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Sample records for hours post dosing

  1. Saran-Chloropel plastic suit worker dose rates from airborne tritium exposure - first exposure hour

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.

    1993-04-20

    Radiological Engineering was requested to develop Tritium Stay Time Chart dose rates for the 9 mil Saran-Chloropel (CPE) plastic suit for a period of one hour or less. Assumptions utilized in previous calculations were revised to better address the first hour of exposure in the suit for emergency situations.

  2. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  3. Assessing variability of the 24-hour pad weight test in men with post-prostatectomy incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rena D.; Cohn, Joshua A.; Fedunok, Pauline A.; Chung, Doreen E.; Bales, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Decision-making regarding surgery for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is challenging. The 24-hour pad weight test is commonly used to objectively quantify PPI. However, pad weight may vary based upon activity level. We aimed to quantify variability in pad weights based upon patient-reported activity. Materials and Methods: 25 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. All patients demonstrated clinical stress urinary incontinence without clinical urgency urinary incontinence. On three consecutive alternating days, patients submitted 24-hour pad weights along with a short survey documenting activity level and number of pads used. Results: Pad weights collected across the three days were well correlated to the individual (ICC 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.93), p<0.001). The mean difference between the minimum pad weight leakage and maximum leakage per patient was 133.4g (95% CI 80.4–186.5). The mean increase in 24-hour leakage for a one-point increase in self-reported activity level was 118.0g (95% CI 74.3–161.7, p<0.001). Pad weights also varied significantly when self-reported activity levels did not differ (mean difference 51.2g (95% CI 30.3–72.1), p<0.001). Conclusions: 24-hour pad weight leakage may vary significantly on different days of collection. This variation is more pronounced with changes in activity level. Taking into account patient activity level may enhance the predictive value of pad weight testing. PMID:27256187

  4. Processing of DNA damage after exposure to a single dose of fission spectrum neutrons takes 40 hours to complete

    SciTech Connect

    Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    We have examined the time course over a period of days of repair of chromosomal single-strand breaks (SSB) induced by a single dose of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons in the DNA of human P3 epithelial teratocarcinoma cells. When the cells are allowed a period of repair incubation the breaks are totally sealed by 7 hours. But then following these initial repair the DNA is dismantled as evidenced by the reappearance of SSBs. This secondary breakage is almost as extensive as that caused by the original neutron exposure, with a maximum at 16-18 hours. Finally, the DNA is rejoined, regaining its original size by 40 hours after irradiation. The secondary repair phenomenon may have an editing function, or it many represent the processing of residual damage left unrepaired during the initial rejoining of the backbone breaks.

  5. Processing of DNA damage after exposure to a single dose of fission spectrum neutrons takes 40 hours to complete

    SciTech Connect

    Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have examined the long-term (days) fate of breaks induced in the DNA of human P3 epithelial teratocarcinoma cells by a single dose of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons (mean energy 0.85 MeV). We used alkaline-filter elution methods that assay totality of single- and double-strand breaks, generally referred to as single-strand breaks (SSBs). When the cells are allowed a period of repair incubation, these breaks are totally sealed by 7 hours after the original exposure, but following the initial repair the DNA is dismantled, as revealed by the reappearance of SSBS. This secondary breakage is almost as extensive as that caused by the original neutron exposure, with a maximum at 16-18 hours after irradiation. Finally, the DNA is once again rejoined, regaining its original size by 40 hours after irradiation. The secondary repair phenomenon may have an editing function, or it may represent the processing of residual damage left unrepaired during the initial rejoining of the backbone breaks.

  6. Extrapolating the Acute Behavioral Effects of Toluene from 1-Hour to 24-Hour Exposures in Rats: Roles of Dose Metric, and Metabolic and Behavioral Tolerance.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research on the acute effects of volatile organic compounds (VQCs) suggests that extrapolation from short (~ 1 h) to long durations (up to 4 h) may be improved by using estimates of brain toluene concentration (Br[Tol]) instead of cumulative inhaled dose (C x t) as a metri...

  7. The Efficacy Profile of Rotigotine During the Waking Hours in Patients With Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LeWitt, Peter A.; Poewe, Werner; Elmer, Lawrence W.; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Boroojerdi, Babak; Grieger, Frank; Bauer, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Transdermal delivery of rotigotine maintains stable plasma concentrations for 24 hours. Three phase 3 studies of rotigotine as add-on to levodopa in advanced Parkinson's disease showed a significant reduction in “off” time from baseline to end of maintenance (EoM). However, detailed analyses over the range of a day have not yet been performed. The objective was to examine the time course of the efficacy profile of rotigotine throughout the day. Methods Post hoc analysis of diary data from 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of rotigotine in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease inadequately controlled with levodopa, with average “off” time of ≥2.5 h/d (CLEOPATRA-PD [NCT00244387], 16-week maintenance; PREFER, 24-week maintenance; SP921 [NCT00522379], 12-week maintenance). Patients marked 30-minute intervals as “off,” “on without troublesome dyskinesia,” “on with troublesome dyskinesia,” or “sleep.” Diaries completed on the 3 days before EoM were analyzed. A 2-sample t test was performed for comparison of rotigotine + levodopa versus placebo + levodopa for mean percentage of time per status during four 6-hour periods: 12:00am (midnight) to 6:00am, 6:00am to 12:00pm (noon), noon to 6:00pm, and 6:00pm to midnight. Results Data were available for 967 patients (placebo + levodopa, 260; rotigotine + levodopa, 707). During the 24-hour period at EoM, an advantage in mean percentage time spent “off” and “on without troublesome dyskinesia” was observed with rotigotine + levodopa versus placebo + levodopa during the three 6-hour periods from 6:00am to midnight (P < 0.05; exploratory analysis). Conclusions These exploratory analyses of patients with motor fluctuations suggest that the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch, as captured by diary data, in reducing “off” time and increasing “on time without troublesome dyskinesia” may cover the full waking day. PMID:26882318

  8. Fluidized-bed combustion 1000-hour test program. Volume IV. Engineering details and post-test inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, A. G.; Barker, S. N.; Phillips, R. N.; Pillai, K. K.; Raven, P.; Wood, P.

    1981-09-01

    Volume IV of the report on the 1000 hour programme consists of three appendices giving details of the enginmering/construction aspects of the plant and reports from Stal-Laval Turbin A.B. Appendix N has been entered individually. (LTN)

  9. The efficacy of post-cardiopulmonary bypass dosing of vancomycin in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Raikhelkar, Jayashree K; Reich, David L; Schure, Rebecca; Varghese, Robin; Bodian, Carol; Scurlock, Corey

    2010-12-01

    Objective. Vancomycin is administered widely to patients undergoing cardiac surgery as prophylaxis against resistant Gram-positive sternal wound and venous donor site infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a standardized prebypass and postbypass dosing regimen of vancomycin by assessing plasma concentrations in the immediate postoperative period and postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs). Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting . Cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care academic medical center. Methods. A total of 34 consecutive adult patients who had undergone cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were analyzed retrospectively. Each patient received 1000 mg of vancomycin administered over 1 hour around the time of induction of anesthesia and 500 mg after discontinuation of CPB. Trough vancomycin levels were sampled in the intensive care unit 12 hours after the last dose given in the operating room. Along with patient characteristics, postoperative readmission rates and SSIs were recorded for 1 year after surgery. Results. The nadir serum vancomycin level before the next dose was 9.3 ± 4.5 µg/mL (mean ± standard deviation). One superficial SSI was noted. Readmission rate for SSIs was 2.94%. Conclusion . Vancomycin concentrations in the serum were greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration for most staphylococci ranging from 4 to 19.3 µg/mL producing acceptable therapeutic serum concentrations and low rate of infectious complications. Thus postbypass dosing is acceptable in vancomycin cardiac surgical prophylaxis. PMID:20841364

  10. 23-hour/next day discharge post-laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery is safe.

    PubMed

    Waydia, S; Gunawardene, A; Gilbert, J; Cota, A; Finlay, I G

    2014-11-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is well established, yet practice varies as to when patients should be discharged post operation. After noting that many LRYGB patients met our unit's discharge criteria sooner than anticipated, we implemented a policy of aiming for 23-h inpatient stay post LRYGB in January 2012. This retrospective study aimed to assess the safety of this policy. We reviewed data of all patients undergoing LRYGB at our unit from September 2010 to October 2013. We compared the lengths of inpatient stay, complication rates and re-admission rates of patients treated before and after the introduction of the 23-h length of stay policy. Of 161 LRYGB procedures, 38 patients (29 female) underwent LRYGB from September 2010 to December 2011 (pre-policy change) and 123 (107 female) underwent operation after this date (post-policy change). The two groups were similar in terms of mean age (46.5 vs. 46.7 years, p = 0.932), mean BMI (46.8 vs. 46.6 kg/m(2), p = 0.868) and median number of pre-operative comorbidities (3 vs. 3, p = 0.9). There were significant reductions in median length of inpatient stay (2 vs. 1 day, p < 0.0001), re-admission rate (21.1 to 6.5 %, p = 0.025) and complication rate (18.4 vs. 3.3 %, p = 0.004) after the policy change. There were seven complications pre-policy change: pulmonary embolus (n = 1), chest infection (n = 1), constipation and anal fissure (n = 1), umbilical hernia requiring operation (n = 2), adhesional obstruction (n = 1) and persistent food intolerance (n = 1). Post-policy changes, there were four complications: adhesional obstruction (n = 2), staple line bleeding (n = 1) and persistent dysphagia (n = 1). There were no deaths. Patients undergoing LRYGB can be safely discharged on the first post-operative day. This reduction in length of inpatient stay offers significant cost savings.

  11. Coagulation Parameter Thresholds Associated with Non-Bleeding in the Eighth Hour of Adult Cardiac Surgical Post-Cardiotomy Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Schears, Gregory J; Nuttall, Gregory A; Oliver, William C; Ereth, Mark H; Dearani, Joseph A

    2016-06-01

    Excessive bleeding and allogeneic transfusion during adult post-cardiotomy venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are potentially harmful and expensive. Balancing the inhibition of clotting and distinguishing surgical from non-surgical bleeding in post-operative period is difficult. The sensitivity of coagulation tests including Thromboelastography(®) (TEG) to predict chest tube drainage in the early hours of ECMO was examined with the use of receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). The results are useful to incorporate in clinical evidence-based algorithms to guide management decisions. In the eighth hour of ECMO, 26 of the 53 adult patients (49%) studied were identified as non-bleeders (less than 2.0 mL/kg/h). All had experienced various types of cardiac surgical procedures. Fifty-two percent were female and the group was 54 ± 19 (mean ± 1 SD) years old. The coagulation parameter threshold with the maximum sensitivity and specificity to predict non-bleeding at 8 hours on ECMO was the kaolin plus heparinase TEG maximum amplitude (KH-TEG MA) at a significant ROC threshold (t) > 50 mm. The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) t < 49 seconds, KH-TEG alpha-angle t > 51°, and the kaolin activated clotting time (ACT) t < 148 seconds were sensitive predictors of non-bleeders. The whole-blood KH-TEG MA was superior to the plasma-based aPTT or International Normalization Ratio (INR) to predict bleeding in the eighth hour of ECMO. Using coagulation laboratory thresholds that predict non-bleeding can begin a process of identifying patients earlier that are likely to bleed. Awareness of these parameter thresholds may improve care through patient protection from unnecessary transfusion and prolonging the life of the ECMO circuit. An algorithm incorporating the ROC thresholds was created to help recognize surgical bleeding to minimize unnecessary transfusions. PMID:27578897

  12. Dose correction for post-contrast T1 mapping of the heart: the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Gai, Neville D; Sandfort, Veit; Liu, Songtao; Lima, João A C; Bluemke, David A

    2016-02-01

    Post-contrast myocardial T1 (T1(myo,c)) values have been shown to be sensitive to myocardial fibrosis. Recent studies have shown differences in results obtained from T1(myo,c) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) with respect to percentage fibrosis. By exploring the relationship between blood plasma volume and T1(myo,c), the underlying basis for the divergence can be explained. Furthermore, dose administration based on body mass index (BMI), age and gender can mitigate the divergence in results. Inter-subject comparison of T1(myo,c) required adjustment for dose (in mmol/kg), time and glomerular filtration rate. Further adjustment for effective dose based on lean muscle mass reflected by blood/plasma volume was performed. A test case of 605 subjects from the MESA study who had undergone pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping was studied. T1(myo,c) values were compared between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), between smoking and non-smoking subjects, and subjects with and without impaired glucose tolerance, before and after dose adjustment based on plasma volume. Comparison with ECV (which is dose independent), pre-contrast myocardial T1 and blood normalized myocardial T1 values was also performed to validate the correction. There were significant differences in T1(myo,c) (post plasma volume correction) and ECV between current and former smokers (p value 0.017 and 0.01, respectively) but not T1(myo,c) prior to correction (p = 0.12). Prior to dose adjustment for plasma volume, p value was <0.001 for T1(myo,c) between MetS and non-MetS groups and was 0.13 between subjects with and without glucose intolerance; after adjustment for PV, p value was 0.63 and 0.99. Corresponding ECV p values were 0.44 and 0.99, respectively. Overall, ECV results showed the best agreement with PV corrected T1(myo,c) (mean absolute difference in p values = 0.073) and pre-contrast myocardial T1 in comparison with other measures (T1(myo,c( prior to correction, blood/plasma T1

  13. Clinical Factors Associated with Dose of Loop Diuretics After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Post Hoc Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haiberger, Roberta; Favia, Isabella; Romagnoli, Stefano; Cogo, Paola; Ricci, Zaccaria

    2016-06-01

    A post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing the clinical effects of furosemide and ethacrynic acid was conducted. Infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included in order to explore which clinical factors are associated with diuretic dose in infants with congenital heart disease. Overall, 67 patients with median (interquartile range) age of 48 (13-139) days were enrolled. Median diuretic dose was 0.34 (0.25-0.4) mg/kg/h at the end of postoperative day (POD) 0 and it significantly decreased (p = 0.04) over the following PODs; during this period, the ratio between urine output and diuretic dose increased significantly (p = 0.04). Age (r -0.26, p = 0.02), weight (r -0.28, p = 0.01), cross-clamp time (r 0.27, p = 0.03), administration of ethacrynic acid (OR 0.01, p = 0.03), and, at the end of POD0, creatinine levels (r 0.3, p = 0.009), renal near-infrared spectroscopy saturation (-0.44, p = 0.008), whole-blood neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels (r 0.30, p = 0.01), pH (r -0.26, p = 0.02), urinary volume (r -0.2755, p = 0.03), and fluid balance (r 0.2577, p = 0.0266) showed a significant association with diuretic dose. At multivariable logistic regression cross-clamp time (OR 1.007, p = 0.04), use of ethacrynic acid (OR 0.2, p = 0.01) and blood pH at the end of POD0 (OR 0.0001, p = 0.03) was independently associated with diuretic dose. Early resistance to loop diuretics continuous infusion is evident in post-cardiac surgery infants: Higher doses are administered to patients with lower urinary output. Independently associated variables with diuretic dose in our population appeared to be cross-clamping time, the administration of ethacrynic acid, and blood pH. PMID:26961571

  14. Clinical Factors Associated with Dose of Loop Diuretics After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Post Hoc Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haiberger, Roberta; Favia, Isabella; Romagnoli, Stefano; Cogo, Paola; Ricci, Zaccaria

    2016-06-01

    A post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing the clinical effects of furosemide and ethacrynic acid was conducted. Infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included in order to explore which clinical factors are associated with diuretic dose in infants with congenital heart disease. Overall, 67 patients with median (interquartile range) age of 48 (13-139) days were enrolled. Median diuretic dose was 0.34 (0.25-0.4) mg/kg/h at the end of postoperative day (POD) 0 and it significantly decreased (p = 0.04) over the following PODs; during this period, the ratio between urine output and diuretic dose increased significantly (p = 0.04). Age (r -0.26, p = 0.02), weight (r -0.28, p = 0.01), cross-clamp time (r 0.27, p = 0.03), administration of ethacrynic acid (OR 0.01, p = 0.03), and, at the end of POD0, creatinine levels (r 0.3, p = 0.009), renal near-infrared spectroscopy saturation (-0.44, p = 0.008), whole-blood neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels (r 0.30, p = 0.01), pH (r -0.26, p = 0.02), urinary volume (r -0.2755, p = 0.03), and fluid balance (r 0.2577, p = 0.0266) showed a significant association with diuretic dose. At multivariable logistic regression cross-clamp time (OR 1.007, p = 0.04), use of ethacrynic acid (OR 0.2, p = 0.01) and blood pH at the end of POD0 (OR 0.0001, p = 0.03) was independently associated with diuretic dose. Early resistance to loop diuretics continuous infusion is evident in post-cardiac surgery infants: Higher doses are administered to patients with lower urinary output. Independently associated variables with diuretic dose in our population appeared to be cross-clamping time, the administration of ethacrynic acid, and blood pH.

  15. Measurement uncertainty analysis of low-dose-rate prostate seed brachytherapy: post-implant dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Kent J; Pattison, John E; Bibbo, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The minimal dose covering 90 % of the prostate volume--D 90--is arguably the most important dosimetric parameter in low-dose-rate prostate seed brachytherapy. In this study an analysis of the measurement uncertainties in D 90 from low-dose-rate prostate seed brachytherapy was conducted for two common treatment procedures with two different post-implant dosimetry methods. The analysis was undertaken in order to determine the magnitude of D 90 uncertainty, how the magnitude of the uncertainty varied when D 90 was calculated using different dosimetry methods, and which factors were the major contributors to the uncertainty. The analysis considered the prostate as being homogeneous and tissue equivalent and made use of published data, as well as original data collected specifically for this analysis, and was performed according to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). It was found that when prostate imaging and seed implantation were conducted in two separate sessions using only CT images for post-implant analysis, the expanded uncertainty in D 90 values were about 25 % at the 95 % confidence interval. When prostate imaging and seed implantation were conducted during a single session using CT and ultrasound images for post-implant analysis, the expanded uncertainty in D 90 values were about 33 %. Methods for reducing these uncertainty levels are discussed. It was found that variations in contouring the target tissue made the largest contribution to D 90 uncertainty, while the uncertainty in seed source strength made only a small contribution. It is important that clinicians appreciate the overall magnitude of D 90 uncertainty and understand the factors that affect it so that clinical decisions are soundly based, and resources are appropriately allocated.

  16. Dose-dependent expression of CLIP2 in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Selmansberger, Martin; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Hess, Julia; Güthlin, Denise; Likhtarev, I.; Shpak, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Abend, Michael; Blettner, Maria; Unger, Kristian; Jacob, Peter; Zitzelsberger, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in young patients who were exposed to 131iodine from the Chernobyl fallout revealed an exclusive gain of chromosomal band 7q11.23 in exposed cases compared to an age-matched control cohort. CLIP2, a gene located within band 7q11.23 was shown to be differentially expressed between exposed and non-exposed cases at messenger RNA and protein level. Therefore, a standardized procedure for CLIP2 typing of PTCs has been developed in a follow-up study. Here we used CLIP2 typing data on 117 post-Chernobyl PTCs from two cohorts of exposed patients with individual dose estimates and 24 non-exposed controls to investigate a possible quantitative dose-response relationship of the CLIP2 marker. The ‘Genrisk-T’ cohort consisted of 45 PTCs and the ‘UkrAm’ cohort of 72 PTCs. Both cohorts differed in mean dose (0.59 Gy Genrisk-T, 1.2 Gy UkrAm) and mean age at exposure (AaE) (2 years Genrisk-T, 8 years UkrAm), whilst the median latency (16 years Genrisk-T, 18 years UkrAm) was comparable. We analyzed the association between the binary CLIP2 typing and continuous thyroid dose with logistic regression. A clear positive dose-response relationship was found for young PTC cases [age at operation (AaO) < 20 years, AaE < 5 years]. In the elder age group a higher proportion of sporadic tumors is assumed due to a negligible dose response, suggesting different molecular mechanisms in sporadic and radiation-induced cases. This is further supported by the association of elder patients (AaO > 20 years) with positivity for BRAF V600E mutation. PMID:25957251

  17. Dose-dependent expression of CLIP2 in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Selmansberger, Martin; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Hess, Julia; Güthlin, Denise; Likhtarev, I; Shpak, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Abend, Michael; Blettner, Maria; Unger, Kristian; Jacob, Peter; Zitzelsberger, Horst

    2015-07-01

    A previous study on papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in young patients who were exposed to (131)iodine from the Chernobyl fallout revealed an exclusive gain of chromosomal band 7q11.23 in exposed cases compared to an age-matched control cohort. CLIP2, a gene located within band 7q11.23 was shown to be differentially expressed between exposed and non-exposed cases at messenger RNA and protein level. Therefore, a standardized procedure for CLIP2 typing of PTCs has been developed in a follow-up study. Here we used CLIP2 typing data on 117 post-Chernobyl PTCs from two cohorts of exposed patients with individual dose estimates and 24 non-exposed controls to investigate a possible quantitative dose-response relationship of the CLIP2 marker. The 'Genrisk-T' cohort consisted of 45 PTCs and the 'UkrAm' cohort of 72 PTCs. Both cohorts differed in mean dose (0.59 Gy Genrisk-T, 1.2 Gy UkrAm) and mean age at exposure (AaE) (2 years Genrisk-T, 8 years UkrAm), whilst the median latency (16 years Genrisk-T, 18 years UkrAm) was comparable. We analyzed the association between the binary CLIP2 typing and continuous thyroid dose with logistic regression. A clear positive dose-response relationship was found for young PTC cases [age at operation (AaO) < 20 years, AaE < 5 years]. In the elder age group a higher proportion of sporadic tumors is assumed due to a negligible dose response, suggesting different molecular mechanisms in sporadic and radiation-induced cases. This is further supported by the association of elder patients (AaO > 20 years) with positivity for BRAF V600E mutation.

  18. Behavioural interactions between West African dwarf nanny goats and their single-born kids during the first 48 hours post-partum.

    PubMed

    Addae; Awotwi; Oppong-Anane; Oddoye

    2000-03-22

    West African dwarf nanny goats and their single-born kids were tested to find out their behavioural response to separation and their mutual recognition during the first 48 h post-partum. The tests were conducted at 18, 24, 36 or 48 h post partum. Chi-square analyses were used to determine whether age, sex and birth weight of kids as well as h partum and parity of dams had an effect on post-partum bahaviours.In a preliminary study where the kids were not prevented from sucking prior to the tests, the majority of kids (93%) and does (86%) exhibited apparant minimal concern to separation (i.e., had scores of less than 3) and also failed to seek each other. When the kids were prevented from sucking 2 h prior to the tests, the couple showed some response to separation and made attempts to seek each other. This suggests that in goats the state of the neonate's nourishment and the fullness of the dam's udder may be important factors that determine the willingness of the kid and the dam to seek each other when separated. The behavioural response of 48-h-old kids to separation from their dams when they had not sucked for 2 h was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of 18-h-old kids. The sex and birth-weight of 48-h-old kids did not affect their response to separation from their dams. Hours post-partum and parity of does did not affect their response to separation from their kids even though the proportion of does exhibiting the highest response was much higher in primiparous then multiparous animals (44% vs. 13%). Recognition of dams by kids was poor at 18 and 24 h with more than half (71%) the kids failing to recognize their dams. Dam recognition ability improved with age and at 48 h the majority of kids (88%) were able to recognize their dams. Does tested at 48 h post partum had better (P0.05) kid recognition than those tested at 18 and 24 h. The sex and birth weight of kids and the parity of dams had no effect on the mutual recognition of kids and their dams at 48 h

  19. Multi-dose Romidepsin Reactivates Replication Competent SIV in Post-antiretroviral Rhesus Macaque Controllers

    PubMed Central

    Policicchio, Benjamin B.; Xu, Cuiling; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Raehtz, Kevin D.; He, Tianyu; Ma, Dongzhu; Li, Hui; Haret-Richter, George S.; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Mellors, John W.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George M.; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Viruses that persist despite seemingly effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can reinitiate infection if treatment is stopped preclude definitive treatment of HIV-1 infected individuals, requiring lifelong ART. Among strategies proposed for targeting these viral reservoirs, the premise of the “shock and kill” strategy is to induce expression of latent proviruses [for example with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis)] resulting in elimination of the affected cells through viral cytolysis or immune clearance mechanisms. Yet, ex vivo studies reported that HDACis have variable efficacy for reactivating latent proviruses, and hinder immune functions. We developed a nonhuman primate model of post-treatment control of SIV through early and prolonged administration of ART and performed in vivo reactivation experiments in controller RMs, evaluating the ability of the HDACi romidepsin (RMD) to reactivate SIV and the impact of RMD treatment on SIV-specific T cell responses. Ten RMs were IV-infected with a SIVsmmFTq transmitted-founder infectious molecular clone. Four RMs received conventional ART for >9 months, starting from 65 days post-infection. SIVsmmFTq plasma viremia was robustly controlled to <10 SIV RNA copies/mL with ART, without viral blips. At ART cessation, initial rebound viremia to ~106 copies/mL was followed by a decline to < 10 copies/mL, suggesting effective immune control. Three post-treatment controller RMs received three doses of RMD every 35–50 days, followed by in vivo experimental depletion of CD8+ cells using monoclonal antibody M-T807R1. RMD was well-tolerated and resulted in a rapid and massive surge in T cell activation, as well as significant virus rebounds (~104 copies/ml) peaking at 5–12 days post-treatment. CD8+ cell depletion resulted in a more robust viral rebound (107 copies/ml) that was controlled upon CD8+ T cell recovery. Our results show that RMD can reactivate SIV in vivo in the setting of post-ART viral control

  20. Multi-dose Romidepsin Reactivates Replication Competent SIV in Post-antiretroviral Rhesus Macaque Controllers.

    PubMed

    Policicchio, Benjamin B; Xu, Cuiling; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Raehtz, Kevin D; He, Tianyu; Ma, Dongzhu; Li, Hui; Sivanandham, Ranjit; Haret-Richter, George S; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Mellors, John W; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    Viruses that persist despite seemingly effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can reinitiate infection if treatment is stopped preclude definitive treatment of HIV-1 infected individuals, requiring lifelong ART. Among strategies proposed for targeting these viral reservoirs, the premise of the "shock and kill" strategy is to induce expression of latent proviruses [for example with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis)] resulting in elimination of the affected cells through viral cytolysis or immune clearance mechanisms. Yet, ex vivo studies reported that HDACis have variable efficacy for reactivating latent proviruses, and hinder immune functions. We developed a nonhuman primate model of post-treatment control of SIV through early and prolonged administration of ART and performed in vivo reactivation experiments in controller RMs, evaluating the ability of the HDACi romidepsin (RMD) to reactivate SIV and the impact of RMD treatment on SIV-specific T cell responses. Ten RMs were IV-infected with a SIVsmmFTq transmitted-founder infectious molecular clone. Four RMs received conventional ART for >9 months, starting from 65 days post-infection. SIVsmmFTq plasma viremia was robustly controlled to <10 SIV RNA copies/mL with ART, without viral blips. At ART cessation, initial rebound viremia to ~106 copies/mL was followed by a decline to < 10 copies/mL, suggesting effective immune control. Three post-treatment controller RMs received three doses of RMD every 35-50 days, followed by in vivo experimental depletion of CD8+ cells using monoclonal antibody M-T807R1. RMD was well-tolerated and resulted in a rapid and massive surge in T cell activation, as well as significant virus rebounds (~104 copies/ml) peaking at 5-12 days post-treatment. CD8+ cell depletion resulted in a more robust viral rebound (107 copies/ml) that was controlled upon CD8+ T cell recovery. Our results show that RMD can reactivate SIV in vivo in the setting of post-ART viral control. Comparison of

  1. Multi-dose Romidepsin Reactivates Replication Competent SIV in Post-antiretroviral Rhesus Macaque Controllers.

    PubMed

    Policicchio, Benjamin B; Xu, Cuiling; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Raehtz, Kevin D; He, Tianyu; Ma, Dongzhu; Li, Hui; Sivanandham, Ranjit; Haret-Richter, George S; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Mellors, John W; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    Viruses that persist despite seemingly effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can reinitiate infection if treatment is stopped preclude definitive treatment of HIV-1 infected individuals, requiring lifelong ART. Among strategies proposed for targeting these viral reservoirs, the premise of the "shock and kill" strategy is to induce expression of latent proviruses [for example with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis)] resulting in elimination of the affected cells through viral cytolysis or immune clearance mechanisms. Yet, ex vivo studies reported that HDACis have variable efficacy for reactivating latent proviruses, and hinder immune functions. We developed a nonhuman primate model of post-treatment control of SIV through early and prolonged administration of ART and performed in vivo reactivation experiments in controller RMs, evaluating the ability of the HDACi romidepsin (RMD) to reactivate SIV and the impact of RMD treatment on SIV-specific T cell responses. Ten RMs were IV-infected with a SIVsmmFTq transmitted-founder infectious molecular clone. Four RMs received conventional ART for >9 months, starting from 65 days post-infection. SIVsmmFTq plasma viremia was robustly controlled to <10 SIV RNA copies/mL with ART, without viral blips. At ART cessation, initial rebound viremia to ~106 copies/mL was followed by a decline to < 10 copies/mL, suggesting effective immune control. Three post-treatment controller RMs received three doses of RMD every 35-50 days, followed by in vivo experimental depletion of CD8+ cells using monoclonal antibody M-T807R1. RMD was well-tolerated and resulted in a rapid and massive surge in T cell activation, as well as significant virus rebounds (~104 copies/ml) peaking at 5-12 days post-treatment. CD8+ cell depletion resulted in a more robust viral rebound (107 copies/ml) that was controlled upon CD8+ T cell recovery. Our results show that RMD can reactivate SIV in vivo in the setting of post-ART viral control. Comparison of

  2. HLA-haploidentical blood or marrow transplantation with high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, E J

    2015-06-01

    In the past, partially HLA-mismatched related donor, or HLA-haploidentical, blood or marrow transplantation (haploBMT), for hematologic malignancies has been complicated by unacceptably high incidences of graft rejection or GvHD resulting from intense bi-directional alloreactivity. Administration of high doses of cyclophosphamide early after haploBMT selectively kills proliferating, alloreactive T cells while sparing non-alloreactive T cells responsible for immune reconstitution and resistance to infection. In the clinic, haploBMT with high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide is associated with acceptably low incidences of fatal graft rejection, GvHD and non-relapse mortality, and provides an acceptable treatment option for hematologic malignancies patients lacking suitably HLA-matched donors. HaploBMT with PTCy is now being investigated as a treatment of hemoglobinopathy and as a method for inducing tolerance to solid organs transplanted from the same donor. Ongoing and future clinical trials will establish the hierarchy of donor preference for hematologic malignancy patients lacking an HLA-matched sibling.

  3. Comparison of Vaginal and Oral Doses of Misoprostol for Labour Induction in Post-Term Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Masomeh; Farhadifar, Fariba; Nayebi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considering maternal complications, it is preferred to induce labour after 40 weeks. Labour induction is a procedure used to stimulate uterine contractions during pregnancy before the beginning of the labour. Aim The aim of this study was to compare oral misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol for induction of labour in post-term pregnancies. Materials and Methods This double blind clinical-trial study was performed on 180 post-term pregnant women who were admitted to the labour ward of Besat Hospital Sanandaj, Iran in 2013-2014. Participants were equally divided into three groups using block randomization method. The induction was performed for the first group with 100 μg of oral misoprostol, for the second group with 50 μg of oral misoprostol, and for the third group with 25 μg of vaginal misoprostol. Vaginal examination and FHR was done before repeating each dose to determine Bishop Score. Induction time with misoprostol to the start of uterine contractions, induction time to delivery, and mode of delivery, systolic tachycardia, hyper stimulation and fetal outcomes were studied as well. Results First minute Apgar scores and medication dosage of the study groups were significantly different (p=0.0001). But labour induction, induction frequency, mode of delivery, complications, and 5 minutes Apgar score in the groups had no significant difference (p>0.05). The risk of fetal distress and neonatal hospitalization of the groups were statistically significant (p=0. 02). There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of mean time interval from the administration of misoprostol to the start of uterine contractions (labour induction), the time interval from the start of uterine contractions to delivery and taking misoprostol to delivery. From the administration of misoprostol to start of the uterine contractions the mean difference between time intervals in the three groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion Based on our

  4. A Single Dose of Prednisolone as a Modulator of Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin and Insulin Sensitivity Post-Exercise in Healthy Young Men: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Stepto, Nigel K; Jerums, George; Parker, Lewan; McConell, Glenn K; Anderson, Mitchell; Garnham, Andrew; Hare, David L; Ebeling, Peter R; Seeman, Ego

    2016-01-01

    Background Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) increases insulin sensitivity in mice. In humans, data are supportive, but the studies are mostly cross-sectional. Exercise increases whole-body insulin sensitivity, in part via ucOC, while acute glucocorticoid treatment suppresses ucOC in humans and mice. Objectives A single dose of prednisolone reduces the rise in ucOC produced by exercise, which partly accounts for the failed increase in insulin sensitivity following exercise. Methods Healthy young men (n=12) aged 18 to 40 years will be recruited. Initial assessments will include analysis of fasting blood, body composition, aerobic power (VO2peak), and peak heart rate. Participants will then be randomly allocated, double-blind, to a single dose of 20 mg of prednisolone or placebo. The two experimental trials will involve 30 minutes of interval exercise (90%-95% peak heart rate), followed by 3 hours of recovery and 2 hours of euglycaemic- hyperinsulinaemic clamp (insulin clamp). Seven muscle biopsies and blood samples will be obtained at rest, following exercise and post-insulin clamps. Results The study is funded by the National Heart Foundation of Australia and Victoria University. Enrollment has already commenced and data collection will be completed in 2016. Conclusion If the hypothesis is confirmed, the study will provide novel insights into the potential role of ucOC in insulin sensitivity in human subjects and will elucidate pathways involved in exercise-induced insulin sensitivity. PMID:27259402

  5. Dose response and post-irradiation characteristics of the Sunna 535-nm photo-fluorescent film dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. K.; Kovács, A.; Miller, S. D.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    2003-12-01

    Results of characterization studies on one of the first versions of the Sunna photo-fluorescent dosimeter™ have previously been reported, and the performance of the red fluorescence component described. This present paper describes dose response and post-irradiation characteristics of the green fluorescence component from the same dosimeter film ( Sunna Model γ), which is manufactured using the injection molding technique. This production method may supply batch sizes on the order of 1 million dosimeter film elements while maintaining a signal precision (1 σ) on the order of ±1% without the need to correct for variability of film thickness. The dosimeter is a 1 cm×3 cm polymeric film of 0.5-mm thickness that emits green fluorescence at intensities increasing almost linearly with dose. The data presented include dose response, post-irradiation growth, heat treatment, dosimeter aging, dose rate dependence, energy dependence, dose fractionation, variation of response within a batch, and the stability of the fluorimeter response. The results indicate that, as a routine dosimeter, the green signal provides a broad range of response at food irradiation (0.3-5 kGy), medical sterilization (5-40 kGy), and polymer cross-linking (40-250 kGy) dose levels.

  6. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  7. Repeated Post- or Presession Cocaine Administration: Roles of Dose and Fixed-Ratio Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of repeated administration of cocaine to animals behaving under operant contingencies have depended on when the drug is given. Moderate doses given presession have generally led to a decrease in the drug's effect, an outcome usually referred to as tolerance. When these same doses have been given after sessions, the usual result has been no…

  8. Repeated post- or presession cocaine administration: roles of dose and fixed-ratio schedule.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; Branch, Marc N

    2004-01-01

    Effects of repeated administration of cocaine to animals behaving under operant contingencies have depended on when the drug is given. Moderate doses given presession have generally led to a decrease in the drug's effect, an outcome usually referred to as tolerance. When these same doses have been given after sessions, the usual result has been no change or an increase in the drug's effects, with the latter usually referred to as sensitization. In the present study, repeated postsession administration of a relatively small dose of cocaine (3.0 or 5.6 mg/kg) to pigeons responding under a multiple fixed-ratio 5, fixed-ratio 100 schedule of food presentation generally resulted in tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of the drug. When the same dose was given before sessions, little additional tolerance was observed, although some subjects showed further tolerance in the small-ratio component. A regimen of repeated postsession injection of larger (10.0-23.0 mg/kg) doses suppressed key pecking during the session; responding resumed following discontinuation of postsession administrations. Effects of postsession administration of cocaine, therefore, depended on the dose, with smaller doses leading to tolerance and larger ones to suppression of behavior during the session. Effects of postsession drug administration of either small or large doses were not related to whether effects of postsession drug were experienced mainly in the operant test chamber or in the pigeon's home cage. The results with large postsession doses are compatible with a view that the drug acted as a Pavlovian unconditional stimulus, with the session-related stimuli acting as a long-duration Pavlovian conditional stimulus. Tolerance following postsession administration of the smaller doses challenges the view that it depended on experiencing the drug's effects while the arranged reinforcement contingencies were in effect. PMID:15239491

  9. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  10. Estimation by a 24-hour study of the daily dose of intra-oral mercury vapor inhaled after release from dental amalgam

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, A. )

    1990-10-01

    The difficulties associated with estimations of daily doses of inhaled mercury vapor released from dental amalgam are considerable. Existing data are often unreliable, especially if they are based on a single or a small series of samples of intra-oral concentrations of mercury vapor before, during, and after chewing stimulation. In the present paper, the aim was to obtain a more representative estimation of the daily dose of mercury vapor inhaled from amalgam fillings by measurement of amounts of mercury vapor released in the oral cavity during 24 h, under conditions that were as normal as possible. A series of measurements was carried out on each of 15 subjects, with at least nine occlusal surfaces restored with dental amalgam, and on five subjects without any amalgam restorations. The subjects had to follow a standardized schedule for 24 h, whereby they ate, drank, and brushed their teeth at pre-determined time periods. The amount of mercury vapor released per time unit was measured at intervals of 30-45 min by means of a measuring system based on atomic absorption spectrophotometry. None of the subjects was professionally exposed to mercury, and all of their amalgam fillings were more than one year old. Study casts were made for each subject, and the area of the amalgam surfaces was measured. Samples of urine and saliva were analyzed so that values for the mercury concentrations and the rate of release of mercury into saliva could be obtained. The average frequency of fish meals per month was noted.

  11. Prolonged and symptomatic bradycardia following a single dose of fingolimod.

    PubMed

    Faber, Hans; Fischer, Hans-Jörg; Weber, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Fingolimod-related bradycardia is usually asymptomatic, reaches its nadir within 6 hours post-dose and recovers spontaneously. Here we report the case of a 30-year-old MS patient with vagotonia who developed symptomatic bradycardia with 33 beats per minute at nadir 39 hours after a single dose of fingolimod. Bradycardia was responsive to atropine, but returned within 2 hours. Overall, it took a week until the patient recovered. Extended monitoring is advised in patients with symptomatic bradycardia.

  12. Neonatal alcohol impairs the context preexposure facilitation effect in juvenile rats: dose-response and post-training consolidation effects.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, S A; Stanton, M E

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol exposure on postnatal days (PND) 4-9 in the rat adversely affects hippocampal anatomy and function and impairs performance on a variety of hippocampus-dependent tasks. Exposure during this developmental window reveals a linear relationship between alcohol dose and spatial learning impairment in the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE), a hippocampus-dependent variant of contextual fear conditioning. The purpose of the current report was to examine the effect of a range of alcohol doses administered during a narrower window, PND7-9, than previously reported (Experiment 1) and to begin to determine which memory processes involved in this task are impaired by developmental alcohol exposure (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, rats pups received a single day binge alcohol dose of either 2.75, 4.00, 5.25 g/kg/day or were sham-intubated (SI) from PND7-9. Conditioned freezing during the test day was evident in all dosing groups, except for Group 5.25 g, indicating no graded dose-related behavioral deficits with alcohol exposure limited to PND7-9. In Experiment 2, rat pups were exposed to the highest effective dose from Experiment 1 (5.25 g/kg/day) or were sham intubated over PND7-9. During training, rats remained in the conditioning context for 5-min following immediate shock delivery. During this test of post-shock freezing, both SI and alcohol-exposed rats given prior exposure to the conditioning context showed comparable freezing levels. Since alcohol-exposed rats showed normal post-shock freezing, deficits by these rats on the test day likely reflect a failure to consolidate or retrieve a context-shock association, rather than a deficit in hippocampal conjunctive processes (consolidation, pattern completion) that occur prior to shock on the training day. These findings illustrate the value of the CPFE for characterizing the separable memory processes that are impaired by neonatal alcohol exposure in this task.

