countries have produced several sets of stamps to mark the importance to their economy of mining particular minerals. Many African states depend upon minerals for much of their wealth and economic power, explaining why, for instance, Sierra Leone issued over 35 stamps on the subject of diamonds between 1965 and 1978, and why over 77% of mineral stamps come from countries with major mining interests. Countries with traditional links with the history of the study of geology and mining also produce mineral stamps. These are usually European countries with a long record of the study of the Earth, such as Germany and Switzerland. Curiously enough, though, despite its fine tradition of geological observation and research

  15. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

  16. Investigation into the Fiber Orientation Effect on the Formability of GLARE Materials in the Stamp Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Sherkatghanad, Ehsan; Wang, Yao; Xu, Wencai

    2018-04-01

    Glass-reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which has the advantages such as high tensile strength, outstanding fatigue, impact resistance, and excellent corrosion properties. GLARE has been extensively applied in advanced aerospace and automobile industries. However, the deformation behavior of the glass fiber during forming must be studied to the benefits of the good-quality part we form. In this research, we focus on the effect of fiber layer orientation on the GLARE laminate formability in stamp forming process. Experimental and numerical analysis of stamping a hemisphere part in different fiber orientation is investigated. The results indicate that unidirectional and multi-directional fiber in the middle layer make a significant effect on the thinning and also surface forming quality of the three layer sheet. Furthermore, the stress-strain distribution of the aluminum alloy and the unique anisotropic property of the fiber layer exhibit that fiber layer orientation can also affect the forming depths as well as the fracture modes of the laminate. According to the obtained results, it is revealed that multi-directional fiber layers are a good alternative compared to the unidirectional fibers especially when a better formability is the purpose.

  17. 46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND AMALGAMATION TABLES. NOTE FULTON IRON WORKS, SAM FRANCISCO 1908 STAMPED INTO THE MORTAR BOX. ALSO NOTE THE DIES RESTING ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE MORTAR BOX BY THE SECOND STAMP BATTERY FROM THE CAMERA POSITION. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  18. STAMP2 increases oxidative stress and is critical for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yang; Wang, Ling; Qu, Su; Sheng, Xia; Kristian, Alexandr; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Pällmann, Nora; Yuca, Erkan; Tekedereli, Ibrahim; Gorgulu, Kivanc; Alpay, Neslihan; Sood, Anil; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Fazli, Ladan; Rennie, Paul; Risberg, Bjørn; Wæhre, Håkon; Danielsen, Håvard E; Ozpolat, Bulent; Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2015-01-01

    The six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2) is an androgen-regulated gene whose mRNA expression is increased in prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we show that STAMP2 protein expression is increased in human PCa compared with benign prostate that is also correlated with tumor grade and treatment response. We also show that STAMP2 significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PCa cells through its iron reductase activity which also depleted NADPH levels. Knockdown of STAMP2 expression in PCa cells inhibited proliferation, colony formation, and anchorage-independent growth, and significantly increased apoptosis. Furthermore, STAMP2 effects were, at least in part, mediated by activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), whose expression is regulated by ROS. Consistent with in vitro findings, silencing STAMP2 significantly inhibited PCa xenograft growth in mice. Finally, therapeutic silencing of STAMP2 by systemically administered nanoliposomal siRNA profoundly inhibited tumor growth in two established preclinical PCa models in mice. These data suggest that STAMP2 is required for PCa progression and thus may serve as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:25680860

  19. Digital time stamping system based on open source technologies.

    PubMed

    Miskinis, Rimantas; Smirnov, Dmitrij; Urba, Emilis; Burokas, Andrius; Malysko, Bogdan; Laud, Peeter; Zuliani, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    A digital time stamping system based on open source technologies (LINUX-UBUNTU, OpenTSA, OpenSSL, MySQL) is described in detail, including all important testing results. The system, called BALTICTIME, was developed under a project sponsored by the European Commission under the Program FP 6. It was designed to meet the requirements posed to the systems of legal and accountable time stamping and to be applicable to the hardware commonly used by the national time metrology laboratories. The BALTICTIME system is intended for the use of governmental and other institutions as well as personal bodies. Testing results demonstrate that the time stamps issued to the user by BALTICTIME and saved in BALTICTIME's archives (which implies that the time stamps are accountable) meet all the regulatory requirements. Moreover, the BALTICTIME in its present implementation is able to issue more than 10 digital time stamps per second. The system can be enhanced if needed. The test version of the BALTICTIME service is free and available at http://baltictime. pfi.lt:8080/btws/ and http://baltictime.lnmc.lv:8080/btws/.

  20. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program Alternatives...

  1. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program Alternatives...

  2. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program Alternatives...

  3. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program Alternatives...

  4. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.25 Simplified...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6805-1 - Redemption of stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the service center within three years from the date of the purchase of the stamps from the... where the actual date of purchase of the stamps from the Government cannot be established, it must be definitely shown in the claim whether they were so purchased within three years prior to the date of filing...

  6. Industrial based volume manufacturing of lightweight aluminium alloy panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyasodor, Gerald; Koroschetz, Christian

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the high volume manufacture of lightweight passenger cars at economic cost as required in the automotive industry, low density materials and new process route will be needed. While high strength aluminium alloy grades: AA7075 and AA6082 may provide the alternative material solution, hot stamping process used for high-strength and ultrahigh strength steels such as boron steel 22mnb5 can enable the volume manufacture of panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures. These aluminium alloy grades can be used to manufacture panel components with possible yield strengths ≥ 500 MPa. Due to the differences in material behaviors, hot stamping process of 22mnb5 cannot be directly applied to high strength aluminium alloy grades. Despite recorded successes in laboratories, researches and niche hot forming processes of high strength aluminium alloy grades, not much have been achieved for adequate and efficient volume manufacturing system applicable in the automotive industry. Due to lack of such system and based on expert knowledge in hot stamping production-line, AP&T presents in this paper a hot stamping processing route for high strength aluminium alloys been suitable for production-line development and volume manufacturing.

  7. Has your ancient stamp been regummed with synthetic glue? A FT-NIR and FT-Raman study.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Remo; Oliveri, Paolo; Henry, Adrien; Duponchel, Ludovic; Lanteri, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The potential of FT-NIR and FT-Raman spectroscopies to characterise the gum applied on the backside of ancient stamps was investigated for the first time. This represents a very critical issue for the collectors' market, since gum conditions heavily influence stamp quotations, and fraudulent application of synthetic gum onto damaged stamp backsides to increase their desirability is a well-documented practice. Spectral data were processed by exploratory pattern recognition tools. In particular, application of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that both of the spectroscopic techniques provide information useful to characterise stamp gum. Examination of PCA loadings and their chemical interpretation confirmed the robustness of the outcomes. Fusion of FT-NIR and FT-Raman spectral data was performed, following both a low-level and a mid-level procedure. The results were critically compared with those obtained separately for the two spectroscopic techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; Validation stamps. 71.3 Section 71.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever... health department, may revoke designation. (b) Validation stamps. International Certificates of...

  9. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; Validation stamps. 71.3 Section 71.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever... health department, may revoke designation. (b) Validation stamps. International Certificates of...

  10. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; Validation stamps. 71.3 Section 71.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever... health department, may revoke designation. (b) Validation stamps. International Certificates of...

  11. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; Validation stamps. 71.3 Section 71.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever... health department, may revoke designation. (b) Validation stamps. International Certificates of...

  12. Improving stamping simulation accuracy by accounting for realistic friction and lubrication conditions: Application to the door-outer of the Mercedes-Benz C-class Coupé

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Stock, J.; Wied, J.; Wiegand, K.; Carleer, B.

    2016-08-01

    In the stamping of automotive parts, friction and lubrication play a key role in achieving high quality products. In the development process of new automotive parts, it is therefore crucial to accurately account for these effects in sheet metal forming simulations. Only then, one can obtain reliable and realistic simulation results that correspond to the actual try-out and mass production conditions. In this work, the TriboForm software is used to accurately account for tribology-, friction-, and lubrication conditions in stamping simulations. The enhanced stamping simulations are applied and validated for the door-outer of the Mercedes- Benz C-Class Coupe. The project results demonstrate the improved prediction accuracy of stamping simulations with respect to both part quality and actual stamping process conditions.

  13. Aluminium Pneumoconiosis I. In Vitro Comparison of Stamped Aluminium Powders Containing Different Lubricating Agents and a Granular Aluminium Powder

    PubMed Central

    Corrin, B.

    1963-01-01

    The discrepancy in previous reports of the action of aluminium on the lung may be explained by differences between stamped and granular aluminium powders. A stamped powder of the variety causing pulmonary fibrosis showed a brisk reaction with water, but a granular powder was unreactive. This difference is primarily due to the granular particles being covered by inert aluminium oxide, the formation of which is partially prevented in the stamping process by stearine and mineral oil. The reactivity of the flake-like stamped particles is also dependent on their large surface area per unit volume. The appearance of aluminium pneumoconiosis in Britain is explained by the introduction of mineral oil into the stamping industry for, in contrast to stearine, mineral oil permits the powder to react with water. The lung damage is believed to be caused by a soluble form of aluminium. PMID:14072616

  14. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  15. MERCURY IN STAMP SAND DISCHARGES: IMPLICATIONS FOR LAKE SUPERIOR MERCURY CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately a half billion tons of waste rock from the extraction of native copper and silver ores was discharged into the Lake Superior basin. Stamping was the method of choice to recover these metals from the surrounding poor rock. This process created large amounts of extre...

  16. STAMPS: development and verification of swallowing kinematic analysis software.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Chun, Changmook; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Seung Hak; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2017-10-17

    Swallowing impairment is a common complication in various geriatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Swallowing kinematic analysis is essential to quantitatively evaluate the swallowing motion of the oropharyngeal structures. This study aims to develop a novel swallowing kinematic analysis software, called spatio-temporal analyzer for motion and physiologic study (STAMPS), and verify its validity and reliability. STAMPS was developed in MATLAB, which is one of the most popular platforms for biomedical analysis. This software was constructed to acquire, process, and analyze the data of swallowing motion. The target of swallowing structures includes bony structures (hyoid bone, mandible, maxilla, and cervical vertebral bodies), cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoid), soft tissues (larynx and upper esophageal sphincter), and food bolus. Numerous functions are available for the spatiotemporal parameters of the swallowing structures. Testing for validity and reliability was performed in 10 dysphagia patients with diverse etiologies and using the instrumental swallowing model which was designed to mimic the motion of the hyoid bone and the epiglottis. The intra- and inter-rater reliability tests showed excellent agreement for displacement and moderate to excellent agreement for velocity. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the measured and instrumental reference values were nearly 1.00 (P < 0.001) for displacement and velocity. The Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the measurements and the reference values. STAMPS provides precise and reliable kinematic measurements and multiple practical functionalities for spatiotemporal analysis. The software is expected to be useful for researchers who are interested in the swallowing motion analysis.

  17. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  18. Consolidation quality and mechanical performance of stamp formed tailored blanks produced by rapid AFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L. L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2018-05-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. The combination with rapid AFP as blank manufacturing technology can further extend the applicability of stamp forming by allowing rapid lay-up of tailored blanks and offering partial preconsolidation. In an experimental study it is demonstrated that high quality laminates with good flexural strength can be obtained by following this process route. The consolidation of ply-drop regions is demonstrated by flat laminates with a thickness step. The influence of fiber orientations, blank-tooling misalignments and AFP tolerances is investigated.

  19. Development and efficiency assessment of process lubrication for hot forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargin, S.; Artyukh, Viktor; Ignatovich, I.; Dikareva, Varvara

    2017-10-01

    The article considers innovative technologies in testing and production of process lubricants for hot bulk forging. There were developed new compositions of eco-friendly water-graphite process lubricants for hot extrusion and forging. New approaches to efficiency assessment of process lubricants are developed and described in the following article. Laboratory and field results are presented.

  20. 26 CFR 1.451-4 - Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and... Included § 1.451-4 Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and coupons. (a) In general—(1) Subtraction from receipts. If an accrual method taxpayer issues trading stamps or premium coupons with sales, or an...

  1. 26 CFR 1.451-4 - Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and... Included § 1.451-4 Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and coupons. (a) In general—(1) Subtraction from receipts. If an accrual method taxpayer issues trading stamps or premium coupons with sales, or an...

  2. 26 CFR 1.451-4 - Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and... Included § 1.451-4 Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and coupons. (a) In general—(1) Subtraction from receipts. If an accrual method taxpayer issues trading stamps or premium coupons with sales, or an...

  3. 25 CFR 301.1 - Eligibility for use of Government stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for use of Government stamp. 301.1 Section 301.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.1 Eligibility for use of Government stamp. Subject to the...

  4. Impacting Mediators of Change for Physical Activity among Elderly Food Stamp Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Cheryl J.; Williams, Joel E.; Kemper, Karen A.; McGuire, Francis A.; Aybar-Damali, Begum

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team developed and pilot-tested a curriculum, delivered by trained lay educators, to increase self-efficacy for physical activity among elderly food stamp recipients. Curriculum development was guided by a comprehensive literature review. Process evaluation was used to revise the curriculum and to assess lay educator training…

  5. 39. CLOSE UP DETAIL OF THE FEEDER AND STAMP CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. CLOSE UP DETAIL OF THE FEEDER AND STAMP CONNECTION. THE STAMP AN MORTAR BOX ARE ON THE LEFT AND THE FEEDER WITH ITS FEEDER DISK IS ON THE RIGHT. NOTE THE COLLAR ON THE CENTER STAMP STEM (UPPER LEFT CORNER OF THE IMAGE) THAT ACTIVATES THE LEVER IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO. THE COLLAR IS POSITIONED SUCH THAT WHEN THE LEVEL OF THE MATERIAL REACHES A LOW POINT IN THE MORTAR BOX IT PUSHES DOWN ON THE LEVER WHICH IN TURN ACTIVATES THE AUTOMATIC FEEDER DRIVE MECHANISM WHICH THEM DELIVERS ORE INTO THE BACKSIDE OF THE MORTAR BOX. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  6. 19. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERY AUTOMATIC FEEDER, LOOKING EAST. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERY AUTOMATIC FEEDER, LOOKING EAST. THIS IS THE MIDDLE OF THREE FEEDERS, ONE FOR EACH STAMP BATTERY. THE CHUTE (UPPER RIGHT) INTRODUCED THE CRUSHED ORE FROM THE ORE BIN. FLOW WAS CONTROLLED BY A SLIDING DOOR ON THE UPPER LEVEL. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Hydroelastic Oscillations of the Stamp and the Plate, Resting on Pasternak Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.; Christoforova, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The forced oscillations of the elastic fixed stamp and the plate, resting on Pasternak foundation are studied. The oscillations are caused by pressure pulsation in liquid layer between the stamp and the plate. Pasternak model is chosen as an elastic foundation. The laws of the stamp movement, the plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are discovered on the basis of hydroelasticity problem analytical solution. The functions of amplitude deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed, as well as the stamp amplitude-frequency characteristic. The obtained mathematical model allows to investigate the dynamics of hydroelastic interaction of the stamp with the plate, resting on elastic foundation, to define resonance frequencies of the plate and the stamp and corresponding deflections amplitudes, as well as liquid presser amplitudes.

  8. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  9. Can laboratory and pilot recycling trials predict adhesive removal in commercial recycling systems? : results from the USPS environmentally benign stamp project

    Treesearch

    Carl Houtman; Daniel Seiter; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Donald Donermeyer

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp laminates, i.e., face paper, adhesive and siliconized liner, that do not cause difficulties in recycling mills. The criterion for success, and the USPS definition of benignity, is the avoidance of process and product quality hardships when such PSA laminates are...

  10. Hot deformation constitutive equation and processing map of Alloy 690

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Han; Zhang, Songchuang; Ma, Mingjuan; Song, Zhigang

    The hot deformation behavior of alloy 690 was studied in the temperature range of 800-1300 C and strain rate range of 0.1-10 s-1 by hot compression tests in a Gleeble 1500+ thermal mechanical simulator. The results indicated that flow stress of alloy 690 is sensitive to deformation temperature and strain rate and peak stress increases with decreasing of temperature and increasing of strain rate. In addition, the hot deformation parameters of deformation activation were calculated and the apparent activation energy of this alloy is about 300 kJ/mol. The constitutive equation which can be used to relate peak stress to the absolute temperature and strain rate was obtained. It's further found that the processing maps exhibited two domains which are considered as the optimum windows for hot working. The microstructure observations of the specimens deformed in this domain showed the full dynamic recrystallization (DRX) structure. There was a flow instability domain in the processing map where hot working should be avoided.

  11. 16. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE STAMPS. TWO OF THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). STAIRWAY UP IS AT LEFT SIDE. SEE CA-290-43 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. 43. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE STAMPS. TWO OF THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). STAIRWAY UP IS AT LEFT SIDE. SEE CA-290-16 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or bonus...

  14. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or bonus...

  15. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or bonus...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or bonus...

  17. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or bonus...

  18. Comparison of laser regimes for stamp cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radvan, Roxana N.; Dan, Suzana; Popovici, Nicoleta; Striber, J.; Savastru, Dan; Savastru, Roxana

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the laser cleaning regimes applied to colored substrates with various chromatic characteristics, including colored paper and printed paper with different dpi (dots per inch) values. Tests are done under microscope with high precision techniques, using controlled Nd:YAG laser. The wavelength preponderantly used in the experiments is the Nd:YAG fundamental regime (1064 nm). Parallel experiments at 532 nm have been developed on difficult cases, or when the results were not satisfactory with 1064 nm. The main part of the work presents some results on stamp cleaning. Experimental results indicate that cleaning efficiency is correlated with the color of substrate, age of the ink on the stamp, color quality and paper quality.

  19. 49 CFR 179.400-24 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400... of required stamping Specification DOT-113A60W. Design service temperature Minus 423° F. Inner tank...

  20. Influence of preconsolidation on consolidation quality after stamp forming of C/PEEK composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. Currently, expensive autoclave and press consolidation are used to preconsolidate blanks. This study investigates the influence of preconsolidation on final consolidation quality after stamp forming and explores the potential of alternative blank manufacturing methods that could reduce part costs. Blanks were manufactured using various blank manufacturing methods and subsequently were stamp formed. The consolidation quality both before and after stamp forming was compared, where the focus was on void content as the main measure for consolidation quality. The void content was characterized through thickness and density measurements, as well as by microscopy analysis. Results indicate that preconsolidation quality does have an influence on the final consolidation quality. This is due to the severe deconsolidation and limited reconsolidation during stamp forming. Nevertheless, the potential of automated fiber placement and ultrasonic spot welding as alternative blank manufacturing methods was demonstrated.

  1. Hot mill process parameters impacting on hot mill tertiary scale formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Jonathan Ian

    For high end steel applications surface quality is paramount to deliver a suitable product. A major cause of surface quality issues is from the formation of tertiary scale. The scale formation depends on numerous factors such as thermo-mechanical processing routes, chemical composition, thickness and rolls used. This thesis utilises a collection of data mining techniques to better understand the influence of Hot Mill process parameters on scale formation at Port Talbot Hot Strip Mill in South Wales. The dataset to which these data mining techniques were applied was carefully chosen to reduce process variation. There are several main factors that were considered to minimise this variability including time period, grade and gauge investigated. The following data mining techniques were chosen to investigate this dataset: Partial Least Squares (PLS); Logit Analysis; Principle Component Analysis (PCA); Multinomial Logistical Regression (MLR); Adaptive Neuro Inference Fuzzy Systems (ANFIS). The analysis indicated that the most significant variable for scale formation is the temperature entering the finishing mill. If the temperature is controlled on entering the finishing mill scale will not be formed. Values greater than 1070 °C for the average Roughing Mill and above 1050 °C for the average Crop Shear temperature are considered high, with values greater than this increasing the chance of scale formation. As the temperature increases more scale suppression measures are required to limit scale formation, with high temperatures more likely to generate a greater amount of scale even with fully functional scale suppression systems in place. Chemistry is also a significant factor in scale formation, with Phosphorus being the most significant of the chemistry variables. It is recommended that the chemistry specification for Phosphorus be limited to a maximum value of 0.015 % rather than 0.020 % to limit scale formation. Slabs with higher values should be treated with

  2. 41 CFR 109-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 109-25.103 Section 109-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management..., trading stamps, or bonus goods. ...

  3. 41 CFR 109-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 109-25.103 Section 109-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management..., trading stamps, or bonus goods. ...

  4. 41 CFR 109-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 109-25.103 Section 109-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management..., trading stamps, or bonus goods. ...

  5. 41 CFR 109-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 109-25.103 Section 109-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management..., trading stamps, or bonus goods. ...

  6. 41 CFR 109-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 109-25.103 Section 109-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management..., trading stamps, or bonus goods. ...

  7. Spacecraft Trajectory Analysis and Mission Planning Simulation (STAMPS) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puckett, Nancy; Pettinger, Kris; Hallstrom,John; Brownfield, Dana; Blinn, Eric; Williams, Frank; Wiuff, Kelli; McCarty, Steve; Ramirez, Daniel; Lamotte, Nicole; hide

    2014-01-01

    STAMPS simulates either three- or six-degree-of-freedom cases for all spacecraft flight phases using translated HAL flight software or generic GN&C models. Single or multiple trajectories can be simulated for use in optimization and dispersion analysis. It includes math models for the vehicle and environment, and currently features a "C" version of shuttle onboard flight software. The STAMPS software is used for mission planning and analysis within ascent/descent, rendezvous, proximity operations, and navigation flight design areas.

  8. Online aptitude automatic surface quality inspection system for hot rolled strips steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin; Xie, Zhi-jiang; Wang, Xue; Sun, Nan-Nan

    2005-12-01

    Defects on the surface of hot rolled steel strips are main factors to evaluate quality of steel strips, an improved image recognition algorithm are used to extract the feature of Defects on the surface of steel strips. Base on the Machine vision and Artificial Neural Networks, establish a defect recognition method to select defect on the surface of steel strips. Base on these research. A surface inspection system and advanced algorithms for image processing to hot rolled strips is developed. Preparing two different fashion to lighting, adopting line blast vidicon of CCD on the surface steel strips on-line. Opening up capacity-diagnose-system with level the surface of steel strips on line, toward the above and undersurface of steel strips with ferric oxide, injure, stamp etc of defects on the surface to analyze and estimate. Miscarriage of justice and alternate of justice rate not preponderate over 5%.Geting hold of applications on some big enterprises of steel at home. Experiment proved that this measure is feasible and effective.

  9. Discussion of Carbon Emissions for Charging Hot Metal in EAF Steelmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Jiang, Tao; Li, Guang-hui; Guo, Yu-feng

    2017-07-01

    As the cost of hot metal is reduced for iron ore prices are falling in the international market, more and more electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking enterprises use partial hot metal instead of scrap as raw materials to reduce costs and the power consumption. In this paper, carbon emissions based on 1,000 kg molten steel by charging hot metal in EAF steelmaking is studied. Based on the analysis of material and energy balance calculation in EAF, the results show that 146.9, 142.2, 137.0, and 130.8 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 %, while 143.4, 98.5, 65.81, and 31.5 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 % by using gas waste heat utilization (coal gas production) for EAF steelmaking unit process. However, carbon emissions are increased by charging hot metal for the whole blast furnace-electric arc furnace (BF-EAF) steelmaking process. In the condition that the hot metal produced by BF is surplus, as carbon monoxide in gas increased by charging hot metal, the way of coal gas production can be used for waste heat utilization, which reduces carbon emissions in EAF steelmaking unit process.

  10. Hot-crack test for aluminium alloys welds using TIG process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niel, A.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.; Fras, G.

    2010-06-01

    Hot cracking is a critical defect frequently observed during welding of aluminium alloys. In order to better understand the interaction between cracking phenomenon, process parameters, mechanical factors and microstructures resulting from solidification after welding, an original hot-cracking test during welding is developed. According to in-situ observations and post mortem analyses, hot cracking mechanisms are investigated, taking into account the interaction between microstructural parameters, depending on the thermal cycles, and mechanical parameters, depending on geometry and clamping conditions of the samples and on the thermal field on the sample. Finally, a process map indicating the limit between cracking and non-cracking zones according to welding parameters is presented.

  11. 41 CFR 101-25.103-4 - Disposition of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103-4 Section 101-25.103-4 Public Contracts and... materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. (a) Agencies shall, through the lowest appropriate activity, arrange for transfer of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods, without reimbursement in...

  12. 41 CFR 101-25.103-4 - Disposition of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103-4 Section 101-25.103-4 Public Contracts and... materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. (a) Agencies shall, through the lowest appropriate activity, arrange for transfer of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods, without reimbursement in...

  13. 41 CFR 101-25.103-4 - Disposition of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103-4 Section 101-25.103-4 Public Contracts and... materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. (a) Agencies shall, through the lowest appropriate activity, arrange for transfer of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods, without reimbursement in...

  14. 41 CFR 101-25.103-4 - Disposition of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103-4 Section 101-25.103-4 Public Contracts and... materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. (a) Agencies shall, through the lowest appropriate activity, arrange for transfer of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods, without reimbursement in...

  15. 41 CFR 101-25.103-4 - Disposition of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103-4 Section 101-25.103-4 Public Contracts and... materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. (a) Agencies shall, through the lowest appropriate activity, arrange for transfer of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods, without reimbursement in...

  16. 49 CFR 179.200-24 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-24 Stamping. (a) To...

  17. 49 CFR 179.100-20 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-20 Stamping. (a) To...

  18. 27 CFR 479.162 - Stamps authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stamps authorized. 479.162 Section 479.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  19. 27 CFR 479.162 - Stamps authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stamps authorized. 479.162 Section 479.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  20. 27 CFR 479.162 - Stamps authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stamps authorized. 479.162 Section 479.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  1. 27 CFR 479.162 - Stamps authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stamps authorized. 479.162 Section 479.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  2. 27 CFR 479.162 - Stamps authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stamps authorized. 479.162 Section 479.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  3. Teaching Hispanic Culture with Postage Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuessel, Frank

    1984-01-01

    Methods for using postage stamps to their greatest potential in any level Spanish class are outlined, with illustrations and examples provided. Among the subjects that can be addressed through this medium are economics, politics, anthropology, archaeology, history, language and literature, geography, and music. (MSE)

  4. 49 CFR 179.220-25 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-25 Stamping. To certify that the tank...

  5. 49 CFR 179.100-20 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-20 Stamping. (a) To certify that the...

  6. 49 CFR 179.100-20 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-20 Stamping. (a) To certify that the...

  7. 49 CFR 179.100-20 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-20 Stamping. (a) To certify that the...

  8. A rapid co-culture stamping device for studying intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Amin; Shemesh, Jonathan; Farbehi, Nona; Asadnia, Mohsen; Yeoh, Guan Heng; Harvey, Richard P; Nordon, Robert E; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-10-18

    Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two adherent cell lines with well-defined interlacing configurations to study cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate post-stamping cell viability of >95%, the stamping of multiple adherent cell types, and the ability to control the seeded cell density. We also show viability, proliferation and migration of cultured cells, enabling analysis of co-culture boundary conditions on cell fate. We also developed an in-vitro model of endothelial and cardiac stem cell interactions, which are thought to regulate coronary repair after myocardial injury. The stamp is fabricated using microfabrication techniques, is operated with a lab pipettor and uses very low reagent volumes of 20 μl with cell injection efficiency of >70%. This easy-to-use device provides a general strategy for micro-patterning of multiple cell types and will be important for studying cell-cell interactions in a multitude of applications.

  9. A rapid co-culture stamping device for studying intercellular communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Amin; Shemesh, Jonathan; Farbehi, Nona; Asadnia, Mohsen; Yeoh, Guan Heng; Harvey, Richard P.; Nordon, Robert E.; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two adherent cell lines with well-defined interlacing configurations to study cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate post-stamping cell viability of >95%, the stamping of multiple adherent cell types, and the ability to control the seeded cell density. We also show viability, proliferation and migration of cultured cells, enabling analysis of co-culture boundary conditions on cell fate. We also developed an in-vitro model of endothelial and cardiac stem cell interactions, which are thought to regulate coronary repair after myocardial injury. The stamp is fabricated using microfabrication techniques, is operated with a lab pipettor and uses very low reagent volumes of 20 μl with cell injection efficiency of >70%. This easy-to-use device provides a general strategy for micro-patterning of multiple cell types and will be important for studying cell-cell interactions in a multitude of applications.

  10. Using stamping punch force variation for the identification of changes in lubrication and wear mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, B. M.; Pereira, M. P.; Rolfe, B. F.; Doolan, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    The growth in use of Advanced High Strength Steels in the automotive industry for light-weighting and safety has increased the rates of tool wear in sheet metal stamping. This is an issue that adds significant costs to production in terms of manual inspection and part refinishing. To reduce these costs, a tool condition monitoring system is required and a firm understanding of process signal variation must form the foundation for any such monitoring system. Punch force is a stamping process signal that is widely collected by industrial presses and has been linked closely to part quality and tool condition, making it an ideal candidate as a tool condition monitoring signal. In this preliminary investigation, the variation of punch force due to different lubrication conditions and progressive wear are examined. Linking specific punch force signature changes to developing lubrication and wear events is valuable for die wear and stamping condition monitoring. A series of semi-industrial channel forming trials were conducted under different lubrication regimes and progressive die wear. Punch force signatures were captured for each part and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the key Principal Components of the signature data sets. These Principal Components were linked to the evolution of friction conditions over the course of the stroke for the different lubrication regimes and mechanism of galling wear. As a result, variation in punch force signatures were correlated to the current mechanism of wear dominant on the formed part; either abrasion or adhesion, and to changes in lubrication mechanism. The outcomes of this study provide important insights into punch force signature variation, that will provide a foundation for future work into the development of die wear and lubrication monitoring systems for sheet metal stamping.

  11. Closure behavior of spherical void in slab during hot rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rong; Zhang, Jiongming; Wang, Bo

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical properties of steels are heavily deteriorated by voids. The influence of voids on the product quality should be eliminated through rolling processes. The study on the void closure during hot rolling processes is necessary. In present work, the closure behavior of voids at the center of a slab at 800 °C during hot rolling processes has been simulated with a 3D finite element model. The shape of the void and the plastic strain distribution of the slab are obtained by this model. The void decreases along the slab thickness direction and spreads along the rolling direction but hardly changes along the strip width direction. The relationship between closure behavior of voids and the plastic strain at the center of the slab is analyzed. The effects of rolling reduction, slab thickness and roller diameter on the closure behavior of voids are discussed. The larger reduction, thinner slab and larger roller diameter all improve the closure of voids during hot rolling processes. Experimental results of the closure behavior of a void in the slab during hot rolling process mostly agree with the simulation results..

  12. 49 CFR 179.200-24 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-24 Stamping. (a) To certify that the tank...

