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Sample records for house fly musca

  1. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  2. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  3. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Kim Y.; Michailides, Themis J.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C.

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  4. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  5. Identification of a novel bursicon-regulated transcriptional regulator, md133790, in house fly Musca domestica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bursicon is a neuropeptide that regulates cuticle sclerotization (hardening and tanning) and wing expansion in insects via a G-protein coupled receptor. The peptide consists of alpha and beta subunits. In the present study, we cloned bursicon alpha and beta genes in the house fly Musca domestica us...

  6. Repellency of α-pinene against the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Haselton, Aaron T; Acevedo, Angela; Kuruvilla, Jacob; Werner, Eric; Kiernan, Jaydon; Dhar, Preeti

    2015-09-01

    Musca domestica L. is a non-biting nuisance fly that is capable of transmitting a large variety of pathogens to humans and non-human animals. Natural compounds and their derivatives, which are often less toxic than entirely synthetic compounds, may be used as repellents against M. domestica as part of comprehensive pest control and disease mitigation programs. This work investigates the repellent properties of the natural compound α-pinene against M. domestica. Adult house flies of both sexes avoided the volatile plant-derived terpenes (1S)-(-)-α-pinene 1 and (1R)-(+)-α-pinene 2 in constant air flow laboratory conditions, with 1 exhibiting a stronger repellent effect. House flies also avoided tarsal contact with filter paper saturated with 1. Furthermore, both 1 and 2 are electrophysiologically active on in situ female house fly antennal preparations. These findings demonstrate that α-pinene exhibits natural baseline repellency against the house fly, elicits a specific physiological response in this fly, and that functional or structural modification of 1 in particular may yield novel fly repellents with desirable properties.

  7. Repellency of α-pinene against the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Haselton, Aaron T; Acevedo, Angela; Kuruvilla, Jacob; Werner, Eric; Kiernan, Jaydon; Dhar, Preeti

    2015-09-01

    Musca domestica L. is a non-biting nuisance fly that is capable of transmitting a large variety of pathogens to humans and non-human animals. Natural compounds and their derivatives, which are often less toxic than entirely synthetic compounds, may be used as repellents against M. domestica as part of comprehensive pest control and disease mitigation programs. This work investigates the repellent properties of the natural compound α-pinene against M. domestica. Adult house flies of both sexes avoided the volatile plant-derived terpenes (1S)-(-)-α-pinene 1 and (1R)-(+)-α-pinene 2 in constant air flow laboratory conditions, with 1 exhibiting a stronger repellent effect. House flies also avoided tarsal contact with filter paper saturated with 1. Furthermore, both 1 and 2 are electrophysiologically active on in situ female house fly antennal preparations. These findings demonstrate that α-pinene exhibits natural baseline repellency against the house fly, elicits a specific physiological response in this fly, and that functional or structural modification of 1 in particular may yield novel fly repellents with desirable properties. PMID:26209937

  8. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  9. Expression of lysozyme in the life history of the house fly (Musca domestica l.).

    PubMed

    Nayduch, Dana; Joyner, Chester

    2013-07-01

    From egg to adult, all life history stages of house flies associate with septic environments teeming with bacteria. House fly lysozyme was first identified in the larval midgut, where it is used for digestion of microbe-rich meals because of its broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. This study aimed to determine the temporal expression of lysozyme in the life history of house flies (from egg through adults) on both the mRNA and protein level, and to determine the tissue-specific expression of lysozyme in adult flies induced by feeding Staphylococcus aureus. From 30-min postoviposition through adulthood, all life history stages of the house fly express lysozyme on the mRNA level. In adult flies, lysozyme is expressed both locally in the alimentary canal and systemically in the fat body. Interestingly, we found that during the normal life history of flies, lysozyme protein was only detected in larval stages and older adults, likely because of ingestion of immune-stimulating levels of bacteria, not experienced during egg, pupa, and teneral adult stages. Constitutive expression on the mRNA level implies that this effector is a primary defense molecule in all stages of the house fly life history, and that a mechanism for posttranscriptional control of mature lysozyme enzyme expression may be present. Lysozyme active enzyme primarily serves both a digestive and defensive function in larval and adult flies, and may be a key player in the ability of Musca domestica L. to thrive in microbe-rich environments.

  10. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  11. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  12. Toxicity of ozonated animal manure to the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Masten, S J; Kim-Yang, H; Walker, E D; Roman, H; Yokoyama, M T

    2001-01-01

    Swine manure slurries were ozonated at a dosage of 1 g/L and tested for their toxicity to the house fly (Musca domestica). The observed toxicity of ozonated swine manure was consistent and independent of origin of the swine manure. A dose (dilution) response curve was performed. A 50% dilution in the ozonated swine manure slurry resulted in 90% reduction in toxicity. Neither the synthetic nor ozonated synthetic swine manure, both of which contained higher concentrations of formaldehyde and three other unidentified carbonyl compounds than the ozonated swine manure, were toxic to the flies. Ozonated swine manure slurry was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45-microm filter. The liquid phase was as toxic as the unfiltered slurry; as such, the toxicant appears to be present in liquid phase. Neither ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, nor other simple aldehydes appeared to be the toxic agent. The toxic agent appears to be a polar chemical compound and is concentrated in the urine. Several possible compounds have been identified. The toxicity of untreated and ozonated manure slurries from different livestock was compared. Six animal manure slurries (beef and dairy cattle, horse, poultry, sheep, and swine) were ozonated (dosage of 1 g/L) and tested for toxicity to the house fly. Ozonated dairy cattle manure slurry showed 78% mortality after 72 h, whereas ozonated swine manure slurry achieved a 100% mortality rate in 48 h. Neither the unozonated dairy nor swine manure slurries, nor any of the other raw or ozonated manure slurries, were toxic to the flies.

  13. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae from house flies (Musca domestica) in kitchens, farms, hospitals and slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Izadi, Morteza; Hafshejani, Taghi T; Khamesipour, Faham

    2016-01-01

    Identifying disease vectors and pathogens is one of the key steps in controlling vector-borne diseases. This study investigated the possible role of house flies (Musca domestica) as vectors in the transmission of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Chaharmahal VA Bakhtiari and Isfahan provinces of Iran. House flies were captured from household kitchens, cattle farms, chicken farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals and slaughterhouses. Isolation of K. pneumoniae from external surfaces and guts of the flies was performed using MacConkey agar (MA) and thioglycollate broth (TGB). Identification of the isolates was performed with phenotypic techniques and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 600 house flies were sampled during the study period from different locations in four different seasons. Overall, 11.3% of the captured house flies were positive for K. pneumoniae. In Chaharmahal VA Bakhtiari province, the prevalence was 12.7%, while in Isfahan province, 10.0% of the sampled house flies were infected with K. pneumoniae. Season-wise, the highest prevalence of infections among the house flies was in summer. The organisms were highly resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime and piperacillin. A lowest level of resistance was observed for imipenem/cilastatin. The findings of this study demonstrated that house flies are potential vectors of antibiotic-resistant K. pneumoniae in Isfahan and Chaharmahal provinces, Iran. Control efforts for infections caused by this particular bacterium should take M. domestica into account.

  14. Do climatic and physical factors affect populations of the blow fly Chrysomya megacephala and house fly Musca domestica?

    PubMed

    Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Irvine, Kim N; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Prangkio, Chira; Somboon, Pradya; Sukontason, Kom

    2011-11-01

    The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and house fly, Musca domestica L., are medically and forensically important flies. The population dynamic of these flies is essential for both control and forensical aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate the climatic and physical factors affecting the population trend of both species in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, using the Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on systematic random sampling, 18 study sites were selected in three districts (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong). Six land use types were involved in the study sites, i.e., disturbed mixed deciduous, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city, and paddy field. Adult flies were sampled every 2 weeks using an in-house prototype reconstructable funnel trap. Two types of bait were used--one with fresh beef viscera for luring M. domestica and the other with 1-day tainted beef viscera for luring C. megacephala. Collections were conducted from May 2009 to May 2010, and analysis of climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity) was carried out. Correlation bivariate analysis was performed initially to determine the relationship between climatic factors and the number of flies. Consequently, an ordinary co-kriging approach, in ArcGIS 9.2, was performed to predict the spatial distribution of flies with land use and climatic factors as co-variables. A total of 63,158 flies were captured, with C. megacephala being the most common species collected (68.37%), while only 1.3% were M. domestica, thus proving that C. megacephala was the most abundant species in several land use types. A significantly higher number of females than males was found in both species. Fly populations can be collected throughout most of the year with a peak in late summer, which shows a positive relation to temperature but negative correlation with relative humidity. C. megacephala was predicted to be abundant in every

  15. Genetics and mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin in the house fly, Musca domestica L., from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Haider, Muhammad Saleem

    2015-08-01

    Deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) has widely been used against the house fly, Musca domestica, a pest found in livestock facilities worldwide. Although, cases of both metabolic and physiological resistance to deltamethrin have been reported in different parts of the world, no studies have been reported to characterize this resistance in house flies from Pakistan. In the present study, we investigated a field strain of house flies for potential to develop resistance to deltamethrin. Also, its stability, possible mechanisms and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides. Before the selection experiments, the field strain showed 8.41-, 3.65-, 8.39-, 2.68-, 19.17- and 5.96-fold resistance to deltamethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos and spinosad, respectively, compared with the reference strain (Lab-susceptible). Continuous selection of the field strain (Delta-SEL) with deltamethrin for six generations (G1-G6) in the laboratory increased the resistance ratio to 176.34 after bioassay at G7. The Delta-SEL strain was reared for the next four generations without exposure to deltamethrin and bioassayed at G11 which revealed that the resistance was stable. The Delta-SEL strain at G7 showed cross-resistance to all other insecticides except spinosad, when compared to the bioassays before the selection experiment (G1). Crosses between Delta-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to deltamethrin. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one factor. Moreover, synergism studies with the enzyme inhibitors PBO and DEF reduced the resistance to deltamethrin in the selected strain up to 2.51- and 2.19-fold, respectively, which revealed that the resistance was possibly due to microsomal oxidase and esterase activity. It is concluded that the resistance to deltamethrin was autosomal and incompletely dominant. The high cross

  16. Genetics and mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin in the house fly, Musca domestica L., from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Haider, Muhammad Saleem

    2015-08-01

    Deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) has widely been used against the house fly, Musca domestica, a pest found in livestock facilities worldwide. Although, cases of both metabolic and physiological resistance to deltamethrin have been reported in different parts of the world, no studies have been reported to characterize this resistance in house flies from Pakistan. In the present study, we investigated a field strain of house flies for potential to develop resistance to deltamethrin. Also, its stability, possible mechanisms and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides. Before the selection experiments, the field strain showed 8.41-, 3.65-, 8.39-, 2.68-, 19.17- and 5.96-fold resistance to deltamethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos and spinosad, respectively, compared with the reference strain (Lab-susceptible). Continuous selection of the field strain (Delta-SEL) with deltamethrin for six generations (G1-G6) in the laboratory increased the resistance ratio to 176.34 after bioassay at G7. The Delta-SEL strain was reared for the next four generations without exposure to deltamethrin and bioassayed at G11 which revealed that the resistance was stable. The Delta-SEL strain at G7 showed cross-resistance to all other insecticides except spinosad, when compared to the bioassays before the selection experiment (G1). Crosses between Delta-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to deltamethrin. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one factor. Moreover, synergism studies with the enzyme inhibitors PBO and DEF reduced the resistance to deltamethrin in the selected strain up to 2.51- and 2.19-fold, respectively, which revealed that the resistance was possibly due to microsomal oxidase and esterase activity. It is concluded that the resistance to deltamethrin was autosomal and incompletely dominant. The high cross

  17. Temporospatial fate of bacteria and immune effector expression in house flies (Musca domestica L.) fed GFP-E. coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) harbor and transmit a variety of human enteropathogens including E. coli O157:H7. Interactions between ingested bacteria and the fly gut directly impact bacterial persistence, survival and ultimately fly vector competence. We assessed the temporos...

  18. Efficacy of essential oils from edible plants as insecticides against the house fly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Sara M; Bertoni, Alberto; Rossi, Yanina; Santander, Rocío; Urzúa, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC(50)) in 30 min was determined at 26 +/- 1 degrees C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC(50) values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm(3), respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC(50 )= 3.9 mg/dm(3)), followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC(50 )= 4.8 mg/dm(3)) and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC(50 )= 5.5 mg/dm(3)). According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%), linalool (1.43%), and b-myrcene (0.88%) were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07%) of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86%) was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC(50 )= 3.3 mg/dm(3)), while (4R)(+)-limonene, was moderately active (LC(50 )= 6.2 mg/dm(3)). Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP) selected as a positive control, showed an LC(50) of 0.5 mg/dm(3). EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies. PMID:19471213

  19. Efficacy of essential oils from edible plants as insecticides against the house fly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Sara M; Bertoni, Alberto; Rossi, Yanina; Santander, Rocío; Urzúa, Alejandro

    2009-05-25

    The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC(50)) in 30 min was determined at 26 +/- 1 degrees C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC(50) values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm(3), respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC(50 )= 3.9 mg/dm(3)), followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC(50 )= 4.8 mg/dm(3)) and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC(50 )= 5.5 mg/dm(3)). According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%), linalool (1.43%), and b-myrcene (0.88%) were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07%) of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86%) was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC(50 )= 3.3 mg/dm(3)), while (4R)(+)-limonene, was moderately active (LC(50 )= 6.2 mg/dm(3)). Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP) selected as a positive control, showed an LC(50) of 0.5 mg/dm(3). EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.

  20. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana. PMID:26233748

  1. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal.

  2. Transcriptome Differences between Alternative Sex Determining Genotypes in the House Fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Richard P; Scott, Jeffrey G; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination evolves rapidly, often because of turnover of the genes at the top of the pathway. The house fly, Musca domestica, has a multifactorial sex determination system, allowing us to identify the selective forces responsible for the evolutionary turnover of sex determination in action. There is a male determining factor, M, on the Y chromosome (Y(M)), which is probably the ancestral state. An M factor on the third chromosome (III(M)) has reached high frequencies in multiple populations across the world, but the evolutionary forces responsible for the invasion of III(M) are not resolved. To test whether the III(M) chromosome invaded because of sex-specific selection pressures, we used mRNA sequencing to determine whether isogenic males that differ only in the presence of the Y(M) or III(M) chromosome have different gene expression profiles. We find that more genes are differentially expressed between Y(M) and III(M) males in testis than head, and that genes with male-biased expression are most likely to be differentially expressed between Y(M) and III(M) males. We additionally find that III(M) males have a "masculinized" gene expression profile, suggesting that the III(M) chromosome has accumulated an excess of male-beneficial alleles because of its male-limited transmission. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sex-specific selection acts on alleles linked to the male-determining locus driving evolutionary turnover in the sex determination pathway.

  3. The house fly, Musca domestica: once again a vector of pathogens of public health significance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the time of Walter Reed in Cuba and in subsequent years of the early 20th century, the house fly lost its image of a being a good fly to have around, and became a dreaded vector of disease-causing organisms. In the U.S., it was dubbed the typhoid fly and many research projects were launched t...

  4. The house fly, Musca domestica: An overlooked vector of pathogens of public health significance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the time of Walter Reed in Cuba and in subsequent years of the early 20th century, the house fly lost its image of a being a good fly to have around, and became a dreaded vector of disease-causing organisms. In the US, it was dubbed the typhoid fly and many research projects were launched to ...

  5. Multiple origins of kdr-type resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Hedtke, Shannon M; Leichter, Cheryl A; Harris, Sarah A; Su, Cathy; Brady, Seán G; Taskin, Vatan; Qiu, Xinghui; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide resistance is a model phenotype that can be used to investigate evolutionary processes underlying the spread of alleles across a global landscape, while offering valuable insights into solving the problems that resistant pests present to human health and agriculture. Pyrethroids are one of the most widely used classes of insecticides world-wide and they exert their toxic effects through interactions with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc). Specific mutations in Vssc (kdr, kdr-his and super-kdr) are known to cause resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in house flies. In order to determine the number of evolutionary origins of kdr, kdr-his and super-kdr, we sequenced a region of Vssc from house flies collected in the USA, Turkey and China. Our phylogenetic analysis of Vssc unequivocally supports the hypothesis of multiple independent origins of kdr, super-kdr and kdr-his on an unprecedented geographic scale. The implications of these evolutionary processes on pest management are discussed.