  13. Intravenous injection of low-dose flurbiprofen axetil for preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis in high-risk patients: An interim analysis of the trial

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yuji; Hasegawa, Sho; Kato, Yuri; Ishii, Ken; Iwasaki, Akito; Sato, Takamitsu; Sekino, Yusuke; Hosono, Kunihiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Kubota, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Several meta-analyses and randomized control trials have demonstrated the efficacy of rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for preventing post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP). Diclofenac or indomethacin was administered at a dose of 100 mg in those studies, which may be too high for Asian population. In addition, rectal administration can be considered complicated. Patients and methods: This study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with a PEP risk score ≥ 1 were randomly assigned to receive intravenous injection of 50 mg flurbiprofen axetil (flurbiprofen group) or saline only (placebo group). The primary outcome was reduced PEP. The secondary outcome was amylase level after 2 hours of ERCP as a predictor of PEP. (Clinical Trials.gov, ID UMIN000011322) Results: In total, 144 patients were enrolled from August 2013 to March 2015. We performed an interim analysis of the first 100 patients: 47 received flurbiprofen axetil and 53 received placebo. PEP occurred in 11 patients (11 %): 2 of 47 (4.3 %) in the flurbiprofen group and 9 of 53 (17 %) in the placebo group (P = 0.042). Relative risk reduction was 62.4 %. Hyperamylasemia did not differ significantly (17.0 % vs. 26.4 %, P = 0.109). This analysis resulted in early termination of the study for ethical reasons. Conclusions: Intravenous injection of low-dose flurbiprofen axetil after ERCP can reduce the incidence of PEP in high-risk patients PMID:27747282

  14. Prevention of recurrence of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome post renal transplant with the use of higher-dose eculizumab
.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Amy; Goodship, Tim; Bingham, Coralie

    2016-10-01

    Eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, has recently been used successfully to both prevent and treat the recurrence of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) post renal transplantation. We describe a case that highlights the need to monitor the effects of eculizumab on the complement system and in this case alter the dosage. Despite taking the standard recommended dose of eculizumab for an adult, this aHUS patient developed a low-grade thrombotic microangiopathy on biopsy within months of renal transplantation. Complement assays (trough CH50) showed small amounts of residual terminal pathway activity suggesting inadequate complement blockade on 1,200 mg eculizumab every 2 weeks. Following an increase in the dose of eculizumab to 1,500 mg every 2 weeks, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), proteinuria, and creatinine decreased, and CH50 assay showed 0%. This case emphasizes the need to monitor clinical parameters and complement activity to ensure that adequate therapeutic blockade is achieved.
.

  15. Immediate post-dosing paralysis following severe soman and VX toxicosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Bide, R W; Schofield, L; Risk, D J

    2005-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of the central nervous system (CNS) involvement in organophosphate (OP) poisoning showing status epilepticus and/or 'electrographic seizures'. Brain damage has been demonstrated as 'neuronal necrosis' primarily in the cortex, thalamus and hippocampus. To the authors' knowledge there have been no reports of partial/total paralysis following close upon OP exposure although delayed paralysis has been reported. This report summarizes the immediate, OP induced paralytic events recorded in guinea pigs during development of the Canadian reactive skin decontaminant lotion (RSDL). As part of the development work, supra-lethal cutaneous doses of OP were applied to large numbers of guinea pigs followed by decontamination with the RSDL or predecessor lotions and solvents. Soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate; GD) challenges were applied to 1277 animals and S-(2-diisopropyl-aminoethyl) methylphosphorothiolate (VX) challenges to 108. The classic sequence of clinical signs--ptyalism, tremors, fasciculations, convulsions, apnea and flaccid paralysis before death--was seen in the 658 animals that died and in many of the survivors. Eighty-four of 688 survivors of GD and 4 of 39 survivors of VX showed random paralysis of various distal regions following recovery from an insult which produced convulsions and/or flaccid paralysis. Because the experiments were designed to assess the decontamination procedures, there were no apparent relationships between the amounts of OP applied and the sequellae recorded. The observations of paralysis were also incidental to the prime focus of the experiments. Because of this, only ten animals paralysed following GD exposure were examined for histological effects. The pathologist diagnosed 'encephalomalacia' and 'focal necrotic lesions' in the cerebral cortex and 'focal necrotic lesions' in one spinal cord. Of the 84 guinea pigs paralysed after GD challenge, one was not decontaminated and the decontaminants used

  16. Immediate post-dosing paralysis following severe soman and VX toxicosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Bide, R W; Schofield, L; Risk, D J

    2005-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of the central nervous system (CNS) involvement in organophosphate (OP) poisoning showing status epilepticus and/or 'electrographic seizures'. Brain damage has been demonstrated as 'neuronal necrosis' primarily in the cortex, thalamus and hippocampus. To the authors' knowledge there have been no reports of partial/total paralysis following close upon OP exposure although delayed paralysis has been reported. This report summarizes the immediate, OP induced paralytic events recorded in guinea pigs during development of the Canadian reactive skin decontaminant lotion (RSDL). As part of the development work, supra-lethal cutaneous doses of OP were applied to large numbers of guinea pigs followed by decontamination with the RSDL or predecessor lotions and solvents. Soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate; GD) challenges were applied to 1277 animals and S-(2-diisopropyl-aminoethyl) methylphosphorothiolate (VX) challenges to 108. The classic sequence of clinical signs--ptyalism, tremors, fasciculations, convulsions, apnea and flaccid paralysis before death--was seen in the 658 animals that died and in many of the survivors. Eighty-four of 688 survivors of GD and 4 of 39 survivors of VX showed random paralysis of various distal regions following recovery from an insult which produced convulsions and/or flaccid paralysis. Because the experiments were designed to assess the decontamination procedures, there were no apparent relationships between the amounts of OP applied and the sequellae recorded. The observations of paralysis were also incidental to the prime focus of the experiments. Because of this, only ten animals paralysed following GD exposure were examined for histological effects. The pathologist diagnosed 'encephalomalacia' and 'focal necrotic lesions' in the cerebral cortex and 'focal necrotic lesions' in one spinal cord. Of the 84 guinea pigs paralysed after GD challenge, one was not decontaminated and the decontaminants used

  17. Fertility after two doses of PGF2α concurrently or at 6-hour interval on the day of CIDR removal in 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocols in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    White, Stephanie S; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R

    2016-08-01

    Timed artificial insemination protocols in beef cattle are designed to synchronize ovulation in a greater proportion of females while simultaneously achieving acceptable pregnancy rates and a concise calving season. Protocols achieving such goals reduce time and labor associated with estrus detection and make advanced reproductive technologies implementable for beef producers. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of three different PGF2α (PGF) dosage schemes on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers. We hypothesized that two doses of PGF administered concurrently at the time of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) removal would attain similar pregnancy rates compared with two doses given 6-hours apart-one at CIDR removal and the next 6 hours later in the 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocol. Angus heifers (n = 875) at six locations in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon states were included in this study. Heifers within locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS). All heifers received a CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) and 100 μg IM of GnRH on Day 0. The CIDRs were removed on Day 5, heifers were randomly allocated to one of three protocol groups: 1PGF (n = 291), received 25 mg IM of dinoprost (PGF); 2CO-PGF (n = 291), received 50 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal, 2PGF (n = 293), received 25 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal, and an additional 25 mg IM of dinoprost 6 hours later. Each heifer was given GnRH (100 μg, IM) and artificially inseminated at 56 hours after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy status between 50 and 70 days after AI to determine time of conception. A mixed-model procedure (PROC GLIMMIX of SAS) was used to evaluate the effect of treatments (1PGF, 2CO-PGF, and 2PGF) on AI pregnancy rates. Models included were treatments, BCS categories (≤5 and >5), and treatment by BCS category interaction. Location (state), handling facilities, handlers

  18. Fertility after two doses of PGF2α concurrently or at 6-hour interval on the day of CIDR removal in 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocols in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    White, Stephanie S; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R

    2016-08-01

    Timed artificial insemination protocols in beef cattle are designed to synchronize ovulation in a greater proportion of females while simultaneously achieving acceptable pregnancy rates and a concise calving season. Protocols achieving such goals reduce time and labor associated with estrus detection and make advanced reproductive technologies implementable for beef producers. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of three different PGF2α (PGF) dosage schemes on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers. We hypothesized that two doses of PGF administered concurrently at the time of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) removal would attain similar pregnancy rates compared with two doses given 6-hours apart-one at CIDR removal and the next 6 hours later in the 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocol. Angus heifers (n = 875) at six locations in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon states were included in this study. Heifers within locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS). All heifers received a CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) and 100 μg IM of GnRH on Day 0. The CIDRs were removed on Day 5, heifers were randomly allocated to one of three protocol groups: 1PGF (n = 291), received 25 mg IM of dinoprost (PGF); 2CO-PGF (n = 291), received 50 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal, 2PGF (n = 293), received 25 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal, and an additional 25 mg IM of dinoprost 6 hours later. Each heifer was given GnRH (100 μg, IM) and artificially inseminated at 56 hours after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy status between 50 and 70 days after AI to determine time of conception. A mixed-model procedure (PROC GLIMMIX of SAS) was used to evaluate the effect of treatments (1PGF, 2CO-PGF, and 2PGF) on AI pregnancy rates. Models included were treatments, BCS categories (≤5 and >5), and treatment by BCS category interaction. Location (state), handling facilities, handlers

  19. Synaptotoxicity of chronic low-dose pre- and post-natal ethanol exposure: A new animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Walewski, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic Low-dose Pre- and Post-natal Ethanol exposure (CLPPEE) is the most frequent cause of teratogenically induced mental deficiency in the Western world. Although the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAAS) is associated with high levels of alcohol consumption, the relative teratogenic risk of moderate ethanol consumption is not well defined. CLPPEE may affect some processes involved in synapse formation, affecting the proper development and maturation of the nervous system. Ethanol was admixed (3 v/v%) with high-protein liquid diet (Bio-Serve) as the only nutrient source. The controls received an isocaloric sucrose liquid diet mixture. Ethanol treatment began on day 8 of pregnancy. 3 v/v% ethanol did not significantly reduce the body weights or diet consumption of dams, nor the gross growth of ethanol-exposed pups. Standard neuromuscular twitch preparations in vivo, utilizing the sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle, were done on 1, 2, 3 and 7 week old pups. The physiologic functional tests of nursing pups (1-3 weeks), indicated that the ethanol-treated pups had abnormal responses to indirect stimulation. The deficit was determined to be pre-synaptic. The ethanol-exposed at these ages demonstrated abnormal responses to presynaptic challenge. Histochemical staining revealed motor nerve terminal morphology. In 2 and 3 week ethanol-treated pups, the number of nerve terminal branches, and endplate lengths were significantly reduced. Reversibility was examined by allowing the pups to mature while receiving only standard rat chow and water. Tests were repeated at 7 weeks of age. The responses of the ethanol-exposed to pharmacologic challenge, and motor nerve terminal morphology were still significantly different in the young adult animals. CLPPEE, at doses sub-threshold for FAS, affects the normal development of the skeletal neuromuscular system, with long-lasting effects on motor nerve terminal function and morphology.

  20. Negligible risk of inducing resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with single-dose rifampicin as post-exposure prophylaxis for leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mieras, Liesbeth; Anthony, Richard; van Brakel, Wim; Bratschi, Martin W; van den Broek, Jacques; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Cavaliero, Arielle; Kasang, Christa; Perera, Geethal; Reichman, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Saunderson, Paul; Steinmann, Peter; Yew, Wing Wai

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for leprosy is administered as one single dose of rifampicin (SDR) to the contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients. SDR reduces the risk of developing leprosy among contacts by around 60 % in the first 2-3 years after receiving SDR. In countries where SDR is currently being implemented under routine programme conditions in defined areas, questions were raised by health authorities and professional bodies about the possible risk of inducing rifampicin resistance among the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in these areas. This issue has not been addressed in scientific literature to date. To produce an authoritative consensus statement about the risk that SDR would induce rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, a meeting was convened with tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy experts. The experts carefully reviewed and discussed the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and risk factors for the development of (multi) drug-resistance in M. tuberculosis with a view to the special situation of the use of SDR as PEP for leprosy. They concluded that SDR given to contacts of leprosy patients, in the absence of symptoms of active TB, poses a negligible risk of generating resistance in M. tuberculosis in individuals and at the population level. Thus, the benefits of SDR prophylaxis in reducing the risk of developing leprosy in contacts of new leprosy patients far outweigh the risks of generating drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. PMID:27268059

  1. Combination of low-dose gemcitabine in 6-hour infusion and carboplatin is a favorable option for patients in poor performance status with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Yong; Guan, Hui-Hong; Lin, Ze-Xiao; Yang, Hong-Kai; Zhou, Lan; Cai, Qi-Chun

    2014-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the regimen of low-dose gemcitabine combined with carboplatin in chemo-naïve patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study involved 37 chemo-naive patients with unresectable stage IIIB or stage IV NSCLC. The predominant histological type was squamous carcinoma (22/37), and the performance status (PS) was 2 in 23 patients (62%). All received gemcitabine, 250 mg/m(2) in 6-hour infusion on days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin area under the curve (AUC)  =  5 on day 1, every 28 days. The overall response rate (ORR) was 62·2% and disease stabilization was achieved in 21·6% of the patients. After a median follow-up duration of 13 months, the median overall survival (OS) time was 14·0 months (95% CI 13·3-16·6 months), and the median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 7·0 months (95% CI 6·1-8·9 months). Hematological toxicities were well-tolerated with the development of grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in 10·3 and 10·3% of patients respectively, and the gastrointestinal toxicities were mild.

  2. The relation between doses or post-plasma time points and apoptosis of leukemia cells induced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Haixia; Xue, Zhixiao; Yin, Huijuan; Niu, Qing; Chen, Hongli

    2015-12-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was applied to induce apoptosis of LT-12 leukemia cells. Plasma effects on cell death was evaluated by MTT assay and FCM apoptosis assay with Annexin V/PI double staining, suggesting that plasma killing cells rate and inducing cell apoptosis rate both positively were related to the plasma doses or the post-plasma time points. The cell death rates increased from 15.2% to 33.1% and the apoptosis rate raise from 23.8% to 28% when the dose raise from 60s to 120 s at 8 h post-plasma, while they increased from 15.4% to 34.9% and from 48% to 55.3% respectively at the same doses at 12 h post-plasma. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members were measured for exploring the related apoptotic mechanisms phenomenon. We found ROS immediately increased to 1.24 times of the original amount, then increasing to 5.39-fold at 20 h after treatment. The gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members are very active at 8-12 h post-plasma. Our results demonstrate that DBD plasma can effectively induce tumor cell death through primarily related apoptotic mechanisms.

  3. Dose-response effect of exercise frequency on bone mineral density in post-menopausal, osteopenic women.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, W; von Stengel, S

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term dose-response relationship of exercise frequency on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in early post-menopausal women with osteopenia. Based on the 12-year results of the consequently supervised exercise group (EG) of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study, we retrospectively structured two exercise groups according to the overall exercise frequency. Changes in aBMD at lumbar spine and proximal femur as assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique were compared between a low-frequency exercise group (LEF-EG, n = 16) with 1.5-<2 sessions/week and a high-frequency exercise group (HEF-EG, n = 25) with ≥ 2-3.5 sessions/week. Changes in aBMD at the lumbar spine and proximal femur were significantly more favorable in the HEF-EG compared with the LEF-EG; lumbar spine: (mean value ± standard deviation) 1.1 ± 4.7% vs -4.1 ± 3.0%; P = 0.001, ES: d' = 1.26; total hip: -4.4 ± 3.9% vs -6.7 ± 3.5%, P = 0.045, ES: d' = 0.70). BMD results of the LEF-EG did not significantly differ from the data of the non-training control group (lumbar spine: -4.4 ± 5.2%, total hip: -6.9 ± 5.0%). Although this result might not be generalizable across all exercise types and cohorts, it indicates that to impact bone, an overall exercise frequency of at least 2 sessions/week may be crucial, even if exercise is applied with high intensity/impact.

  4. Forecasting Credit Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivin, David; Rooney, Patrick Michael

    1999-01-01

    This study used Tobit analysis to estimate retention probabilities and credit hours at two universities. Tobit was judged as appropriate for this problem because it recognizes the lower bound of zero on credit hours and incorporates this bound into parameter estimates and forecasts. Models are estimated for credit hours in a single year and…

  5. Cracking the Credit Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit hour. If…

  6. Immunogenicity and Safety of Four Different Dosing Regimens of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for Anthrax in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I.; Jackson, Lisa; Patel, Shital M.; El Sahly, Hana M.; Spearman, Paul; Rouphael, Nadine; Rudge, Thomas L.; Hill, Heather; Goll, Johannes B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Strategies to implement post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in case of an anthrax bioterror event are needed. To increase the number of doses of vaccine available we evaluated reducing the amount of vaccine administered at each of the vaccinations, and reducing the number of doses administered. Methods Healthy male and non-pregnant female subjects between the ages of 18 and 65 were enrolled and randomized 1:1:1:1 to one of four study arms to receive 0.5 mL (standard dose) of vaccine subcutaneously (SQ) at: A) days 0, 14; B) days 0 and 28; C) days 0, 14, and 28; or D) 0.25 ml at days 0, 14, and 28. A booster was provided on day 180. Safety was assessed after each dose. Blood was obtained on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 84, 100, 180, and 201 and both Toxin Neutralizing antibody and anti-PA IgG antibody measured. Results Almost all subjects developed some local reactions with 46% to 64% reported to be of moderate severity and 3.3% severe during the primary series. Vaccine groups that included a day 14 dose induced a ≥4 fold antibody rise in more subjects on days 21, 28 and 35 than the arm without a day 14 dose. However, schedules with a full day 28 dose induced higher peak levels of antibody that persisted longer. The half dose regimen did not induce antibody as well as the full dose study arms. Conclusion Depending on the extent of the outbreak, effectiveness of antibiotics and availability of vaccine, the full dose 0, 28 or 0, 14, 28 schedules may have advantages. PMID:25239484

  7. Mineralization- and remodeling-unrelated improvement of the post-yield properties of rat cortical bone by high doses of olpadronate.

    PubMed

    Capozza, R F; Mondelo, N; Reina, P S; Nocciolino, L; Meta, M; Roldan, E J; Ferretti, J L; Cointry, G R

    2013-06-01

    Some pharmacologic effects on bone modeling may not be evident in studies of remodeling skeletons. This study analyzes some effects of olpadronate on cortical bone modeling and post-yield properties in femurs diaphyses (virtually only-modeling bones) of young rats by mid-diaphyseal pQCT scans and bending tests. We studied 20/22 male/female animals traetad orally with olpadronate (45-90 mg/kg/d, 3 months) and 8/9 untreated controls. Both OPD doses enhanced diaphyseal cross-sectional moments of inertia (CSMI) with no change in cortical vBMD and elastic modulus. Yield stiffness and strength were mildly increased. Post-yield strength, deflection and energy absorption were strikingly enhanced. Ultimate strength was enhanced mainly because of effects on bone mass/geometry and post-yield properties. The large improvement of post-yield properties could be explained by improvements in bone geometry. Improvements in bone mass/geometry over weight-bearing needs suggest an enhanced modeling-related response to mechanical stimuli. Effects on tissue microstructural factors (not measured) could not be excluded. Results reveal novel olpadronate effects on bone strength and toughness unrelated to tissue mineralization and stiffness, even at high doses. Further studies could establish whether this could also occur in modeling-remodeling skeletons. If so, they could counteract the negative impact of anti-remodeling effects of bisphosphonates on bone strength.

  8. SU-E-T-235: Monte Carlo Analysis of the Dose Enhancement in the Scalp of Patients Due to Titanium Plate Backscatter During Post-Operative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, M; Elson, H; Lamba, M; Wolf, E; Warnick, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the clinically observed dose enhancement adjacent to cranial titanium fixation plates during post-operative radiotherapy. Methods: Irradiation of a titanium burr hole cover was simulated using Monte Carlo code MCNPX for a 6 MV photon spectrum to investigate backscatter dose enhancement due to increased production of secondary electrons within the titanium plate. The simulated plate was placed 3 mm deep in a water phantom, and dose deposition was tallied for 0.2 mm thick cells adjacent to the entrance and exit sides of the plate. These results were compared to a simulation excluding the presence of the titanium to calculate relative dose enhancement on the entrance and exit sides of the plate. To verify simulated results, two titanium burr hole covers (Synthes, Inc. and Biomet, Inc.) were irradiated with 6 MV photons in a solid water phantom containing GafChromic MD-55 film. The phantom was irradiated on a Varian 21EX linear accelerator at multiple gantry angles (0–180 degrees) to analyze the angular dependence of the backscattered radiation. Relative dose enhancement was quantified using computer software. Results: Monte Carlo simulations indicate a relative difference of 26.4% and 7.1% on the entrance and exit sides of the plate respectively. Film dosimetry results using a similar geometry indicate a relative difference of 13% and -10% on the entrance and exit sides of the plate respectively. Relative dose enhancement on the entrance side of the plate decreased with increasing gantry angle from 0 to 180 degrees. Conclusion: Film and simulation results demonstrate an increase in dose to structures immediately adjacent to cranial titanium fixation plates. Increased beam obliquity has shown to alleviate dose enhancement to some extent. These results are consistent with clinically observed effects.

  9. Pooled post hoc analysis of population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and acetaminophen following a single oral dose of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets.

    PubMed

    Franke, Ryan M; Morton, Terri; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This analysis evaluated the single-dose population pharmacokinetics (PK) of biphasic immediate-release (IR)/extended-release (ER) oxycodone (OC)/acetaminophen (APAP) 7.5/325 mg tablets administered under fasted conditions and the effects of a meal on their single-dose population PK. Data were pooled from four randomized, single-dose crossover trials enrolling healthy adult (18-55 years old) participants (three trials) and nondependent recreational users of prescription opioids (one trial) with a body weight of ≥59 kg. Participants received IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets in single doses of 7.5/325 mg (one tablet), 15/650 mg (two tablets), or 30/1,300 mg (four tablets) under fasted or fed conditions. Six variables were examined: sex, race, age, weight, height, and body mass index. Single-dose population PK was analyzed using first-order conditional estimation methods. A total of 151 participants were included in the analysis under fasted conditions, and 31 participants were included in the fed analysis. Under fasted conditions, a 10% change in body weight was accompanied by ~7.5% change in total body clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) of OC and APAP. Black participants had 17.3% lower CL/F and a 16.9% lower V/F of OC compared with white participants. Under fed conditions, the absorption rate constant of OC and APAP decreased significantly, although there was no effect on CL/F and V/F. Considering that the recommended dose for IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets is two tablets every 12 hours, adjustments of <50% are not clinically relevant. Dose adjustment may be necessary for large deviations from average body weight, but the small PK effects associated with race and consumption of a meal are not clinically relevant.

  10. Computational Modeling of Cellular Effects Post-Irradiation with Low- and High-Let Particles and Different Absorbed Doses

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of computational methods to improve the understanding of biological responses to various types of radiation is an approach where multiple parameters can be modelled and a variety of data is generated. This study compares cellular effects modelled for low absorbed doses against high absorbed doses. The authors hypothesized that low and high absorbed doses would contribute to cell killing via different mechanisms, potentially impacting on targeted tumour radiotherapy outcomes. Cellular kinetics following irradiation with selective low- and high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles were investigated using the Virtual Cell (VC) radiobiology algorithm. Two different cell types were assessed using the VC radiobiology algorithm: human fibroblasts and human crypt cells. The results showed that at lower doses (0.01 to 0.2 Gy), all radiation sources used were equally able to induce cell death (p>0.05, ANOVA). On the other hand, at higher doses (1.0 to 8.0 Gy), the radiation response was LET and dose dependent (p<0.05, ANOVA). The data obtained suggests that the computational methods used might provide some insight into the cellular effects following irradiation. The results also suggest that it may be necessary to re-evaluate cellular radiation-induced effects, particularly at low doses that could affect therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:23930101

  11. Multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate dosing of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women undergoing ovulation induction

    PubMed Central

    Nawroth, Frank; Tandler-Schneider, Andreas; Bilger, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    This prospective, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study evaluated doses of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women who were anovulatory or oligomenorrheic and undergoing ovulation induction (OI) alone or OI with intrauterine insemination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved monofollicular or bifollicular development (defined as one or two follicles ≥15 mm). Secondary endpoints included characteristics of ovulation stimulation treatment, such as mean total and mean daily r-hFSH doses. Data were analyzed for 3,193 patients from 30 German fertility centers. The proportion of patients with monofollicular or bifollicular development was 71.1% (n=2,270 of a total of 3,193 patients; intent-to-treat population). The mean±standard deviation total and daily doses of r-hFSH were 696.9±542.5 IU and 61.7±29.4 IU, respectively. The three doses prescribed most frequently were: 37.5 IU (n=703 from N=3,189; 22.0%), 50.0 IU (n=1,056 from N=3,189; 33.1%), and 75.0 IU (n=738 from N=3,189; 23.1%) on the first day of stimulation; and 37.5 IU (n=465 from N=3,189; 14.6%), 50.0 IU (n=922 from N=3,189; 28.9%), and 75.0 IU (n=895 from N=3,189; 28.1%) on the last day of stimulation. This noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study found that monofollicular or bifollicular development was achieved in 71% of patients studied and the small dose increment (12.5 IU) of the redesigned follitropin alfa pen allowed individualized treatment of women undergoing OI. PMID:25926755

  12. Historical development and evolution of EPRI's post-closure dose assessment of potential releases to the biosphere from the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Kozak, Matthew W

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the development and evolution of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) post-closure dose assessment for potential releases of radionuclides from the proposed High Level Waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The starting point for this work was the 1995 publication of Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Standards by the Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources of the National Research Council. This report proposed the development and application of an individual risk-based standard for releases from the repository to replace the existing one, which was based on radionuclide release limits. This in turn implied the development and application of methods to assess radiation doses to humans. Accordingly, EPRI produced a methodology for such dose assessment as part of its Total System Performance Assessment program for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. The methodology initially addressed releases via groundwater and then releases associated with extrusive igneous events. The methodology was updated and applied over the following years to take account of regulatory developments, changes in estimates of the source term to the biosphere, peer review through international model comparison exercises, new site generic data, and new data concerning conditions at the point of compliance in Amargosa Valley. The main outputs were Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors, which relate radionuclide levels in environmental media to the annual individual doses to a member of a hypothetical critical group and to the regulator-defined Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual. Most recently, consideration has been given to uncertainty in the dose estimates based on a probabilistic analysis. The paper provides a perspective on the evolution of the dose assessments in response to the developments listed above. PMID:22048489

  13. Historical development and evolution of EPRI's post-closure dose assessment of potential releases to the biosphere from the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Kozak, Matthew W

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the development and evolution of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) post-closure dose assessment for potential releases of radionuclides from the proposed High Level Waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The starting point for this work was the 1995 publication of Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Standards by the Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources of the National Research Council. This report proposed the development and application of an individual risk-based standard for releases from the repository to replace the existing one, which was based on radionuclide release limits. This in turn implied the development and application of methods to assess radiation doses to humans. Accordingly, EPRI produced a methodology for such dose assessment as part of its Total System Performance Assessment program for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. The methodology initially addressed releases via groundwater and then releases associated with extrusive igneous events. The methodology was updated and applied over the following years to take account of regulatory developments, changes in estimates of the source term to the biosphere, peer review through international model comparison exercises, new site generic data, and new data concerning conditions at the point of compliance in Amargosa Valley. The main outputs were Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors, which relate radionuclide levels in environmental media to the annual individual doses to a member of a hypothetical critical group and to the regulator-defined Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual. Most recently, consideration has been given to uncertainty in the dose estimates based on a probabilistic analysis. The paper provides a perspective on the evolution of the dose assessments in response to the developments listed above.

  14. Termination of pregnancy with reduced doses of mifepristone. World Health Organisation Task Force on Post-ovulatory Methods of Fertility Regulation.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the abortifacient efficacy and side effects of three doses of the antiprogestin mifepristone plus prostaglandin for termination of early pregnancy. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind multicentre trial. SETTING--11 departments of obstetrics and gynaecology and of family planning, mostly in university hospitals, in seven countries. SUBJECTS--1182 women with an early pregnancy (menstrual delay of 7-28 days) requesting abortion. INTERVENTIONS--Single doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg mifepristone followed, 48 hours later, by vaginal pessary of 1 mg of the prostaglandin E1 analogue gemeprost. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Outcome of treatment; duration and subjective amount of menstrual bleeding; side effects and complications; and concentrations of haemoglobin. RESULTS--Outcome was similar with the three doses of mifepristone. Of the 1151 women with known outcome, 95.5% had a complete abortion (364 (93.8%) of those given 200 mg mifepristone, 368 (94.1%) of those given 400 mg, and 367 (94.3%) of those given 600 mg), 3.7% had an incomplete abortion (14 (3.6%), 15 (3.8%), and 14 (3.6%)), 0.3% had a missed abortion (three (0.8%), one (0.3%), and none), and 0.4% had a continuing live pregnancy (two (0.5%), two (0.5%), and one (0.3%)). Of the 43 women who had incomplete abortion, 23 underwent emergency uterine curettage (usually for haemostatic purposes) and three of these women were given a blood transfusion. The numbers of reported complaints, bleeding patterns, and changes in blood pressure and haemoglobin concentrations were similar with the three treatments. CONCLUSIONS--For termination of early pregnancy a single dose of 200 mg mifepristone is as effective as the currently recommended dose of 600 mg when used in combination with a vaginal pessary of 1 mg gemeprost. PMID:8400972

  15. Bag and loop small bowel contouring strategies differentially estimate small bowel dose for post-hysterectomy women receiving pencil beam scanning proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Melody J; Kirk, Maura; Zhai, Huifang; Lin, Lilie L

    2016-07-01

    Background Small bowel (SB) dose-volume relationships established during initial computed tomography (CT) simulations may change throughout therapy due to organ displacement and motion. We investigated the impact of organ motion on SB dose-volume histograms (DVHs) in women with gynecologic malignancies treated with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy and compared PBS SB DVHs to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Material and methods Post-hysterectomy patients (n = 11) treated for gynecologic cancers were enrolled on an image-guided proton therapy protocol involving CT simulation with full (CTF) and empty (CTE) bladders and weekly/biweekly on-treatment scans. IMRT plans were generated for comparative analysis. SB was contoured as bowel loops or bowel bag. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for matched-pair comparisons of SB, bladder, and rectum dose-volumes between CT scans and between PBS and IMRT plans. Results In PBS loops analysis, on-treatment DVH was significantly higher than CTF for doses <45 Gy (p < 0.05), and not significantly different than CTE. Specifically, V15 for loops was higher on-treatment (median 240 cm(3)) compared to CTF (median 169 cm(3), p = 0.03). In PBS bag analysis, on-treatment DVH was not significantly different from CTF across all dose ranges. Bowel bag V45 was not significantly different between on-treatment (median 540 cm(3)) and CTF (median 499 cm(3), p = 0.53). Decreasing bladder volume was associated with increasing V15 for loops and V45 for bowel bag (p < 0.005, both). Comparing PBS and IMRT, PBS resulted in significantly lower DVHs at low dose regions (<38 Gy) and higher DVHs at high dose regions (42.5-45.5 Gy) in both loops and bag analysis. IMRT plans demonstrated higher on-treatment SB loop DVHs and only minimal differences in bowel bag DVHs compared to CTF. Conclusions SB DVHs were well estimated by CTF bowel bag and underestimated by CTF loops in the setting of inconsistent

  16. Bag and loop small bowel contouring strategies differentially estimate small bowel dose for post-hysterectomy women receiving pencil beam scanning proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Melody J; Kirk, Maura; Zhai, Huifang; Lin, Lilie L

    2016-07-01

    Background Small bowel (SB) dose-volume relationships established during initial computed tomography (CT) simulations may change throughout therapy due to organ displacement and motion. We investigated the impact of organ motion on SB dose-volume histograms (DVHs) in women with gynecologic malignancies treated with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy and compared PBS SB DVHs to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Material and methods Post-hysterectomy patients (n = 11) treated for gynecologic cancers were enrolled on an image-guided proton therapy protocol involving CT simulation with full (CTF) and empty (CTE) bladders and weekly/biweekly on-treatment scans. IMRT plans were generated for comparative analysis. SB was contoured as bowel loops or bowel bag. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for matched-pair comparisons of SB, bladder, and rectum dose-volumes between CT scans and between PBS and IMRT plans. Results In PBS loops analysis, on-treatment DVH was significantly higher than CTF for doses <45 Gy (p < 0.05), and not significantly different than CTE. Specifically, V15 for loops was higher on-treatment (median 240 cm(3)) compared to CTF (median 169 cm(3), p = 0.03). In PBS bag analysis, on-treatment DVH was not significantly different from CTF across all dose ranges. Bowel bag V45 was not significantly different between on-treatment (median 540 cm(3)) and CTF (median 499 cm(3), p = 0.53). Decreasing bladder volume was associated with increasing V15 for loops and V45 for bowel bag (p < 0.005, both). Comparing PBS and IMRT, PBS resulted in significantly lower DVHs at low dose regions (<38 Gy) and higher DVHs at high dose regions (42.5-45.5 Gy) in both loops and bag analysis. IMRT plans demonstrated higher on-treatment SB loop DVHs and only minimal differences in bowel bag DVHs compared to CTF. Conclusions SB DVHs were well estimated by CTF bowel bag and underestimated by CTF loops in the setting of inconsistent

  17. Post-operative thromboembolism in neurosurgery. A study on the prophylactic effect of calf muscle stimulation plus dextran compared to low-dose heparin.

    PubMed

    Boström, S; Holmgren, E; Jonsson, O; Lindberg, S; Lindström, B; Winsö, I; Zachrisson, B

    1986-01-01

    This study compares the safety and effectiveness of two methods for the prophylaxis of post-operative thromboembolism in neurosurgical patients: A: low-dose heparin (5,000 IU X 2 s.c.) started preoperatively and continued daily for one week post-operatively, and B: per-operative electrical calf muscle stimulation with groups of impulses plus post-operative dextran infusions every other day for one week. Neurosurgical patients aged 40 years or more with normal laboratory coagulation values and operated under general anaesthesia were included. The 125:I-fibrinogen uptake test (FUT) was used for screening and phlebography for verification of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). 122 patients entered the study and 104 completed the prophylactic protocol, 58 in group A and 46 in group B. The two groups were comparable according to pre-operative data and distribution of diagnoses. 89 patients completed screening for post-operative DVT. We found an overall incidence of 5/49 (10 percent) DVT in group A and 5/40 (13 percent) in group B, compared to a frequency of 32-50 percent for controls without prophylaxis reported in the literature, In spite of prophylaxis our patients with intracranial neoplasms and intracranial vascular disease showed a relatively higher incidence of DVT, 4/23 (17 percent) and 4/14 (29 percent) respectively, compared to patients with spinal diagnoses 2/25 (8 percent). In combination with cranial diagnoses paretic lower limbs meant an apparent risk factor, 4/7 (57 percent). However, paretic limbs appearing in cases with spinal disorders did not predetermine an unsuccessful prophylaxis, 2/14 (14 percent). Blood loss, transfusion requirements and post-operative complications did not differ significantly between the two prophylactic groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2424279

  18. Effect of a long-term treatment with a low-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on post-infarction process in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hideshi; Takemura, Genzou; Li, Yiwen; Ohno, Takamasa; Li, Longhu; Maruyama, Rumi; Esaki, Masayasu; Miyata, Shusaku; Kanamori, Hiromitsu; Ogino, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Munehiro; Minatoguchi, Shinya; Fujiwara, Takako; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Although beneficial effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) have been demonstrated on post-myocardia infarction (MI) process, the mechanisms and feasibility are not fully agreed yet. We investigated effects of a long-term treatment with a low-dose G-CSF started 1 day after the onset of MI, on post-infarction process. One day after being made MI by left coronary ligation, mice were given G-CSF (10 μg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. The G-CSF treatment resulted in a significant mitigation of cardiac remodelling and dysfunction. In the G-CSF-treated hearts, the infarcted scar was smaller with less fibrosis and abundant vessels while in the non-infarcted area, hypertrophic cardiomyocytes with attenuated degenerative changes and reduced fibrosis were apparent. These effects were accompanied by activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Akt and also by up-regulation of GATA-4, myosin heavy chain and matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes appeared insignificant at any stages. Parthenolide, a STAT3 inhibitor, completely abolished the beneficial effects of G-CSF on cardiac function and remodelling with loss of effect on both anti-cardiomyocyte degeneration and anti-fibrosis. In contrast, wortmannin, an Akt inhibitor, did not affect G-CSF-induced benefis despite cancelling vessel increase. In conclusion, treatment with G-CSF at a small dose but for a long duration beneficially affects the post-infarction process possibly through STAT3-mediated anti-cardiomyocyte degeneration and anti-fibrosis, but not through anti-cardiomyocyte apoptosis or Akt-mediated angio-genesis. The findings may also imply a more feasible way of G-CSF administration in the clinical settings. PMID:18298650

  19. Dose-dependent effects of homologous seminal plasma on motility and kinematic characteristics of post-thaw stallion epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, S; Dörfel, S; Handler, J

    2015-05-01

    Preservation of epididymal spermatozoa is important to save genetic material of endangered species and breeds, or in case of unexpected injury, which will end the breeding career of valuable sires. Seminal plasma (SP) influences sperm quality in a dose-dependent manner and its addition to preserved semen immediately before insemination may be beneficial for sperm fertility. Increased plasma membrane stability of epididymal spermatozoa reduces freezing injury of cells, and the addition of SP after freezing and thawing might have activating and protecting effects on spermatozoa within the female genital tract. In this study, epididymal spermatozoa were harvested by retrograde flush of the epididymal cauda immediately after routine castration and frozen. Seminal plasma was collected from other six stallions. Homologous SP (SP from the same species, but from a different animal) was added to frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 50 and 80% SP. Addition of SP increased sperm motility and influenced kinematic values in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Motility improved at concentrations of 20 and 50% SP, but did not further increase at 80% SP. There was no difference in sperm motility among SP from six different donor stallions regardless of the concentrations of SP (p > 0.05). Total and progressive motility of ten frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa samples collected from different stallions after dilution with extender and 5, 20, 50 or 80% SP differed significantly (p < 0.05). In conclusion, addition of homologous SP to frozen-thawed stallion epididymal spermatozoa immediately improved motility in a dose-dependent manner regardless of semen quality of SP donor stallions. This might positively influence fertility when SP is added before insemination. Moreover, there seems to be a threshold level of SP concentration for optimal improvement of sperm motility. PMID:25755119

  20. Dose-dependent effects of homologous seminal plasma on motility and kinematic characteristics of post-thaw stallion epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, S; Dörfel, S; Handler, J

    2015-05-01

    Preservation of epididymal spermatozoa is important to save genetic material of endangered species and breeds, or in case of unexpected injury, which will end the breeding career of valuable sires. Seminal plasma (SP) influences sperm quality in a dose-dependent manner and its addition to preserved semen immediately before insemination may be beneficial for sperm fertility. Increased plasma membrane stability of epididymal spermatozoa reduces freezing injury of cells, and the addition of SP after freezing and thawing might have activating and protecting effects on spermatozoa within the female genital tract. In this study, epididymal spermatozoa were harvested by retrograde flush of the epididymal cauda immediately after routine castration and frozen. Seminal plasma was collected from other six stallions. Homologous SP (SP from the same species, but from a different animal) was added to frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 50 and 80% SP. Addition of SP increased sperm motility and influenced kinematic values in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Motility improved at concentrations of 20 and 50% SP, but did not further increase at 80% SP. There was no difference in sperm motility among SP from six different donor stallions regardless of the concentrations of SP (p > 0.05). Total and progressive motility of ten frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa samples collected from different stallions after dilution with extender and 5, 20, 50 or 80% SP differed significantly (p < 0.05). In conclusion, addition of homologous SP to frozen-thawed stallion epididymal spermatozoa immediately improved motility in a dose-dependent manner regardless of semen quality of SP donor stallions. This might positively influence fertility when SP is added before insemination. Moreover, there seems to be a threshold level of SP concentration for optimal improvement of sperm motility.

  1. Reversal of apomorphine locomotor sensitization by a single post-conditioning trial treatment with a low autoreceptor dose of apomorphine: a memory re-consolidation approach.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Marinete Pinheiro; Carey, Robert J; Dias, Flávia Regina Cruz; de Matos, Liana Wermelinger

    2011-07-01

    Sensitization is a common feature of psychostimulants and sensitization effects are generally considered to be linked to the addictive properties of these drugs. We used a conventional paired/unpaired Pavlovian protocol to induce a context specific sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of a high dose of apomorphine (2.0mg/kg). Two days following a 5 session sensitization induction phase, a brief 5min non-drug test for conditioning was conducted. Only the paired groups exhibited locomotor stimulant conditioned response effects. Immediately following this brief test for conditioning, the paired and the unpaired groups received injections of 0.05mg/kg apomorphine, 2.0mg/kg apomorphine or vehicle designed to differentially impact memory re-consolidation of the conditioning. Two days later, all groups received a sensitization challenge test with 2.0mg/kg apomorphine. The 2.0mg/kg apomorphine post-trial treatment potentiated sensitization while the 0.05mg/kg eliminated sensitization. These effects were only observed in the paired groups. The activation of dopaminergic systems by the high dose of apomorphine strengthened the drug/environment association whereas the inhibition of dopamine activity by the low auto-receptor dose eliminated this association. The results point to the importance of conditioning to context specific sensitization and targeting memory re-consolidation of conditioning as a paradigm to modify sensitization.