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-24 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-24 Stamping. (a) To certify that the tank...

  14. 49 CFR 179.220-25 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-25 Stamping. (a) To certify that the tank...

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-24 - Stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-24 Stamping. (a) To certify that the tank...

  16. Hot Deformation Behavior of Hot-Extruded AA7175 Through Hot Torsion Tests.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun

    2018-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.

  17. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yun-Qing; Fan, Tian-Xing; Mou, Jie-Gang; Yu, Wei-Bo; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis.

  18. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yun-qing; Fan, Tian-xing; Mou, Jie-gang; Yu, Wei-bo; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis. PMID:27022235

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103 Section 101-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103 Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus...

  20. 41 CFR 101-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103 Section 101-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103 Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus...

  1. 41 CFR 101-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103 Section 101-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103 Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus...

  2. 41 CFR 101-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103 Section 101-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103 Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus...

  3. 41 CFR 101-25.103 - Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods. 101-25.103 Section 101-25.103 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103 Promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus...

  4. Ultrathin high-resolution flexographic printing using nanoporous stamps

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanha; Sojoudi, Hossein; Zhao, Hangbo; Mariappan, Dhanushkodi; McKinley, Gareth H.; Gleason, Karen K.; Hart, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in ancient times, relief printing, commonly called flexography, has been used to mass-produce artifacts ranging from decorative graphics to printed media. Now, higher-resolution flexography is essential to manufacturing low-cost, large-area printed electronics. However, because of contact-mediated liquid instabilities and spreading, the resolution of flexographic printing using elastomeric stamps is limited to tens of micrometers. We introduce engineered nanoporous microstructures, comprising polymer-coated aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), as a next-generation stamp material. We design and engineer the highly porous microstructures to be wetted by colloidal inks and to transfer a thin layer to a target substrate upon brief contact. We demonstrate printing of diverse micrometer-scale patterns of a variety of functional nanoparticle inks, including Ag, ZnO, WO3, and CdSe/ZnS, onto both rigid and compliant substrates. The printed patterns have highly uniform nanoscale thickness (5 to 50 nm) and match the stamp features with high fidelity (edge roughness, ~0.2 μm). We derive conditions for uniform printing based on nanoscale contact mechanics, characterize printed Ag lines and transparent conductors, and achieve continuous printing at a speed of 0.2 m/s. The latter represents a combination of resolution and throughput that far surpasses industrial printing technologies. PMID:27957542

  5. To Pluto by way of a postage stamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Terrile, Richard J.; Weinstein, Stacy S.

    1994-01-01

    In this time of constrained budgets, the primary question facing planetary explorers is not 'Can we do it?' but 'Can we do it cheaply?' Taunted by words on a postage stamp, a group of mission designers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is struggling to find a cheap way to go to Pluto. Three primary goals were set by the science community: (1) imaging of Pluto and Charon, (2) mapping their surface composition, and (3) characterizing Pluto's atmosphere. The spacecraft will be designed around these primary goals. With the help of the Advanced Technology Insertion (ATI) process $5 million was alloted for two years to shop for lightweight components and subsystems using new technology never tried on a planetary mission. The process for this search and development is described.

  6. Shape optimization of three-dimensional stamped and solid automotive components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botkin, M. E.; Yang, R.-J.; Bennett, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    The shape optimization of realistic, 3-D automotive components is discussed. The integration of the major parts of the total process: modeling, mesh generation, finite element and sensitivity analysis, and optimization are stressed. Stamped components and solid components are treated separately. For stamped parts a highly automated capability was developed. The problem description is based upon a parameterized boundary design element concept for the definition of the geometry. Automatic triangulation and adaptive mesh refinement are used to provide an automated analysis capability which requires only boundary data and takes into account sensitivity of the solution accuracy to boundary shape. For solid components a general extension of the 2-D boundary design element concept has not been achieved. In this case, the parameterized surface shape is provided using a generic modeling concept based upon isoparametric mapping patches which also serves as the mesh generator. Emphasis is placed upon the coupling of optimization with a commercially available finite element program. To do this it is necessary to modularize the program architecture and obtain shape design sensitivities using the material derivative approach so that only boundary solution data is needed.

  7. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  8. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment of the hot conditioning system and process

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1996-10-10

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. A series of analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the proposed Hot Conditioning System and process for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The analyses were performed using a series of thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the Hot Conditioning System. The subject efforts focus on independently investigating, quantifying,more » and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms, flow distributions within the multi-canister overpack, and performing process simulations for various purge gases under consideration for the Hot Conditioning System, as well as obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology- based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the Hot Conditioning System design bases.« less

  9. Using Micro-Molding and Stamping to Fabricate Conductive Polydimethylsiloxane-Based Flexible High-Sensitivity Strain Gauges.

    PubMed

    Han, Chi-Jui; Chiang, Hsuan-Ping; Cheng, Yun-Chien

    2018-02-18

    In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and conductive carbon nanoparticles were combined to fabricate a conductive elastomer PDMS (CPDMS). A high sensitive and flexible CPDMS strain sensor is fabricated by using stamping-process based micro patterning. Compared with conventional sensors, flexible strain sensors are more suitable for medical applications but are usually fabricated by photolithography, which suffers from a large number of steps and difficult mass production. Hence, we fabricated flexible strain sensors using a stamping-process with fewer processes than photolithography. The piezoresistive coefficient and sensitivity of the flexible strain sensor were improved by sensor pattern design and thickness change. Micro-patterning is used to fabricate various CPDMS microstructure patterns. The effect of gauge pattern was evaluated with ANSYS simulations. The piezoresistance of the strain gauges was measured and the gauge factor determined. Experimental results show that the piezoresistive coefficient of CPDMS is approximately linear. Gauge factor measurement results show that the gauge factor of a 140.0 μm thick strain gauge with five grids is the highest.

  10. Stamps Tell the Story of Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Joseph A., Jr.

    This document provides a summary history of the individual scientists principally responsible for the development of nuclear physics and a survey of modern utilization of atomic energy. Identified throughout the booklet are postage stamps illustrating each individual and topic discussed. (SL)

  11. 27 CFR 46.116 - Issuance, distribution, and examination of special tax stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... multiple locations, TTB will send to the taxpayer's principal place of business (or principal office in the... attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t required by § 46.101(b)(2). (b) Distribution of special tax stamps for... for each location listed on the attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t and that the information on each stamp...

  12. 27 CFR 46.116 - Issuance, distribution, and examination of special tax stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... multiple locations, TTB will send to the taxpayer's principal place of business (or principal office in the... attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t required by § 46.101(b)(2). (b) Distribution of special tax stamps for... for each location listed on the attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t and that the information on each stamp...

  13. Kinetic and kinematic analysis of stamping impacts during simulated rucking in rugby union.

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, Bodil Y; Driscoll, Heather F; Dunn, Marcus; James, David

    2018-04-01

    Laceration injuries account for up to 23% of injuries in rugby union. They are frequently caused by studded footwear as a result of a player stamping onto another player during the ruck. Little is known about the kinetics and kinematics of rugby stamping impacts; current test methods assessing laceration injury risk of stud designs therefore lack informed test parameters. In this study, twelve participants stamped on an anthropomorphic test device in a one-on-one simulated ruck setting. Velocity and inclination angle of the foot prior to impact was determined from high-speed video footage. Total stamping force and individual stud force were measured using pressure sensors. Mean foot inbound velocity was 4.3 m ∙ s -1 (range 2.1-6.3 m ∙ s -1 ). Mean peak total force was 1246 N and mean peak stud force was 214 N. The total mean effective mass during stamping was 6.6 kg (range: 1.6-13.5 kg) and stud effective mass was 1.2 kg (range: 0.5-2.9 kg). These results provide representative test parameters for mechanical test devices designed to assess laceration injury risk of studded footwear for rugby union.

  14. A Fully Automated and Robust Method to Incorporate Stamping Data in Crash, NVH and Durability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniswamy, Hariharasudhan; Kanthadai, Narayan; Roy, Subir; Beauchesne, Erwan

    2011-08-01

    Crash, NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness), and durability analysis are commonly deployed in structural CAE analysis for mechanical design of components especially in the automotive industry. Components manufactured by stamping constitute a major portion of the automotive structure. In CAE analysis they are modeled at a nominal state with uniform thickness and no residual stresses and strains. However, in reality the stamped components have non-uniformly distributed thickness and residual stresses and strains resulting from stamping. It is essential to consider the stamping information in CAE analysis to accurately model the behavior of the sheet metal structures under different loading conditions. Especially with the current emphasis on weight reduction by replacing conventional steels with aluminum and advanced high strength steels it is imperative to avoid over design. Considering this growing need in industry, a highly automated and robust method has been integrated within Altair Hyperworks® to initialize sheet metal components in CAE models with stamping data. This paper demonstrates this new feature and the influence of stamping data for a full car frontal crash analysis.

  15. Effect of hot-dip galvanizing processes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 600-MPa hot-dip galvanized dual-phase steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Chun-fu; Zheng, Zhi-wang; Wang, Min-li; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Shen-gen

    2017-12-01

    A C-Mn dual-phase steel was soaked at 800°C for 90 s and then either rapidly cooled to 450°C and held for 30 s (process A) or rapidly cooled to 350°C and then reheated to 450°C (process B) to simulate the hot-dip galvanizing process. The influence of the hot-dip galvanizing process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 600-MPa hot-dip galvanized dual-phase steel (DP600) was investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and tensile tests. The results showed that, in the case of process A, the microstructure of DP600 was composed of ferrite, martensite, and a small amount of bainite. The granular bainite was formed in the hot-dip galvanizing stage, and martensite islands were formed in the final cooling stage after hot-dip galvanizing. By contrast, in the case of process B, the microstructure of the DP600 was composed of ferrite, martensite, bainite, and cementite. In addition, compared with the yield strength (YS) of the DP600 annealed by process A, that for the DP600 annealed by process B increased by approximately 50 MPa because of the tempering of the martensite formed during rapid cooling. The work-hardening coefficient ( n value) of the DP600 steel annealed by process B clearly decreased because the increase of the YS affected the computation result for the n value. However, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation ( A 80) of the DP600 annealed by process B exhibited less variation compared with those of the DP600 annealed by process A. Therefore, DP600 with excellent comprehensive mechanical properties (YS = 362 MPa, UTS = 638 MPa, A 80 = 24.3%, n = 0.17) was obtained via process A.

  16. Modeling and FE Simulation of Quenchable High Strength Steels Sheet Metal Hot Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Bao, Jun; Xing, Zhongwen; Zhang, Dejin; Song, Baoyu; Lei, Chengxi

    2011-08-01

    High strength steel (HSS) sheet metal hot forming process is investigated by means of numerical simulations. With regard to a reliable numerical process design, the knowledge of the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties is essential. In this article, tensile tests are performed to examine the flow stress of the material HSS 22MnB5 at different strains, strain rates, and temperatures. Constitutive model based on phenomenological approach is developed to describe the thermo-mechanical properties of the material 22MnB5 by fitting the experimental data. A 2D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model is developed to simulate the HSS sheet metal hot forming process for U-channel part. The ABAQUS/explicit model is used conduct the hot forming stage simulations, and ABAQUS/implicit model is used for accurately predicting the springback which happens at the end of hot forming stage. Material modeling and FE numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the processing parameters on the hot forming process. The processing parameters have significant influence on the microstructure of U-channel part. The springback after hot forming stage is the main factor impairing the shape precision of hot-formed part. The mechanism of springback is advanced and verified through numerical simulations and tensile loading-unloading tests. Creep strain is found in the tensile loading-unloading test under isothermal condition and has a distinct effect on springback. According to the numerical and experimental results, it can be concluded that springback is mainly caused by different cooling rats and the nonhomogengeous shrink of material during hot forming process, the creep strain is the main factor influencing the amount of the springback.

  17. Modeling and optimization of the hot embossing process for micro- and nanocomponent fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worgull, M.; Heckele, Mathias P.; Hétu, J. F.; Kabanemi, K. K.

    2006-01-01

    Hot embossing and injection molding belong to the established plastic molding processes in microengineering. Based on experimental findings, a variety of microstructures have been replicated using these processes. However, with increasing requirements regarding the embossing surface, and the simultaneous decrease of the structure size down into the nanorange, increasing know-how is needed to adapt hot embossing to industrial standards. To reach this objective, a German-Canadian cooperation project has been launched to study hot embossing theoretically by process simulation and experimentally. The present publication reports on the proceeding and present first results.

  18. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Golden, Shelley D; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted) of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s) (< 1%). However, a substantial minority of cigarette packs had damaged tax stamps (13%). This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser.

  19. Rasch analysis of Stamps's Index of Work Satisfaction in nursing population.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nora; Oranye, Nelson Ositadimma; Danilov, Alyona

    2017-01-01

    One of the most commonly used tools for measuring job satisfaction in nursing is the Stamps Index of Work Satisfaction. Several studies have reported on the reliability of the Stamps' tool based on traditional statistical model. The aim of this study was to apply the Rasch model to examine the adequacy of Stamps's Index of Work Satisfaction for measuring nurses' job satisfaction cross-culturally and to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument using the Rasch criteria. A secondary data analysis was conducted on a sample of 556 registered nurses from two countries. The RUMM 2030 software was used to analyse the psychometric properties of the Index of Work Satisfaction. The persons mean location of -0.018 approximated the items mean of 0.00, suggesting a good alignment of the measure and the traits being measured. However, at the items level, some items were misfiting to the Rasch model.

  20. New method for springback compensation for the stamping of sheet metal components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkert, A.; Hartmann, B.; Straub, M.

    2017-09-01

    The need for car body structures of higher strength and at the same time lower weight results in serious challenges for the stamping process. Especially the use of high strength steel and aluminium sheets is causing growing problems with regard to elastic springback. To produce accurate parts the stamping dies must be adjusted more or less by the amount of the springback in the opposite direction. For this purpose well-known software solutions use the Displacement Adjustment Method or algorithms which are closely based on that method. A crucial issue of this method is that the generated die surfaces deviate from those of the target geometry with regard to surface area. A new Physical Compensation Method has been developed and validated which takes geometrical nonlinearity into account and creates compensated die geometries with equal-in-area die surfaces. In contrast to the standard mathematical/geometrical approach, the adjusted geometry is generated by a physical approach, which makes use of the virtual part stiffness. Hereby the target geometry is being deformed mechanically in a virtual process based on the springback simulation results by applying virtual forces in an additional elastic simulation. By doing so better part dimensions can be obtained in less tool optimization loops.

  1. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, David R.

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are alsomore » useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.« less

  2. 27 CFR 479.87 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of stamp. 479.87 Section 479.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  3. 27 CFR 479.67 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cancellation of stamp. 479.67 Section 479.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  4. 27 CFR 479.67 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cancellation of stamp. 479.67 Section 479.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  5. 27 CFR 479.67 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of stamp. 479.67 Section 479.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  6. 27 CFR 479.67 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cancellation of stamp. 479.67 Section 479.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  7. 27 CFR 479.87 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cancellation of stamp. 479.87 Section 479.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  8. 27 CFR 479.67 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cancellation of stamp. 479.67 Section 479.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  9. 27 CFR 479.87 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cancellation of stamp. 479.87 Section 479.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  10. 27 CFR 479.87 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cancellation of stamp. 479.87 Section 479.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  11. 27 CFR 479.87 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cancellation of stamp. 479.87 Section 479.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  12. Effect of Plastic Hot Deformation on the Hardness and Continuous Cooling Transformations of 22MnB5 Microalloyed Boron Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcellona, A.; Palmeri, D.

    2009-05-01

    The strains, transformation temperatures, microstructure, and microhardness of a microalloyed boron and aluminum precoated steel, which has been isothermally deformed under uniaxial tensile tests, have been investigated at temperatures between 873 and 1223 K, using a fixed strain rate value of 0.08 s-1. The effect of each factor, such as temperature and strain value, has been later valued considering the shift generated on the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram. The experimental results consist of the starting temperatures that occur for each transformation, the microhardness values, and the obtained microstructure at the end of each thermomechanical treatment. All the thermomechanical treatments were performed using the thermomechanical simulator Gleeble 1500. The results showed that increasing hot prestrain (HPS) values generate, at the same cooling rate, lower hardness values; this means that the increasing of HPS generates a shift of the CCT diagram toward a lower starting time for each transformation. Therefore, high values of hot deformations during the hot stamping process require a strict control of the cooling process in order to ensure cooling rate values that allow maintaining good mechanical component characteristics. This phenomenon is amplified when the prestrain occurs at lower temperatures, and thus, it is very sensitive to the temperature level.

  13. Imaging-based optical caliper for objects in hot manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Howard

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), in conjunction with its industrial and academic partners, proposes to develop an Imaging-Based Optical Caliper (hereafter referred to as OC) for Objects in Hot Manufacturing Processes. The goal is to develop and demonstrate the OC with the synergy of OGT's current technological pool and other innovations to provide a light weight, robust, safe and accurate portable dimensional measurement device for hot objects with integrated wireless communication capacity to enable real time process control. The technical areas of interest in this project are the combination of advanced imaging, Sensor Fusion, and process control. OGT believes that themore » synergistic interactions between its current set of technologies and other innovations could deliver products that are viable and have high impact in the hot manufacture processes, such as steel making, steel rolling, open die forging, and glass industries, resulting in a new energy efficient control paradigm in the operations through improved yield, prolonged tool life and improved quality. In-line dimension measurement and control is of interest to the steel makers, yet current industry focus is on the final product dimension only instead of whole process due to the limit of man power, system cost and operator safety concerns. As sensor technologies advances, the industry started to see the need to enforce better dimensional control throughout the process, but lack the proper tools to do so. OGT along with its industrial partners represent the indigenous effort of technological development to serve the US steel industry. The immediate market that can use and get benefited from the proposed OC is the Steel Industry. The deployment of the OC has the potential to provide benefits in reduction of energy waste, CO2 emission, waste water amount, toxic waste, and so forth. The potential market after further expended function includes Hot Forging and Freight Industries. The OC prototypes were

  14. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems.

  15. Safety Guided Design Based on Stamp/STPA for Manned Vehicle in Concept Design Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, Ryo; Katahira, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Yuko; Umeda, Hiroki; Leveson, Nancy; Hoshino, Nobuyuki

    2013-09-01

    In manned vehicles, such as the Soyuz and the Space Shuttle, the crew and computer system cooperate to succeed in returning to the earth. While computers increase the functionality of system, they also increase the complexity of the interaction between the controllers (human and computer) and the target dynamics. In some cases, the complexity can produce a serious accident. To prevent such losses, traditional hazard analysis such as FTA has been applied to system development, however it can be used after creating a detailed system because it focuses on detailed component failures. As a result, it's more difficult to eliminate hazard cause early in the process when it is most feasible.STAMP/STPA is a new hazard analysis that can be applied from the early development phase, with the analysis being refined as more detailed decisions are made. In essence, the analysis and design decisions are intertwined and go hand-in-hand. We have applied STAMP/STPA to a concept design of a new JAXA manned vehicle and tried safety guided design of the vehicle. As a result of this trial, it has been shown that STAMP/STPA can be accepted easily by system engineers and the design has been made more sophisticated from a safety viewpoint. The result also shows that the consequences of human errors on system safety can be analysed in the early development phase and the system designed to prevent them. Finally, the paper will discuss an effective way to harmonize this safety guided design approach with system engineering process based on the result of this experience in this project.

  16. ELID grinding characteristics of large stamping die for Wolter mirror.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shaohui; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Liu, Qing; Morita, Shinnya; Chen, Fengjun; Asami, Muneaki; Fan, Yufeng

    2009-01-01

    An ultra-precision ELID grinding of large stamping dies of Wolter mirror for X-ray telescope was presented in this paper. The large stamping dies (S55C) with confocal paraboloid and hyperboloid was ground by ELID arc-enveloped grinding. In this ELID grinding system, cast iron fiber bonded (CIFB) diamond wheels were controlled by 3-dimentional ways to scan the work-piece and generate required surfaces. Its grinding characteristics such as attainable form accuracy, surface roughness were investigated. Furthermore, some measures to improve form accuracy were discussed and verified such as truing, compensating, and on-machine measuring.

  17. Laser Hot Wire Process: A Novel Process for Near-Net Shape Fabrication for High-Throughput Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottman, Michael; Zhang, Shenjia; McGuffin-Cawley, James; Denney, Paul; Narayanan, Badri K.

    2015-03-01

    The laser hot wire process has gained considerable interest for additive manufacturing applications, leveraging its high deposition rate, low dilution, thermal stability, and general metallurgical control including the ability to introduce and preserve desired meta-stable phases. Recent advancements in closed-loop process control and laser technology have increased productivity, process stability, and control of deposit metallurgy. The laser hot wire process has shown success in several applications: repairing and rejuvenating casting dies, depositing a variety of alloys including abrasion wear-resistant overlays with solid and tubular wires, and producing low-dilution (<5%) nickel alloy overlays for corrosion applications. The feasibility of fabricating titanium buildups is being assessed for aerospace applications.

  18. STAMP-Based HRA Considering Causality Within a Sociotechnical System: A Case of Minuteman III Missile Accident.

    PubMed

    Rong, Hao; Tian, Jin

    2015-05-01

    The study contributes to human reliability analysis (HRA) by proposing a method that focuses more on human error causality within a sociotechnical system, illustrating its rationality and feasibility by using a case of the Minuteman (MM) III missile accident. Due to the complexity and dynamics within a sociotechnical system, previous analyses of accidents involving human and organizational factors clearly demonstrated that the methods using a sequential accident model are inadequate to analyze human error within a sociotechnical system. System-theoretic accident model and processes (STAMP) was used to develop a universal framework of human error causal analysis. To elaborate the causal relationships and demonstrate the dynamics of human error, system dynamics (SD) modeling was conducted based on the framework. A total of 41 contributing factors, categorized into four types of human error, were identified through the STAMP-based analysis. All factors are related to a broad view of sociotechnical systems, and more comprehensive than the causation presented in the accident investigation report issued officially. Recommendations regarding both technical and managerial improvement for a lower risk of the accident are proposed. The interests of an interdisciplinary approach provide complementary support between system safety and human factors. The integrated method based on STAMP and SD model contributes to HRA effectively. The proposed method will be beneficial to HRA, risk assessment, and control of the MM III operating process, as well as other sociotechnical systems. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  19. Real-time monitoring of the laser hot-wire welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Ma, Junjie; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-04-01

    The laser hot-wire welding process was investigated in this work. The dynamics of the molten pool during welding was visualized by using a high-speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted by a green laser as an illumination source. It was found that the molten pool is formed by the irradiation of the laser beam on the filler wire. The effect of the hot-wire voltage on the stability of the welding process was monitored by using a spectrometer that captured the emission spectrum of the laser-induced plasma plume. The spectroscopic study showed that when the hot-wire voltage is above 9 V a great deal of spatters occur, resulting in the instability of the plasma plume and the welding process. The effect of spatters on the plasma plume was shown by the identified spectral lines of the element Mn I. The correlation between the Fe I electron temperature and the weld-bead shape was studied. It was noted that the electron temperature of the plasma plume can be used to real-time monitor the variation of the weld-bead features and the formation of the weld defects.

  20. Effects on response rates and costs of stamps vs business reply in a mail survey of physicians.

    PubMed

    Urban, N; Anderson, G L; Tseng, A

    1993-05-01

    In the general population, the use of stamps rather than business reply postage significantly improves response rates in mail surveys. Among physicians, however, a smaller effect might be anticipated due to their greater sophistication. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that stamps would improve response rates and lower costs in a physician survey that included intensive follow up. In 1989, 380 physicians who reported providing primary care were surveyed. The protocol included two mailings, a postcard reminder, and two telephone reminders. Physicians were randomly assigned to receive a return envelope with a first-class stamp or an envelope that had been preprinted "business reply mail" in the first and second mailings. Response rates, calculated as completed surveys divided by eligible physicians, were 83.8 and 72.1% for stamps and business reply respectively, a difference of 11.7 percentage points (p < 0.01). Moreover, the total cost per completed survey was $11.18 for the physicians receiving stamps and $14.25 for the physicians receiving business reply. As in mail surveys of the general public, the use of first-class stamps on return envelopes both improves response rates and reduces cost in surveys of physicians.

  1. The Process of Thinking among Junior High School Students in Solving HOTS Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakry, Md Nor Bin Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) is one of the important aspect of teaching and learning mathematics. By using HOTS, student will be able to acquire a deep understand of mathematical concepts and can be applied in real life. Students ability to develop the capacity of the HOTS is closely related with thinking processes while solving mathematics…

  2. Do postage stamps versus pre-paid envelopes increase responses to patient mail surveys? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Katrina; Todd, Chris; Campbell, Malcolm

    2008-05-28

    Studies largely from the market research field suggest that the inclusion of a stamped addressed envelope, rather than a pre-paid business reply, increases the response rate to mail surveys. The evidence that this is also the case regarding patient mail surveys is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate whether stamped addressed envelopes increase response rates to patient mail surveys compared to pre-paid business reply envelopes and compare the relative costs. A sample of 477 initial non-responders to a mail survey of patients attending breast clinics in Greater Manchester between 1/10/2002 - 31/7/2003 were entered into the trial: 239 were randomly allocated to receive a stamped envelope and 238 to receive a pre-paid envelope in with their reminder surveys. Overall cost and per item returned were calculated. The response to the stamped envelope group was 31.8% (95% CI: 25.9% - 37.7%) compared to 26.9% (21.3% - 32.5%) for the pre-paid group. The difference (4.9% 95% CI: -3.3% - 13.1%) is not significant at alpha = 0.05 (chi2 = 1.39; 2 tailed test, d.f. = 1; P = 0.239). The stamped envelopes were cheaper in terms of cost per returned item (1.20 pounds) than the pre-paid envelopes (1.67 pounds). However if the set up cost for the licence to use the pre-paid service is excluded, the cost of the stamped envelopes is more expensive than pre-paid returns (1.20 pounds versus 0.73 pounds). Compared with pre-paid business replies, stamped envelopes did not produce a statistically significant increase in response rate to this patient survey. However, the response gain of the stamped strategy (4.9%) is similar to that demonstrated in a Cochrane review (5.3%) of strategies to increase response to general mail surveys. Further studies and meta analyses of patient responses to mail surveys via stamped versus pre-paid envelopes are needed with sufficient power to detect response gains of this magnitude in a patient population.

  3. Self-supporting hydrogel stamps for the microcontact printing of proteins.

    PubMed

    Coq, Naïs; van Bommel, Ties; Hikmet, Rifat A; Stapert, Hendrik R; Dittmer, Wendy U

    2007-04-24

    In this work we explore a new hydrogel stamp material obtained from polymerizing 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate in the presence of water for the microcontact printing of proteins directly on gold substrates and by covalent coupling to self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols. At high cross-link density, the hydrogel is rigid, hydrophilic, and with a high buffer holding capacity to enable the unsupported printing of protein patterns homogeneously and reproducibly, with micrometer-range precision. The stamps were used to print antibodies to human parathyroid hormone, which were shown using immunoassay tests to retain their biological function with binding capacities comparable to those of solution-adsorbed antibodies.

  4. Study of Theories about Myopia Progression (STAMP) Design and Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, David A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Zadnik, Karla

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Study of Theories about Myopia Progression (STAMP) is a two-year, double-masked, randomized clinical trial of myopic children 6 to 11 years old. STAMP will evaluate the one-year effect of progressive addition lenses (PALs) compared to single vision lenses (SVLs) on central refraction, peripheral refraction in four quadrants, and accommodative response and convergence. STAMP will also evaluate any changes one year after discontinuing PALs. Baseline characteristics of enrolled children are reported. Methods Eligible children had a high accommodative lag and either: (1) low myopia (less myopic than −2.25 D spherical equivalent) or (2) high myopia (more myopic that −2.25 D spherical equivalent) and esophoria at near. Children were randomly assigned to wear either PALs or SVLs for one year to determine the difference in myopia progression in the PAL group relative to the SVL group. All children will then wear SVLs for the second year to evaluate the permanence of any treatment effect. Complete ocular biometric data are collected at six-month intervals. Results Over 17 months, 192 children were screened, and 85 (44%) were eligible and enrolled. Of these 85 children, 44 (52%) were female, and 54 (64%) were esophoric at near. The mean age (± SD) was 9.8 ± 1.3 years. The right eye mean cycloplegic spherical equivalent refractive error was −1.95 ± 0.78 D. Horizontal relative peripheral hyperopia (30° nasal retina +0.56 ± 0.59 D; 30° temporal retina +0.61 ± 0.77 D) and vertical relative peripheral myopia (30° superior retina −0.36 ± 0.92 D; 20° inferior retina −0.48 ± 0.83 D) were found. Conclusions The baseline data for STAMP are reported. Asymmetry between vertical and horizontal meridian relative peripheral refraction was found. STAMP will utilize the ocular biometric changes associated with the PAL-treatment effect to attempt to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the treatment effect. PMID:20935586

  5. Pixel Palette: Put Your Stamp on It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project used in a senior information design class where the students created their own self-portraits on rubber stamps through the use of Photoshop and QuarkXPress. Explains that the students learned about the difference between line art and continuous tone images as well as the effects of printing ink and papers. (CMK)

  6. Hot compression process for making edge seals for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Dunyak, Thomas J.; Granata, Jr., Samuel J.

    1994-01-01

    A hot compression process for forming integral edge seals in anode and cade assemblies wherein the assemblies are made to a nominal size larger than a finished size, beads of AFLAS are applied to a band adjacent the peripheral margins on both sides of the assemblies, the assemblies are placed in a hot press and compressed for about five minutes with a force sufficient to permeate the peripheral margins with the AFLAS, cooled and cut to finished size.

  7. Hot Forging of a Cladded Component by Automated GMAW Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, Muhammad; Langlois, Laurent; Bigot, Régis

    2011-01-01

    Weld cladding is employed to improve the service life of engineering components by increasing corrosion and wear resistance and reducing the cost. The acceptable multi-bead cladding layer depends on single bead geometry. Hence, in first step, the relationship between input process parameters and the single bead geometry is studied and in second step a comprehensive study on multi bead clad layer deposition is carried out. This paper highlights an experimental study carried out to get single layer cladding deposited by automated Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process and to find the possibility of hot forming of the cladded work piece to get the final hot formed improved structure. GMAW is an arc welding process that uses an arc between a consumable electrode and the welding pool with an external shielding gas and the cladding is done by alongside deposition of weld beads. The experiments for single bead were conducted by varying the three main process parameters wire feed rate, arc voltage and welding speed while keeping other parameters like nozzle to work distance, shielding gas and its flow rate and torch angle constant. The effect of bead spacing and torch orientation on the cladding quality of single layer from the results of single bead deposition was studied. Effect of the dilution rate and nominal energy on the cladded layer hot bending quality was also performed at different temperatures.