  6. Multiple origins of kdr-type resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Hedtke, Shannon M; Leichter, Cheryl A; Harris, Sarah A; Su, Cathy; Brady, Seán G; Taskin, Vatan; Qiu, Xinghui; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide resistance is a model phenotype that can be used to investigate evolutionary processes underlying the spread of alleles across a global landscape, while offering valuable insights into solving the problems that resistant pests present to human health and agriculture. Pyrethroids are one of the most widely used classes of insecticides world-wide and they exert their toxic effects through interactions with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc). Specific mutations in Vssc (kdr, kdr-his and super-kdr) are known to cause resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in house flies. In order to determine the number of evolutionary origins of kdr, kdr-his and super-kdr, we sequenced a region of Vssc from house flies collected in the USA, Turkey and China. Our phylogenetic analysis of Vssc unequivocally supports the hypothesis of multiple independent origins of kdr, super-kdr and kdr-his on an unprecedented geographic scale. The implications of these evolutionary processes on pest management are discussed. PMID:23285178

  7. Interactions between Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae and Sublethal Doses of Spinosad for Control of House Fly, Musca domestica

    PubMed Central

    Sharififard, M; Mossadegh, MS; Vazirianzadeh, B; Zarei-Mahmoudabadi, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Metarhizium anisopliae strain IRAN 437C is one of the most virulent fungal isolates against house fly, Musca domestica. The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of this isolate with sublethal doses of spinosad against housefly. Methods: In adult bioassay, conidia of entomopathogenic fungus were applied as inoculated bait at 105 and 107 spore per gram and spinosad at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 μg (A.I.) per gram bait. In larval bioassay, conidia were applied as combination of spore with larval bedding at 106 and 108 spore per gram and spinosad at sublethals of 0.002, 0.004 and 0.006 μg (AI) per gram medium. Results: Adult mortality was 48% and 72% for fungus alone but ranged from 66–87% and 89–95% in combination treatments of 105 and 107 spore/g with sublethal doses of spinosad respectively. The interaction between 105 spore/g with sublethals exhibited synergistic effect, but in combination of 107 spore in spite of higher mortality, the interaction was additive. There was significant difference in LT50 among various treatments. LT50 values in all combination treatments were smaller than LT50 values in alone ones. Larval mortality was 36% and 69% for fungus alone but ranged from 58%–78% and 81%–100% in combination treatments of 106 and 108 spore/g medium with sublethals of spinosad respectively. The interaction was synergistic in all combination treatments of larvae. Conclusion: The interaction between M. anispliae and spinosad indicated a synergetic effect that increased the house fly mortality as well as reduced the lethal time. PMID:22808408

  8. Mechanism, stability and fitness cost of resistance to pyriproxyfen in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-03-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a bio-rational insecticide, used worldwide for the management of many insect pests including the house fly, Musca domestica. To devise a retrospective resistance management strategy, biological parameters of pyriproxyfen resistant (Pyri-SEL), unselected (UNSEL), Cross1 and Cross2M. domestica strains were studied in the laboratory. Additionally, the stability and mechanism of resistance was also investigated. After 30 generations of pyriproxyfen selection, a field-collected strain developed 206-fold resistance compared with susceptible strain. Synergists such as piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate did not alter the LC50 values, suggesting another cause of target site resistance to pyriproxyfen in the Pyri-SEL strain. The resistance to all tested insecticides was unstable in Pyri-SEL strain. The relative fitness of 0.51 with lower fecundity, hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, reduced mean population growth rate and net reproductive rate were observed in the Pyri-SEL strain compared with the UNSEL strain. The cost of fitness associated with pyriproxyfen resistance was evident in Pyri-SEL strain. The present study provides useful information for making pro-active resistance management strategies to delay resistance development.

  9. Experimental inoculation of house flies Musca domestica with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis serovar equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Actinomycetales: Corynebacteriaceae) infection in horses causes external abscesses, infection of internal organs and ulcerative lymphangitis. The exact mechanism of infection remains unknown, but fly transmission is suspected. Scientists at Auburn University and U...

  10. Stability of Field-Selected Resistance to Conventional and Newer Chemistry Insecticides in the House Fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, N; Ijaz, M; Shad, S A; Khan, H

    2015-08-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a pest of livestock and has the ability to develop resistance to different insecticides. We assessed the fluctuations in seasonal stability of house fly resistance to insecticides from poultry facility populations in Pakistan. House fly populations were collected from poultry facilities located at Khanewal, Punjab, Pakistan in three seasons (July, November, and March) to investigate the fluctuations in their resistance to conventional (organophosphate, pyrethroid) and novel chemistry (spinosyn, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid) insecticides. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions, and cotton pads dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results showed that all house fly populations had varying degrees of susceptibility to tested insecticides. Comparisons between populations at different seasons showed a significant fluctuation in susceptibility to organophosphate, pyrethroid, spinosyn, oxadiazine, and neonicotinoid insecticides. Highest resistant levels were found for organophosphate when compared with other tested insecticides. The resistance to conventional insecticides decreased significantly in March compared with July and November, while resistance to oxadiazine and avermectins decreased significantly in November. However, resistance to spinosad and imidacloprid remained stable throughout the seasons. All conventional and novel chemistry insecticides were significantly correlated with each other in all tested seasons except nitenpyram/lambda-cyhalothrin and nitenpyram/imidacloprid. Our data suggests that the variation in house fly resistance among seasons could be due to fitness costs or to the cessation of selection pressure in the off-season. These results have significant implications for the use of insecticides in house fly management.

  11. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Iqbal, Javaid; Naeem-Ullah, Unsar

    2015-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR) at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL) for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible), the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively). In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies. PMID:25938578

  12. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Iqbal, Javaid; Naeem-Ullah, Unsar

    2015-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR) at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL) for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible), the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively). In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies.

  13. Risk assessment, cross-resistance potential, and biochemical mechanism of resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field strain of house fly (Musca domestica Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Tiyyabah; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Iqbal, Naeem; Zubair, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    Reduced sensitivity to insecticides in insect pests often results in control failures and increases in the dose and frequency of applications, ultimately polluting the environment. Reduced sensitivity to emamectin benzoate, a broad-spectrum agrochemical belonging to the avermectin group of pesticides, was reported in house flies (Musca domestica L.) collected from Punjab, Pakistan, in 2013. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk for resistance development, biochemical mechanism, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides in an emamectin benzoate selected (EB-SEL) strain of house flies. A field-collected strain showing reduced sensitivity to emamectin was re-selected in the laboratory for five consecutive generations and compared with a laboratory susceptible (Lab-Susceptible) reference strain, using bioassays. The field strain showed rapid development of resistance to emamectin (resistance ratio (RR) increased from 35.15 to 149.26-fold) as a result of selection experiments; however, resistance declined when the selection pressure uplifted. The EB-SEL strain showed reduction in resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that the metabolic resistance mechanism was not responsible in developing emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain. In conclusion, the risk for the rapid development of emamectin resistance under continuous selection pressure suggests using a multifaceted integrated pest management approach for house flies. Moreover, the instable nature of emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain and lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides provide windows for the rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. This will ultimately reduce emamectin selection pressure and help improving management programs for house flies without polluting the

  14. Risk assessment, cross-resistance potential, and biochemical mechanism of resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field strain of house fly (Musca domestica Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Tiyyabah; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Iqbal, Naeem; Zubair, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    Reduced sensitivity to insecticides in insect pests often results in control failures and increases in the dose and frequency of applications, ultimately polluting the environment. Reduced sensitivity to emamectin benzoate, a broad-spectrum agrochemical belonging to the avermectin group of pesticides, was reported in house flies (Musca domestica L.) collected from Punjab, Pakistan, in 2013. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk for resistance development, biochemical mechanism, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides in an emamectin benzoate selected (EB-SEL) strain of house flies. A field-collected strain showing reduced sensitivity to emamectin was re-selected in the laboratory for five consecutive generations and compared with a laboratory susceptible (Lab-Susceptible) reference strain, using bioassays. The field strain showed rapid development of resistance to emamectin (resistance ratio (RR) increased from 35.15 to 149.26-fold) as a result of selection experiments; however, resistance declined when the selection pressure uplifted. The EB-SEL strain showed reduction in resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that the metabolic resistance mechanism was not responsible in developing emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain. In conclusion, the risk for the rapid development of emamectin resistance under continuous selection pressure suggests using a multifaceted integrated pest management approach for house flies. Moreover, the instable nature of emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain and lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides provide windows for the rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. This will ultimately reduce emamectin selection pressure and help improving management programs for house flies without polluting the

  15. Resistance of the house fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) to lambda-cyhalothrin: mode of inheritance, realized heritability, and cross-resistance to other insecticides.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2014-07-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, has been used frequently for the control of house flies, Musca domestica L., worldwide including Pakistan. To assess the resistance risk and design a resistance management strategy, a house fly population was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin in the laboratory to assess inheritance and heritability, and cross-resistance to other insecticides, including different chemical classes. After 11 generations of selection, the population developed 113.57-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the susceptible population. There was no cross-resistance to bifenthrin and methomyl, but very low cross-resistance to abamectin and indoxacarb in the lambda-cyhalothrin selected population compared to the field population. Synergism bioassay with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin resistance was associated with microsomal oxidases and esterases. The LC50 values of F1 (Lambda-SEL ♀ × Susceptible ♂) and F'1 (Lambda-SEL ♂ × Susceptible ♀) populations were not significantly different and dominance (DLC) values were 0.68 and 0.62. The resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin was completely recessive (DML = 0.00) at highest dose and completely dominant at lowest dose (DML = 0.95). The monogenic model of inheritance showed that lambda-cyhalothrin resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The heritability values were 0.20, 0.04, 0.003, 0.07 and 0.08 for lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, methomyl, indoxacarb and abamectin resistance, respectively. It was concluded that lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in house flies was autosomally inherited, incompletely dominant and controlled by multiple factors. These findings would be helpful to improve the management of house flies.

  16. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  17. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  18. Assessment of resistance risk to lambda-cyhalothrin and cross-resistance to four other insecticides in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin, a sodium channel modulator insecticide, has been used frequently for the control of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) worldwide, including Pakistan. This experiment was performed to determine the selection and assessment of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance evolution along with four other insecticides. After 26 generations of selection, the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected population developed 445-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the susceptible population. There was low cross-resistance to bifenthrin and very low cross-resistance to methomyl, imidacloprid, and fipronil in the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected population compared to the field population (G1). Realized heritability (h (2)) of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, methomyl, imidacloprid, and fipronil was 0.07, 0.05, 0.01, 0.08, and 0.08, respectively. The projected rate of resistance development revealed that if 90 % house flies were selected, then a tenfold increase in lethal concentration 50 occurred after 17, 20, 159, 13, and 14 generations for lambda-cyhalothrin (h (2) = 0.07, slope = 2.09), bifenthrin (h (2) = 0.05, slope = 1.73), methomyl (h (2) = 0.01, slope = 2.52), imidacloprid (h (2) = 0.08, slope = 1.89), and fipronil (h (2) = 0.08, slope = 2.03), respectively. The results of our study concluded that the house fly has the potential to develop multiple insecticide resistances following continued selection pressure with lambda-cyhalothrin. This study will be helpful for assisting the development of resistance management strategies.

  19. Biological potential study of metal complexes of sulphonylurea glibenclamide on the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera—Muscidae): Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Abdallah, S. M.; Zayed, M. A.; Nassar, M. M. I.

    2009-10-01

    The ligatation behaviour of sulphonylurea glibenclamide drug is studied in order to give an idea about its potentiality towards some transition metals in vitro systems. Metal complexes of glibenclamide (GCA; H 3L) drug are prepared and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, diffused reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques. From the elemental analyses data, the complexes are proposed to have the general formulae [M(H 3L)Cl n(H 2O) m]· yH 2O (where M = Cr(III) ( n = 3, m = 1, y = 3); Mn(II) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 1); Fe(III) ( n = 3, m = 1, y = 0), Co(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 0); Ni(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 3); Cu(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 2) and Zn(II) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 0). The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that GCA is coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral bidentate manner with OO donor sites of the amide- O and sulphone -O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral except Mn(II) and Zn(II) complexes which have tetrahedral structure. The thermal behaviour of these chelates is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG and DTG) technique. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method. The GCA drug, in comparison to its metal complexes also is screened for its biological activity against house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera—Muscidae). Dose of 5 μg/insect of GCA is topically applied against 3 days old larval instar of M. domestica. Survival of pupal and adult stages has been affected by the complexes of GCA more than larval instars. Morphogenic abnormalities of larvae, pupae and adults are studied. On the other hand pupation and adult emergence program is deteriorated by the effect of different chemicals.

  20. Host Suitability of House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), Pupae Killed by High or Low Temperature Treatment for a Parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kohei; Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Arakawa, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i) heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii) freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to −80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. When house fly pupae stored at −20°C after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, progeny production was significantly less than live pupae. Moreover, productivity became very low when house fly pupae refrigerated at 3°C after heat- or freeze-killing were supplied to S. endius. On the other hand, when house fly pupae stored at −80°C for 1 year after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, the average number of parasitoids that emerged was not significantly different from live pupae. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from freeze-killed hosts kept for more than 8 weeks at −80°C was significantly fewer than live pupae. Thus, this study clarified that a higher-quality host can be maintained not only by simply storing at –80°C but also by adding heat treatment before storage. PMID:23049472

  1. Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2014-04-01

    Houseflies, Musca domestica (L.), are ubiquitous pests that have the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans, poultries, and dairies. Pesticides are commonly used for the management of this pest. Fipronil is a GABA-gated chloride channel-inhibiting insecticide that has been commonly used for the management of different pests including M. domestica throughout the world. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A field-collected strain of M. domestica was selected with fipronil for continuous 11 generations to assess the cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability for designing a resistance management strategy. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions and cotton soaks dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results at G12 showed that the fipronil-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 140-fold compared to the susceptible strain. Synergism bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) indicated that fipronil resistance was associated with microsomal oxidase and also esterase. Reciprocal crosses between resistant and susceptible strains showed an autosomal and incompletely dominant resistance to fipronil. The LC50 values of F1 and F'1 strains were not significantly different and dominance values were 0.74 and 0.64, respectively. The resistance to fipronil was completely recessive (D(ML) = 0.00) at the highest dose and incompletely dominant at the lowest dose (D(ML) = 0.87). The monogenic resistance based on chi-square goodness of fit test and calculation of the minimum number of segregating genes showed that resistance to fipronil is controlled by multiple genes. The fipronil resistance strain confirmed very low cross-resistance to emamectin benzoate and spinosad while no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and acetamiprid when compared to that of the field population

  2. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-E. coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult house flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas where humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. We investigated ...

  3. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi in horses by house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The route of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insects is suspected. Scientists from CMAVE and Auburn University investigated house flies (Musca domestica L.) as possible vectors. Three ponies were directly inoculated with C. pseudotuber...

  4. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses by house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The route of infection of pigeon fever remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to investigate house flies (Musca domestica L.) as vectors of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses. Eight ponies were used in a randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study. Ten wounds were creat...