  2. Hypertensive crisis associated with high dose soy isoflavone supplementation in a post-menopausal woman: a case report [ISRCTN98074661

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Andrea M; McIver, Imogene E; Johnston, Carol S

    2005-01-01

    Background Isoflavones are gaining popularity as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy. However, few guidelines exist to inform the public as to an appropriate dose. This case involves a postmenopausal woman who experienced a hypertensive crisis while consuming a high-dose isoflavone supplement as part of a research protocol. Case Presentation The participant was part of a placebo-controlled crossover trial to investigate the potential synergism of the antioxidant activity of soy isoflavones and vitamin C. Upon entry into the study, this healthy, well-nourished, normotensive postmenopausal woman (51 years old), consumed the first of four randomly assigned treatments (500 mg vitamin C plus 5 mg/kg body weight soy isoflavones). During this treatment, the participant's systolic blood pressure spiked to a recorded 226/117 mmHg, necessitating medical intervention and discontinuation of study participation. Two plausible mechanisms for this hypertensive crisis are discussed. Conclusion Due to the availability and increasing popularity of soy supplements, practitioners should be aware of the potential side effects associated with their use. Practitioners counseling clients who are consuming soy isoflavone supplements should advise them that elevated blood pressure may be a potential side-effect to consider and monitor. PMID:15975148

  3. The protection conferred by chelation therapy in post-MI diabetics might be replicated by high-dose zinc supplementation.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-05-01

    The recent Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) study, enrolling subjects who had previously experienced a myocardial infarction, has provided strong evidence that intravenous chelation therapy can markedly reduce risk for mortality and vascular events in diabetics, whereas no discernible benefit was observed in non-diabetics. It has plausibly been suggested that this reflects a role for transition metal ions--iron or copper--in the genesis of advanced glycation end products, key mediators of diabetic complications that can destabilize plaque. Since phlebotomy therapy fails to prevent vascular events in diabetics, we hypothesize that labile copper may be the chief culprit whose removal by chelation mediated the benefit observed in TACT. If so, strategies less time and labor intensive than chelation therapy might provide comparable benefit. A number of recent studies report that the copper-specific orally-active chelator trientine can reduce risk for range of diabetic complications in rodents; a clinical trial with this agent demonstrated some decrease in left ventricular mass in diabetics with ventricular hypertrophy. However, until this agent becomes less expensive, supplementation with high-dose zinc may represent a more feasible alternative. Zinc opposes the absorption and redox activity of copper via induction of the antioxidant protein metallothionein, which binds copper tightly. A great many studies demonstrate that increased expression of metallothionein decreases risk for tissue damage in diabetic rodents, and in some of these studies metallothionein expression was boosted by supplemental zinc. Zinc supplementation also modestly improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetics, and might reduce risk for diabetes by protecting pancreatic beta cells from oxidative stress. A long term study assessing the impact of supplementing diabetics with high-dose zinc, assessing risk for mortality, vascular events, and diabetic complications, may be warranted. Histidine

  4. Dose response studies of bevantolol in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Okawa, K K

    1986-03-01

    This multicenter study, conducted to determine the antihypertensive efficacy of bevantolol at different fixed doses compared with placebo was carried out at four separate institutions using a common protocol. One hundred thirty-nine patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were enrolled. At doses of 200 to 400 mg/day bevantolol was clearly effective in lowering diastolic blood pressure and in maintaining this effect over the eight weeks of this double-blind study. Twice a day dosing is indicated since efficacy was evident 12 hours post-dosing. Bevantolol was well tolerated.

  5. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, Jesse; Metzger, Ian

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes the option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  6. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes themore » option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  7. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  8. Blunting of the HPA-axis underlies the lack of preventive efficacy of early post-stressor single-dose Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Tzur Alexander; Matar, Michael Alex; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2014-07-01

    The therapeutic value of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in the aftermath of trauma has recently raised interest. A prospective animal model for posttraumatic stress disorder was employed to assess the behavioral effects of a single dose of Δ9-THC administered intraperitoneally following exposure to psychogenic stress. Animals were exposed to predator scent stress and treated 1h later with Δ9-THC (1, 5 and 10mg/kg) or vehicle. The outcome measures included behavior in an elevated plus-maze and acoustic startle response 1, 6 and 24 h or 7 days after exposure and freezing behavior upon exposure to a trauma cue on day 8. Pre-set cut-off behavioral criteria classified exposed animals as those with "extreme," "minimal" or "intermediate" (partial) response. Circulating corticosterone levels were assessed over 2h after exposure with and without Δ9-THC. The behavioral effects of a CB1 antagonist (AM251) administered systemically 1h post exposure were evaluated. In the short term (1-6 h), 5 mg/kg of Δ9-THC effectively attenuated anxiety-like behaviors. In the longer-term (7 days), it showed no effect in attenuating PTSD-like behavioral stress responses, or freezing response to trauma cue. Δ9-THC significantly decreased corticosterone levels. In contrast, administration of AM251 (a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist) 1 h post exposure attenuated long-term behavioral stress responses through activation of the HPA-axis. The demonstrated lack of preventive efficacy of early Δ9-THC treatment and reports of its anxiogenic effects in many individuals raises doubts not only regarding its potential clinical value, but also the advisability of clinical trials. The endocannabinoids exert complex effects on behavioral responses mediating glucocorticoid effects on memory of traumatic experiences.

  9. Age-related dose response of selected reproductive parameters to acute cadmium chloride exposure in the male Long-Evans rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of Long Evans rats 30, 50, or 70 days old were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with a single dose of between 0 and 52 micromoles Cd/Kg as cadmium (CD) chloride. Sixty days post dosing and two hours prior to sacrifice the rats were injected s.c. with 100 IU of hCG to stimula...

  10. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children.

  11. Is the Professor In? Faculty Presence during Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfund, Rory A.; Rogan, Jessica D.; Burnham, Bryan R.; Norcross, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on the availability of full-time faculty during their posted office hours. In the first, we surveyed students and faculty at a single university on their estimates of the percentage of faculty present during office hours. Students ("N" = 380) and faculty ("N" = 176) estimated that 77% and 83% of…

  12. Gamma-H2AX-Based Dose Estimation for Whole and Partial Body Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Simon; Barnard, Stephen; Rothkamm, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Most human exposures to ionising radiation are partial body exposures. However, to date only limited tools are available for rapid and accurate estimation of the dose distribution and the extent of the body spared from the exposure. These parameters are of great importance for emergency triage and clinical management of exposed individuals. Here, measurements of γ-H2AX immunofluorescence by microscopy and flow cytometry were compared as rapid biodosimetric tools for whole and partial body exposures. Ex vivo uniformly X-irradiated blood lymphocytes from one donor were used to generate a universal biexponential calibration function for γ-H2AX foci/intensity yields per unit dose for time points up to 96 hours post exposure. Foci – but not intensity – levels remained significantly above background for 96 hours for doses of 0.5 Gy or more. Foci-based dose estimates for ex vivo X-irradiated blood samples from 13 volunteers were in excellent agreement with the actual dose delivered to the targeted samples. Flow cytometric dose estimates for X-irradiated blood samples from 8 volunteers were in excellent agreement with the actual dose delivered at 1 hour post exposure but less so at 24 hours post exposure. In partial body exposures, simulated by mixing ex vivo irradiated and unirradiated lymphocytes, foci/intensity distributions were significantly over-dispersed compared to uniformly irradiated lymphocytes. For both methods and in all cases the estimated fraction of irradiated lymphocytes and dose to that fraction, calculated using the zero contaminated Poisson test and γ-H2AX calibration function, were in good agreement with the actual mixing ratios and doses delivered to the samples. In conclusion, γ-H2AX analysis of irradiated lymphocytes enables rapid and accurate assessment of whole body doses while dispersion analysis of foci or intensity distributions helps determine partial body doses and the irradiated fraction size in cases of partial body exposures. PMID

  13. An Observational Study of Blood Glucose Levels during Admission and 24 Hours Post-Operation in a Sample of Patients with Traumatic Injury in a Hospital in Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Harun @ Haron, Rahmat; Imran, Musa Kamarul; Haspani, Mohammed Saffari Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with an acute stress response mediated by the sympathoadrenomedullary axis, which can be assessed by measuring blood glucose level. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted for a year in 2007 among 294 patients who had been treated for TBI in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Patients fulfilling the set criteria were recruited into the study and data, including blood glucose level and Glasgow Outcome Score at 3-month follow-up, were collected. Results: 294 patients were included in the study: 50 females (17.0%) and 244 males (83.0%). The majority of cases were young adult patients (mean age of 34.2 years, SD 13.0). The mean blood glucose level during admission and post-surgery were 6.26 mmol/L (SD 1.30, n = 294) and 6.66 mmol/L (SD 1.44, n = 261), respectively. Specifically, the mean admission glucose level associated with mild TBI was 5.04 mmol/L (SD 0.71); moderate TBI, 5.78 mmol/L (SD 1.02); and severe TBI, 7.04 mmol/L (SD 1.18). The mean admission glucose level associated with a poor outcome in patients with isolated TBI was 6.98 mmol/L (SD 1.21). Patients with admission glucose of 5.56 mmol/L (SD 1.21) were more likely to have a favourable outcome. Conclusion: Mild, moderate, and severe TBI were associated with an increase in blood glucose levels during admission, and the mean increase in glucose levels is based on the severity of the isolated TBI. Surgical intervention did not cause further significant changes in blood glucose levels. Patients with isolated TBI and minimal increases in blood glucose levels were more likely to have a favourable outcome. PMID:22589675

  14. Effect of cimetidine on 24-hour intragastric acidity in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Pounder, R E; Williams, J G; Milton-Thompson, G J; Misiewicz, J J

    1976-01-01

    The effect of H2-receptor blockade on intragastric acidity was studied in nine normal males. The pH of their gastric contents was measured at hourly daytime and two hourly nighttime intervals for 48 hours. The subjects ate identical meals, drank identical volumes of fluid, and smoked the same number of cigarettes during the two study days. Their physical activity was unrestricted in a ward environment. Blood cimetidine and plasma gastrin were measured in serial blood samples. The nine subjects were treated in random sequence with cimetidine 0-8-1-0 g on one day and placebo capsules on the other. The drug was given in four divided doses: four subjects received it before, and five after, the three main meals. All took the fourth dose at bedtime. Replicate studies in an additional subject given placebo on both study days showed good reproducibility (r=0-80, P less than 0-01). Cimetidine therapy decreased intragastric acidity in all nine subjects. The decrease was similar in the two groups taking the drug before or after meals, mean 24 h intragastric hydrogen ion activity being lowered by 70 and 72% respectively. Nocturnal anacidity was recorded in only two of 45 samples. Administration of cimetidine before meals produced earlier and higher drug blood levels than post-prandial medication, but when it was taken after food the blood levels were highest at the time when the buffer capacity of the food was waning. Blood concentrations of cimetidine exceeded the secretory IC50 level for most of the time between doses. The results show that cimetidine 0-8-1-0 g/day in four divided doses produces a striking and consistent decrease of intragastric acidity. Although variation in the timing of the dose in relation to meals did not affect the decrease of acidity, the absorption data suggest that patients should take the drug after meals. PMID:4361

  15. SU-E-J-97: Pretreatment Test and Post-Treatment Evaluation for Iso-NTCP Dose Guided Adapive Radiotherapy (DGART), Experience with Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Rectal Balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J; Hardcastle, N; Bender, E; Jeong, K; Tome', M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of pretreatment test for iso-NTCP DGART and to compare the pretreatment test results with post-treatment evaluations. Methods: NTCP here refers to late rectal wall toxicity only and is calculated with the ring rectal wall DVH. Simulation for one time iso- NTCP DGART starts after half of the total dose was done for 10 patients to investigate if TCP gains could be achieved. Six patients were treated using a 12-fraction 4.3Gy technique and four using 16-fraction 3.63Gy technique. For each of the 12-fraction cases a VMAT plan was generated in Pinnacle3™ using the daily CT obtained prior to the 6th fraction. A pretreatment simulation was performed using only the first 6 daily CTs. The idea is to add the 6 original plan delivered doses with 6 DGART plan delivered doses by deformable dose accumulation (DDA) on each of the first 6 CTs, resulting in 6 rectal wall doses (RWDs) and NTCPs. The 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the 6 NTCPs were computed.The posttreatment evaluation was done by: a) copy the DGART plan to 6 CTs for fraction 7–12 and calculate the 6 actual DGART delivered fractional doses; b) sum the 6 actual DGART doses with the 6 original plan delivered doses by DDA on each of the 12 CTs resulting in 12 post-treatment RWDs and NTCPs; c) boxplot the 12 post-treatment NTCPs. Results: Target dose gain is 0.76–1.93 Gy. The 95%CI widths of the pretreatment tests NTCPs were 1.1–2.7%. For 5 patients, the planned NTCP fell within the 95%CI. For 4 patients, the planned NTCP was lower than the 95%CI lines. Post-treatment results show that for 7 patients, the upper quartile was within the 95%CI; for 2 patients, the upper quartile were higher than the 95%CI. Conclusion: The pretreatment test yields conservative prediction of the actual delivered NTCP.

  16. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support followed by post-transplant doxorubicin and taxol as initial therapy for metastatic breast cancer: hematopoietic tolerance and efficacy.

    PubMed

    deMagalhaes-Silverman, M; Hammert, L; Lembersky, B; Lister, J; Rybka, W; Ball, E

    1998-06-01

    A multistep HDC regimen was designed as first-line chemotherapy for MBC. Twenty-four patients with MBC and no previous chemotherapy for metastatic disease were treated with high-dose cyclophosphamide (5000 mg/m2), and etoposide (1000 mg/m2) (CyVP16), followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were collected. Subsequently patients received cyclophosphamide (6000 mg/m2), thiotepa (500 mg/m2) and carboplatin (800 mg/m2) (CTCb) with hematopoietic rescue. Upon recovery from hematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicity three cycles of doxorubicin (50 mg/m2) and taxol (150 mg/m2) were delivered. After CyVP16 42% of patients developed neutropenic fevers. There was one documented episode of bacteremia. Patients received CTCb 32 days after starting CyVP16. After CTCb the median number of days to ANC >5 x 10(9)/l was 10 and to a platelet count >20 x 10(9)/l was 14. Neutropenic fevers developed in 16 patients. There were no hemorrhagic episodes. A total of 69 cycles of doxorubicin and taxol were delivered (87% of planned). The median time from PBSC infusion to the first cycle was 38 days. The median time to the second cycle was 27 days and to the last cycle was 24 days. One patient developed congestive heart failure. Two episodes of neutropenic fevers were observed. No toxicity-related deaths were observed. Grafts are stable at 6 months post transplantation. This multistep regimen is feasible with acceptable toxicity. PMID:9674853

  17. The Swedish duty hour enigma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish resident duty hour limit is regulated by Swedish and European legal frameworks. With a maximum average of 40 working hours per week, the Swedish duty hour regulation is one of the most restrictive in the world. At the same time, the effects of resident duty hour limits have been neither debated nor researched in the Swedish context. As a result, little is known about the Swedish conceptual framework for resident duty hours, their restriction, or their outcomes: we call this “the Swedish duty hour enigma.” This situation poses a further question: How do Swedish residents themselves construct a conceptual framework for duty hour restrictions? Methods A case study was conducted at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm – an urban, research-intensive hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 34 residents currently in training in 6 specialties. The empirical data analysis relied on theoretical propositions and was conducted thematically using a pattern-matching technique. The interview guide was based on four main topics: the perceived effect of duty hour restrictions on (1) patient care, (2) resident education, (3) resident well-being, and (4) research. Results The residents did not perceive the volume of duty hours to be the main determinant of success or failure in the four contextual domains of patient care, resident education, resident well-being, and research. Instead, they emphasized resident well-being and a desire for flexibility. Conclusions According to Swedish residents’ conceptual framework on duty hours, the amount of time spent on duty is not a proxy for the quality of resident training. Instead, flexibility, organization, and scheduling of duty hours are considered to be the factors that have the greatest influence on resident well-being, quality of learning, and opportunities to attain the competence needed for independent practice. PMID:25559074

  18. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  19. Accreditation and the Credit Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, James V.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the role that accreditation plays in defining and enforcing the credit-hour measure. Regional accreditation agencies are generally more flexible in terms of defining credit hours than are national agencies, which are more rigid in their expectations. Specialized accrediting agencies usually make the least mention of credit units. (SLD)

  20. Breaking the Long Hours Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Strebler, M. T.; O'Regan, S.

    Case studies of 12 leading British employers were driven by employers' interest in issues related to working long hours in light of introduction of the Working Time Directive, a European Community initiative enacted into British law that sets limits on working hours per week. Data showed over one-fourth of full-time employees worked over 48 hours…

  1. Low-dose ticagrelor yields an antiplatelet efficacy similar to that of standard-dose ticagrelor in healthy subjects: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Gu, Ying; Yang, Yawei; Chen, Lizhi; Liu, Junmei; Gao, Lihong; Qin, Yongwen; Cai, Quancai; Zhao, Xianxian; Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Ticagrelor has a greater antiplatelet efficacy than clopidogrel but may be accompanied by an increased risk of bleeding. This study evaluated the antiplatelet effect and pharmacokinetic profile of low-dose ticagrelor in healthy Chinese volunteers. Thirty healthy subjects were randomized to receive standard-dose ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose, 90-mg twice daily [bid] [n = 10]), low-dose ticagrelor (90-mg loading dose, 45-mg bid [n = 10]), or clopidogrel (600-mg loading dose, 75-mg once daily [n = 10]). Platelet reactivity was assessed by using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay at baseline and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-dosing. The ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX concentrations were measured for pharmacokinetic analysis. The percentage inhibition of P2Y12 reaction units was higher in the low-dose and standard-dose ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 48 hours post-dosing (P < 0.05 for all), but did not differ significantly between the two ticagrelor doses at any time-point (P > 0.05). The plasma ticagrelor and ARC124910XX concentrations were approximately 2-fold higher with standard-dose versus low-dose ticagrelor. No serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, low-dose ticagrelor achieved faster and higher inhibition of platelet functions in healthy Chinese subjects than did clopidogrel, with an antiplatelet efficacy similar to that of standard-dose ticagrelor. PMID:27554803

  2. Low-dose ticagrelor yields an antiplatelet efficacy similar to that of standard-dose ticagrelor in healthy subjects: an open-label randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Gu, Ying; Yang, Yawei; Chen, Lizhi; Liu, Junmei; Gao, Lihong; Qin, Yongwen; Cai, Quancai; Zhao, Xianxian; Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Ticagrelor has a greater antiplatelet efficacy than clopidogrel but may be accompanied by an increased risk of bleeding. This study evaluated the antiplatelet effect and pharmacokinetic profile of low-dose ticagrelor in healthy Chinese volunteers. Thirty healthy subjects were randomized to receive standard-dose ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose, 90-mg twice daily [bid] [n = 10]), low-dose ticagrelor (90-mg loading dose, 45-mg bid [n = 10]), or clopidogrel (600-mg loading dose, 75-mg once daily [n = 10]). Platelet reactivity was assessed by using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay at baseline and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-dosing. The ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX concentrations were measured for pharmacokinetic analysis. The percentage inhibition of P2Y12 reaction units was higher in the low-dose and standard-dose ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 48 hours post-dosing (P < 0.05 for all), but did not differ significantly between the two ticagrelor doses at any time-point (P > 0.05). The plasma ticagrelor and ARC124910XX concentrations were approximately 2-fold higher with standard-dose versus low-dose ticagrelor. No serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, low-dose ticagrelor achieved faster and higher inhibition of platelet functions in healthy Chinese subjects than did clopidogrel, with an antiplatelet efficacy similar to that of standard-dose ticagrelor. PMID:27554803

  3. Proteomic analysis of post-nuclear supernatant fraction and percoll-purified membranes prepared from brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteomic analysis was performed in post-nuclear supernatant (PNS) and Percoll-purified membranes (PM) prepared from fore brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine (10–50 mg/kg) for 10 days. Results In PNS, the 10 up (↑)- or down (↓)-regulated proteins exhibiting the largest morphine-induced change were selected, excised manually from the gel and identified by MALDI-TOF MS/MS: 1-(gi|148747414, Guanine deaminase), ↑2.5×; 2-(gi|17105370, Vacuolar-type proton ATP subunit B, brain isoform), ↑2.6×; 3-(gi|1352384, Protein disulfide-isomerase A3), ↑3.4×; 4-(gi|40254595, Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2), ↑3.6×; 5-(gi|149054470, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein, isoform CRAa), ↑2.0×; 6-(gi|42476181, Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial precursor), ↑1.4×; 7-(gi|62653546, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), ↑1.6×; 8-(gi|202837, Aldolase A), ↑1.3×; 9-(gi|31542401, Creatine kinase B-type), ↓0.86×; 10-(gi|40538860, Aconitate hydratase, mitochondrial precursor), ↑1.3×. The identified proteins were of cytoplasmic (1, 4, 5, 7, 9), cell membrane (2), endoplasmic reticulum (3) and mitochondrial (6, 8, 10) origin and 9 of them were significantly increased, 1.3-3.6×. The 4 out of 9 up-regulated proteins (4, 6, 7, 10) were described as functionally related to oxidative stress; the 2 proteins participate in genesis of apoptotic cell death. In PM, the 18 up (↑)- or down (↓)-regulated proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and were of plasma membrane [Brain acid soluble protein, ↓2.1×; trimeric Gβ subunit, ↓2.0x], myelin membrane [MBP, ↓2.5×], cytoplasmic [Internexin, ↑5.2×; DPYL2, ↑4.9×; Ubiquitin hydrolase, ↓2.0×; 60S ribosomal protein, ↑2.7×; KCRB, ↓2.6×; Sirtuin-2, ↑2.5×; Peroxiredoxin-2, ↑2.2×; Septin-11, ↑2.2×; TERA, ↑2.1×; SYUA, ↑2.0×; Coronin-1A, ↓5.4×] and mitochondrial [Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, ↑2.7×; SCOT1, ↑2.2×; Prohibitin, ↑2.2

  4. Morphine at gramme doses: kinetics, dynamics and clinical need.

    PubMed

    Smith, K J; Miller, A J; McKellar, J; Court, M

    1991-01-01

    The MS Contin tablet 200 mg (controlled release morphine sulphate) provides an equivalent rate and extent of absorption to two MS Contin tablets 100 mg. The characteristics of controlled release from this higher strength formulation are also consistent with those of the 100 mg tablet. The level of analgesia provided during the early post-dosing period, at the end of the dosing period and overall over the twelve hour interval were also equivalent between the preparations. The addition of the MS Contin tablet 200 mg to the existing range will facilitate oral dosing in patients requiring large doses of morphine. This extension to the range will increase the choice available to the clinician and provide a natural progression for those patients requiring a step-up in the dose titration procedure.

  5. 29 CFR 778.421 - Offset hour for hour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Regular Rate Principles Computing Overtime Pay on the Rate Applicable to the Type of Work Performed in... section 7(e)(5) or for work on “special days” (as under section 7(e)(6), or pursuant to an...

  6. Dose-dependent impairment of inhibitory avoidance retention in rats by immediate post-training infusion of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor into cortical structures.

    PubMed

    Walz, R; Roesler, R; Quevedo, J; Rockenbach, I C; Amaral, O B; Vianna, M R; Lenz, G; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    1999-11-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase abundantly expressed in postmitotic neurons of the developed nervous system. MAPK is activated in and required for both the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices and the acquisition of fear conditioning training in rats. The present work was performed in order to test the effect of the specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MAPKK), PD 098059, on retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA). Adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally injected (0.5 microl/side) with PD 098059 (at 0.5, 5, or 50 microM) or vehicle into the entorhinal cortex or into the parietal cortex immediately after IA training using a 0.4 mA footshock. Retention testing was carried out 24 h after training. PD 098059 impaired retention when injected into the entorhinal cortex at the dose of 50 microM, but not at the doses of 5 or 0.5 microM. When infused into the parietal cortex, PD 098059 was amnestic at the doses of 5 and 50 microM. The drug had no effect when infused at the highest dose in either structure 6 h after training. Our results suggest that the MAPKK inhibitor impairs IA retention memory in a dose-dependent manner when injected immediately after training into entorhinal cortex or parietal cortex. The effective dose is variable according to the neocortical structure studied.

  7. Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel which provides an hourly simulation of a solar hot water heating system (including solar geometry, solar collector efficiency as a function of temperature, energy balance on storage tank and lifecycle cost analysis).

  8. The Dose of Exposure and Prevalence Rates of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in a Sample of Turkish Children Eleven Months After the 1999 Marmara Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Solmaz; Tayli, Asli

    2005-01-01

    Since Turkey is a centrally prime earthquake zone, Turkey's children are at risk for developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) caused by earthquake exposures and threats of anticipated earthquakes. Given the gaps in the literature and the risk to children living in Turkey, the present study was undertaken to investigate the severity and…

  9. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  10. Possibilities and limitations of fluorescence in situ hybridization technique in retrospective detection of low dose radiation exposure in post-chernobyl human cohorts.

    PubMed

    Maznyk, N A; Vinnikov, V A

    2005-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis using the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique was performed late time after the Chernobyl accident in groups of liquidators, evacuees from 30 km exclusive zone, residents of radioactively contaminated areas and control donors age-matched to exposed persons. Stable and unstable chromosome type exchanges were recorded using a hybrid conventional-PAINT nomenclature. The mean yield of stable chromosome exchanges in liquidators did not correlate with registered radiation doses but had a clear negative dependence on the duration of liquidators' staying in Chernobyl zone, that was in a good agreement with early data based on conventional dicentrics plus rings analysis. The overspontaneous excess for stable chromosome exchange level appeared to be higher in evacuees 16-40 years old than that of senior persons, whereas no age-dependent difference occurred for initially induced dicentrics plus rings yields in this cohort. The stable chromosome exchange yield, as well as combined yield of dicentrics plus rings and potentially unstable incomplete translocations in residents of radioactively contaminated areas showed a reasonable positive correlation with levels of 137Cs contamination. The observed yields of stable chromosome exchanges in all three exposed groups appeared to be somewhat lower than those of expected from unstable exchange-based doses which were referred to an in vitro dose response of stable exchanges outcome in human lymphocytes. Thus, FISH analysis can be successfully applied for qualitative cytogenetic indication of past and chronic radiation exposure to low doses but further refinement of FISH-based system for quantitative dose assessment is still required. Some practical approaches of solving this task are discussed.

  11. 76 FR 61098 - Guidance for 1-Hour SO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ...Notice is hereby given that the EPA has posted its draft non- binding guidance titled, ``Guidance for 1-Hour SO2 NAAQS SIP Submissions'' on its Web site. The EPA invites public comments on this guidance document during the comment period specified below, and plans to issue an updated version of the guidance after reviewing timely submitted...

  12. Sex- and dose-dependent effects of post-trial calcium channel blockade by magnesium chloride on memory for inhibitory avoidance conditioning.

    PubMed

    Wilmott, Lynda A; Thompson, Lucien T

    2013-11-15

    Calcium influx through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels is critical for many neuronal processes required for learning and memory. Persistent increases in cytosolic intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in aging neurons are associated with learning impairments, while small transient subcellular changes in intracellular calcium concentrations play critical roles in neural plasticity in young neurons. In the present study, young male and female Fisher 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) hybrid rats were administered different doses of magnesium chloride (0.0, 100.0, or 200.0mg/kg, i.p.) following a single inhibitory avoidance training trial. Extracellular magnesium ions can non-specifically block voltage-gated calcium channels, and/or reduce the calcium conductance gated via glutamate and serine's activation of neuronal NMDA receptors. In our study, magnesium chloride dose-dependently enhanced memory compared to controls (significantly increased latency to enter a dark compartment previously paired with an aversive stimulus) when tested 48 h later as compared to controls. A leftward shift in the dose response curve for memory enhancement by magnesium chloride was observed for male compared to female rats. These findings provide further insights into calcium-dependent modulation of aversive memory, and should be considered when assessing the design of effective treatment options for both male and female patients with dementia or other memory problems.

  13. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly. PMID:17017360

  14. High-Dose Phosphorus-Implanted 4H-SiC: Microwave and Conventional Post-Implantation Annealing at Temperatures ≥1700°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipoti, R.; Nath, A.; Qadri, S. B.; Tian, Y.-L.; Albonetti, C.; Carnera, A.; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2012-03-01

    Semi-insulating 4H-SiC ⟨0001⟩ wafers have been phosphorus ion implanted at 500°C to obtain phosphorus box depth profiles with dopant concentration from 5 × 1019 cm-3 to 8 × 1020 cm-3. These samples have been annealed by microwave and conventional inductively heated systems in the temperature range 1700°C to 2050°C. Resistivity, Hall electron density, and Hall mobility of the phosphorus-implanted and annealed 4H-SiC layers have been measured in the temperature range from room temperature to 450°C. The high-resolution x-ray diffraction and rocking curve of both virgin and processed 4H-SiC samples have been analyzed to obtain the sample crystal quality up to about 3 μm depth from the wafer surface. For both increasing implanted phosphorus concentration and increasing post-implantation annealing temperature the implanted material resistivity decreases to an asymptotic value of about 1.5 × 10-3 Ω cm. Increasing the implanted phosphorus concentration and post-implantation annealing temperature beyond 4 × 1020 cm-3 and 2000°C, respectively, does not bring any apparent benefit with respect to the minimum obtainable resistivity. Sheet resistance and sheet electron density increase with increasing measurement temperature. Electron density saturates at 1.5 × 1020 cm-3 for implanted phosphorus plateau values ≥4 × 1020 cm-3, irrespective of the post-implantation annealing method. Implantation produces an increase of the lattice parameter in the bulk 4H-SiC underneath the phosphorus-implanted layer. Microwave and conventional annealing produce a further increase of the lattice parameter in such a depth region and an equivalent recovered lattice in the phosphorus-implanted layers.

  15. Effect of low-dose (single-dose) magnesium sulfate on postoperative analgesia in hysterectomy patients receiving balanced general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Arman; Haryalchi, Katayoun; Mansour Ghanaie, Mandana; Habibi Arejan, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Aparallel, randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial study was designed to assess the efficacy of single low dose of intravenous magnesium sulfate on post-total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) pain relief under balanced general anesthesia. Subject and Methods. Forty women undergoing TAH surgery were assigned to two magnesium sulfate (N = 20) and normal saline (N = 20) groups randomly. The magnesium group received magnesium sulfate 50 mg·kg(-1) in 100 mL of normal saline solution i.v as single-dose, just 15 minutes before induction of anesthesia whereas patients in control group received 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution at the same time. The same balanced general anesthesia was induced for two groups. Pethidine consumption was recorded over 24 hours precisely as postoperative analgesic. Pain score was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours after the surgeries. Results. Postoperative pain score was lower in magnesium group at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the operations significantly (P < 0.05). Pethidine requirement was significantly lower in magnesium group throughout 24 hours after the surgeries (P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Single dose of magnesium sulfate during balanced general anesthesia could be considered as effective and safe method to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption after TAH.

  16. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  17. Resident work hour restrictions impact chief resident operative experience.

    PubMed

    Christmas, A Britton; Brintzenhoff, Rita A; Sing, Ronald F; Schmelzer, Thomas M; Bolton, Sandra D; Miles, William S; Thomason, Michael H

    2009-11-01

    Since the institution of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident work restrictions, much discussion has arisen regarding the potential effect on surgical resident training. We undertook this study to examine the effects on resident operative experience. We retrospectively analyzed chief residents' Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs before (PRE) and after (POST) the 80-hour work restriction. Overall, 22 resident logs were evaluated, six PRE and 16 POST. Four case categories were examined: total major cases, total trauma operative cases, total chief cases, and total teaching assistant cases. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Comparing the PRE and POST groups demonstrated a trend toward fewer total major cases (1061 vs 964, P = 0.38) and fewer total trauma operative cases (55 vs 47, P = 0.37). Teaching assistant cases increased from 67 to 91 but also failed to reach significance (P = 0.37). However, further comparison between the PRE and POST groups yielded a statistically significant decrease in the number of total chief cases (494 vs 333, P = 0.0092). The significant decrease in the number of total chief cases demonstrates that the work hour restriction most affected the chief year operative experience. Further evaluation of resident participation in nonoperative facets may reveal additional deficiencies of surgical training under work hour restrictions.

  18. Safe orthotopic transplantation of hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Stig; Paskevicius, Audrius; Liao, Qiuming; Sjöberg, Trygve

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to demonstrate safe orthotopic transplantation of porcine donor hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours before transplantation. Design. Circulatory normalization of brain dead (decapitated) pigs was obtained using a new pharmacological regimen (n = 10). The donor hearts were perfused at 8 °C in cycles of 15 min perfusion followed by 60 min without perfusion. The perfusate consisted of an albumin-containing hyperoncotic cardioplegic nutrition solution with hormones and erythrocytes. Orthotopic transplantation was done in 10 recipient pigs after 24 hours’ preservation. Transplanted pigs were monitored for 24 hours, then an adrenaline stress test was done. Results. All transplanted pigs were stable throughout the 24-hour observation period with mean aortic pressure around 80 mmHg and normal urine production. Mean right and left atrial pressures were in the range of 3–6 and 5–10 mmHg, respectively. Blood gases at 24 hours did not differ from baseline values. The adrenaline test showed a dose dependent response, with aortic pressure increasing from 98/70 to 220/150 mmHg and heart rate from 110 to 185 beats/min. Conclusion. Orthotopic transplantation of porcine hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours can be done safely. PMID:26882241

  19. In the hour of Sugammadex.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jin Young

    2013-01-01

    Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin which is showing favorable outcomes regarding reversal of neuromuscular blockade, especially by rocuronium. It is designed to encapsulate rocuronium and being considered a new class of drugs as selective relaxant binding agents. It has given countless benefits to the patients at risk of incomplete or delayed recovery after neuromuscular block and has renown for another milestone in anesthesia practice. Recurrence of neuromuscular block has not been reported to be associated with the provided doses of sugammadex that are adequate for selected for reversal. Acceptable profiles are brought to light telling safety of sugammadex. However, some questions related to the twitch characteristics those resembled succinylcholine when reversal, the application for rocuronium anaphylaxis, and the hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis to sugammadex remain and are need of further investigation. It is imperative that potential problems that we need attention may include the patient's history of pulmonary disease and allergic disease for using sugammadex.

  20. My Half Hour with Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, Robert H.

    2005-03-01

    "So you're studying at Princeton. Would you like to meet Einstein?" That question, during a brief two-body collision at a cocktail party, a collision that was over before I could think of an appropriate response, led—over a year later—to one of the more memorable half hours of my life. It was an elastic collision, we drifted apart, and I thought it had simply been a casual remark until a few days later when the mail brought me a carbon copy [sic] of a letter (dated "25.XII.52") from the speaker, Dr. Tilly Edinger, to Albert Einstein. Accompanying the letter to Einstein was a card that Dr. Edinger advised me to send around to Einstein's home on Mercer Street to request a meeting. (What is perhaps most truly astonishing in connection with this event is that not only do I still have that carbon copy—and the eventual letter from Mercer Street that invited me to Einstein's home—but that I was able to find both documents in my attic!)

  1. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  2. Adult immunization—Need of the hour

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, P. Srinivas; Ganta, Avani; Kattimani, Vivekanand S.; Tiwari, Rahul V. C.

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines. This article will increase the awareness regarding the importance of vaccination for adults to prevent a variety of conditions prevalent in our country as well as epidemics. The article comprehensively provides insights into the available vaccination and preventive strategy of human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in this part of the review. We strongly recommend all the health care professionals to educate their co-professionals and the public to use the benefits of adult immunization. It is the need of the hour and reduces the burden of treatment and increases productivity. PMID:27583212

  3. Adult immunization-Need of the hour.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Ganta, Avani; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Tiwari, Rahul V C

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines. This article will increase the awareness regarding the importance of vaccination for adults to prevent a variety of conditions prevalent in our country as well as epidemics. The article comprehensively provides insights into the available vaccination and preventive strategy of human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in this part of the review. We strongly recommend all the health care professionals to educate their co-professionals and the public to use the benefits of adult immunization. It is the need of the hour and reduces the burden of treatment and increases productivity. PMID:27583212

  4. Pharmacodynamic effects of standard dose prasugrel versus high dose clopidogrel in non-diabetic obese patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Darlington, Andrew; Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Rollini, Fabiana; Ueno, Masafumi; Ferreiro, José Luis; Patel, Ronakkumar; Desai, Bhaloo; Guzman, Luis A; Bass, Theodore A; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2014-02-01

    Increased body weight is independently associated with impaired clopidogrel pharmacodynamic (PD) response. Prasugrel has more potent PD effects compared with clopidogrel, although its PD effects in obese patients are unknown. The aim of this prospective, randomised, study was to compare the PD effects of standard-dose prasugrel [60 mg loading dose (LD)/10 mg daily maintenance dose (MD)] with high-dose clopidogrel (900 mg LD/150 mg daily MD) in non-diabetic obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m²] patients, with coronary artery disease (CAD) on aspirin therapy. PD assessments (baseline, 2 hours post-LD and 6 ± 2 days after MD) were conducted using four platelet function assays, and the platelet reactivity index (PRI) assessed by VASP was used for sample size estimation. A total of 42 patients with a BMI of 36.42 ± 5.6 kg/m² completed the study. There were no differences in baseline PD measures between groups. At 2 hours post-LD, prasugrel was associated with lower PRI compared with clopidogrel (24.3 ± 5.5 vs 58.7 ± 5.7, p≤0.001), with consistent findings for all assays. At one-week, PRI values on prasugrel MD were lower than clopidogrel MD without reaching statistical significance (34.7 ± 5.8 vs 42.9 ± 5.8, p=0.32), with consistent findings for all assays. Accordingly, rates of high on-treatment platelet reactivity were markedly reduced after prasugrel LD, but not after MD. In conclusion, in non-diabetic obese patients with CAD, standard prasugrel dosing achieved more potent PD effects than high-dose clopidogrel in the acute phase of treatment, but this was not sustained during maintenance phase treatment. Whether an intensified prasugrel regimen is required in obese patients warrants investigation.

  5. 12 hour shifts the Nambour Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    Union members have a lengthy history of campaigning for fair working hours and conditions. The success of such campaigns has led to the implementation of the eight hour working day and the 40 hour and then 38 hour week as industrial standards. More recently though, calls for greater flexibility in their shift arrangements by nurses at Nambour Hospital have led to a voluntary 12 hour shift being implemented in their Intensive Care Unit. While union members are protective of their hard won gains in achieving reduced working hours through the 8 hour day--ICU nurses at Nambour Hospital say the voluntary 12 hour shift initiative goes a way in addressing their work/life balance issues.

  6. Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159479.html Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health At the job ... at Ohio State University. The link between long work hours and disease ''seems to be present a ...

  7. How Hours of Work Affect Occupational Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecker, David

    1998-01-01

    In most managerial, management-related, sales, production, and transportation occupations, workers with longer hours earned a high hourly rate. The reverse was true for some jobs, including computer specialists, engineers, schoolteachers, and construction workers. (JOW)

  8. 46 CFR 15.710 - Working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 15.710 Section 15.710 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.710 Working hours. In addition to prescribing watch requirements, 46 U.S.C. 8104 sets limitations on the working hours of credentialed officers and crew...

  9. The Student Credit Hour: Counting What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the student credit hour (SCH). The author begins with a rethinking of the basic unit of measurement in American higher education--the SCH. The credit hour was developed at the turn of the 20th century as a measure of student time in the classroom: one hour per week in class for one semester equalled one SCH. The credit hour…

  10. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  11. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  12. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  13. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  14. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  15. 29 CFR 783.46 - Hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; and General Electric Co. v. Porter, 208 F. 2d 805, certiorari denied, 347 U.S. 951, 975) would be applicable in determining what time constitutes hours worked. See also the general discussion of hours worked... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  16. 29 CFR 783.46 - Hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; and General Electric Co. v. Porter, 208 F. 2d 805, certiorari denied, 347 U.S. 951, 975) would be applicable in determining what time constitutes hours worked. See also the general discussion of hours worked... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  17. 29 CFR 783.46 - Hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; and General Electric Co. v. Porter, 208 F. 2d 805, certiorari denied, 347 U.S. 951, 975) would be applicable in determining what time constitutes hours worked. See also the general discussion of hours worked... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  18. 29 CFR 783.46 - Hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; and General Electric Co. v. Porter, 208 F. 2d 805, certiorari denied, 347 U.S. 951, 975) would be applicable in determining what time constitutes hours worked. See also the general discussion of hours worked... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  19. 29 CFR 783.46 - Hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; and General Electric Co. v. Porter, 208 F. 2d 805, certiorari denied, 347 U.S. 951, 975) would be applicable in determining what time constitutes hours worked. See also the general discussion of hours worked... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  20. Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of three vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 vaccine for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Kalsi, Gurdyal; Montalvo-Lugo, Victor M; Sharma, Mona; Wu, Yukun; Muse, Derek D; Sheldon, Eric A; Hampel, Frank C; Lemiale, Laurence

    2016-04-19

    AV7909 vaccine being developed for post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax disease may require fewer vaccinations and reduced amount of antigen to achieve an accelerated immune response over BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed). A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, BioThrax vacccine-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three intramuscular vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 in 168 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized at a 4:3:2:4:2 ratio to 5 groups: (1) AV7909 on Days 0/14; (2) AV7909 on Days 0/28; (3) AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; (4) half dose AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; and (5) BioThrax vaccine on Days 0/14/28. Vaccinations in all groups were well tolerated. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for AV7909 subjects and 65% for BioThrax subjects; 92% of AV7909 subjects and 87% of BioThrax subjects having AEs reported Grade 1-2 AEs. No serious AEs were assessed as potentially vaccine-related, and no AEs of potential autoimmune etiology were reported. There was no discernible pattern indicative of a safety concern across groups in the incidence or severity of reactogenicity events. Groups 2-4 achieved success for the primary endpoint, demonstrated by a lower 95% confidence limit of the percentage of subjects with protective toxin neutralizing antibody NF50 values (≥0.56) to be ≥40% at Day 63. Group 1 marginally missed the criterion (lower bound 95% confidence limit of 39.5%). Immune responses were above this threshold for Groups 1, 3 and 4 at Day 28 and all groups at Day 42. Further study of an AV7909 two-dose schedule given 2 weeks apart is warranted in light of the favorable tolerability profile and immunogenicity response relative to three doses of BioThrax vaccine, as well as preliminary data from nonclinical studies indicating similar immune responses correlate with higher survival for AV7909 than BioThrax vaccine.