  8. Tribological behavior of a new green industrial lubricant for stamping operations - Application to Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteri, A.; Borgeot, M.; Roizard, X.; Lallemand, F.; Melot, J.-M.; Morand, L.

    2016-11-01

    Thanks to a fruitful collaboration between different academic and industrial research entities, a new green lubricant solution AFULudine has been developed for stamping operations in substitution to the usual mineral oils, with the idea and the wish to combine different essential properties such as a low environmental impact and ease-of-use according to the market needs and the more and more restrictive environmental legislation (e.g. REACH). Based on the Self-Assembled-Monolayer (SAM) principle and so, on a perfect control of the chemical reaction between the solution and the substrate (grafting of molecules onto the surface), AFULudine offers an efficient technical answer for improving stamping processes. The present study, focused on stainless steel stampings (comparison between a 441-1.4509 grade and a 304-1.4301 grade), investigates the performances of this new green industrial lubricant at different levels: from laboratory tests to industrial conditions through the production of hundreds of parts. Additional results coming from tests made on a rotational pin- on-disk tribometer will allow us to appreciate and retrieve more local information about the tribofilm creation during sliding. Moreover, the comparison with different mineral oils currently used at industrial scale, will strengthen the AFULudine performances. Indeed, this new solution usually outperforms a majority of such oils whatever their viscosity and their own composition: formulation, content of extreme pressure additives (Cl, S, P)...

  9. ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111679. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 27 CFR 479.161 - National Firearms Act stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true National Firearms Act stamps. 479.161 Section 479.161 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  11. 27 CFR 479.161 - National Firearms Act stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false National Firearms Act stamps. 479.161 Section 479.161 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  12. 27 CFR 479.161 - National Firearms Act stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National Firearms Act stamps. 479.161 Section 479.161 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  13. 27 CFR 479.161 - National Firearms Act stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Firearms Act stamps. 479.161 Section 479.161 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  14. 27 CFR 479.161 - National Firearms Act stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true National Firearms Act stamps. 479.161 Section 479.161 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  15. 75 FR 11913 - Chrysler, LLC, Sterling Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC, Sterling... stampings. New information shows that workers leased from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC were... workers leased from Caravan Knight Facilities [[Page 11914

  16. 46 CFR 52.01-140 - Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). 52.01-140 Section 52.01-140 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-140 Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). (a) All boilers built in...

  17. 46 CFR 52.01-140 - Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). 52.01-140 Section 52.01-140 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-140 Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). (a) All boilers built in...

  18. 46 CFR 52.01-140 - Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). 52.01-140 Section 52.01-140 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-140 Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). (a) All boilers built in...

  19. 46 CFR 52.01-140 - Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). 52.01-140 Section 52.01-140 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-140 Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). (a) All boilers built in...

  20. 46 CFR 52.01-140 - Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). 52.01-140 Section 52.01-140 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-140 Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113). (a) All boilers built in...

  1. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1 hour of mechanical vibration with 20 µm displacement at a frequency of 4 Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5 days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells were determined after 1 hour mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6 hours of post incubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduce DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. PMID:23994170

  2. 27 CFR 479.163 - Reuse of stamps prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reuse of stamps prohibited. 479.163 Section 479.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  3. 27 CFR 479.163 - Reuse of stamps prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of stamps prohibited. 479.163 Section 479.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  4. 27 CFR 479.163 - Reuse of stamps prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reuse of stamps prohibited. 479.163 Section 479.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  5. 27 CFR 479.163 - Reuse of stamps prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reuse of stamps prohibited. 479.163 Section 479.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  6. 27 CFR 479.163 - Reuse of stamps prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reuse of stamps prohibited. 479.163 Section 479.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  7. Internet-Based Training to Improve Preschool Playground Safety: Evaluation of the Stamp-in-Safety Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwebel, David C.; Pennefather, Jordan; Marquez, Brion; Marquez, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Playground injuries result in over 200,000 US pediatric emergency department visits annually. One strategy to reduce injuries is improved adult supervision. The Stamp-in-Safety programme, which involves supervisors stamping rewards for children playing safely, has been demonstrated in preliminary classroom-based work to reduce child…

  8. 49 CFR 238.119 - Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... input to the wheel during braking. (b) A rim-stamped straight-plate wheel shall not be used as a... that is periodically tread-braked for a short duration by automatic circuitry for the sole purpose of...

  9. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    PubMed Central

    Refatul Haq, Muhammad; Kim, Youngkyu; Kim, Jun; Oh, Pyoung-hwa; Ju, Jonghyun; Kim, Seok-Min; Lim, Jiseok

    2017-01-01

    This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC) stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated. PMID:29286341

  10. Transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes onto a polymeric substrate using a hot embossing technique for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A; Roy, S S; McLaughlin, J A

    2010-07-06

    We explored the hot embossing method for transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into microfluidic channels, fabricated on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Patterned and unpatterned CNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on silicon to work as a stamp. For hot embossing, 115 degrees C and 1 kN force for 2 min were found to be the most suitable parameters for the complete transfer of aligned CNTs on the PMMA microchannel. Raman and SEM studies were used to analyse the microstructure of CNTs before and after hot embossing. The PMMA microparticles with dimensions (approx. 10 microm in diameter) similar to red blood cells were successfully filtered using laminar flow through these microfluidic channels. Finally, a microfluidic-based point-of-care device for blood filtration and detection of bio-molecules is drawn schematically.

  11. Transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes onto a polymeric substrate using a hot embossing technique for microfluidic applications

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, A.; Roy, S. S.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the hot embossing method for transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into microfluidic channels, fabricated on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Patterned and unpatterned CNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on silicon to work as a stamp. For hot embossing, 115°C and 1 kN force for 2 min were found to be the most suitable parameters for the complete transfer of aligned CNTs on the PMMA microchannel. Raman and SEM studies were used to analyse the microstructure of CNTs before and after hot embossing. The PMMA microparticles with dimensions (approx. 10 µm in diameter) similar to red blood cells were successfully filtered using laminar flow through these microfluidic channels. Finally, a microfluidic-based point-of-care device for blood filtration and detection of bio-molecules is drawn schematically. PMID:20147316

  12. Postage Stamps as Pedagogical Instruments in the Italian Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuessel, Frank; Cicogna, Caterina

    1992-01-01

    Examination of several interrelated topics on postage stamps, including their multiple functions and significance as semiotic artifacts, precedes suggestions for incorporating them into the Italian language curriculum in such activities as reading, writing, speaking, listening, and cultural understanding. (CB)

  13. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP withinmore » INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.« less

  14. Should Canadian health promoters support a food stamp-style program to address food insecurity?

    PubMed

    Power, Elaine M; Little, Margaret H; Collins, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    Food insecurity is an urgent public health problem in Canada, affecting 4 million Canadians in 2012, including 1.15 million children, and associated with significant health concerns. With little political will to address this significant policy issue, it has been suggested that perhaps it is time for Canada to try a food stamp-style program. Such a program could reduce rates of food insecurity and improve the nutritional health of low-income Canadians. In this article, we explore the history of the US food stamp program; the key impetus of which was to support farmers and agricultural interests, not to look after the needs of people living in poverty. Though the US program has moved away from its roots, its history has had a lasting legacy, cementing an understanding of the problem as one of lack of food, not lack of income. While the contemporary food stamp program, now called Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), reduces rates of poverty and food insecurity, food insecurity rates in the USA are significantly higher than those in Canada, suggesting a food stamp-style program per se will not eliminate the problem of food insecurity. Moreover, a food stamp-style program is inherently paternalistic and would create harm by reducing the autonomy of participants and generating stigma, which in itself has adverse health effects. Consequently, it is ethically problematic for health promoters to advocate for such a program, even if it could improve diet quality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  16. 164. Photocopied July 1978. VIEW OF STEAMTURBINE BUILDING AT STAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    164. Photocopied July 1978. VIEW OF STEAM-TURBINE BUILDING AT STAMP MILL. BUILDING CONSTRUCTED IN 1921 TO USE EXHAUST STEAM TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY. C. 1925. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  17. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Forming Quality of C-Shaped Thermosetting Composite Laminates in Hot Diaphragm Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, X. X.; Gu, Y. Z.; Sun, J.; Li, M.; Liu, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of processing temperature and vacuum applying rate on the forming quality of C-shaped carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite laminates during hot diaphragm forming process were investigated. C-shaped prepreg preforms were produced using a home-made hot diaphragm forming equipment. The thickness variations of the preforms and the manufacturing defects after diaphragm forming process, including fiber wrinkling and voids, were evaluated to understand the forming mechanism. Furthermore, both interlaminar slipping friction and compaction behavior of the prepreg stacks were experimentally analyzed for showing the importance of the processing parameters. In addition, autoclave processing was used to cure the C-shaped preforms to investigate the changes of the defects before and after cure process. The results show that the C-shaped prepreg preforms with good forming quality can be achieved through increasing processing temperature and reducing vacuum applying rate, which obviously promote prepreg interlaminar slipping process. The process temperature and forming rate in hot diaphragm forming process strongly influence prepreg interply frictional force, and the maximum interlaminar frictional force can be taken as a key parameter for processing parameter optimization. Autoclave process is effective in eliminating voids in the preforms and can alleviate fiber wrinkles to a certain extent.

  18. Summaries of press automation conference presented

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlin, A. Y.; Pokrovskaya, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    The automation and mechanization of cold and hot stamping were discussed. Problems in the comprehensive mechanization and automatio of stamping in machine building development were examined. Automation becomes effective when it is implemented in progressive manufacturing processes and a comprehensive approach to the solution of all problems, beginning with the delivery of initial materials and ending with the transportation of finished products to the warehouse. Production intensification and improvments of effectiveness of produced output through the comprehensive mechanization and automation of stamping operations are reported.

  19. Whom Shall We Put on the Postage Stamps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the emergence of "notables" within the disciplines of the modern university, the foremost among whom may be selected to appear on postage stamps. Noting that disciplinary culture is as important as content in university education, we suggest that some knowledge of the identity of these notables, passed on by encultured tutors, should…

  20. Towards the damage evaluation using Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model for hot forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Muhammad; Bambach, Markus

    2018-05-01

    In the production of semi-finished metal products, hot forming is used to eliminate the pores and voids from the casting process under compressive stresses and to modify the microstructure for further processing. In the case of caliber and flat rolling processes, tensile stresses occur at certain roll gap ratios which promote pore formation on nonmetallic inclusion. The formation of new pores contributes to ductile damage and reduces the load carrying capacity of the material. In the literature, the damage nucleation and growth during the hot forming process are not comprehensively described. The aim of this study is to understand the damage initiation and growth mechanism during hot forming processes. Hot tensile tests are performed at different temperatures and strain rates for 16MnCrS5 steel. To investigate the influence of geometrical variations on the damage mechanism, specimens with different stress triaxiality ratios are used. Finite element simulations using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model are performed to estimate the critical void fraction for the damage initiation and the evolution of the void volume fraction. The results showed that the GTN model underestimates the softening of the material due to the independence of the temperature and the strain rate.

  1. Novel Real-Time Temperature Diagnosis of Conventional Hot-Embossing Process Using an Ultrasonic Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated high temperature ultrasonic transducer (HTUT) on a sensor insert and its application for real-time diagnostics of the conventional hot embossing process to fabricate V-cut patterns. The sensor was directly deposited onto the sensor insert of the hot embossing mold by using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperatures higher than 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The ultrasonic velocity could indicate the three statuses of the hot embossing process and also evaluate the replication of V-cut patterns on a plastic plate under various processing conditions. The progression of the process, including mold closure, plastic plate softening, cooling and plate detachment inside the mold, was clearly observed using ultrasound. For an ultrasonic velocity range from 2197.4 to 2435.9 m/s, the height of the V-cut pattern decreased from 23.0 to 3.2 μm linearly, with a ratio of −0.078 μm/(m/s). The incompleteness of the replication of the V-cut patterns could be indirectly observed by the ultrasonic signals. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensors and technology for diagnosing the replicating condition of microstructures during the conventional hot embossing process. PMID:25330051

  2. 47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. 22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-47 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. The Ph.D. Now Comes with Food Stamps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    A record number of people are depending on federally financed food assistance. Food-stamp use increased from an average monthly caseload of 17 million in 2000 to 44 million people in 2011, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Web site. Last year, one in six people--almost 50 million Americans, or 15 percent of the population--received…

  5. The effects of polymers' visco-elastoplastic properties on the micro cavities filling step of hot embossing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gang; Barrière, Thierry

    2018-05-01

    The hot embossing process has been widely used in the manufacturing of polymer components, especially for the fabrication of micro or nano components. The significant advantage of the hot embossing process compared to the traditional injection moulding process is the excellent effective filling ratio for the high aspect ratio components and large surface structural components. The lack of material behavior modeling and numerical simulation limits the further development the hot embossing process, especially at the micro and nano scales. In this paper, a visco-elastoplastic behavior law has been proposed to describe the amorphous thermoplastic polymer mechanical properties in the hot embossing processing temperature range, which is lightly above their glass transition temperature. Uniaxial compression tests have been carried out in order to investigate the amorphous thermoplastic polymers properties. The material parameters in the visco-elastoplastic model have been identified according to the experimental results. A 3D numerical model has been created in the simulation software, which is based on the finite element method. The numerical simulation of the filling step of the hot embossing process has been effectuated by taking into account the viscous, elastic and plastic behaviors of thermoplastic polymers. The micro hot embossing process has been carried out using horizontal injection compression moulding equipment. A complete compression mould tool, equipped with the heating system, the cooling system, the ejection system and the vacuum system, has been designed and elaborated for this research work. The microfluidic devices based on the amorphous thermoplastic polymers have been successfully elaborated by hot embossing process. Proper agreement between the numerical simulation and the experimental elaboration has been obtained.

  6. Hot topics: Signal processing in acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaumond, Charles F.

    2005-09-01

    Signal processing in acoustics is a multidisciplinary group of people that work in many areas of acoustics. We have chosen two areas that have shown exciting new applications of signal processing to acoustics or have shown exciting and important results from the use of signal processing. In this session, two hot topics are shown: the use of noiselike acoustic fields to determine sound propagation structure and the use of localization to determine animal behaviors. The first topic shows the application of correlation on geo-acoustic fields to determine the Greens function for propagation through the Earth. These results can then be further used to solve geo-acoustic inverse problems. The first topic also shows the application of correlation using oceanic noise fields to determine the Greens function through the ocean. These results also have utility for oceanic inverse problems. The second topic shows exciting results from the detection, localization, and tracking of marine mammals by two different groups. Results from detection and localization of bullfrogs are shown, too. Each of these studies contributed to the knowledge of animal behavior. [Work supported by ONR.

  7. 48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-24 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. 24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. 11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near the Minnesota end of the bridge - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  10. Safety Guided Design of Crew Return Vehicle in Concept Design Phase Using STAMP/STPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, H.; Katahira, M.; Miyamoto, Y.; Leveson, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the concept development and design phase of a new space system, such as a Crew Vehicle, designers tend to focus on how to implement new technology. Designers also consider the difficulty of using the new technology and trade off several system design candidates. Then they choose an optimal design from the candidates. Safety should be a key aspect driving optimal concept design. However, in past concept design activities, safety analysis such as FTA has not used to drive the design because such analysis techniques focus on component failure and component failure cannot be considered in the concept design phase. The solution to these problems is to apply a new hazard analysis technique, called STAMP/STPA. STAMP/STPA defines safety as a control problem rather than a failure problem and identifies hazardous scenarios and their causes. Defining control flow is the essential in concept design phase. Therefore STAMP/STPA could be a useful tool to assess the safety of system candidates and to be part of the rationale for choosing a design as the baseline of the system. In this paper, we explain our case study of safety guided concept design using STPA, the new hazard analysis technique, and model-based specification technique on Crew Return Vehicle design and evaluate benefits of using STAMP/STPA in concept development phase.

  11. Does the Timing of Food Stamp Distribution Matter? A Panel-Data Analysis of Monthly Purchasing Patterns of US Households.

    PubMed

    Castellari, Elena; Cotti, Chad; Gordanier, John; Ozturk, Orgul

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the timing of food stamp receipt and purchasing patterns. We combine data on state distribution dates of food stamps with scanner data on a panel of households purchases tracked between 2004 and 2011. We find that purchases of a variety of goods are meaningfully higher on receipt days, consistent with previous work that suggests that recipients are very impatient. Additionally, and importantly, estimates indicate that when food stamp receipt days fall on weekends, total monthly purchases within the same households are affected. In particular, monthly purchases of beer are higher when food stamps are distributed on a weekend rather than in months where benefits are distributed on weekdays. For these households, total beer purchases are between 4 and 5% higher in those months. Among households ineligible for food stamps, no effect is identified. These results demonstrate that the 'day-of-the-week' of SNAP treatment may have important impacts on household purchase habits. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Image Subtraction Reduction of Open Clusters M35 & NGC 2158 in the K2 Campaign 0 Super Stamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Furtado, M.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Huang, C. X.; Penev, K.; Bhatti, W.

    2017-04-01

    We observed the open clusters M35 and NGC 2158 during the initial K2 campaign (C0). Reducing these data to high-precision photometric timeseries is challenging due to the wide point-spread function (PSF) and the blending of stellar light in such dense regions. We developed an image-subtraction-based K2 reduction pipeline that is applicable to both crowded and sparse stellar fields. We applied our pipeline to the data-rich C0 K2 super stamp, containing the two open clusters, as well as to the neighboring postage stamps. In this paper, we present our image subtraction reduction pipeline and demonstrate that this technique achieves ultra-high photometric precision for sources in the C0 super stamp. We extract the raw light curves of 3960 stars taken from the UCAC4 and EPIC catalogs and de-trend them for systematic effects. We compare our photometric results with the prior reductions published in the literature. For de-trended TFA-corrected sources in the 12-12.25 {{{K}}}{{p}} magnitude range, we achieve a best 6.5-hour window running rms of 35 ppm, falling to 100 ppm for fainter stars in the 14-14.25 {{{K}}}{{p}} magnitude range. For stars with {K}p> 14, our de-trended and 6.5-hour binned light curves achieve the highest photometric precision. Moreover, all our TFA-corrected sources have higher precision on all timescales investigated. This work represents the first published image subtraction analysis of a K2 super stamp. This method will be particularly useful for analyzing the Galactic bulge observations carried out during K2 campaign 9. The raw light curves and the final results of our de-trending processes are publicly available at http://k2.hatsurveys.org/archive/.

  13. Combined stamping-forging for non-axisymmetric product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taureza, Muhammad; Danno, Atsushi; Song, Xu; Oh, Jin An

    2016-10-01

    Successive combined stamping-forging (CSF) is proposed to produce multi-thickness non-axisymmetric components. This method involves successive compression to create exclusively outward metal flow. Hitherto, the development of CSF has been mostly done for axisymmetric geometry. Using this technique, defect-free rectangular case component with length to thickness ratio of 40 is produced with lower forging pressure. This technology has potential for high throughput production of parts with multiple thicknesses and high width to thickness ratio.

  14. Defect detection and classification of galvanized stamping parts based on fully convolution neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhitao; Leng, Yanyi; Geng, Lei; Xi, Jiangtao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new convolution neural network method is proposed for the inspection and classification of galvanized stamping parts. Firstly, all workpieces are divided into normal and defective by image processing, and then the defective workpieces extracted from the region of interest (ROI) area are input to the trained fully convolutional networks (FCN). The network utilizes an end-to-end and pixel-to-pixel training convolution network that is currently the most advanced technology in semantic segmentation, predicts result of each pixel. Secondly, we mark the different pixel values of the workpiece, defect and background for the training image, and use the pixel value and the number of pixels to realize the recognition of the defects of the output picture. Finally, the defect area's threshold depended on the needs of the project is set to achieve the specific classification of the workpiece. The experiment results show that the proposed method can successfully achieve defect detection and classification of galvanized stamping parts under ordinary camera and illumination conditions, and its accuracy can reach 99.6%. Moreover, it overcomes the problem of complex image preprocessing and difficult feature extraction and performs better adaptability.

  15. Women Putting Our Stamp on America: Biographies and Activities for National Women's History Month, March 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's History Project, Windsor, CA.

    This booklet, intended for use by educators and by workplace and community organizers, introduces women who have been featured on U.S. postage stamps as well as a few of the women who clearly merit such honor in the future. Postage stamps featuring women have been relatively few and far between and have only skimmed the surface of U.S. women in…

  16. 46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND RELATIONSHIP OF BULL WHEEL (LOWER RIGHT) LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR A SIMILAR B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. The restoration of obliterated stamped serial numbers by ultrasonically induced cavitation in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.

    1973-01-01

    Seventeen out of 21 obliterated stamped serial numbers on test specimens of copper, brass, steel, and aluminum were successfully restored. Cavitation induced in water by a piezoelectric transducer was the mechanism used. Primarily, smeared metal was removed from the number grooves by the force of the cavitation, however, numbers were also restored at depths at or below the level of the stamped grooves. The feasibility of this technique as a low cost tool for crime laboratories has been clearly demonstrated. The technique is applicable to a variety of materials, and no previous surface or chemical treatments are necessary.

  18. 26 CFR 301.7209-1 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., transfers, takes or gives in exchange, or pledges or gives in pledge, except as authorized in the Code or in regulations made pursuant thereto, any stamp, coupon, ticket, book, or other device prescribed by the...

  19. 31 CFR 500.410 - Currency, coins, and postage and other stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... postage and other stamps issued by North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are merchandise of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin subject to § 500.204(a)(1...

  20. Morpho peleides butterfly wing imprints as structural colour stamp.

    PubMed

    Zobl, Sigrid; Salvenmoser, Willi; Schwerte, Thorsten; Gebeshuber, Ille C; Schreiner, Manfred

    2016-02-02

    This study presents the replication of a color-causing nanostructure based on the upper laminae of numerous cover scales of Morpho peleides butterfly wings and obtained solely by imprinting their upper-wing surfaces. Our results indicate that a simple casting technique using a novel integrated release agent can obtain a large positive replica using negative imprints via Polyvinylsiloxane. The developed method is low-tech and high-yield and is thus substantially easier and less expensive than previous methods. The microstructures were investigated with light microscopy, the nanostructures with both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and the reflections with UV visible spectrometry. The influence of the release agent and the quality of the master stamp were determined by comparing measurements of the cover-scale sizes and their chromaticity values obtained by their images and with their positive imprints. The master stamp provided multiple positive replicas up to 3 cm(2) in just 1 h with structural coloration effects visible to the naked eye. Thus, the developed method proves the accuracy of the replicated nanostructure and its potential industrial application as a color-producing nanostamp.

  1. Time to pay attention: attentional performance time-stamped prefrontal cholinergic activation, diurnality and performance

    PubMed Central

    Paolone, Giovanna; Lee, Theresa M.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Although the impairments in cognitive performance that result from shifting or disrupting daily rhythms have been demonstrated, the neuronal mechanisms that optimize fixed time daily performance are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that daily practice of a sustained attention task (SAT) evokes a diurnal activity pattern in rats. Here we report that SAT practice at a fixed time produced practice time-stamped increases in prefrontal cholinergic neurotransmission that persisted after SAT practice was terminated and in a different environment. SAT time-stamped cholinergic activation occurred irrespective of whether the SAT was practiced during the light or dark phase or in constant light conditions. In contrast, prior daily practice of an operant schedule of reinforcement, albeit generating more rewards and lever presses per session than the SAT, neither activated the cholinergic system nor affected the animals' nocturnal activity pattern. Likewise, food-restricted animals exhibited strong food anticipatory activity (FAA) and attenuated activity during the dark period but FAA was not associated with increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity. Removal of cholinergic neurons impaired SAT performance and facilitated the reemergence of nocturnality. Shifting SAT practice away from a fixed time resulted in significantly lower performance. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrated that fixed time, daily practice of a task assessing attention generates a precisely practice time-stamped activation of the cortical cholinergic input system. Time-stamped cholinergic activation benefits fixed time performance and, if practiced during the light phase, contributes to a diurnal activity pattern. PMID:22933795

  2. Time to pay attention: attentional performance time-stamped prefrontal cholinergic activation, diurnality, and performance.

    PubMed

    Paolone, Giovanna; Lee, Theresa M; Sarter, Martin

    2012-08-29

    Although the impairments in cognitive performance that result from shifting or disrupting daily rhythms have been demonstrated, the neuronal mechanisms that optimize fixed-time daily performance are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that daily practice of a sustained attention task (SAT) evokes a diurnal activity pattern in rats. Here, we report that SAT practice at a fixed time produced practice time-stamped increases in prefrontal cholinergic neurotransmission that persisted after SAT practice was terminated and in a different environment. SAT time-stamped cholinergic activation occurred regardless of whether the SAT was practiced during the light or dark phase or in constant-light conditions. In contrast, prior daily practice of an operant schedule of reinforcement, albeit generating more rewards and lever presses per session than the SAT, neither activated the cholinergic system nor affected the animals' nocturnal activity pattern. Likewise, food-restricted animals exhibited strong food anticipatory activity (FAA) and attenuated activity during the dark phase but FAA was not associated with increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity. Removal of cholinergic neurons impaired SAT performance and facilitated the reemergence of nocturnality. Shifting SAT practice away from a fixed time resulted in significantly lower performance. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrated that fixed-time, daily practice of a task assessing attention generates a precisely practice time-stamped activation of the cortical cholinergic input system. Time-stamped cholinergic activation benefits fixed-time performance and, if practiced during the light phase, contributes to a diurnal activity pattern.

  3. Hot Deformation Behavior and Processing Maps of Diamond/Cu Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongdi; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Di; Zhu, Hanxing; Fan, Tongxiang

    2018-03-01

    The hot deformation behaviors of 50 vol pct uncoated and Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites were investigated using hot isothermal compression tests under the temperature and strain rate ranging from 1073 K to 1273 K (800 °C to 1000 °C) and from 0.001 to 5 s-1, respectively. Dynamic recrystallization was determined to be the primary restoration mechanism during deformation. The Cr3C2 coating enhanced the interfacial bonding and resulted in a larger flow stress for the Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites. Moreover, the enhanced interfacial affinity led to a higher activation energy for the Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites (238 kJ/mol) than for their uncoated counterparts (205 kJ/mol). The strain-rate-dependent constitutive equations of the diamond/Cu composites were derived based on the Arrhenius model, and a high correlation (R = 0.99) was observed between the calculated flow stresses and experimental data. With the help of processing maps, hot extrusions were realized at 1123 K/0.01 s-1 and 1153 K/0.01 s-1 (850 °C/0.01 s-1 and 880 °C/0.01 s-1) for the uncoated and coated diamond/Cu composites, respectively. The combination of interface optimization and hot extrusion led to increases of the density and thermal conductivity, thereby providing a promising route for the fabrication of diamond/Cu composites.

  4. Hot Deformation Behavior and Processing Maps of Diamond/Cu Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongdi; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Di; Zhu, Hanxing; Fan, Tongxiang

    2018-06-01

    The hot deformation behaviors of 50 vol pct uncoated and Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites were investigated using hot isothermal compression tests under the temperature and strain rate ranging from 1073 K to 1273 K (800 °C to 1000 °C) and from 0.001 to 5 s-1, respectively. Dynamic recrystallization was determined to be the primary restoration mechanism during deformation. The Cr3C2 coating enhanced the interfacial bonding and resulted in a larger flow stress for the Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites. Moreover, the enhanced interfacial affinity led to a higher activation energy for the Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites (238 kJ/mol) than for their uncoated counterparts (205 kJ/mol). The strain-rate-dependent constitutive equations of the diamond/Cu composites were derived based on the Arrhenius model, and a high correlation ( R = 0.99) was observed between the calculated flow stresses and experimental data. With the help of processing maps, hot extrusions were realized at 1123 K/0.01 s-1 and 1153 K/0.01 s-1 (850 °C/0.01 s-1 and 880 °C/0.01 s-1) for the uncoated and coated diamond/Cu composites, respectively. The combination of interface optimization and hot extrusion led to increases of the density and thermal conductivity, thereby providing a promising route for the fabrication of diamond/Cu composites.

  5. Processing thermally labile drugs by hot-melt extrusion: The lesson with gliclazide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siyuan; O'Donnell, Kevin P; Delpon de Vaux, Sophie M; O'Brien, John; Stutzman, John; Williams, Robert O

    2017-10-01

    The formation of molecularly dispersed amorphous solid dispersions by the hot-melt extrusion technique relies on the thermal and mechanical energy inputs, which can cause chemical degradation of drugs and polymeric carriers. Additionally, drug degradation may be exacerbated as drugs convert from a more stable crystalline form to a higher energy amorphous form. Therefore, it is imperative to study how drug degrades and evaluate methods to minimize drug degradation during the extrusion process. In this work, gliclazide was used as a model thermally labile drug for the degradation kinetics and process optimization studies. Preformulation studies were conducted using thermal analyses, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy to identify drug degradation pathways and to determine initial extrusion conditions. Formulations containing 10% drug and 90% AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME 100LV were then extruded using a twin screw extruder, and the extrudates were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, modulated dynamic scanning calorimetry, and potency testing to evaluate physicochemical properties. The energies of activation for both amorphous gliclazide, crystalline gliclazide, and gliclazide solution were calculated using the Arrhenius equation to further guide the extrusion optimization process. Preformulation studies identify two hydrolysis degradation pathways of gliclazide at elevated temperatures. The activation energy study indicates a significantly higher degradation rate for the amorphous gliclazide compared to the crystalline form. After optimization of the hot-melt extrusion process, including improved screw designs, machine setup, and processing conditions, gliclazide amorphous solid dispersion with ∼95% drug recovery was achieved. The ability to process thermally labile drugs and polymers using hot-melt extrusion will significantly expand the possible applications of this manufacturing process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A mail survey of United States hematologists and oncologists: a comparison of business reply versus stamped return envelopes.

    PubMed

    Streiff, M B; Dundes, L; Spivak, J L

    2001-04-01

    Mailed surveys are a popular means of obtaining data on large populations. In July 1999 a mail survey was conducted among 3000 randomly selected members of the American Society of Hematology to assess their approach to diagnosis and treatment of polycythemia vera. Because the researchers and the study population are members of the same professional organization with a vested interest in the results, we anticipated that the advantages of return stamped postage seen in previous studies would be less significant. The response rate for stamped return envelopes was 38% versus 32% for business reply envelopes. This statistically significant difference (P =.0005) of six percentage points is comparable to previous research. Excluding labor, the total cost per returned survey was $2.62 for business reply envelopes versus $1.82 for stamped return envelopes. We conclude that stamped return envelopes are a more effective and cost-efficient means of procuring data from physician specialists.