  5. Transmission ecology of the fly Musca sorbens, a putative vector of trachoma.

    PubMed

    Emerson, P M; Bailey, R L; Mahdi, O S; Walraven, G E; Lindsay, S W

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that eye-seeking flies are important trachoma vectors. We conducted a series of investigations to identify which species of synanthropic flies are potential vector(s) of this blinding disease in The Gambia. Several species of fly were caught in fish-baited attractant traps placed in villages throughout the year (1997/98) but only 2 species, Musca sorbens and M. domestica, were caught from the eyes of children. M. sorbens comprised < 10% of the total number of flies caught with attractant traps but was responsible for > 90% of fly-eye contacts, the remainder were made by M. domestica. All fly species were more numerous in the wet season than the dry season. Eyes of young children are considered to be the main reservoir of Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of trachoma. Collections of eye-seeking flies from children showed frequent fly-eye contacts (median [interquartile range], 3 [1.5-7] every 15 min). Children with potentially infective ocular or nasal discharge had twice as many fly-eye contacts than children with no discharge (P < 0.001). There was no difference in exposure to fly-eye contacts if a child sat inside or outside a house (P = 0.273). Female flies were more commonly caught from eyes than male (P < 0.001). The presence of Chlamydia DNA was demonstrated by PCR on 2 of 395 flies caught from the eyes of children with a current active trachoma infection. Both positive flies were M. sorbens, one male and the other female. Further elucidation of M. sorbens behavioural ecology and the development of sustainable strategies to control these flies should be a priority. It is likely that M. sorbens is the principal insect vector of trachoma in The Gambia.

  6. Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hussnain; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritability of resistance. Toxicological bioassay at G14 showed that the imidacloprid-selected population developed 106-fold resistance when compared to the susceptible population. Reciprocal crosses of susceptible and resistant populations showed an autosomal trait of resistance to imidacloprid in M. domestica. There was incompletely recessive resistance in F1 (Imida-SEL ♂ × Susceptible ♀) and F1(†) (Imida-SEL ♀ × Susceptible ♂) having dominance value 0.53 and 0.31, respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance showed that imidacloprid resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The realized heritability value was 0.09 in the imidacloprid-selected population of M. domestica. It was concluded that imidacloprid resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful management of M. domestica. PMID:25175648

  7. Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hussnain; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritability of resistance. Toxicological bioassay at G14 showed that the imidacloprid-selected population developed 106-fold resistance when compared to the susceptible population. Reciprocal crosses of susceptible and resistant populations showed an autosomal trait of resistance to imidacloprid in M. domestica. There was incompletely recessive resistance in F1 (Imida-SEL ♂ × Susceptible ♀) and F1(†) (Imida-SEL ♀ × Susceptible ♂) having dominance value 0.53 and 0.31, respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance showed that imidacloprid resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The realized heritability value was 0.09 in the imidacloprid-selected population of M. domestica. It was concluded that imidacloprid resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful management of M. domestica.

  8. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) that were exposed as young flies to filter paper (3.75 % a.i.) or sugar (0.01-0.1 %) treated with pyriproxyfen produced significantly fewer F1 pupae than untreated flies but adult emergence success from pupae was unaffected. In contrast, treatment of larval re...

  9. Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report our recent findings on the identification of volatile compounds released from the ChiangKiang vinegar that is attractive to house flies, Musca domestica. The field trapping experiments showed that the traps baited with 50-ml of the vinegar captured the highest house flies in the diary farm...

  10. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert D; Blanford, Simon; Jenkins, Nina E; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L.) challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  11. [Effectiveness of 2,6-dihalogenbenzoyl urea derivatives as potential inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis regarding the house fly Musca domestica L. and cockroach Blatella germanica L].

    PubMed

    Styczyńska, B; Krzemińska, A; Sobótka, W; Balicki, R

    1989-01-01

    The biological activity was determined of 20 compounds from the group of asymmetrically substituted urea derivatives. They were derivatives of 1-(hetero)-aryl-3(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea, compounds in Table 1, (1-12) which represented three groups of compounds: a) monochlorine or trifluoromethyl derivatives of benzene, b) monomethyl-substituted 2-pyridine derivatives, c) a derivative of 5-bromo-3-pyridine, and symmetrical derivates (Table 2 compounds 1-8) 2.2; 3.3; 4.4 groupings: a) N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea derivatives, and b) N-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzoyl)urea derivatives. The experiment was carried out on larvae and adult forms of M. domestica L. and Blatella germanica L. The tested substances were administered in food to the insects. Of the tested compounds complete inhibition of the development of flies was caused by the compound designated with the symbol AG 6. Compounds AG 13, AG 15 and AG 17 given to larvae inhibited the development of the insects by 33 to 100% acting mainly in later phases of the development (pupation). Compound AG 5 was found to be a very strong inhibitor of the development of cockroaches acting on larvae and adult females Of 800 tested larvae exposed to concentrations 0.001 to 1% none reached the adult phase. The exposed adult females formed cocoons but no larvae hatched from them.

  12. Retention of Escherichia coli by house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) during pupal metamorphosis and eclosion.

    PubMed

    Rochon, K; Lysyk, T J; Selinger, L B

    2005-05-01

    Populations of Escherichia coli obtained by feeding larval house flies, Musca domestica L. and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), persisted through the pupal stage. The abundance of E. coli in house fly pupae increased initially then declined before adult emergence. Abundance of E. coli in stable fly pupae increased through pupal development and remained high. Infected stable fly pupal cases typically contained more E. coli than house fly pupal cases. A greater proportion of emerging adult house flies were infected with E. coli compared with stable flies; however, the abundance of E. coli on infected flies was similar between species. Adult flies contained 0.04-0.19% of the E. coli in the pupal cases. The proportion of infected house fly adults and the amount of E. coli on the infected flies were related to the levels of E. coli in the pupal cases; however, these relationships did not occur with the stable fly. Results suggest that retention of E. coli from larval to adult house flies could play a role in the transmission and spread of E. coli, whereas stable fly adults probably play a minor role in E. coli spread. However, pupae of both species have potential to act as reservoirs for E. coli.

  13. Some ultrastructural superficial changes in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae induced by eucalyptol oil.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Boonchu, Noppawan; Piangjai, Somsak

    2004-01-01

    The ultrastructural superficial changes in third instar house fly (Musca domestica) and blow fly (Chrysomya megacephala) induced by eucalyptol oil were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Dipped in 0.902 g/ml eucalyptol for 30 sec, the larvae integument of both species showed significant aberrant appearance of the body surface, particularly swelling integument, bleb formation, partial breach and deformation of spines. PMID:15517029

  14. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate.

    PubMed

    Geden, C J; Steenberg, T; Lietze, V-U; Boucias, D G

    2011-12-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), rat-tail maggot flies (Eristalis tenax) or yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) collected from MdSGHV-positive farms displayed characteristic salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). In laboratory transmission tests, SGH symptoms were not observed in stable flies, flesh flies (Sarcophaga bullata), black dump flies (Hydrotaea aenescens), or face flies (Musca autumnalis) that were injected with MdSGHV from Danish house flies. However, in two species (stable fly and black dump fly), virus injection resulted in suppression of ovarian development similar to that observed in infected house flies, and injection of house flies with homogenates prepared from the salivary glands or ovaries of these species resulted in MdSGHV infection of the challenged house flies. Mortality of virus-injected stable flies was the highest among the five species tested. Virulence of Danish and Florida isolates of MdSGHV was similar with three virus delivery protocols, as a liquid food bait (in sucrose, milk, or blood), sprayed onto the flies in a Potter spray tower, or by immersiion in a crude homogenate of infected house flies. The most effective delivery system was immersion in a homogenate of ten infected flies/ml of water, resulting in 56.2% and 49.6% infection of the house flies challenged with the Danish and Florida strains, respectively.

  15. Bacterial associations across house fly life history: Evidence for trans-stadial carriage from managed manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) associate with microbe-rich substrates throughout life history. Since larvae utilize bacteria as a food source, most taxa present in the larval substrate, e.g. manure, are digested or degraded. However, some species survive and are present as third...

  16. Persistence of Escherichia coli in immature house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in relation to larval growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Rochon, K; Lysyk, T J; Selinger, L B

    2004-11-01

    The persistence of Escherichia coli in artificially fed larvae was examined for up to 48 h after ingestion by house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). The rate of change in the E. coli load was similar for both species for up to 5 h after ingestion. Up to 48 h after ingestion, abundance of E. coli declined in immature house flies but remained constant in immature stable flies. When different E. coli concentrations were fed to larvae, the abundance of E. coli increased in stable fly larvae regardless of the initial concentration. The E. coli load in house fly larvae increased when larvae were fed a low concentration of bacteria, but it declined when larvae were fed a high concentration of bacteria. Survival of house fly and stable fly larvae averaged 62 and 25%, respectively, when reared on pure E. coli cultures. These observations suggest that house fly larvae digest E. coli and use it as a food source but stable fly larvae do not.

  17. Development and Oviposition Preference of House Flies and Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Six Substrates From Florida Equine Facilities.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Hogsette, J A; Leppla, N C

    2014-11-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine the success and duration of larval development and oviposition preferences on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. Substrates tested were hay soiled with urine and manure, fresh horse manure, pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (<12 h old), pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (aged >72 h in a manure pile), builders sand bedding soiled with urine and manure aged 3 d, and soil from an overgrazed pasture mixed with urine and manure of variable age. House fly larvae failed to develop into adults in hay, soil, and sand substrates. Stable flies preferred to oviposit on substrates with plant material and not on fresh manure. However, when eggs were added to the substrates, pupariation was maximal in fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrate. Stable flies developed in all six equine substrates, but development was less successful on the substrates with soil. In choice tests, fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrates were the most attractive for house fly oviposition. These substrates also yielded the greatest number of house fly puparia from artificially added eggs. An understanding of oviposition preferences and differential larval development of house flies and stable flies on these substrates may help develop options for reducing pest populations by effectively managing equine waste and selecting appropriate bedding materials.

  18. Insecticide resistance in house flies from the United States: Resistance levels and frequency of pyrethroid resistance alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although insecticide resistance is a widespread problem for most insect pests, frequently the assessment of resistance occurs over a limited geographic range. Herein we report the first widespread survey of insecticide resistance ever undertaken for the house fly, Musca domestica, a major pest of a...

  19. Purification and characterization of an antimicrobial peptide, insect defensin, from immunized house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Dang, X L; Wang, Y S; Huang, Y D; Yu, X Q; Zhang, W Q

    2010-11-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is involved in phoretic movement of pathogenic agents, but it has a very efficient defense mechanism against infection. It is believed that antimicrobial peptides play a significant role in the defense system of the house fly. Here, we isolated a peptide from the immunized house fly pupae, measured its molecular mass (3987.6 Da) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight-mass spectrometry, and determined its amino acid sequence by using the Procise Protein Sequencing System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The peptide was confirmed as a member of the insect defensin family. It displayed high activity against gram-positive bacteria but lower activity against gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the house fly defensin gene was constitutively expressed in naive pupae and strongly up-regulated after immunization. House fly defensin is an amphiphilic peptide with a structure similar to that of the CSalphabeta scaffold of insect defensin A from the flesh fly, Phormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated and characterized house fly antimicrobial peptide, and our work may provide useful information for developing pharmacologically active antimicrobial agents.

  20. Suppressing immature house and stable flies in outdoor calf hutches with sand, gravel, and sawdust bedding.

    PubMed

    Schmidtmann, E T

    1991-11-01

    Sand, gravel, sawdust, and pine shavings were used as bedding in outdoor calf hutches and compared with straw relative to the density of immature (maggot) house flies, Musca domestica, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans. In 6-wk field trials, average densities of house and stable fly maggots in concrete mix sand ranged from only .3 to 1.6 and 0 to .1 maggots/L, respectively; pea size gravel bedding also strongly suppressed densities from less than .1 to .3 and less than .1 to .1 maggots/L, respectively. These densities represent reductions of 76 to greater than 99% relative to straw bedding, but both sand and gravel compacted and became soiled with calf feces, which resulted in unacceptable bedding sanitation and foul odors. Densities of house and stable fly maggots in pine shavings did not differ from those in straw bedding. Nevertheless, in sawdust bedding, maggot density was limited to averages of 1.4 to 8.3 house and 9.8 to 11.8 stable fly maggots/L; this represented reductions of 45 to 91% relative to straw. In a follow-up trial, house and stable fly maggot densities in sawdust averaged 11.3 and 43.9 maggots/L, respectively, reductions of 77 and 46%. These findings suggest that bedding calf hutches with sawdust during warm weather can be useful as an ecologically sound approach to controlling muscoid fly populations on dairy farms.

  1. Procurement and persistence of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in male and female house flies exposed to cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are associated with animal manure and other microbe-rich substrates. Consequently, both sexes can acquire and potentially disseminate pathogenic bacteria to surrounding environments, including residential areas, via contaminated body parts and/or ...

  2. Use of bioluminescent Escherichia coli to determine retention during the life cycle of the housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae, L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have documented that the house fly (Musca domestica) can serve as a bio-enhanced vector for the spread of pathogens to livestock, food, and humans. However, current data has investigated Musca domestica as a vector only after contact with/consuming the pathogen after emerging as an adul...

  3. Parasitism of Heterotylenchus autumnalis Nickle (Nematoda: Sphaerulariidae) to the Face Fly, Musca autumnalis De Geer (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Stoffolano, J G

    1970-10-01

    New information is reported on the parasitism of Heterotylenchus autumnalis upon its principal known host, Musca autumnalis. Black to brown spots are produced on the cuticle of all infected host larvae where the nematode penetrated. The principal damage to the host is castration of the female. In laboratory tests nematode larvae were not infective and did not leave the hosts before the female fly was 1 1 days old. Nematode larvae removed from infected male flies infected other hosts, but it is believed that in nature these larvae are unable to leave the host.

  4. Modeling the L4 neuron of the fly (Musca domestica) vision system.

    PubMed

    Olson, T E; Wilcox, M J; Barrett, S F

    2001-01-01

    Vision systems based on digital image processing techniques are limited in a variety of areas, particularly speed and memory. Contrast enhancement, image segmentation, object recognition, and object tracking require extensive processing. Biological vision systems drastically outperform computer based digital vision systems in these areas. The animal retina is composed of processing layers with specialized neural cells designed to enhance contrast, segment images, and even produce temporal information. In the vision system of the fly, Musca domestica, the L1, L2, and L4 monopolar cells are of particular interest. The photoreceptor terminals R1 through R6 and L1 and L2 form a cartridge with current shunting inhibition that enhances contrast at the first synaptic contact. L1 and L2 cells are thought to exaggerate contrast while also providing a data reduction encoding scheme to increase communication efficiency with L4 cells and the inner plexiform layer. Research conducted by the authors attempts to simulate the encoding scheme of L1, L2, and L4, and the interactions of these three monopolar cells. This paper proposes that L1 and L2 encode edge information and orientation related to a single cartridge via a sinusoidal modulation scheme. L4 mediates information processing between cartridges via three bi-directional dendritic communication with adjacent L4 cells. Finally, we propose that L4 also synthesizes and forwards the edge orientation information and image movement information to the medulla. A single cartridge simulation was conducted using Matlab. Simulation results will be compared to actual signals taken from the fly eye. Because the fly eye is modular, the goal of this research is to implement the L1, L2, and L4 cell function in analog hardware--the result being a real-time parallel analog vision system. PMID:11347424

  5. Does behaviour play a role in house fly resistance to imidacloprid-containing baits?

    PubMed

    Seraydar, K R; Kaufman, P E

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the role and type of behavioural mechanisms that function in house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), resistance to an imidacloprid-containing commercial fly bait, QuickBayt(®) , using an insecticide-susceptible and an imidacloprid-resistant strain. Mortality and feeding behaviour were observed through choice bioassays of three post-imidacloprid selected house fly generations to determine whether flies would consume the bait in the presence of an alternative food source. Mortality rates in choice containers progressively decreased in post-selection flies as QuickBayt(®) no-choice selections proceeded. There were no differences between the proportions of flies observed contacting QuickBayt(®) and sugar, respectively, a finding that eliminates repellency as a mechanism of stimulus-dependent behavioural resistance. However, differences in QuickBayt(®) consumption and subsequent mortality between choice and no-choice containers provided strong support for the evolution of consumption irritancy- or taste aversion-related behavioural resistance. The results of this study support the responsible rotation of insecticide bait formulations for house fly control.