  1. Simultaneous administration of high-dose atorvastatin and clopidogrel does not interfere with platelet inhibition during percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz, Rolf P; Breall, Jeffrey A; Sinha, Anjan; von der Lohe, Elisabeth; Kovacs, Richard J; Flockhart, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background Reloading with high-dose atorvastatin shortly before percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) has been proposed as a strategy to reduce periprocedural myonecrosis. There has been a concern that statins that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 may interfere with clopidogrel metabolism at high doses. The impact of simultaneous administration of high doses of atorvastatin and clopidogrel on the efficacy of platelet inhibition has not been established. Methods Subjects (n=60) were randomized to receive atorvastatin 80 mg together with clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose (n=28) versus clopidogrel 600 mg alone (n=32) at the time of PCI. Platelet aggregation was measured at baseline, 4 hours after clopidogrel loading dose, and 16–24 hours after clopidogrel loading dose by light transmittance aggregometry using adenosine diphosphate as agonist. Results Platelet aggregation was similar at baseline in both the atorvastatin and the control groups (adenosine diphosphate 10 µM: 57%±19% vs 61%±21%; P=0.52). There was no significant difference in platelet aggregation between the atorvastatin and the control groups at 4 hours (37%±18% vs 39%±21%; P=0.72) and 16–24 hours post-clopidogrel loading dose (35%±17% vs 37%±18%; P=0.75). No significant difference in incidence of periprocedural myonecrosis was observed between the atorvastatin and control groups (odds ratio: 1.02; 95% confidence interval 0.37–2.8). Conclusion High-dose atorvastatin given simultaneously with clopidogrel loading dose at the time of PCI does not significantly alter platelet inhibition by clopidogrel. Statin reloading with high doses of atorvastatin at the time of PCI appears to be safe without adverse effects on platelet inhibition by clopidogrel (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00979940). PMID:27350760

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Dolutegravir in HIV-Seronegative Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Compared to Healthy Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy H; Borland, Julie; Savina, Paul M; Chen, Shuguang; Patel, Parul; Wajima, Toshihiro; Peppercorn, Amanda F; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dolutegravir pharmacokinetics (PK) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to matched, healthy controls. In this open-label, parallel-group study, eight adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Score 7–9) and eight healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and body mass index received a single dolutegravir 50-mg dose. Following dosing, 72-hour PK sampling was performed to determine total and unbound dolutegravir concentrations. PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Geometric least squares mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) in subjects with hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects were generated by analysis of variance. Results showed that PK parameters of total plasma dolutegravir were similar between subject groups. The unbound fraction was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment than in healthy subjects with GMR (90% CI) of 2.20 (1.62, 2.99) for unbound fraction at 3 hours post-dose and 1.76 (1.23, 2.51) for unbound fraction at 24 hours post-dose; this correlated with lower serum albumin concentrations and was not considered clinically significant. Dolutegravir was well tolerated in both groups; all adverse events were reported as minor. Although free fraction was increased, no dose adjustment is required for patients treated with dolutegravir who have mild to moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26097786

  3. Ergonomic Microscope: Need of the Hour

    PubMed Central

    Mhaske, Shubhangi Ashok; Ahmad, Malik Ajaz; Yuwanati, Monal B.; Prabhu, Shweta; Pardhe, Nilesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged use of conventional microscope develops musculo-skeletal injuries like chronic pain syndrome, including shoulder, neck, back aches & fatigue. Since the problems go unnoticed, the injuries can lead to some serious permanent damages. This further leads to a compromise in the health and welfare of the person and the institute. Hence, an understanding about the ergonomics is the need of the hour in this postmodern era. Inspite of few studies and surveys about ergonomics, there is still a steep rise in the musculoskeletal disorders. Aim of the Study The aim of our study was to gauge the general awareness of pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists towards ergonomics in their profession. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey based study was de­signed, which included a questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple choice questions with four alternatives. Professionals (pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists) were included in the survey. Teaching faculty (Professors, Associate Professors and Lecturers) and Post graduate students formed the study group. Results and Observations The response to the questionnaire was 100%. Less than 50% of oral pathologists were aware of the importance of ergonomics in their profession. The most common site affected was neck and back. One of the drastic observations was that, Oral Pathologists suffered from a combination of problems affecting neck, back, eyes, headache, shoulders, arms and wrists. Conclusion Increase in our understanding regarding ergonomic­ally designed microscopes can increase our efficiency and in turn improve our general well-being. With improvements in ergonomics, professionals would be able to modify and optimize their working conditions. Certain guidelines need to be followed by the profes­sionals to reduce chances of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26155565

  4. Relief of Dental Pain: A Controlled 12-Hour Comparison of Etodolac, Aspirin, and Placebo

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Sharon L.; Bergman, Stewart A.

    1985-01-01

    Single doses of the study drugs were evaluated for 12 hours by 201 out-patients reporting moderate or severe pain following oral surgery. The results of this double-blind study indicated that 50, 100, and 200 mg of etodolac as well as 650 mg of aspirin were significantly more effective than placebo. A dose-response relationship was found for the three doses of etodolac, which was significant for summed pain relief scores for up to 8 hours. In terms of total analgesic effect, etodolac 200 mg was significantly superior to placebo for 8 hours, while aspirin and the two lower doses of etodolac were similarly effective in the range of 3-6 hours postdrug. All doses showed a favorable onset of analgesia (½-1 hour). Etodolac 200 mg resulted in a duration of action which was approximately twice as long as aspirin's and also produced a peak pain relief which was significantly greater than the lower doses of etodolac and aspirin. All study medications were well tolerated with no reports of significant adverse side effects. No dose-related effects were observed with etodolac PMID:2934008

  5. Phase II Study of Dose-Adjusted EPOCH-Rituximab in Untreated Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma with Analysis of Germinal Center and Post-Germinal Center Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Wyndham H.; Dunleavy, Kieron; Pittaluga, Stefania; Hegde, Upendra; Grant, Nicole; Steinberg, Seth M.; Raffeld, Mark; Gutierrez, Martin; Chabner, Bruce A.; Staudt, Louis; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Janik, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical outcome and the influence of biomarkers associated with apoptosis inhibition (Bcl-2), tumor proliferation (MIB-1) and cellular differentiation on the outcome with dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) infusional therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and analysis of germinal center B-cell (GCB) and post-GCB subtypes by immunohistochemistry. Patients and Methods Phase II study of 72 patients with untreated de novo DLBCL who were at least 18 years of age and stage II or higher. Radiation consolidation was not permitted. Results Patients had a median age of 50 (range: 19-85) years and 40% had a high-intermediate or high International Prognostic Index (IPI). At five-years, progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 79% and 80%, respectively, with a median potential follow-up of 54 months. PFS was 91%, 90%, 67% and 47%, and OS was 100%, 90%, 74% and 37%, for 0-1, 2, 3 and 4-5 IPI factors, respectively, at five-years. The Bcl-2 and MIB-1 biomarkers were not associated with PFS or OS. Based on DA-EPOCH historical controls, rituximab only benefited Bcl-2 positive tumors. Bcl-6 expression was associated with higher PFS whereas GCB exhibited a marginally significant higher PFS compared to post-GCB DLBCL. Conclusion DA-EPOCH-R outcome was not affected by tumor proliferation and rituximab appeared to overcome the adverse effect of Bcl-2. Bcl-6 may identify a biological program associated with a superior outcome. Overall, DA-EPOCH-R shows promising outcome in low and intermediate IPI groups. A molecular model of treatment outcome with rituximab and chemotherapy is presented. PMID:18378569

  6. Low dose radiation interactions with the transformation growth factor (TFG)-beta pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, Amy Jesse

    A major limiting factor for long-term, deep-space missions is the radiation dose to astronauts. Because the dose to the astronauts is a mixed field of low- and high-LET radiation, there is a need to understand the effects of both radiation types on whole tissue; however, there are limited published data on the effects of high-LET (linear-energy-transfer) radiation on tissue. Thus, we designed a perfusion chamber system for rat trachea in order to mimic in vivo respiratory tissue. We successfully maintained the perfused tracheal tissue ex vivo in a healthy and viable condition for up to three days. In addition, this project studied the effects of high-LET Fe particles on the overall transformation growth factor (TGF)-beta response after TGF-beta inactivation and compared the results to the TGF-beta response post x-ray irradiation. It was found that a TGF-beta response could be measured in the perfused tracheal tissue, for x-ray and Fe particle irradiations, despite the high autofluorescent background intrinsic to tissue. However, after comparing the TGF-beta response of x-ray irradiation to High-Z-High-energy (HZE) irradiation, there was not a significant difference in radiation types. The TGF-beta response in x-ray and HZE irradiated perfusion chambers was also measured over time post irradiation. It was found that for 6 hour and 8 hour post irradiation, the TGF-beta response was higher for lower doses of radiation than for higher doses. This is in contrast to the 0 hour fixation which found the TGF-beta response to increase with increased dose. The inverse relationship found for 6 hour and 8 hour fixation times may indicate a threshold response for TGF-beta response; i.e., for low doses, a threshold of dose must be reached for an immediate TGF-beta response, otherwise the tissue responds more slowly to the irradiation damage. This result was unexpected and will require further investigation to determine if the threshold can be determined for the 250 kVp x-rays and

  7. Enhancement of viability of radiosensitive (PBMC) and resistant (MDA-MB-231) clones in low-dose-rate cobalt-60 radiation therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Patrícia Lima; Motta, Bárbara Miranda; de Lima, Fernanda Castro; Lima, Celso Vieira; Campos, Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the present study, the authors investigated the in vitro behavior of radio-resistant breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells line and radiosensitive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as a function of different radiation doses, dose rates and postirradiation time kinetics, with a view to the interest of clinical radiotherapy. Materials and Methods The cells were irradiated with Co-60, at 2 and 10 Gy and two different exposure rates, 339.56 cGy.min–1 and the other corresponding to one fourth of the standard dose rates, present over a 10-year period of cobalt therapy. Post-irradiation sampling was performed at pre-established kinetics of 24, 48 and 72 hours. The optical density response in viability assay was evaluated and a morphological analysis was performed. Results Radiosensitive PBMC showed decrease in viability at 2 Gy, and a more significant decrease at 10 Gy for both dose rates. MDAMB- 231 cells presented viability decrease only at higher dose and dose rate. The results showed MDA-MB-231 clone expansion at low dose rate after 48–72 hours post-radiation. Conclusion Low dose rate shows a possible potential clinical impact involving decrease in management of radio-resistant and radiosensitive tumor cell lines in cobalt therapy for breast cancer. PMID:26185342

  8. Determining Optimal Post-Stroke Exercise (DOSE)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Cerebrovascular Accident; Stroke; Cerebral Infarction; Brain Infarction; Brain Ischemia; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Brain Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  9. Meloxicam prevents COX-2 mediated post-surgical inflammation but not pain following laparotomy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Roughan, John V.; Bertrand, Henri G.M.J.; Isles, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation is thought to be a major contributor to post-surgical pain so nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used analgesics. However, compared to rats, considerably less is known as to how successfully these prevent pain in mice. Methods A fluorescent COX-2 selective probe was used for the first time to evaluate the post-surgical anti-inflammatory effects of meloxicam, and automated behaviour analyses (HomeCageScan; HCS), the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) and body weight changes to assess its pain preventative properties. Groups of 8-9 BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with saline (0.3mls) or meloxicam at (1, 5 or 20mg/kg) 1 hour before a 1.5cm midline laparotomy. The probe or a control dye (2mg/kg) was injected intravenously 3 hours later. Imaging was used to quantify inflammation at 7, 24 and 48 hours following surgery. HCS data and MGS scores were obtained from video recordings and photographs before and at 24 hours. Results Post-surgical inflammation was dose dependently reduced by meloxicam; with 5 or 20mg/kg being most effective compared to saline. However, all mice lost weight, MGS scores increased and behavioural activity was reduced by surgery for at least 24 hours with no perceivable beneficial effect of meloxicam on any of these potentially pain-associated changes. Conclusions Although meloxicam prevented inflammation, even large doses did not prevent post-laparotomy pain possibly arising due a range of factors, including, but not limited to inflammation. MGS scoring can be applied by very naïve assessors and so should be effective for cage-side use. PMID:25908253

  10. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  11. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  12. The Credit Hour and Faculty Instructional Workload.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Studied the credit hour as a measure of faculty workload through interviews with administrators at several public and private colleges and universities. The credit hour metric did not appear to be stifling innovation, although at some public campuses those regulations made innovation more difficult. (SLD)

  13. The Student Credit Hour: An International Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Explored if and how the credit hour is used in higher education outside of the United States, with a focus on its use in measuring student progress and attainment. The use of the credit hour in Europe, where it has fostered innovation, and in Japan, and Australia generally follows the fundamentals of the U.S. model. (SLD)

  14. The Credit Hour and Public Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the ways the credit hour has come to be used by public funding systems in higher education. The literature review shows that the credit hour has become a barrier to innovation and a way to create systemic inequities between institutions or sectors in resource allocation. (SLD)

  15. 14 CFR 1206.403 - Duty hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Duty hours. 1206.403 Section 1206.403 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Location for Inspection and Request of Agency Records § 1206.403 Duty hours. The...

  16. 14 CFR 1206.403 - Duty hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duty hours. 1206.403 Section 1206.403 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Location for Inspection and Request of Agency Records § 1206.403 Duty hours. The...

  17. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  18. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  19. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  20. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  1. 16 CFR 0.3 - Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hours. 0.3 Section 0.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.3 Hours. Principal and field offices are open on each business day from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  2. 16 CFR 0.3 - Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hours. 0.3 Section 0.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.3 Hours. Principal and field offices are open on each business day from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  3. 16 CFR 0.3 - Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hours. 0.3 Section 0.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.3 Hours. Principal and field offices are open on each business day from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  4. 16 CFR 0.3 - Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hours. 0.3 Section 0.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.3 Hours. Principal and field offices are open on each business day from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  5. 16 CFR 0.3 - Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hours. 0.3 Section 0.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.3 Hours. Principal and field offices are open on each business day from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  6. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  7. POST-SHOT RADIATION ENVIRONMENT FOLLOWING LOW-YIELD SHOTS INSIDE THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Brereton, S; Dauffy, L; Hall, J; Hansen, L; Khater, H; Kim, S; Pohl, B; Verbeke, J

    2010-10-29

    A detailed model of the Target Bay (TB) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed to estimate the post-shot radiation environment inside the facility. The model includes large number of structures and diagnostic instruments present inside the TB. These structures and instruments are activated by the few nanosecond pulse of neutrons generated during a shot and the resultant gamma dose rates are estimated at various decay times following the shot. The results presented in this paper are based on a low-yield D-T shot of 10{sup 16} neutrons. General environment dose rates drop to below 3 mrem/h within three hours following a shot with higher dose rates observed at contact with some of the components. Dose rate maps of the different TB levels were generated to aid in estimating worker stay-out times following a shot before entry is permitted into the TB.

  8. What are 12-hour shifts good for?

    PubMed

    In the UK many hospitals use 12-hour shifts, believing it to be a cost-efficient means of providing 24-hour nursing care on wards. While healthcare organisations need to find ways to deliver nursing care around the clock and efficiency is a key consideration, nurse leaders have raised concerns about ' whether nurses can function effectively and safely when working long hours (Calkin, 2012; Rogers et al, 2004). In this Policy Plus, we focus specifically on what is known about the impact of shift length on patient safety, employee health and quality of care.

  9. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  10. [Gastroesophageal reflux during pregnancy: 24-hour esophageal ph monitoring].

    PubMed

    Anton, C; Anton, E; Drug, V; Stanciu, C

    2001-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs in 30-50% of all pregnancies. The progressive rise in plasma progesterone has been suggested as a possible mediator of GER during pregnancy. Recent advances in technology have made it possible to detect GER through monitoring of esophageal pH for prolonged periods, including sleep. 24-hour pH monitoring is the proper method for diagnosing GER in pregnant women. If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate GER patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 62 women (30 healthy non-pregnant women without GER symptoms and 32 pregnant women with GER symptoms-heartburn, acid regurgitation) with 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Intrasubject reproducibility of three pH parameters to discriminate the presence of abnormal acid reflux was determined (DeMeester score, Kaye score, circadian one hour diagram for pH < 4). Each patient was interviewed, using a reliable questionnaire detailing individual habits, life style characteristics and symptoms, at four time points during the first, second, third trimesters of pregnancy and post-partum period. Symptoms of GER are common in pregnancy and although GER rarely endangers maternal or fetal health, it can significantly affect patient comfort and quality of life. We conclude: 1. GER is almost constantly present during pregnancy, increasing with gestational age. 2. The most important pH--parameter is DeMcester score. 3. Heartburn disappear after delivery. 4. 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is the gold standard for measuring acid exposure and is a reproducible test for the diagnosis of GER in pregnancy.

  11. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed.

  12. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  13. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  14. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  15. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....320 Section 778.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... COMPENSATION Special Problems Effect of Paying for But Not Counting Certain Hours § 778.320 Hours that would... overtime premiums creditable toward overtime compensation under section 7(h) of the Act. Reduction...

  16. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....320 Section 778.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... COMPENSATION Special Problems Effect of Paying for But Not Counting Certain Hours § 778.320 Hours that would... overtime premiums creditable toward overtime compensation under section 7(h) of the Act. Reduction...

  17. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....320 Section 778.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... COMPENSATION Special Problems Effect of Paying for But Not Counting Certain Hours § 778.320 Hours that would... overtime premiums creditable toward overtime compensation under section 7(h) of the Act. Reduction...

  18. An Evaluation of First Offender Driver Alcohol Education Models: 40 Hours versus 15 Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Kim; And Others

    An evaluation assessed the impact of the 40- and 15-hour driver alcohol education (DAE) program models on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of driving while intoxicated (DWI) first offenders in Massachusetts. The 40-hour program evaluation studied 306 clients from 31 DAE programs; the 15-hour study group consisted of 207 clients in 23 DAE…

  19. Delinking resident duty hours from patient safety.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Roisin; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a powerful motivating force for change in modern medicine, and is often cited as a rationale for reducing resident duty hours. However, current data suggest that resident duty hours are not significantly linked to important patient outcomes. We performed a narrative review and identified four potential explanations for these findings. First, we question the relevance of resident fatigue in the creation of harmful errors. Second, we discuss factors, including workload, experience, and individual characteristics, that may be more important determinants of resident fatigue than are duty hours. Third, we describe potential adverse effects that may arise from--and, therefore, counterbalance any potential benefits of--duty hour reductions. Fourth, we explore factors that may mitigate any risks to patient safety associated with using the services of resident trainees. In summary, it may be inappropriate to justify a reduction in working hours on the grounds of a presumed linkage between patient safety and resident duty hours. Better understanding of resident-related factors associated with patient safety will be essential if improvements in important patient safety outcomes are to be realized through resident-focused strategies. PMID:25561349

  20. Twenty-four hour hormone profiles of TSH, Free T3 and free T4 in hypothyroid patients on combined T3/T4 therapy.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, P; Siddique, H; Simmons, D J; Greenwood, R; Dayan, C M

    2007-04-01

    The benefits of using thyroxine (T4) plus triiodothyronine (T3) in combination in thyroid hormone replacement are unproven but many individuals continue to be treated with this regime. When T3 is used alone for hypothyroidism, it results in wide fluctuations of thyroid hormone levels. However, only limited data exists on combined T3/T4 therapy. In this study, we have compared 24-hour profiles of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (fT4) and free T3 (fT3) and cardiovascular parameters in 10 hypothyroid patients who had been on once daily combined T3/T4 therapy for more than 3 months with 10 patients on T4 alone. Twenty patients, who were part of a larger study, investigating the long-term benefits of combined T3/T4 therapy, were recruited into this sub-study. Over 24-hours, 12 samples were taken for thyroid hormones. Their 24-hour pulse and BP is also monitored on a separate occasion. On T4 alone, a modest 16% rise in fT4 with no change in fT3 was seen in the first 4-hours post-dose. In contrast, on combined treatment, fT3 levels showed a marked rise of 42% within the first 4-hours post-dose (T3/T4:T4=6.24: 4.63 mU/L, p<0.001). Mean exposure to fT3 calculated by area under the curve (AUC) was higher (T3/T4:T4=1148:1062, p<0.0001) on T3. Circadian rhythm of TSH was maintained on both treatments. No difference in pulse or blood pressure over the 24-hours was seen between the groups. Our data suggests that despite chronic combined T3/T4 therapy, wide peak-to-trough variation in fT3 levels persists. Although no immediate cardiovascular effects were seen, the long-term consequences for patients on combined therapy are unknown. PMID:17479444

  1. A vascular laboratory protocol for improving and managing after-hours suspected acute deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Angela H; Eckert, George; Lemmon, Gary W; Sawchuk, Alan; Dalsing, Michael C

    2014-04-01

    This study reviews the clinical and workforce impact of a suggested protocol designed for the management of suspected acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients seen after standard vascular laboratory business hours. The protocol included the use of Wells score, D-dimer and a single dose of therapeutic anticoagulant to defer venous duplex ultrasound (VDU) testing until routine business hours unless contraindicated. Information was collected on medical history, physical exam and the timing of any diagnostic studies and treatment provided. Over 15% of studies done after-hours were deemed unnecessary by our protocol and in every individual the results were negative for an acute DVT. There were no adverse events from a one-time dose of anticoagulant. Limiting emergency VDU coverage to evaluate for acute DVT based on a management protocol can eliminate unnecessary after-hours VDU testing without having a negative impact on patient care.

  2. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  3. 12-hour shifts: job satisfaction of nurses.

    PubMed

    Todd, C; Robinson, G; Reid, N

    1993-09-01

    A before and after study was carried out amongst staff of 10 wards of a county hospital before and after the introduction of a 12-hour shift system for nurses. The purpose was to investigate the impact of the shift system on job satisfaction. Some 320 nurses covering all qualified and unqualified grades were surveyed using a standard job satisfaction attitude scale. It was found that under the 12-hour shift both intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction had been detrimentally affected. Considerable dissatisfaction was expressed about hours of work, conditions of work and the impact of the shift on domestic and social arrangements. The vast majority (83%) reported that they did not want to go on working the shift and there was support for the view that recruitment to nursing would be adversely affected by the shift.

  4. Constructing gridded hourly temperature data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    Air temperature is the main climatological element, with major impact on the earth-atmosphere energy balance. The characteristics of the surface air temperature in locations without meteorological measurements are obtained using spatio-temporal interpolation techniques. Gridded surface meteorological data are essential for evaluating the performance of regional climate models (RCMs), for applying Statistical Downscaling (SD) methods and as input data for hydrological models. In this study we proposed a methodolgy for interpolating hourly surface temperatures. Three gridding methods are compared. A two-step multivariate gridding approach was used. First we interpolated the hourly normal maps, considered as multiannual average (1961-2010), of air temperature for each hour (4 meteorological terms) of a standard year (366 days). In this step, the Residual Kriging method was used with potential predictors derived from DEM and Landcover Corinne. For interpolating the residuals of the regression model we tested 3 gridding methods: Multiquadratic (MQ), Ordinary Kriging (OK) and 3D Kriging (using time as a third dimension). In the second step, we calculated the anomalies of each hour, day, year for the period 1961-2010. The anomalies were interpolated using the same methods applied for gridding regression residuals. The final hourly surface air temperature maps were obtained by summing the maps from first step with the anomlies map. The main data used in this work were the hourly air temperatures of the 4 observation terms (01, 07, 13, 19), measured between 1961-2010 at the weather stations of the Romanian Meteorological Administration. The predictors were derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM and from CORINE Land Cover 2000 product. The gridding was performed in a Romanian National Grid (Stereo 70), at 1 km2 spatial resolution, using R language. The study has been financed by the research project Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in

  5. Single-dose oral guanidinoacetic acid exhibits dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Vojvodic-Ostojic, Aleksandra

    2015-03-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), the natural precursor of creatine, has potential as a dietary supplement for human nutrition, yet no data are available regarding its dose-dependent pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior. We hypothesized that a single dose of orally administered GAA exhibited dose-dependent PK behavior in healthy volunteers. Forty-eight young adults were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial to receive single oral doses of GAA (1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 g) or a placebo. Pharmacokinetic metrics for plasma GAA and creatine were assessed immediately before (0 hours) and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after GAA ingestion. The lag time appeared to be similar after the bolus ingestion of GAA (0.14 ± 0.17 hours for low-dose GAA, 0.31 ± 0.18 hours for medium-dose GAA, and 0.38 ± 0.32 hours for high-dose GAA; P = .05). An increase in the area under the concentration-time curve for plasma GAA was found for the dose range tested, with 2.4- and 9.3-fold increases in the area under the concentration-time curve for every 2-fold increase in the GAA dose (P < .0001). No differences were found for elimination half-time between the low-dose and medium-dose groups (<1.75 hours), whereas the elimination half-time was significantly longer (>2.1 hours) for the high-dose GAA regimen (P = .001). The volume of distribution was affected by the dosage of GAA applied (102.6 ± 17.3 L for low-dose GAA, 97.5 ± 15.7 L for medium-dose GAA, and 61.1 ± 12.7 L for high-dose GAA; P < .0001). Ingestion of GAA elevated plasma creatine by 80%, 116%, and 293% compared with the placebo for the 1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 g doses, respectively (P < .0001). Guanidinoacetic acid single-dose PK metrics were nonlinear with respect to dose size. Across the dose range of 1.2 to 4.8 g, systemic exposure to GAA increased in a greater than dose-proportional manner. PMID:25622538

  6. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  7. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA. PMID:27249874

  8. Preservation of Isolated Heart for 72 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, E.; Parker, R.

    1968-01-01

    Isolated hearts of dogs have been preserved in a viable condition for 72 hours with hypothermic perfusion (5° C.) at normal atmospheric pressure. On removal and connexion to the femoral artery and vein of another dog these hearts beat strongly and without failing until removed after six hours. In mechanical function and histological appearance they were virtually identical with control hearts. The most useful criterion of viability of the quiescent myocardium during storage was the change in coronary resistance with time of perfusion. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4879972

  9. MiR-34a is up-regulated in response to low dose, low energy X-ray induced DNA damage in breast cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression including DNA damage responses. Low doses of low energy X-ray radiation, similar to those used in mammographic exams, has been described to be genotoxic. In the present work we investigated the expression of miR-34a; a well described p53-regulated miRNA implicated in cell responses to X-ray irradiation at low doses. Methods Non-cancerous breast cell line MCF-10A and cancerous T-47D and MCF-7 cell lines were submitted to a low-energy X-ray irradiation (ranging from 28–30 Kv) using a dose of 5 Gy. The expression level of miR-34a, let-7a and miR-21 was assessed by qRT-PCR at 4 and 24 hours post-irradiation. DNA damage was then measured by comet assay and micronuclei estimation in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines, where an increase of miR-34a levels could be observed after irradiation. The rate of apoptotic cells was estimated by nuclear staining and fluorescence microscopy. These experiments were also performed at low doses (3; 12 and 48 mGy) in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines. Results We have observed an increase in miR-34a expression 4 hours post-irradiation at 5 Gy in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines while its level did not change in T-47D, a breast cancer cell line bearing non-functional p53. At low doses, miR-34a was up-regulated in non-tumoral MCF-10A to a higher extent as compared to MCF-7. MiR-34a levels decreased 24 hours post-irradiation. We have also observed DNA damage and apoptosis at low-energy X-ray irradiation at low doses and the high dose in MCF-10A and MCF-7 4 and 24 hours post-irradiation relative to the mock control. Conclusion Low energy X-ray is able to promote DNA strand breaks and miR-34a might be involved in cell responses to low energy X-ray DNA damage. MiR-34a expression correlates with X-ray dose, time after irradiation and cell type. The present study reinforces the need of investigating consequences of low dose X-ray irradiation of breast cells. PMID

  10. The History of the Student Credit Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedd, Jessica M.

    2003-01-01

    Traces the history of the student credit hour, designed at the end of the 19th century to translate high school work to college admissions officers. It was expanded to higher education to record elective course work and became widespread in response to calls to document workload and institutional productivity. (SLD)

  11. Accommodating to Restrictions on Residents' Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Henry W., Jr.; Seltzer, Vicki L.

    1991-01-01

    In response to New York State legislation limiting house staff working hours, a survey of obstetrics and gynecology resident programs (n=26) was conducted. Results were used to construct a prototype call schedule and a hypothetical monthly schedule indicating how a single resident would function without violating any state regulations. (MSE)

  12. On the Shelf in 48 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Marihelen

    2006-01-01

    Moving materials from receipt of the shipment to distribution to branches within 48 hours is such a hassle among members of the technical services department of Columbus Metropolitan Library. However, these issues challenged them to find alternative solutions to achieve their goals. After reviewing the in and outs of their department and making a…

  13. Stunden-abstract (Class-Hour Plan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Heinz-Otto

    1977-01-01

    Offers a class-hour plan for Grade 11 on the theme of "James Thurber, 'The Peacelike Mongoose' - Discussion of Text," dividing the treatment into stages: Introduction and Reading, Text Elucidation, Comprehension Check, Summarizing Content, Reflection, Written Homework. Possible alternative approaches are discussed. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  15. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  16. Post-prandial changes in protein synthesis in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ian D; Fuiman, Lee A

    2011-06-01

    Protein synthesis is one of the major energy-consuming processes in all living organisms. Post-prandial changes in protein synthesis have been studied in a range of animal taxa but have been little studied in fish larvae. Using the flooding-dose method, we measured post-prandial changes in whole-body rates of protein synthesis in regularly fed red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus) larvae for 24-28 h following their daily meal. Fractional rates of protein synthesis increased from a baseline (pre-feeding) rate of 16% day(-1) to a post-prandial peak of 48% day(-1) ca. 8 h after feeding before declining to 12% day(-1) after 24-28 h. The overall mean daily rate of protein synthesis was calculated as 27% day(-1). Although suggested as energetically impossible in larval poikilotherms, our results show that rates in excess of 30% day(-1) can be attained by larval fishes for a few hours but are not sustained. The average daily energetic cost of protein synthesis was estimated as 34% of daily total oxygen consumption, ranging from 19% immediately before feeding to 61% during the post-prandial peak in protein synthesis. This suggests that during the post-prandial peak, protein synthesis will require a large proportion of the hourly energy production, which, given the limited metabolic scope in fish larvae, may limit the energy that could otherwise be allocated to other energy-costly functions, such as foraging and escape responses. PMID:21562168

  17. 10 CFR 835.604 - Exceptions to posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exceptions to posting requirements. 835.604 Section 835.604 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.604 Exceptions to posting requirements. (a) Areas may be excepted from the posting requirements of § 835.603 for periods of less than 8 continuous hours...

  18. 10 CFR 835.604 - Exceptions to posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions to posting requirements. 835.604 Section 835.604 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.604 Exceptions to posting requirements. (a) Areas may be excepted from the posting requirements of § 835.603 for periods of less than 8 continuous hours...

  19. Impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) drop within 24 hours after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈ 2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  20. Impedance and Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP) Drop within 24 Hours after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  1. A 5,000 hour xenon hollow cathode life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    A cathode life test voluntary terminated after 5024 hours of operation at 25 A is reported. The cathode including a 6.35-mm diameter by 57.12-mm long molybdenum tube with a nominal wall thickness of 0.38 mm is described along with a test facility and start-up procedure. It is shown that over the time of the experiment, the cathode-orifice diameter eroded from 1.80 mm to 2.08 mm, which corresponds to a ratio of the emission current to the orifice diameter at the end of the test of 12.0 A/mm. Tungsten deposits on the interior surface of the insert are detected in post-test analyses, and complete depletion of the original impregnate is suggested by X-ray diffraction analyses. A cathode-jet phenomenon in which energetic ions are produced during hollow-cathode operation at emission currents above 20 A is confirmed.

  2. Electric System Intra-hour Operation Simulator

    2014-03-07

    ESIOS is a software program developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that performs intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulations for electric power system frequency regulation and load/variable generation following. The program dispatches generation resources at minute interval to meet control performance requirements, while incorporating stochastic models of forecast errors and variability with generation, load, interchange and market behaviors. The simulator also contains an operator model that mimics manual actions to adjust resourcemore » dispatch and maintain system reserves. Besides simulating generation fleet intra-hour dispatch, ESIOS can also be used as a test platform for the design and verification of energy storage, demand response, and other technologies helping to accommodate variable generation.« less

  3. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours.

  4. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  5. 75 FR 285 - Hours of Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ..., 2010, in Los Angeles, CA. All listening sessions will begin at 9 a.m. local time and end at 5 p.m., or... Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf... ability to borrow an hour from another driving day once a week, for example--if that flexibility would...

  6. The Effect of Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate on Post-Operative Analgesia During Laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffaripour, Sina; Eghbal, Hossein; Rahimi, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Post-operative pain control is an important concern for both patients and physicians. Magnesium is being used as an adjuvant for anesthesia and analgesia during and after various surgeries. We aimed to investigate the effects of intravenous magnesium sulfate on post-operative analgesia after laminectomy. Methods Materials: In this randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 40 adult patients aged 18-60 with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)  Class I-II who were candidates for elective laminectomy. The patients were randomly assigned in two control groups and were similarly anesthetized. In the case group, after the induction of anesthesia, a loading dose of magnesium sulfate (30 mg/kg) was administered within five to 10 minutes followed by a maintenance dose of 10 mg/kg/hr up to the end of the surgery; while, the patients in the control group received the same volume of saline. After the surgery, all patients received a patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) pump containing morphine. The first time of using PCA, the amount of consumed morphine during the first 24 hours, and pain score were recorded at 6,12,18 and 24 hours in the post-operative period. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the amount of morphine consumed in 24 hours after the surgery (P value =0.23), the first time of using of PCA pump (P value =0.79) and pain intensity (P value=0.52). Conclusion: The infusion of Magnesium Sulfate during laminectomy had no effect on patients’ pain and opioid requirement during the first 24 hours after the surgery. PMID:27433405

  7. Increased active metabolite formation explains the greater platelet inhibition with prasugrel compared to high-dose clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher D; Li, Ying Grace; Small, David S; Ernest, C Steven; Farid, Nagy A; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Brandt, John T; Salazar, Daniel E; Winters, Kenneth J

    2007-11-01

    Prasugrel pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics after a 60-mg loading dose (LD) and daily 10-mg maintenance doses (MD) were compared in a 3-way crossover study to clopidogrel 600-mg/75-mg and 300-mg/75-mg LD/MD in 41 healthy, aspirin-free subjects. Each LD was followed by 7 days of daily MD and a 14-day washout period. Inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) was assessed by turbidometric aggregometry (20 and 5 microM ADP). Prasugrel 60-mg achieved higher mean IPA (54%) 30 minutes post-LD than clopidogrel 300-mg (3%) or 600-mg (6%) (P < 0.001) and greater IPA by 1 hour (82%) and 2 hours (91%) than the 6-hour IPA for clopidogrel 300-mg (51%) or 600-mg (69%) (P < 0.01). During MD, IPA for prasugrel 10-mg (78%) exceeded that of clopidogrel (300-mg/75-mg, 56%; 600-mg/75-mg, 52%; P < 0.001). Active metabolite area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-tlast) after prasugrel 60-mg (594 ng.hr/mL) was 2.2 times that after clopidogrel 600-mg. Prasugrel active metabolite AUC0-tlast was consistent with dose-proportionality from 10-mg to 60-mg, while clopidogrel active metabolite AUC0-tlast exhibited saturable absorption and/or metabolism. In conclusion, greater exposure to prasugrel's active metabolite results in faster onset, higher levels, and less variability of platelet inhibition compared with high-dose clopidogrel in healthy subjects. PMID:18030066

  8. How to increase the burden on trauma centers: implement the 80-hour work week.

    PubMed

    Schroeppel, Thomas J; Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2014-07-01

    The 80-hour week was implemented in 2003 to improve outcomes and limit errors. We hypothesize that there has been no change in outcomes postimplementation of the restrictions. Outcomes were queried from the trauma registry from 1997 to 2002 (PRE) and 2004 to 2009 (POST). Primary outcomes were mortality, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), and length of stay (LOS). Patients were stratified based on demographics, blood pressure, heart rate, and injury severity (Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, base deficit). Outcomes were then compared PRE with POST. A total of 41,770 patients were admitted during the study period. The mean age was 38 years with most being male (73%) and blunt mechanism (78%). Although patients admitted in the POST period had a slightly higher blood pressure, they were older and had higher injury severity. ICU LOS, LOS, self-pay, and mortality were higher in the POST period. After adjusted analysis, admission in the POST period was no longer a predictor of mortality (odds ratio, 1.02; confidence interval, 0.92 to 1.14). Whereas patients were more slightly more injured in the POST period, the adjusted analysis shows no difference in mortality and both a longer LOS and ICU LOS. Whether the increase is the result of more severe injury in the POST period or less efficient disposition remains to be elucidated. This study adds to the mounting evidence that the implementation of the limits on work hours does not lead to better outcomes.

  9. Effect of high or low protamine dosing on postoperative bleeding following heparin anticoagulation in cardiac surgery. A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Michael I; Veerhoek, Dennis; de Lange, Fellery; de Vries, Jacob-Willem; de Jong, Jan R; Romijn, Johannes W A; Kelchtermans, Hilde; Huskens, Dana; van der Steeg, Robin; Thomas, Pepijn W A; Burtman, David T M; van Barneveld, Laurentius J M; Vonk, Alexander B A; Boer, Christa

    2016-08-01

    While experimental data state that protamine exerts intrinsic anticoagulation effects, protamine is still frequently overdosed for heparin neutralisation during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Since comparative studies are lacking, we assessed the influence of two protamine-to-heparin dosing ratios on perioperative haemostasis and bleeding, and hypothesised that protamine overdosing impairs the coagulation status following cardiac surgery. In this open-label, multicentre, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial, patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery were assigned to a low (0.8; n=49) or high (1.3; n=47) protamine-to-heparin dosing group. The primary outcome was 24-hour blood loss. Patient haemostasis was monitored using rotational thromboelastometry and a thrombin generation assay. The low protamine-to-heparin dosing ratio group received less protamine (329 ± 95 vs 539 ± 117 mg; p<0.001), while post-protamine activated clotting times were similar among groups. The high dosing group revealed increased intrinsic clotting times (236 ± 74 vs 196 ± 64 s; p=0.006) and the maximum post-protamine thrombin generation was less suppressed in the low dosing group (38 ± 40 % vs 6 ± 9 %; p=0.001). Postoperative blood loss was increased in the high dosing ratio group (615 ml; 95 % CI 500-830 ml vs 470 ml; 95 % CI 420-530 ml; p=0.021) when compared to the low dosing group, respectively. More patients in the high dosing group received fresh frozen plasma (11 % vs 0 %; p=0.02) and platelet concentrate (21 % vs 6 %; p=0.04) compared to the low dosing group. Our study confirms in vitro data that abundant protamine dosing is associated with increased postoperative blood loss and higher transfusion rates in cardiac surgery.

  10. From hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and comparability with chlorofluorocarbon pMDIs.

    PubMed

    Kunka, R; Andrews, S; Pimazzoni, M; Callejas, S; Ziviani, L; Squassante, L; Daley-Yates, P T

    2000-06-01

    Fluticasone propionate pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) containing the hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant, HFA 134a, are being developed to replace existing chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) pMDIs. This is part of the ongoing worldwide project to limit the damage to the earth's ozone layer. The in vivo performance and dose proportionality of fluticasone propionate HFA 134a pMDIs was examined for fluticasone propionate doses of 400, 1000 and 2000 microg using the 50, 125 and 250 microg strength pMDIs, respectively. The 125 and 250 microg strength HFA 134a pMDIs were compared with corresponding fluticasone propionate CFC pMDIs. Twenty-three healthy subjects participated in this single dose, randomized, five-way, cross-over study. Serial blood samples were collected 24 h post-dose to measure fluticasone propionate plasma concentrations. Twenty-four hour urinary-free cortisol was also measured before and after dosing. A dose-proportional increase in plasma fluticasone propionate concentrations was observed with increasing dose for the HFA 134a pMDIs. This was associated with a dose-related decrease in urinary cortisol excretion. Similar or lower fluticasone propionate systemic exposure was observed with the HFA 134a pMDIs compared to the corresponding CFC inhalers. The differences in systemic exposure observed for the HFA 134a and CFC pMDIs were too small to produce a differential effect on urinary cortisol excretion. Since fluticasone propionate has negligible oral bioavailability, the systemic exposure, which arises only from pulmonary absorption, is a measure of lung deposition. There was a good correlation between the in vitro fine particle mass produced by the different strengths and types of pMDI and the systemic exposure to fluticasone propionate. Therefore, the fluticasone propionate HFA 134a pMDI is an acceptable pharmaceutical alternative to the current CFC pMDI, producing similar lung deposition and no increase in systemic exposure at microgram equivalent

  11. How to Further Decrease the Efficiency of Care at a Level I Trauma Center: Implement the Amended Resident Work Hours.

    PubMed

    Schroeppel, Thomas J; Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2015-07-01

    Work-hour restrictions were amended in 2011 to limit interns to 16 continuous duty hours, essentially requiring a night float system of 12-hour shifts. We hypothesize that there has been no improvement in outcomes after implementation of the amended work-hour restrictions. Outcomes from trauma admissions were queried from the trauma registry from 2009 to 2011 (PRE) and 2011 to 2013 (POST). The primary outcome was mortality with secondary outcomes intensive care unit length of stay (LOS)and LOS. Patients were stratified based on age, mechanism, gender, blood pressure, heart rate, and injury severity (Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, Base Deficit). Outcomes were then compared from admissions PRE to POST. A total of 9178 patients were included in the study population. The mean age was 42 with most being male (72%) and blunt mechanism (81%). Patient populations were well matched except patients in the POST period were slightly older (43 vs 42 years; P = 0.01). Intensive care unit LOS and LOS were higher in the POST period. After adjusted analysis, admission in the POST period was not a predictor of mortality (odds ratio 0.857; confidence interval 0.655-1.12). The POST period was an independent predictor for LOS (β = 0.74; P = 0.002). This study adds to the mounting evidence that the implementation of the amended limits on work hours leads to furthermore decreased efficiency of care.