  7. Use of atomic force microscopy in the forensic application of chronological order of toners and stamping inks in questioned documents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Yi; Lee, Joong; Park, Byung-Wook

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a nano-indentation method and introduces a new method of identifying the chronological order of the application of the toner and stamping ink on the surface of documents by removing either of them. Various toners were used as samples for the AFM nano-indentation method. The chronological order of the application of the toner and stamping ink with either the toner placed over the stamping ink or the stamping ink placed over the toner, could be identified, regardless of the kinds of toners made by various companies. This paper provides the new approach for physically removing the toner and checking the material below it to identify questioned documents, which allows the method to be used to appraise documents forensically. Blind testing has shown that the method to analyze the chronological order of toner-printed documents and the seal stamping on them could accurately identify the order in all samples, while minimizing damage to the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Process monitoring and visualization solutions for hot-melt extrusion: a review.

    PubMed

    Saerens, Lien; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Hot-melt extrusion (HME) is applied as a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing process for the production of a variety of dosage forms and formulations. To ensure the continuity of this process, the quality of the extrudates must be assessed continuously during manufacturing. The objective of this review is to provide an overview and evaluation of the available process analytical techniques which can be applied in hot-melt extrusion. Pharmaceutical extruders are equipped with traditional (univariate) process monitoring tools, observing barrel and die temperatures, throughput, screw speed, torque, drive amperage, melt pressure and melt temperature. The relevance of several spectroscopic process analytical techniques for monitoring and control of pharmaceutical HME has been explored recently. Nevertheless, many other sensors visualizing HME and measuring diverse critical product and process parameters with potential use in pharmaceutical extrusion are available, and were thoroughly studied in polymer extrusion. The implementation of process analytical tools in HME serves two purposes: (1) improving process understanding by monitoring and visualizing the material behaviour and (2) monitoring and analysing critical product and process parameters for process control, allowing to maintain a desired process state and guaranteeing the quality of the end product. This review is the first to provide an evaluation of the process analytical tools applied for pharmaceutical HME monitoring and control, and discusses techniques that have been used in polymer extrusion having potential for monitoring and control of pharmaceutical HME. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of the Sheet Metal Stamping Processes Based on Inverse Finite Element Modeling and Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Maolin; Du, R.

    2005-08-01

    Sheet metal stamping is one of the most commonly used manufacturing processes, and hence, much research has been carried for economic gain. Searching through the literatures, however, it is found that there are still a lots of problems unsolved. For example, it is well known that for a same press, same workpiece material, and same set of die, the product quality may vary owing to a number of factors, such as the inhomogeneous of the workpice material, the loading error, the lubrication, and etc. Presently, few seem able to predict the quality variation, not to mention what contribute to the quality variation. As a result, trial-and-error is still needed in the shop floor, causing additional cost and time delay. This paper introduces a new approach to predict the product quality variation and identify the sensitive design / process parameters. The new approach is based on a combination of inverse Finite Element Modeling (FEM) and Monte Carlo Simulation (more specifically, the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) approach). With an acceptable accuracy, the inverse FEM (also called one-step FEM) requires much less computation load than that of the usual incremental FEM and hence, can be used to predict the quality variations under various conditions. LHS is a statistical method, through which the sensitivity analysis can be carried out. The result of the sensitivity analysis has clear physical meaning and can be used to optimize the die design and / or the process design. Two simulation examples are presented including drawing a rectangular box and drawing a two-step rectangular box.

  10. 27 CFR 479.171 - Redemption of or allowance for stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Redemption of or allowance for stamps. 479.171 Section 479.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  11. 27 CFR 479.171 - Redemption of or allowance for stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Redemption of or allowance for stamps. 479.171 Section 479.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  12. 27 CFR 479.171 - Redemption of or allowance for stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Redemption of or allowance for stamps. 479.171 Section 479.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  13. 27 CFR 479.171 - Redemption of or allowance for stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Redemption of or allowance for stamps. 479.171 Section 479.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  14. 27 CFR 479.171 - Redemption of or allowance for stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Redemption of or allowance for stamps. 479.171 Section 479.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  15. PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF CARTRIDGE AND SHELL CASINGS. THIS DEPARTMENT WAS TRANSFORMED FROM A MONEY-LOSING OPERATION TO A PROFIT CENTER UNDER THE FIRST WORKER-MANAGED QUALITY CIRCLE IN THE PLANT. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. Method of Stamping Surface-Enhance Raman Spectroscopy for Label-Free, Multiplexed, Molecular Sensing and Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Wei-Chuan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present disclosure relates the use of a stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates to produce a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique. A NPGD SERS substrate is stamped onto a surface containing one or more target molecules, followed by SERS measurement of the target molecules located between the surface and SERS substrate. The target molecules may be deposited on the surface, which may be a carrier substrate such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

  17. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOEpatents

    Leininger, Thomas F.; Robin, Allen M.; Wolfenbarger, James K.; Suggitt, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, HCl, HF, H.sub.2 S, COS, N.sub.2, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000.degree. F.

  18. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOEpatents

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  19. The effect of side-chain substitution and hot processing on diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymers for organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Heintges, Gaël H L; Leenaers, Pieter J; Janssen, René A J

    2017-07-14

    The effects of cold and hot processing on the performance of polymer-fullerene solar cells are investigated for diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based polymers that were specifically designed and synthesized to exhibit a strong temperature-dependent aggregation in solution. The polymers, consisting of alternating DPP and oligothiophene units, are substituted with linear and second position branched alkyl side chains. For the polymer-fullerene blends that can be processed at room temperature, hot processing does not enhance the power conversion efficiencies compared to cold processing because the increased solubility at elevated temperatures results in the formation of wider polymer fibres that reduce charge generation. Instead, hot processing seems to be advantageous when cold processing is not possible due to a limited solubility at room temperature. The resulting morphologies are consistent with a nucleation-growth mechanism for polymer fibres during drying of the films.

  20. Thermal performance of a photographic laboratory process: Solar Hot Water System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. A.; Jensen, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal performance of a solar process hot water system is described. The system was designed to supply 22,000 liters (5,500 gallons) per day of 66 C (150 F) process water for photographic processing. The 328 sq m (3,528 sq. ft.) solar field has supplied 58% of the thermal energy for the system. Techniques used for analyzing various thermal values are given. Load and performance factors and the resulting solar contribution are discussed.

  1. The Adoption of Electronic Benefit Transfer Card for Delivering Food Stamp Benefits in Alabama: Perceptions of College Students Participating in the Food Stamp Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekeri, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    The reasons for moving from paper coupons to delivering food stamps electronically include potential reduction in the cost of administering the system and in fraud, theft and abuse of the system. Furthermore, the use of EBT is believed o reduce social stigma and embarrassment felt by recipients when using paper coupon. Therefore, using survey data…

  2. Prices of unhealthy foods, Food Stamp Program participation, and body weight status among U.S. low-income women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhuo; Diawara, Norou; Wang, Youfa

    2011-06-01

    This paper examines the interactive effect between the price of unhealthy foods and Food Stamp Program participation on body weight status among low-income women in the United States. We merged the panel data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort in 1985-2002 and the Cost of Living Index data compiled by the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association by using geographic identifiers. Using the merged data, we used panel econometric models to examine the impact of unhealthy food prices on the food stamp-eligible U.S. population. Our results indicate that higher prices for unhealthy food can partially offset the positive association between Food Stamp Program participation and bodyweight among low-income women.

  3. Food Stamp Recipients Eat More Vegetables after Viewing Nutrition Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Amy Block; Feldman, Nancy; Fujii, Mary Lavender; Garcia, Linda; Hudes, Mark; Mitchell, Rita; Bunch, Sybille; Metz, Diane

    1999-01-01

    A study in three California counties found that food stamp recipients who viewed a videotape promoting vegetables had increased their knowledge of vegetables and greatly increased their consumption of potatoes and raw vegetables two to six weeks later. The feasibility of using videotaped nutrition instruction with low-income adults is discussed.…

  4. Reducing tool wear by partial cladding of critical zones in hot form tool by laser metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Robert; Sommitsch, Christof

    2017-10-01

    This paper points out a production method to reduce tool wear in hot stamping applications. Usually tool wear can be observed at locally strongly stressed areas superimposed with gliding movement between blank and tool surface. The shown solution is based on a partial laser cladding of the tool surface with a wear resistant coating to increase the lifespan of tool inserts. Preliminary studies showed good results applying a material combination of tungsten carbide particles embedded in a metallic matrix. Different Nickel based alloys welded on hot work tool steel (1.2343) were tested mechanically in the interface zone. The material with the best bonding characteristic is chosen and reinforced with spherical tungsten carbide particles in a second laser welding step. Since the machining of tungsten carbides is very elaborate a special manufacturing strategy is developed to reduce the milling effort as much as possible. On special test specimens milling tests are carried out to proof the machinability. As outlook a tool insert of a b-pillar is coated to perform real hot forming tests.

  5. Characterizing the Constitutive Properties of AA7075 for Hot Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, K.; Kim, S.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.

    2017-09-01

    The work presented herein investigates the constitutive properties of AA7075 as it undergoes a hot stamping/die quenching process. Tensile specimens were solutionized inside a heated furnace set to 470°C. Once solutionized, the samples were quenched to an intermediate temperature using a vortex air chiller at a minimum rate of 52°C/s. Tensile tests were conducted at steady state temperatures of 470, 400, 300, 200, 115 and 25°C. This solutionizing and subsequent quenching process replicated the temperature cycle and quench rates representative of a die quenching operation. The results of the tensile test were analyzed with digital imaging correlation using an area reduction approach. The area reduction approach approximated the cross-sectional area of the tensile specimen as it necked. The approach allowed for the true stress-strain response to be calculated well past the initial necking point. The resulting true stress-strain curves showed that the AA7075 samples experienced almost no hardening at 470°C. As steady state temperature decreased, the rate of hardening as well as overall material strength increased. The true stress strain curves were fit to a modified version of the extended Voce constitutive model. The resulting fits can be used in a finite element model to predict the behaviour of an AA7075 blank during a die quenching operation.

  6. 7. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC HAMMER STAMPING PRESS ON SIDE A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC HAMMER STAMPING PRESS ON SIDE A OF BUILDING 883. THIS TYPE OF PRESS WAS USED FOR BOTH STAINLESS STEEL AND FOR DEPLETED URANIUM. (7/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Prices of unhealthy foods, Food Stamp Program participation, and body weight status among U.S. low-income women†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhuo; Diawara, Norou; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the interactive effect between the price of unhealthy foods and Food Stamp Program participation on body weight status among low-income women in the United States. We merged the panel data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort in 1985–2002 and the Cost of Living Index data compiled by the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association by using geographic identifiers. Using the merged data, we used panel econometric models to examine the impact of unhealthy food prices on the food stamp-eligible U.S. population. Our results indicate that higher prices for unhealthy food can partially offset the positive association between Food Stamp Program participation and bodyweight among low-income women. PMID:25177147

  8. Information Use Differences in Hot and Cold Risk Processing: When Does Information About Probability Count in the Columbia Card Task?

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Łukasz; Kubińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight into information processing differences between hot and cold risk taking decision tasks within a single domain. Decision theory defines risky situations using at least three parameters: outcome one (often a gain) with its probability and outcome two (often a loss) with a complementary probability. Although a rational agent should consider all of the parameters, s/he could potentially narrow their focus to only some of them, particularly when explicit Type 2 processes do not have the resources to override implicit Type 1 processes. Here we investigate differences in risky situation parameters' influence on hot and cold decisions. Although previous studies show lower information use in hot than in cold processes, they do not provide decision weight changes and therefore do not explain whether this difference results from worse concentration on each parameter of a risky situation (probability, gain amount, and loss amount) or from ignoring some parameters. Two studies were conducted, with participants performing the Columbia Card Task (CCT) in either its Cold or Hot version. In the first study, participants also performed the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) to monitor their ability to override Type 1 processing cues (implicit processes) with Type 2 explicit processes. Because hypothesis testing required comparison of the relative importance of risky situation decision weights (gain, loss, probability), we developed a novel way of measuring information use in the CCT by employing a conjoint analysis methodology. Across the two studies, results indicated that in the CCT Cold condition decision makers concentrate on each information type (gain, loss, probability), but in the CCT Hot condition they concentrate mostly on a single parameter: probability of gain/loss. We also show that an individual's CRT score correlates with information use propensity in cold but not hot tasks. Thus, the affective dimension of hot tasks inhibits correct

  9. 76 FR 70664 - Policy Statement on Grant Stamp Procedure in Routine Director Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... grant stamp unopposed motions for an extension of time or requests for a procedural schedule to which..., Vice Chairman Begeman, and Commissioner Mulvey. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. Appendix [GRAPHIC...

  10. Characterization of TimepixCam, a fast imager for the time-stamping of optical photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomerotski, Andrei; Chakaberia, I.; Fisher-Levine, M.; Janoska, Z.; Takacs, P.; Tsang, T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the characterization of TimepixCam, a novel camera used to time-stamp optical photons. The camera employs a specialized silicon sensor with a thin entrance window, read out by a Timepix ASIC. TimepixCam is able to record and time-stamp light flashes exceeding 1,000 photons with 15 ns time resolution. Specially produced photodiodes were used to evaluate the quantum efficiency, which was determined to be higher than 90% in the wavelength range of 430-900 nm. The quantum efficiency, sensitivity and ion detection efficiency were compared for a variety of sensors with different surface treatments. Sensors with the thinnest window, 50 nm, had the best performance.

  11. Effect of thermal and mechanical parameter’s damage numerical simulation cycling effects on defects in hot metal forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amri, Abdelouahid; el yakhloufi Haddou, Mounir; Khamlichi, Abdellatif

    2017-10-01

    Damage mechanisms in hot metal forming processes are accelerated by mechanical stresses arising during Thermal and mechanical properties variations, because it consists of the materials with different thermal and mechanical loadings and swelling coefficients. In this work, 3D finite element models (FEM) are developed to simulate the effect of Temperature and the stresses on the model development, using a general purpose FE software ABAQUS. Explicit dynamic analysis with coupled Temperature displacement procedure is used for a model. The purpose of this research was to study the thermomechanical damage mechanics in hot forming processes. The important process variables and the main characteristics of various hot forming processes will also be discussed.

  12. Studying the Solar System Can Be More than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly "could" consist mostly of showing…

  13. The effects of polymer carrier, hot melt extrusion process and downstream processing parameters on the moisture sorption properties of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Vo, Anh; Patil, Hemlata; Tiwari, Roshan V; Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Pimparade, Manjeet B; Repka, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer carrier, hot melt extrusion and downstream processing parameters on the water uptake properties of amorphous solid dispersions. Three polymers and a model drug were used to prepare amorphous solid dispersions utilizing the hot melt extrusion technology. The sorption-desorption isotherms of solid dispersions and their physical mixtures were measured by the dynamic vapour sorption system, and the effects of polymer hydrophobicity, hygroscopicity, molecular weight and the hot melt extrusion process were investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging was performed to understand the phase separation driven by the moisture. Solid dispersions with polymeric carriers with lower hydrophilicity, hygroscopicity and higher molecular weight could sorb less moisture under the high relative humidity (RH) conditions. The water uptake ability of polymer-drug solid dispersion systems were decreased compared with the physical mixture after hot melt extrusion, which might be due to the decreased surface area and porosity. The FTIR imaging indicated that the homogeneity of the drug molecularly dispersed within the polymer matrix was changed after exposure to high RH. Understanding the effect of formulation and processing on the moisture sorption properties of solid dispersions is essential for the development of drug products with desired physical and chemical stability. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Time stamp in conditioned place avoidance can be set to different circadian phases.

    PubMed

    Cain, Sean W; McDonald, Robert J; Ralph, Martin R

    2008-05-01

    We have reported that the expression of conditioned place avoidance (CPA) in the golden hamster is regulated in a circadian pattern such that the preference is exhibited strongly at the circadian time of prior training but not at other circadian times [Cain, S. W., Chou, T., & Ralph, M. R. (2004a). Circadian modulation of performance on an aversion-based place learning task in hamsters. Behavioural Brain Research, 150(1-2), 201-205]. In that study, animals that were trained at a specific circadian time to discriminate between a "safe" context and one paired with foot shock, showed strong avoidance of the paired context at 24 and 48h following the last training session, and showed no avoidance at 32 and 40h following training. In the present study, we hypothesized that this "time stamp" effect is settable to any circadian phase. This was tested by training animals at one of two times of day (ZT13 or ZT4) and testing whether a time stamp would be observed, with avoidance occurring only when training and testing times match. Results confirmed our hypothesis, suggesting that the time stamp in the performance of learned tasks can be set to any circadian phase. Such an ability may allow animals in nature to predict the recurrence of 24h events, regardless of the time of day the event was encountered.

  15. 45. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. MORTARS, BOSSES, MOST SHOES, STEMS, TAPPETS, CAMS AND BULL WHEELS ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE ON THE UPPER MORTAR BLOCKS (BELOW CENTER) UNION IRON WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO C-L. SEE CA-290-18 FOR A SIMILAR B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Characterization of TimepixCam, a fast imager for the time-stamping of optical photons

    DOE PAGES

    Nomerotski, Andrei; Chakaberia, I.; Fisher-Levine, M.; ...

    2017-01-04

    Here we describe the characterization of TimepixCam, a novel camera used to time-stamp optical photons. The camera employs a specialized silicon sensor with a thin entrance window, read out by a Timepix ASIC. TimepixCam is able to record and time-stamp light flashes exceeding 1,000 photons with 15 ns time resolution. Specially produced photodiodes were used to evaluate the quantum efficiency, which was determined to be higher than 90% in the wavelength range of 430–900 nm. The quantum efficiency, sensitivity and ion detection efficiency were compared for a variety of sensors with different surface treatments. We found sensors with the thinnestmore » window, 50 nm, had the best performance.« less

  17. Characterization of TimepixCam, a fast imager for the time-stamping of optical photons

    SciTech Connect

    Nomerotski, Andrei; Chakaberia, I.; Fisher-Levine, M.

    Here we describe the characterization of TimepixCam, a novel camera used to time-stamp optical photons. The camera employs a specialized silicon sensor with a thin entrance window, read out by a Timepix ASIC. TimepixCam is able to record and time-stamp light flashes exceeding 1,000 photons with 15 ns time resolution. Specially produced photodiodes were used to evaluate the quantum efficiency, which was determined to be higher than 90% in the wavelength range of 430–900 nm. The quantum efficiency, sensitivity and ion detection efficiency were compared for a variety of sensors with different surface treatments. We found sensors with the thinnestmore » window, 50 nm, had the best performance.« less

  18. Weld Repair of a Stamped Pressure Vessel in a Radiologically Controlled Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Cannell, Gary L.; Huth, Ralph J.; Hallum, Randall T.

    2013-08-26

    In September 2012 an ASME B&PVC Section VIII stamped pressure vessel located at the DOE Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) developed a through-wall leak. The vessel, a steam/brine heat exchanger, operated in a radiologically controlled zone (by the CH2MHill PRC or CHPRC), had been in service for approximately 17 years. The heat exchanger is part of a single train evaporator process and its failure caused the entire system to be shut down, significantly impacting facility operations. This paper describes the activities associated with failure characterization, technical decision making/planning for repair by welding, logistical challenges associated with performing work inmore » a radiologically controlled zone, performing the repair, and administrative considerations related to ASME code requirements.« less

  19. Impact of Simulation Technology on Die and Stamping Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark W.

    2005-08-01

    Over the last ten years, we have seen an explosion in the use of simulation-based techniques to improve the engineering, construction, and operation of GM production tools. The impact has been as profound as the overall switch to CAD/CAM from the old manual design and construction methods. The changeover to N/C machining from duplicating milling machines brought advances in accuracy and speed to our construction activity. It also brought significant reductions in fitting sculptured surfaces. Changing over to CAD design brought similar advances in accuracy, and today's use of solid modeling has enhanced that accuracy gain while finally leading to the reduction in lead time and cost through the development of parametric techniques. Elimination of paper drawings for die design, along with the process of blueprinting and distribution, provided the savings required to install high capacity computer servers, high-speed data transmission lines and integrated networks. These historic changes in the application of CAE technology in manufacturing engineering paved the way for the implementation of simulation to all aspects of our business. The benefits are being realized now, and the future holds even greater promise as the simulation techniques mature and expand. Every new line of dies is verified prior to casting for interference free operation. Sheet metal forming simulation validates the material flow, eliminating the high costs of physical experimentation dependent on trial and error methods of the past. Integrated forming simulation and die structural analysis and optimization has led to a reduction in die size and weight on the order of 30% or more. The latest techniques in factory simulation enable analysis of automated press lines, including all stamping operations with corresponding automation. This leads to manufacturing lines capable of running at higher levels of throughput, with actual results providing the capability of two or more additional strokes per

  20. Information Use Differences in Hot and Cold Risk Processing: When Does Information About Probability Count in the Columbia Card Task?

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Łukasz; Kubińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to provide insight into information processing differences between hot and cold risk taking decision tasks within a single domain. Decision theory defines risky situations using at least three parameters: outcome one (often a gain) with its probability and outcome two (often a loss) with a complementary probability. Although a rational agent should consider all of the parameters, s/he could potentially narrow their focus to only some of them, particularly when explicit Type 2 processes do not have the resources to override implicit Type 1 processes. Here we investigate differences in risky situation parameters' influence on hot and cold decisions. Although previous studies show lower information use in hot than in cold processes, they do not provide decision weight changes and therefore do not explain whether this difference results from worse concentration on each parameter of a risky situation (probability, gain amount, and loss amount) or from ignoring some parameters. Methods: Two studies were conducted, with participants performing the Columbia Card Task (CCT) in either its Cold or Hot version. In the first study, participants also performed the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) to monitor their ability to override Type 1 processing cues (implicit processes) with Type 2 explicit processes. Because hypothesis testing required comparison of the relative importance of risky situation decision weights (gain, loss, probability), we developed a novel way of measuring information use in the CCT by employing a conjoint analysis methodology. Results: Across the two studies, results indicated that in the CCT Cold condition decision makers concentrate on each information type (gain, loss, probability), but in the CCT Hot condition they concentrate mostly on a single parameter: probability of gain/loss. We also show that an individual's CRT score correlates with information use propensity in cold but not hot tasks. Thus, the affective dimension of

  1. A general dead-time correction method based on live-time stamping. Application to the measurement of short-lived radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Chauvenet, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J

    2017-12-01

    Dead-time correction formulae are established in the general case of superimposed non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Based on the same principles as conventional live-timed counting, this method exploits the additional information made available using digital signal processing systems, and especially the possibility to store the time stamps of live-time intervals. No approximation needs to be made to obtain those formulae. Estimates of the variances of corrected rates are also presented. This method is applied to the activity measurement of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 18. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. MORTARS, BOSSES, MOST SHOES, STEMS, TAPPETS, CAMS AND BULL WHEELS ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE AND INTACT. NAMEPLATE CASTING IS CLEARLY VISIBLE ON THE UPPER MORTAR BLOCKS (BELOW CENTER) UNION IRON WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO C-L, SEE CA-290-45 (CT) FOR A SIMILAR COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. 49. BOX STAMPING MACHINE Located in room above warehouse. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. BOX STAMPING MACHINE Located in room above warehouse. The power unit is missing, but the drive belt is seen hanging from the overhead. Printing plate of desired labeling would be attached to the lower half drum. Upon rotation, labeling would be transferred to a cardboard box which was being held around the upper drum. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Becker, R; Rhee, M

    2004-09-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participated in a U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Industrial Technology sponsored research project 'Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery', as a Cooperative Agreement TC-02028 with the Alcoa Technical Center (ATC). The objective of the joint project with Alcoa is to develop a numerical modeling capability to optimize the hot rolling process used to produce aluminum plate. Product lost in the rolling process and subsequent recycling, wastes resources consumed in the energy-intensive steps of remelting and reprocessing the ingot. The modeling capability developed by project partners willmore » be used to produce plate more efficiently and with reduced product loss.« less

  5. Over, under, or about right: misperceptions of body weight among food stamp participants.

    PubMed

    Ver Ploeg, Michele L; Chang, Hung-Hao; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between misperception of body weight and sociodemographic factors such as food stamp participation status, income, education, and race/ethnicity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999-2004 and multivariate logistic regression are used to estimate how sociodemographic factors are associated with (i) the probability that overweight adults misperceive themselves as healthy weight; (ii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as underweight; and (iii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as overweight. NHANES data are representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population. The analysis included 4,362 men and 4,057 women. BMI derived from measured weight and height was used to classify individuals as healthy weight or overweight. These classifications were compared with self-reported categorical weight status. We find that differences across sociodemographic characteristics in the propensity to underestimate or overestimate weight status were more pronounced for women than for men. Overweight female food stamp participants were more likely to underestimate weight status than income-eligible nonparticipants. Among healthy-weight and overweight women, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American women, and women with less education were more likely to underestimate actual weight status. We found few differences across sociodemographic characteristics for men. Misperceptions of weight are common among both overweight and healthy-weight individuals and vary across socioeconomic and demographic groups. The nutrition education component of the Food Stamp Program could increase awareness of healthy body weight among participants.

  6. Self-assembly of single-wall carbon nanotubes during the cooling process of hot carbon gas.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yushi; Zheng, Ke; Long, Xinping; Li, Ming; Xue, Xianggui; Dai, Xiaogan; Deng, Chuan

    2018-04-25

    In this work, self-assembly mechanism of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) during the annealing process of hot gaseous carbon is presented using reactive force field (ReaxFF)-based reactive molecular simulations. A series of simulations were performed on the evolution of reactive carbon gas. The simulation results show that the reactive carbon gas can be assembled into regular SWCNT without a catalyst. Five distinct stages of SWCNT self-assembly are proposed. For some initial configurations, the CNT was found to spin at an ultra-high rate after the nucleation. Graphical abstract Self-assembly process of single-wall carbon nanotube from the annealing of hot gaseous carbon.

  7. Low temperature diffusion process using rare earth-Cu eutectic alloys for hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Akiya, T., E-mail: akiya.takahiro@nims.go.jp; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.

    2014-05-07

    The low temperature grain boundary diffusion process using RE{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} (RE = Pr, Nd) eutectic alloy powders was applied to sintered and hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets. Although only marginal coercivity increase was observed in sintered magnets, a substantial enhancement in coercivity was observed when the process was applied to hot-deformed anisotropic bulk magnets. Using Pr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} eutectic alloy as a diffusion source, the coercivity was enhanced from 1.65 T to 2.56 T. The hot-deformed sample expanded along c-axis direction only after the diffusion process as RE rich intergranular layers parallel to the broad surface of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are thickened inmore » the c-axis direction.« less

  8. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  9. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  10. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  11. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  12. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  13. 44. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THIS IS THE IDENTICAL PERSPECTIVE GIVEN I CA-290-43 (CT), BUT THIS IS A TIGHTER (CLOSER) SHOT. APRONS AND STAIRWAY ARE OMITTED. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE SAMPS. TWO OR THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Replication of microchannel structures in WC-Co feedstock using elastomeric replica moulds by hot embossing process.

    PubMed

    Sahli, M; Gelin, J-C; Barrière, T

    2015-10-01

    Hot embossing is a net shaping process that is able to produce the micro-components of polymers with intrinsic and complex shapes at lower cost compared with machining and injection moulding. However, the emboss of hard metals, such as WC-Co, is more challenging due to their high thermal conductivity and ease of agglomeration. Thus, a WC-Co alloy mixed with a wax-based binder feedstock was selected. The formed feedstock exhibited pseudo-plastic flow and was successfully embossed (green part). Here, we developed a novel process that is used to replicate polymer microfluidic chips while simultaneously reducing the channel surface roughness of the mould insert, yielding optical-grade (less than 100 nm surface roughness) channels and reservoirs. This paper concerns the replication of metallic microfluidic mould inserts in WC-Co and the parameters associated with feedstock formation via a hot embossing process. A suitable formulation for micro-powder hot embossing has been established and characterised by thermogravimetric analyses and measurements of mixing torques to verify and quantify the homogeneity of the proposed feedstocks. The relative density of the samples increased with processing temperature, and almost fully dense materials were obtained. In this work, the effects of the sintering temperature on the physical properties were systematically analysed. The evolution of the metal surface morphology during the hot embossing process was also investigated. The results indicate that the feedstock can be used to manufacture micro-fluidic die mould cavities with a low roughness, proper dimensions and good shape retention. The shrinkage of the sintered part was approximately 19-24% compared with that of the brown part. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Amit K.

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  16. The Contingent Use of Trading Stamps in Reducing Truancy: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, John T.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A 13-year-old learning-disabled subject received a daily amount of trading stamps contingent on school attendance. Results showed a significant decrease in truancy from three to four days per week to less than one. A reversal design indicated that truancy could be controlled by the contingency procedure. (Author/GDC)

  17. Over-the-counter sales of out-of-state and counterfeit tax stamp cigarettes in New York City.

    PubMed

    Silver, Diana; Giorgio, Margaret M; Bae, Jin Yung; Jimenez, Geronimo; Macinko, James

    2016-09-01

    New York City (NYC) has strict minimum cigarette price and tax stamp laws, but evidence regarding the extent of evasion of such laws in over-the-counter sales is scarce. 830 packs were purchased at licensed tobacco retailers at 92 randomly selected neighbourhoods in NYC in spring and fall 2014, following the establishment of NYC's minimum price law. The χ(2) analyses of illegal tax stamps on pack, by retailer type and data collection period, are presented. Over 15% of packs purchased had out-of-state (4.5%) or counterfeit tax stamps (10.6%). Purchases resulted in at least one illegal pack obtained in 70% of neighbourhoods, largely from independent stores. In 21.5% of sampled neighbourhoods, it was possible to purchase an illegal pack each collection period. Enhanced enforcement of retail sales of cigarettes is needed to ensure the full benefit of existing tobacco control laws in NYC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Use of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist to Select an Intervention Designed to Increase the Offering of Promotional Stamps at Two Sites of a Restaurant Franchise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Wilder, David A.; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron; Miranti, Reylissa; Daratany, Kenneth; Salume, Gloria; Baranovsky, Greg; Rodriquez, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The performance diagnostic checklist (PDC) was administered to examine the variables influencing the offering of promotional stamps by employees at two sites of a restaurant franchise. PDC results suggested that a lack of appropriate antecedents, equipment and processes, and consequences were responsible for the deficits. Based on these results,…

  19. The influences of fluorine and process variations on polysilicon film stress and MOSFET hot carrier effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Lynn E.; Macwilliams, Kenneth P.; Isaac, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The use of fluorinated gate oxides may provide an improvement in nMOSFET reliability by enhancing hot carrier resistance. In order to clarify the mechanisms by which polysilicon processing and fluorination influence the oxide behavior, a matrix of nMOSFET structures was prepared using various processing, doping, and implantation strategies. These structures were evaluated for crystalline morphology and chemical element distribution. Mechanical stress measurements were taken on the polysilicon films from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. These examinations showed that fluorination of a structure with randomly oriented polysilicon can reduce residual mechanical stress and improve hot carrier resistance at room temperature.