  6. Temporospatial fate of bacteria and immune effector expression in house flies fed GFP-Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A; Kumar, H V; Joyner, C; Reynolds, A; Nayduch, D

    2014-12-01

    The house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) harbours and transmits a variety of human enteropathogens including Escherichia coli (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) O157:H7. Interactions between ingested bacteria and the fly gut directly impact bacterial persistence, survival and ultimately fly vector competence. We assessed the temporospatial fate of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing E. coli O157:H7 (GFP-ECO157) in house flies along with fly antimicrobial responses up to 12 h post-ingestion. In flies fed GFP-ECO157, culture and microscopy revealed a steady decrease in bacterial load over 12 h, which is likely to be attributable to the combined effects of immobilization within the peritrophic matrix, lysis and peristaltic excretion. However, flies can putatively transmit this pathogen in excreta because intact bacteria were observed in the crop and rectum. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozyme gene expression showed minimal upregulation in both the gut and carcass of house flies fed GFP-ECO157. However, these genes were upregulated in fly heads and salivary glands, and effector proteins were detected in the gut in some flies. Collectively, these data indicate that house flies can serve as reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 for up to 12 h, and factors in addition to AMPs and lysozyme may contribute to bacteria destruction in the gut.

  7. Role of house flies in the ecology of Enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Doud, C W; Scott, H M; Zurek, L

    2014-02-01

    Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with Enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. In this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, Musca domestica (L.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent E. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) to the surrounding urban environment. House flies and sludge from four WWTF (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to WWTF-1 were collected and cultured for enterococci. Enterococci were identified, quantified, screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and assessed for clonality. Of the 11 antibiotics tested, E. faecalis was most commonly resistant to tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, and these traits were intra-species horizontally transferrable by in vitro conjugation. Profiles of E. faecalis (prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and virulence traits) from each of WWTF sludge and associated house flies were similar, indicating that flies successfully acquired these bacteria from this substrate. The greatest number of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (i.e., gelatinase, cytolysin, enterococcus surface protein, and aggregation substance) originated from WWTF-1 that processed meat waste from a nearby commercial meat-processing plant, suggesting an agricultural rather than human clinical source of these isolates. E. faecalis from house flies collected from three sites 0.7-1.5 km away from WWTF-1 were also similar in their antibiotic resistance profiles; however, antibiotic resistance was significantly less frequent. Clonal diversity assessment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the same clones of E. faecalis from sludge and house flies from WWTF-1 but not from the three urban sites close to WWTF-1. This study demonstrates that house flies acquire antibiotic-resistant enterococci from WWTF and potentially

  8. Role of house flies in the ecology of Enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Doud, C W; Scott, H M; Zurek, L

    2014-02-01

    Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with Enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. In this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, Musca domestica (L.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent E. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) to the surrounding urban environment. House flies and sludge from four WWTF (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to WWTF-1 were collected and cultured for enterococci. Enterococci were identified, quantified, screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and assessed for clonality. Of the 11 antibiotics tested, E. faecalis was most commonly resistant to tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, and these traits were intra-species horizontally transferrable by in vitro conjugation. Profiles of E. faecalis (prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and virulence traits) from each of WWTF sludge and associated house flies were similar, indicating that flies successfully acquired these bacteria from this substrate. The greatest number of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (i.e., gelatinase, cytolysin, enterococcus surface protein, and aggregation substance) originated from WWTF-1 that processed meat waste from a nearby commercial meat-processing plant, suggesting an agricultural rather than human clinical source of these isolates. E. faecalis from house flies collected from three sites 0.7-1.5 km away from WWTF-1 were also similar in their antibiotic resistance profiles; however, antibiotic resistance was significantly less frequent. Clonal diversity assessment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the same clones of E. faecalis from sludge and house flies from WWTF-1 but not from the three urban sites close to WWTF-1. This study demonstrates that house flies acquire antibiotic-resistant enterococci from WWTF and potentially

  9. Efficacy and nontarget effects of Larvadex as a feed additive for controlling house flies in caged-layer poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Axtell, R C; Edwards, T D

    1983-12-01

    The insect growth regulator N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6 triamine (Larvadex, CGA 72662, cyromazine) was provided as a feed additive (.3% Premix per ton of feed) to caged laying hens under field conditions in high rise, wide span and narrow poultry houses. The chemical effectively controlled house flies (Musca domestica) and soldier flies (Hermetia illucens). The feed additive had no adverse effect on the populations of manure-inhabiting mites (Macrochelidae and Uropodidae) and histerid beetles (Carcínops pumulio), which prey on fly eggs and larvae. Satisfactory fly control was demonstrated by use of the additive 50% of the time when the interval without the additive in the feed was 4 days but not when the interval was 7 days. Use of a fly monitoring program to time the use of the feed additive is advocated.

  10. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered.

  11. House and Stable Fly Seasonal Abundance, Larval Development Substrates, and Natural Parasitism on Small Equine Farms in Florida.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Leppla, N C; Hogsette, J A

    2016-08-01

    House flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The successful use of pupal parasitoids for management of these pests requires knowledge of seasonal fluctuations and biology of the flies as well as natural parasitism levels. However, these dynamics have not been investigated on small equine farms. A 1-year field study began in July 2010, in north central Florida, to determine adult fly population levels and breeding areas on four small equine farms. Weekly surveillance showed that pest flies were present year-round, though there were differences in adult population levels among farms and seasons. Fly development was not confirmed on two of the four small farms, suggesting that subtle differences in husbandry may adversely affect the development of immature flies. In six substrates previously identified as the most common among the farms, stable fly puparia were found overwhelmingly in hay mixed with equine manure and house fly puparia were found in fresh pine shavings mixed with equine manure. Natural parasitism was minimal as expected, but greatest numbers of natural parasitoids collected were of the genus Spalangia. Differences in adult and immature fly numbers recovered emphasizes the need for farm owners to confirm on-site fly development prior to purchase and release of biological control agents. Additionally, due to the low natural parasitism levels and domination of parasitism by Spalangia cameroni, augmentative releases using this species may be the most effective.

  12. Circadian locomotor activity of Musca flies: Recording method and effects of 10 Hz square-wave electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, W.; Hellrung, W.; Johnsson, A.

    1996-05-01

    Musca domestica flies that were exposed to a uniform vertical 10 Hz electric square-wave field of 1 kVm{sup {minus}1} changed the period length of their circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Under constant conditions, the clock of short-period flies was slowed down by the field, whereas the clock of long-period flies either was affected only scarcely (experiments at about 19 C) or ran faster (experiments at 25 C). It the field was applied for only 12 h daily, then 30--40% of the flies were synchronized. Thus, the field could function as a weak Zeitgeber (synchronizer). If the field was increased to 10 kVm{sup {minus}1}, then 50--70% of the flies were synchronized. Flies avoided becoming active around the onset of the 12 h period of exposure to a 10 Hz field. The results of these experiments are discussed with respect to similar experiments by Wever on the effects of exposure to a 10 Hz field on the circadian system of man.

  13. The Australian bush fly (Musca vetustissima) as a potential vector in the transmission of foodborne pathogens at outdoor eateries.

    PubMed

    Vriesekoop, Frank; Shaw, Rachel

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Australian outdoor activities are often accompanied by a barbeque (BBQ) with family, friends, and guests, which are often interrupted by uninvited guests in the form of the Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima. We investigated the bacterial loading associated with the Australian bush in three different environments: on a cattle farm, in a typical urban area (shopping center car park), and at a BBQ. The highest bacterial populations per fly were found to occur in a farm environment ( approximately 9.1 x 10(4) CFU per fly), whereas the bacterial population was lowest on flies caught in an urban environment ( approximately 1.9 x 10(4) CFU per fly). The median CFU per fly caught near a BBQ was approximately 5.0 x 10(4). Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated potential pathogen, whereas Shigella sp. was the least common bacterial isolate that was screened. All isolated foodborne pathogens or indicator bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. This revealed a very high prevalence of multidrug resistance, especially among the Salmonella and Shigella isolates of 94% and 87% resistance, respectively, against amoxicillin, roxythromycin and cefaclor.

  14. Circadian locomotor activity of Musca flies: recording method and effects of 10 Hz square-wave electric fields.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, W; Hellrung, W; Johnsson, A

    1996-01-01

    Musca domestica flies that were exposed to a uniform vertical 10 Hz electric square-wave field of 1 kVm(-1) changed the period length of their circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Under constant conditions, the clock of short-period flies was slowed down by the field, whereas the clock of long-period flies either was affected only scarcely (experiments at about 19 degrees C) or ran faster (experiments at 25 degrees C). If the field was applied for only 12 h daily, then 30-40 percent of the flies were synchronized. Thus, the field could function as a weak "Zeitgeber" (synchronizer). If the field was increased to 10 kVm(-1), then 50-70 percent of the flies were synchronized. Flies avoided becoming active around the onset of the 12 h period of exposure to a 10 Hz field. The results of these experiments are discussed with respect to similar experiments by Wever on the effects of exposure to a 10 Hz field on the circadian system of man. PMID:9139632

  15. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N H V; Nayduch, D

    2016-06-01

    The adult house fly Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) can disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas in which humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. This study investigated the dose-dependent survival of bacteria in house flies. Flies were fed four different 'doses' of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli (GFP E. coli) (very low, low, medium, high) and survival was determined at 1, 4, 10 and 22 h post-ingestion by culture and epifluorescent microscopy. Over 22 h, the decline in GFP E. coli was significant in all treatments (P < 0.04) except the very low dose treatment (P = 0.235). Change in survival (ΔS) did not differ between flies fed low and very low doses of bacteria across all time-points, although ΔS in both treatments differed from that in flies fed high and medium doses of bacteria at several time-points. At 4, 10 and 22 h, GFP E. coli ΔS significantly differed between medium and high dose-fed flies. A threshold dose, above which bacteria are detected and destroyed by house flies, may exist and is likely to be immune-mediated. Understanding dose-dependent bacterial survival in flies can help in predicting bacteria transmission potential.

  16. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N H V; Nayduch, D

    2016-06-01

    The adult house fly Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) can disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas in which humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. This study investigated the dose-dependent survival of bacteria in house flies. Flies were fed four different 'doses' of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli (GFP E. coli) (very low, low, medium, high) and survival was determined at 1, 4, 10 and 22 h post-ingestion by culture and epifluorescent microscopy. Over 22 h, the decline in GFP E. coli was significant in all treatments (P < 0.04) except the very low dose treatment (P = 0.235). Change in survival (ΔS) did not differ between flies fed low and very low doses of bacteria across all time-points, although ΔS in both treatments differed from that in flies fed high and medium doses of bacteria at several time-points. At 4, 10 and 22 h, GFP E. coli ΔS significantly differed between medium and high dose-fed flies. A threshold dose, above which bacteria are detected and destroyed by house flies, may exist and is likely to be immune-mediated. Understanding dose-dependent bacterial survival in flies can help in predicting bacteria transmission potential. PMID:26843509

  17. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present.

  18. Impact of house fly salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on a heterologous host, Stomoxys calcitrans.

    PubMed

    Geden, C; Garcia-Maruniak, A; Lietze, V U; Maruniak, J; Boucias, D G

    2011-11-01

    The effect of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on selected fitness parameters of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), was examined in the laboratory. Virus-injected stable flies of both genders suffered substantially higher mortality than control flies. By day 9, female mortality was 59.3 +/- 10.1% in the virus group compared with 23.7 +/- 3.7% in the controls; mortality in virus-injected males was 78.1 +/- 3.1% compared with 33.3 +/- 9.3% for controls. Fecundity of control flies on days 6-9 was 49-54 eggs deposited per live female per day (total, 8,996 eggs deposited), whereas virus-injected flies produced four to five eggs per female on days 6-7 and less then one egg per female per day thereafter (total, 251 eggs). Fecal spot deposition by virus-injected flies was comparable to controls initially but decreased to approximately 50% of control levels by day 4 after injection; infected flies produced only 26% as many fecal spots as healthy flies on days 6 and 7. None of the virus-injected stable flies developed symptoms of salivary gland hypertrophy. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated virus replication in injected stable flies, with increasing titers of virus genome copies from one to four days after injection. MdSGHV in stable flies displayed tissue tropism similar to that observed in house fly hosts, with higher viral copy numbers in fat body and salivary glands compared with ovaries. Virus titers were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher in house fly than in stable fly hosts, and this difference was probably due to the absence of salivary gland hypertrophy in the latter species.

  19. Bacterial Associations Across House Fly Life History: Evidence for Transstadial Carriage From Managed Manure

    PubMed Central

    Zurek, Klara; Nayduch, Dana

    2016-01-01

    House flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) associate with microbe-rich substrates throughout life history. Because larvae utilize bacteria as a food source, most taxa present in the larval substrate, e.g., manure, are digested or degraded. However, some species survive and are present as third-instar larvae begin pupation. During metamorphosis, many bacteria are again lost during histolysis of the larval gut and subsequent remodeling to produce the gut of the imago. It has been previously demonstrated that some bacterial species survive metamorphosis, being left behind in the puparium, present on the body surface, or in the gut of the emerged adult. We used a combined culture-molecular approach to identify viable microbes from managed manure residue and a wild population of house fly larvae, pupae, puparia, and adults to assess transstadial carriage. All larval (10/10), pupal (10/10), and puparial (10/10) cultures were positive for bacteria. Several bacterial species that were present in larvae also were present either in pupae or puparia. Four viable bacterial species were detectable in 6 of 10 imagoes reared from manure. Of note is the apparent transstadial carriage of Bacillus sonorensis, which has been associated with milk spoilage at dairies, and Alcaligenes faecalis, which can harbor numerous antibiotic resistance genes on farms. The potential of newly emerged flies to harbor and disseminate bacteria from managed manure on farms is an understudied risk that deserves further evaluation. PMID:26798138

  20. Bacterial Associations Across House Fly Life History: Evidence for Transstadial Carriage From Managed Manure.

    PubMed

    Zurek, Klara; Nayduch, Dana

    2016-01-01

    House flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) associate with microbe-rich substrates throughout life history. Because larvae utilize bacteria as a food source, most taxa present in the larval substrate, e.g., manure, are digested or degraded. However, some species survive and are present as third-instar larvae begin pupation. During metamorphosis, many bacteria are again lost during histolysis of the larval gut and subsequent remodeling to produce the gut of the imago. It has been previously demonstrated that some bacterial species survive metamorphosis, being left behind in the puparium, present on the body surface, or in the gut of the emerged adult. We used a combined culture-molecular approach to identify viable microbes from managed manure residue and a wild population of house fly larvae, pupae, puparia, and adults to assess transstadial carriage. All larval (10/10), pupal (10/10), and puparial (10/10) cultures were positive for bacteria. Several bacterial species that were present in larvae also were present either in pupae or puparia. Four viable bacterial species were detectable in 6 of 10 imagoes reared from manure. Of note is the apparent transstadial carriage of Bacillus sonorensis, which has been associated with milk spoilage at dairies, and Alcaligenes faecalis, which can harbor numerous antibiotic resistance genes on farms. The potential of newly emerged flies to harbor and disseminate bacteria from managed manure on farms is an understudied risk that deserves further evaluation. PMID:26798138

  1. A mathematic model that describes modes of MdSGHV transmission within house fly populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper it is proposed that one potential component by which the Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) infects individual flies is through cuticular damage. Breaks in the cuticle allow entry of the virus into the hemocoel causing the infection. Male flies typically have a h...

  2. Gonotrophic development and survival in field populations of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) at dairies in California, Minnesota, and Georgia, and the relationship of fly age to relative abundance of (Z)-9-tricosene (muscalure).