  12. Efficacy of Pregabalin as Premedication for Post-Operative Analgesia in Vaginal Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rajappa, Geetha Chamanhalli; Vig, Saurabh; Bevanaguddaiah, Yatish; Anadaswamy, Tejesh C

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregabalin, a structural analogue of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), is shown to be effective in treatment of several types of neuropathic pain, incisional injury, and inflammatory injury. Objectives The aim of the present study is to compare the efficacy of two doses (75 mg or 150 mg) of pregabalin with the administration of a placebo for post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia. Patients and Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 135 patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia. The patients were divided in three groups of 45 patients each: group 0, placebo; group 1, 75 mg pregabalin; and group 2, 150 mg pregabalin; each treatment of which was administered one hour before surgery. The Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) was used for pre-operative assessment and the visual analog scale (VAS) was used to determine pain at rest and for cough on the first post-operative day. The time for the requirement of rescue analgesics on the first post-operative day was also assessed. Results The RSS scores were significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 as compared to the controls (P < 0.001). Postoperative VAS scores for pain both at rest and on cough were significantly reduced in groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). Rescue analgesic consumption decreased significantly in groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). The time at which rescue analgesia was administered (first dose) was 4.45 hours in group 0, 10.86 hours in group 1, and 16.82 hours in group 2 (P < 0.001). Conclusions Pregabalin administered as premedication provided significant postoperative pain relief and decreased the requirement of other parenteral analgesics. Pregabalin doses of 150 mg had a better analgesic profile, but the advantages of their use may be limited by side effects such as dizziness. Thus, it is concluded that pregabalin doses of 75 mg may be the optimal pre-emptive dose. PMID:27642577

  13. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-07-15

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 6/1/13 to 6/30/13

  14. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data 20130731

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-08-30

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 7/1/13 to 7/31/13.

  15. 20130416_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-04-24

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 4/16/13.

  16. 20140430_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-05-05

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 April to 30 April 2014.

  17. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L.; Folkard, S.; Tucker, P.; Macdonald, I.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. RESULTS: The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.   PMID:9624275

  18. Planning for Extended Hours: A Survey of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despines, Janine

    2001-01-01

    Discusses extended hours of operation for school library media centers and describes how to plan for them. Considers benefits of extended hours; planning questions; staffing, including volunteers; costs and funding; security; and patron use of extended hours. (LRW)

  19. Lifetime physical activity and risk of breast cancer in pre-and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Si, Si; Boyle, Terry; Heyworth, Jane; Glass, Deborah C; Saunders, Christobel; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the association between different types of physical activity (PA) and breast cancer. A case-control study of breast cancer was conducted in Western Australia from 2009 to 2011, in which 1205 women with breast cancer and 1789 frequency age-matched breast cancer-free control women were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about lifetime and age-period recreational, household, occupational and transport physical activities. Detailed questions about demographic characteristics, and relevant reproductive, medical and lifestyle factors were also included. Logistic regression and restrictive cubic spline analyses were applied to investigate the association and dose-response relationship between PA and breast cancer risk. Subgroup analysis was performed regarding menopausal status. We found non-linear dose-response associations between PA and risk of breast cancer. Overall, 95-130 MET-hours/week of total lifetime PA was associated with the lowest breast cancer risk. The effects were stronger among post-menopausal women. We also found that the medium amounts of recreational PA (up to 21 MET-hours/week) were associated with lower breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women. Further analysis on the intensity of recreational PA demonstrated different dose-response associations between moderate- and vigorous-intensity recreational PA and breast cancer risk. We found that PA was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer among post-menopausal women, but not in a linear fashion. Recreational PA of different intensities may have different dose-response associations with risk of breast cancer.

  20. Physical activity does not influence the effect of antioxidant supplementation at nutritional doses on the incidence of impaired fasting glucose: a 7.5 year post-hoc analysis from the SU.VI.MAX study.

    PubMed

    Fezeu, L; Henegar, A; Kesse-Guyot, E; Julia, C; Galan, P; Hercberg, S; Ristow, M; Czernichow, S

    2010-10-01

    Supplementation with high doses of antioxidant vitamins prevents the insulin-sensitizing effects of physical exercise. However, little is known whether antioxidant supplementation affects the incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Data from 8938 subjects included in a randomized controlled trial on supplementation with antioxidants vitamins and trace elements at nutritional doses (SU.VI.MAX) were used to examine the effects of antioxidants on incident IFG after 7.5 years of follow-up, with and without stratification for daily physical exercise. The odds-ratio (95% CI) for developing an IFG among study participants receiving antioxidant supplementation was 1.34 (0.90-1.97) (p=0.33), in comparison to placebo. This risk did not vary significantly according to physical activity level (p for homogeneity=0.10). Supplementation with trace elements and antioxidants at nutritional doses apparently does not affect the incidence of IFG irrespective of self-reported physical exercise habits.

  1. Volumatic usage: some generic salbutamol metered dose inhalers can be used.

    PubMed Central

    Chege, J. K.; Chrystyn, H.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The 30 minute and 24 hour post-inhalation urinary excretion of salbutamol represents the relative amount of drug deposited in the lungs and total systemic absorption, respectively. Using this method two metered dose inhalers used with a Volumatic (Allen and Hanburys Ltd, UK) large volume spacer have been compared. METHOD--Eleven healthy volunteers inhaled 4 x 100 micrograms salbutamol from either a generic salbutamol (Baker Norton, UK) or Ventolin (Allen and Hanburys Ltd, UK) metered dose inhaler with a Volumatic. The order of administration was randomised with a seven day washout period. Urine samples were collected for 0-30 minutes and then pooled up to 24 hours after inhalation. RESULTS--The mean (SD) urinary salbutamol excretion 30 minutes after inhalation with the metered dose inhalers used with the Volumatic was 22.22 (4.63) and 21.30 (5.91) micrograms for the Baker Norton and Ventolin respectively, with a mean difference (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.92 (-0.65 to 2.49) micrograms. Similar amounts were excreted up to 24 hours after the dose with a mean (SD) urinary excretion of 116.1 (24.3) micrograms and 114.8 (22.3) micrograms, respectively, and a mean difference (95% CI) of 1.22 (-20.39 to 22.84) micrograms. CONCLUSION--Inhalations from generic salbutamol (Baker Norton) and Ventolin metered dose inhalers with a Volumatic inhalation aid deliver similar amounts of drug to the lungs and the total systemic absorption from the two products is the same. PMID:7831635

  2. Solid state watt-hour meter

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.R.; Gilker, C.S.

    1984-08-21

    A watt-hour meter is disclosed which includes: a microprocessor coupled to a solid-state Hall-Effect sensor; an electrically alterable ROM coupled to the microprocessor; a power supply; a power outage timing means using the discharge characteristic of a capacitor; apparatus for supplying a 60 Hz clock signal to the microprocessor; a readout device coupled to the microprocessor to provide an indication of the power consumed; an output on the microprocessor for controlling a circuit breaker; and a switch for overriding the microprocessor controlled circuit breaker. The microprocessor and the electrically alterable ROM are connected and programmed: to sense the time of day as determined from an initial time of day and setting the 60 Hz clock signal; to sense and compute the power used by the consumer; to automatically open the circuit breaker when power demand on the electric power source is high and/or the cost per kilowatt hour is high; to automatically close the circuit breaker when the power demand on the source of electric power is low and/or the cost per kilowatt power is low; and to allow a consumer to override the microprocessor's control of the circuit breaker.

  3. A novel model-based approach for dose determination of glycopyrronium bromide in COPD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237) is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for treatment of COPD. This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily (OD) and twice-daily (BID) glycopyrronium bromide regimens, using a novel model-based approach, in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Methods Double-blind, randomized, dose-finding trial with an eight-treatment, two-period, balanced incomplete block design. Patients (smoking history ≥10 pack-years, post-bronchodilator FEV1 ≥30% and <80% predicted, FEV1/FVC <0.7) were randomized to one of 16 independent sequences for 28 days. Primary endpoint: mean trough FEV1 at Day 28. Results 385 patients (mean age 61.2 years; mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 53% predicted) were randomized; 88.6% completed. All OD and BID dosing regimens produced dose-dependent bronchodilation; at Day 28, increases in mean trough FEV1 versus placebo were statistically significant for all regimens, ranging from 51 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 12.5 μg OD) to 160 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg BID). Pharmacodynamic steady-state was reached by Day 7. There was a small separation (≤37 mL) between BID and OD dose–response curves for mean trough FEV1 at steady-state in favour of BID dosing. Over 24 hours, separation between OD and BID regimens was even smaller (FEV1 AUC0-24h maximum difference for equivalent daily dose regimens: 8 mL). Dose–response results for FEV1 at 12 hours, FEV1 AUC0-12h and FEV1 AUC0-4h at steady-state showed OD regimens provided greater improvement over placebo than BID regimens for total daily doses of 25 μg, 50 μg and 100 μg, while the reverse was true for OD versus BID regimens from 12–24 hours. The 12.5 μg BID dose produced a marginally higher improvement in trough FEV1 versus placebo than 50 μg OD, however, the response at 12 hours over placebo was suboptimal (74 mL). Glycopyrronium bromide was safe and well tolerated at all doses

  4. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other

  5. Ageing, working hours and work ability.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2007-11-01

    The current paper reports the main results of several studies carried out on Italian workers using the work ability index as a complementary tool for workers' periodical health surveillance. The work ability index shows a general decreasing trend over the years, but it changes differently according to working conditions and personal health status. In jobs with higher mental involvement and autonomy, but lower physical constraint, it remains quite constant and high over the years, while it significantly decreases with a steeper trend the higher the physical work load and the lower the job control are. Sex and working hours appear to act concurrently in influencing work ability, particularly in association with more physically demanding jobs. It is therefore necessary to adopt flexible interventions, able to give ageing shift workers a proper support for maintaining a satisfactory work ability, by means of actions addressed both to work organization and psycho-physical conditions.

  6. Stabilisation patterns of hourly urban sound levels.

    PubMed

    Prieto Gajardo, Carlos; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the stabilisation times for all 24 h of the day are analysed for 12 measurement stations located in the Spanish town of Malaga and throughout 5 years (2007-2011) of sampling environmental noise levels. For the results to be generalised to sound level measurements made in other streets or cities where there have been no long-term measurements, this study was developed for different road types and urban shapes. This distinction was made according to the types of roads indicated in other studies in which a statistically significant relationship was found between noise levels and the road type. The final objective of the study is to determine the capacity to estimate and approximate the real equivalent hourly noise level (L Aeq,1h) from the integration of a number of consecutive minutes (short-term measurements) less than 60 (L Aeq,1h ≈ L Aeq,T being T ≤ 60 min). Clearly, this strategy would save time and resources by making measurements of reduced duration. In summary and according to this analysis, a short-time measurement of 15 min is adequate to work with 90% confidence levels and errors of ±2 dB, with 80% confidence levels and errors of ±1 dB, and 50% confidence levels and errors of ±0.5 dB. However, it is necessary to consider the measurement hour period to achieve these levels of confidence due to the high variability throughout the day. PMID:25407987

  7. Evaluation of the adverse event profile and pharmacodynamics of toceranib phosphate administered to dogs with solid tumors at doses below the maximum tolerated dose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The receptor kinase inhibitor toceranib phosphate (Palladia) was approved for use in dogs in 2009 using a dose of 3.25 mg/kg administered every other day. Preliminary data suggests that lower doses of toeceranib may be associated with a reduced adverse event profile while maintaining sufficient drug exposure to provide biologic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the Cmax of toceranib in dogs with solid tumors receiving 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and to document the adverse events associated with this dose rate. Secondary objectives included determination of plasma VEGF concentrations in treated dogs and response to therapy. Results Dogs with solid tumors were administered toceranib at an intended target dose ranging from 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and plasma samples were obtained for analysis of toceranib and VEGF plasma concentrations on days 0, 7, 14 and 30 of the study at 6 and 8 hours post drug administration. Additionally, plasma samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 8, and 12 hours from dogs on day 30 for confirmation of Cmax. Response to therapy was assessed using standard RECIST criteria and adverse events were characterized using the VCOG-CTCAE. Toceranib administered at doses between 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day resulted in an average 6–8 hr plasma concentration ranging from 100–120 ng/ml, well above the 40 ng/ml concentration associated with target inhibition. Plasma VEGF concentrations increased significantly over the 30 day treatment period indicating that VEGFR2 inhibition was likely achieved in the majority of dogs. The lower doses of toceranib used in this study were associated with a substantially reduced adverse event profile compared to the established label dose of 3.25 mg/kg EOD. Conclusions Doses of toceranib ranging from 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day provide drug exposure considered sufficient for target inhibition while resulting in an adverse event profile substantially reduced from that

  8. Duration of cortisol suppression following a single dose of dexamethasone in healthy volunteers: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Elston, M S; Conaglen, H M; Hughes, C; Tamatea, J A U; Meyer-Rochow, G Y; Conaglen, J V

    2013-09-01

    The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone is administered to many patients receiving a general anaesthetic to reduce the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Dexamethasone is known to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; however, the duration of this suppression following the standard anti-emetic intravenous dose of 4 to 8 mg used with anaesthesia is unknown. A randomised controlled double-blind crossover trial assessing the effects of 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone versus saline control was performed in ten healthy male volunteers. The adrenal, thyroid and gonadal axes and glucose levels were assessed over a four-day period after dexamethasone administration. All participants had normal baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. No difference in cortisol levels was demonstrated at four or eight hours after dexamethasone administration compared with placebo. At 24 hours post dexamethasone, the cortisol had dropped to less than 5% of baseline and returned to normal during the subsequent day. Increased plasma glucose levels were also observed in the dexamethasone group as compared with placebo. A dose of 8 mg of dexamethasone results in significant suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and elevated plasma glucose levels. The cortisol suppression is maximal at approximately 24 hours post dose.

  9. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  10. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  11. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  12. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  13. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  14. Fingolimod first-dose effects in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis concomitantly receiving selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bermel, R A; Hashmonay, R; Meng, X; Randhawa, S; von Rosenstiel, P; Sfikas, N; Kantor, D

    2015-05-01

    Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly administered for depression and anxiety in patients with multiple sclerosis, are associated with QT interval prolongation. Fingolimod (FTY720; Gilenya(®), Novartis Pharma AG) is a first-in-class sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod first-dose administration is associated with a transient, generally asymptomatic, slowing of heart rate, which may also prolong QT interval. This posthoc analysis compared cardiac outcomes in over 3300 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis who were or were not receiving SSRIs during fingolimod treatment initiation, including a subset of patients receiving citalopram or escitalopram. Vital signs were recorded hourly for 6h, and electrocardiograms were obtained pre-dose and 6 h post-dose. Changes in mean hourly heart rate from baseline (pre-dose) to 6 h post-dose were similar among patients not receiving SSRIs (fingolimod 0.5 mg, -7.5 bpm; placebo, 0.0 bpm) and those receiving SSRIs (fingolimod 0.5 mg, -6.6 bpm; placebo, 0.3 bpm). In patients treated with fingolimod 0.5 mg, the mean change in corrected QT interval from baseline to 6 h after treatment initiation was under 10 ms, and few patients had absolute corrected QT intervals of over 450 ms (men) or 470 ms (women), calculated according to Bazett׳s or Fridericia׳s correction methods, irrespective of whether or not they were receiving an SSRI; similar findings were reported in the placebo group. Co-administration of SSRIs and fingolimod was not associated with an increased incidence of any electrocardiogram findings compared with fingolimod therapy alone, and the majority of patients receiving fingolimod (83-86%) were discharged from first-dose monitoring at 6 h irrespective of whether they were also receiving SSRIs. These analyses provide reassurance that concomitant use of SSRIs does not affect cardiac outcomes associated with fingolimod treatment

  15. A priming dose of protons alters the early cardiac cellular and molecular response to 56Fe irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Samy S.; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence suggests that the heart may be injured by ionizing radiation at lower doses than was previously thought. This raises concerns about the cardiovascular risks from exposure to radiation during space travel. Since space travel is associated with exposure to both protons from solar particle events and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, we here examined the effects of a "priming" dose of protons on the cardiac cellular and molecular response to a "challenge" dose of 56Fe in a mouse model. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice at 10 weeks of age were exposed to sham-irradiation, 0.1 Gy of protons (150 MeV), 0.5 Gy of 56Fe (600 MeV/n), or 0.1 Gy of protons 24 hours prior to 0.5 Gy of 56Fe. Hearts were obtained at 7 days post-irradiation and western-blots were used to determine protein markers of cardiac remodeling, inflammatory infiltration, and cell death. Results: Exposure to 56Fe caused an increase in expression of α-smooth muscle cell actin, collagen type III, the inflammatory cell markers mast cell tryptase, CD2 and CD68, the endothelial glycoprotein thrombomodulin, and cleaved caspase 3. Of all proteins investigated, protons at a dose of 0.1 Gy induced a small increase only in cleaved caspase 3 levels. On the other hand, exposure to protons 24 hours before 56Fe prevented all of the responses to 56Fe. Conclusions: This study shows that a low dose of protons may prime the heart to respond differently to a subsequent challenge dose of heavy ions. Further investigation is required to identify responses at additional time points, consequences for cardiac function, threshold dose levels, and mechanisms by which a proton priming dose may alter the response to heavy ions.

  16. Hours to Graduation: A National Survey of Credit Hours Required for Baccalaureate Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitter, Gita Wijesinghe; And Others

    In the context of an increased emphasis on accountability in higher education and time taken to earn a baccalaureate degree, the Board of Regents of the State University System of Florida conducted a national survey of 75 public universities concerning the minimum credit hours required for the baccalaureate degree for various disciplines. The…

  17. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... spent in certain types of activities which would not be regarded as working time under the Act if no compensation were provided. Preliminary and postliminary activities and time spent in eating meals between... statutory maximum. (b) Parties have agreed not to treat time as hours worked. Under the principles set...

  18. 29 CFR 4.184 - Posting of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Posting of notice. 4.184 Section 4.184 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Compensation Standards Notice to Employees § 4.184 Posting of notice. Posting of the notice provided by the Wage and Hour Division shall be in...

  19. Fatigue and extended work hours among cardiovascular perfusionists: 2010 Survey.

    PubMed

    Trew, A; Searles, B; Smith, T; Darling, E M

    2011-09-01

    Due to the emergent unpredictable nature of cardiac surgery, perfusionists, potentially, are susceptible to extended work hours and acute sleep deprivation. While fatigue among other healthcare clinicians has been studied, there has been no research on this topic specifically in the perfusion community. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to: (1) collect preliminary data on the prevalence of fatigue in perfusion and (2) identify if there were concerns regarding fatigue, performance and perfusion safety. In May 2010, a link to a 50-question survey (surveymonkey.com) was posted on Perflist and Perfmail. The survey was closed in July 2010. There were 445 respondents and data were analyzed and expressed as a response percent. Participants included 27% chief perfusionists/managers, 67% staff perfusionists, and 6.0% other (perfusion education faculty, retired perfusionists, locum tenens). Regarding extended work hours, 68.9% of surveyed perfusionists have worked at the hospital for greater than 23 hours straight and 17.5% have worked continuously for over 36 hours. Actual performance of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after 17, 23, and 36 hours of wakefulness was reported by 82.9%, 63% and 14.8% respondents, respectively. Regarding bathroom requirements while on CPB, 87.5% have felt extremely uncomfortable at least once, 19.9% have relieved themselves in the operating room at least once, and 22.3% have left the pump attended by a non-perfusionist to use the restroom at least once. Microsleep during CPB was reported by 49.5% of respondents. Automobile accidents attributed to an extended period of work and fatigue was reported by 6.9% and another 44.4% reported a near-miss auto accident. A fatigue-related minor error was reported by 66% and 6.7% admit to having a serious perfusion accident believed to be due to fatigue. Concerning critical phases of bypass, 51.5% believe that they perform less effectively when fatigued. Additionally, 75.9% indicate that they have been

  20. Life of a Six-Hour Hurricane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Kay L.; Molinari, John

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Claudette developed from a weak vortex in 6 h as deep convection shifted from downshear into the vortex center, despite ambient vertical wind shear exceeding 10 m/s. Six hours later it weakened to a tropical storm, and 12 h after the hurricane stage a circulation center could not be found at 850 hPa by aircraft reconnaissance. At hurricane strength the vortex contained classic structure seen in intensifying hurricanes, with the exception of 7-12 C dewpoint depressions in the lower troposphere upshear of the center. These extended from the 100-km radius to immediately adjacent to the eyewall, where equivalent potential temperature gradients reached 6 K/km. The dry air was not present prior to intensification, suggesting that it was associated with vertical shear-induced subsidence upshear of the developing storm. It is argued that weakening of the vortex was driven by cooling associated with the mixing of dry air into the core, and subsequent evaporation and cold downdrafts. Evidence suggests that this mixing might have been enhanced by eyewall instabilities after the period of rapid deepening. The existence of a fragile, small, but genuinely hurricane-strength vortex at the surface for 6 h presents difficult problems for forecasters. Such a "temporary hurricane" in strongly sheared flow might require a different warning protocol than longer-lasting hurricane vortices in weaker shear.

  1. SU-E-T-511: Do Presage 3D Dosimeters Show Dose Fractionation Sensitivity?

    SciTech Connect

    Klawikowski, S; Alqathami, M; Ibbott, G; Adamovics, J; Benning, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Presage 3D polymer dosimeter dose response is sensitive to dose delivery fractionation. Bang gels have demonstrated a dose fractionation related dependence in which a single 400 cGy irradiation would produce a different detector response than four 100 cGy irradiations even if delivered closely in time to one another. Such a fractional dependent response in Presage would be detrimental for measuring multi-beam irradiations. Methods: Two separate batches of Presage were poured into cuvettes, and a third batch was molded into cuvette shaped blocks. A total of 37 cuvettes/blocks were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 irradiator to 400 cGy within solid water phantoms in either one, eight, or sixteen fractions. Another group of 15 cuvettes were also kept unirradiated and used for background subtraction between the pre-scan and post-scan results. The times between fractional deliveries were held constant at 30 seconds and the Cobalt irradiator dose rate was 49 cGy/min. Each Presage batch has a separate dose sensitivity and therefore fractionation response comparisons were only performed within the same batch. The cuvettes were first pre-scanned the day prior to irradiation and post-scanned the day after irradiation. Other than approximately 3 hours warming time prior to each irradiation and optical density measurement the cuvettes were stored in a refrigerator. All cuvettes were stored in a lightless environment throughout manufacturing and testing. The cuvettes’ optical densities were optically measured at 632 nm with a spectrophotometer. Results: No noticeable dose fractionation dependence was detected for any of the three independent batches of Presage for either the eight or sixteen fraction irradiation schemes. Conclusion: These results indicate using Presage 3D dosimeters to measure multi-beam photon irradiations common in IMRT, Gamma Knife, and Cyberknife treatment delivery schemes. Presage dosimeters are made by and trademarked by Heuris

  2. First-dose effects of fingolimod: Pooled safety data from three phase 3 studies.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, John P; O'Connor, Paul; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Reder, Anthony T; Zhang-Auberson, Lixin; Tang, Dejun; Collins, William; Kappos, Ludwig

    2014-09-01

    Fingolimod treatment initiation is associated with a transient slowing of heart rate and atrioventricular conduction. This report presents first-dose fingolimod effects (0.5mg or 1.25mg) on cardiac parameters using phase 3 FREEDOMS, FREEDOMS II and TRANSFORMS pooled study data (n=3635 patients). Vital signs were recorded hourly for ≥6h; 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was obtained at baseline and at 6h post-dose. Clinical events were graded at the first-dose administrator׳s discretion. At screening, on day 1 and at month 3, 1073 patients underwent 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring. A transient decrease in mean measured heart rate occurred 4-5h after the first dose, with a maximum reduction of 8 (fingolimod 0.5mg) and 11 beats per minute (fingolimod 1.25mg) below baseline. Symptomatic bradycardia at treatment initiation was reported in 0.6% (fingolimod 0.5mg) and 2.1% (fingolimod 1.25mg) of patients; events were typically mild or moderate in severity, and most resolved spontaneously. Atrioventricular (AV) conduction delays were observed in a few patients (Wenckebach (Mobitz type I) second-degree AV block, fingolimod 0.5mg, 0.2%; 1.25mg, 1%: 2:1 AV block fingolimod, 0.5mg, 0%; 1.25mg, 0.2% on ECG 6-h post-dose). These were usually well tolerated and first occurred within 6h of dosing. Consistent with its effects on atrial myocytes, fingolimod treatment initiation induced a transient slowing of heart rate and AV conduction. However, symptomatic bradycardia and second-degree AV block were uncommon and did not require intervention.

  3. First-dose effects of fingolimod: Pooled safety data from three phase 3 studies.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, John P; O'Connor, Paul; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Reder, Anthony T; Zhang-Auberson, Lixin; Tang, Dejun; Collins, William; Kappos, Ludwig

    2014-09-01

    Fingolimod treatment initiation is associated with a transient slowing of heart rate and atrioventricular conduction. This report presents first-dose fingolimod effects (0.5mg or 1.25mg) on cardiac parameters using phase 3 FREEDOMS, FREEDOMS II and TRANSFORMS pooled study data (n=3635 patients). Vital signs were recorded hourly for ≥6h; 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was obtained at baseline and at 6h post-dose. Clinical events were graded at the first-dose administrator׳s discretion. At screening, on day 1 and at month 3, 1073 patients underwent 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring. A transient decrease in mean measured heart rate occurred 4-5h after the first dose, with a maximum reduction of 8 (fingolimod 0.5mg) and 11 beats per minute (fingolimod 1.25mg) below baseline. Symptomatic bradycardia at treatment initiation was reported in 0.6% (fingolimod 0.5mg) and 2.1% (fingolimod 1.25mg) of patients; events were typically mild or moderate in severity, and most resolved spontaneously. Atrioventricular (AV) conduction delays were observed in a few patients (Wenckebach (Mobitz type I) second-degree AV block, fingolimod 0.5mg, 0.2%; 1.25mg, 1%: 2:1 AV block fingolimod, 0.5mg, 0%; 1.25mg, 0.2% on ECG 6-h post-dose). These were usually well tolerated and first occurred within 6h of dosing. Consistent with its effects on atrial myocytes, fingolimod treatment initiation induced a transient slowing of heart rate and AV conduction. However, symptomatic bradycardia and second-degree AV block were uncommon and did not require intervention. PMID:26265275

  4. Low dose radiation induced senescence of human mesenchymal stromal cells and impaired the autophagy process

    PubMed Central

    Alessio, Nicola; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Capasso, Stefania; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Low doses of radiation may have profound effects on cellular function. Individuals may be exposed to low doses of radiation either intentionally for medical purposes or accidentally, such as those exposed to radiological terrorism or those who live near illegal radioactive waste dumpsites. We studied the effects of low dose radiation on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), which contain a subpopulation of stem cells able to differentiate in bone, cartilage, and fat; support hematopoiesis; and contribute to body's homeostasis. The main outcome of low radiation exposure, besides reduction of cell cycling, is the triggering of senescence, while the contribution to apoptosis is minimal. We also showed that low radiation affected the autophagic flux. We hypothesize that the autophagy prevented radiation deteriorative processes, and its decline contributed to senescence. An increase in ATM staining one and six hours post-irradiation and return to basal level at 48 hours, along with persistent gamma-H2AX staining, indicated that MSC properly activated the DNA repair signaling, though some damages remained unrepaired, mainly in non-cycling cells. This suggested that the impaired DNA repair capacity of irradiated MSC seemed mainly related to the reduced activity of a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) system rather than HR (homologous recombination). PMID:25544750

  5. Dose refinement. ARAC's role

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; Baskett, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970's has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC's primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates release rates, mix of material, and release geometry and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate

  6. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore » affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  7. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    PubMed

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  8. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  9. Code System for Emergency Response Dose Assessment.

    2002-01-16

    Version: 00 A dose assessment model for emergency response applications. Dose pathways represented in the model are those that are most likely to be important during and immediately following a release (hours) rather than over an extended time frame (days or weeks). The doses computed include: external dose resulting from exposure to radiation emitted by radionuclides in the air and deposited on the ground, internal dose commitment resulting from inhalation, and total whole-body dose. Threemore » preprocessors are included. RSFPREP generates the MESORAD run specification (input) file, METWR creates the meteorological data file, and RELPREP prepares the release definition file. PRNT is a postprocessor for generating printer or screen-compatible output. All four programs run interactively. MESORAD was developed from version 2.0 of the MESOI atmospheric dispersion model (NESC 9862) retaining its modular nature.« less

  10. Habitual sleep length and patterns of recovery sleep after 24 hour and 36 hour sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Benoit, O; Foret, J; Bouard, G; Merle, B; Landau, J; Marc, M E

    1980-12-01

    Five long sleepers (LS) and 5 short sleepers (SS) were selected from 310 medical students. Nine regular sleepers (RS) were used as a control. The sleep was recorded during 3 reference nights, one recovery night after a 36 h sleep deprivation (R2), one morning sleep after a 24 h sleep deprivation (D1) and the night following D1(R1). According to previous data slow wave sleep (SWS) amounts were the same in the 3 groups while stage 2 and paradoxical sleep (PS) amounts increased with the sleep duration. The hourly distribution of intervening wakefulness and SWS were similar for all groups. When compared to RS or SS the hourly distribution in LS of PS was lower until the sixth hour. As a function of experimental conditions, sleep patterns of LS were the most affected. In R2 the sleep of LS more closely resembled that of RS or SS than in reference nights, while in R1 LS' sleep was the most disturbed. Morning sleep durations were very similar for all groups, but in LS intervening wakefulness was increased and PS was decreased when compared to RS and SS. Negative correlations (Spearman rank test) were found between the morning increase of body temperature after a sleep-deprived night and both TST and PS durations. In all recorded sleep periods, SWS amounts were positively correlated with prior wakefulness duration and the PS amount with TST. PMID:6160990

  11. Single dose NTBC-treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

    PubMed

    Schlune, A; Thimm, E; Herebian, D; Spiekerkoetter, U

    2012-09-01

    NTBC (2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3cyclohexanedione) is the mainstay of treatment in tyrosinemia type 1 (HT 1). The current recommendation is to divide the total daily dose of NTBC into two doses. We monitored the plasma NTBC concentrations in a series of seven patients who were changed from multiple divided doses to a single daily dose of NTBC. Two additional patients were started on a single daily dose of NTBC after the diagnosis of HT 1 was established. In three patients, NTBC kinetics were performed over 6 and 24 hours, respectively. The use of multiple divided doses or a single daily dose did not significantly affect plasma NTBC concentrations or the mean daily dose needed to attain therapeutic plasma NTBC concentrations. Moreover, kinetic studies demonstrated that plasma NTBC concentrations were completely stable over a period of 24 hours with a single dose regimen, as expected given the known NTBC plasma half life of 54 hours. Although these preliminary results need to be confirmed in more patients, our findings show that administration of NTBC in a single daily dose may be as effective as a multiple-dose regimen in reaching therapeutic plasma NTBC concentrations and suppressing succinylacetone formation in patients with HT 1. In fact, single dose treatment may increase patients' compliance with the drug treatment and improve metabolic control.

  12. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  13. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  14. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  15. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  16. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  17. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  18. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  19. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  20. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  1. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  2. Automated administration of intermittent intravenous doses.

    PubMed

    Lutomski, D M; Schwartz-Fulton, J; Rivera, J O

    1985-11-01

    The cost difference of administering cimetidine 300 mg via intravenous piggyback (IVPB) every six hours by a conventional separate container system versus using an automated intermittent i.v. administration system was evaluated. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 documented the amount of drug waste with the two systems, and phase 2 examined the practical use of the IVAC Multi Dose System. Nurses who administered the medication using the multiple-dose system completed a questionnaire on its operation. A materials cost analysis was performed to compare the two methods. The two systems were found to have approximately equivalent amounts of drug waste over the 30-day evaluation period of phase 1. The mean percentage of doses wasted was 12.2% with the conventional single-dose minibag method and 12.7% with the automated multiple-dose method. The multiple-dose system had a lower cost per dose of cimetidine ($2.25 versus $3.47). These savings appear to outweigh the cost of the additional equipment necessary for the automated system. The majority of nurses preferred the multiple-dose system. Potential problems encountered in accurately delivering doses with the multiple-dose automated system were identified, and possible solutions are suggested. The use of an automated multiple-dose i.v. administration system can potentially decrease the materials cost portion of drug administration. The total impact on hospital costs needs to be evaluated, and other comparisons with alternative administration systems need to be performed.

  3. The Contribution of Tissue Level Organization to Genomic Stability Following Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Gamma and Proton Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheryl G. Burrell, Ph.D.

    2012-05-14

    The formation of functional tissue units is necessary in maintaining homeostasis within living systems, with individual cells contributing to these functional units through their three-dimensional organization with integrin and adhesion proteins to form a complex extra-cellular matrix (ECM). This is of particular importance in those tissues susceptible to radiation-induced tumor formation, such as epithelial glands. The assembly of epithelial cells of the thyroid is critical to their normal receipt of, and response to, incoming signals. Traditional tissue culture and live animals present significant challenges to radiation exposure and continuous sampling, however, the production of bioreactor-engineered tissues aims to bridge this gap by improve capabilities in continuous sampling from the same functional tissue, thereby increasing the ability to extrapolate changes induced by radiation to animals and humans in vivo. Our study proposes that the level of tissue organization will affect the induction and persistence of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability. Rat thyroid cells, grown in vitro as 3D tissue analogs in bioreactors and as 2D flask grown cultures were exposed to acute low dose (1, 5, 10 and 200 cGy) gamma rays. To assess immediate (6 hours) and delayed (up to 30 days) responses post-irradiation, various biological endpoints were studied including cytogenetic analyses, apoptosis analysis and cell viability/cytotoxicity analyses. Data assessing caspase 3/7 activity levels show that, this activity varies with time post radiation and that, overall, 3D cultures display more genomic instability (as shown by the lower levels of apoptosis over time) when compared to the 2D cultures. Variation in cell viability levels were only observed at the intermediate and late time points post radiation. Extensive analysis of chromosomal aberrations will give further insight on the whether the level of tissue organization influences genomic instability patterns after

  4. Clinical and In Vitro Studies on Impact of High-Dose Etoposide Pharmacokinetics Prior Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on the Risk of Post-Transplant Leukemia Relapse.

    PubMed

    Sobiak, Joanna; Kazimierczak, Urszula; Kowalczyk, Dariusz W; Chrzanowska, Maria; Styczyński, Jan; Wysocki, Mariusz; Szpecht, Dawid; Wachowiak, Jacek

    2015-10-01

    The impact of etoposide (VP-16) plasma concentrations on the day of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) on leukemia-free survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was studied. In addition, the in vitro effects of VP-16 on the lymphocytes proliferation, cytotoxic activity and on Th1/Th2 cytokine responses were assessed. In 31 children undergoing allo-HSCT, VP-16 plasma concentrations were determined up to 120 h after the infusion using the HPLC-UV method. For mentioned in vitro studies, VP-16 plasma concentrations observed on allo-HSCT day were used. In 84 % of children, VP-16 plasma concentrations (0.1-1.5 μg/mL) were quantifiable 72 h after the end of the drug infusion, i.e. when allo-HSCT should be performed. In 20 (65 %) children allo-HSCT was performed 4 days after the end of the drug infusion, and VP-16 was still detectable (0.1-0.9 μg/mL) in plasma of 12 (39 %) of them. Post-transplant ALL relapse occurred in four children, in all of them VP-16 was detectable in plasma (0.1-0.8 μg/mL) on allo-HSCT day, while there was no relapse in children with undetectable VP-16. In in vitro studies, VP-16 demonstrated impact on the proliferation activity of stimulated lymphocytes depending on its concentration and exposition time. The presence of VP-16 in plasma on allo-HSCT day may demonstrate an adverse effect on graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reaction and increase the risk of post-transplant ALL relapse. Therefore, if 72 h after VP-16 administration its plasma concentration is still above 0.1 μg/mL then the postponement of transplantation for next 24 h should be considered to protect GvL effector cells from transplant material.

  5. Policies and Practices in Enforcing the Credit Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedd, Jessica M.

    2003-01-01

    Conducted a survey of the ways colleges and universities apply the student credit hour and the extent to which time is still used as a primary basis for awarding credits. Responses of 38 institutions show that most 4-year institutions do not have internal policies to define credit hours, and that credit hours are defined and awarded…

  6. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles in Relation to Other Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... employees. In determining what activities constitute hours of work under the Act, there is generally...

  7. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles in Relation to Other Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... employees. In determining what activities constitute hours of work under the Act, there is generally...

  8. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles in Relation to Other Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... employees. In determining what activities constitute hours of work under the Act, there is generally...

  9. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles in Relation to Other Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... employees. In determining what activities constitute hours of work under the Act, there is generally...

  10. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  11. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  12. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610.408 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior...

  13. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610.408 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior...

  14. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610.408 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior...

  15. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610.408 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior...

  16. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610.408 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior...

  17. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Cheryl, Ed.; Wolman, Dianne Miller, Ed.; Johns, Michael M. E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Medical residents in hospitals are often required to be on duty for long hours. In 2003 the organization overseeing graduate medical education adopted common program requirements to restrict resident workweeks, including limits to an average of 80 hours over 4 weeks and the longest consecutive period of work to 30 hours in order to protect…

  18. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521 Fractional hours of work. (a) An employee shall be compensated for every minute of regular overtime work....

  19. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521 Fractional hours of work. (a) An employee shall be compensated for every minute of regular overtime work....

  20. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  1. Safety of total dose iron dextran infusion in geriatric patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Dossabhoy, Neville R; Turley, Steven; Gascoyne, Rebecca; Tapolyai, Mihaly; Sulaiman, Karina

    2014-08-01

    There are limited data on total dose infusion (TDI) using iron dextran in geriatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). Our goal was to evaluate the safety of TDI in this setting. We conducted a retrospective chart review spanning a 5 year period (2002-2007), including all patients with CKD and IDA who were treated with iron dextran TDI. Patient demographics were noted, and laboratory values for creatinine, hemoglobin and iron stores were recorded pre- and post-dose. TDI diluted in normal saline was administered intravenously over 4-6 hours after an initial test dose. One hundred fifty-three patients received a total of 250 doses of TDI (mean ± SD=971 ± 175 mg); age was 69 ± 12 years and creatinine 3.3 ± 1.9 mg/dL. All stages of CKD were represented (stage 4 commonest). Hemoglobin and iron stores improved post-TDI (P<0.001). None of the patients experienced an anaphylactic reaction or death. Adverse events (AEs) were noted in 8 out of 250 administered doses (3.2%). The most common AEs were itching, chills and back pain. One hundred and ten doses of high molecular weight (HMW) iron dextran produced 6 AEs (5.45%), whereas 140 doses of low molecular weight (LMW) iron dextran produced 2 AEs (1.43%), a non-significant trend (P=0.1433 by Fishers Exact Test). Iron dextran TDI is relatively safe and effective in correcting IDA in geriatric CKD patients. Fewer AEs were noted with the LMW compared to the HMW product. LMW iron dextran given as TDI can save both cost and time, helping to alleviate issues of non-compliance and patient scheduling.

  2. 2,445 Hours of Code: What I Learned from Facilitating Hour of Code Events in High School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a school librarian's experience with initiating an Hour of Code event for her school's student body. Hadi Partovi of Code.org conceived the Hour of Code "to get ten million students to try one hour of computer science" (Partovi, 2013a), which is implemented during Computer Science Education Week with a goal of…

  3. A 3-D Look at Post-Tropical Cyclone Hermine

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby animation of GPM imagery shows Post-Tropical Storm Hermine on Sept. 6. Rain was falling at a rate of over 1.1 inches (27 mm) per hour between the Atlantic coast and Hermine's center ...

  4. The relationship of immediate pigment darkening to minimal erythemal dose, skin type, and eye color.

    PubMed

    Agin, P P; Desrochers, D L; Sayre, R M

    1985-10-01

    Immediate pigment darkening (IPD) was recorded in over 1,300 volunteers participating in routine sun protection factor (SPF) testing. Medical history obtained included skin type, hair color, eye color, sunburn sensitivity, tanning ability, and current medications. The presence of IPD and the energy needed to produce it were recorded immediately following exposure to a filtered 2500 W xenon are solar simulator. Minimal erythemal dose (MED) values were recorded 16-24 hours post-exposure. The average MED was lowest for skin type I and highest for skin type IV. The IPD dose was also lowest for skin type I and highest for skin type IV. However, the average IPD dose was greater than the MED for skin type I and lower than the MED for skin type IV. For skin types II and III, the average IPD dose and MED were almost equivalent. For skin type I, 64% required equivalent or greater energy to produce IPD than their MED, and 30% showed no IPD at energy levels sufficient to produce erythema, whereas all skin type IV's had a measurable IPD response. For volunteers of skin type II and III showing no measurable IPD, the predominant eye color was blue or green (74%). Sunscreen usage altered the IPD response for all 4 skin types.