  20. Novel process chain for hot metal gas forming of ferritic stainless steel 1.4509

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosel, André; Lambarri, Jon; Degenkolb, Lars; Reuther, Franz; Hinojo, José Luis; Rößiger, Jörg; Eurich, Egbert; Albert, André; Landgrebe, Dirk; Wenzel, Holger

    2018-05-01

    Exhaust gas components of automobiles are often produced in ferritic stainless steel 1.4509 due to the low thermal expansion coefficient and the low material price. Until now, components of the stainless steel with complex geometries have been produced in series by means of multi-stage hydroforming at room temperature with intermediate annealing operations. The application of a single-stage hot-forming process, also referred to as hot metal gas forming (HMGF), offers great potential to significantly reduce the production costs of such components. The article describes a novel process chain for the HMGF process. Therefore the tube is heated in two steps. After pre-heating of the semi-finished product outside the press, the tube is heated up to forming start temperature by means of a tool-integrated conductive heating before forming. For the tube of a demonstrator geometry, a simulation model for the conduction heating was set up. In addition to the tool development for this process, experimental results are also described for the production of the demonstrator geometry.

  1. Hot-melt extrusion--basic principles and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Lang, Bo; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O

    2014-09-01

    Originally adapted from the plastics industry, the use of hot-melt extrusion has gained favor in drug delivery applications both in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Several commercial products made by hot-melt extrusion have been approved by the FDA, demonstrating its commercial feasibility for pharmaceutical processing. A significant number of research articles have reported on advances made regarding the pharmaceutical applications of the hot-melt extrusion processing; however, only limited articles have been focused on general principles regarding formulation and process development. This review provides an in-depth analysis and discussion of the formulation and processing aspects of hot-melt extrusion. The impact of physicochemical properties of drug substances and excipients on formulation development using a hot-melt extrusion process is discussed from a material science point of view. Hot-melt extrusion process development, scale-up, and the interplay of formulation and process attributes are also discussed. Finally, recent applications of hot-melt extrusion to a variety of dosage forms and drug substances have also been addressed.

  2. Ecohydrological interfaces as hot spots of ecosystem processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Stefan; Lewandowski, Jörg; Grimm, Nancy B.; Hannah, David M.; Pinay, Gilles; McDonald, Karlie; Martí, Eugènia; Argerich, Alba; Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Battin, Tom; Larned, Scott T.; Schelker, Jacob; Fleckenstein, Jan; Schmidt, Christian; Rivett, Michael O.; Watts, Glenn; Sabater, Francesc; Sorolla, Albert; Turk, Valentina

    2017-08-01

    The movement of water, matter, organisms, and energy can be altered substantially at ecohydrological interfaces, the dynamic transition zones that often develop within ecotones or boundaries between adjacent ecosystems. Interdisciplinary research over the last two decades has indicated that ecohydrological interfaces are often "hot spots" of ecological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes and may provide refuge for biota during extreme events. Ecohydrological interfaces can have significant impact on global hydrological and biogeochemical cycles, biodiversity, pollutant removal, and ecosystem resilience to disturbance. The organizational principles (i.e., the drivers and controls) of spatially and temporally variable processes at ecohydrological interfaces are poorly understood and require the integrated analysis of hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes. Our rudimentary understanding of the interactions between different drivers and controls critically limits our ability to predict complex system responses to change. In this paper, we explore similarities and contrasts in the functioning of diverse freshwater ecohydrological interfaces across spatial and temporal scales. We use this comparison to develop an integrated, interdisciplinary framework, including a roadmap for analyzing ecohydrological processes and their interactions in ecosystems. We argue that, in order to fully account for their nonlinear process dynamics, ecohydrological interfaces need to be conceptualized as unique, spatially and temporally dynamic entities, which represents a step change from their current representation as boundary conditions at investigated ecosystems.

  3. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits.

  4. Experimental Investigation About Stamping Behaviour of 3D Warp Interlock Composite Preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Clément; Wang, Peng; Boussu, François; Soulat, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Forming of continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled prepregs can be performed at room temperature due to its similar textile structure. The "cool" forming stage is better controlled and more economical. The increase of temperature and the resin consolidation phases after the forming can be carried out under the isothermal condition thanks to a closed system. It can avoid the manufacturing defects easily experienced in the non-isothermal thermoforming, in particular the wrinkling [1]. Glass/Polypropylene commingled yarns have been woven inside different three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics and then formed using a double-curved shape stamping tool. The present study investigates the in-plane and through-thickness behaviour of the 3D warp interlock fibrous reinforcements during forming with a hemispherical punch. Experimental data allow analysing the forming behaviour in the warp and weft directions and on the influence of warp interlock architectures. The results point out that the layer to layer warp interlock preform has a better stamping behaviour, in particular no forming defects and good homogeneity in thickness.

  5. Laser Beam Welding of Ultra-high Strength Chromium Steel with Martensitic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Martin; Janzen, Vitalij; Lindner, Stefan; Wagener, Rainer

    A new class of steels is going to be introduced into sheet manufacturing. Stainless ferritic and martensitic steels open up opportunities for sheet metal fabrication including hot stamping. Strengths of up to 2 GPa at fracture elongations of 15% can be attained through this. Welding of these materials, as a result, became a challenge. Energy-reduced welding methods with in-situ heat treatment are required in order to ensure the delicate and complex heat control. Laser beam welding is the joining technique of choice to supply minimum heat input to the fusion process and to apply efficient heat control. For two application cases, tailored blank production in as-rolled condition and welding during assembly in hot stamped condition, welding processes have been developed. The welding suitability is shown through metallurgical investigations of the welds. Crash tests based on the KS-II concept as well as fatigue tests prove the applicability of the joining method.

  6. Recognition of Time Stamps on Full-Disk Hα Images Using Machine Learning Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Huang, N.; Jing, J.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Fu, G.

    2016-12-01

    Observation and understanding of the physics of the 11-year solar activity cycle and 22-year magnetic cycle are among the most important research topics in solar physics. The solar cycle is responsible for magnetic field and particle fluctuation in the near-earth environment that have been found increasingly important in affecting the living of human beings in the modern era. A systematic study of large-scale solar activities, as made possible by our rich data archive, will further help us to understand the global-scale magnetic fields that are closely related to solar cycles. The long-time-span data archive includes both full-disk and high-resolution Hα images. Prior to the widely use of CCD cameras in 1990s, 35-mm films were the major media to store images. The research group at NJIT recently finished the digitization of film data obtained by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) covering the period of 1953 to 2000. The total volume of data exceeds 60 TB. To make this huge database scientific valuable, some processing and calibration are required. One of the most important steps is to read the time stamps on all of the 14 million images, which is almost impossible to be done manually. We implemented three different methods to recognize the time stamps automatically, including Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Classification Tree and TensorFlow. The latter two are known as machine learning algorithms which are very popular now a day in pattern recognition area. We will present some sample images and the results of clock recognition from all three methods.

  7. Process Optimization of Dual-Laser Beam Welding of Advanced Al-Li Alloys Through Hot Cracking Susceptibility Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yingtao; Robson, Joseph D.; Riekehr, Stefan; Kashaev, Nikolai; Wang, Li; Lowe, Tristan; Karanika, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Laser welding of advanced Al-Li alloys has been developed to meet the increasing demand for light-weight and high-strength aerospace structures. However, welding of high-strength Al-Li alloys can be problematic due to the tendency for hot cracking. Finding suitable welding parameters and filler material for this combination currently requires extensive and costly trial and error experimentation. The present work describes a novel coupled model to predict hot crack susceptibility (HCS) in Al-Li welds. Such a model can be used to shortcut the weld development process. The coupled model combines finite element process simulation with a two-level HCS model. The finite element process model predicts thermal field data for the subsequent HCS hot cracking prediction. The model can be used to predict the influences of filler wire composition and welding parameters on HCS. The modeling results have been validated by comparing predictions with results from fully instrumented laser welds performed under a range of process parameters and analyzed using high-resolution X-ray tomography to identify weld defects. It is shown that the model is capable of accurately predicting the thermal field around the weld and the trend of HCS as a function of process parameters.

  8. Beyond a series of security nets: Applying STAMP & STPA to port security

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Adam D.

    2015-11-17

    Port security is an increasing concern considering the significant role of ports in global commerce and today’s increasingly complex threat environment. Current approaches to port security mirror traditional models of accident causality -- ‘a series of security nets’ based on component reliability and probabilistic assumptions. Traditional port security frameworks result in isolated and inconsistent improvement strategies. Recent work in engineered safety combines the ideas of hierarchy, emergence, control and communication into a new paradigm for understanding port security as an emergent complex system property. The ‘System-Theoretic Accident Model and Process (STAMP)’ is a new model of causality based on systemsmore » and control theory. The associated analysis process -- System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) -- identifies specific technical or procedural security requirements designed to work in coordination with (and be traceable to) overall port objectives. This process yields port security design specifications that can mitigate (if not eliminate) port security vulnerabilities related to an emphasis on component reliability, lack of coordination between port security stakeholders or economic pressures endemic in the maritime industry. As a result, this article aims to demonstrate how STAMP’s broader view of causality and complexity can better address the dynamic and interactive behaviors of social, organizational and technical components of port security.« less

  9. Beyond a series of security nets: Applying STAMP & STPA to port security

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Adam D.

    Port security is an increasing concern considering the significant role of ports in global commerce and today’s increasingly complex threat environment. Current approaches to port security mirror traditional models of accident causality -- ‘a series of security nets’ based on component reliability and probabilistic assumptions. Traditional port security frameworks result in isolated and inconsistent improvement strategies. Recent work in engineered safety combines the ideas of hierarchy, emergence, control and communication into a new paradigm for understanding port security as an emergent complex system property. The ‘System-Theoretic Accident Model and Process (STAMP)’ is a new model of causality based on systemsmore » and control theory. The associated analysis process -- System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) -- identifies specific technical or procedural security requirements designed to work in coordination with (and be traceable to) overall port objectives. This process yields port security design specifications that can mitigate (if not eliminate) port security vulnerabilities related to an emphasis on component reliability, lack of coordination between port security stakeholders or economic pressures endemic in the maritime industry. As a result, this article aims to demonstrate how STAMP’s broader view of causality and complexity can better address the dynamic and interactive behaviors of social, organizational and technical components of port security.« less

  10. Oxidation and hot corrosion of hot-pressed Si3N4 at 1000 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion of a commercial, hot-pressed Si3N4 were investigated at 1000 C under an atmosphere of flowing O2. For the hot corrosion studies, thin films of Na2SO4 were airbrushed on the Si3N4 surface. The hot corrosion attack was monitored by the following techniques: continuous weight measurements, SO2 evolution, film morphology, and chemical analyses. Even though the hot corrosion weight changes after 25 hr were relatively small, the formation of SiO2 from oxidation of Si3N4 was an order of magnitude greater in the presence of molten Na2SO4. The formation of a protective SiO2 phase at the Si3N4 surface is minimized by the fluxing action of the molten Na2SO4 thereby allowing the oxidation of the Si3N4 to proceed more rapidly. A simple process is proposed to account for the hot corrosion process.

  11. The CRDS method application for study of the gas-phase processes in the hot CVD diamond thin film.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzaianumakarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Morell, Gerardo; Weiner, Brad; Buzaianu, Madalina

    2006-03-01

    For detailed analysis of problem related to the hot CVD carbon-containing nano-material growing, we have to detect different intermediate species forming during the growing process as well as investigate dependences of concentrations of these species on different experimental parameters (concentrations of the CJH4, H2S stable chemical compounds and distance from the filament system to the substrate surface). In the present study, the HS and CS radicals were detected using the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopic (CRDS) method in the hot CVD diamond thin film for the CH4(0.4 %) + H2 mixture doped by H2S (400 ppm). The absolute absorption density spectra of the HS and CS radicals were obtained as a function of different experimental parameters. This study proofs that the HS and CS radicals are an intermediate, which forms during the hot filament CVD process. The kinetics approach was developed for detailed analysis of the experimental data obtained. The kinetics scheme includes homogenous and heterogenous processes as well as processes of the chemical species transport in the CVD chamber.

  12. Stable Atlas-based Mapped Prior (STAMP) machine-learning segmentation for multicenter large-scale MRI data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Magnotta, Vincent A; Liu, Dawei; Johnson, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    Machine learning (ML)-based segmentation methods are a common technique in the medical image processing field. In spite of numerous research groups that have investigated ML-based segmentation frameworks, there remains unanswered aspects of performance variability for the choice of two key components: ML algorithm and intensity normalization. This investigation reveals that the choice of those elements plays a major part in determining segmentation accuracy and generalizability. The approach we have used in this study aims to evaluate relative benefits of the two elements within a subcortical MRI segmentation framework. Experiments were conducted to contrast eight machine-learning algorithm configurations and 11 normalization strategies for our brain MR segmentation framework. For the intensity normalization, a Stable Atlas-based Mapped Prior (STAMP) was utilized to take better account of contrast along boundaries of structures. Comparing eight machine learning algorithms on down-sampled segmentation MR data, it was obvious that a significant improvement was obtained using ensemble-based ML algorithms (i.e., random forest) or ANN algorithms. Further investigation between these two algorithms also revealed that the random forest results provided exceptionally good agreement with manual delineations by experts. Additional experiments showed that the effect of STAMP-based intensity normalization also improved the robustness of segmentation for multicenter data sets. The constructed framework obtained good multicenter reliability and was successfully applied on a large multicenter MR data set (n>3000). Less than 10% of automated segmentations were recommended for minimal expert intervention. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the ML-based segmentation tools for processing large amount of multicenter MR images. We demonstrated dramatically different result profiles in segmentation accuracy according to the choice of ML algorithm and intensity

  13. Authentication, Time-Stamping and Digital Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Judah

    1996-01-01

    Time and frequency data are often transmitted over public packet-switched networks, and the use of this mode of distribution is likely to increase in the near future as high-speed logical circuits transmitted via networks replace point-to-point physical circuits. ALthough these networks have many technical advantages, they are susceptible to evesdropping, spoofing, and the alteration of messages enroute using techniques that are relatively simple to implement and quite difficult to detect. I will discuss a number of solutions to these problems, including the authentication mechanism used in the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the more general technique of signing time-stamps using public key cryptography. This public key method can also be used to implement the digital analog of a Notary Public, and I will discuss how such a system could be realized on a public network such as the Internet.

  14. Verification of Reproduction Simulation of the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami Using Time-Stamp Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Motohiro; Ushiyama, Motoyuki

    2014-05-01

    In the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake tsunami, the significant damage and loss of lives were caused by large tsunami in the pacific coastal areas of the northern Japan. It is important to understand the situation of tsunami inundation in detail in order to establish the effective measures of disaster prevention. In this study, we calculated the detailed tsunami inundation simulation of Rikuzentakata city and verified the simulation results using not only the static observed data such as inundation area and tsunami height estimated by traces but also time stamp data which were recorded to digital camera etc. We calculated the tsunami simulation by non-linear long-wave theory using the staggered grid and leap flog scheme. We used Fujii and Satake (2011)'s model ver.4.2 as the tsunami source. The inundation model of Rikuzentakata city was constructed by fine ground level data of 10m mesh. In this simulation, the shore and river banks were set in boundary of calculation mesh. At that time, we have calculated two patterns of simulation, one condition is that a bank doesn't collapse even if tsunami overflows on it, another condition is that a bank collapses if tsunami overflows on it and its discharge exceeds the threshold. We can use the inundation area data, which was obtained by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI), and height data of tsunami trace, which were obtained by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Joint Survey (TTJS) group, as "static" verification data. Comparing the inundation area of simulation result with its observation by GSI, both areas are matched very well. And then, correlation coefficient between tsunami height data resulted from simulation and observed by TTJS is 0.756. In order to verify tsunami arrival time, we used the time stamp data which were recorded to digital camera etc. by citizens. Ushiyama and Yokomaku (2012) collected these tsunami stamp data and estimated the arrival time in Rikuzentakata city. We compared the

  15. Hot Isostatic Press Manufacturing Process Development for Fabrication of RERTR Monolithic Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Crapps, Justin M.; Clarke, Kester D.; Katz, Joel D.

    2012-06-06

    We use experimentation and finite element modeling to study a Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) manufacturing process for U-10Mo Monolithic Fuel Plates. Finite element simulations are used to identify the material properties affecting the process and improve the process geometry. Accounting for the high temperature material properties and plasticity is important to obtain qualitative agreement between model and experimental results. The model allows us to improve the process geometry and provide guidance on selection of material and finish conditions for the process strongbacks. We conclude that the HIP can must be fully filled to provide uniform normal stress across the bondingmore » interface.« less

  16. Metal flow of a tailor-welded blank in deep drawing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qi; Guo, Ruiquan

    2005-01-01

    Tailor welded blanks were used in the automotive industry to consolidate parts, reduce weight, and increase safety. In recent years, this technology was developing rapidly in China. In Chinese car models, tailor welded blanks had been applied in a lot of automobile parts such as rail, door inner, bumper, floor panel, etc. Concerns on the properties of tailor welded blanks had become more and more important for automobile industry. A lot of research had shown that the strength of the welded seam was higher than that of the base metal, such that the weld failure in the aspect of strength was not a critical issue. However, formability of tailor welded blanks in the stamping process was complex. Among them, the metal flow of tailor welded blanks in the stamping process must be investigated thoroughly in order to reduce the scrap rate during the stamping process in automobile factories. In this paper, the behavior of metal flow for tailor welded blanks made by the laser welding process with two types of different thickness combinations were studied in the deep drawing process. Simulations and experiment verification of the movement of weld line for tailor welded blanks were discussed in detail. Results showed that the control on the movement of welded seam during stamping process by taking some measures in the aspect of blank holder was effective.

  17. Fabrication of a Ni nano-imprint stamp for an anti-reflective layer using an anodic aluminum oxide template.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Mi; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Ra, Senug-Hyun; Suh, Su-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum anodizing can alter pore diameter, density distribution, periodicity and layer thickness in a controlled way. Because of this property, porous type anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a template for nano-structure fabrication. The alumina layer generated at a constant voltage increased the pore size from 120 nm to 205 nm according to an increasing process time from 60 min to 150 min. The resulting fabricated AAO templates had pore diameters at or less than 200 nm. Ni was sputtered as a conductive layer onto this AAO template and electroplated using DC and pulse power. Comparing these Ni stamps, those generated from electroplating using on/reverse/off pulsing had an ordered pillar array and maintained the AAO template morphology. This stamp was used for nano-imprinting on UV curable resin coated glass wafer. Surface observations via electron microscopy showed that the nano-imprinted patterned had the same shape as the AAO template. A soft mold was subsequently fabricated and nano-imprinted to form a moth-eye structure on the glass wafer. An analysis of the substrate transmittance using UV-VIS/NIR spectroscopy showed that the transmittance of the substrate with the moth-eye structure was 5% greater that the non-patterned substrate.

  18. Surrogate models for sheet metal stamping problem based on the combination of proper orthogonal decomposition and radial basis function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Van Tuan; Lafon, Pascal; Labergere, Carl

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a combination of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) is proposed to build a surrogate model based on the Benchmark Springback 3D bending from the Numisheet2011 congress. The influence of the two design parameters, the geometrical parameter of the die radius and the process parameter of the blank holder force, on the springback of the sheet after a stamping operation is analyzed. The classical Design of Experience (DoE) uses Full Factorial to design the parameter space with sample points as input data for finite element method (FEM) numerical simulation of the sheet metal stamping process. The basic idea is to consider the design parameters as additional dimensions for the solution of the displacement fields. The order of the resultant high-fidelity model is reduced through the use of POD method which performs model space reduction and results in the basis functions of the low order model. Specifically, the snapshot method is used in our work, in which the basis functions is derived from snapshot deviation of the matrix of the final displacements fields of the FEM numerical simulation. The obtained basis functions are then used to determine the POD coefficients and RBF is used for the interpolation of these POD coefficients over the parameter space. Finally, the presented POD-RBF approach which is used for shape optimization can be performed with high accuracy.

  19. 75 FR 52981 - Chrysler, LLC; Twinsburg Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... production of metal automotive stampings, a substantial proportion of which are shipped to an affiliated plant where they are used in the assembly of automotive vehicles. New information shows that workers...

  20. [Comparison of sulfur fumigation processing and direct hot air heating technology on puerarin contents and efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Yang-Ping; Wang, Kui-Long; Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Lin

    2016-07-01

    In order to compare the effect of sulfur fumigation processing and direct hot air heating technology on puerarin contents and efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, the fresh roots of Pueraria thomsonii were cut into small pieces and prepared into direct sunshine drying samples, direct hot air drying samples, and sulfur fumigation-hot air drying samples. Moisture contents of the samples were then determined. The puerarin contents of different samples were compared by HPLC method. Moreover, the models of drunkenness mice were established, and then with superoxide dismutase (SOD) content as the index, aqueous decoction extracts of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix samples with sulfur fumigation processing and non-sulfur fumigation processing methods were administrated by ig; the effects of sulfur fumigation on contents of SOD in mice liver and serum were determined, and the sulfur fumigation samples and non-sulfur fumigation samples were investigated for moth and mildew under different packaging and storage conditions. Results showed that the sulfur fumigation samples significantly changed the puerarin content from Puerariae Thomsonii Radix. The content of puerarin was decreased gradually when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation and amount of sulfur. SOD content in drunken mice liver and serum was significantly decreased when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation, showing significant difference with both direct sunshine drying group and direct hot air drying group. Moth and mildew were not found in the sulfur fumigation samples and direct hot air drying samples whose moisture contents were lower than the limit in Pharmacopoeia. Research showed that sulfur fumigation can significantly reduce the content of main active ingredients and reduce the efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, indicating that the quality of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix was significantly decreased after sulfur fumigation. However, the contents of the main active ingredients, efficacy and storage

  1. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  2. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Program Evaluation: Food Stamps and Commodity Distribution in Rural Areas of Central Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden J. Patrick; Yoder, Marion D.

    Since one primary goal of the Commodity Distribution (CD) Program and the Food Stamp (FS) Program is to improve diets of low-income families, this 1969-70 study focused on whether the adequacy of a low-income family's dietary intake was improved by their participation in a food-assistance program. As stated, the adequacy of a family's dietary…

  4. Effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on processing characteristics and eating quality of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Klassen, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on the processing characteristics, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of ground beef was evaluated. Hot water treatment (85°C for 40s) substantially enhanced the microbial quality of trimmings during refrigerated storage and this was independent of the fat level of the trimmings. Treatment had no effect on the oxidative stability of trimmings stored up to 7days, ground beef displayed in a retail cabinet for up to 3days, and had minimal effect on textural properties. Instrumental results demonstrate that ground beef from hot water treated trimmings was slightly lighter and tended to have less red color compared to non-treated beef. These color differences did not impact the consumer acceptance of raw patties, and in addition, hot water treatment did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability of cooked patty attributes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Color separation of signature and stamp inks to facilitate handwriting examination.

    PubMed

    Chaikovsky, Alan; Brown, Sharon; David, Laser Sin; Balman, Alex; Barzovski, Avner

    2003-11-01

    The questioned documents laboratory often encounters cases where handwriting that is to be examined intersects with some interfering factor such as a rubber stamp, typewriting or background printing. In these cases, line direction, beginning and ending features of letters and other fine details of the handwriting may be lost in the "noise" of the intersecting ink. The purpose of this paper is to show several new digital photography methods that may be used to "subtract" the effect of the intersecting ink, thereby enhancing that of the handwriting ink in order to enable the document examiner to conduct a complete examination. These methods have the advantage of being fast and do not involve the use of expensive material or equipment. Several new methods are described that may be used to separate the colors of the handwriting ink from that of the intersecting ink: the analog method and several digital methods such as RGB-HSB-CMYK, L*a*b color, and color separation using the Channel Mixer function of Adobe Photoshop. Successful application of these color separation methods to specific handwriting ink/rubber stamp ink color combinations shows that the effect of the intersecting ink may indeed be minimalized if not canceled altogether. Application of the suggested methods may well make the difference between a nonconclusive handwriting examination and a full analysis of the questioned handwriting.

  6. The problem of a finite strip compressed between two rough rigid stamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    A finite strip compressed between two rough rigid stamps is considered. The elastostatic problem is formulated in terms of a singular integral equation from which the proper stress singularities at the corners are determined. The singular integral equation is solved numerically to determine the stresses along the fixed ends of the strip. The effect of material properties and strip geometry on the stress-intensity factor is presented graphically.

  7. Hot-field tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonenshain, L. P.; Kuzmin, M. I.; Bocharova, N. Yu.

    1991-12-01

    Intraplate, hot spot related volcanic occurrences do not have a random distribution on the Earth's surface. They are concentrated in two large regions (up to 10,000 km in diameter), the Pacific and the African, and two smaller areas (2000-3000 km in diameter), the Central Asian and the Tasmanian. These regions are considered as manifestations of hot fields in the mantle, whereas the regions lying in between are expressions of cold fields in the mantle. Large-scale anomalies coincide with the hot fields: topographic swells, geoid highs, uplifts of the "asthenospheric table", inferred heated regions in the lowermost mantle according to seismic tomographic images, geochemical anomalies showing the origin of volcanics from undepleted mantle sources. Hot fields are relatively stable features, having remained in the same position on the Earth's surface during the last 120 Ma, although they have other configurations and other positions in the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic. Available data show that two main hot fields (Pacific and African) are possibly moving one with respect to the other, converging along the Eastern Pacific subduction system and diverging along that of the Western Pacific. If so, well-known differences between these subduction systems can also be connected with related displacement of the hot fields. Hot fields are assumed to correspond to upwelling branches of mantle and rather deep mantle convection, and cold fields to downwelling branches. Thus, hot fields can be regarded as expressions of deeper tectonics, comparative to the plate tectonics, which is operating in the upper layers of the Earth. We call it hot-field tectonics. Plate tectonics is responsible for the opening and closure of oceans and for the formation of orogenic belts, whereas hot-field tectonics accounts for a larger cyclicity of the Earth's evolution and for amalgamation and break up of Pangea-type supercontinents. Hot-field tectonics seems to be the only process to have existed

  8. Hot spots of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Sinton, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    The size and temperature, morphology and distribution, variability, possible absorption features, and processes of hot spots on Io are discussed, and an estimate of the global heat flux is made. Size and temperature information is deconvolved to obtain equivalent radius and temperature of hot spots, and simultaneously obtained Voyager thermal and imaging data is used to match hot sources with specific geologic features. In addition to their thermal output, it is possible that hot spots are also characterized by production of various gases and particulate materials; the spectral signature of SO2 has been seen. Origins for relatively stable, low temperature sources, transient high temperature sources, and relatively stable, high-tmperature sources are discussed.

  9. A Technology Immune Technology Enabled Problem within an Action on Objects Framework: Stamping Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael; Abramovich, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates how the notion of Technology Immune Technology Enabled (TITE) problems (Abramovich, 2014), in this case an exploration of variations in surface area we refer to as Stamping Functions, might be incorporated into a K-6 mathematics methods class operating within an Action on Objects framework (Connell, 2001). TITE problems have…

  10. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  11. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  12. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  13. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  14. OCLC-MARC Tape Processing: A Functional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce Cummings

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes structure of, and data in, the OCLC-MARC record in the form delivered via OCLC's Tape Subscription Service, and outlines important processing functions involved: "unreadable tapes," duplicate records and deduping, match processing, choice processing, locations processing, "automatic" and "input" stamps,…

  15. Disturbance Impacts on Thermal Hot Spots and Hot Moments at the Peatland-Atmosphere Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, R. M.; Kettridge, N.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Waddington, J. M.; Krause, S.

    2018-01-01

    Soil-surface temperature acts as a master variable driving nonlinear terrestrial ecohydrological, biogeochemical, and micrometeorological processes, inducing short-lived or spatially isolated extremes across heterogeneous landscape surfaces. However, subcanopy soil-surface temperatures have been, to date, characterized through isolated, spatially discrete measurements. Using spatially complex forested northern peatlands as an exemplar ecosystem, we explore the high-resolution spatiotemporal thermal behavior of this critical interface and its response to disturbances by using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing. Soil-surface thermal patterning was identified from 1.9 million temperature measurements under undisturbed, trees removed and vascular subcanopy removed conditions. Removing layers of the structurally diverse vegetation canopy not only increased mean temperatures but it shifted the spatial and temporal distribution, range, and longevity of thermal hot spots and hot moments. We argue that linking hot spots and/or hot moments with spatially variable ecosystem processes and feedbacks is key for predicting ecosystem function and resilience.

  16. Polymer deformation and filling modes during microembossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, Harry D.; King, William P.

    2004-12-01

    This work investigates the initial stages of polymer deformation during hot embossing micro-manufacturing at processing temperatures near the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer films having sufficient thickness such that polymer flow is not supply limited. Several stages of polymer flow can be observed by employing stamp geometries of various widths and varying imprint conditions of time and temperature to modulate polymer viscosity. Experiments investigate conditions affecting cavity filling phenomena, including apparent polymer viscosity. Stamps with periodic ridges of height and width 4 µm and periodicity 30, 50 and 100 µm emboss trenches into polymethyl methacrylate films at Tg - 10 °C < Temboss < Tg + 20 °C. Imprint parameters of time, temperature and load are correlated with replicated polymer shape, height and imprinted area. Polymer replicates are measured by atomic force microscopy and inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Cavity size and the temperature dependence of polymer viscosity significantly influence the nature of polymer deformation in hot embossing micro-manufacturing and must be accounted for in rational process design.

  17. 77 FR 24177 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 177; Hoosier Stamping & Mfg. Corp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1822] Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 177; Hoosier Stamping & Mfg. Corp. (Wheel Assemblies and Accessories); Chandler, IN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U...

  18. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through “cool” (i.e., not emotionally laden) and “hot” (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  19. Food Stamp and School Lunch Programs Alleviate Food Insecurity in Rural America. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristin; Savage, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp and the National School Lunch Programs play a vital role in helping poor, rural Americans obtain a more nutritious diet and alleviate food insecurity and hunger. This fact sheet looks at the extent to which rural America depends on these programs and describes characteristics of beneficiaries of these federal nutrition assistance…

  20. Liquid-metal atomization for hot working preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.; Pelloux, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid quenching of a liquid metal by atomization or splat cooling overcomes the major limitation of most solidification processes, namely, the segregation of alloying elements, impurities, and constituent phases. The cooling rates of different atomizing processes are related to the dendrite arm spacings and to the microstructure of the atomized powders. The increased solubility limits and the formation of metastable compounds in splat-cooled alloys are discussed. Consolidation of the powders by hot isostatic compaction, hot extrusion, or hot forging and rolling processes yields billets with properties equivalent to or better than those of the wrought alloys. The application of this powder processing technology to high-performance alloys is reviewed.