    PubMed

    Butler, S M; Moon, R D; Hinkle, N C; Millar, J G; McElfresh, J S; Mullens, B A

    2013-07-01

    Adult female Musca domestica L. were collected in 2004 and 2005 from dairies in California, Minnesota, and Georgia. Relative abundance of (Z)-9-tricosene (muscalure) among the dominant eight hydrocarbons was determined. Fly heads then were removed to quantify pterin levels and estimate fly age, abdomens were dissected to score gonotrophic development and parity (follicular relics), and spermathecae were examined for sperm. Daily survival was assessed using two estimates of time required to become gravid: laboratory-based degree-day (DD) estimates and estimates based on pterin values in field-collected flies matched to their stages of gonotrophic development. Among newly emerged females (oocyte stage 1) with detectable muscalure, it comprised < approximately 1.5% of cuticular hydrocarbons. In muscalure-positive flies, muscalure comprised a higher proportion of cuticular hydrocarbons in older flies from California and Minnesota (6-9% when gravid) versus flies from Georgia (<2% when gravid). Females mated in early-intermediate stages of egg development. Life expectancy, using laboratory-derived estimates of time needed to become gravid, ranged from 3.6 to 10.6 d. Using equivalent pterin-based time estimates, life expectancy ranged from 4.0 to 19.5 d. Mean DD ages (12 degrees C threshold) of gravid flies varied widely (53-95 DD) and were congruent with laboratory-based estimates (52-57 DD) in only 7 of 12 farm-year combinations. Thus, house flies under natural conditions often required more time to develop eggs than laboratory models would predict, extending daily survival estimates based on gonotrophic age by 11-74%.

  3. Control of House Flies on Florida Dairy Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies are a health and general annoyance issue for both cattle and humans. Unfortunately dairy farms are endowed with odors and breeding sites which naturally attract house flies, making their control essential for healthy cattle and happy neighbors. Objective: Evaluate the relative effective...

  4. Diversity and Abundance of House Fly Pupal Parasitoids in Israel, with First Records of Two Spalangia Species.

    PubMed

    Chiel, Elad; Kuslitzky, Wolf

    2016-04-01

    Filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae), particularly the house fly, Musca domestica L., are global pests of livestock production. In this study, we characterized the fauna of house fly pupal parasitoids in Israel and identified factors affecting their diversity and abundance. The study, which included one round of sampling during the fall of 2013 and another round of sampling in the spring of 2014, encompassed 26 locations of common fly-breeding habitats: dairy, egg-laying, and goat farms throughout Israel. Nine parasitoid species were found: Spalangia cameroni Perkins, Spalangia endius Walker, Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, Spalangia gemina Boucek, Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan & Legner (all Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), and Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae). This is the first record of S. gemina from the Palearctic, as well as the first record of S. drosophilae from the Middle East. The composition and relative abundance of parasitoid species varied markedly among localities, climatic regions (Mediterranean vs. desert), habitat types (dairy vs. egg-laying vs. goat farm), and seasons. Overall, parasitoid richness in egg-laying farms was two- and sevenfold higher than in dairy and goat farms, respectively, and three times higher in Mediterranean than desert climate. The significance and implications of our results for inundative biological control programs of filth flies are discussed. PMID:26637547

  5. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  6. Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium

  7. Efficacy of cyantraniliprole fly bait against housefly (Musca domestica L.) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Q F; Li, X; Hunag, J B; Zhang, D M; Yuan, J Z

    2015-09-01

    Novel and effective baits are needed to manage pest housefly populations and avoid the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we bioassayed the efficacy of Zyrox®, a novel fly bait containing a novel 0.5 % cyantraniliprole insecticide, to kill adult houseflies under laboratory conditions. We found that Zyrox® killed a significantly greater proportion of flies than the current competing fly bait, QuickBayt®, after a 24-h exposure. The cumulative mortalities of houseflies were up to 96.36 % and 92.57 % for Zyrox® and 78.88 % and 68.76 % for QuickBayt® in no-choice and choice tests, respectively. Our results suggested that there was negligible behavioral resistance to both fly baits but revealed that Zyrox® appeared to work slower than QuickBayt® (at a 3-h exposure, proportionally fewer flies were killed by Zyrox® than by QuickBayt®). Importantly, we found that the efficacy of Zyrox® did not diminish with the age of the bait (up to 90 days old). In actual knockdown time (KDT) feeding bioassay, the results showed that Zyrox® knocked down flies significantly slower (11.97 min for females; 12.30 min for males) than QuickBayt® (1.89 min for females; 2.24 min for males). These results reveal the high efficacy of Zyrox® bait to kill adult flies and suggest that it is a promising slow-action bait for management of houseflies.

  8. Use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents of filth flies on equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents for filth flies is becoming more popular on equine facilities; however, there is a lack of information on the e...

  9. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus that Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry that is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a non-occluded dsDNA virus that inhibits egg production in...

  10. Susceptibility of spinosad in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) field populations.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Michael; Jespersen, Jørgen B

    2004-06-01

    The toxicity of spinosad was determined in one susceptible and five insecticide-resistant laboratory strains of house fly, Musca domestica L. Spinosad was relatively slow-acting, but highly toxic to house flies. In a feeding bioassay, spinosad LC50 at 72 h was 0.51 microg of spinosad per gram of sugar, making it 6.3- and 3.5-fold more toxic to house flies compared with azamethiphos and methomyl, respectively. In topical application bioassay, the LD50 at 48 h of spinosad in susceptible house flies was 40 ng per 20 mg of house fly, making spinosad less toxic than the pyrethroid bioresmethrin synergized by piperonyl butoxide and the organophosphate dimethoate. The insecticide-resistant laboratory strains had resistance factors to spinosad at LC50 in feeding bioassay from 1.5 to 5.5 and at LD50 in topical application bioassay from 2.5 to 4.7, indicating that in house fly cross-resistance to the major insecticide classes will not initially be of major concern for the use of spinosad for house fly control. The toxicity of spinosad was also evaluated against 31 field populations of house flies collected from livestock farms across Denmark. The field populations were 2.2- to 7.5-fold resistant to spinosad at 72 h in feeding bioassay, but based on steep slopes in the bioassay and the limited variation of spinosad toxicity against the various field populations, we consider the field populations to be spinosad-susceptible. We propose a diagnostic dose of 12 microg of spinosad per gram of sugar in feeding bioassay with impregnated sugar for determination of resistant house flies, which is 10x the LC95 of the susceptible strain WHO and approximately = 2x the LD95 of the field populations. Spinosad showed no substantial cross-resistance to the pyrethroid bioresmethrin synergized by piperonyl butoxide, the anticholinesterases dimethoate, azamethiphos, methomyl, and spinosad in house fly field populations.

  11. The potential of house flies to act as a vector of avian influenza subtype H5N1 under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Wanaratana, S; Panyim, S; Pakpinyo, S

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the potential for house flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) to harbour the avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus. Laboratory-reared flies were experimentally fed with a mixture containing the AI virus. Exposed flies were washed with brain-heart infusion broth and followed by 70% alcohol before preparation of whole fly homogenate. The homogenate was inoculated into six 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). Allantoic fluids were collected to determine the virus using the haemagglutination (HA) test, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR). In the first experiment, ECEs that were inoculated with the 50 AI virus exposed fly homogenates died within 48 h and HA and RT-PCR were positive for AI virus. In the second experiment, ECEs that were inoculated with only one fly died with positive HA test and RT-PCR. In the last experiment, a group of exposed flies was collected at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exposure. Fly homogenates of each time point were tested by virus titration in ECEs and RRT-PCR. Virus titres declined in relation to exposure time. Furthermore, RRT-PCR results were positive at any time point. The present study shows that the flies may harbour the AI virus and could act as a mechanical vector of the AI virus.

  12. Resistance to Conventional and New Insecticides in House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) From Poultry Facilities in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Ali Shad, Sarfraz; Ismail, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are pests of poultry facilities and have the ability to develop resistance against different insecticides. This study was conducted to assess the resistance status of house flies to pyrethroid, organophosphate, and novel chemistry insecticides from poultry facilities in Punjab, Pakistan. Five adult house fly populations were studied for their resistance status to selected conventional and novel chemistry insecticides. For four pyrethroids, the range of resistance ratios was 14-55-fold for cypermethrin, 11-45-fold for bifenthrin, 0.84-4.06-fold for deltamethrin, and 4.42-24-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin when compared with a susceptible population. Very low levels of resistance were found to deltamethrin compared with the other pyrethroids. For the three organophosphate insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.70-16-fold for profenofos, 7.50-60-fold for chlorpyrifos, and 4.37-53-fold for triazophos. Very low levels of resistance were found to profenofos compared with the other insecticides. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.20-16.00-fold for fipronil, 3.73-7.16-fold for spinosad, 3.06-23-fold for indoxacarb, 0.96-5.88-fold for abamectin, and 0.56-3.07-fold for emamectin benzoate. Rotation of insecticides with different modes of action showing no or very low resistance may prevent insecticide resistance in house flies. Regular insecticide resistance monitoring and integrated management plans on poultry farms are required to prevent resistance development, field control failures, and environmental pollution.

  13. Comparison of the Olfactory Preferences of Four Species of Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoid Species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for Hosts in Equine and Bovine Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  14. Comparison of host-seeking behavior of the filth fly pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, are often sold together for biological control of house flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking b...

  15. Experimental inoculation of house flies, Musca domestica L., with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis serovar equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Actinomycetales: Corynebacteriaceae) infection in horses causes three different disease syndromes: external abscesses, infection of internal organs and ulcerative lymphangitis. The route of infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insect vecto...

  16. Studies on medically important flies in Thailand. III. Report of species belonging to the genus Musca Linné, including the taxonomic key (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Tumrasvin, W; Shinonaga, S

    1977-09-01

    Twenty species belonging to the genus Musca Linné are reported from Thailand with taxonomic key. This study is based on the specimens available in the authors' collection and 8 species are the new records from this country. The newly recorded species are Musca interrupta pilifacies, M. lucens, M. fasciata, M. pattoni, M. planiceps, M. xanthomelas, M. bezzii and M. convexifrons.

  17. Purification of Lectin from Larvae of the fly, Musca domestica, and in Vitro Anti-Tumor Activity in MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, X.; Huo, Z.; Lu, M.; Mao, D.; Zhao, Q.; Xu, C.; Wang, C.; Zeng, B.

    2010-01-01

    A new lectin was purified from larvae of the fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) (MLL-2, 38 kDa) using affinity chromatography and HPLC. Anti-tumor activity of MLL-2 was demonstrated by its inhibition of proliferation of human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner. The results of acridine orange staining indicated that MLL-2 caused apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 cells has been detected by TUNEL. Flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that MLL-2 caused dose-dependent apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through cell arrest at G2/M phase. The MLL-2 induced a sustained increase in concentration of intracellular free calcium. Western blot revealed that MLL-2 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was associated with typical apoptosis proteins in the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the caspase-3 activity in MCF-7 cells treated with MLL-2 for 48 hours was significantly increased compared to controls (407.4 ± 3.0 vs. 1749.2 ± 6.0, P <0.01). Since MLL-2 induced apoptosis in MCF-7cells the mitochondrial pathway may be the main pathway of antitumor activity. PMID:21067415

  18. Persistent Pediatric Gastro-Intestinal Myiasis: A Case Report of Fly Larval Infestation with Musca Domestica with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Lal, Sandeep Kumar; Akhila; Shruthi; Sandhya, K.; Simar, Harender; Pranuthi, Mispah; Kumar, Moses Vinay; Anand, Kalaskar; Rao, Sanjeev D.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae. PMID:24049366

  19. Temporal changes in the abundance of Musca domestica Linn (Diptera: Muscidae) in poultry farms in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bong Lee; Jaal, Zairi

    2009-08-01

    Changes in the abundance of the house fly, Musca domestica, was studied for a period of one year in two poultry farms in Penang, Malaysia: one in Balik Pulau, located in Penang island, and the other in Juru, located on mainland Penang. The sampling of house flies were carried out from March 2007 to April 2008 using the Scudder grill, and the correlation with meteorological conditions particularly rainfall, relative humidity and temperature were observed. In Balik Pulau, the fly abundance showed an inverse relationship to relative humidity and total rainfall. However, no significant correlations were found between the abundance of flies and the above mentioned climatic factors. In contrast, the occurrence of flies in Juru showed strong correlation indices with relative humidity (r=0.803, p<0.05) and total rainfall (r=0.731, p<0.05). Temperature had no significant effect on the abundance of flies in both poultry farms due to imperceptible changes in monthly temperature.

  20. Laboratory method for measuring the attractiveness of pheromones to adult Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Lemke, L A; Koehler, P G; Patterson, R S

    1990-11-01

    A technique was developed for evaluating the effects of pheromones on adult house fly, Musca domestica (L.) feeding. U-shaped pipettes were placed next to Celotex blocks treated with (Z)-9-tricosene in cages with 200 adult house flies. The pipettes were filled with sucrose so that a positive meniscus formed where flies could feed. The amount of sucrose consumed was determined by measuring the amount needed to refill the pipettes after 24 h. Flies ingested significantly more sucrose solution placed near a Celotex block treated with (Z)-9-tricosene than from a control without pheromone. The cis and cis/trans isomers of (Z)-9-tricosene were equally effective in increasing ingestion. Commercially available polyvinylchloride strips were not as effective as the Celotex block when both were treated with (Z)-9-tricosene. Evaluation of these (Z)-9-tricosene presentations using our new laboratory method precluded the need for more costly field evaluations. PMID:2280391

  1. The survival of ingested Serratia marcescens in houseflies (Musca domestica L.) after electrocution with electric fly killers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Edward A; O'Neill, Gael; Anderson, Moray

    2003-02-01

    Electric fly killers (EFKs) are commonly used to control flying insects that enter food establishments. For establishment of the incidence of pathogen-bearing insects in food establishments, insect samples obtained from EFK trays could be used. The principal difficulty with this approach is that the survival time of microorganisms on or within insect corpses after electrocution is unknown. This study determined the survival of Serratia marcescens (as a representative of the enteric bacteria) within houseflies following their electrocution by a commercial EFK. S. marcescens was successfully ingested by houseflies and survived on and within the corpses after electrocution for up to 5 weeks. Maximal levels of bacteria were recovered 24 h postelectrocution. The study also demonstrates the ability of ingested S. marcescens to out-compete resident microbial flora within houseflies. The findings are intended to pave the way for further research to determine the incidence of pathogen-laden flying insects in food establishments.

  2. Global warming and house fly control: direct effects and biodiversity concerns.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies are major pests of human and animal health throughout the world and are among the most difficult to control. Effective fly management relies on a balance of sanitation, insecticide use, and biological control. Climate change could upset that balance in favor of the fly unless pro-activ...

  3. Identification and testing of oviposition attractant chemical compounds for Musca domestica

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Kone, N’Golopé; Chen, Jing-Hua; Zhu, Fen; Han, Ri-Chou; Lei, Chao-Liang; Kenis, Marc; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Oviposition attractants for the house fly Musca domestica have been investigated using electrophysiological tests, behavioural assays and field tests. Volatiles were collected via head space absorption method from fermented wheat bran, fresh wheat bran, rearing substrate residue and house fly maggots. A Y-tube olfactometer assay showed that the odor of fermented wheat bran was a significant attractant for female house flies. Bioactive compounds from fermented wheat bran for house fly females were identified by electrophysiology and mass spectrophotometry and confirmed with standard chemicals. Four electrophysiologically active compounds including ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, methyl linoleate, and linoleic acid were found at a proportion of 10:24:6:0.2. Functional imaging in the female antennal lobes revealed an overlapped active pattern for all chemicals. Further multiple-choice behavioural bioassays showed that these chemicals, as well as a mixture that mimicked the naturally occurring combination, increased the attractiveness of non-preferred rearing substrates of cotton and maize powder. Finally, a field demonstration test revealed that, by adding this mimic blend into a rearing substrate used to attract and breed house flies in West Africa, egg numbers laid by females were increased. These chemicals could be utilized to improve house fly production systems or considered for lure traps. PMID:27667397

  4. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts From Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Captured From the Hospital Environments in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kassiri, Hamid; Zarrin, Majid; Veys-Behbahani, Rahele; Faramarzi, Sama; Kasiri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Musca domestica L., 1758 is capable of transferring a number of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify medically important filamentous fungi and yeasts from adult M. domestica collected from two wards of three hospital environments in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. The common house flies were caught by a sterile net. These insects were washed in a solution of 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min and twice in sterile distilled water for 1 min. The flies were individually crushed with sterile swabs in sterile test tubes. Then 2 ml of sterile normal saline (0.85%) was added to each tube, and the tube was centrifuged for 5 min. The supernatant was then discarded, and the remaining sediment was inoculated with a sterile swab in the Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. Isolation and identification of fungi were made by standard mycological methods. In this research, totally 190 M. domestica from hospital environments were captured. In total, 28 fungal species were isolated. The main fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. (67.4%), Penicillium sp. (11.6%), Mucorales sp. (11%), Candida spp. (10.5%), and Rhodotorula sp. (8.4%). Among the house flies caught at the hospitals, about 80% were found to carry one or more medically important species of fungi. This study has established that common house flies carry pathogenic fungi in the hospital environments of Ahvaz. The control of M. domestica in hospitals is essential in order to control the nosocomial fungal infections in patients.