  5. Limited sampling strategy of mycophenolic acid in adult kidney transplant recipients: influence of the post-transplant period and the pharmacokinetic profile.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amel; Aouam, Karim; Ben Fredj, Nadia; Hammouda, Mouna; Chadly, Zohra; El May, Mezri; Boughattas, Naceur; Skhiri, Habib

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to develop an accurate and convenient LSS for predicting MPA-AUC(0-12 hours) in Tunisian adult kidney transplant recipients whose immunosuppressive regimen consisted of MMF and tacrolimus combination with regards to the post-transplant period and the pharmacokinetic profile. Each pharmacokinetic profile consisted of eight blood samples collected during the 12-hour dosing interval. The AUC(0-12 hours) was calculated according to the linear trapezoidal rule. The MPA concentrations at each sampling time were correlated by a linear regression analysis with the measured AUC(0-12). We analyzed all the developed models for their ability to estimate the MPA-AUC(0-12 hours). The best multilinear regression model for predicting the full MPA-AUC(0-12 hours) was found to be the combination of C1, C4, and C6. All the best correlated models and the most convenient ones were verified to be also applicable before 5 months after transplantation and thereafter. These models were also verified to be applicable for patients having or not the second peak in their pharmacokinetic profiles. For practical reasons we recommend a LSS using C0, C1, and C4 that provides a reasonable MPA-AUC(0-12 hours) estimation. PMID:23813362

  6. Comparison of protein expression profile changes in human fibroblasts induced by low doses of gamma rays and energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Clement, Jade; Gridley, Diala; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    Extrapolation of known radiation risks to the risks from low dose and low dose-rate exposures of human population, especially prolonged exposure of astronauts in the space radiation environment, relies in part on the mechanistic understanding of radiation induced biological consequences at the molecular level. While some genomic data at the mRNA level are available for cells or animals exposed to radiation, the data at the protein level are still lacking. Here, we studied protein expression profile changes using Panorama antibody microarray chips that contain antibodies to more than 200 proteins (or modified proteins) involved in cell signaling that included mostly apoptosis, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and signal transduction. Normal human fibroblasts were cultured till fully confluent and then exposed to 2 cGy of gamma rays at either low (1 cGy/hr) or high (0.2 Gy/min) dose-rate, or to 2 cGy of 150 MeV protons at high dose-rate. The proteins were isolated at 2 and 6 hours after exposure and labeled with Cy3 for the irradiated cells and with Cy5 for the control samples before loaded onto the protein microarray chips. The intensities of the protein spots were analyzed using ScanAlyze software and normalized by the summed fluorescence intensities and the housekeeping proteins. Comparison of the overall protein expression profiles in gamma-irradiated cells showed significantly higher inductions at the high dose-rate than at the low dose-rate. The protein profile in cells after the proton exposure showed a much earlier induction pattern in comparison to both the high and low dose-rate gamma exposures. The same expression patterns were also found in individual cell signaling cascades. At 6 hours post irradiation, high dose-rate gamma rays induced cellular protein level changes (ratio to control ˜2) mostly in apoptosis, cell cycle and cytoskeleton, while low dose-rate gamma rays induced similar changes with smaller fold-change values. In comparison, protons induced

  7. Enhanced early West Nile virus infection in young chickens infected by mosquito bite: effect of viral dose.

    PubMed

    Styer, Linda M; Bernard, Kristen A; Kramer, Laura D

    2006-08-01

    Mosquito transmission of arboviruses potentially affects the course of viral infection in the vertebrate host. Studies were performed to determine if viral infection differed in chickens infected with West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquito bite or needle inoculation. Mosquito-infected chickens exhibited levels of viremia and viral shedding that were up to 1,000 times higher at 6, 12, and 24 hours post-feeding (PF) compared with those inoculated with 10(3) PFU by needle. Follow-up studies were conducted to determine if enhanced early infection was due to a higher viral dose inoculated by mosquitoes. Needle inoculation with successively higher doses of WNV led to higher early viremia and viral shedding; a dose >or= 10(4) PFU by needle was required to attain the high early viremia observed in mosquito-infected chickens. Mosquitoes inoculated WNV at this level as estimated by feeding on a hanging drop of blood (mean: 10(2.5), range: 10(0.7)-10(4.6) PFU). These results indicate that enhanced early infection in mosquito-infected chickens may be explained by higher viral dose delivered by mosquitoes. On the other hand, chickens infected by multiple mosquitoes (N = 3-11) had viremic titers that were 25-50 times higher at 6 and 12 hours PF than in chickens infected by a single mosquito, suggesting that viral dose is not the only factor involved in enhanced early infection. The likelihood that enhanced early infection in mosquito-infected chickens is due to a higher viral dose inoculated by mosquitoes and/or other factors (saliva, inoculation location, or viral source) is discussed.

  8. Work-Family Conflict, Children, and Hour Mismatches in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Aletraris, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    This article helps integrate research on work hours and work-family issues by examining how work-family conflict is related to the desire for more and fewer hours of work. Using the first wave of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey, we find that work-to-family conflict is associated with a desire for fewer hours of work.…

  9. Migration plans and hours of work in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gillin, E D; Sumner, D A

    1985-01-01

    "This article describes characteristics of prospective migrants in the Malaysian Family Life Survey and investigates how planning to move affects hours of work. [The authors] use ideas about intertemporal substitution...to discuss the response to temporary and permanent wage expectations on the part of potential migrants. [An] econometric section presents reduced-form estimates for wage rates and planned migration equations and two-stage least squares estimates for hours of work. Men currently planning a move were found to work fewer hours. Those originally planning only a temporary stay at their current location work more hours." PMID:12280256

  10. Migration plans and hours of work in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gillin, E D; Sumner, D A

    1985-01-01

    "This article describes characteristics of prospective migrants in the Malaysian Family Life Survey and investigates how planning to move affects hours of work. [The authors] use ideas about intertemporal substitution...to discuss the response to temporary and permanent wage expectations on the part of potential migrants. [An] econometric section presents reduced-form estimates for wage rates and planned migration equations and two-stage least squares estimates for hours of work. Men currently planning a move were found to work fewer hours. Those originally planning only a temporary stay at their current location work more hours."

  11. The Study of External Dose Rate and Retained Body Activity of Patients Receiving 131I Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Jiao, Ling; Cui, Songye; Wang, Liang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; He, Yajing; Ruan, Shuzhou; Fan, Saijun; Zhang, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified into two groups: the ablation group (A) and the follow-up group (FU). The patients’ external dose rate was measured, and simultaneously, their retained body radiation activity was monitored at various time points. The equations of the external dose rate and the retained body activity, described as a function of hours post administration, were fitted. Additionally, the release time for patients was calculated. The reduction in activity in the group receiving a second or subsequent treatment was more rapid than the group receiving only the initial treatment. Most important, an expeditious method was established to indirectly evaluate the retained body activity of patients by measuring the external dose rate with a portable radiation survey meter. By this method, the calculated external dose rate limits are 19.2, 8.85, 5.08 and 2.32 μSv·h−1 at 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m, respectively, according to a patient’s released threshold level of retained body activity <400 MBq. This study is beneficial for radiation safety decision-making. PMID:25337944

  12. Efficiency of ciprofloxacin for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Qadeer, S; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N

    2013-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CP) was evaluated for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and fertility of buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp., and Micrococcus sp. were resistant to streptomycin, whereas P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp. were resistant to penicillin. All bacteria were susceptible to CP. In vitro dose toxicity was assessed in sodium citrate buffer containing 0, 200 to 2000 μg/mL of CP. CP up to 1000 μg/mL was found nontoxic to motility and viability of buffalo sperm. For post-thaw quality, buffalo semen was frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1000 μg/mL-1000 IU/mL) or CP 600 μg/mL and was assessed for total aerobic bacterial count (post-thaw), motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability at 0, 2, and 4 hours post-thaw. At 4 hours post-thaw, plasma membrane integrity (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing CP than SP. Total aerobic bacterial count was 0.00 in extender containing CP compared with 0.07 × 10(4) cfu/mL with SP. To assess the in vivo fertility rate, semen (two bulls) frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing SP or CP was used to inseminate, and 400 inseminations (200/group) were recorded. Higher (P ≤ 0.05) fertility rate was recorded with CP (55%) compared with SP (41%). In conclusion, use of CP in extender was efficient to control the bacterial contamination without compromising the post-thaw quality and fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo bull semen.

  13. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  14. Equine post-breeding endometritis: A review

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM) have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent fluid accumulation within the uterus. Mares with PPBEM have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares. PMID:21851709

  15. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  16. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  17. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in...

  18. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 11582, Jan. 1, 1971; 34 FR 2957; 3 CFR Ch. 11) (b) Local conditions requiring different hgurs. If... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of...

  19. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section 551.521 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work §...

  20. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section 551.521 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work §...

  1. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section 551.521 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work §...

  2. 49 CFR 228.7 - Hours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hours of duty. 228.7 Section 228.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records...

  3. 49 CFR 228.7 - Hours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hours of duty. 228.7 Section 228.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records...

  4. 49 CFR 228.11 - Hours of duty records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hours of duty records. 228.11 Section 228.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING;...

  5. 49 CFR 228.7 - Hours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hours of duty. 228.7 Section 228.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records...

  6. 49 CFR 228.11 - Hours of duty records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hours of duty records. 228.11 Section 228.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING;...

  7. 49 CFR 228.11 - Hours of duty records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hours of duty records. 228.11 Section 228.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING;...

  8. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallshein, Corinne C.

    2010-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  9. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  10. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  11. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in...

  12. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  13. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in...

  14. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  15. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  16. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three...

  17. 46 CFR 201.2 - Mailing address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address; hours. 201.2 Section 201.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Information (Rule 1) § 201.2 Mailing address; hours. Documents required to be filed in, and correspondence relating...

  18. Fun Hour: A Social Program for Kids with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes Fun Hour, a social program for kids with disabilities. This YMCA program in Pennsylvania focuses on social interaction and peer relationships. The Fun Hour program started in March 2006 on Friday nights with 20 kids and their families. It has celebrated its first anniversary, and the kids that have been in the…

  19. Number of Instructional Days/Hours in the School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    While state requirements vary on the number of instructional days and/or hours in the school year, the majority of states require 180 days of student instruction. Most also specify the minimum length of time that constitutes an instructional day. Some states set instructional time in terms of days, some specify hours, and some provide…

  20. (Updated) Fort Detrick Gate Hours Change Effective April 10 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Fort Detrick gate hours will change beginning Friday, April 10. The new hours were recently provided by the U.S. Army Garrison (USAG), Fort Detrick. NCI will continue to work with the USAG to address questions that may arise. Note that no changes have been made for facilities outside of the Fort Detrick campus (e.g., the Advanced Technology Research Facility).

  1. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... Overtime Pay Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.114 Fixed... that he will receive such fixed amount as straight time pay for whatever hours he is called upon...

  2. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... Overtime Pay Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.114 Fixed... that he will receive such fixed amount as straight time pay for whatever hours he is called upon...

  3. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... Overtime Pay Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.114 Fixed... that he will receive such fixed amount as straight time pay for whatever hours he is called upon...

  4. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... Overtime Pay Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.114 Fixed... that he will receive such fixed amount as straight time pay for whatever hours he is called upon...

  5. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... Overtime Pay Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.114 Fixed... that he will receive such fixed amount as straight time pay for whatever hours he is called upon...

  6. Contact Hours in Dutch and Vietnamese Higher Education: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quyen, Do Thi Ngoc

    2009-01-01

    The number of contact hours, one of the important institutional context factors, was examined and compared between Dutch and Vietnamese higher education at institute and student levels in Psychology and Business and/or Economics specializations. The quantity of contact hours per credit point given by institutions was investigated in a number of…

  7. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  8. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  9. 29 CFR 778.218 - Pay for certain idle hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pay for certain idle hours. 778.218 Section 778.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular...

  10. 49 CFR 228.11 - Hours of duty records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hours of duty records. 228.11 Section 228.11... duty records. (a) In general. Each railroad, or a contractor or a subcontractor of a railroad, shall keep a record, either manually or electronically, concerning the hours of duty of each employee....

  11. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be accessible... system is unavailable for an extended period of time, parties will be able to obtain licenses from Commerce directly via fax during regular business hours. Should the system be inaccessible for an...

  12. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be accessible... system is unavailable for an extended period of time, parties will be able to obtain licenses from Commerce directly via fax during regular business hours. Should the system be inaccessible for an...

  13. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  14. 47 CFR 87.423 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hours of operation. 87.423 Section 87.423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.423 Hours of operation. The control tower must render a...

  15. 47 CFR 87.423 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hours of operation. 87.423 Section 87.423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.423 Hours of operation. The control tower must render a...

  16. 47 CFR 87.423 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hours of operation. 87.423 Section 87.423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.423 Hours of operation. The control tower must render a...

  17. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  18. Performance of KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor dosimeters for low dose measurements

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. Harold; Hansel, Rachael; Knutson, Nels; Yang, Deshan

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+) storage phosphor material has the potential to become the physical foundation of a novel and reusable dosimetry system using either film-like devices or devices similar to thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips. The purposes of this work are to quantify the performance of KCl:Eu2+ prototype dosimeters for low dose measurements and to demonstrate how it can be incorporated into clinical application for in vivo peripheral dose measurements. Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The dosimeters were read using a laboratory photostimulated luminescence detection system. KCl:Eu2+ prototype storage phosphor dosimeter was capable of measuring a dose-to-water as low as 0.01 cGy from a 6 MV photon beam with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 6. A pre-readout thermal annealing procedure enabled the dosimeter to be read within an hour post irradiation. After receiving large accumulated doses (~10 kGy), the dosimeters retained linear response in the low dose region with only a 20 percent loss of sensitivity comparing to a fresh sample (zero Gy history). The energy-dependence encountered during low dose peripheral measurements could be accounted for via a single point outside-field calibration per each beam quality. With further development the KCl:Eu2+− based dosimeter could become a versatile and durable dosimetry tool with large dynamic range (sub-cGy to 100 Gy). PMID:23735856

  19. A 2000-Hour Durability Test of a 5-Centimeter Diameter Mercury Bombardment Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, S.; Finke, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    A 2000-hour durability test of a modified Hughes SIT-5 (Structurally Integrated Thruster, 5 cm) was conducted at the Lewis Research Center. The thruster operated with a translating screen thrust vector grid locked in position for 10 deg beam deflection. The test was essentially continuous except for seven stoppages of beam current. The neutralizer keeper voltage and thruster floating potential increased slightly with time. Performance profiles and maps of thruster characteristics were obtained at 453 and 2023 hours into the test. Overall efficiency was nearly constant at 31 - 32 percent, and operating characteristics were similar at both points in the test. A post-shutdown inspection showed negligible erosion damage to the accelerator and cathode baffle. Some erosion was found in the aperture of the neutralizer cathode.

  20. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  1. Patients' assessment of out of hours care in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bollam, Mary J; McCarthy, Mark; Modell, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 177 patients drawn from 13 north London practices were interviewed shortly after they had sought help from their practice outside normal surgery hours. Patients were asked to describe the process and outcome of their out of hours call, to comment on specific aspects of the consultation, and to access their overall satisfaction with the encounter. Parents seeking consultations for children were least satisfied with the consultation; those aged over 60 responded most positively. Visits from general practitioners were more acceptable than visits from deputising doctors for patients aged under 60, but for patients aged over 60 visits from general practitioners and deputising doctors were equally acceptable. Monitoring of patients' views of out of hours consultations is feasible, and the findings of this study suggest that practices should regularly review the organisation of their out of hours care and discuss strategies for minimising conflict in out of hours calls—particularly those concerning children. PMID:3130934

  2. Two prospective dosing methods for nortriptyline.

    PubMed

    Perry, P J; Browne, J L; Alexander, B; Tsuang, M T; Sherman, A D; Dunner, F J

    1984-01-01

    This study compared two prospective pharmacokinetic dosing methods to predict steady-state concentrations of nortriptyline. One method required multiple determinations of the nortriptyline plasma concentration to estimate the drug's steady-state concentration. The second method required a single nortriptyline concentration drawn at a fixed time, preferably 36 hours, following a nortriptyline test dose. The 36-hour nortriptyline plasma concentrations (NTP 36h) were substituted into the straight-line equation of Cssav = 17.2 + 3.74 (NTP 36h), where Cssav is the average steady-state concentration for a 100 mg/day dose of nortriptyline. No differences were noted between the observed steady-state nortriptyline concentration of 121 +/- 19 ng/ml, the 36-hour single-point prediction mean concentration of 121 +/- 21 ng/ml, or the multiple-point prediction mean concentration of 122 +/- 19 ng/ml. Because of the similar findings between the two methods, the clinical advantages and disadvantages of each kinetic approach are discussed to put these prospective dosing protocols into their proper perspective.

  3. 29 CFR 525.14 - Posting of notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting of notices. 525.14 Section 525.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.14 Posting of notices. Every employer having...

  4. 29 CFR 516.4 - Posting of notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting of notices. 516.4 Section 516.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.4 Posting of notices. Every employer employing any employees subject...

  5. Ambient dose and dose rate measurements in the vicinity of Elekta Precise accelerators for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zutz, H; Hupe, O

    2014-12-01

    In radiation therapy, commercially available medical linear accelerators (LINACs) are used. At high primary beam energies in the 10-MeV range, the leakage dose of the accelerator head and the backscatter from the room walls, the air and the patient become more important. Therefore, radiation protection measurements of photon dose rates in the treatment room and in the maze are performed to quantify the radiation field. Since the radiation of the LINACs is usually pulsed with short radiation pulse durations in the microsecond range, there are problems with electronic dose (rate) meters commonly used in radiation protection. In this paper measurements with ionisation chambers are presented and electronic dosemeters are used for testing at selected positions. The measured time-averaged dose rate ranges from a few microsieverts per hour in the maze to some millisieverts per hour in the vicinity of the accelerator head and up to some sieverts per hour in the blanked primary beam and several hundred sieverts per hour in the direct primary beam.

  6. Benchmark Dose Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Finite doses are employed in experimental toxicology studies. Under the traditional methodology, the point of departure (POD) value for low dose extrapolation is identified as one of these doses. Dose spacing necessarily precludes a more accurate description of the POD value. ...

  7. The indirect NMDAR inhibitor flupirtine induces sustained post-ischemic recovery, neuroprotection and angioneurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Hanna M.; Pehlke, Jens R.; Kaltwasser, Britta; Kilic, Ertugrul; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M.; Doeppner, Thorsten R.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation induces excitotoxicity, contributing to post-stroke brain injury. Hitherto, NMDAR deactivation failed in clinical trials due to insufficient pre-clinical study designs and drug toxicity. Flupirtine is an indirect NMDAR antagonist being used as analgesic in patients. Taking into account its tolerability profile, we evaluated effects of flupirtine on post-stroke tissue survival, neurological recovery and brain remodeling. Mice were exposed to stroke and intraperitoneally treated with saline (control) or flupirtine at various doses (1-10 mg/kg) and time-points (0-12 hours). Tissue survival and cell signaling were studied on day 2, whereas neurological recovery and tissue remodeling were analyzed until day 84. Flupirtine induced sustained neuroprotection, when delivered up to 9 hours. The latter yielded enhanced neurological recovery that persisted over three months and which was accompanied by enhanced angioneurogenesis. On the molecular level, inhibition of calpain activation was noted, which was associated with increased signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-6 (STAT6) abundance, reduced N-terminal-Jun-kinase and NF-κB activation, as well as reduced proteasomal activity. Consequently, blood-brain-barrier integrity was stabilized, oxidative stress was reduced and brain leukocyte infiltration was diminished. In view of its excellent tolerability, considering its sustained effects on neurological recovery, brain tissue survival and remodeling, flupirtine is an attractive candidate for stroke therapy. PMID:26050199

  8. The influence of TRP53 in the dose response of radiation-induced apoptosis, DNA repair and genomic stability in murine haematopoietic cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lemon, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Kristina; Verdecchia, Kyle; Phan, Nghi; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic and DNA damage endpoints are frequently used as surrogate markers of cancer risk, and have been well-studied in the Trp53+/- mouse model. We report the effect of differing Trp53 gene status on the dose response of ionizing radiation exposures (0.01-2 Gy), with the unique perspective of determining if effects of gene status remain at extended time points. Here we report no difference in the dose response for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow and genomic instability (MN-RET levels) in peripheral blood, between wild-type (Trp53+/+) and heterozygous (Trp53+/-) mice. The dose response for Trp53+/+ mice showed higher initial levelsmore » of radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis relative to Trp53+/- between 0 and 1 Gy. Although this trend was observed up to 12 hours post-irradiation, both genotypes ultimately reached the same level of apoptosis at 14 hours, suggesting the importance of late-onset p53-independent apoptotic responses in this mouse model. Expected radiation-induced G1 cell cycle delay was observed in Trp53+/+ but not Trp53+/-. Although p53 has an important role in cancer risk, we have shown its influence on radiation dose response can be temporally variable. This research highlights the importance of caution when using haematopoietic endpoints as surrogates to extrapolate radiation-induced cancer risk estimation.« less

  9. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  10. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  11. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  12. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  13. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  14. Radiation dose to the global flying population.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Luis E; Eastham, Sebastian D; Barrett, Steven R H

    2016-03-01

    Civil airliner passengers and crew are exposed to elevated levels of radiation relative to being at sea level. Previous studies have assessed the radiation dose received in particular cases or for cohort studies. Here we present the first estimate of the total radiation dose received by the worldwide civilian flying population. We simulated flights globally from 2000 to 2013 using schedule data, applying a radiation propagation code to estimate the dose associated with each flight. Passengers flying in Europe and North America exceed the International Commission on Radiological Protection annual dose limits at an annual average of 510 or 420 flight hours per year, respectively. However, this falls to 160 or 120 h on specific routes under maximum exposure conditions. PMID:26769857

  15. Report of 1,000 Hour Catalyst Longevity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar

    2009-06-01

    This report presents the results of a 1,000 hour, high-pressure, catalyst longevity test for the decomposition of concentrated sulfuric acid. The reaction is used for both the sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle. By the time of the delivery date of April 17, 2009, for project milestone no. 2NIN07TC050114, the 1% Pt/TiO2 catalyst had been in the reaction environment for 658 hours. During the first 480 hours of testing, the catalyst activity provided stable, near-equilibrium yields of 46.8% SO2 and 22.8% O2. However, product yields declined at sample exposure times >480 hours. At 658 hours of operation, catalyst activity (based on oxygen yield) declined to 57% relative to the stable period of catalyst activity. Thus, as of April 17, this catalyst did not provide the desired stability level of <10% degradation per 1,000 hours. The experiment was terminated on April 27, after 792 hours, when a fitting failed and the catalyst was displaced from the reactor such that the sample could not be recovered. Oxygen conversion at the end of the experiment was 12.5% and declining, suggesting that at that point, catalyst activity had decreased to 54% of the initial level.

  16. Perspectives on the working hours of Australian junior doctors.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Bonning, Michael; Mitchell, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The working hours of junior doctors have been a focus of discussion in Australia since the mid-1990s. Several national organizations, including the Australian Medical Association (AMA), have been prominent in advancing this agenda and have collected data (most of which is self-reported) on the working hours of junior doctors over the last 15 years. Overall, the available data indicate that working hours have fallen in a step-wise fashion, and AMA data suggest that the proportion of doctors at high risk of fatigue may be declining. It is likely that these changes reflect significant growth in the number of medical graduates, more detailed specifications regarding working hours in industrial agreements, and a greater focus on achieving a healthy work-life balance. It is notable that reductions in junior doctors' working hours have occurred despite the absence of a national regulatory framework for working hours. Informed by a growing international literature on working hours and their relation to patient and practitioner safety, accreditation bodies such as the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) and the Australian Medical Council (AMC) are adjusting their standards to encourage improved work and training practices. PMID:25560522

  17. "Hidden treasures": librarian office hours for three health sciences schools.

    PubMed

    Handler, Lara; Lackey, Mellanye; Vaughan, K T L

    2009-10-01

    The changing needs of students and faculty have prompted UNC Chapel Hill's Health Sciences Library to reconsider the delivery of library services. Several years of outreach and office hours have yielded an array of "hidden treasures," or secondary outcomes, of both online and in-person office hours. The online office hours are tailored for the Schools of Medicine, Pharmacy, and Public Health. This article examines the benefits that go beyond simple consultation statistics and encompass more qualitative aspects of success resulting from increased outreach, goodwill, and stronger library-departmental partnerships.

  18. The working hours of hospital staff nurses and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Ann E; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Scott, Linda D; Aiken, Linda H; Dinges, David F

    2004-01-01

    The use of extended work shifts and overtime has escalated as hospitals cope with a shortage of registered nurses (RNs). Little is known, however, about the prevalence of these extended work periods and their effects on patient safety. Logbooks completed by 393 hospital staff nurses revealed that participants usually worked longer than scheduled and that approximately 40 percent of the 5,317 work shifts they logged exceeded twelve hours. The risks of making an error were significantly increased when work shifts were longer than twelve hours, when nurses worked overtime, or when they worked more than forty hours per week.

  19. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  20. Understanding Why Patients Return to the Emergency Department after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury within 72 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Latha; Conroy, Lauren M.; Bodhit, Aakash; Daneshvar, Yasamin; Patel, Pratik Shashikant; Ayala, Sarah; Kuchibhotla, Sudeep; Hatchitt, Kelsey; Pulvino, Christa; Peters, Keith R.; Lottenberg, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although there are approximately 1.1 million case presentations of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the emergency department (ED) each year, little data is available to clinicians to identify patients who are at risk for poor outcomes, including 72-hour ED return after discharge. An understanding of patients at risk for ED return visits during the hyperacute phase following head injury would allow ED providers to develop clinical interventions that reduce its occurrence and improve outcomes. Methods This institutional review board-approved consecutive cohort study collected injury and outcome variables on adults with the purpose of identifying positive predictors for 72-hour ED return visits in mTBI patients. Results Of 2,787 mTBI patients, 145 (5%) returned unexpectedly to the ED within 72 hours of hospital discharge. Positive predictors for ED return visits included being male (p=0.0298), being black (p=0.0456), having a lower prehospital Glasgow Coma Score (p=0.0335), suffering the injury due to a motor vehicle collision (p=0.0065), or having a bleed on head computed tomography (CT) (p=0.0334). ED return visits were not significantly associated with age, fracture on head CT, or symptomology following head trauma. Patients with return visits most commonly reported post-concussion syndrome (43.1%), pain (18.7%), and recall for further clinical evaluation (14.6%) as the reason for return. Of the 124 patients who returned to the ED within 72 hours, one out of five were admitted to the hospital for further care, with five requiring intensive care unit stays and four undergoing neurosurgery. Conclusion Approximately 5% of adult patients who present to the ED for mTBI will return within 72 hours of discharge for further care. Clinicians should identify at-risk individuals during their initial visits and attempt to provide anticipatory guidance when possible. PMID:25987933

  1. From cellular doses to average lung dose.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R

    2015-11-01

    Sensitive basal and secretory cells receive a wide range of doses in human bronchial and bronchiolar airways. Variations of cellular doses arise from the location of target cells in the bronchial epithelium of a given airway and the asymmetry and variability of airway dimensions of the lung among airways in a given airway generation and among bronchial and bronchiolar airway generations. To derive a single value for the average lung dose which can be related to epidemiologically observed lung cancer risk, appropriate weighting scenarios have to be applied. Potential biological weighting parameters are the relative frequency of target cells, the number of progenitor cells, the contribution of dose enhancement at airway bifurcations, the promotional effect of cigarette smoking and, finally, the application of appropriate regional apportionment factors. Depending on the choice of weighting parameters, detriment-weighted average lung doses can vary by a factor of up to 4 for given radon progeny exposure conditions.

  2. Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Laat, F.

    1966-01-01

    Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

  3. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts - Intra-Hour Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, Matthew; Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Guo, Tao; Liu, Guangjuan; Toolson, Jacob

    2013-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to understand, on an Interconnection-wide basis, the effects intra-hour scheduling compared to hourly scheduling. Moreover, the study sought to understand how the benefits of intra-hour scheduling would change by altering the input assumptions in different scenarios. This report describes results of three separate scenarios with differing key assumptions and comparing the production costs between hourly scheduling and 10-minute scheduling performance. The different scenarios were chosen to provide insight into how the estimated benefits might change by altering input assumptions. Several key assumptions were different in the three scenarios, however most assumptions were similar and/or unchanged among the scenarios.

  4. 46 CFR 386.1 - Hours of admission to property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regimental leave periods and indoctrination training for the fourth class year. The closing of property shall... athletic facilities for authorized activities. During normal working hours, property shall be closed to...

  5. 46 CFR 386.1 - Hours of admission to property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regimental leave periods and indoctrination training for the fourth class year. The closing of property shall... athletic facilities for authorized activities. During normal working hours, property shall be closed to...

  6. 46 CFR 386.1 - Hours of admission to property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regimental leave periods and indoctrination training for the fourth class year. The closing of property shall... athletic facilities for authorized activities. During normal working hours, property shall be closed to...

  7. 46 CFR 386.1 - Hours of admission to property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regimental leave periods and indoctrination training for the fourth class year. The closing of property shall... athletic facilities for authorized activities. During normal working hours, property shall be closed to...

  8. 46 CFR 386.1 - Hours of admission to property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regimental leave periods and indoctrination training for the fourth class year. The closing of property shall... athletic facilities for authorized activities. During normal working hours, property shall be closed to...

  9. Effect of daily oral omeprazole on 24 hour intragastric acidity.

    PubMed Central

    Walt, R P; Gomes, M D; Wood, E C; Logan, L H; Pounder, R E

    1983-01-01

    Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured in nine patients with duodenal ulcer before and after one week of treatment with oral omeprazole 30 mg daily, a drug that inhibits gastric secretion by inhibition of parietal cell H+K+ adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase). Omeprazole virtually eliminated intragastric acidity in all patients: the median 24 hour intragastric pH rose from 1.4 to 5.3 and the mean hourly hydrogen ion activity fell from 38.50 to 1.95 mmol(mEq)/1 (p less than 0.001). This inhibition of 24 hour intragastric acidity is more profound than that previously reported with either cimetidine 1 g daily or ranitidine 300 mg daily. PMID:6407676

  10. SSF1deg-Hour Terra Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-14

    ... observed TOA fluxes, parameterized surface fluxes, and cloud parameters only for the hours of satellite overpass (from SSF Level2 ... Order Data: Contact User Services:  Order Data Temporal Coverage: ...

  11. SSF1deg-Hour Aqua Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-14

    ... observed TOA fluxes, parameterized surface fluxes, and cloud parameters only for the hours of satellite overpass (from SSF Level2 ... Order Data: Contact User Services:  Order Data Temporal Coverage: ...

  12. Hours of service violations among tractor-trailer drivers.

    PubMed

    Hertz, R P

    1991-02-01

    Federal regulation limits interstate truck drivers to 10 hours of driving after an 8-hour off-duty period. The need for enforcing these limits is supported by research showing that long driving hours is a risk factor for tractor-trailer crashes. To estimate the percentage of hours of service violators among long-haul tractor-trailer drivers, truck drivers were interviewed at an inspection site in Spokane, Washington and later observed arriving at inspection sites in either Moorhead or Worthington, Minnesota (approximately 1,200 miles). The sample used for the calculation of violators consisted of truckers driving alone who reportedly did not plan to make an interim pickup or delivery stop prior to arrival in Minnesota. The percentages of drivers violating the hours of service rules by more than one hour at average trip speeds ranging from 35 mph to 65 mph are presented. Assuming that the drivers averaged 40 mph over the complete course of the trip segment, including stopped time, 90% were in violation by more than one hour. Assuming that they averaged 50 mph, 51% were in violation by more than one hour. These speed assumptions are based on findings in the current study that team drivers averaged 38 mph, fleet managers' reports of scheduling single drivers at trip speeds of 45 mph to 47 mph, and reports in the literature that loaded tractor-trailers average 41 mph over flat terrain. Although the true percentage cannot be determined without knowing actual trip speeds, the estimated range of violators at probable speeds of 40 mph and 50 mph points to a substantial problem.

  13. Hourly load forecasting using artificial neural networks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khotanzad, A.

    1995-09-01

    An artificial neural network short-term load forecaster (ANNSTLF) and an artificial neural network (ANN) based temperature forecaster have been developed by Southern Methodist University under contracts RP2473-44 and RP3573-4. ANNSTLF can produce hourly load forecasts for one to 168 hours ahead (one to seven days ahead) with errors ranging from 2 to 4% depending on utility size and characteristics. Implementation of ANNSTLF requires an initial training with historical hourly load and weather data. Two weather parameters, temperature and relative humidity, from either one or multiple locations can be utilized. In the operational phase, the previous day`s load and weather data and hourly weather forecasts are needed. The temperature forecaster can generate hourly temperature forecasts from the predicted values for high and low temperatures of future days. Both forecasters run on a PC platform under the MS-DOS operating system. The development of ANNSTLF is based on decomposition of the load-weather relationship into three distinct trends: Weekly, daily, and hourly. Each trend is modeled by a separate module containing several multi-layer feed-forward ANNs trained by the back-propagation learning rule. The forecasts produced by each module are combined by adaptive filters to arrive at the final forecast. During the forecasting phase, the parameters of the ANNs within each module are adoptively changed according to the latest forecast accuracy. The temperature forecaster consists of a single ANN that requires the previous day`s hourly temperatures and the next day`s predicted high and low temperatures as inputs. The resulting hourly forecasts are adoptively scaled to assure that the high and low temperatures match their respective predictions. The system is capable of forecasting up to seven days ahead. ANNSTLF has been implemented at twenty utilities across the nation and is being used on-Ene by several of them.

  14. 75 FR 82169 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785... implementation of the 2003 rule and its re-adoption in the 2005 rule and the 2007 '' (73 FR 69567, 69572..., as it was prior to the 2003 rule (68 FR 22455; April 28, 2003), or 11 hours. While the 10- hour...

  15. Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low-Dose, Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-11-03

    month after irradiation (IR). At four months post-IR, these animals were comparable to sham-treated controls with regards to the abovementioned structural parameters. Irradation at 1 or 10 cGy did not result in any significant changes in bone structural parameters. (3) Irradiation of 16-wk old male mice with high doses of 56Fe or proton (50 or 200cGy), but not at low doses (5 or 10cGy), showed a similar loss of cancellous BV/TV and trabecular number at five weeks post-IR. (4) Age-related bone loss overtook acute radiation-induced decrements in bone structure within four months post-IR with 100 cGy gamma and 12 months post-IR with 200 cGy iron. Transgenic mice globally overexpressing human catalase gene in mitochondria did not exhibit cancellous bone loss as assessed at four month post-IR with 10 cGy proton, 50 cGy iron, or in combination. (5) The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for loss of bone with radiation are mediated primarily through increased osteoclastogenesis. Our data provide evidence that there are increases in gene expression of TNF alpha and MCP1 in the bone marrow cells 24 hours post-IR and of osteoclastogenic differentiation factor RANKL by day 3. These cytokines in the marrow may stimulate mature osteoclasts or drive osteoclastogenesis from precursors. (6) Osteoblastogenesis from marrow progenitors evaluated ex vivo decreased following whole body 56Fe irradiation at a dose threshold between 20 and 50 cGy whereas osteoclastogenesis ex vivo increased with doses as low as 10cGy two days post-IR of mice. However, the latter finding was not observed in more than a single experiment. (7) Gamma irradiation of cells in vitro requires relatively high doses (200cGy) to disturb normal osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis as evidenced by decrements in mineralized nodule formation, osteoclast counts, and expression of osteoblast related genes such as runx2, col1a1. (8) We also investigated the effect of antioxidants on osteoblastogenesis following

  16. The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: new evidence from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dembe, A; Erickson, J; Delbos, R; Banks, S

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To analyse the impact of overtime and extended working hours on the risk of occupational injuries and illnesses among a nationally representative sample of working adults from the United States. Methods: Responses from 10 793 Americans participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used to evaluate workers' job histories, work schedules, and occurrence of occupational injury and illness between 1987 and 2000. A total of 110 236 job records were analysed, encompassing 89 729 person-years of accumulated working time. Aggregated incidence rates in each of five exposure categories were calculated for each NLSY survey period. Multivariate analytical techniques were used to estimate the relative risk of long working hours per day, extended hours per week, long commute times, and overtime schedules on reporting a work related injury or illness, after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, industry, and region. Results: After adjusting for those factors, working in jobs with overtime schedules was associated with a 61% higher injury hazard rate compared to jobs without overtime. Working at least 12 hours per day was associated with a 37% increased hazard rate and working at least 60 hours per week was associated with a 23% increased hazard rate. A strong dose-response effect was observed, with the injury rate (per 100 accumulated worker-years in a particular schedule) increasing in correspondence to the number of hours per day (or per week) in the workers' customary schedule. Conclusions: Results suggest that job schedules with long working hours are not more risky merely because they are concentrated in inherently hazardous industries or occupations, or because people working long hours spend more total time "at risk" for a work injury. Strategies to prevent work injuries should consider changes in scheduling practices, job redesign, and health protection programmes for people working in jobs involving overtime and extended hours. PMID

  17. Post-/γ-irradiation reactions in vitamin E stabilised and unstabilised HDPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallégol, J.; Carlsson, D. J.; Deschênes, L.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of high density polyethylene (HDPE), both unstabilised and vitamin E stabilised, has been studied by infrared (IR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies in the period following γ-irradiation at doses from 1 to 60 kGy (range of food sterilisation). Derivatisation by reaction with sulphur tetrafluoride was used to identify macro-ketone and carboxylic acid components of the overlapped IR carbonyl region. Oxidation continued for several hundred hours after the cessation of irradiation as shown by the increase in hydroxyl, ketone and acid groups. Carboxylic acid groups are particularly important as a direct indication of backbone scission. Vitamin E, although an effective antioxidant during γ-irradiation, was less effective in reducing the post-irradiation changes, which are probably driven by migration of radical sites along the polymer backbone from within the crystalline phase to the amorphous/crystalline inter-phase, where they become oxygen accessible.

  18. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  19. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic assessment of tacrolimus in liver-transplant recipients during the early post-transplantation period.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Benoît; Duvoux, Christophe; Costentin, Charlotte E; Barrault, Camille; Ghaleh, Bijan; Salvat, Annie; Jouault, Hélène; Astier, Alain; Tod, Michel; Hulin, Anne

    2008-08-01

    During the early post-transplantation period, the limitations of monitoring current tacrolimus dose with classic pharmacokinetics (PK) have been demonstrated in liver-transplant recipients. Evaluation of the pharmacodynamics (PD) using calcineurin activity (CNA) has been proposed to optimize tacrolimus dosing. The aim of the present study was to determine the time of maximal inhibition of CNA, to explore the relation between exposure to tacrolimus and CNA, and to analyze its variability. Blood was drawn from 14 patients 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 hours after tacrolimus intake on post-transplantation days 8, 21, and 90 to measure blood tacrolimus concentrations using the EMIT 2000 assay and CNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Tacrolimus and CNA data were obtained for 33 blood-sample collection sessions and analyzed using a population approach. Three models were built to describe tacrolimus PK, CNA kinetics, and the relationships between the area under the CNA-time curve (AUC12effCNA) and AUC12Tacrolimus or CminTacrolimus. Coagulation factor V and whole/split liver graft were identified as covariates influencing tacrolimus clearance. Indeed, apparent tacrolimus clearance rose by 14% when factor V increased by 10% and was threefold higher in patients with whole-liver grafts. The median maximal inhibition of CNA was reached 4 hours after tacrolimus intake on days 8, 21, and 90 and represented an 18% drop in CNA compared with activity at drug intake. The variability of the PK-PD relationship was minimal when using AUC12Tacrolimus. The large variability of the PD parameters (coefficient of variation was 89%) that linked AUC12effCNA to AUC12Tacrolimus indicates that monitoring tacrolimus concentrations may not be adequate to control CNA. Measuring CNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells 4 hours after tacrolimus intake during the first 3 months after liver transplantation could be a means to improve tacrolimus monitoring and thereby avoid acute graft-rejection episodes.

  20. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  1. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders.

  2. The Effect of the Children's Health Insurance Program on Pediatricians' Work Hours

    PubMed Central

    He, Fang; White, Chapin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our study examines changes in physicians' work hours in response to a coverage expansion. Methods We use as a natural experiment the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which was established in 1997 and significantly expanded children's eligibility for public health insurance coverage. The magnitude of the CHIP expansion varied across states and over time, allowing its effects to be identified using a state-year fixed effects model. We focus on pediatricians, and we measure their self-reported work hours using multiple waves (pre- and post-CHIP) of the physician survey component of the Community Tracking Study. To address endogeneity concerns, we instrument for CHIP enrollment using key program features (income eligibility cutoffs and waiting times). Results We find a large negative relationship between the magnitude of a state's CHIP expansion and trends in pediatricians' work hours. This relationship could be due to key supply-side features of CHIP, including relatively low provider reimbursements and heavy use of managed care tools. PMID:24753962

  3. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  4. [Post-traumatic amnesia and post-trauma quality of life].

    PubMed

    e Silva, Silvia Cristina Fürbringer; Settervall, Cristina Helena Constanti; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso

    2012-10-01

    The present study aims to compare quality of life of victims with long and short term post-traumatic amnesia and to analyze the relation between quality of life and length of amnesia, including or not the comatose period. This prospective cohort study, gathered data during the hospital stay and 3 and 6 months post- trauma. Blunt traumatic brain injury patients, over 14 years old, with no prior diagnosis of dementia or brain injury, admitted to a trauma center 12 hours post-trauma were included. The results were unfavorable among patients with long term amnesia. Correlation between length of post-traumatic amnesia and quality of life domains were more expressive when excluded comatose period, indicating that it must not be computed in the length of post-traumatic amnesia.