  1. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulchaey, John

    Most galaxy formation models predict that massive low-redshift disk galaxies are embedded in extended hot halos of externally accreted gas. Such gas appears necessary to maintain ongoing star formation in isolated spirals like the Milky Way. To explain the large population of red galaxies in rich groups and clusters, most galaxy evolution models assume that these hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a denser environment. This simple model has been remarkably successful at reproducing many observed properties of galaxies. Although theoretical arguments suggest hot gas halos are an important component in galaxies, we know very little about this gas from an observational standpoint. In fact, previous observations have failed to detect soft X-ray emission from such halos in disk galaxies. Furthermore, the assumption that hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a group or cluster has not been verified. We propose to combine proprietary and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxies in the field, groups and clusters to study how hot gas halos are impacted by environment. Our proposed program has three components: 1) The deepest search to date for a hot gas halo in a quiescent spiral galaxy. A detection will confirm a basic tenet of disk galaxy formation models, whereas a non-detection will seriously challenge these models and impose new constraints on the growth mode and feedback history of disk galaxies. 2) A detailed study of the hot gas halos properties of field early-type galaxies. As environmental processes such as stripping are not expected to be important in the field, a study of hot gas halos in this environment will allow us to better understand how feedback and other internal processes impact hot gas halos. 3) A study of hot gas halos in the outskirts of groups and clusters. By comparing observations with our suite of simulations we can begin to understand what role the stripping of hot gas halos plays in galaxy

  2. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  3. TimepixCam: a fast optical imager with time-stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a novel fast optical imager, TimepixCam, based on an optimized silicon pixel sensor with a thin entrance window, read out by a Timepix ASIC. TimepixCam is able to record and time-stamp light flashes in excess of 1,000 photons with high quantum efficiency in the 400-1000nm wavelength range with 20ns timing resolution, corresponding to an effective rate of 50 Megaframes per second. The camera was used for imaging ions impinging on a microchannel plate followed by a phosphor screen. Possible applications include spatial and velocity map imaging of ions in time-of-flight mass spectroscopy; coincidence imaging of ions and electrons, and other time-resolved types of imaging spectroscopy.

  4. 77 FR 65720 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... transmission, the E-Filing system time-stamps the document and sends the submitter an email notice confirming... hot channel factor, nuclear enthalpy rise hot channel factor, loss of coolant accident peak cladding...

  5. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  6. 76 FR 17334 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-2G4B Airplane; Certification of Cooktops

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ..., include with your comments a self-addressed, stamped postcard on which you have written the docket number. We will stamp the date on the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On July 20, 2010... the presence of relatively unrestrained hot cookware and heated food, which may represent...

  7. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysismore » (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was

  8. Theoretical study on the cooperative exciton dissociation process based on dimensional and hot charge-transfer state effects in an organic photocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Tomomi; Nakajima, Takahito

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the exciton dissociation process at the donor-acceptor interface in organic photocells. In our previous study, we introduced a local temperature to handle the hot charge-transfer (CT) state and calculated the exciton dissociation probability based on the 1D organic semiconductor model [T. Shimazaki and T. Nakajima, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 12538 (2015)]. Although the hot CT state plays an essential role in exciton dissociations, the probabilities calculated are not high enough to efficiently separate bound electron-hole pairs. This paper focuses on the dimensional (entropy) effect together with the hot CT state effect and shows that cooperative behavior between both effects can improve the exciton dissociation process. In addition, we discuss cooperative effects with site-disorders and external-electric-fields.

  9. Falling through the Social Safety Net: Food Stamp Use and Nonuse among Older Impoverished Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Redmond, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults are less likely than any other age group to use the federal Food Stamp Program. The personal and social costs of elderly diet insufficiency include disease exacerbation, depression, and increased hospitalization. In order to improve targeting and outreach efforts, this study identifies the characteristics of eligible older…

  10. Mathematical Modeling of High-Temperature Constitutive Equations and Hot Processing Maps for As-Cast SA508-3 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Dashan; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Lingling; Gao, Liang; Cui, Zhenshan

    2016-11-01

    The hot deformation behavior and hot workability characteristics of as-cast SA508-3 steel were studied by modeling the constitutive equations and developing hot processing maps. The isothermal compression experiments were carried out at temperatures of 950°C, 1050°C, 1150°C, and 1250°C and strain rates of 0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, and 1 s-1 respectively. The two-stage flow stress models were established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening, and the solution of activation energy for hot deformation was 355.0 kJ mol-1 K-1. Based on the dynamic material model, the power dissipation and instability maps were developed separately at strains of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. The power dissipation rate increases with both the increase of temperature and the decrease of strain rate, and the instable region mainly appears on the conditions of low temperature and high strain rate. The optimal hot working parameters for as-cast SA508-3 steel are 1050-1200°C/0.001-0.1 s-1, with about 25-40% peak efficiency of power dissipation.

  11. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. 75 FR 11913 - Chrysler, LLC; Warren Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC; Warren, MI... from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC were employed on-site at the Warren, Michigan location of... Department is amending this certification to include workers leased from Caravan Knight Facilities Management...

  13. 76 FR 73733 - Union Electric Company; Callaway Plant, Unit 1; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) limits, heat flux hot channel factor (F Q ), nuclear enthalpy rise hot.... Upon receipt of a transmission, the E-Filing system time-stamps the document and sends the submitter an...

  14. Postage Stamps and Peace Education: The Nobel Peace Prize. Peace Education Miniprints No. 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Irwin

    This paper suggests how peace stamps can be used to further understanding of the movement for world peace. In this effort the Nobel Peace Prize, the most prestigious award in the world for peacemaking, is used as a focus. In the prizes from 1901 to the present, the Norwegian Nobel committees have recognized the major paths to peace. This variety…

  15. 75 FR 35 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318-112 Airplane (S/N 3886); Certification of a Cooktop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ..., include with your comments a self-addressed, stamped postcard on which the docket number appears. We will stamp the date on the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On December 5, 2008, Bizjet... sources and the presence of relatively unrestrained hot cookware and heated food. These may represent...

  16. Theoretical study on the cooperative exciton dissociation process based on dimensional and hot charge-transfer state effects in an organic photocell

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, Tomomi; Nakajima, Takahito

    2016-06-21

    This paper discusses the exciton dissociation process at the donor–acceptor interface in organic photocells. In our previous study, we introduced a local temperature to handle the hot charge-transfer (CT) state and calculated the exciton dissociation probability based on the 1D organic semiconductor model [T. Shimazaki and T. Nakajima, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 12538 (2015)]. Although the hot CT state plays an essential role in exciton dissociations, the probabilities calculated are not high enough to efficiently separate bound electron–hole pairs. This paper focuses on the dimensional (entropy) effect together with the hot CT state effect and shows that cooperative behaviormore » between both effects can improve the exciton dissociation process. In addition, we discuss cooperative effects with site-disorders and external-electric-fields.« less

  17. Optimization of the Hot Forging Processing Parameters for Powder Metallurgy Fe-Cu-C Connecting Rods Based on Finite Element Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengxian; Yi, Jianhong; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Powder forged connecting rods have the problem of non-uniform density distributions because of their complex geometric shape. The densification behaviors of powder metallurgy (PM) connecting rod preforms during hot forging processes play a significant role in optimizing the connecting rod quality. The deformation behaviors of a connecting rod preform, a Fe-3Cu-0.5C (wt pct) alloy compacted and sintered by the powder metallurgy route (PM Fe-Cu-C), were investigated using the finite element method, while damage and friction behaviors of the material were considered in the complicated forging process. The calculated results agree well with the experimental results. The relationship between the processing parameters of hot forging and the relative density of the connecting rod was revealed. The results showed that the relative density of the hot forged connecting rod at the central shank changed significantly compared with the relative density at the big end and at the small end. Moreover, the relative density of the connecting rod was sensitive to the processing parameters such as the forging velocity and the initial density of the preform. The optimum forging processing parameters were determined and presented by using an orthogonal design method. This work suggests that the processing parameters can be optimized to prepare a connecting rod with uniform density distribution and can help to better meet the requirements of the connecting rod industry.

  18. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  19. Effect of Hot Rolling Process on Microstructure and Properties of Low-Carbon Al-Killed Steels Produced Through TSCR Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, S. K.; Ahmed, U.; Megahed, G. M.

    2011-10-01

    Low-carbon Al-killed hot rolled strips for direct forming, cold rolling, and galvanizing applications are produced from the similar chemistry at Ezz Flat Steel (EFS) through thin slab casting and rolling (TSCR) technology. The desired mechanical and microstructural properties in hot bands for different applications are achieved through control of hot rolling parameters, which in turn control the precipitation and growth of AlN. Nitrogen in solid solution strongly influences the yield strength (YS), ductility, strain aging index (SAI), and other formability properties of steel. The equilibrium solubility of AlN in austenite at different temperatures and its isothermal precipitation have been studied. To achieve the formability properties for direct forming, soluble nitrogen is fixed as AlN by coiling the strip at higher temperatures. For stringent cold forming, boron was added below the stoichiometric ratio with nitrogen, which improved the formability properties dramatically. The requirements of hot band for processing into cold rolled and annealed deep drawing sheets are high SAI and fine-grain microstructure. Higher finish rolling and low coiling temperatures are used to achieve these. Fully processed cold rolled sheets from these hot strips at customer's end have shown good formability properties. Coil break marks observed in some coils during uncoiling were found to be associated with yielding phenomenon. The spike height (difference between upper and lower yield stresses) and yield point elongation (YPE) were found to be the key material parameters for the break marks. Factors affecting these parameters have been studied and the coiling temperature optimized to overcome the problem.

  20. Optimized manufacture of nuclear fuel cladding tubes by FEA of hot extrusion and cold pilgering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillac, Alexis; Ly, Céline

    2018-05-01

    Within the forming route of Zirconium alloy cladding tubes, hot extrusion is used to deform the forged billets into tube hollows, which are then cold rolled to produce the final tubes with the suitable properties for in-reactor use. The hot extrusion goals are to give the appropriate geometry for cold pilgering, without creating surface defects and microstructural heterogeneities which are detrimental for subsequent rolling. In order to ensure a good quality of the tube hollows, hot extrusion parameters have to be carefully chosen. For this purpose, finite element models are used in addition to experimental tests. These models can take into account the thermo-mechanical coupling conditions obtained in the tube and the tools during extrusion, and provide a good prediction of the extrusion load and the thermo-mechanical history of the extruded product. This last result can be used to calculate the fragmentation of the microstructure in the die and the meta-dynamic recrystallization after extrusion. To further optimize the manufacturing route, a numerical model of the cold pilgering process is also applied, taking into account the complex geometry of the tools and the pseudo-steady state rolling sequence of this incremental forming process. The strain and stress history of the tube during rolling can then be used to assess the damage risk thanks to the use of ductile damage models. Once validated vs. experimental data, both numerical models were used to optimize the manufacturing route and the quality of zirconium cladding tubes. This goal was achieved by selecting hot extrusion parameters giving better recrystallized microstructure that improves the subsequent formability. Cold pilgering parameters were also optimized in order to reduce the potential ductile damage in the cold rolled tubes.

  1. Evolution of Oxide Inclusions in Si-Mn Killed Steels During Hot-Rolling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Guo, Changbo; Zhang, Lifeng; Ling, Haitao; Li, Chao

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of oxide inclusions in Si-Mn killed steels refined by slags of different basicity during a four-pass industrial hot-rolling process was investigated using an automated microscopy system. High-basicity refining slag induced the formation of CaO- and Al2O3-containing inclusions, while refining slag with 0.8 basicity induced dominant inclusions of SiO2 and MnO-SiO2. CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions mainly formed endogenously during solidification and cooling of Ca-containing steels, where Ca originated from slag-steel reactions. However, the larger-sized higher-CaO inclusions originated from slag entrainment. Different inclusions presented different hot-rolling behaviors. The inclusion composition changed by deformation and new phase formation. The dominant oxide types were unchanged under refinement by low-basicity slag; however, they changed under refinement with high-basicity slag. The deformation index of inclusions decreased with increasing accumulated reduction (AR) of the steel. The difference in deformation index between different inclusion types was the largest in the first rolling stage and decreased in subsequent stages. SiO2-CaO and SiO2-MnO-CaO inclusions had larger deformation indices during hot rolling but smaller indices in the last two stages. High-basicity slag increased inclusion complexity; from the perspective of cold-drawing performance, low-basicity refining slag is better for the industrial production of tire-cord steels.

  2. 76 FR 26949 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... comments on this proposal, include with your comments a pre-addressed, stamped postcard on which the docket number appears. We will stamp the date on the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On November 4... pots), other than a conventional lavatory or kitchenette hot water heater, within the OFAR compartment...

  3. Formation of Hot Tear Under Controlled Solidification Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subroto, Tungky; Miroux, Alexis; Bouffier, Lionel; Josserond, Charles; Salvo, Luc; Suéry, Michel; Eskin, Dmitry G.; Katgerman, Laurens

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum alloy 7050 is known for its superior mechanical properties, and thus finds its application in aerospace industry. Vertical direct-chill (DC) casting process is typically employed for producing such an alloy. Despite its advantages, AA7050 is considered as a "hard-to-cast" alloy because of its propensity to cold cracking. This type of cracks occurs catastrophically and is difficult to predict. Previous research suggested that such a crack could be initiated by undeveloped hot tears (microscopic hot tear) formed during the DC casting process if they reach a certain critical size. However, validation of such a hypothesis has not been done yet. Therefore, a method to produce a hot tear with a controlled size is needed as part of the verification studies. In the current study, we demonstrate a method that has a potential to control the size of the created hot tear in a small-scale solidification process. We found that by changing two variables, cooling rate and displacement compensation rate, the size of the hot tear during solidification can be modified in a controlled way. An X-ray microtomography characterization technique is utilized to quantify the created hot tear. We suggest that feeding and strain rate during DC casting are more important compared with the exerted force on the sample for the formation of a hot tear. In addition, we show that there are four different domains of hot-tear development in the explored experimental window—compression, microscopic hot tear, macroscopic hot tear, and failure. The samples produced in the current study will be used for subsequent experiments that simulate cold-cracking conditions to confirm the earlier proposed model.

  4. 75 FR 19431 - Union Electric Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... (DNBR) limits, heat flux hot channel factor (F Q ), nuclear enthalpy rise hot channel factor (F[Delta]H...-stamps the document and sends the submitter an e-mail notice confirming receipt of the document. The E...

  5. An investigation into the suitability of some etching reagents to restoring obliterated stamped numbers on cast iron engine blocks of cars.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, Mohd Farizon; Mohamad Ghani, Nurul Izwani; Kuppuswamy, R

    2012-11-30

    Most of the automotive companies use cast iron for their engine blocks. Restoration of obliterated number on these iron surfaces by chemical etching is known to be quite difficult. Heating of the obliterated surface using oxyacetylene flame is an alternative recovery treatment suggested in literature and used in practice. However chemical etching has been established to be the most sensitive technique for detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers. Hence, the current work investigated the suitability of some common etchants on cast iron surfaces with a view to determining the most suitable one for revealing the obliterated marks. The reagents tested were mostly copper containing Fry's reagent and its modifications. Two cast iron engine blocks (3.29%C and 3.1%C) of two cars--a Proton Saga and a Toyota--were utilized for the experiments. The engine blocks were cut into several small plates and each plate was stamped with some numerical characters at 8 kN load using Instron Table Mounted Universal Testing Machine. The depth of stamping impression varied between 0.2 mm and 0.3 mm. The stamped number was completely ground off manually using a metal file. The grounded surface was then polished smooth using emery papers and etched with a few selected reagents mostly by swabbing. Experimental results showed that a modified Fry's composition consisting of 4 5g CuCl(2), 100 mL HCl, and 180 mL H(2)O restored the number with better contrast at a reasonably shorter time. The above reagent is a slightly modified form of one of the Fry's original compositions--45 g CuCl(2), 180 mL HCl, and 100 mL H(2)O. Quite importantly the proposed reagent restored the original stamped numbers of both Proton and Toyota cars and also a Mitsubishi car that had been obliterated. The most widely used Fry's composition (90 g CuCl(2), 120 mL HCl and 100 mL H(2)O), although recovered the obliterated number, did not cause the desired contrast. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland

  6. Studying the Solar System Can Be More Than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-04-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly could consist mostly of showing images and reporting facts, but by using observations that can be made from images and also data and other known facts about the objects, instruction on solar system topics can be more conceptual, involving just as much inquiry and discovery as any area of astronomy or physics.

  7. The Effect of Food Stamp Nutrition Education on the Food Insecurity of Low-Income Women Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Mason, April C.; Abbott, Angela R.; McCabe, George P.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE) in Indiana on participants' food insecurity and food insufficiency. Design: A single-blind randomized design. A randomized experimental group completed 5 FSNE lessons as an intervention between a pre- and posttest, whereas a control group completed a pre- and posttest…

  8. Watching the Clocks: The Role of Food Stamp Recertification and TANF Time Limits in Caseload Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribar, David C.; Edelhoch, Marilyn; Liu, Qiduan

    2008-01-01

    We use administrative data to examine how "clock" policies--program time limits and recurring deadlines for confirming eligibility--affected participation in South Carolina's TANF and Food Stamp Programs from 1996-2003. South Carolina's TANF program limits most families to two years of benefits in any ten-year period; so, recipients…

  9. Hot corrosion of the B2 nickel aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The hot corrosion behavior of the B2 nickel aluminides was studied to determine the inherent hot corrosion resistance of the beta nickel aluminides and to develop a mechanism for the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides. The effects of the prior processing of the material, small additions of zirconium, stoichiometry of the materials, and preoxidation of the samples were also examined. Additions of 2, 5, and 15 w/o chromium were used to determine the effect of chromium on the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides and the minimum amount of chromium necessary for good hot corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the beta nickel aluminides have inferior inherent hot corrosion resistance despite their excellent oxidation resistance. Prior processing and zirconium additions had no discernible effect on the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys. Preoxidation extended the incubation period of the alloys only a few hours and was not considered to be an effective means of stopping hot corrosion. Stoichiometry was a major factor in determining the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys with the higher aluminum alloys having a definitely superior hot corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the alloys stopped the hot corrosion attack in the alloys tested. From a variety of experimental results, a complex hot corrosion mechanism was proposed. During the early stages of the hot corrosion of these alloys the corrosion is dominated by a local sulphidation/oxidation form of attack. During the intermediate stages of the hot corrosion, the aluminum depletion at the surface leads to a change in the oxidation mechanism from a protective external alumina layer to a mixed nickel-aluminum spinel and nickel oxide that can occur both externally and internally. The material undergoes extensive cracking during the later portions of the hot corrosion.

  10. Hot deformation behavior of uniform fine-grained GH4720Li alloy based on its processing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qiu-ying; Yao, Zhi-hao; Dong, Jian-xin

    2016-01-01

    The hot deformation behavior of uniform fine-grained GH4720Li alloy was studied in the temperature range from 1040 to 1130°C and the strain-rate range from 0.005 to 0.5 s-1 using hot compression testing. Processing maps were constructed on the basis of compression data and a dynamic materials model. Considerable flow softening associated with superplasticity was observed at strain rates of 0.01 s-1 or lower. According to the processing map and observations of the microstructure, the uniform fine-grained microstructure remains intact at 1100°C or lower because of easily activated dynamic recrystallization (DRX), whereas obvious grain growth is observed at 1130°C. Metallurgical instabilities in the form of non-uniform microstructures under higher and lower Zener-Hollomon parameters are induced by local plastic flow and primary γ' local faster dissolution, respectively. The optimum processing conditions at all of the investigated strains are proposed as 1090-1130°C with 0.08-0.5 s-1 and 0.005-0.008 s-1 and 1040-1085°C with 0.005-0.06 s-1.

  11. Assessing the Biological Contribution to Mineralized Cap Formation in the Little Hot Creek Hot Spring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, J. G.; Beeler, S. R.; Mors, R. A.; Kraus, E. A.; 2016, G.; Piazza, O.; Frantz, C. M.; Loyd, S. J.; Berelson, W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Marenco, P. J.; Spear, J. R.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hot spring environments exhibit unique redox/physical gradients that may create favorable conditions for the presence of life and commonly contain mineral precipitates that could provide a geologic archive of such ecosystems on Earth and potentially other planets. However, it is critical to discern biologic from abiotic formation mechanisms if hot spring-associated minerals are to be used as biosignatures. The study of modern hot spring environments where mineral formation can be directly observed is necessary to better interpret the biogenicity of ancient/extraterrestrial examples. Little Hot Creek (LHC), a hot spring located in the Long Valley Caldera, California, contains mineral precipitates composed of a carbonate base covered with amorphous silica and minor carbonate in close association with microbial mats/biofilms. Geological, geochemical, and microbiological techniques were integrated to investigate the role of biology in mineral formation at LHC. Geochemical measurements indicate that the waters of the spring are near equilibrium with respect to carbonate and undersaturated with respect to silica, implying additional processes are necessary to initiate cap formation. Geochemical modeling, integrating elemental and isotopic data from hot spring water and mineral precipitates, indicate that the abiotic processes of degassing and evaporation drive mineral formation at LHC, without microbial involvement. However, petrographic analysis of LHC caps revealed microbial microfabrics within silica mineral phases, despite the fact that microbial metabolism was not required for mineral precipitation. Our results show that microorganisms in hot spring environments can shape mineral precipitates even in the absence of a control on authigenesis, highlighting the need for structural as well as geochemical investigation in similar systems.

  12. Hot Topics: Solar Interconnection Policy | State, Local, and Tribal

    Science.gov Websites

    Governments | NREL Blog » Hot Topics: Solar Interconnection Policy Hot Topics: Solar Renewable Energy Laboratory, discussing the PV interconnection process as part of our Hot Topics series

  13. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  14. Investigation on Hot Workability of Homogenized Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Based on Activation Energy and Processing Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Su, Wusen; Xiao, Dan; Xu, Guofu

    2018-06-01

    Hot deformation behaviors of the homogenized Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy were studied by uniaxial compression tests carried out at 623-743 K and strain rates of 0.01-10 s-1. The constitutive equation was developed for the activation energy, and thus the activation energy map was constructed. During the hot deformation, the dominated softening mechanisms were the dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization, which were most likely to be driven with increasing temperature and decreasing activation energy. Based on the superposition of the activation energy map and the processing map, together with the microstructure characteristics, the optimized hot workability of the alloy was proposed at the domain (670-743 K and 0.01-0.16 s-1), where the peak efficiency was 0.39 and the activation energy range was 196-260 kJ mol-1.

  15. Hot deformation behaviors and processing maps of B{sub 4}C/Al6061 neutron absorber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yu-Li

    In this study, the hot deformation behaviors of 30 wt.% B{sub 4}C/Al6061 neutron absorber composites (NACs) have been investigated by conducting isothermal compression tests at temperatures ranging from 653 K to 803 K and strain rates from 0.01 to 10 s{sup −1}. It was found that, during hot compression, the B{sub 4}C/Al6061 NACs exhibited a steady flow characteristic which can be expressed by the Zener-Hollomon parameter as a hyperbolic-sine function of flow stress. High average activation energy (185.62 kJ/mol) of B{sub 4}C/Al6061 NACs is noted in current study owing to the high content of B{sub 4}C particle. The optimum hotmore » working conditions for B{sub 4}C/Al6061 NACs are found to be 760–803 K/0.01–0.05 s{sup −1} based on processing map and microstructure evolution. Typical material instabilities are thought to be attributed to void formation, adiabatic shear bands (ASB), particle debonding, and matrix cracking. Finally, the effect of the plastic deformation zones (PDZs) on the microstructure evolution in this 30 wt.% B{sub 4}C/Al6061 composite is found to be very important. - Highlights: •The hot deformation behavior of the 30 wt.% B{sub 4}C/Al6061 NACs was first analyzed. •The 3D efficiency map and the instability map are developed. •The optimum hot working conditions were identified and validated by SEM and TEM. •The hot deformation schematic diagram of 30 wt.% B{sub 4}C/Al6061 NACs is developed.« less

  16. Flow Stress and Processing Map of a PM 8009Al/SiC Particle Reinforced Composite During Hot Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haibo; Teng, Jie; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Hot compression tests of 8009Al alloy reinforced with 15% SiC particles (8009Al/15%SiCp composites) prepared by powder metallurgy (direct hot extrusion methods) were performed on Gleeble-3500 system in the temperature range of 400-550 °C and strain rate range of 0.001-1 s-1. The processing map based on the dynamic material model was established to evaluate the flow instability regime and optimize processing parameters; the associated microstructural changes were studied by the observations of optical metallographic and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the flow stress increased initially and reached a plateau after peak stress value with increasing strain. The peak stress increased as the strain rate increased and deformation temperature decreased. The optimum parameters were identified to be deformation temperature range of 500-550 °C and strain rate range of 0.001-0.02 s-1 by combining the processing map with microstructural observation.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Laser Beam Welded Ultra-high Strength Chromium Steel with Martensitic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Martin; Janzen, Vitalij; Lindner, Stefan; Wagener, Rainer

    A new class of steels is going to be introduced into sheet manufacturing. Stainless ferritic and martensitic steels open up opportunities for sheet metal fabrication including hot stamping. A strength of up to 2 GPa at a fracture strain of 15% can be attained. Welding of these materials became apparently a challenge. Energy-reduced welding methods with in-situ heat treatment are required in order to ensure the delicate and complex heat control. Laser beam welding is the joining technique of choice to supply minimum heat input to the fusion process and to apply an efficient heat control. For two application cases, production of tailored blanks in as-rolled condition and welding in assembly in hot stamped conditions, welding processes have been developed. The welding suitability is shown in metallurgical investigations of the welds. Crash tests based on the KSII concept as well as fatigue tests prove the applicability of the joining method. For the case of assembly also joining with deep drawing and manganese boron steel was taken into consideration. The strength of the joint is determined by the weaker partner but can benefit from its ductility.

  18. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  19. Hot-spot tectonics on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  20. Evaluation of anti-sticking layers performances for 200mm wafer scale Smart NILTM process through surface and defectivity characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delachat, F.; Phillipe, J.-C.; Larrey, V.; Fournel, F.; Bos, S.; Teyssèdre, H.; Chevalier, Xavier; Nicolet, Célia; Navarro, Christophe; Cayrefourcq, Ian

    2018-03-01

    In this work, an evaluation of various ASL processes for 200 mm wafer scale in the HERCULES® NIL equipment platform available at the CEA-Leti through the INSPIRE program is reported. The surface and adherence energies were correlated to the AFM and defectivity results in order to select the most promising ASL process for high resolution etch mask applications. The ASL performances of the selected process were evaluated by multiple working stamp fabrication using unpatterned and patterned masters though defectivity monitoring on optical based-inspection tools. Optical and SEM defect reviews were systematically performed. Multiple working stamps fabrication without degradation of the master defectivity was witnessed. This evaluation enabled to benchmark several ASL solutions based on the grafted technology develop by ARKEMA in order to reduce and optimize the soft stamp defectivity prior to its replication and therefore considerably reduce the final imprint defectivity for the Smart NIL process.

  1. Measuring the effect of food stamps on food insecurity and hunger: research and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Parke E

    2007-02-01

    The federal government has estimated the prevalence of household "food insecurity" and "food insecurity with hunger" since 1995. Early observers believed that the new measure could be used to assess and improve the Food Stamp Program (FSP). Ten years of research have tempered the initial optimism. The prevalence of food insecurity with hunger (12.3% of all low-income households in 2004) is much higher among food stamp participant households (18.6% in 2004) than among low-income nonparticipant households (10.1% in 2004), due to strong self-selection effects. Households facing greater hardship are more likely to join the program. This article reviews 6 types of nonexperimental research designs that have been used to address the self-selection problem. The results have been inconclusive and the authors have warned against drawing causal inferences from their research. Ethical random-assignment research designs may be required to satisfy the intense policy interest in measuring the antihunger impact of the FSP. The most promising ethical research designs would test the effects of offering eligibility to households that are currently ineligible or offering increased benefits to households that are currently eligible for small benefit amounts.

  2. Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes within nano- to macroscales. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of input of labile organics by plants creates microbial hotspots over short periods of time - the hot moments. We define microbial hotspots as small soil volumes with much faster process rates and much more intensive interactions compared to the average soil conditions. Such hotspots are found in the rhizosphere, detritusphere, biopores (including drilosphere) and on aggregate surfaces, but hotspots are frequently of mixed origin. Hot moments are short-term events or sequences of events inducing accelerated process rates as compared to the averaged rates. Thus, hotspots and hot moments are defined by dynamic characteristics, i.e. by process rates. For this hotspot concept we extensively reviewed and examined the localization and size of hotspots, spatial distribution and visualization approaches, transport of labile C to and from hotspots, lifetime and process intensities, with a special focus on process rates and microbial activities. The fraction of active microorganisms in hotspots is 2-20 times higher than in the bulk soil, and their specific activities (i.e. respiration, microbial growth, mineralization potential, enzyme activities, RNA/DNA ratio) may also be much higher. The duration of hot moments in the rhizosphere is limited and is controlled by the length of the input of labile organics. It can last a few hours up to a few days. In the detritusphere, however, the duration of hot moments is regulated by the output - by decomposition rates of litter - and lasts for weeks and months. Hot moments induce succession in microbial communities and intense intra- and interspecific competition affecting C use efficiency, microbial growth and turnover. The faster turnover and lower C use efficiency in hotspots counterbalances the high C inputs, leading to the absence of strong

  3. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    PubMed

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  4. Hot Deformation Behavior and Pulse Current Auxiliary Isothermal Forging of Hot Pressing Sintering TiAl Based Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chengcheng; Jiang, Shaosong; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the fabrication of as-forged Ti46.5Al2Cr1.8Nb-(W, B) alloy via pulse current auxiliary isothermal forging (PCIF). The starting material composed of near gamma (NG) microstructure was fabricated by adopting pre-alloyed powders via hot pressing sintering (HPS) at 1300 °C. Isothermal compression tests were conducted at a strain rate range of 0.001–0.1 s−1 and a temperature range of 1125–1275 °C to establish the constitutive model and processing map. The optimal hot deformation parameters were successfully determined (in a strain rate range of 10−3–2.5 × 10−3 s−1 and temperature range of 1130–1180 °C) based on the hot processing map and microstructure observation. Accordingly, an as-forged TiAl based alloy without cracks was successfully fabricated by PCIF processing at 1175 °C with a nominal strain rate of 10−3 s−1. Microstructure observation indicated that complete dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and phase transformation of γ→α2 occurred during the PCIF process. The elongation of as-forged alloy was 136%, possessing a good secondary hot workability, while the sintered alloy was only 66% when tested at 900 °C with a strain rate of 2 × 10−4 s−1. PMID:29258198

  5. Hot Deformation Behavior and Pulse Current Auxiliary Isothermal Forging of Hot Pressing Sintering TiAl Based Alloys.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chengcheng; Jiang, Shaosong; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2017-12-16

    This paper focuses on the fabrication of as-forged Ti46.5Al2Cr1.8Nb-(W, B) alloy via pulse current auxiliary isothermal forging (PCIF). The starting material composed of near gamma (NG) microstructure was fabricated by adopting pre-alloyed powders via hot pressing sintering (HPS) at 1300 °C. Isothermal compression tests were conducted at a strain rate range of 0.001-0.1 s -1 and a temperature range of 1125-1275 °C to establish the constitutive model and processing map. The optimal hot deformation parameters were successfully determined (in a strain rate range of 10 -3 -2.5 × 10 -3 s -1 and temperature range of 1130-1180 °C) based on the hot processing map and microstructure observation. Accordingly, an as-forged TiAl based alloy without cracks was successfully fabricated by PCIF processing at 1175 °C with a nominal strain rate of 10 -3 s -1 . Microstructure observation indicated that complete dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and phase transformation of γ→α₂ occurred during the PCIF process. The elongation of as-forged alloy was 136%, possessing a good secondary hot workability, while the sintered alloy was only 66% when tested at 900 °C with a strain rate of 2 × 10 -4 s -1 .