  5. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    PubMed

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment.

  6. Accumulation and depletion of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the housefly (musca domestica, L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.G. ); Storr-Hansen, E. )

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in food chains and in the environment are dynamic complex mixtures and there is considerable interest in the disposition as well as toxicities of individual congeners. The persistence and biological activities of PCBs are intimately associated with microsomal monooxygenases. The house fly, Musca domestica (L.), has long been a standard organism for studies of pesticide toxicology and has an active and well-defined microsomal monooxygenase system. These oxidases in the fly can be induced by PCBs. It was considered of interest to provide data which may indicate whether or not the relatively large and mobile biomass of insects in general may play a role in the global disposition of PCBs. It was also of interest to determine if the house fly could serve as a model for determining the relative accumulation, elimination, and toxicities of individual PCB congeners.

  7. Musca domestica inspired machine vision system with hyperacuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Dylan T.; Harman, William M.; Tomberlin, Eric; Barrett, Steven F.; Wilcox, Michael; Wright, Cameron H. G.

    2005-05-01

    Musca domestica, the common house fly, has a simple yet powerful and accessible vision system. Cajal indicated in 1885 the fly's vision system is the same as in the human retina. The house fly has some intriguing vision system features such as fast, analog, parallel operation. Furthermore, it has the ability to detect movement and objects at far better resolution than predicted by photoreceptor spacing, termed hyperacuity. We are investigating the mechanisms behind these features and incorporating them into next generation vision systems. We have developed a prototype sensor that employs a fly inspired arrangement of photodetectors sharing a common lens. The Gaussian shaped acceptance profile of each sensor coupled with overlapped sensor field of views provide the necessary configuration for obtaining hyperacuity data. The sensor is able to detect object movement with far greater resolution than that predicted by photoreceptor spacing. We have exhaustively tested and characterized the sensor to determine its practical resolution limit. Our tests coupled with theory from Bucklew and Saleh (1985) indicate that the limit to the hyperacuity response may only be related to target contrast. We have also implemented an array of these prototype sensors which will allow for two - dimensional position location. These high resolution, low contrast capable sensors are being developed for use as a vision system for an autonomous robot and the next generation of smart wheel chairs. However, they are easily adapted for biological endoscopy, downhole monitoring in oil wells, and other applications.

  8. Transcriptional response of Musca domestica larvae to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Li, Xiang; Yang, Xue; Yu, Xue; Wang, Jianhui; Liu, Fengsong; Huang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    The house fly Musca domestica, a cosmopolitan dipteran insect, is a significant vector for human and animal bacterial pathogens, but little is known about its immune response to these pathogens. To address this issue, we inoculated the larvae with a mixture of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and profiled the transcriptome 6, 24, and 48 h thereafter. Many genes known to controlling innate immunity in insects were induced following infection, including genes encoding pattern recognition proteins (PGRPs), various components of the Toll and IMD signaling pathways and of the proPO-activating and redox systems, and multiple antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, we also uncovered a large set of novel immune response genes including two broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides (muscin and domesticin), which might have evolved to adapt to house-fly's unique ecological environments. Finally, genes mediating oxidative phosphorylation were repressed at 48 h post-infection, suggesting disruption of energy homeostasis and mitochondrial function at the late stages of infection. Collectively, our data reveal dynamic changes in gene expression following bacterial infection in the house fly, paving the way for future in-depth analysis of M. domestica's immune system.

  9. Inheritance of Propoxur Resistance in a Near-Isogenic Line of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Shan, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Zhuo; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-04-01

    Propoxur, a carbamate insecticide, has been used worldwide for the control of house flies (Musca domestica L.) for many decades. Resistance levels to propoxur have been detected in field populations of house flies in many parts of the world, including China. In this study, a near-isogenic house fly line (N-PRR) resistant to propoxur was used to determine the mode of inheritance. Bioassay results showed no significant differences in LD50 values or in the slope of log dose-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1’ progenies, and the degree of dominance (D) was more than −1 and less than 0. Chi-square analysis of the responses of self-bred (F2, F2’) and backcross progenies (BC1, BC2, BC1’, and BC2’) indicated that a single gene was responsible for resistance. Propoxur resistance in the N-PRR strain of house fly was inherited as a single, major, autosomal, and incompletely recessive factor. These results should be useful to reveal the mode of inheritance and the development trend of propoxur resistance and develop a systematic strategy for the resistance management in house flies.

  10. Inheritance of Propoxur Resistance in a Near-Isogenic Line of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Shan, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Zhuo; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-04-01

    Propoxur, a carbamate insecticide, has been used worldwide for the control of house flies (Musca domestica L.) for many decades. Resistance levels to propoxur have been detected in field populations of house flies in many parts of the world, including China. In this study, a near-isogenic house fly line (N-PRR) resistant to propoxur was used to determine the mode of inheritance. Bioassay results showed no significant differences in LD50 values or in the slope of log dose-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1’ progenies, and the degree of dominance (D) was more than −1 and less than 0. Chi-square analysis of the responses of self-bred (F2, F2’) and backcross progenies (BC1, BC2, BC1’, and BC2’) indicated that a single gene was responsible for resistance. Propoxur resistance in the N-PRR strain of house fly was inherited as a single, major, autosomal, and incompletely recessive factor. These results should be useful to reveal the mode of inheritance and the development trend of propoxur resistance and develop a systematic strategy for the resistance management in house flies. PMID:26921225

  11. The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil on the development of Musca domestica third stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Azza S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil (Camphor oil) against the larval maturation and adult emergency of the house-fly, Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50% 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9 % and 0.7% showed 100% larval mortality rate. At concentrations of 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.1% the larval mortality rate was 90%. On the other hand, the developed pupae did not emerge to adults. Eucalyptus globulus oil is safe, cheap and widely used in Medicine. So, it is recommended to be use in controlling larvae of M. domestica. PMID:16083072

  12. Dynamics of insecticide resistance alleles in house fly populations from New York and Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of insecticide resistance alleles for two genes (Vssc1 and CYP6D1) was studied in field collected populations of house flies from two different climates. While the frequency of these resistance alleles in flies at dairies from four states has recently been reported, there is no infor...

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Insecticides for Use Against the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae): Determination of Resistance Levels on a Malaysian Poultry Farm.

    PubMed

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ahmad, Hamdan; Jaal, Zairi; Rus, Adanan Che

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the toxicology of two commercial larvicides--cyromazine (Neporex 50SP) and ChCy (combination of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, Naga 505)--and five commercial adulticides--thiamethoxam (Agita 10WG), cyfluthrin (Responsar WP), lambda-cyhalothrin (Icon 2.8EC), fipronil (Regent 50SC), and imidacloprid (Toxilat 10WP)--was examined against the WHO/VCRU (World Health Organization/ Vector Control Research Unit) susceptible strain and the AYTW (Ayer Tawar) field strain of house fly, Musca domestica L. These pesticides were administered topically, in the diet, or as a dry residue treatment on plywood. Probit analysis using at least five concentrations and the concentration that was lethal to 50% (LC(50)) of the organisms was applied to compare the toxicology and resistance levels of the AYTW population to different insecticides. In the larvicide laboratory study, ChCy was more effective than cyromazine, with a significantly lower LC(50) value when administered topically or in the diet, although the AYTW population was susceptible to both larvicides with a resistance ratio (RR) <10. For the adulticide laboratory study, cyfluthrin and fipronil exhibited the lowest LC50 values of the adulticides, indicating that they are both effective at controlling adult flies, although lambda-cyhalothrin showed moderate resistance (RR = 11.60 by topical application; 12.41 by plywood treatment). Further investigation of ChCy, cyromazine, cyfluthrin, and fipronil under field conditions confirmed that ChCy and cyromazine strikingly reduced larval density, and surprisingly, ChCy also exhibited adulticidal activity, which significantly reduced adult fly numbers compared with the control group. Cyfluthrin and fipronil were also confirmed to be effective, with a significant reduction in adult fly numbers compared with the control group.

  14. The evolving puzzle of autosomal versus Y-linked male determination in Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Ronda L; Meisel, Richard P; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2015-03-01

    Sex determination is one of the most rapidly evolving developmental pathways, but the factors responsible for this fast evolution are not well resolved. The house fly, Musca domestica, is an ideal model for studying sex determination because house fly sex determination is polygenic and varies considerably between populations. Male house flies possess a male-determining locus, the M factor, which can be located on the Y or X chromosome or any of the five autosomes. There can be a single M or multiple M factors present in an individual male, in heterozygous or homozygous condition. Males with multiple copies of M skew the sex ratio toward the production of males. Potentially in response to these male-biased sex ratios, an allele of the gene transformer, Md-tra(D), promotes female development in the presence of one or multiple M factors. There have been many studies to determine the linkage and frequency of these male determining factors and the frequency of Md-tra(D) chromosomes in populations from around the world. This review provides a summary of the information available to date regarding the patterns of distribution of autosomal, X-linked and Y-linked M factors, the relative frequencies of the linkage of M, the changes in frequencies found in field populations, and the fitness of males with autosomal M factors vs. Y-linked M. We evaluate this natural variation in the house fly sex determination pathway in light of models of the evolution of sex determination.

  15. Toxicity and resistance of field collected Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) against insect growth regulator insecticides.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Arshad, Muhammad; Hafeez, Faisal

    2016-04-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest of public health importance with the ability to develop insecticide resistance. The focus of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and resistance of the field collected house flies from Punjab, Pakistan, against insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides. House flies collected from six different localities exhibited very low levels of resistance to cyromazine, triflumuron, and methoxyfenozide compared with the Lab-susceptible reference strain, with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging between 3.56- to 8.19-fold, 1.45- to 3.68-fold, and 2.20- to 8.60-fold, respectively. However, very low to low levels of resistance were observed for pyriproxyfen and very low to moderate levels for lufenuron with RRs ranged from 4.13- to 11.63-fold to 8.57- to 22.75-fold, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RRs of cyromazine and triflumuron (r = 0.976, p < 0.001), suggesting the possibility for cross-resistance. Susceptibility status of different IGRs in Pakistani strains of house flies is reported here for the first time. The trend observed in decreasing susceptibility towards different IGR insecticides tested will continue unless resistance management practices are followed. PMID:26711449

  16. The Evolving Puzzle of Autosomal Versus Y-linked Male Determination in Musca domestica

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Ronda L.; Meisel, Richard P.; Scott, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination is one of the most rapidly evolving developmental pathways, but the factors responsible for this fast evolution are not well resolved. The house fly, Musca domestica, is an ideal model for studying sex determination because house fly sex determination is polygenic and varies considerably between populations. Male house flies possess a male-determining locus, the M factor, which can be located on the Y or X chromosome or any of the five autosomes. There can be a single M or multiple M factors present in an individual male, in heterozygous or homozygous condition. Males with multiple copies of M skew the sex ratio toward the production of males. Potentially in response to these male-biased sex ratios, an allele of the gene transformer, Md-traD, promotes female development in the presence of one or multiple M factors. There have been many studies to determine the linkage and frequency of these male determining factors and the frequency of Md-traD chromosomes in populations from around the world. This review provides a summary of the information available to date regarding the patterns of distribution of autosomal, X-linked and Y-linked M factors, the relative frequencies of the linkage of M, the changes in frequencies found in field populations, and the fitness of males with autosomal M factors vs. Y-linked M. We evaluate this natural variation in the house fly sex determination pathway in light of models of the evolution of sex determination. PMID:25552607

  17. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  18. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  19. Cloning and Characterization of a Bursicon-Regulated Gene Su(H) in the House Fly Musca domestica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bursicon is a neuropeptide that regulates cuticle sclerotization (hardening and tanning) in insect via G-protein coupled receptor. However, the signal transduction pathway down stream of the G-protein coupled receptor is currently not well known. In our recent microarray analysis, we identified a pa...

  20. Interaction between Beauveria bassiana and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of house fly larvae and adults in poultry houses.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2009-11-01

    Field trials were carried out in the poultry houses to determine if a spray formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin isolate R444 would enhance the control potential of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) applied in chicken feed as a larvicide against house fly larvae and the emergence of adult house flies. The trials compared larval mortalities and adult house fly emergence that resulted from the Bti plus B. bassiana treatments with those resulting from a commercial larvicide, Larvadex, plus B. bassiana treatments. All treatments significantly reduced the house fly larval densities and adult house fly emergence compared with any of the agents acting alone. After 6 wk of application, house fly larvae decreased by 11% as a result of B. bassiana treatment alone, 41% for 250 mg.kg(-1) Bti alone, and 42% for 500 mg.kg(-1) Bti alone. Larval mortalities as a result of the combination treatments were 45 and 52% as a result of 250 mg.kg(-1) Bti plus B. bassiana and 500 mg.kg(-1) Bti plus B. bassiana treatments respectively. House fly larval mortalities as a result of Larvadex and B. bassiana were 30% for Larvadex alone and 38% as a result of Larvadex plus B. bassiana. The Bti treatments were more effective at inhibiting the emergence of adult house flies than Larvadex, even when Larvadex was applied together with B. bassiana. The interaction effects of Bti plus B. bassiana and Larvadex plus B. bassiana were additive. These trials suggested that in the control of house fly larvae, the efficacy of Bti, applied as a larvicide, may be improved with frequent spray applications of B. bassiana to the chicken manure.

  1. Isolations of enteric pathogens from synanthropic flies trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Othman, M Z; Aziz, A H

    2000-06-01

    Four species of synanthropic flies were trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the organism causing melioidosis, was the dominant bacteria isolated from Chrysomya megacephala. Klebsiella oxytoca, commonly associated with nosocomial infections, was commonly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Aeromonas hydrophila, the bacteria causing gastroenteritis, was predominantly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala and also from Musca domestica and Musca sorbens. A total of 18 bacterial species was isolated from the synanthropic flies trapped. Burkholderia pseudomallei had been reported for the first time.

  2. A cross sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practices related to house flies among dairy farmers in Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background House flies are of major public health concerns in areas with poor sanitation and hygienic conditions. Unfortunately, sanitation and hygiene have always been ignored in dairy farms particularly in the developing or low-income countries. Management of these flies mostly depends on the awareness regarding associated hazards and protective measures taken by the people to minimize risks associated with flies. The present study therefore explores the knowledge, attitude and practices taken by dairy farmers in Punjab, Pakistan against house flies. Methods The present study was based on a cross sectional self administered survey to a convenience sample of 173 small scale dairy farmers in four localities – Multan, Lahore, Shorkot and Faisalabad – of Pakistan. The relationships between socio-demographics, knowledge and preventive practices were investigated through logistic regression analysis and chi-square test of association. Results Considerable number of dairy farmers 71/173 (41.04%) had no idea about the problems associated with house flies. Although 77/173 (44.51%) dairy farmers reported house flies as disease transmitters, only 23 (29.87%) farmers were familiar with diseases and 22 (28.57%) had somewhat idea of the mode of disease transmission. We found a positive association between dairy farmer’s education level and overall knowledge of house flies in multivariate analysis. Farmer’s education level and knowledge of the house flies breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of house fly prevention practices by the respondents. However, knowledge of the problems associated with house flies and preventive measures had no association with house fly prevention practices. Conclusion The present ethnoentomological survey provides information about knowledge, attitude and practices of dairy farmers related to house flies in Punjab, Pakistan. We conclude that the farmers’ education level and knowledge of the breeding sites had a

  3. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  4. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  5. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  6. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure. PMID:12076006

  7. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure.