  5. Use of effective dose.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Balonov, M; Martin, C J; Ortiz Lopez, P; Menzel, H-G; Simmonds, J R; Smith-Bindman, R; Wakeford, R

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 provided a detailed explanation of the purpose and use of effective dose and equivalent dose to individual organs and tissues. Effective dose has proven to be a valuable and robust quantity for use in the implementation of protection principles. However, questions have arisen regarding practical applications, and a Task Group has been set up to consider issues of concern. This paper focusses on two key proposals developed by the Task Group that are under consideration by ICRP: (1) confusion will be avoided if equivalent dose is no longer used as a protection quantity, but regarded as an intermediate step in the calculation of effective dose. It would be more appropriate for limits for the avoidance of deterministic effects to the hands and feet, lens of the eye, and skin, to be set in terms of the quantity, absorbed dose (Gy) rather than equivalent dose (Sv). (2) Effective dose is in widespread use in medical practice as a measure of risk, thereby going beyond its intended purpose. While doses incurred at low levels of exposure may be measured or assessed with reasonable reliability, health effects have not been demonstrated reliably at such levels but are inferred. However, bearing in mind the uncertainties associated with risk projection to low doses or low dose rates, it may be considered reasonable to use effective dose as a rough indicator of possible risk, with the additional consideration of variation in risk with age, sex and population group. PMID:26980800

  6. Use of effective dose.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Balonov, M; Martin, C J; Ortiz Lopez, P; Menzel, H-G; Simmonds, J R; Smith-Bindman, R; Wakeford, R

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 provided a detailed explanation of the purpose and use of effective dose and equivalent dose to individual organs and tissues. Effective dose has proven to be a valuable and robust quantity for use in the implementation of protection principles. However, questions have arisen regarding practical applications, and a Task Group has been set up to consider issues of concern. This paper focusses on two key proposals developed by the Task Group that are under consideration by ICRP: (1) confusion will be avoided if equivalent dose is no longer used as a protection quantity, but regarded as an intermediate step in the calculation of effective dose. It would be more appropriate for limits for the avoidance of deterministic effects to the hands and feet, lens of the eye, and skin, to be set in terms of the quantity, absorbed dose (Gy) rather than equivalent dose (Sv). (2) Effective dose is in widespread use in medical practice as a measure of risk, thereby going beyond its intended purpose. While doses incurred at low levels of exposure may be measured or assessed with reasonable reliability, health effects have not been demonstrated reliably at such levels but are inferred. However, bearing in mind the uncertainties associated with risk projection to low doses or low dose rates, it may be considered reasonable to use effective dose as a rough indicator of possible risk, with the additional consideration of variation in risk with age, sex and population group.

  7. Nurses working 12-hour shifts in the hospice setting.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, L A

    1995-04-01

    A system of 12-hour nursing shifts was adopted at a newly-opened independent hospice. This paper presents the results from an exploratory, descriptive study in which nursing staff reported perceived advantages, disadvantages and satisfaction with the 12-hour shift system. A small sample (n = 11) of both qualified and unqualified nurses working the 12-hour shift completed the questionnaire. A content analysis of the qualitative data produced a number of categories relating to the perceived advantages and disadvantages of the 12-hour shift system in relation to the respondents, to the hospice and to patient and family care. The need for continuing to monitor and evaluate the shift system was demonstrated, particularly in relation to patient and family satisfaction, and the quality of care. It was concluded that examining the advantages and disadvantages of the 12-hour shift system increased awareness of the needs of staff, presented a useful way of identifying and managing potential difficulties within the workplace, and highlighted areas for future research.

  8. Fuzzy peak hour for urban road traffic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Li-Min; Dong, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Zun-Dong; Ye, Yang-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Traffic congestion is now nearly ubiquitous in many urban areas and frequently occurs during rush hour periods. Rush hour avoidance is an effective way to ease traffic congestion. It is significant to calculate the rush hour for alleviating traffic congestion. This paper provides a method to calculate the fuzzy peak hour of the urban traffic network considering the flow, speed and occupancy. The process of calculation is based on betweenness centrality of network theory, optimal separation method, time period weighting, probability-possibility transformations and trapezoidal approximations of fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy peak hour of the urban road traffic network (URTN) is a trapezoidal fuzzy number [m1, m2, m3, m4]. It helps us (i) to confirm a more detailed traffic condition at each moment, (ii) to distinguish the five traffic states of the traffic network in one day, (iii) to analyze the characteristic of appearance and disappearance processes of the each traffic state and (iv) to find out the time pattern of residents travel in one city.

  9. Out of hours attendance in an army practice.

    PubMed

    Grundy-Wheeler, N J

    1991-05-01

    There is some evidence that rates of out of hours calls in army general practices are higher than the average for the NHS. In an attempt to reduce out of hours demand a programme of preventive and educational initiatives for patients was introduced at an army practice in Hohne, West Germany early in 1985. This included regular child development clinics, well woman clinics, a practice booklet and leaflets about the management of simple illnesses, a library of books and videos for patients and health education videos in the waiting room. The project was complemented by an audit of doctors' prescribing habits followed by drawing up agreed protocols for the treatment of common disorders such as sore throat. Annual attendance rates per registered patient were recorded for 1984-86 to compare use of out of hours services by patients before and after the introduction of the project. Out of hours attendance rates fell by 35% (from 0.17 per annum to 0.11 per annum) overall and by 61% in young children. The total annual attendance rate dropped by 14% (from 5.13 to 4.43) during the same period, but fell by only 1% over the same period at a similar practice in Osnabruck. The decrease was particularly marked for out of hours attendances which the doctor classified as lower urgency: attendances classed as very low urgency decreased by 78% between 1984 and 1986 but those classed as medium urgency decreased by only 2%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1878273

  10. Resident duty hours around the globe: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Temple, John

    2014-01-01

    Safe and appropriate health care, especially in urgent or emergency situations, is the expectation of the public throughout the developed world. Achieving this goal requires appropriate levels of medical and other staff, appropriate training, and sensible working hours. Too often the brunt of such care, especially in out-of-hours situations, is borne by medical residents, who--to make matters worse--are frequently poorly supervised by more senior and experienced staff. Many jurisdictions have been alerted to this problem and are striving to correct it. However, the variation in attempts to restrict the actual hours worked by residents to "safe" levels is enormous, and all too often there is no consensus as to what should be put in place to achieve safe patient care. This paper sets out the current position for Europe, North America, and Australia. PMID:25559277

  11. Residency Training at a Crossroads: Duty Hour Standards 2010

    PubMed Central

    Volpp, Kevin G.; Friedman, William; Romano, Patrick S.; Rosen, Amy; Silber, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACMGE) implemented a single duty hour standard nationwide. The evidence to date suggests that this neither improved nor worsened patient outcomes. In June 2010, the ACGME proposed a new set of duty hour standards for implementation in July 2011. The main disadvantage of this approach is that we will not be able to determine whether different standards would have worked better to reduce resident fatigue while improving patient safety. There are many unanswered questions as to how to design duty hour standards but relatively little evidence; in addition, the same approach may not work in all specialties and all hospitals. A more flexible, dynamic policy that emphasizes ongoing testing and evaluation would be more likely to achieve improvements in clinical and educational outcomes. PMID:20956679

  12. Auditing out-of-hours primary medical care.

    PubMed

    Heaney, D J; Gorman, D R

    1996-11-01

    As a preliminary to evaluating the introduction of a primary care emergency centre in Midlothian, information was recorded about 2,236 out-of-hours contacts made with eight general practices in the ten weeks before the centre opened. The overall rate of calls was estimated at 265 cells per 1,000 patients per year, with 63% of calls resulting in a home visit, 8% in the patient being seen at the surgery and 29% in telephone advice only; 18% of the out-of-hours calls generated a night visit fee. Eighty-five per cent of patients who requested a home visit were seen by a doctor and 15% of patients contacting their general practitioner out of hours were referred to hospital, either for admission or for treatment in an accident and emergency department. Doctors classified 61% of the calls as necessary, 29% as unnecessary and were unsure about the need for 9% of calls.

  13. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Yang, Jae-Won; Kang, Jiwon; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls. Materials A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU) (or a placebo) was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test. Results Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour. Conclusions The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov KCT0000716 PMID:26402337

  14. Alcohol as a risk factor for unintentional rail injury fatalities during daylight hours.

    PubMed

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Peden, Margie; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jordaan, Esme

    2006-06-01

    Railway fatalities account for approximately 10% of transport fatalities in Cape Town. The objective of this study was to examine alcohol intoxication as a risk factor during daylight hours by conducting a case - control study to compare rail passenger and pedestrian fatalities (cases) with motor vehicle passenger and pedestrian fatalities (controls). Rail passenger and rail pedestrian fatalities were defined as cases with motor vehicle passenger and pedestrian fatalities as the respective controls. Data were collected from post-mortem reports at two mortuaries from 1994 to 1996. Blood alcohol concentration was the dependent variable. The independent variables were age, gender, date of death, day of week, time of injury and external cause of death. The late afternoon and early evening period from 1600 hours to 1900 hours had the highest frequency of fatalities for all case and control groups. Of the 56 predominately male (89%) railway passenger cases with an average age of 34.5 (SD 12.5) years, Friday (27%) was the most frequent day of death. Railway pedestrian cases (89% male, average age 36.8 years (SD 13.3)) were more likely to be killed on a Monday (11% of cases). Among the controls, motor vehicle passengers (63% male, average age 39.9 (SD 15.5)) were more likely to die on a Sunday (25%) and pedestrians (82% male, average age 41 (SD 14.7)) on a Saturday (21%). The study showed that alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for rail fatalities during daylight hours, with rail passenger fatalities being 4.71 (1.72 - 12.88) and rail pedestrian fatalities 1.62 (0.98 - 2.69) times more likely to be intoxicated than the respective controls. The results provide more evidence for public health campaigners to tackle endemic alcohol abuse and to develop diverse interventions that do not exclusively target motor vehicle drivers.

  15. Safety of telephone triage in out-of-hours care: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Huibers, Linda; Smits, Marleen; Renaud, Vera; Giesen, Paul; Wensing, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Objective Telephone triage in patients requesting help may compromise patient safety, particularly if urgency is underestimated and the patient is not seen by a physician. The aim was to assess the research evidence on safety of telephone triage in out-of-hours primary care. Methods A systematic review was performed of published research on telephone triage in out-of-hours care, searching in PubMed and EMBASE up to March 2010. Studies were included if they concerned out-of-hours medical care and focused on telephone triage in patients with a first request for help. Study inclusion and data extraction were performed by two researchers independently. Post-hoc two types of studies were distinguished: observational studies in contacts with real patients (unselected and highly urgent contacts), and prospective observational studies using high-risk simulated patients (with a highly urgent health problem). Results Thirteen observational studies showed that on average triage was safe in 97% (95% CI 96.5–97.4%) of all patients contacting out-of-hours care and in 89% (95% CI 86.7–90.2%) of patients with high urgency. Ten studies that used high-risk simulated patients showed that on average 46% (95% CI 42.7–49.8%) were safe. Adverse events described in the studies included mortality (n = 6 studies), hospitalisations (n = 5), attendance at emergency department (n=1), and medical errors (n = 6). Conclusions There is room for improvement in safety of telephone triage in patients who present symptoms that are high risk. As these have a low incidence, recognition of these calls poses a challenge to health care providers in daily practice. PMID:22126218

  16. 100,000 hour design life of turbo compressor packages

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-20

    Many turbomachinery manufacturers and operators typically quote 100,000 hours as a design limit for service life of turbo compressor components. The Pipeline Research Committee initiated this study to review the life limiting criteria for certain critical components and determine if the design target of 100,000 hours can be safely and reliably met or extended with special component management practices. The first phase of the project was to select the turbomachinery components that would be included in the review. Committee members were surveyed with a detailed questionnaire designed to identify critical components based on: high hours (e.g. at or approaching 100,000 hours) the most common engine types operated by the member organizations, and the components of greatest concern from a risk and expense point of view. The selection made covers a wide range of engine types that are of interest to most of the committee companies. This selection represents some 78% of the high hour units operated by the committee and includes components from GE Frame 3 and Frame 5, Solar Saturn, Rolls Royce Avon, and Cooper RT56 engines. The report goes into detail regarding the various damage mechanism which can be the main life limiting factor of the component; creep, fatigue, environmental attack, wear and microstructure instability. For each of the component types selected, the study identifies the life limiting criteria and outlines how the components may be managed for extended life. Many of the selected components can be reliably operated beyond 100,000 hours by following the management practices set out in the report.

  17. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C‑1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  18. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  19. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma. PMID:27191884

  20. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours.

  1. Bioequivalence evaluation of two amlodipine salts, besylate and orotate, each in a fixed-dose combination with olmesartan in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Jung, Jin Ah; Huh, Wooseong; Bahng, Mi Young; Ko, Jae-Wook

    2015-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of amlodipine and olmesartan is used to treat high blood pressure in patients whose hypertension is not sufficiently controlled with either drug alone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two fixed-dose combinations, ie, amlodipine orotate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg and amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg, in healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-sequence, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 30 healthy adult volunteers. Blood samples were collected for up to 72 hours post-dose in each period. Safety data included the results of physical examinations, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, an electrocardiogram, and adverse events. For both amlodipine and olmesartan, the 90% confidence intervals for the geometric mean ratios of AUClast and time to peak plasma concentration fell within the bioequivalence acceptance criteria. The two fixed-dose combinations showed similar safety profiles. Amlodipine orotate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg was bioequivalent to amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg. PMID:26082611

  2. Bioequivalence evaluation of two amlodipine salts, besylate and orotate, each in a fixed-dose combination with olmesartan in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Jung, Jin Ah; Huh, Wooseong; Bahng, Mi Young; Ko, Jae-Wook

    2015-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of amlodipine and olmesartan is used to treat high blood pressure in patients whose hypertension is not sufficiently controlled with either drug alone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two fixed-dose combinations, ie, amlodipine orotate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg and amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg, in healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-sequence, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 30 healthy adult volunteers. Blood samples were collected for up to 72 hours post-dose in each period. Safety data included the results of physical examinations, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, an electrocardiogram, and adverse events. For both amlodipine and olmesartan, the 90% confidence intervals for the geometric mean ratios of AUClast and time to peak plasma concentration fell within the bioequivalence acceptance criteria. The two fixed-dose combinations showed similar safety profiles. Amlodipine orotate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg was bioequivalent to amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg.

  3. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C. N.; Croci, C. A.; Orioli, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic.

  4. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  5. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  6. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  7. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  8. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hourly regular rate of pay. 551.511 Section 551.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Overtime Pay Computations §...

  9. Stealing time. Time management techniques add hours to each day.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nadinia

    2003-06-01

    Time not only flies when we're having fun, but also when we're filing paperwork, checking e-mail, and looking for our car keys. But you can add hours to your day by managing yourself rather than time. Here's how.

  10. The Afterschool Hours: A New Focus for America's Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Mark; Hutchinson, Audrey M.; Frant, Nina

    2005-01-01

    During a typical week, as many as 14 million children and youth across the United States lack adult supervision during non-school hours. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the lack of structured and supervised afterschool programs in American communities contributes to a higher incidence of drug and alcohol use and delinquent…

  11. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.3 Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777...

  12. Work Hours and Well Being: An Investigation of Moderator Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Maria C.; Coelho, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between work hours and subjective well being is marked by contradictory findings, thereby implying that it is far from being completely understood. A study of moderator effects can help explain variations in results across studies and, thus, overcome inconsistencies in past research. Accordingly, the current study aims to…

  13. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.3 Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777...

  14. 17 CFR 171.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business address; hours. 171.3 Section 171.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REVIEW OF NATIONAL FUTURES ASSOCIATION DECISIONS IN DISCIPLINARY, MEMBERSHIP DENIAL, REGISTRATION AND MEMBER RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS...

  15. Electronic Office Hours: A Component of Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, F. Layne; Wallace, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a technique to blend distance learning with traditional educational methods using electronic office hours to connect teachers and students outside the classroom. Explains the use of various existing computer mediated communication tools and techniques, including email, Usenet newsgroups, text-based conferences, video-based conferences,…

  16. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time... Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect....

  17. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time... Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect....

  18. 17 CFR 230.110 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time....m. to 10 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently...

  19. 17 CFR 230.110 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time....m. to 10 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently...

  20. 17 CFR 230.110 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time....m. to 10 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently...

  1. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time... Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect....

  2. 17 CFR 230.110 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time....m. to 10 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently...

  3. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for... federal holidays, from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time... Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect....

  4. The 150-Hour Requirement for CPA Licensure: One Institution's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all states now require candidates for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) examination and subsequent licensure to have completed 150 semester hours of college education. The rationale behind this requirement is to improve the preparation of students entering the profession and to increase their chances of successful completion of the…

  5. Resident work hour reform: not all doom and gloom.

    PubMed

    Koska, M T

    1990-01-20

    Limitations on the number of hours that residents may work are already in place in New York state and are being proposed in a number of other states. Now, hospitals in various parts of the country are voluntarily developing guidelines and experimenting with different ways to accommodate the changes in schedules and ensure coverage.

  6. 76 FR 26681 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 385, 386, 390, and 395 RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service of Drivers AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... service (HOS) for commercial motor vehicle drivers. The Agency is reopening the comment period on the...

  7. 76 FR 28207 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 385, 386, 390, and 395 RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service of Drivers AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... documents and FMCSA's possible consideration of the studies' findings in the development of the final...

  8. Astronauts Blaha and Lucid celebrate Lucid's 752 hour in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    On the forward flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, Astronauts John E. Blaha and Shannon W. Lucid show their glee at a milestone achieved a while earlier. The mission commander had earlier announced that Lucid's just achieved 752nd hour in space marked a Space Shuttle record for time spent on a mission.

  9. "Rosetta" Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and "Philae's" Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 the "Rosetta" mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its "Philae" lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more…

  10. Are 150-Hour Accounting Programs Meeting Their Intended Objectives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, William E.; Kunkel, J. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 114 business schools found that, in response to the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' membership requirement of 150 semester hours and a bachelor's degree, most schools encourage students to obtain master's degrees. Accounting education has increased in cost, but has not become broader and more liberal, as was…

  11. Scheduling in the context of resident duty hour reform.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning-Zi; Maniatis, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fuelled by concerns about resident health and patient safety, there is a general trend in many jurisdictions toward limiting the maximum duration of consecutive work to between 14 and 16 hours. The goal of this article is to assist institutions and residency programs to make a smooth transition from the previous 24- to 36-hour call system to this new model. We will first give an overview of the main types of coverage systems and their relative merits when considering various aspects of patient care and resident pedagogy. We will then suggest a practical step-by-step approach to designing, implementing, and monitoring a scheduling system centred on clinical and educational needs in the context of resident duty hour reform. The importance of understanding the impetus for change and of assessing the need for overall workflow restructuring will be explored throughout this process. Finally, as a practical example, we will describe a large, university-based teaching hospital network's transition from a traditional call-based system to a novel schedule that incorporates the new 16-hour duty limit.

  12. Educating Future Accountants: Alternatives for Meeting the 150-Hour Requirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Celia; Tanner, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 19% of 2,000 accountants in states with 150-hour education requirement indicated their preference for the following options: bachelor's degree in accounting/master's in taxation, bachelor's in accounting/management information systems, bachelor's in accounting, master of business administration, accounting bachelor's and master's,…

  13. Scheduling in the context of resident duty hour reform.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning-Zi; Maniatis, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fuelled by concerns about resident health and patient safety, there is a general trend in many jurisdictions toward limiting the maximum duration of consecutive work to between 14 and 16 hours. The goal of this article is to assist institutions and residency programs to make a smooth transition from the previous 24- to 36-hour call system to this new model. We will first give an overview of the main types of coverage systems and their relative merits when considering various aspects of patient care and resident pedagogy. We will then suggest a practical step-by-step approach to designing, implementing, and monitoring a scheduling system centred on clinical and educational needs in the context of resident duty hour reform. The importance of understanding the impetus for change and of assessing the need for overall workflow restructuring will be explored throughout this process. Finally, as a practical example, we will describe a large, university-based teaching hospital network's transition from a traditional call-based system to a novel schedule that incorporates the new 16-hour duty limit. PMID:25561221

  14. Work Hours, Retirement and Supportive Relations among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    While the literature widely acknowledges the importance of social support to the health, well-being and performance of older adults, little is known about the way in which occupational conditions affect older employees’ access to social support over time and whether these effects are maintained after retirement. Accordingly, in the current study we examine the degree to which work hours have longer term effects on the amount and type of support older individuals receive from intimate coworkers, family and non-work friends, and whether these effects are attenuated or intensified for those who retire. Longitudinal data were collected from a random sample of members of nine unions, 6 months prior to their retirement eligibility (T1) and approximately one year after Time 1 (T2). Our findings indicate that while retirement attenuates the positive association between Time 1 work hours and subsequent coworkers' support as well as the negative relationship between Time 1 work hours and subsequent non-work friends support, retirement fails to attenuate the negative effect of Time 1 work hours on subsequent family support. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:20485475

  15. Scheduling in the context of resident duty hour reform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fuelled by concerns about resident health and patient safety, there is a general trend in many jurisdictions toward limiting the maximum duration of consecutive work to between 14 and 16 hours. The goal of this article is to assist institutions and residency programs to make a smooth transition from the previous 24- to 36-hour call system to this new model. We will first give an overview of the main types of coverage systems and their relative merits when considering various aspects of patient care and resident pedagogy. We will then suggest a practical step-by-step approach to designing, implementing, and monitoring a scheduling system centred on clinical and educational needs in the context of resident duty hour reform. The importance of understanding the impetus for change and of assessing the need for overall workflow restructuring will be explored throughout this process. Finally, as a practical example, we will describe a large, university-based teaching hospital network’s transition from a traditional call-based system to a novel schedule that incorporates the new 16-hour duty limit. PMID:25561221

  16. Older Adults' Reports of Formal Care Hours and Administrative Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Brassard, Andrea B.; Simone, Bridget; Stern, Yaakov

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Personal assistance care is a Medicaid benefit in New York, but few data are available on its prevalence and contribution to home care. We examined these issues in a New York City sample by assessing older adults' reports of weekly home care hours and Medicaid billing records. Design and Methods: With help from New York City's Human…

  17. 77 FR 7544 - Hours of Service of Drivers: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    .... SUMMARY: FMCSA corrects the hours of service (HOS) final rule published on December 27, 2011 (76 FR 81143... the discussion of the Agency's intentions in the section- by-section analysis on 76 FR 81165 col. 3... December 27, 2011 rule. This notice does not change, in any manner, the regulatory text intended. In FR...

  18. Resident duty hours reform: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Longnecker, David E

    2006-12-01

    In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented resident duty hours restrictions to address growing concerns about medical errors and resident well-being. Many anticipated that resident duty hours restrictions would improve the quality and safety of care by minimizing the detrimental effects of fatigue on resident performance. Others were concerned that the fundamental clinical and educational principle of continuity of care would be lost or at least eroded, and that more frequent "hand-offs" might result in more clinical errors. Some lamented the loss of the total-emersion residency experience that serves as a forging process to temper the mind and body to create a finely honed clinician. The author draws from the literature to examine the effects of the ACGME resident duty hours restrictions three years after their implementation. From the perspectives of resident perceptions, attending perceptions, organizational approaches, and unintended consequences, the author concludes that far more than simple control of duty hours will be required to achieve the goals of clinical excellence, educational excellence, resident well-being, and professionalism. PMID:17122461

  19. Using the Film "The Hours" to Teach Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2006-01-01

    The popular film "The Hours" (S. Rudin, R. Fox, & S. Daldry, 2002), which portrays several characters struggling with mood disorders and other mental health problems, is discussed as an effective tool for teaching diagnosis. The author discusses the movie and characters, the methods used to incorporate the film into instruction, and students'…

  20. Open All Night: After-Hours Technical Support for Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiter, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a library automation system administrator developed a computer support network for the Finger Lakes Library System's (New York) evening and weekend hours. Discusses support options and decision-making factors--hiring extra staff, utilizing vendors, pagers, cellular phones, or contracting for third-party support. After employing staff…

  1. International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…

  2. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... interferes with the performance of his work in a CBP office. (e) Services performed outside a CBP office. CBP... recurring need for CBP services outside the hours prescribed in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section... falls on Sunday, the day immediately following such Sunday will be observed. (5 U.S.C. 6103(b)(1));...

  3. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interferes with the performance of his work in a CBP office. (e) Services performed outside a CBP office. CBP... recurring need for CBP services outside the hours prescribed in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section... falls on Sunday, the day immediately following such Sunday will be observed. (5 U.S.C. 6103(b)(1));...

  4. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interferes with the performance of his work in a CBP office. (e) Services performed outside a CBP office. CBP... recurring need for CBP services outside the hours prescribed in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section... falls on Sunday, the day immediately following such Sunday will be observed. (5 U.S.C. 6103(b)(1));...

  5. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interferes with the performance of his work in a CBP office. (e) Services performed outside a CBP office. CBP... recurring need for CBP services outside the hours prescribed in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section... falls on Sunday, the day immediately following such Sunday will be observed. (5 U.S.C. 6103(b)(1));...

  6. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  7. Achieving the Best: Gender and the Literacy Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Helen

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 30 British elementary children investigated the relationship between reading and gender and attitudes towards the literacy hour. Findings indicate boys wanted shorter time spans of learning activities, preferred independent work, and liked computer work. Both sexes liked working in small groups and disliked sharing their work…

  8. Cellular and molecular effects of 1GeV/n iron ion exposure on post-mitotic human neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Peter; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Guida, Peter; Kim, Angela

    During space travel, astronauts will be exposed to high energy, high atomic number (HZE) radiation. The potential for damage to cells of the central nervous system following exposure to HZE particle radiation has been characterized as a potential critical risk. Unfortunately, there are very few working model systems of human neurons and as a result, data describing the effects of HZE radiation on them is scarce. To begin risk assessment studies, we utilized an in vitro model consisting of terminally differentiated, post-mitotic human neurons (hNT cells). Previous studies have shown that transplantation of these cells into numerous rodent models of neurological diseases has resulted in successful mitigation of the related disorders, thereby demonstrating their functional relevance. Following exposure of these cells to 1GeV/n Fe ions at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, we measured the induction and repair of DNA damage (as revealed by g-H2AX foci), cytotoxicity, gene expression changes, and the induction of apoptosis and its pharmacological reduction. Fluorescence microscopy techniques revealed that there was a dose-dependent induction of g- H2AX foci in hNT cells, with a peak effect 4 hours after exposure (which is significantly longer than for reports using mitotic cells). DNA repair was evident in that the levels of g-H2AX foci were reduced to those in unirradiated cells by 24 hours post-irradiation. Cytotoxicity was also induced in a dose-dependent manner as detected by the fluorescent-based Live/Dead assay. Analysis of the status of the apoptosis-inducing gene p53 showed that the levels of this protein increased significantly 4-8 hours after exposure to Fe ions. By 3 days post-irradiation, annexin V staining demonstrated a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in the hNT cells. Pre-treatment with two different concentrations of the growth factor TGF-b were effective in reducing the levels of Fe ion-induced apoptosis to statistically significant degrees.

  9. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  10. Once- and twice-daily bevantolol for systemic hypertension using 24-hour ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure recording.

    PubMed

    Al-Khawaja, I M; Caruana, M P; Prince, H; Whittington, J; Raftery, E B

    1986-11-26

    The antihypertensive efficacy of bevantolol, a selective beta 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, was evaluated in 17 patients with essential hypertension, using continuous ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The study compared a twice-daily regimen (titrated dose of 200 to 600 mg/day) with the same amount given in a single daily dose. Within-patient comparisons of mean hourly systolic and diastolic BPs and heart rate showed a highly significant effect with twice-daily therapy (p less than 0.001) for all of the 24 hours. Similar significant results were obtained with a single morning dose. There was no difference between the pattern or extent of BP reduction with the 2 regimens. The decrease in BP after bevantolol persisted during the physiologic tests (rest, tilt, isometric and dynamic exercise). Four patients developed minor side effects with the single morning dose, and only 1 patient with the twice-daily regimen. These effects included tiredness, fatigue and dizziness. Unlike pure beta-blocking agents, bevantolol controlled the early morning increase in BP, lending support to the belief that it possesses vasodilatory properties in addition to beta blockade. These results suggest that bevantolol may be useful as first-line therapy in a once-daily dosage for the treatment of essential hypertension.

  11. Twenty-four-hour hemodynamic profile during treatment of essential hypertension by once-a-day nadolol.

    PubMed

    Mancia, G; Ferrari, A; Pomidossi, G; Parati, G; Bertinieri, G; Grassi, G; Gregorini, L; Zanchetti, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of nadolol (N) on 24-hour blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) values and on their variability was examined in ambulant patients with essential hypertension, using the Oxford method to obtain continuous intraarterial recording and a computer to have a beat-to-beat analysis of the data. The recording was carried out without treatment and after 10 days' administration of N once daily by mouth (dose range: 80-320 mg). After N, 24-hour BP and HR were reduced by 17 +/- 3% and 27 +/- 4% respectively as compared to before N, the effect being similar for both systolic and diastolic BP. The hypertension and bradycardia were significantly more marked during the day than during the night, neither showing any attenuation in the hours furthest from the administration of the drug. During N, there was a reduction in the 24-hour variation coefficient for HR but the reduction was limited to the longer term component of this phenomenon, the moment-to-moment variations remaining unaffected. The long- and short-term variation coefficients for BP were not modified under N. These findings suggest that N once a day can reduce BP for 24 hours in ambulant hypertensive patients. The lack of alteration in variability of BP and moment-to-moment HR suggests that the hypotension is achieved without interfering with the mechanisms involved in cardiovascular homeostasis. PMID:6134670

  12. Dual action of post-training naloxone on memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, I; Netto, C A

    1990-01-01

    Naloxone administered at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg post-training antagonizes the deleterious effect of post-training beta-endorphin administration and prevents the enhancing effect of pretest beta-endorphin administration, on retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats. Given at a higher dose (0.4 mg/kg), naloxone caused, in addition to these effects, a pronounced retrograde facilitation which was additive with that caused by post-training ACTH or epinephrine administration. These findings show that post-training naloxone has two different effects or sets of effects, each with a different dose threshold: An interference with beta-endorphin induced state dependency and a true modulatory effect.

  13. 24 hour forecast of the surface UV for the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, J W; Guzikowski, J; Czerwińska, A; Lesiak, A; Narbutt, J; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Wink, J

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of the spectral and broad-band UV data collected at Belsk (20.79°E, 51.84°N), Poland, show that standard broad-band instrument, Solar Light (SL) 501A, could be used for measurements of both erythemal and antipsoriatic irradiance. A prognostic model is proposed for the next-day duration of outdoor exposure required to receive a dose, the so-called minimum antipsoriatic dose (MAD), equivalent to that received by standard antipsoriatic daily treatment in the phototherapy cabinet containing TL-01 fluorescent tubes. The model uses the 24 h forecast of the column amount of ozone (to predict next day clear sky UV irradiance), and low- and mid-level cloudiness (to estimate a reduction of the clear-sky UV irradiation due to clouds). The predicted duration of sunbathing required to receive a dose of 1 MAD matches the observed value, i.e. the correlation coefficients is 0.68. If the model predicts the antipsoriatic exposure over 1 MAD threshold the observed dose will be also above this threshold in 91% of cases. Thus, the model could be used for planning the next-day outdoor exposure to clear psoriasis. Hourly resolved maps, starting from 6 am up to 1 pm (GMT), showing the duration of antipsoriatic exposure over Poland are made public. The model provides a tool for a psoriatic patient to find the sunbathing starting time and its duration, which has the same healing potential as a single indoor phototherapy session.

  14. Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships.

    PubMed

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Ritz, Christian; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-16

    We reconstructed the radiological dose for birds observed at 300 census sites in the 50-km northwest area affected by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant over 2011-2014. Substituting the ambient dose rate measured at the census points (from 0.16 to 31 μGy h(-1)) with the dose rate reconstructed for adult birds of each species (from 0.3 to 97 μGy h(-1)), we confirmed that the overall bird abundance at Fukushima decreased with increasing total doses. This relationship was directly consistent with exposure levels found in the literature to induce physiological disturbances in birds. Among the 57 species constituting the observed bird community, we found that 90% were likely chronically exposed at a dose rate that could potentially affect their reproductive success. We quantified a loss of 22.6% of the total number of individuals per increment of one unit log10-tansformed total dose (in Gy), over the four-year post-accident period in the explored area. We estimated that a total dose of 0.55 Gy reduced by 50% the total number of birds in the study area over 2011-2014. The data also suggest a significant positive relationship between total dose and species diversity.

  15. Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships.

    PubMed

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Ritz, Christian; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    We reconstructed the radiological dose for birds observed at 300 census sites in the 50-km northwest area affected by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant over 2011-2014. Substituting the ambient dose rate measured at the census points (from 0.16 to 31 μGy h(-1)) with the dose rate reconstructed for adult birds of each species (from 0.3 to 97 μGy h(-1)), we confirmed that the overall bird abundance at Fukushima decreased with increasing total doses. This relationship was directly consistent with exposure levels found in the literature to induce physiological disturbances in birds. Among the 57 species constituting the observed bird community, we found that 90% were likely chronically exposed at a dose rate that could potentially affect their reproductive success. We quantified a loss of 22.6% of the total number of individuals per increment of one unit log10-tansformed total dose (in Gy), over the four-year post-accident period in the explored area. We estimated that a total dose of 0.55 Gy reduced by 50% the total number of birds in the study area over 2011-2014. The data also suggest a significant positive relationship between total dose and species diversity. PMID:26567770

  16. Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Ritz, Christian; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Pape Møller, Anders

    2015-11-01

    We reconstructed the radiological dose for birds observed at 300 census sites in the 50-km northwest area affected by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant over 2011-2014. Substituting the ambient dose rate measured at the census points (from 0.16 to 31 μGy h-1) with the dose rate reconstructed for adult birds of each species (from 0.3 to 97 μGy h-1), we confirmed that the overall bird abundance at Fukushima decreased with increasing total doses. This relationship was directly consistent with exposure levels found in the literature to induce physiological disturbances in birds. Among the 57 species constituting the observed bird community, we found that 90% were likely chronically exposed at a dose rate that could potentially affect their reproductive success. We quantified a loss of 22.6% of the total number of individuals per increment of one unit log10-tansformed total dose (in Gy), over the four-year post-accident period in the explored area. We estimated that a total dose of 0.55 Gy reduced by 50% the total number of birds in the study area over 2011-2014. The data also suggest a significant positive relationship between total dose and species diversity.

  17. Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships

    PubMed Central

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Ritz, Christian; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Pape Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We reconstructed the radiological dose for birds observed at 300 census sites in the 50-km northwest area affected by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant over 2011–2014. Substituting the ambient dose rate measured at the census points (from 0.16 to 31 μGy h−1) with the dose rate reconstructed for adult birds of each species (from 0.3 to 97 μGy h−1), we confirmed that the overall bird abundance at Fukushima decreased with increasing total doses. This relationship was directly consistent with exposure levels found in the literature to induce physiological disturbances in birds. Among the 57 species constituting the observed bird community, we found that 90% were likely chronically exposed at a dose rate that could potentially affect their reproductive success. We quantified a loss of 22.6% of the total number of individuals per increment of one unit log10-tansformed total dose (in Gy), over the four-year post-accident period in the explored area. We estimated that a total dose of 0.55 Gy reduced by 50% the total number of birds in the study area over 2011–2014. The data also suggest a significant positive relationship between total dose and species diversity. PMID:26567770

  18. PROPRANOLOL DECREASES CARDIAC WORK IN A DOSE-DEPENDENT MANNER IN SEVERELY BURNED CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Felicia N; Herndon, David N; Kulp, Gabriela A; Jeschke, Marc G

    2010-01-01

    Background Severe burn is followed by profound cardiac stress. Propranolol, a non selective β1, β2-receptor antagonist, decreases cardiac stress, but little is known about the dose necessary to cause optimal effect. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine in a large prospective randomized controlled trial the dose of propranolol that would decrease heart rate at least 15% of admission heart rate and improve cardiac function. Four-hundred six patients with burns >30% total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled and randomized to receive standard care (controls, n=235) or standard care plus propranolol (n=171). Methods Dose-response and drug kinetics of propranolol were performed. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured continuously. Cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), stroke volume (SV), rate pressure product, and cardiac work (CW) were determined at regular intervals. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with Tukey and Bonferroni corrections and Student’s t-test when applicable. Significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results Propranolol given initially at 1 mg/kg/day decreased heart rate by 15% compared to control patients but was increased to 4 mg/kg/day within the first 10 days to sustain treatment benefits (p<0.05). Propranolol decreased CO, rate pressure product, and CW without deleterious effects on mean arterial pressure. The effective plasma drug concentrations were achieved in 30 minutes, and the half-life was 4 hours. Conclusions The data suggest that propranolol is an efficacious modulator of the post-burn cardiac response when given at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day, which decreases and sustains heart rate 15% below admission heart rate. PMID:20598332

  19. In vivo skin dose measurement in breast conformal radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Noghreiyan, Atefeh Vejdani; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Jamali, Farideh; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Accurate skin dose assessment is necessary during breast radiotherapy to assure that the skin dose is below the tolerance level and is sufficient to prevent tumour recurrence. The aim of the current study is to measure the skin dose and to evaluate the geometrical/anatomical parameters that affect it. Material and methods Forty patients were simulated by TIGRT treatment planning system and treated with two tangential fields of 6 MV photon beam. Wedge filters were used to homogenise dose distribution for 11 patients. Skin dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) and the effects of beam incident angle, thickness of irradiated region, and beam entry separation on the skin dose were analysed. Results Average skin dose in treatment course of 50 Gy to the clinical target volume (CTV) was 36.65 Gy. The corresponding dose values for patients who were treated with and without wedge filter were 35.65 and 37.20 Gy, respectively. It was determined that the beam angle affected the average skin dose while the thickness of the irradiated region and the beam entry separation did not affect dose. Since the skin dose measured in this study was lower than the amount required to prevent tumour recurrence, application of bolus material in part of the treatment course is suggested for post-mastectomy advanced breast radiotherapy. It is more important when wedge filters are applied to homogenize dose distribution. PMID:27358592

  20. [Rectal temperature trends during 24 hours in a hot climate with and without nutritional support].

    PubMed

    Cisse, F; Seck-Gassama, S; Gueye, L; Seck, D; Samb, A; Ndoye, R; Martineaud, J P

    1997-01-01

    A group of 22 young subjects staying in rest was studied in the aim to follow the nycthemeral evolution of the rectal temperature, according to two situations: 1) normal feeding, 2) absence of feeding. The use of drinking water was not limited. The experimentation was carried out in tropical area, Kédougou (Eastern Senegal), during a high period of temperature. The mean of day temperature was 38 degrees C and the night temperature, 22 degrees C. The skin and rectal temperature, the arterial pressure and the cardiac frequency were measured every three hours. The results showed a significant difference in the nycthemeral rythm of the rectal temperatures. The nocturnal temperatures were not different in the two conditions. We observed a significant elevation (delta = 0.31 +/- 0.18 degree C) of the diurne post prandial temperature. The results supported that the thermic modification observed during the experience were linked to the feed.

  1. Twelve-hour shifts: burnout or job satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Dall'Ora, Chiara; Griffiths, Peter; Ball, Jane

    Job satisfaction and burnout in the nursing workforce are global concerns. Not only do job satisfaction and burnout affect the quality and safety of care, but job satisfaction is also a factor in nurses' decisions to stay or leave their jobs. Shift patterns may be an important aspect influencing wellbeing and satisfaction among nurses. Many hospitals worldwide are moving to 12-hour shifts in an effort to improve efficiency and cope with nursing shortages. But what is the effect of these work patterns on the wellbeing of nurses working on hospital wards? This article reports on the results of a study performed in 12 European countries exploring whether 12-hour shifts are associated with burnout, job satisfaction and intention to leave the job.

  2. A 13000-hour test of a mercury hollow cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    A mercury-fed hollow cathode was tested for 12,979 hours in a bell jar at SERT 2 neutralizer operating conditions. The net electron current drawn to a collector was 0.25 ampere at average collector voltages between 21.8 and 36.7 volts. The mercury flow rate was varied from 5.6 to 30.8 equivalent milliamperes to give stable operation at the desired electrode voltages and currents. Variations with time in the neutralizer discharge characteristics were observed and hypothesized to be related to changes in the cathode orifice dimensions and the availability of electron emissive material. A facility failure caused abnormal test conditions for the last 876 hours and led to the cathode heater failure which concluded the test.