  6. Measurement, time-stamping, and analysis of electrodermal activity in fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyser, Christopher; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Rainville, Pierre; Bechara, Antione; Razavi, Mehrdad; Mehta, Sonya; Eaton, Brent L.; Bolinger, Lizann

    2002-04-01

    A low cost fMRI-compatible system was developed for detecting electrodermal activity without inducing image artifact. Subject electrodermal activity was measured on the plantar surface of the foot using a standard recording circuit. Filtered analog skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded with a general purpose, time-stamping data acquisition system. A conditioning paradigm involving painful thermal stimulation was used to demonstrate SCR detection and investigate neural correlates of conditioned autonomic activity. 128x128 pixel EPI-BOLD images were acquired with a GE 1.5T Signa scanner. Image analysis was performed using voxel-wise multiple linear regression. The covariate of interest was generated by convolving stimulus event onset with a standard hemodynamic response function. The function was time-shifted to determine optimal activation. Significance was tested using the t-statistic. Image quality was unaffected by the device, and conditioned and unconditioned SCRs were successfully detected. Conditioned SCRs correlated significantly with activity in the right anterior insular cortex. The effect was more robust when responses were scaled by SCR amplitude. The ability to measure and time register SCRs during fMRI acquisition enables studies of cognitive processes marked by autonomic activity, including those involving decision-making, pain, emotion, and addiction.

  7. The Evolution of Second-Phase Particles in 6111 Aluminum Alloy Processed by Hot and Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixin; Wang, Yihan; Ni, Song; Chen, Gang; Li, Kai; Du, Yong; Song, Min

    2018-03-01

    The evolution of coarse Al9.9Fe2.65Ni1.45 phase, spherical Al12(Mn,Fe)3Si phase and rod-like Q phase in a 6111 aluminum alloy during hot and cold rolling deformation processes was systematically investigated in this work. The results showed that the coarse Al9.9Fe2.65Ni1.45 particles are mainly distributed at the grain boundaries, accompanied by the co-formation of Al12(Fe,Mn)3Si phase and Mg2Si phase, while the spherical Al12(Mn,Fe)3Si particles are mainly distributed in the grain interiors. Hot rolling has little effects on the size and distribution of both phases, but cold deformation can severely decrease the size of the particles by breaking the particles into small pieces. In addition, the temperature of 450 °C is not high enough for the dissolution of Q phase in the Al matrix, but the Q particles can be broken into small pieces due to the stress concentration during both hot and cold rolling deformation. In addition, the influences of phase evolution, dislocations and recrystallization on the mechanical properties evolution were also discussed.

  8. Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

  9. Kilauea volcano: the degassing of a hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1986-03-01

    Hot spots such as Kilauea volcano can degas by a one-stage eruptive process or a two-stage process involving eruptive and noneruptive degassing. One stage degassing occurs during sustained summit eruptions and causes a direct environmental impact. Although generally less efficient than the one-stage degassing process, two stage degassing can cause 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater impact in just a few hours during flank eruptions. Hot spot volcanos with resupplied crustal magma chambers may be capable of maintaining an equivalent impact from CO/sub 2/ and S outgassing during both eruptive and noneruptive periods. On average, a hot spot volcanomore » such as Kilauea is a minor polluter compared to man.« less

  10. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  11. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters.

    PubMed

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.

  12. High-definition micropatterning method for hard, stiff and brittle polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiping; Truckenmuller, Roman; Levers, Marloes; Hua, Wei-Shu; de Boer, Jan; Papenburg, Bernke

    2017-02-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is the most commonly used material in cell culture devices, such as Petri dishes, culture flasks and well plates. Micropatterning of cell culture substrates can significantly affect cell-material interactions leading to an increasing interest in the fabrication of topographically micro-structured PS surfaces. However, the high stiffness combined with brittleness of PS (elastic modulus 3-3.5GPa) makes high-quality patterning into PS difficult when standard hard molds, e.g. silicon and nickel, are used as templates. A new and robust scheme for easy processing of large-area high-density micro-patterning into PS film is established using nanoimprinting lithography and standard hot embossing techniques. Including an extra step through an intermediate PDMS mold alone does not result in faithful replication of the large area, high-density micropattern into PS. Here, we developed an approach using an additional intermediate mold out of OrmoStamp, which allows for high-quality and large-area micro-patterning into PS. OrmoStamp was originally developed for UV nanoimprint applications; this work demonstrates for the first time that OrmoStamp is a highly adequate material for micro-patterning of PS through hot embossing. Our proposed processing method achieves high-quality replication of micropatterns in PS, incorporating features with high aspect ratio (4:1, height:width), high density, and over a large pattern area. The proposed scheme can easily be adapted for other large-area and high-density micropatterns of PS, as well as other stiff and brittle polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental natural processes that achieve thermal comfort in multifamily buildings in hot-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Paola

    Buildings, especially in hot climates, consume a lot of energy when people want to be comfortable inside them, which translates to very expensive fees each month. The most innovative response to this problem is renewable energy, that is used, in this case, to run mechanical HVAC systems. Renewable energy is the solution for many problems, but to avoid urban heat islands when using excessive HVAC systems (powered by renewables), and to solve thermal comfort-related problems, there has to be other solution. The major challenge to find it would be to have a change of thinking process. If a building in a hot-arid region uses natural processes to emulate the functions of HVAC systems, and the proper passive strategies, then, it will provide thermal comfort to its users, diminishing the need of a mechanical system. This hypothesis will be carried out by extracting the natural processes found in a specific case in nature, applying them into a building's design, and then simulating its energy efficiency with the adequate software. There will be a comparison of the same proposed building without the natural processes, to have tangible numbers showing that these proposed strategies, in fact, work. With explanatory detailed diagrams and the energy analysis, the hypothesis could be proven correct or incorrect. The significance of this approach relies on the proximity to the natural processes that have been working in different aspects of life since the beginning of time. They have been there all the time, waiting until architects, engineers, and people in general use them, instead of making more new energy-using inventions. By having the numbers from a conventional building and the ones of the proposed building, and the right environmental diagrams, the experiment should be valid. In the near future, there should be more research focused on nature and its processes, in order to be able to reduce the use of mechanical systems, and with that, reduce the energy use and the carbon

  14. Microbial ecology of hot desert edaphic systems.

    PubMed

    Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Gunnigle, Eoin; Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Cowan, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of the Earth's surface is desert or in the process of desertification. The extreme environmental conditions that characterize these areas result in a surface that is essentially barren, with a limited range of higher plants and animals. Microbial communities are probably the dominant drivers of these systems, mediating key ecosystem processes. In this review, we examine the microbial communities of hot desert terrestrial biotopes (including soils, cryptic and refuge niches and plant-root-associated microbes) and the processes that govern their assembly. We also assess the possible effects of global climate change on hot desert microbial communities and the resulting feedback mechanisms. We conclude by discussing current gaps in our understanding of the microbiology of hot deserts and suggest fruitful avenues for future research. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Solid state recycling of aluminium alloys via a porthole die hot extrusion process: Scaling up to production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Kellens, Karel; Deng, Yelin; Dewulf, Wim; Kampen, Carlos; Duflou, Joost R.

    2017-10-01

    Whereas industrial symbiosis has led to increased energy and resource efficiency in process industries, this concept has not yet been applied in discrete product manufacturing. Metal scrap is first conventionally recycled, for which substantial energy and resource efficiency losses have been reported. Recent research has however proven the feasibility of `meltless' recycling of light metal scrap, yielding a first glimpse of potential industrial symbiosis. Various solid state recycling techniques (such as recycling via hot extrusion or Spark Plasma Sintering) have been proposed for scrap consolidation directly into bulk products or semis by physical disruption and dispersion of the oxide surface film by imposing significant plastic and shear strain. Solid State Recycling (SSR) methods can omit substantial material losses as they bypass the metallurgical recycling step. In this context the case of direct production of bulk aluminium profiles via hot extrusion at industrial scale is demonstrated within this paper. The extrusion tests were performed directly into the production line, highlighting the scaling up potentials and the industrial relevance of this research. A significant amount of machining chips were collected, chemically cleaned and cold compacted into chip based billets with ˜80% relative density. Afterwards the scrap consolidation was achieved by imposing significant plastic and shear deformation into the material during hot extrusion through a modified 2-porthole extrusion die-set. The production process sequence along with microstructural investigations and mechanical properties comparison of the cast based profile used as reference versus the chip based profile are presented.

  16. Hot granules medium pressure forming process of AA7075 conical parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guojiang; Zhao, Changcai; Peng, Yaxin; Li, Ying

    2015-05-01

    High strength aluminum alloy plate has a low elongation at room temperature, which leads to the forming of its components need a high temperature. Liquid or gas is used as the pressure-transfer medium in the existing flexible mould forming process, the heat resistance of the medium and pressurizing device makes the application of aluminum alloy plate thermoforming restricted. To solve this problem, the existing medium is replaced by the heat-resisting solid granules and the general pressure equipments are applied. Based on the pressure-transfer performance test of the solid granules medium, the feasibility that the assumption of the extended Drucker-Prager linear model can be used in the finite element analysis is proved. The constitutive equation, the yield function and the theoretical forming limit diagram(FLD) of AA7075 sheet are established. Through the finite element numerical simulation of hot granules medium pressure forming(HGMF) process, not only the influence laws of the process parameters, such as forming temperature, the blank-holder gap and the diameter of the slab, on sheet metal forming performance are discussed, but also the broken area of the forming process is analyzed and predicted, which are coincided with the technological test. The conical part whose half cone angle is 15° and relative height H/d 0 is 0.57, is formed in one process at 250°C. The HGMF process solves the problems of loading and seal in the existing flexible mould forming process and provides a novel technology for thermoforming of light alloy plate, such as magnesium alloy, aluminium alloy and titanium alloy.

  17. Automotive Manufacturing Processes. Volume IV - Metal Stamping and Plastic Forming Processes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-02-01

    Extensive material substitution and resizing of the domestic automotive fleet, as well as the introduction of new technologies, will require major changes in the techniques and equipment used in the various manufacturing processes employed in the pro...

  18. Small Friends of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Luis Ernesto; Johnson, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Hot Jupiters are Jupiter-sized gas giant exoplanets that closely orbit their host star in periods of about 10 days or less. Early models hypothesized that these exoplanets formed away from the star, then over time drifted to their characteristically closer locations. However, new theories predict that Hot Jupiters form at their close proximity during the process of core accretion (Batygin et al. 2015). In fact, a super-Earth and a Neptune-sized exoplanet have already been detected in the Hot Jupiter-hosting star WASP-47 (Becker et al. 2015). We will present our analysis of radial velocity time series plots to determine whether low-mass, short-period planets have been previously overlooked in systems of stars which host Hot Jupiters.The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851.

  19. Process research into metallic pipe wear of hot chamber die casting machines and methods ofincreasing wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhametzyanova, G. F.; Kolesnikov, MS; Mukhametzyanov, I. R.; Astatshenko, V. I.

    2017-09-01

    The kinetics and reasons for metallic pipe wear of hot chamberzinc alloy die casting machines are established.Increasing metallic pipe wear components wear resistance is being achieved by means of die steelДИ - 22 with electroslag remelting modification and electron-beamremelting modification and after the processes of nitriding and boriding besides.

  20. Application of a dislocation based model for Interstitial Free (IF) steels to typical stamping simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho Resende, T.; Balan, T.; Abed-Meraim, F.; Bouvier, S.; Sablin, S.-S.

    2010-06-01

    composition. During sheet metal forming processes local material points may experience multi-axial and multi-path loadings. Before simulating actual industrial parts, automotive manufacturers use validation tools—e.g. the Cross-Die stamping test. Such typical stamping tests enable the evaluation of a complex distribution of strains. The work described is an implementation [2] of a 3D dislocation based model in ABAQUS/Explicit and its validation on a Finite Element (FE) Cross-Die model. In order to assess the performance and relevance of the 3D dislocation based model in the simulation of industrial forming applications, the results of thinning profiles predicted along several directions and the strain distribution were obtained and compared with experimental results for IF steels with grain sizes varying in the 8-22 μm value range.

  1. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

    2011-09-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  2. Connecting the dots across time: reconstruction of single-cell signalling trajectories using time-stamped data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sayak; Stewart, David; Stewart, William; Lanier, Lewis L.; Das, Jayajit

    2017-08-01

    Single-cell responses are shaped by the geometry of signalling kinetic trajectories carved in a multidimensional space spanned by signalling protein abundances. It is, however, challenging to assay a large number (more than 3) of signalling species in live-cell imaging, which makes it difficult to probe single-cell signalling kinetic trajectories in large dimensions. Flow and mass cytometry techniques can measure a large number (4 to more than 40) of signalling species but are unable to track single cells. Thus, cytometry experiments provide detailed time-stamped snapshots of single-cell signalling kinetics. Is it possible to use the time-stamped cytometry data to reconstruct single-cell signalling trajectories? Borrowing concepts of conserved and slow variables from non-equilibrium statistical physics we develop an approach to reconstruct signalling trajectories using snapshot data by creating new variables that remain invariant or vary slowly during the signalling kinetics. We apply this approach to reconstruct trajectories using snapshot data obtained from in silico simulations, live-cell imaging measurements, and, synthetic flow cytometry datasets. The application of invariants and slow variables to reconstruct trajectories provides a radically different way to track objects using snapshot data. The approach is likely to have implications for solving matching problems in a wide range of disciplines.

  3. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Treesearch

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  4. Hot Deformation and Processing Window Optimization of a 70MnSiCrMo Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Hua

    2017-03-21

    The hot deformation behavior of a high carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied through isothermal compression tests that were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator at temperatures of 1223-1423 K and strain rates of 0.01-5 s -1 . The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. It is found that the flow stress increases with increasing the strain rate and decreases with increasing the temperature, and the single-peak DRX can be easily observed at high temperatures and/or low strain rates. The internal relationship between the flow stress and processing parameters was built by the constitutive equations embracing a parameter of Z/A, where the activation energy for hot deformation is 351.539 kJ/mol and the stress exponent is 4.233. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model. The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323-1423 K and strain rate range of 0.06-1 s -1 .

  5. Hot Deformation and Processing Window Optimization of a 70MnSiCrMo Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The hot deformation behavior of a high carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied through isothermal compression tests that were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator at temperatures of 1223–1423 K and strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1. The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. It is found that the flow stress increases with increasing the strain rate and decreases with increasing the temperature, and the single-peak DRX can be easily observed at high temperatures and/or low strain rates. The internal relationship between the flow stress and processing parameters was built by the constitutive equations embracing a parameter of Z/A, where the activation energy for hot deformation is 351.539 kJ/mol and the stress exponent is 4.233. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model. The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323–1423 K and strain rate range of 0.06–1 s−1. PMID:28772678

  6. Hot-electron-mediated surface chemistry: toward electronic control of catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Young; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Hyosun; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I

    2015-08-18

    Energy dissipation at surfaces and interfaces is mediated by excitation of elementary processes, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface during exothermic chemical processes. Nonadiabatic electronic excitation in exothermic catalytic reactions results in the flow of energetic electrons with an energy of 1-3 eV when chemical energy is converted to electron flow on a short (femtosecond) time scale before atomic vibration adiabatically dissipates the energy (in picoseconds). These energetic electrons that are not in thermal equilibrium with the metal atoms are called "hot electrons". The detection of hot electron flow under atomic or molecular processes and understanding its role in chemical reactions have been major topics in surface chemistry. Recent studies have demonstrated electronic excitation produced during atomic or molecular processes on surfaces, and the influence of hot electrons on atomic and molecular processes. We outline research efforts aimed at identification of the intrinsic relation between the flow of hot electrons and catalytic reactions. We show various strategies for detection and use of hot electrons generated by the energy dissipation processes in surface chemical reactions and photon absorption. A Schottky barrier localized at the metal-oxide interface of either catalytic nanodiodes or hybrid nanocatalysts allows hot electrons to irreversibly transport through the interface. We show that the chemicurrent, composed of hot electrons excited by the surface reaction of CO oxidation or hydrogen oxidation, correlates well with the turnover rate measured separately by gas chromatography. Furthermore, we show that hot electron flows generated on a gold thin film by photon absorption (or internal photoemission) can be amplified by localized surface plasmon resonance. The influence of hot charge carriers on the chemistry at the metal-oxide interface are discussed for the cases of Au, Ag, and Pt

  7. 76 FR 44619 - In the Matter of Bozeman Deaconess Foundation, dba Bozeman Deaconess Hospital, Bozeman, MT...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... radioactive materials from unauthorized access or removal from the facility's nuclear medicine laboratory (hot... secure radioactive material during periods when authorized personnel were absent from the hot lab. Based... E-Filing system time-stamps the document and sends the submitter an e-mail notice confirming receipt...

  8. Direct Certification Process. Nourishing News. Volume 4, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter discusses the Electronic Direct Certification process and provides additional insight as needed. Under this New Direct Certification process school districts compare information from their student information system to Idaho State Department of Health and Welfare database to certify children receiving Food Stamps or TAFI as…

  9. Hot Charge Carrier Transmission from Plasmonic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Phillip; Moskovits, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Surface plasmons have recently been harnessed to carry out processes such as photovoltaic current generation, redox photochemistry, photocatalysis, and photodetection, all of which are enabled by separating energetic (hot) electrons and holes—processes that, previously, were the domain of semiconductor junctions. Currently, the power conversion efficiencies of systems using plasmon excitation are low. However, the very large electron/hole per photon quantum efficiencies observed for plasmonic devices fan the hope of future improvements through a deeper understanding of the processes involved and through better device engineering, especially of critical interfaces such as those between metallic and semiconducting nanophases (or adsorbed molecules). In this review, we focus on the physics and dynamics governing plasmon-derived hot charge carrier transfer across, and the electronic structure at, metal-semiconductor (molecule) interfaces, where we feel the barriers contributing to low efficiencies reside. We suggest some areas of opportunity that deserve early attention in the still-evolving field of hot carrier transmission from plasmonic nanostructures to neighboring phases.

  10. Six centuries of geomagnetic intensity variations recorded by royal Judean stamped jar handles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yosef, Erez; Millman, Michael; Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Lipschits, Oded

    2017-02-01

    Earth’s magnetic field, one of the most enigmatic physical phenomena of the planet, is constantly changing on various time scales, from decades to millennia and longer. The reconstruction of geomagnetic field behavior in periods predating direct observations with modern instrumentation is based on geological and archaeological materials and has the twin challenges of (i) the accuracy of ancient paleomagnetic estimates and (ii) the dating of the archaeological material. Here we address the latter by using a set of storage jar handles (fired clay) stamped by royal seals as part of the ancient administrative system in Judah (Jerusalem and its vicinity). The typology of the stamp impressions, which corresponds to changes in the political entities ruling this area, provides excellent age constraints for the firing event of these artifacts. Together with rigorous paleomagnetic experimental procedures, this study yielded an unparalleled record of the geomagnetic field intensity during the eighth to second centuries BCE. The new record constitutes a substantial advance in our knowledge of past geomagnetic field variations in the southern Levant. Although it demonstrates a relatively stable and gradually declining field during the sixth to second centuries BCE, the new record provides further support for a short interval of extreme high values during the late eighth century BCE. The rate of change during this “geomagnetic spike” [defined as virtual axial dipole moment > 160 ZAm2 (1021 Am2)] is further constrained by the new data, which indicate an extremely rapid weakening of the field (losing ˜27% of its strength over ca. 30 y).

  11. Continuous manufacturing of solid lipid nanoparticles by hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Patil, Hemlata; Kulkarni, Vijay; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Repka, Michael A

    2014-08-25

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can either be produced by hot homogenization of melted lipids at higher temperatures or by a cold homogenization process. This paper proposes and demonstrates the formulation of SLN for pharmaceutical applications by combining two processes: hot melt extrusion (HME) technology for melt-emulsification and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) for size reduction. This work aimed at developing continuous and scalable processes for SLN by mixing a lipid and aqueous phase containing an emulsifier in the extruder barrel at temperatures above the melting point of the lipid and further reducing the particle size of emulsion by HPH linked to HME in a sequence. The developed novel platform demonstrated better process control and size reduction compared to the conventional process of hot homogenization (batch process). Varying the process parameters enabled the production of SLN below 200 nm (for 60 mg/ml lipid solution at a flow rate of 100ml/min). Among the several process parameters investigated, the lipid concentration, residence time and screw design played major roles in influencing the size of the SLN. This new process demonstrates the potential use of hot melt extrusion technology for continuous and large-scale production of SLN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hot deformation characteristics of AZ80 magnesium alloy: Work hardening effect and processing parameter sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Wan, L.; Guo, Z. H.

    Isothermal compression experiment of AZ80 magnesium alloy was conducted by Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator in order to quantitatively investigate the work hardening (WH), strain rate sensitivity (SRS) and temperature sensitivity (TS) during hot processing of magnesium alloys. The WH, SRS and TS were described by Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z) coupling of deformation parameters. The relationships between WH rate and true strain as well as true stress were derived from Kocks-Mecking dislocation model and validated by our measurement data. The slope defined through the linear relationship of WH rate and true stress was only related to the annihilation coefficient Ω. Obvious WH behaviormore » could be exhibited at a higher Z condition. Furthermore, we have identified the correlation between the microstructural evolution including β-Mg17Al12 precipitation and the SRS and TS variations. Intensive dynamic recrystallization and homogeneous distribution of β-Mg17Al12 precipitates resulted in greater SRS coefficient at higher temperature. The deformation heat effect and β-Mg17Al12 precipitate content can be regarded as the major factors determining the TS behavior. At low Z condition, the SRS becomes stronger, in contrast to the variation of TS. The optimum hot processing window was validated based on the established SRS and TS values distribution maps for AZ80 magnesium alloy.« less

  13. Coulomb explosion of “hot spot”

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, V. I., E-mail: oreshkin@ovpe.hcei.tsc.ru; Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk; Oreshkin, E. V.

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulombmore » explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.« less

  14. Hot Mix Asphalt for Intersections in Hot Climates

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-03-01

    Rutting of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement at or near intersections is very common both in cold and hot climates. Obviously, the problem is more acute in hot climates compared to cold climates because the stiffness of HMA decreases with increase in pa...

  15. OVERVIEW OF STAMP MILL SITE,LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF STAMP MILL SITE,LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL IS OUT OF FRAME, JUST TO THE RIGHT. WATER TANK, LOADING PLATFORM, AND TRAM TRESTLE LEADING UP TO THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE AT RIGHT. THE STRUCTURE AT EXTREME RIGHT BELOW THE TRESTLE, ARE REMAINS OF A SECONDARY ORE BIN, WITH BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS AND WOOD DEBRIS JUST BELOW ON THE SECOND LEVEL. AT CENTER IS A BOILER AND THE FRAME WORK OF A FILTER PRESS. THE SMALL STRUCTURE AT CENTER LEFT IS AN INTERPRETIVE SIGN PLACED BY THE PARK SERVICE. AT LOWER LEFT, THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, ARE THE REMAINS OF A BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Knowledge Based Cloud FE Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Du; Yuan, Xi; Gao, Haoxiang; Wang, Ailing; Liu, Jun; El Fakir, Omer; Politis, Denis J.; Wang, Liliang; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The use of Finite Element (FE) simulation software to adequately predict the outcome of sheet metal forming processes is crucial to enhancing the efficiency and lowering the development time of such processes, whilst reducing costs involved in trial-and-error prototyping. Recent focus on the substitution of steel components with aluminum alloy alternatives in the automotive and aerospace sectors has increased the need to simulate the forming behavior of such alloys for ever more complex component geometries. However these alloys, and in particular their high strength variants, exhibit limited formability at room temperature, and high temperature manufacturing technologies have been developed to form them. Consequently, advanced constitutive models are required to reflect the associated temperature and strain rate effects. Simulating such behavior is computationally very expensive using conventional FE simulation techniques. This paper presents a novel Knowledge Based Cloud FE (KBC-FE) simulation technique that combines advanced material and friction models with conventional FE simulations in an efficient manner thus enhancing the capability of commercial simulation software packages. The application of these methods is demonstrated through two example case studies, namely: the prediction of a material's forming limit under hot stamping conditions, and the tool life prediction under multi-cycle loading conditions. PMID:28060298

  17. Knowledge Based Cloud FE Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Du; Yuan, Xi; Gao, Haoxiang; Wang, Ailing; Liu, Jun; El Fakir, Omer; Politis, Denis J; Wang, Liliang; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-12-13

    The use of Finite Element (FE) simulation software to adequately predict the outcome of sheet metal forming processes is crucial to enhancing the efficiency and lowering the development time of such processes, whilst reducing costs involved in trial-and-error prototyping. Recent focus on the substitution of steel components with aluminum alloy alternatives in the automotive and aerospace sectors has increased the need to simulate the forming behavior of such alloys for ever more complex component geometries. However these alloys, and in particular their high strength variants, exhibit limited formability at room temperature, and high temperature manufacturing technologies have been developed to form them. Consequently, advanced constitutive models are required to reflect the associated temperature and strain rate effects. Simulating such behavior is computationally very expensive using conventional FE simulation techniques. This paper presents a novel Knowledge Based Cloud FE (KBC-FE) simulation technique that combines advanced material and friction models with conventional FE simulations in an efficient manner thus enhancing the capability of commercial simulation software packages. The application of these methods is demonstrated through two example case studies, namely: the prediction of a material's forming limit under hot stamping conditions, and the tool life prediction under multi-cycle loading conditions.

  18. New technique for laryngotracheal mucosa transplantation. 'Stamp' welding using indocyanine green dye and albumin interaction with diode laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Pankratov, M M; Gleich, L L; Rebeiz, E E; Shapshay, S M

    1995-07-01

    To investigate (1) the possibility of survival of free mucosa "stamp" grafts fixed in the airway with a new technique using indocyanine green-dyed albumin solder activated with a diode laser and (2) the degree of improvement of wound healing in the airway by applying modified microskin transplantation techniques from burn surgery to cover a relatively large wound with a few small pieces of mucosa anchored in place with the previously mentioned technique. Three (one control and two experimental) rectangular (10 x 8 mm) wounds in tracheal mucosa were produced in four experimental animals (dogs) using a carbon dioxide laser. The control wound was left uncovered. In the first experimental wound, a mucosal flap was raised and then fixed in place by a trapdoor flap method. In the second experimental wound, two small (each 2 x 3 mm) autogenous mucosa grafts were anchored onto the surface with indocyanine green-dyed albumin activated with an 810-nm diode laser. Histomorphologically, the postoperative results from three wounds were compared. The experimental wounds were completely covered by regenerated squamous cells in 1 week and by ciliated epithelium in 2 weeks after the operation despite the discrepancy in size of the graft to wound area (1:6.7) covered with the stamp mucosa. No thermal damage from the diode laser was noted in the second experimental wounds. In the control wounds, no coverage was observed at 1 week, and only squamous cells were noted 2 weeks postoperatively. All the wounds had normal ciliated epithelium coverage at 4 weeks. Transplanted stamp grafts provided similar or better healing than trapdoor flap transplants. This new technique made endoscopic mucosal grafting possible and offers a potential breakthrough in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis.

  19. Producing High-Quality Titanium Alloy by a Cost-Effective Route Combining Fast Heating and Hot Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fei; Raynova, Stella; Singh, Ajit; Zhao, Qinyang; Romero, Carlos; Bolzoni, Leandro

    2018-02-01

    Powder metallurgy is a very attractive method for producing titanium alloys, which can be near-net-shape formed and have freedom in composition selection. However, applications are still limited due to product affordability. In this paper, we will discuss a possible cost-effective route, combining fast heating and hot processing, to produce titanium alloys with similar or even better mechanical properties than that of ingot metallurgy titanium alloys. Two titanium alloys, Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr (Ti-5553) and Ti-5Fe, were successfully produced from HDH titanium powder and other master alloy powders using the proposed processing route. The effect of the processing route on microstructural variation and mechanical properties have been discussed.

  20. Hot Electron Injection into Uniaxially Strained Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo

    In semiconductor spintronics, silicon attracts great attention due to the long electron spin lifetime. Silicon is also one of the most commonly used semiconductor in microelectronics industry. The spin relaxation process of diamond crystal structure such as silicon is dominant by Elliot-Yafet mechanism. Yafet shows that intravalley scattering process is dominant. The conduction electron spin lifetime measured by electron spin resonance measurement and electronic measurement using ballistic hot electron method well agrees with Yafet's theory. However, the recent theory predicts a strong contribution of intervalley scattering process such as f-process in silicon. The conduction band minimum is close the Brillouin zone edge, X point which causes strong spin mixing at the conduction band. A recent experiment of electric field-induced hot electron spin relaxation also shows the strong effect of f-process in silicon. In uniaxially strained silicon along crystal axis [100], the suppression of f-process is predicted which leads to enhance electron spin lifetime. By inducing a change in crystal structure due to uniaxial strain, the six fold degeneracy becomes two fold degeneracy, which is valley splitting. As the valley splitting increases, intervalley scattering is reduced. A recent theory predicts 4 times longer electron spin lifetime in 0.5% uniaxially strained silicon. In this thesis, we demonstrate ballistic hot electron injection into silicon under various uniaxial strain. Spin polarized hot electron injection under strain is experimentally one of the most challenging part to measure conduction electron spin lifetime in silicon. Hot electron injection adopts tunnel junction which is a thin oxide layer between two conducting materials. Tunnel barrier, which is an oxide layer, is only 4 ˜ 5 nm thick. Also, two conducting materials are only tens of nanometer. Therefore, under high pressure to apply 0.5% strain on silicon, thin films on silicon substrate can be easily

  1. Associations of food stamp participation with dietary quality and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Blumenthal, Susan J; Hoffnagle, Elena E; Jensen, Helen H; Foerster, Susan B; Nestle, Marion; Cheung, Lilian W Y; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C

    2013-03-01

    To determine if obesity and dietary quality in low-income children differed by participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly the Food Stamp Program. The study population included 5193 children aged 4 to 19 with household incomes ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999-2008 NHANES. Diet was measured by using 24-hour recalls. Among low-income US children, 28% resided in households currently receiving SNAP benefits. After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, SNAP participation was not associated with a higher rate of childhood obesity (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-1.74). Both SNAP participants and low-income nonparticipants were below national recommendations for whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, and potassium, while exceeding recommended limits for processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, saturated fat, and sodium. Zero percent of low-income children met at least 7 of 10 dietary recommendations. After multivariate adjustment, compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 43% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 8%-89%), 47% more high-fat dairy (95% CI: 7%, 101%), and 44% more processed meats (95% CI: 9%-91%), but 19% fewer nuts, seeds, and legumes (95% CI: -35% to 0%). In part due to these differences, intakes of calcium, iron, and folate were significantly higher among SNAP participants. Significant differences by SNAP participation were not evident in total energy, macronutrients, Healthy Eating Index 2005 scores, or Alternate Healthy Eating Index scores. The diets of low-income children are far from meeting national dietary recommendations. Policy changes should be considered to restructure SNAP to improve children's health.