  8. Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) larvae: developmental stages, migration route and morphological changes in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Amado, Sávio; Silveira, Andrea Kill; Vieira, Flávio Dias; Traversa, Donato

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the morphological modifications occurring during the larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), along with the reactions caused by parasitism and the migration route of the nematodes inside the flies. Houseflies were reared on faeces of a H. muscae-infected horse, then dissected and processed by histology. The experimental part of the study was performed in 1996 in the Parasitological Experimental Station W.O. Neitz, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Three different larval stages of H. muscae were recovered, measured and described. The encapsulation of larval nematodes was found in the third larval instar (L3) of M. domestica and cryptocephalic pupa. The mature capsules were observed in dipteran L3, pupae and mainly adults. In 1day-old or more M. domestica adults an active rupturing of capsules by H. muscae L3 and the migration to the head through the circulatory system and insect hemocoel were observed. Infective H. muscae L3s remained exclusively in the head of adult 5days-old or more M. domestica.

  9. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species.

  10. Insecticide Mixtures Could Enhance the Toxicity of Insecticides in a Resistant Dairy Population of Musca domestica L

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Lee, Jong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-“A” and LC50: LC50-“B”) significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies. PMID:23613758

  11. Vitamin B/sub 12/ and eicosanoids in insects. [Musca domestica, Coptotermes formosanus

    SciTech Connect

    Wakayama, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Vitamin B/sub 12/ was not detected in the house fly, Musca domestica, which apparently cannot interconvert propionate and succinate. In contrast, the termite readily interconverts succinate and methylmalonate, and contains high amounts of vitamin B/sub 12/. The intestinal bacteria were the major source of vitamin B/sub 12/ in the termite, Coptotermes formosanus. The presence of arachidonic acid (20:4) and eicosatrienoic acid (20:3,n-6) at low levels in adult male and female house flies was demonstrated by chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After injection, over 80% of 20:4 was rapidly incorporated into the phospholipid (PL) fraction. Over 80% of the sequestered 20:4 was in the 2-position of PLs. The 20:4 was injected into the insect or was included in the diet prior to administration of (/sup 3/H) 20:4; large amounts of radioactivity were recovered in the triacylglycerol and free fatty acid fractions. Arachidonic acid (20:4) injected into house flies was rapidly converted to prostaglandins, and was also catabolized rapidly. Radiolabeled 20:4 injected into the hemolymph was incorporated into the reproductive tissues of male insects. About 2.1% of the total radioactivity from (/sup 3/H) 20:4 injected into males just prior to mating was transferred to females during mating.

  12. Persistence of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Proteus mirabilis strains in the digestive tract of the housefly (Musca domestica) and green bottle flies (Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2014-10-01

    Synanthropic flies have been implicated in the rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants in the biosphere. These flies stably harbor a considerable number of bacteria that exhibit resistance to various antibiotics, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the digestive tract of houseflies and green bottle flies, using Proteus mirabilis as a model microorganism. One resistant strain carried the blaTEM and aphA1 genes, and another carried a plasmid containing qnrD gene. Quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to monitor the relative abundance of the Proteus strains, as well as potential changes in the overall structure of the whole bacterial community incurred by the artificial induction of Proteus cultures. Both antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive P. mirabilis strains persisted in the fly digestive tract for at least 3 days, and there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of resistant and sensitive strains despite the lower growth rate of resistant strains when cultured in vitro. Therefore, conditions in the fly digestive tract may allow resistant strains to survive the competition with sensitive strains in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The composition of the fly-associated bacterial community changed over time, but the contribution of the artificially introduced P. mirabilis strains to these changes was not clear. In order to explain these changes, it will be necessary to obtain more information about bacterial interspecies antagonism in the fly digestive tract.

  13. The Effect of Temperature on the Toxicity of Insecticides against Musca domestica L.: Implications for the Effective Management of Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is an important cause of childhood mortality in developing countries like Pakistan because of unhygienic conditions, lack of awareness, and unwise use of preventive measures. Mechanical transmission of diarrheal pathogens by house flies, Musca domestica, is believed as the most effective route of diarrhea transmission. Although the use of insecticides as a preventive measure is common worldwide for the management of house flies, success of the measure could be compromised by the prevailing environmental temperature since it significantly affects toxicity of insecticides and thus their efficacy. Peaks of the house fly density and diarrheal cases are usually coincided and season specific, yet little is known about the season specific use of insecticides. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the temperature-toxicity relationship in house flies, the effect of post-bioassays temperature (range, 20–34°C) on the toxicity of seven insecticides from organophosphate (chlorpyrifos, profenofos), pyrethroid (cypermethrin, deltamethrin) and new chemical (emamectin benzoate, fipronil, spinosad) classes was evaluated by using a feeding bioassay method. From 20–34°C, the toxicities of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil increased 2.10, 2.93, 2.40 and 3.82 fold (i.e. positive temperature coefficient), respectively. Whereas, the toxicities of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and spinosad decreased 2.21, 2.42 and 3.16 fold (i.e. negative temperature coefficient), respectively. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that for the reduction in diarrheal cases, house flies should be controlled with insecticides according to the prevailing environmental temperature. Insecticides with a positive temperature coefficient may serve as potential candidates in controlling house flies and diarrhea epidemics in hot season and vice versa. PMID:24743188

  14. Cockroaches and flies in mechanical transmission of medical important parasites in Khaldyia Village, El-Fayoum, Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb

    2012-04-01

    The role of non-blood sucking insects in dissemination of human parasites was investigated in Khaldyia Village, Al-Fayoum Governorate over during the summer of 2011. A total of 278 American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and 508 house flies Musca domestica var. vicina were collected. The insects were collected indoors and outdoors. Flies were abundant in defecation areas and around houses. The recovered zoonotic parasites identified were cysts of Entamoeba histolytica Cryptosporidium parvum and Balantidium coli, and eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunale, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris trichura as well as larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  15. Cockroaches and flies in mechanical transmission of medical important parasites in Khaldyia Village, El-Fayoum, Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb

    2012-04-01

    The role of non-blood sucking insects in dissemination of human parasites was investigated in Khaldyia Village, Al-Fayoum Governorate over during the summer of 2011. A total of 278 American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and 508 house flies Musca domestica var. vicina were collected. The insects were collected indoors and outdoors. Flies were abundant in defecation areas and around houses. The recovered zoonotic parasites identified were cysts of Entamoeba histolytica Cryptosporidium parvum and Balantidium coli, and eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunale, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris trichura as well as larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:22662605

  16. Leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency. PMID:23742709

  17. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  18. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed.

  19. Traps and baits for flies (Diptera) on Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Pickens, L G; Jaworski, J; Kovac, B; Mills, G D

    1994-11-01

    Studies conducted on Oahu, HI, and on islands of the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, demonstrated that adult house flies, Musca domestica L., were attracted to a mixture of cooked rice and chicken and to a commercial bait, whereas adults of Chrysomya megacephala F. and Musca sorbens Wiedemann were attracted to shark fluids or to ripe breadfruit. M. domestica and M. sorbens could be captured in standard inverted-cone traps, whereas C. megacephala could be captured in traps fitted with horizontal entry cones or in cone traps in which the bait was placed inside the cone chamber. M. sorbens and C. megacephala were killed by horizontal electric grids placed over yellow plastic or paper at ground level. M. sorbens was attracted to 15-cm cubes, but not to larger objects.

  20. Lethal activity of individual and mixed monoterpenoids of geranium essential oil on Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Picollo, María Inés; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón

    2015-03-01

    Plant essential oils and its constituent molecules have been suggested as an alternative to control insect. The contribution of the constituents to the effect of the oil is determined by the interactions occurring between them. Synergistic interactions would improve the insecticide efficacy of the compounds due to the utilization of lower doses. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of geranium (Geranium maculatum L.) oil and its major constituents against Musca domestica L. and studied the toxic interactions in artificial mixtures of those constituents in the natural ratio. While synergistic interactions were determined in house fly in this study, these were of low intensity evidencing that the effect of each constituent was slightly modified by the other constituents present in the mixtures. The search for synergism between components is a strategy to improve the insecticide activity of natural compounds. The synergism helps to reduce the environmental and toxicological impact due to the reduction of the dose of use.

  1. Insecticidal activity of Torricellia tiliifolia extracts against Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiguang; Zhou, Lijuan; Zhao, Huanhuan; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-09-01

    Insecticidal toxicity of extracts from leaves, stems, and bark of Torricellia tiliifolia de Candolle against adult Musca domestica L. and larval Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was evaluated in this study. Bark extract proved to be the most toxic to these two species with the chloroform fraction the most active with LC50 values of 306.15 microg/g and 23.05 microg/ml for the house fly and mosquito, respectively. At the same time, water fractions against M. domestica and petroleum ether against Ae. albopictus were comparatively less toxic. Two compounds from T. tiliifolia extracts, torrilliolide and torricelline, were highly toxic to both species. The LC50 values of torrilliolide and torricelline in adult M. domestica 48 h after topical application were 0.40 and 0.33 microg per adult, respectively, and equal to the commercially available, plant-derived insecticide, rotenone. These results showed that T. tiliifolia possess compounds with considerable bioactivity and worthy of further research.

  2. Combination of Phagostimulant and Visual Lure as an Effective Tool in Designing House Fly Toxic Baits: A Laboratory Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    House flies (Diptera: Muscidae), potential vectors of a variety of pathogens, characteristically search and feed on sugar sources just after emergence for their survival. Phagostimulants like sugars, and visual characteristics of feeding materials play an important role in foraging success in house flies. Therefore, development of toxic baits by using the combination of phagostimulant and visual lure may prove effective in localized control of house flies. In the present study, visual attraction of house flies to different fabric colors was studied in choice and no choice experiments. Dark blue was the most preferred color in both experiments. In toxicity experiments, insecticide solutions were prepared in 20% sugar solution. Dark blue fabric strips were prepared by moistening with 20% sugar water solution containing median lethal concentrations of one of the four insecticides viz., fipronil, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb and Spinosad. The fabric strips treated with fipronil and Imidacloprid took minimum time (7.66 and 7.81 h, respectively) to cause 50% mortality, while those treated with Spinosad and indoxacarb took relatively more time (13.62 and 17.91 h, respectively) to cause 50% mortality. In conclusion, the combination of phagostimulant and visual lure could be used in designing toxic baits for house flies. PMID:24086770

  3. Staphylococcus aureus in the House Fly: Temporospatial Fate of Bacteria and Expression of the Antimicrobial Peptide defensin

    PubMed Central

    NAYDUCH, DANA; CHO, HANNAH; JOYNER, CHESTER

    2013-01-01

    House flies disseminate numerous species of bacteria acquired during feeding and breeding activities in microbe-rich habitats. Previous house fly surveys have detected the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884, which causes cutaneous and septic infections in mammals, and enterotoxic food poisoning. We assessed the fate of GFP-expressing S. aureus (GFP-S. aureus) in the house fly alimentary canal with microscopy and by culture of whole flies and excreta. Furthermore, the concurrent expression of the antimicrobial peptide gene defensin was measured in the crop, proventriculus, midgut, and fat body. As soon as 4 h postingestion (PI), GFP-S. aureus were visualized as cocci or diplococci in the hindgut and rectum of flies fed ≈105 colony forming units. Bacteria persisted up to 6 h PI but significantly decreased. Excretion of viable GFP-S. aureus peaked at 2 h PI and, although significantly less, continued up to 4 h PI. defensin was highly upregulated locally in the alimentary canal and systemically in fat body at 2, 4, and 6 h PI making this study the first to report, to our knowledge, an epithelial and systemic response to a bacterium with lysine-type peptidoglycan in flies exposed via feeding. While flies harbored S. aureus for up to 6 h PI, the highest probability of vectoring biologically relevant amounts of bacteria occurred 0–2 h PI. The combined effects of excretion, digestion and antimicrobial effectors likely contribute to loss of ingested bacteria. Nonetheless, house flies are relevant vectors for S. aureus up to 2 h PI and environmental reservoirs up to 6 h PI. PMID:23427667

  4. Staphylococcus aureus in the house fly: temporospatial fate of bacteria and expression of the antimicrobial peptide defensin.

    PubMed

    Nayduch, Dana; Cho, Hannah; Joyner, Chester

    2013-01-01

    House flies disseminate numerous species of bacteria acquired during feeding and breeding activities in microbe-rich habitats. Previous house fly surveys have detected the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884, which causes cutaneous and septic infections in mammals, and enterotoxic food poisoning. We assessed the fate of GFP-expressing S. aureus (GFP-S. aureus) in the house fly alimentary canal with microscopy and by culture of whole flies and excreta. Furthermore, the concurrent expression of the antimicrobial peptide gene defensin was measured in the crop, proventriculus, midgut, and fat body. As soon as 4 h postingestion (PI), GFP-S. aureus were visualized as cocci or diplococci in the hindgut and rectum of flies fed approximately equal 10(5) colony forming units. Bacteria persisted up to 6 h PI but significantly decreased. Excretion of viable GFP-S. aureus peaked at 2 h PI and, although significantly less, continued up to 4 h PI. defensin was highly upregulated locally in the alimentary canal and systemically in fat body at 2, 4, and 6 h PI making this study the first to report, to our knowledge, an epithelial and systemic response to a bacterium with lysine-type peptidoglycan in flies exposed via feeding. While flies harbored S. aureus for up to 6 h PI, the highest probability of vectoring biologically relevant amounts of bacteria occurred 0-2 h PI. The combined effects of excretion, digestion and antimicrobial effectors likely contribute to loss of ingested bacteria. Nonetheless, house flies are relevant vectors for S. aureus up to 2 h PI and environmental reservoirs up to 6 h PI.

  5. Enhancement of the Musca domestica hytrosavirus infection with orally delivered reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Boucias, D; Baniszewski, J; Prompiboon, P; Lietze, V; Geden, C

    2015-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) throughout the world are infected with the salivary gland hypertrophy virus MdSGHV (Hytrosaviridae). Although the primary route of infection is thought to be via ingestion, flies that are old enough to feed normally are resistant to infection per os, suggesting that the peritrophic matrix (PM) is a barrier to virus transmission. Histological examination of the peritrophic matrix of healthy flies revealed a multilaminate structure produced by midgut cells located near the proventriculus. SEM revealed the PM to form a confluent sheet surrounding the food bolus with pores/openings less than 10nm in diameter. TEM revealed the PM to be multilayered, varying in width from 350 to 900 nm, and generally thinner in male than in female flies. When flies were fed on the reducing agents dithiothetriol (DTT) or tris (2-caboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) for 48 h before per os exposure to the virus, infection rates increased 10- to 20-fold compared with flies that did not receive the reducing agent treatments. PM's from flies treated with DTT and TCEP displayed varying degrees of disruption, particularly in the outer layer, and lacked the electron-dense inner layer facing the ectoperitrophic space. Both drugs were somewhat toxic to the flies, resulting in>40% mortality at doses greater than 10mM (DTT) or 5 mM (TCEP). DTT increased male fly susceptibility (55.1% infected) more than that of females (7.8%), whereas TCEP increased susceptibility of females (42.9%) more than that of males (26.2%). The cause for the sex differences in response to oral exposure the reducing agents is unclear. Exposing flies to food treated with virus and the reducing agents at the same time, rather than pretreating flies with the drugs, had no effect on susceptibility to the virus. Presumably, the reducing agent disrupted the enveloped virus and acted as a viricidal agent. In summary, it is proposed that the reducing agents influence integrity of the PM barrier

  6. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  7. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  8. Effects of compaction and wetting of laterite cover soil on development and survival of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) immatures.