  3. Twelve-hour shifts: burnout or job satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Dall'Ora, Chiara; Griffiths, Peter; Ball, Jane

    Job satisfaction and burnout in the nursing workforce are global concerns. Not only do job satisfaction and burnout affect the quality and safety of care, but job satisfaction is also a factor in nurses' decisions to stay or leave their jobs. Shift patterns may be an important aspect influencing wellbeing and satisfaction among nurses. Many hospitals worldwide are moving to 12-hour shifts in an effort to improve efficiency and cope with nursing shortages. But what is the effect of these work patterns on the wellbeing of nurses working on hospital wards? This article reports on the results of a study performed in 12 European countries exploring whether 12-hour shifts are associated with burnout, job satisfaction and intention to leave the job. PMID:27180462

  4. Detection of vancomycin resistances in enterococci within 3 ½ hours.

    PubMed

    Schröder, U-Ch; Beleites, C; Assmann, C; Glaser, U; Hübner, U; Pfister, W; Fritzsche, W; Popp, J; Neugebauer, U

    2015-02-03

    Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) constitute a challenging problem in health care institutions worldwide. Novel methods to rapidly identify resistances are highly required to ensure an early start of tailored therapy and to prevent further spread of the bacteria. Here, a spectroscopy-based rapid test is presented that reveals resistances of enterococci towards vancomycin within 3.5 hours. Without any specific knowledge on the strain, VRE can be recognized with high accuracy in two different enterococci species. By means of dielectrophoresis, bacteria are directly captured from dilute suspensions, making sample preparation very easy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the trapped bacteria over a time span of two hours in absence and presence of antibiotics reveals characteristic differences in the molecular response of sensitive as well as resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Furthermore, the spectroscopic fingerprints provide an indication on the mechanisms of induced resistance in VRE.

  5. Unsocial hours pay is a question of fairness.

    PubMed

    Scott, Graham

    2015-04-29

    Should you be paid extra for working weekends? What about nights, or public holidays? Unsocial hours go with the job for most nurses, but the issue of whether and how staff should be rewarded is currently being scrutinised by the NHS Pay Review Body. In the past week there has also been a heated political discussion, as the parties vie for nurses' votes. PMID:25921983

  6. Giorgio Vasari and the Image of the Hour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahtan, M. W.

    2011-06-01

    Giorgio Vasari created the first allegories of the twenty-four hours in the mid-16th century. This essay explores Vasari's novel images in the context of his visual and literary sources, the rising importance of household timepieces, and the artist's other works and writings. Although a focused study of a single motif within Vasari's oeuvre, it has implications for the broader transformation time perception and its psychological dimensions then taking place in Early Modern Europe.

  7. Laparoscopic Colon Resections With Discharge Less Than 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Maedeh; Alam, Shaan E.; Kar, Pran M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A short hospital stay is one of the main advantages of laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies have shown that after a multimodal fast-track process, the hospital length of stay can be shortened to between 2 and 5 days. The objective of this review is to show that the hospital length of stay can, in some cases, be reduced to <24 hours. Methods: This study retrospectively reviews a surgeon's experience with laparoscopic surgery over a 12-month period. Seven patients were discharged home within 24 hours after minimally invasive laparoscopic surgical treatment, following a modified fast-track protocol that was adopted for perioperative care. Results: Of the 7 patients, 4 received laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for malignant disease and 3 underwent sigmoid colectomies for recurrent diverticulitis. The mean hospital stay was 21 hours, 47 minutes; the mean volume of intraoperative fluid (lactated Ringer) was 1850 mL; the mean surgical blood loss was only 74.3 mL; the mean duration of surgery was 118 minutes; and the patients were ambulated and fed a liquid diet after recovery from anesthesia. The reviewed patients had functional gastrointestinal tracts and were agreeable to the timing of discharge. On the follow-up visit, they showed no adverse consequences such as bleeding, infection, or anastomotic leak. Conclusion: Laparoscopic colon surgery that incorporated multimodal perioperative care allowed patients to be discharged within the first 24 hours. Careful postoperative outpatient follow-up is important in monitoring complications such as anastomotic leak, which may not present until postoperative day 5. PMID:23925012

  8. The Effects of the 80-hour Workweek on Occupational Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khouja, Lutfi; Colen, Chaim

    2016-01-01

    Background  The most recent work-hour restrictions were implemented in July 2011 for training physicians. The impact of these regulations on workplace injuries is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to determine the effect of the work-hour limitation on the rates of needlestick and eyesplash injuries. Methods  Approximately 1200 neurosurgery residents and fellows in the United States were emailed a survey, several times, Sept 2013–February 2014. There were 212 responses across postgraduate years 1–7 and fellowship regarding the rate of needlestick and eyesplash injuries experienced or witnessed before and after July 2011. Results  Regarding witnessing a needlestick/eyesplash accident: 89.33% of respondents claimed witnessing an injury. Specifically regarding percutaneous injuries (PCIs): before July 2011, 21.77% claimed never witnessing; after July 2011, only 8.9% indicated never witnessing. Specifically regarding eyesplash injuries: comparing the injuries (40.94%) before July 2011 to those (51.94%) after July 2011, the survey indicated an increase in eyesplash injuries. Conclusion  The results of this survey document that neurosurgery residents/fellows observed (or personally sustained) an increased number of needlestick and eyesplash injuries after implementation of the July 2011 work-hour limitations. Although the last set of reduced-hour regulations have been in place for more than three years, there does not therefore seem to be a safety advantage associated with them regarding a reduction in PCI or eyesplash accidents. This may be due to other confounding factors, not yet affirmatively identified, which warrant additional investigation and identification, directed at preventing future injuries. PMID:27182471

  9. Appy Hour: Health Sciences Professionals Learn About Apps.

    PubMed

    Casucci, Tallie; Gregory, Joan M; Shipman, Jean P

    2016-01-01

    Appy Hour is a recurring event hosted by an academic health sciences library featuring apps that are informally presented and demonstrated by invited speakers. The audience is encouraged to ask questions during the presentation of the featured app(s). This event provides learning and networking opportunities for health sciences faculty, staff, students, and health care professionals. This article illustrates the process for hosting the event, shares lessons learned, and discusses possible future directions to gain a wider audience. PMID:27391175

  10. The Effects of the 80-hour Workweek on Occupational Hazards.

    PubMed

    Drazin, Doniel; Al-Khouja, Lutfi; Colen, Chaim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND : The most recent work-hour restrictions were implemented in July 2011 for training physicians. The impact of these regulations on workplace injuries is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to determine the effect of the work-hour limitation on the rates of needlestick and eyesplash injuries. METHODS : Approximately 1200 neurosurgery residents and fellows in the United States were emailed a survey, several times, Sept 2013-February 2014. There were 212 responses across postgraduate years 1-7 and fellowship regarding the rate of needlestick and eyesplash injuries experienced or witnessed before and after July 2011. RESULTS : Regarding witnessing a needlestick/eyesplash accident: 89.33% of respondents claimed witnessing an injury. Specifically regarding percutaneous injuries (PCIs): before July 2011, 21.77% claimed never witnessing; after July 2011, only 8.9% indicated never witnessing. Specifically regarding eyesplash injuries: comparing the injuries (40.94%) before July 2011 to those (51.94%) after July 2011, the survey indicated an increase in eyesplash injuries. CONCLUSION : The results of this survey document that neurosurgery residents/fellows observed (or personally sustained) an increased number of needlestick and eyesplash injuries after implementation of the July 2011 work-hour limitations. Although the last set of reduced-hour regulations have been in place for more than three years, there does not therefore seem to be a safety advantage associated with them regarding a reduction in PCI or eyesplash accidents. This may be due to other confounding factors, not yet affirmatively identified, which warrant additional investigation and identification, directed at preventing future injuries. PMID:27182471

  11. Doses from radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Menzel, H-G; Harrison, J D

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effective dose. In preparation for the calculation of new dose coefficients, Committee 2 and its task groups have provided updated nuclear decay data (ICRP Publication 107) and adult reference computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). New dose coefficients for external exposures of workers are complete (ICRP Publication 116), and work is in progress on a series of reports on internal dose coefficients to workers from inhaled and ingested radionuclides. Reference phantoms for children will also be provided and used in the calculation of dose coefficients for public exposures. Committee 2 also has task groups on exposures to radiation in space and on the use of effective dose.

  12. [Necessity of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The preventive effects of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing on mistyping of transfused blood was examined. Blood transfusion tests have been performed by blood transfusion technologists during working hours and by physicians at other times. In March 2000, we introduced a system in which technologists perform blood transfusion tests after working hours. Technologists of the Blood Transfusion Unit and Central Clinical Laboratory perform the test jointly, and column agglutination technology was introduced as the test method. A computer system setup exclusively for the testing was also introduced to perform computer cross-matching. Since transfusion error is likely to occur during emergency blood transfusion, a manual was established to prioritize safety. After introduction of the system, mistyping that may have been caused by inaccurate blood test results markedly decreased, confirming the usefulness of this system for prevention of mistyping. In addition, transfusion errors also decreased in wards and the improved system increased the safety of the entire medical care system. The frequency of mistyping was about 1% when physicians performed blood typing, showing the importance of clinical technologists for blood transfusion tests. PMID:12652691

  13. Safety of 96-hour incision-site continuous infusion of ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia after bowel cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Corso, Olivia H; Morris, Raymond G; Hewett, Peter J; Karatassas, Alex

    2007-02-01

    hours to 96 hours seems to be a safe alternative and/or adjunct to standard opiate analgesia after colorectal surgery using a right lateral transverse incision, hence reducing the incidence of opiate adverse effects and enhancing recovery. Unbound ropivacaine concentrations suggest there is scope for testing elevated doses to enhance efficacy further. PMID:17304151

  14. Low dose neutron late effects: Cataractogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Worgul, B.V.

    1991-04-01

    The work is formulated to resolve the uncertainty regarding the relative biological effectiveness. The endpoint which is being utilized is cataractogenesis. The advantages conferred by this system stems primarily from the non-invasive longitudinal analysis which it allows. It also exploits a well defined system and one which has demonstrated sensitivity to the inverse dose rate effect observed with heavy ions. Four week old rats were divided into 8 dose groups which received single or fractionated total doses of .2, 1.0, 5.0 and 25 cGy of monoenergetic 435 keV neutrons. Special restraining jigs were devised to insure that the eye at the midpoint of the lens received the appropriate energy and dose with a relative error of {plus minus} 5%. The fractionated regimen consisted of four exposures, each administered at 3 hour intervals. The reference radiations, 250 kVp X-rays, were administered in the same fashion but in doses ranging from .5 to 6.0 Gy. The animals are examined on a bi-weekly basis utilizing conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy and the Scheimpflug Slit-lamp Imaging System. The follow-ups will continue throughout the lifespan of the animals. When opacification begins full documentation will involve the Zeiss imaging system and Oxford retroillumination photography. The processing routinely employs the Merriam/Focht scoring system for cross-referencing with previous cataract studies and establish cataractogenecity using a proven scoring method.

  15. Genomic Instability Induced by Low Dose Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Helen H. Sedwick, David W. Veigl, Martina L.

    2006-07-15

    The goal of this project was to determine if genomic instability could be initiated by poorly repaired DNA damage induced by low doses of ionizing radiation leading to a mutator phenotype. Human cells were irradiated, then transfected with an unirradiated reporter gene at various times AFTER exposure. The vector carried an inactive GFP gene that fluoresced when the gene was activated by a delayed mutation. Fluorescent cells were measured in the interval of 50 hours to four days after transfection. The results showed that delayed mutations occurred in these cells after exposure to relatively low doses (0.3-1.0 Gy) of low or high ionizing radiation, as well as after treatment with hyrodgen peroxide (30-100 micromolar). The occurrence was both dose and time dependent, often decreasing at higher doses and later times. No marked difference was observed between the response of mis-match repair-proficient and -deficient cell lines. Although the results were quite reproducible within single experiments, difficulties were observed from experiment to experiment. Different reagents and assays were tested, but no improvement resulted. We concluded that this method is not sufficiently robust or consisent to be useful in the assay of the induction of genomic instability by low doses of radiation, at least in these cell lines under our conditions.

  16. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assigned duty as officer in charge of a navigational or engineering watch, or duty as a rating forming part of a navigational or engineering watch, on board any vessel that operates beyond the Boundary Line.... (g) The Master shall post watch schedules where they are easily accessible. They must cover...

  17. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    PubMed

    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  18. A single dose of emulsified versus capsular fish oils has equivalent effects on chylomicron fatty acids over 8 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long chain omega-3 fatty acids are important in nutrition and disease management. Flavored emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil in water emulsions may offer an advantage in bio-availability of the fatty acids. Chylomicrons transport triglyceride from...

  19. Duty hours as viewed through a professionalism lens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Understanding medical professionalism and its evaluation is essential to ensuring that physicians graduate with the requisite knowledge and skills in this domain. It is important to consider the context in which behaviours occur, along with tensions between competing values and the individual’s approach to resolving such conflicts. However, too much emphasis on behaviours can be misleading, as they may not reflect underlying attitudes or professionalism in general. The same behaviour can be viewed and evaluated quite differently, depending on the situation. These concepts are explored and illustrated in this paper in the context of duty hour regulations. The regulation of duty hours creates many conflicts that must be resolved, and yet their resolution is often hidden, especially when compliance with or violation of regulations carries significant consequences. This article challenges attending physicians and the medical education community to reflect on what we value in our trainees and the attributions we make regarding their behaviours. To fully support our trainees’ development as professionals, we must create opportunities to teach them the valuable skills they will need to achieve balance in their lives. [P]rofessionalism has no meaningful existence independent of the interactions that give it form and meaning. There is great folly in thinking otherwise. Hafferty and Levinson (2008)[1] Understanding and evaluating professionalism is essential to excellence in medical education and is mandated by organizations that oversee medical training [2]. Historically, attention has been focused largely on the professionalism of individual students or residents, at least for the purposes of evaluation. Yet there is now a growing appreciation that professionalism can be defined, understood, and evaluated from multiple perspectives [3]. Importantly, context has been recognized as critical to shaping trainees’ behaviours, and hence as important to our understanding of

  20. Disaggregation of Rainy Hours: Compared Performance of Various Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Haha, M.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    In the urban environment, the response times of catchments are usually short. To de- sign or to diagnose waterworks in that context, it is necessary to describe rainfall events with a good time resolution: a 10mn time step is often necessary. Such in- formation is not always available. Rainfall disaggregation models have thus to be applied to produce from rough rainfall data that short time resolution information. The communication will present the performance obtained with several rainfall dis- aggregation models that allow for the disaggregation of rainy hours into six 10mn rainfall amounts. The ability of the models to reproduce some statistical character- istics of rainfall (mean, variance, overall distribution of 10mn-rainfall amounts; ex- treme values of maximal rainfall amounts over different durations) is evaluated thanks to different graphical and numerical criteria. The performance of simple models pre- sented in some scientific papers or developed in the Hydram laboratory as well as the performance of more sophisticated ones is compared with the performance of the basic constant disaggregation model. The compared models are either deterministic or stochastic; for some of them the disaggregation is based on scaling properties of rainfall. The compared models are in increasing complexity order: constant model, linear model (Ben Haha, 2001), Ormsbee Deterministic model (Ormsbee, 1989), Ar- tificial Neuronal Network based model (Burian et al. 2000), Hydram Stochastic 1 and Hydram Stochastic 2 (Ben Haha, 2001), Multiplicative Cascade based model (Olsson and Berndtsson, 1998), Ormsbee Stochastic model (Ormsbee, 1989). The 625 rainy hours used for that evaluation (with a hourly rainfall amount greater than 5mm) were extracted from the 21 years chronological rainfall series (10mn time step) observed at the Pully meteorological station, Switzerland. The models were also evaluated when applied to different rainfall classes depending on the season first and on the

  1. [Electrocardiographic recording of long duration (Holter) of 24 hours during idiopathic cardiomyopathy of the peripartum].

    PubMed

    Diao, M; Diop, I B; Kane, A; Camara, S; Kane, Ad; Sarr, M; Ba, S A; Diouf, S M

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic myocardiopathy of the peripartum (IMPP) is a frequent disease in the Soudano-Sahelian zone of Africa whose evolution is loaded with many complications hemodynamic, thrombo-embolic and rhythmic. The prevalence and the meaning of the rhythm disorders are unknown. The aims of this prospective study are to measure and to describe the prevalence of the anomalies observed in Holter ECG of 24 hours. It's about a description cross-sectional study realized at the Cardiology Department (CHU Dakar) and 19 patients with IMPP were included, from October 2000 to July 2002. A recording ECG of 24 hours (Holter) was realized on all the patients. The average age was 29.4+/-6.9 years with a low socio-economic level (100%). The diagnosis of IMPP done before childbirth in 4 cases (21%) and the post partum on 15 patients (78.9%). The dyspnea was constant, the chest pain in 12 cases (63.1%) and palpitations in 8 cases (42%). The average rate of hemoglobin was of 10.85+/-2.05 g/dL. The standard electrocardiogram recorded a sinusal tachycardia (68.4%), a cavitary hypertrophy (78.8%), and disorders of the repolarization (47.3%). The cardiac echo-Doppler noted a cavitary dilatation (84.2%), a constant alteration of the left ventricular systolic function with a fraction of average ejection of 29.7+/-10.3%. The anatomy of the valves was normal. The recording Holter ECG of 24 hours recorded a sinusal tachycardia in 17 cases (89.4%), ventricular extrasystoles on 7 patients (36.8%), 4 cases of ventricular tachycardia non-sustained and double ventricular extrasystole on 1 patient, auricular extrasystoles in 4 cases (21%) and 1 case of auriculo-ventricular block of the first degree. The study of heart rate variability founded a mean value of 106 ms.

  2. Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M

    2014-12-01

    Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/l) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis-à-vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (i.v.) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 ml/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/l. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/l was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/l. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to i.v. 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia.

  3. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  4. [Treatment of parturient paresis with high-dose calcium].

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Jehle, W; Siegwart, N; Bleul, U; Hässig, M

    2006-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate a calcium dose that was higher than the conventional dose for treatment of parturient paresis in cows. Thirty cows with parturient paresis received 1000 ml of 40 per cent calcium borogluconate solution supplemented with 6 per cent magnesium hypophosphite. Cows in group A received 200 ml of the solution intravenously over a 10-minute period, and the remaining 800 ml via a slow intravenous drip over a six-hour period. Cows in group B received 500 ml of the solution intravenously over a 20-minute period, and the remaining 500 ml via a slow intravenous drip over a six-hour period. Afterwards, the cows were monitored continuously and examined every hour for eight hours. Samples of blood were collected from all the cows before treatment and at 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420 and 480 minutes and 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment. The concentrations of total calcium, ionised calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium were determined. Cows that did not stand within 12 hours of treatment received one or more additional treatments. There was no significant difference in the recovery rate between the two groups. Of the 30 cows, 14 (47 per cent) rised after one treatment and 15 others (50 per cent) were cured after two or more treatments. One cow did not respond to repeated treatments and was euthanased four days after the start of treatment. The results of electrolyte analyses before treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups. In 27 (90 per cent) cows, the concentrations of calcium and inorganic phosphorus were lower than normal and in 3 (10 per cent) cows, only the concentration of inorganic phosphorus was lower than normal. The concentration of total calcium increased markedly ten minutes after the start of treatment in both groups, and at eight hours, the mean concentration of calcium was within the normal range. At 24 and 48 hours, the mean concentration of calcium was below normal, but at

  5. Prevention of post-operative infections after surgical treatment of bite wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Frank, Matthias; Bender, Claudia; Hinz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the literature about the microbial spectrum, the risk factors of post-operative infections, and the results of surgical interventions, the following recommendation can be made for the management of bite wounds: fresh, open wounds: surgical debridement, if appropriate, then an antiseptic lavage with a fluid consisting of povidone iodine and ethanol (e.g., Betaseptic®), no antibiotics, primary wound closure nearly closed fresh wounds (e.g., cat bites): surgical debridement, if appropriate, dressing with an antiseptic-soaked compress for ~60 minutes with repeated soaking (e.g., Betaseptic®), no antibiotics older wounds after ~4 hours: surgical debridement, if appropriate, dressing with an antiseptic-soaked compress or bandage for ~60 minutes with repeated soaking (e.g., Betaseptic®), at the same time intravenous or dose-adapted oral antibiotics (Amoxicillin and/or clavulanic acid) older wounds after ~24 hours: surgical debridement, then antiseptic lavage (Betaseptic®), in case of clinically apparent infection or inflammation surgical revision with opening of wound and treatment with antibiotics according to resistogram (empirical start with Amoxicillin and/or clavulanic acid). For each kind of bite wound, the patient’s tetanus immunization status as well as the risk of exposure to rabies have to be assessed. Similarly, the possibility of other infections, such as lues (Syphilis), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HBC), hepatitis D (HDV) and HIV, in the rare case of a human bite wound, has to be taken into account. PMID:20941334

  6. Low dose neutron late effects: Cataractogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Worgul, B.V.

    1991-12-01

    The work is formulated to resolve the uncertainty regarding the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low dose neutron radiation. The study exploits the fact that cataractogenesis is sensitive to the inverse dose-rate effect as has been observed with heavy ions and was an endpoint considered in the follow-up of the A-bomb survivors. The neutron radiations were initiated at the Radiological Research Accelerator facility (RARAF) of the Nevis Laboratory of Columbia University. Four week old ({plus minus} 1 day) rats were divided into eight dose groups each receiving single or fractionated total doses of 0.2, 1.0, 5.0 and 25.0 cGy of monoenergetic 435 KeV neutrons. Special restraining jigs insured that the eye, at the midpoint of the lens, received the appropriate energy and dose with a relative error of {plus minus}5%. The fractionation regimen consisted of four exposures, each administered at three hour ({plus minus}) intervals. The neutron irradiated groups are being compared to rats irradiated with 250kVp X-rays in doses ranging from 0.5 to 7 Gy. The animals are being examined on a biweekly basis utilizing conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy and the Scheimpflug Slit Lamp Imaging System (Zeiss). The follows-ups, entering their second year, will continue throughout the life-span of the animals. This is essential inasmuch as given the extremely low doses which are being utilized clinically detectable opacities were not anticipated until a significant fraction of the life span has lapsed. Current data support this contention. At this juncture cataracts in the irradiated groups are beginning to exceed control levels.

  7. Radiobiological evaluation of low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaup, Courtney James

    Low dose-rate brachytherapy is a radiation therapy treatment for men with prostate cancer. While this treatment is common, the use of isotopes with varying dosimetric characteristics means that the prescription level and normal organ tolerances vary. Additionally, factors such as prostate edema, seed loss and seed migration may alter the dose distribution within the prostate. The goal of this work is to develop a radiobiological response tool based on spatial dose information which may be used to aid in treatment planning, post-implant evaluation and determination of the effects of prostate edema and seed migration. Aim 1: Evaluation of post-implant prostate edema and its dosimetric and biological effects. Aim 2: Incorporation of biological response to simplify post-implant evaluation. Aim 3: Incorporation of biological response to simplify treatment plan comparison. Aim 4: Radiobiologically based comparison of single and dual-isotope implants. Aim 5: Determine the dosimetric and radiobiological effects of seed disappearance and migration.

  8. Synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Tyagi, Neelam; Balter, James M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2007-01-15

    Variations in target volume position between and during treatment fractions can lead to measurable differences in the dose distribution delivered to each patient. Current methods to estimate the ongoing cumulative delivered dose distribution make idealized assumptions about individual patient motion based on average motions observed in a population of patients. In the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), errors are introduced in both the implementation and delivery processes. In addition, target motion and MLC motion can lead to dosimetric errors from interplay effects. All of these effects may be of clinical importance. Here we present a method to compute delivered dose distributions for each treatment beam and fraction, which explicitly incorporates synchronized real-time patient motion data and real-time fluence and machine configuration data. This synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction method properly accounts for the two primary classes of errors that arise from delivering IMRT with an MLC: (a) Interplay errors between target volume motion and MLC motion, and (b) Implementation errors, such as dropped segments, dose over/under shoot, faulty leaf motors, tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, and communications delays. These reconstructed dose fractions can then be combined to produce high-quality determinations of the dose distribution actually received to date, from which individualized adaptive treatment strategies can be determined.

  9. HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT MAY LEAD TO HIGH INHALED INTAKE DOSES IN CHILDREN AGED 6-13

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper focuses on possible activities of children aged 6-13 that may make them susceptible to high hourly intake doses of ozone (O3) air pollution. Data from an O3 exposure modeling exercise indicates that a relatively few hours can account for a significant amount of the t...

  10. Know your dose: RADDOSE

    PubMed Central

    Paithankar, Karthik S.; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2010-01-01

    The program RADDOSE is widely used to compute the dose absorbed by a macromolecular crystal during an X-ray diffraction experiment. A number of factors affect the absorbed dose, including the incident X-ray flux density, the photon energy and the composition of the macromolecule and of the buffer in the crystal. An experimental dose limit for macromolecular crystallography (MX) of 30 MGy at 100 K has been reported, beyond which the biological information obtained may be compromised. Thus, for the planning of an optimized diffraction experiment the estimation of dose has become an additional tool. A number of approximations were made in the original version of RADDOSE. Recently, the code has been modified in order to take into account fluorescent X-­ray escape from the crystal (version 2) and the inclusion of incoherent (Compton) scattering into the dose calculation is now reported (version 3). The Compton cross-section, although negligible at the energies currently commonly used in MX, should be considered in dose calculations for incident energies above 20 keV. Calculations using version 3 of RADDOSE reinforce previous studies that predict a reduction in the absorbed dose when data are collected at higher energies compared with data collected at 12.4 keV. Hence, a longer irradiation lifetime for the sample can be achieved at these higher energies but this is at the cost of lower diffraction intensities. The parameter ‘diffraction-dose efficiency’, which is the diffracted intensity per absorbed dose, is revisited in an attempt to investigate the benefits and pitfalls of data collection using higher and lower energy radiation, particularly for thin crystals. PMID:20382991

  11. The Positive Effects of One-Hour Intravenous Administration of Bortezomib on Peripheral Neuropathy in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Young; Han, Boram; Choi, Dae Ro; Zang, Dae Young; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2014-01-01

    Bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BiPN) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients is a common and serious side effect. Currently, it has been reported that subcutaneous (SC) administration of bortezomib decreases the incidence of BiPN as compared to standard intravenous (IV) bolus injection without any differences in efficacy. However, there are reports of severe injection site reaction following SC administration of bortezomib. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response rate and incidence of BiPN following one-hour IV infusion of bortezomib. The data was retrospectively collected from MM patients who had been treated with IV administration of bortezomib for one hour. Twenty-three patients were evaluated (median age 72 years, 13 males). The median number of treatment cycles was 5 (range 2–10). The cumulative bortezomib dose was 26.0 mg/m2 (14.3–66.3) and percent of actual per expected cumulative dose was 90% (50–100). The overall response (complete response plus partial response) rate was 65%. The incidence of BiPN was 57% (n = 13) and incidence of severe neuropathy was 4% (n = 1). One-hour IV infusion of bortezomib was an effective regimen for MM with reduced incidence of severe BiPN. This route of administration of bortezomib could be an alternative mode of delivery for patients with severe injection site reactions following SC administration. PMID:24995276

  12. Type-I interferon response affects an inoculation dose-independent mortality in mice following Japanese encephalitis virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The laboratory mouse model is commonly employed to study the pathogenesis of encephalitic flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). However, it is known that some strains of these viruses do not elicit a typical mortality dose response curve from this organism after peripheral infection and the reason for it has not yet been fully understood. It is suggested that induction of more vigorous Type-I IFN (IFN-I) response might control early virus dissemination following increasing infectious challenge doses of the virus. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine this suggested role of IFN-I in the mortality of mice infected with various doses of JEV. Methods Inbred 129 mice and their IFNAR KO (A129) mice were subcutaneously inoculated with 100, 102, 104 or 106 pfu of JaOArS982 strain of JEV. Mice were weighed daily and observed for clinical signs. Virus titers in the brains and spleens of JEV-infected mice were determined by plaque forming assays. The upregulated mRNA levels of genes related to IFN-I response of mice were examined by real-time PCR. Results The mortality rates of 129 mice infected with JaOArS982 did not significantly increase despite the increase in inoculation dose and no significant difference of viral loads was observed between their brains. However, there was clear elevation of the mRNA levels of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3, IRF7, IRF9, MDA5 and RIG-I at 24 hours post-infection depending on the inoculation dose. In A129 mice, length of survival days and the viral loads of spleen and brain were observed to be inoculation dose-dependent. Conclusions From these results, it is suggested that early IFN-I response elicited by high inoculation doses of JEV provides an anti-viral effect during the early phase of infection. Accordingly, virus replication is counteracted by IFN-I response at each increasing inoculation dose resulting in the interference of impending severe disease course or fatal outcome; hence, this

  13. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  14. Revisits within 48 Hours to a Thai Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Nithimathachoke, Adisak; Tirrell, Gregory Philip; Surawongwattana, Sataporn; Liu, Shan Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Emergency department (ED) revisits are a common ED quality measure. This study was undertaken to ascertain the contributing factors of revisits within 48 hours to a Thai ED and to explore physician-related, illness-related, and patient-related factors behind those revisits. Methods. This study was a chart review from one tertiary care, urban Thai hospital from October 1, 2009, to September 31, 2010. We identified patients who returned to the ED within 48 hours for the same or related complaints after their initial discharge. Three physicians classified revisit as physician-related, illness-related, and patient-related factors. Results. Our study included 172 ED patients' charts. 86/172 (50%) were male and the mean age was 38 ± 5.6 (SD) years. The ED revisits contributing factors were physician-related factors [86/172 (50.0%)], illness-related factors [61/172 (35.5%)], and patient-related factor [25/172 (14.5%)], respectively. Among revisits classified as physician-related factors, 40/86 (46.5%) revisits were due to misdiagnosis and 36/86 (41.9%) were due to suboptimal management. Abdominal pain [27/86 (31.4%)] was the majority of physician-related chief complaints, followed by fever [16/86 (18.6%)] and dyspnea [15/86 (17.4%)]. Conclusion. Misdiagnosis and suboptimal management contributed to half of the 48-hour repeat ED visits in this Thai hospital. PMID:27478642

  15. Amp-hour counting control for PV hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-06-01

    The performance of an amp-hour (Ah) counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based PV hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive field testing of the charge algorithm on flooded lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The test results after one-year have demonstrated that PV charge utilization, battery charge control, and battery state of charge (SOC) has been significantly improved by providing maximum charge to the batteries while limiting battery overcharge to manufacturers specifications during variable solar resource and load periods.

  16. 20140201-0228_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-03-03

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Feb to 28 Feb 2014.

  17. 20131201-1231_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-01-08

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Dec to 31 Dec 2013.

  18. 20131101-1130_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2013-12-02

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Nov to 30 Nov 2013.

  19. 20140101-0131_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-02-03

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Jan to 31 Jan 2014.

  20. 20130901-0930_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2013-10-25

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 1 September 2013 to 30 September 2013.

  1. 20130501-20130531_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-06-18

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from May 2013

  2. 20130801-0831_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-09-10

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 8/1/13 to 8/31/13.

  3. 20140501-0531_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-06-02

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 May to 31 May 2014.

  4. 20140301-0331_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-04-07

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Mar to 31 Mar 2014.

  5. 20140701-0731_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-07-31

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 July to 31 July 2014.

  6. 20131001-1031_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2013-11-05

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 1 Oct 2013 to 31 Oct 2013.

  7. 20140601-0630_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-06-30

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 June to 30 June 2014.

  8. NASA 50 amp hour nickel cadmium battery waste heat determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A process for determining the waste heat generated in a 50-ampere-hour, nickel cadmium battery as a function of the discharge rate is described and results are discussed. The technique involved is essentially calibration of the battery as a heat transfer rate calorimeter. The tests are run at three different levels of battery activity, one at 40-watts of waste heat generated, one at 60, and one at 100. Battery inefficiency ranges from 14 to 18 percent at discharge rates of 284 to 588 watts, respectively and top-of-cell temperatures of 20 C.

  9. Historical trend of hourly extreme rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafrina, A. H.; Zalina, M. D.; Juneng, L.

    2015-04-01

    Hourly rainfall data between the years 1975 and 2010 across the Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed for trends in hourly extreme rainfall events. The analyses were conducted on rainfall occurrences during the northeast monsoon (November-February) known as NEM, the southwest monsoon (May-August) known as SWM, and the two inter-monsoon seasons, i.e., March-April (MA) and September-October (SO). Several extreme rainfall indices were calculated at the station level. The extreme rainfall events in Peninsular Malaysia showed an increasing trend between the years 1975 and 2010. The trend analysis was conducted using linear regression; no serial correlation was detected from the Durbin-Watson test. Ordinary kriging was used to determine the spatial patterns of trends in seasonal extremes. The total amount of rainfall received during NEM is higher compared to rainfall received during inter-monsoon seasons. However, intense rainfall is observed during the inter-monsoon season with higher hourly total amount of rainfall. The eastern part of peninsular was most affected by stratiform rains, while convective rain contributes more precipitation to areas in the western part of the peninsular. From the distribution of spatial pattern of trend, the extreme frequency index (Freq >20) gives significant contribution to the positive extreme rainfall trend during the monsoon seasons. Meanwhile, both extreme frequency and extreme intensity (24-Hr Max, Freq >95th, Tot >95th, Tot >99th, and Hr Max) indices give significant contribution to the positive extreme rainfall trend during the inter-monsoon seasons. Most of the significant extreme indices showed the positive sign of trends. However, a negative trend of extreme rainfall was found in the northwest coast due to the existence of Titiwangsa Range. The extreme intensity, extreme frequency, and extreme cumulative indices showed increasing trends during the NEM and MA while extreme intensity and extreme frequency had similar trends during

  10. Single dose dipyrone for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Faura, Clara; Edwards, Jayne; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. Objectives To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. Search methods The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Selection criteria Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls. Over 70% of participants

  11. Calculating drug doses.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Numeracy and calculation are key skills for nurses. As nurses are directly accountable for ensuring medicines are prescribed, dispensed and administered safely, they must be able to understand and calculate drug doses. PMID:27615351

  12. Ibuprofen dosing for children

    MedlinePlus

    Motrin; Advil ... Ibuprofen is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It can help: Reduce aches, pain, sore ... Ibuprofen can be taken as liquid or chewable tablets. To give the correct dose, you need to ...

  13. Single dose oral indometacin for the treatment of acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Mason, Lorna; McQuay, Henry J; Edwards, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2004. Indometacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used most commonly for the treatment of inflammation and pain resulting from rheumatic disease (arthritis), and less commonly in postoperative pain management. When taken for chronic pain conditions, indometacin has been associated with a high incidence of adverse events. The benefits and harms of orally-administered indometacin for postoperative pain are not clear. Objectives To determine the efficacy of a single dose of oral indometacin compared with placebo in treating acute postoperative pain in adults, and to analyse information relating to adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for relevant studies in January 2002 and for the updated search in December 2007. Additional studies were sought from the reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Studies were included in the review if they were randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials using a single oral dose of indometacin in adults with acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed independently by two review authors. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to give the number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours. The relative benefit for at least 50% pain relief was calculated. Main results In the original review one study of 59 women with post-episiotomy pain met the inclusion criteria. The dose of indometacin assessed against placebo was 50 mg, and the results concluded that indometacin was not significantly better than placebo for relieving postoperative pain at four to six hours. There was insufficient information to conduct further efficacy analyses or assess adverse events

  14. Active Immunity Induced by Passive IgG Post-Exposure Protection against Ricin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Charles Chen; Yin, Junfei; Chau, Damon; Cherwonogrodzky, John W.; Hu, Wei-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies can confer an instant protection against biothreat agents when administered. In this study, intact IgG and F(ab’)2 from goat anti-ricin hyperimmune sera were compared for the protection against lethal ricin mediated intoxication. Similar ricin-binding affinities and neutralizing activities in vitro were observed between IgG and F(ab’)2 when compared at the same molar concentration. In a murine ricin intoxication model, both IgG and F(ab’)2 could rescue 100% of the mice by one dose (3 nmol) administration of antibodies 1 hour after 5 × LD50 ricin challenge. Nine days later, when the rescued mice received a second ricin challenge (5 × LD50), only the IgG-treated mice survived; the F(ab’)2-treated mice did not. The experimental design excluded the possibility of residual goat IgG responsible for the protection against the second ricin challenge. Results confirmed that the active immunity against ricin in mice was induced quickly following the passive delivery of a single dose of goat IgG post-exposure. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the induced active immunity against ricin in mice lasted at least 5 months. Therefore, passive IgG therapy not only provides immediate protection to the victim after ricin exposure, but also elicits an active immunity against ricin that subsequently results in long term protection. PMID:24451844

  15. Efficacy of post exposure administration of doxycycline in a murine model of inhalational melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Gelhaus, H Carl; Anderson, Michael S; Fisher, David A; Flavin, Michael T; Xu, Ze-Qi; Sanford, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. Treatment of melioidosis is suboptimal and developing improved melioidosis therapies requires animal models. In this report, we exposed male BALB/c mice to various amounts of aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b to determine lethality. After establishing a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of 2,772 colony forming units (cfu)/animal, we tested the ability of doxycycline administered 6 hours after exposure to a uniformly lethal dose of ~20 LD(50) to prevent death and eliminate bacteria from the lung and spleens. Tissue bacterial burdens were examined by PCR analysis. We found that 100% of mice treated with doxycycline survived and B. pseudomallei DNA was not amplified from the lungs or spleens of most surviving mice. We conclude the BALB/c mouse is a useful model of melioidosis. Furthermore, the data generated in this mouse model indicate that doxycycline is likely to be effective in post-exposure prophylaxis of melioidosis. PMID:23359492

  16. Low Dose D-penicillamine in cystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Purkiss, P; Watts, R W

    1977-01-01

    (1) A single dose of D-penicillamine (not more than 750 mg) taken at 2200 h, together with a prescribed fluid intake of two to three litres during the waking hours, without extra drinks at night, is sufficient to keep the concentration of the urinary cystine below the saturating concentration of urine throughout the 24 h period. (2) This regime does not materially reduce the total 24 h excretion of cystine. (3) The effect of D-penicillamine is mainly seen in the urine excreted between 0200 and 0800 h. (4) This regime is provisionally recommended for the prevention of cystine stone recurrence but not for stone dissolution. Larger total amounts of D-penicillamine given in divided doses are still recommended for the latter purpose. PMID:122666

  17. Dose-sensitive steroid-induced hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Craig; Dando, Nicholas

    2010-10-01

    Steroids cause significant but under-appreciated and poorly managed glucose intolerance. In this case we describe a patient with steroid-induced hyperglycaemia who obtained a large positive impact on glycaemic control from a small reduction in her steroid dose, sufficient to alleviate the need for insulin. Developments in the treatment of steroid-induced hyperglycaemia may mean that a more active approach needs to be considered when treating steroid-related diabetes in patients whose management is palliative. We advise checking for steroid-induced hyperglycaemia by testing capillary blood glucose values 2 hours after the lunchtime meal and recommend a single morning dose of long-acting insulin to treat the condition.

  18. Effectiveness of a 3-hour breastfeeding course for family physicians

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Anjana; Graves, Lisa; D’Souza, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To test the effectiveness of a 3-hour course on breastfeeding for family physicians. Design A previously validated questionnaire testing confidence in, attitudes toward, and knowledge of breastfeeding issues was administered to participants 1 week before and 2 months after taking the Breastfeeding Basics for the Practicing Physician course. Setting Canada. Participants Family physicians and residents who attended the Breastfeeding Basics for the Practicing Physician course between July 2008 and December 2010. Interventions Participants’ scores on the questionnaires that were filled out before and after the course were collected and analyzed. Main outcome measures Changes in participants’ confidence in, attitudes toward, and knowledge of breastfeeding issues before and after the course were examined. Results A total of 80 participants completed the questionnaire before the course, and 72 completed the questionnaire after the course. Of these, 40 participants completed questionnaires both before and after the course; data from these participants were used for paired analysis. Mean scores for attitudes increased significantly from 77.4 before the course to 83.0 after the course (P < .001). Mean scores for knowledge also increased significantly from 150.2 before the course to 159.2 after the course (P < .001). No significant difference in confidence was seen (P = .486). Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a 3-hour breastfeeding course in improving participants’ attitudes toward and knowledge of breastfeeding issues. PMID:25642487

  19. Folding Proteins at 500 ns/hour with Work Queue

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Wahid, Badi’; Yu, Li; Rajan, Dinesh; Feng, Haoyun; Darve, Eric; Thain, Douglas; Izaguirre, Jesús A.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular modeling is a field that traditionally has large computational costs. Until recently, most simulation techniques relied on long trajectories, which inherently have poor scalability. A new class of methods is proposed that requires only a large number of short calculations, and for which minimal communication between computer nodes is required. We considered one of the more accurate variants called Accelerated Weighted Ensemble Dynamics (AWE) and for which distributed computing can be made efficient. We implemented AWE using the Work Queue framework for task management and applied it to an all atom protein model (Fip35 WW domain). We can run with excellent scalability by simultaneously utilizing heterogeneous resources from multiple computing platforms such as clouds (Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure), dedicated clusters, grids, on multiple architectures (CPU/GPU, 32/64bit), and in a dynamic environment in which processes are regularly added or removed from the pool. This has allowed us to achieve an aggregate sampling rate of over 500 ns/hour. As a comparison, a single process typically achieves 0.1 ns/hour. PMID:25540799

  20. Hourly wind power variations in the Nordic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holttinen, Hannele

    2005-04-01

    Studies of the effects that wind power production imposes on the power system involve assessing the variations of large-scale wind power production over the whole power system area. Large geographical spreading of wind power will reduce variability, increase predictability and decrease the occasions with near zero or peak output. In this article the patterns and statistical properties of large-scale wind power production data are studied using the data sets available for the Nordic countries. The existing data from Denmark give the basis against which the data collected from the other Nordic countries are benchmarked. The main goal is to determine the statistical parameters describing the reduction of variability in the time series for the different areas in question. The hourly variations of large-scale wind power stay 91%-94% of the time within +/-5% of installed capacity in one country, and for the whole of the Nordic area 98% of the time. For the Nordic time series studied, the best indicator of reduced variability in the time series was the standard deviation of the hourly variations. According to the Danish data, it is reduced to less than 3% from a single site value of 10% of capacity. Copyright