  2. Hot Flashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... report menopausal hot flashes than do women of European descent. Hot flashes are less common in women of Japanese and Chinese descent than in white European women. Complications Nighttime hot flashes (night sweats) can ...

  3. Stamping an AA5754 Train Window Panel with High Dent Resistance Using Locally Annealed Blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccininni, A.; Guglielmi, P.; Lo Franco, A.; Palumbo, G.

    2017-09-01

    The warm stamping of an AA5754-H32 window panel for railway vehicles applications has been proposed in the present work. The adoption of increased working temperatures can be surely considered the most effective solution for this alloy to overcome the limited material formability at room temperature [Palumbo et al. “Warm Forming of an AA5754 Component for Railway Vehicle Applications”, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 183, 2017, Pages 351-356] but, in order to improve the overall dent resistance of the component, the initial wrought conditions have been chosen in the present work. The manufacturing of the window panel was thus subdivided into a preliminary local heat treatment (assumed to be performed by laser) to anneal the material and a subsequent warm stamping step using heated tools. The best combination of temperature and holding time able to produce the annealing of the investigated alloy was determined using the physical simulator Gleeble 3180. On the contrary, the warm forming step was designed by means of thermo-mechanical simulations: in order to model the AA5754-H32 blank with annealed regions, an extensive experimental campaign (tensile and formability tests) was conducted using specimens in the annealed (H111) and in the wrought (H32) conditions. Through the numerical approach it was thus possible define: (i) the extent of the annealed regions; (ii) the punch speed to get a sound component.

  4. Processing effects in production of composite prepreg by hot melt impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, C.; Jayaraman, K.; Petty, C. A.

    1993-06-01

    The hot melt impregnation process for producing composite prepreg has been studied. The role of the exit die is highlighted by operating without impregnation bars. Experimental results show that when a fiber tow is pulled through a resin bath and then through a wedge shaped die, the total resin mass fraction and the extent of resin impregnation in the tow increase with the processing viscosity. The penetration of resin into a fiber bundle is greater when the resin viscosity is higher. This trend is unchanged over a range of tow speeds up to the breaking point. A theoretical model is developed to describe the effect of processing conditions and die geometry on the degree of impregnation. Calculations with this model indicate that for a given die geometry, the degree of impregnation increases from 58 percent to 90 percent as the ratio of the clearance between the tow and the die wall, to the total die gap is decreased from 0.15 to 0.05. Physical arguments related to the effective viscosity of the prepreg show that the clearance ratio is independent of the tow speed, but decreases as the ratio of the effective shear viscosity of the prepreg to the resin viscosity increases. This provides a connection between the experimental results obtained with varying resin viscosity and the computational results obtained with varying clearance values at the die inlet.

  5. 76 FR 16715 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self-addressed postcard or... dedicated telephone hot line for vessel operators to call the bridge in advance to coordinate anticipated bridge closures. The telephone hot line number shall be posted on signs at the bridge clearly visible...

  6. 6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  7. Multiphysical FE-analysis of a front-end bending phenomenon in a hot strip mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmola, Joonas; Seppälä, Oskari; Leinonen, Olli; Pohjonen, Aarne; Larkiola, Jari; Jokisaari, Juha; Putaansuu, Eero

    2018-05-01

    In hot steel rolling processes, a slab is generally rolled to a transfer bar in a roughing process and to a strip in a hot strip rolling process. Over several rolling passes the front-end may bend upward or downward due to asymmetrical rolling conditions causing entry problems in the next rolling pass. Many different factors may affect the front-end bending phenomenon and are very challenging to measure. Thus, a customized finite element model is designed and built to simulate the front-end bending phenomenon in a hot strip rolling process. To simulate the functioning of the hot strip mill precisely, automated controlling logic of the mill must be considered. In this paper we studied the effect of roll bite friction conditions and amount of reduction on the front-end bending phenomenon in a hot strip rolling process.

  8. Multi-stage FE simulation of hot ring rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    As a unique and important member of the metal forming family, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. Applications of ring rolling cover a wide range of products in aerospace, automotive and civil engineering industries [1]. Above the recrystallization temperature of the material, hot ring rolling begins with the upsetting of the billet cut from raw stock. Next a punch pierces the hot upset billet to form a hole through the billet. This billet, referred to as preform, is then rolled by the ring rolling mill. For an accurate simulation of hot ring rolling, it is crucial to include the deformations, stresses and strains from the upsetting and piercing process as initial conditions for the rolling stage. In this work, multi-stage FE simulations of hot ring rolling process were performed by mapping the local deformation state of the workpiece from one step to the next one. The simulations of upsetting and piercing stages were carried out by 2D axisymmetric models using adaptive remeshing and element erosion. The workpiece for the ring rolling stage was subsequently obtained after performing a 2D to 3D mapping. The commercial FE package LS-DYNA was used for the study and user defined subroutines were implemented to complete the control algorithm. The simulation results were analyzed and also compared with those from the single-stage FE model of hot ring rolling.

  9. Microstructural analysis of hot press formed 22MnB5 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Nuraini; Aqida, Syarifah Nur; Ismail, Izwan

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a microstructural study on hot press formed 22MnB5 steel for enhanced mechanical properties. Hot press forming process consists of simultaneous forming and quenching of heated blank. The 22MnB5 steel was processed at three different parameter settings: quenching time, water temperature and water flow rate. 22MnB5 was processed using 33 full factorial design of experiment (DOE). The full factorial DOE was designed using three factors of quenching time, water temperature and water flow rate at three levels. The factors level were quenching time range of 5 - 11 s, water temperature; 5 - 27°C and water flow rate; 20 - 40 L/min. The as-received and hot press forming processed steel was characterised for metallographic study and martensitic structure area percentage using JEOL Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FESEM). From the experimental finding, the hot press formed 22MnB5 steel consisted of 50 to 84% martensitic structure area. The minimum quenching time of 8 seconds was required to obtain formed sample with high percentage of martensite. These findings contribute to initial design of processing parameters in hot press forming of 22MnB5 steel blanks for automotive component.

  10. Ultrasonic assisted hot metal powder compaction.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Hot pressing of metal powders is used in production of parts with similar properties to wrought materials. During hot pressing processes, particle rearrangement, plastic deformation, creep, and diffusion are of the most effective powder densification mechanisms. Applying ultrasonic vibration is thought to result in great rates of densification and therefore higher efficiency of the process is expected. This paper deals with the effects of power ultrasonic on the densification of AA1100 aluminum powder under constant applied stress. The effects of particle size and process temperature on the densification behavior are discussed. The results show that applying ultrasonic vibration leads to an improved homogeneity and a higher relative density. Also, it is found that the effect of ultrasonic vibration is greater for finer particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Homemaker Reaction to EFNEP/Food Stamp Pilot Nutrition Education Project. A 1983 Pennsylvania and Massachusetts Survey. Extension Studies 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Polly P.; And Others

    Between 1982 and 1983, more than 750 homemakers from Pennsylvania and Massachusetts participated in a national study to test selected methods of delivering nutrition education to low-income families. The study, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Food Stamp Pilot Project, was conducted through the EFNEP in 10 states. At the…

  12. DECOMMISSIONING OF HOT CELL FACILITIES AT THE BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Patrick; Henderson, Glenn; Erickson, Peter

    2003-02-27

    Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL), located in Columbus, Ohio, must complete decontamination and decommissioning activities for nuclear research buildings and grounds at its West Jefferson Facilities by 2006, as mandated by Congress. This effort includes decommissioning several hot cells located in the Hot Cell Laboratory (Building JN-1). JN-1 was originally constructed in 1955, and a hot cell/high bay addition was built in the mid 1970s. For over 30 years, BCL used these hot cell facilities to conduct research for the nuclear power industry and several government agencies, including the U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Department ofmore » Energy. As a result of this research, the JN-1 hot cells became highly contaminated with mixed fission and activation products, as well as fuel residues. In 1998, the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP) began efforts to decommission JN-1 with the goal of remediating the site to levels of residual contamination allowing future use without radiological restrictions. This goal requires that each hot cell be decommissioned to a state where it can be safely demolished and transported to an off-site disposal facility. To achieve this, the BCLDP uses a four-step process for decommissioning each hot cell: (1) Source Term Removal; (2) Initial (i.e., remote) Decontamination; (3) Utility Removal; and (4) Final (i.e., manual) Decontamination/Stabilization. To date, this process has been successfully utilized on 13 hot cells within JN-1, with one hot cell remaining to be decommissioned. This paper will provide a case study of the hot cell decommissioning being conducted by the BCLDP. Discussed will be the methods used to achieve the goals of each of the hot cell decommissioning stages and the lessons learned that could be applied at other sites where hot cells need to be decommissioned.« less

  13. Plasmonic hot electron transport drives nano-localized chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Emiliano; Xie, Wei; Cambiasso, Javier; Jermyn, Adam S.; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Schlücker, Sebastian; Maier, Stefan A.

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale localization of electromagnetic fields near metallic nanostructures underpins the fundamentals and applications of plasmonics. The unavoidable energy loss from plasmon decay, initially seen as a detriment, has now expanded the scope of plasmonic applications to exploit the generated hot carriers. However, quantitative understanding of the spatial localization of these hot carriers, akin to electromagnetic near-field maps, has been elusive. Here we spatially map hot-electron-driven reduction chemistry with 15 nm resolution as a function of time and electromagnetic field polarization for different plasmonic nanostructures. We combine experiments employing a six-electron photo-recycling process that modify the terminal group of a self-assembled monolayer on plasmonic silver nanoantennas, with theoretical predictions from first-principles calculations of non-equilibrium hot-carrier transport in these systems. The resulting localization of reactive regions, determined by hot-carrier transport from high-field regions, paves the way for improving efficiency in hot-carrier extraction science and nanoscale regio-selective surface chemistry. PMID:28348402

  14. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2015-10-01

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  15. 75 FR 4911 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ...This final rule implements 11 provisions of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (FSRIA) that establish new eligibility and certification requirements for the receipt of food stamps. The provisions of the final rule will simplify program administration, allow States greater flexibility, and provide enhanced access to eligible populations. This rule will allow States, at their option, to treat legally obligated child support payments to a non-household member as an income exclusion rather than a deduction; allow a State option to exclude certain types of income and resources that are not counted under the State's Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance or Medicaid programs; replace the current, fixed standard deduction with a deduction that varies according to household size and is adjusted annually for cost-of-living increases; allow States to simplify the Standard Utility Allowance (SUA) if the State elects to use the SUA rather than actual utility costs for all households; allow States to use a standard deduction from income of $143 per month for homeless households with some shelter expenses; allow States to disregard reported changes in deductions during certification periods (except for changes associated with new residence or earned income) until the next recertification; increase the resource limit for households with a disabled member from $2,000 to $3,000 consistent with the limit for households with an elderly member; allow States to extend simplified reporting of changes to all households; require State agencies that have a Web site to post applications on these sites in the same languages that the State uses for its written applications; allow States to extend from the current 3 months up to 5 months the period of time households may receive transitional food stamp benefits when they cease to receive TANF cash assistance; and restore food stamp eligibility to qualified aliens who are otherwise eligible and who are

  16. Nowcasting and Forecasting the Monthly Food Stamps Data in the US Using Online Search Data

    PubMed Central

    Fantazzini, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We propose the use of Google online search data for nowcasting and forecasting the number of food stamps recipients. We perform a large out-of-sample forecasting exercise with almost 3000 competing models with forecast horizons up to 2 years ahead, and we show that models including Google search data statistically outperform the competing models at all considered horizons. These results hold also with several robustness checks, considering alternative keywords, a falsification test, different out-of-samples, directional accuracy and forecasts at the state-level. PMID:25369315

  17. Radii and Orbits of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanqin

    2011-09-01

    Hot jupiters suffer extreme external (stellar) and internal (tidal, Ohmic and wind-power) heating. These lead to peculiar thermal evolution, which is potentially self-destrutive. For instance, the amount of energy deposited during tidal dissipation far exceeds the planets' binding energy. If this energy is mostly deposited in shallow layers, it does little damage to the planet. However, the presence of stellar insolation changes the picture, and Ohmic/wind-power heating further modifies the subsequent evolution of these jupiters. A diversity of planetary sizes results. We tie these thermodynamical processes together with the migration history of hot jupiters to explain the orbital distribution and physical radii of hot jupiters. Moreover, we constrain the location of tidal heating inside the planet.

  18. Hot hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A. F.; Kim, J.; Cravens, T. E.

    1990-04-01

    Optical observations of hot atoms in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars are briefly reviewed. A summary of hot hydrogen and oxygen production and loss processes is given. Results of some recent model calculations as well as a number of new results of the hot hydrogen and oxygen populations are presented and their implication in terms of solar wind interaction processes is discussed.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from graphene covered gold nanocap arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Kailin; Luo, Xiaoguang; Nan, Haiyan; Du, Deyang; Zhao, Weiwei; Ni, Zhenhua; Qiu, Teng

    2013-11-01

    This work reports an efficient method to fabricate large-area flexible substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application. Our technique is based on a single-step direct imprint process via porous anodic alumina stamps. Periodic hexagonal arrangements of porous anodic alumina stamps are transferred to the polyethylene terephthalate substrates by mechanically printing process. Printed nanocaps will turn into "hot spots" for electromagnetic enhancement with a deposited gold film by high vacuum evaporation. The gaps between the nanocaps are controllable with a tight correspondence to the thickness of the deposited gold, which dramatically influence the enhancement factor. After covered with a single-layer graphene sheet, the gold nanocap substrate can be further optimized with an extra enhancement of Raman signals, and it is available for the trace detection of probe molecules. This convenient, simple, and low-cost method of making flexible SERS-active substrates potentially opens a way towards biochemical analysis and disease detection.

  20. Formulation and Characterization of Solid Dispersion Prepared by Hot Melt Mixing: A Fast Screening Approach for Polymer Selection

    PubMed Central

    Enose, Arno A.; Dasan, Priya K.; Sivaramakrishnan, H.; Shah, Sanket M.

    2014-01-01

    Solid dispersion is molecular dispersion of drug in a polymer matrix which leads to improved solubility and hence better bioavailability. Solvent evaporation technique was employed to prepare films of different combinations of polymers, plasticizer, and a modal drug sulindac to narrow down on a few polymer-plasticizer-sulindac combinations. The sulindac-polymer-plasticizer combination that was stable with good film forming properties was processed by hot melt mixing, a technique close to hot melt extrusion, to predict its behavior in a hot melt extrusion process. Hot melt mixing is not a substitute to hot melt extrusion but is an aid in predicting the formation of molecularly dispersed form of a given set of drug-polymer-plasticizer combination in a hot melt extrusion process. The formulations were characterized by advanced techniques like optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, dynamic vapor sorption, and X-ray diffraction. Subsequently, the best drug-polymer-plasticizer combination obtained by hot melt mixing was subjected to hot melt extrusion process to validate the usefulness of hot melt mixing as a predictive tool in hot melt extrusion process. PMID:26556187

  1. 77 FR 17021 - Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final Determination of Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Scope Should Exclude Off-Road/Non-DOT Specification Stamped Wheels. Comment 2: Whether Double Remedies... Centurion's Indirect Selling Expense Calculation. Comment 8: Hot-Rolled Steel Surrogate Value. Comment 9...

  2. Multichannel temperature controller for hot air solar house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an electronic controller that is optimized to operate a hot air solar system. Thermal information is obtained from copper constantan thermocouples and a wall-type thermostat. The signals from the thermocouples are processed through a single amplifier using a multiplexing scheme. The multiplexing reduces the component count and automatically calibrates the thermocouple amplifier. The processed signals connect to some simple logic that selects one of the four operating modes. This simple, inexpensive, and reliable scheme is well suited to control hot air solar systems.

  3. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOEpatents

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  4. Development of an Ointment Formulation Using Hot-Melt Extrusion Technology.

    PubMed

    Bhagurkar, Ajinkya M; Angamuthu, Muralikrishnan; Patil, Hemlata; Tiwari, Roshan V; Maurya, Abhijeet; Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Kundu, Santanu; Murthy, S Narasimha; Repka, Michael A

    2016-02-01

    Ointments are generally prepared either by fusion or by levigation methods. The current study proposes the use of hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing for the preparation of a polyethylene glycol base ointment. Lidocaine was used as a model drug. A modified screw design was used in this process, and parameters such as feeding rate, barrel temperature, and screw speed were optimized to obtain a uniform product. The product characteristics were compared with an ointment of similar composition prepared by conventional fusion method. The rheological properties, drug release profile, and texture characteristics of the hot-melt extruded product were similar to the conventionally prepared product. This study demonstrates a novel application of the hot-melt extrusion process in the manufacturing of topical semi-solids.

  5. Nano-SiC region formation in (100) Si-on-insulator substrate: Optimization of hot-C+-ion implantation process to improve photoluminescence intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Tomohisa; Omata, Yuhsuke; Kanazawa, Rikito; Iguchi, Yusuke; Nakada, Shinji; Aoki, Takashi; Sasaki, Tomokazu

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally studied the optimization of the hot-C+-ion implantation process for forming nano-SiC (silicon carbide) regions in a (100) Si-on-insulator substrate at various hot-C+-ion implantation temperatures and C+ ion doses to improve photoluminescence (PL) intensity for future Si-based photonic devices. We successfully optimized the process by hot-C+-ion implantation at a temperature of about 700 °C and a C+ ion dose of approximately 4 × 1016 cm-2 to realize a high intensity of PL emitted from an approximately 1.5-nm-thick C atom segregation layer near the surface-oxide/Si interface. Moreover, atom probe tomography showed that implanted C atoms cluster in the Si layer and near the oxide/Si interface; thus, the C content locally condenses even in the C atom segregation layer, which leads to SiC formation. Corrector-spherical aberration transmission electron microscopy also showed that both 4H-SiC and 3C-SiC nanoareas near both the surface-oxide/Si and buried-oxide/Si interfaces partially grow into the oxide layer, and the observed PL photons are mainly emitted from the surface SiC nano areas.

  6. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchane, D. V.

    1992-07-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  7. The rise and fall of a human recombination hot spot.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita

    2009-05-01

    Human meiotic crossovers mainly cluster into narrow hot spots that profoundly influence patterns of haplotype diversity and that may also affect genome instability and sequence evolution. Hot spots also seem to be ephemeral, but processes of hot-spot activation and their subsequent evolutionary dynamics remain unknown. We now analyze the life cycle of a recombination hot spot. Sperm typing revealed a polymorphic hot spot that was activated in cis by a single base change, providing evidence for a primary sequence determinant necessary, though not sufficient, to activate recombination. This activating mutation occurred roughly 70,000 y ago and has persisted to the present, most likely fortuitously through genetic drift despite its systematic elimination by biased gene conversion. Nonetheless, this self-destructive conversion will eventually lead to hot-spot extinction. These findings define a subclass of highly transient hot spots and highlight the importance of understanding hot-spot turnover and how it influences haplotype diversity.

  8. 77 FR 13525 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... enclose a stamped, self-addressed postcard or envelope. We will consider all comments and material..., dangerous projectiles, and falling hot embers or other debris, vessel traffic will be temporarily restricted...

  9. Hot forming of composite prepreg : Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, Xavier; Duthille, Bertrand; Bechtel, Stephane; le Pinru, Louis; Campagne, Benjamin; Destombes, Gautier; Deshors, Antoine; Marchand, Christophe; Azzouzi, Khalid El; Moro, Tanguy

    2017-10-01

    The hot forming of thermoset prepreg consists in bending an uncured composite part by applying a mechanical constrain on the hot laminate. Most of the time, the mold is inserted in a vacuum box and the mechanical constrain is applied on the composite laminate by a single membrane or a double-membrane. But the performance improvement products resulted in forming increasingly complex parts with advanced materials having a less formability. These new complex parts require a finer comprehension of the process and an optimization of the key parameters to get acceptable quality. In this work, an experimental study has been carried out to identify the process conditions that do not lead to unacceptable defaults: undulations of fibers. In the present study, downward-bending has been evaluated with an original light mechanical forming concept, for a given stacking sequence. The influence of the part's temperature and the part's bending speed are investigated. To carry this study out, a hot forming test bench has been designed and manufactured to have a precise supervision of the process conditions. It is able to bend parts of 1500 mm length x 600 mm width x 20 mm thick.

  10. Process simulation and experimental validation of Hot Metal Gas Forming with new press hardening steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.; Reuther, F.; Neumann, S.; Albert, A.; Landgrebe, D.

    2017-09-01

    One field in the work of the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU in Chemnitz is industry applied research in Hot Metal Gas Forming, combined with press hardening in one process step. In this paper the results of investigations on new press hardening steels from SSAB AB (Docol®1800 Bor and Docol®2000 Bor) are presented. Hot tensile tests recorded by the project partner (University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering) were used to create a material model for thermo-mechanical forming simulations. For this purpose the provided raw data were converted into flow curve approximations of the real stress-real strain-curves for both materials and afterwards integrated in a LS-DYNA simulation model of Hot Metal Gas Forming with all relevant boundary conditions and sub-stages. Preliminary experimental tests were carried out using a tool at room temperature to permit evaluation of the forming behaviour of Docol 1800 Bor and Docol 2000 Bor tubes as well as validation of the simulation model. Using this demonstrator geometry (outer diameter 57 mm, tube length 300 mm, wall thickness 1.5 mm), the intention was to perform a series of tests with different furnace temperatures (from 870 °C to 1035 °C), maximum internal pressures (up to 67 MPa) and pressure build-up rates (up to 40 MPa/s) to evaluate the formability of Docol 1800 Bor and Docol 2000 Bor. Selected demonstrator parts produced in that way were subsequently analysed by wall thickness and hardness measurements. The tests were carried out using the completely modernized Dunkes/AP&T HS3-1500 hydroforming press at the Fraunhofer IWU. In summary, creating a consistent simulation model with all relevant sub-stages was successfully established in LS-DYNA. The computation results show a high correlation with the experimental data regarding the thinning behaviour. The Hot Metal Gas Forming of the demonstrator geometry was successfully established as well. Different hardness values

  11. Parameter Calibration of GTN Damage Model and Formability Analysis of 22MnB5 in Hot Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Liang; Liu, Wenquan; Wang, Dantong; Hu, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Hot forming of high strength steel at elevated temperatures is an attractive technology to achieve the lightweight of vehicle body. The mechanical behavior of boron steel 22MnB5 strongly depends on the variation of temperature which makes the process design more difficult. In this paper, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is used to study the formability of 22MnB5 sheet at different temperatures. Firstly, the rheological behavior of 22MnB5 is analyzed through a series of hot tensile tests at a temperature range of 600-800 °C. Then, a detailed process to calibrate the damage parameters is given based on the response surface methodology and genetic algorithm method. The GTN model together with the damage parameters calibrated is then implemented to simulate the deformation and damage evolution of 22MnB5 in the process of high-temperature Nakazima test. The capability of the GTN model as a suitable tool to evaluate the sheet formability is confirmed by comparing experimental and calculated results. Finally, as a practical application, the forming limit diagram of 22MnB5 at 700 °C is constructed using the Nakazima simulation and Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) model, respectively. And the simulation integrated GTN model shows a higher reliability by comparing the predicted results of these two approaches with the experimental ones.

  12. Polymorphic Transformation of Indomethacin during Hot Melt Extrusion Granulation: Process and Dissolution Control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Nahar, Kajalajit; Dave, Rutesh; Bates, Simon; Morris, Kenneth

    2018-05-10

    To study and elucidate the effect of the intensity and duration of processing stresses on the possible solid-state changes during a hot melt extrusion granulation process. Blends of α-indomethacin and PEG 3350 (w/w 4:1) were granulated using various screw sizes/designs on the melt extruder under different temperature regimes. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-ray Powder Diffraction were employed for characterization. The dissolution behavior of the pure polymorphs and the resulting granules was determined using in-situ fiber optic UV testing system. An XRPD quantitation method using Excel full pattern fitting was developed to determine the concentration of each constituent (amorphous, α and γ indomethacin and PEG) in samples collected from each functioning zone and in granules. Analysis of in-process samples and granules revealed that higher temperature (≥130°C) and shear stress accelerated the process induced phase transitions from amorphous and/or the α form to γ indomethacin during heating stage. However, rapid cooling resulted in an increased percentage of the α form allowing isolation of the meta-stable form. By determining the conditions that either prevent or facilitate process induced transformations of IMC polymorphs during melt granulation, a design space was developed to control the polymorph present in the resulting granules. This represents the conditions necessary to balance the thermodynamic relationships between the polymorphs of the IMC system and the kinetics of the possible transformations as a function of the processing stresses.

  13. 75 FR 4618 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... desired, include a self-addressed stamped postcard showing the special permit number. FOR FURTHER... lieu of the hot water bath test. (modes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). 14954-N Zotos International, 49 CFR 173.306(a... lieu of the hot water bath test. (mode 1). 14956-N American Type Culture 49 CFR 173.196, 178.609 To...

  14. Posterior Vertical Bite Reconstructions of Erosively Worn Dentitions and the "Stamp Technique" - A Case Series with a Mean Observation Time of 40 Months.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Simon T; Helbling, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    In the present case series, the authors report on seven cases of erosively worn dentitions (98 posterior teeth) which were treated with direct resin composite. In all cases, both arches were restored by using the so-called stamp technique. All patients were treated with standardized materials and protocols. Prior to treatment, a waxup was made on die-cast models to build up the loss of occlusion as well as ensure the optimal future anatomy and function of the eroded teeth to be restored. During treatment, teeth were restored by using templates of silicone (ie, two "stamps," one on the vestibular, one on the oral aspect of each tooth), which were filled with resin composite in order to transfer the planned, future restoration (ie, in the shape of the waxup) from the extra- to the intraoral situation. Baseline examinations were performed in all patients after treatment, and photographs as well as radiographs were taken. To evaluate the outcome, the modified United States Public Health Service criteria (USPHS) were used. The patients were re-assessed after a mean observation time of 40 months (40.8 ± 7.2 months). The overall outcome of the restorations was good, and almost exclusively "Alpha" scores were given. Only the marginal integrity and the anatomical form received a "Charlie" score (10.2%) in two cases. Direct resin composite restorations made with the stamp technique are a valuable treatment option for restoring erosively worn dentitions.

  15. 77 FR 31402 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ..., with applicable safety factors applied. Application of the limited hot and cold leg tubesheet...-stamps the document and sends the submitter an email notice confirming receipt of the document. The E...

  16. 76 FR 38086 - Safety Zone; Labor Day Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self-addressed postcard or envelope. We... discharge of fireworks, dangerous projectiles, and falling hot embers or other debris, vessel traffic will...

  17. Rubber stamp templates for improving clinical documentation: A paper-based, m-Health approach for quality improvement in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Kleczka, Bernadette; Musiega, Anita; Rabut, Grace; Wekesa, Phoebe; Mwaniki, Paul; Marx, Michael; Kumar, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal #3.8 targets 'access to quality essential healthcare services'. Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for ensuring quality of clinical care, but many challenges prevent their use in low-resource settings. Monitoring the use of guidelines relies on cumbersome clinical audits of paper records, and electronic systems face financial and other limitations. Here we describe a unique approach to generating digital data from paper using guideline-based templates, rubber stamps and mobile phones. The Guidelines Adherence in Slums Project targeted ten private sector primary healthcare clinics serving informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Each clinic was provided with rubber stamp templates to support documentation and management of commonly encountered outpatient conditions. Participatory design methods were used to customize templates to the workflows and infrastructure of each clinic. Rubber stamps were used to print templates into paper charts, providing clinicians with checklists for use during consultations. Templates used bubble format data entry, which could be digitized from images taken on mobile phones. Besides rubber stamp templates, the intervention included booklets of guideline compilations, one Android phone for digitizing images of templates, and one data feedback/continuing medical education session per clinic each month. In this paper we focus on the effect of the intervention on documentation of three non-communicable diseases in one clinic. Seventy charts of patients enrolled in the chronic disease program (hypertension/diabetes, n=867; chronic respiratory diseases, n=223) at one of the ten intervention clinics were sampled. Documentation of each individual patient encounter in the pre-intervention (January-March 2016) and post-intervention period (May-July) was scored for information in four dimensions - general data, patient assessment, testing, and management. Control criteria included

  18. The Stamp-in-Safety programme, an intervention to promote better supervision of children on childcare centre playgrounds: an evaluation in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Chelvakumar, Gayathri; Sheehan, Karen; Hill, Amy L; Lowe, Danita; Mandich, Nicole; Schwebel, David C

    2010-10-01

    Using a non-equivalent control group design, this report evaluated a previously studied behavioural intervention, the Stamp-in-Safety programme, which is designed to reduce the injury risk for young children on playgrounds at childcare centres by increasing the quality of adult supervision and rewarding children for safe play. In an urban, commercial childcare centre, 71 children aged 3-5 years and 15 teachers participated. Primary outcome measures were teacher verbalisations (warnings, explanations, redirects), teacher location (core, outskirt, or fringe of playground), child risk-taking behaviours (using equipment appropriately) and the number of injuries on the playground. Analyses revealed that the intervention had a modest positive effect in promoting safer teacher and child playground behaviours. This study reaffirms previous results that the Stamp-in-Safety programme is an effective method to decrease the risk of playground injuries at childcare centres.

  19. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingyan; Kang, Dedong; Wang, Yingge; Yu, Ying; Fan, Jianglin; Takashi, En

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen) is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C) on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C) control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  20. Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process hasmore » demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)« less