    PubMed

    Abu Tahir, Nurita; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of laterite cover soil with different characteristics on survival of buried eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae of Musca domestica (L.) were studied experimentally. Soil treatments were loose dry soil, loose wet soil, compacted dry soil, and compacted wet soil (CWS). Eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae were buried under 30 cm of the different soil treatments and placed under field conditions until adults emerged. Rearing medium was provided for eggs and larvae, and control treatments of all stages were unburied immatures placed on soil surface. Egg and pupal survival to adult were significantly affected by the cover soil treatments, but third instars were more resilient. Wet soil treatments (loose wet soil and CWS) resulted in significantly reduced pupal survival, but increased survival of eggs. However, CWS significantly reduced adult emergence from buried eggs. Though emergence of house flies buried as eggs was significantly reduced, some were able to hatch and emerging first instar larvae developed to pupation. Although cover soil does not completely prevent fly emergence, it did limit development and emergence of buried house flies. PMID:24180104

  9. Effects of compaction and wetting of laterite cover soil on development and survival of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) immatures.

    PubMed

    Abu Tahir, Nurita; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of laterite cover soil with different characteristics on survival of buried eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae of Musca domestica (L.) were studied experimentally. Soil treatments were loose dry soil, loose wet soil, compacted dry soil, and compacted wet soil (CWS). Eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae were buried under 30 cm of the different soil treatments and placed under field conditions until adults emerged. Rearing medium was provided for eggs and larvae, and control treatments of all stages were unburied immatures placed on soil surface. Egg and pupal survival to adult were significantly affected by the cover soil treatments, but third instars were more resilient. Wet soil treatments (loose wet soil and CWS) resulted in significantly reduced pupal survival, but increased survival of eggs. However, CWS significantly reduced adult emergence from buried eggs. Though emergence of house flies buried as eggs was significantly reduced, some were able to hatch and emerging first instar larvae developed to pupation. Although cover soil does not completely prevent fly emergence, it did limit development and emergence of buried house flies.

  10. Comparison of Host-Seeking Behavior of the Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Teal, P E; Leppla, N C

    2015-04-01

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, can be purchased for biological control of house flies Musca domestica L. and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking behavior of these two species, so odors associated with house flies were investigated in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Odor stimuli from house fly host puparia, larvae, pine-shavings bedding with horse manure, and developing flies in the pine-shavings-manure substrate were evaluated in bioassays using the two pteromalid species. In choice tests, naïve female S. cameroni were strongly attracted to odor from the substrate containing house fly larvae and secondarily from the uninfested substrate and substrate with puparia versus humidified and purified air. This species also selected the substrate with larvae versus the substrate with the house fly puparia or uninfested substrate. Muscidifurax raptor was attracted to odor from the substrate containing puparia, washed puparia, and substrate with puparia removed. The data suggest that coexistence between the two pteromalid parasitoids, S. cameroni and M. raptor, might be promoted by different host-seeking behavior.

  11. Livestock bedding effects on two species of parasitoid wasps of filth flies.

    PubMed

    King, B H; Colyott, K L; Chesney, A R

    2014-01-01

    Choice of livestock bedding has been shown to affect density of filth fly maggots. Here, laboratory experiments indicate that bedding type can also affect natural enemies of the flies, specifically the parasitoid wasps Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitizing a natural host, the house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). For both parasitoid species, when females parasitized hosts under bedding, cedar shavings resulted in fewer parasitoids compared with pine shavings, but pine shavings did not differ from wood pellets and corn cob pellets. In the absence of exposure to hosts, longevity of adult females was reduced in cedar shavings compared with pine shavings and pellets. In contrast to the effects on parasitization and on adult survival, shavings treatment had no significant effect on the number of parasitoids or flies that emerged when hosts were not exposed to shavings until after parasitization.

  12. Livestock bedding effects on two species of parasitoid wasps of filth flies.

    PubMed

    King, B H; Colyott, K L; Chesney, A R

    2014-01-01

    Choice of livestock bedding has been shown to affect density of filth fly maggots. Here, laboratory experiments indicate that bedding type can also affect natural enemies of the flies, specifically the parasitoid wasps Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitizing a natural host, the house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). For both parasitoid species, when females parasitized hosts under bedding, cedar shavings resulted in fewer parasitoids compared with pine shavings, but pine shavings did not differ from wood pellets and corn cob pellets. In the absence of exposure to hosts, longevity of adult females was reduced in cedar shavings compared with pine shavings and pellets. In contrast to the effects on parasitization and on adult survival, shavings treatment had no significant effect on the number of parasitoids or flies that emerged when hosts were not exposed to shavings until after parasitization. PMID:25480971

  13. Temporal and spatial fate of GFP-expressing motile and nonmotile Aeromonas hydrophila in the house fly digestive tract.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Joseph; Nayduch, Dana

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the transmissibility of bacteria by house flies, the temporal and spatial fate of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing motile and nonmotile strains of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined within the alimentary canal. Liquid food consumed by house flies is first stored in the crop and then is regurgitated and/or passed into the midgut. Once within the midgut, food is contained inside a double-layered peritrophic matrix (PM), with the inner layer enveloping digested material and forming fecal pellets for excretion. Between 1 and 12 h after ingestion, and irrespective of motility, live GFP+ A. hydrophila adhered to the luminal surfaces of the crop and inner PM of bacteria-fed flies. However, some nonadherent, motile bacteria moved freely within the PM lumen in the anteromedial midgut, whereas fecal pellets (lysed bacteria) continued passing posteriorly. At 12-24 h, adhered bacteria of both strains were lysed in the distal midgut, compressed into fecal pellets, and excreted. Viable bacteria in the crop visually exceeded numbers within these fecal pellets. Culture recovery at the same time points showed a 1,000-fold increase of viable bacteria at 2 h, presumably in the crop, with a temporal decline thereafter. Further, viable bacteria were recovered from vomit specks and orally contaminated substrates up to 2 h after feeding but never from feces. These results suggest that A. hydrophila is a transient resident of the house fly alimentary canal and is only orally transmissible for a short time after ingestion. Thus, regurgitation may be more significant than fecal transmission in the spread of some house fly transmitted bacterial diseases.

  14. Compatibility of the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Insecticides against Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) as Evaluated by a New Index.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Edwin R; King, B H

    2015-06-01

    Various insecticides for the control of the house fly Musca domestica L. were tested for compatibility with a biological control agent, the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker. Bioassays used the mode in which each organism was expected to be harmed by the insecticides, a surface contact bioassay for S. endius and a feeding bioassay for M. domestica. A Pesticide Compatibility Index (PCI) was created that allows comparison of LC50 values when the mode of exposure to a pesticide differs. First LC50 values were converted into units of prescribed dosages (LPR=LC50-to-prescribed dosage ratio). This study used dosages from labels of granular baits. PCI is the ratio of LPRbiological control agent to LPRpest. For these PCI values, order of compatibility with S. endius was spinosad>thiamethoxam>inotefuran>methomyl>imidacloprid. That spinosad was better than imidacloprid or methomyl, both for parasitoid survival and for killing flies, is consistent with conclusions from the LC50 values. Permethrin and nitenpyram were also tested, but their PCIs were not calculated. Permethrin is prescribed as a contact insecticide against flies rather than being consumed as a bait, and nitenpyram has not been formulated as a fly insecticide. Compared with the other insecticides in terms of LC50 values, permethrin was moderately toxic to S. endius but one of the most toxic for M. domestica, whereas nitenpyram was least toxic for both S. endius and the flies.

  15. Comparison of the Olfactory Preferences of Four of Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoid Species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for Hosts in Equine and Bovine Manure.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J

    2015-10-01

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids, primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), can be purchased for biological control of these flies. However, little is known about the host-habitat preferences associated with host-seeking by these parasitoids. The preferences of two Spalangia and two Muscidifurax species to odors associated with house fly hosts in equine and bovine manure were investigated in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Odor stimuli from manure without developing flies, third-instar house flies in manure, and fly host puparia in manure were evaluated. In choice tests, S. cameroni and S. endius were strongly attracted to odor associated with equine manure against clean air. Although S. cameroni was attracted to all bovine manure-containing treatments against clean air, S. endius was only attracted to the bovine manure with third-instar flies. There were no significant differences between the Spalangia species in odor responses. Neither Muscidifurax species were attracted to equine manure treatments and were only attracted to the bovine manure with puparia over clean air. In manure comparison studies, bovine treatments with developing flies were more attractive than the equivalent equine treatments to both Muscidifurax species The data suggest that coexistence between the competing pteromalid parasitoids might be promoted by different host-seeking behaviors. Additionally, manure preferences may indicate parasitoid suitability for releases on different livestock and equine facilities.

  16. Utilization of house fly-maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, J; Hong, E C; Jang, A; Kang, H K; Oh, J S; Kim, B W; Park, B S

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested the utilization of maggots as a feed supplement forenhanced broiler performance. Maggots, which are a major dietary source of protein, appear during the biodegradation of chicken droppings using house flies. The objective ofthe present study was to investigate the effect of maggot supplementation on the meat quality and growth performance of broiler chickens. A total of 600 one-day-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross) were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups consisting of 40 replicates of 3 birds. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% maggots. Overall, broiler chicken performance was influenced by the optimal amino acid profile; high protein (63.99%) and essential amino acid content (29.46%), or high protein digestibility (98.50%) of the maggots. Maggot supplementation caused linear increases in live weight gain but not the feed conversion ratio. The diets of 10 and 15% maggots was the most efficient in terms of average weight gain forthe 4-5 week old broiler chickens (p<0.05). It also significantly increased dressing percentage, breast muscle, and thigh muscle (p<0.05). No differences were observed forliver abdominalfat, or meat color, and the crude protein contents of breast muscle were constant. However, in the maggot-fed broilers, breast muscle lysine and tryptophan levels increased significantly as compared to the birds fed the basal diet (p<0.05). These results indicate that feeding diets containing 10 to 15% maggots in chicken dropping after biodegradation can improve the carcass quality and growth performance of broiler chickens.

  17. Droppings from captive Coturnix coturnix (Galliformes: Phasianidae) as a fly breeding resource.

    PubMed

    Horenstein, M Battán; Lynch-Ianniello, I; de Dio, B; Gleiser, R M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fauna of flies associated with captive Coturnix coturnix (L.) (Galliformes: Phasianidae) droppings. Samples of 150 g of quail droppings were exposed in the quail house for 48 h in plastic containers to promote eventual access of flies, and then placed in emergence traps. The number of adults and species emerging was recorded daily. This procedure was carried out in spring 2008 and spring and autumn 2009. In total, 2,138 adults belonging to Muscidae, Calliphoridae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Fanniidae, and Milichiidae families were collected. The most numerous family was Muscidae (representing >82% of the total specimens), with Musca domestica L. being the most abundant species followed by Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann) (both Diptera: Muscidae). Quail breeding should include adequate droppings management policies to avoid potential sanitary issues related to fly production.

  18. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  19. Efficacy of entomopathogenic bacteria for control of Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cristine R; Dias de Castro, Luciana L; Pires, Sabrina M; Delgado Menezes, Adriane M; Ribeiro, Paulo B; Leivas Leite, Fábio P

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity, and sub lethal effects of entomopathogenic bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki, and a commercial formulation of Bacillus sphaericus on Musca domestica. Bacterial suspensions were prepared in different concentrations and added to the diet of newly-hatched larvae which were monitored until the adult stage. The larvae were susceptible to the B. laterosporus, B. thuringiensis var. israelensis, and B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki bacteria in varied concentration levels. These bacteria have larvicidal and sub lethal effects on the development of flies, reducing both adult size, and impairing the reproductive performance of the species.

  20. Survey of the synanthropic flies associated with human habitations in ubon ratchathani province of northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiwong, Tarinee; Srivoramas, Thanyakarn; Sukontason, Kom; Sanford, Michelle R; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-01-01

    Synanthropic fly surveys were performed to determine the species composition and abundance in Ubon Ratchathani province in Northeast Thailand. Adult fly collections were conducted in various human habitations from two districts-Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap, at fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias, and rice paddy fields. Customized reconstructable funnel fly traps baited with 250 g of 1-day tainted beef were used for fly collections from September 2010-February 2011. A total of 3,262 flies were captured, primarily consisting of three families including: Calliphoridae (6 species), Muscidae (3 species), and Sarcophagidae (11 species). The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, were the dominant species collected from both districts at all collection sites. C. megacephala was predominant in paddy fields, restaurants and garbage piles, while M. domestica was numerically dominant in fresh-food markets and school cafeterias. The current survey identified various species of synanthropic flies with close associations to humans and with the ability to transmit human pathogens in Ubon Ratchathani province; providing crucial information that may be used for developing control and sanitation management plans in this particular area. PMID:22934155

  1. Releases of Spalangia nigroaenea and Muscidifurax zaraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) increase rates of parasitism and total mortality of stable fly and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) pupae in Illinois cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Weinzierl, R A; Jones, C J

    1998-10-01

    Weekly releases of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis and Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan & Legner from May through August of 1991-1993 at small, owner-operated cattle feedlots in Illinois provided weekly emergence of 100-300 parasitoids of each species per feedlot animal. In assessments based on fly and parasitoid emergence from > 47,000 stable fly and house fly puparia collected during the 3-yr period, total stable fly mortality was greater in lots where releases were made (60.7%) than in paired, untreated control lots (51.7%) (P = 0.04; paired t-test); parasitism of stable fly pupae by S. nigroaenea averaged 11.6% where releases were made and 6.4% in paired control lots (P = 0.0016). In lots where releases were made, total mortality of house fly pupae was greater (68.7 versus 56.1%; P = 0.0001); unexplained mortality was greater (55.5 versus 46.1%; P = 0.0018); and parasitism by Muscidifurax spp. was greater (2.4 versus 1.4%; P = 0.07) than in paired control lots. Parasitism, unexplained mortality, and total mortality of both fly species varied significantly from 1991 to 1992 in lots that received the same treatment each year, presumably due primarily to weather. Over the 3-yr period, releasing these species, particularly S. nigroaenea, significantly reduced production of stable fly and house fly adults in cattle feedlots. The potential value of such reductions is likely to vary as a result of feedlot conditions and weather.

  2. Hermes, a functional non-drosophilid insect gene vector from Musca domestica

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brochta, D.A.; Warren, W.D.; Saville, K.J.

    1996-03-01

    Hermes is a short inverted repeat-type transposable element from the house fly, Musca domestica. Using an extra-chromosomal transpositional recombination assay, we show that Hermes elements can accurately transpose in M. domestica embryos. To test the ability of Hermes to function in species distantly related to M. domestica we used a nonautonomous Hermes element containing the Drosophila melanogaster white (w{sup +}) gene and created D. melanogaster germline transformants. Transgenic G{sub 1} insects were recovered from 34.6% of the fertile G{sub 0} adults developing from microinjected w{sup -} embryos. This transformation rate is comparable with that observed using P or hobo vectors in D. melanogaster; however, many instances of multiple-element insertions and large clusters were observed. Genetic mapping, Southern blotting, polytene chromosome in situ hybridization and DNA sequence analyses confirmed that Hermes elements were chromosomally integrated in transgenic insects. Our data demonstrate that Hermes elements transpose at high rates in D. melanogaster and may be an effective gene vector and gene-tagging agent in this species and distantly related species of medical and agricultural importance. 46 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Hermes, a Functional Non-Drosophilid Insect Gene Vector from Musca Domestica

    PubMed Central

    O'Brochta, D. A.; Warren, W. D.; Saville, K. J.; Atkinson, P. W.

    1996-01-01

    Hermes is a short inverted repeat-type transposable element from the house fly, Musca domestica. Using an extra-chromosomal transpositional recombination assay, we show that Hermes elements can accurately transpose in M. domestica embryos. To test the ability of Hermes to function in species distantly related to M. domestica we used a nonautonomous Hermes element containing the Drosophila melanogaster white (w(+)) gene and created D. melanogaster germline transformants. Transgenic G(1) insects were recovered from 34.6% of the fertile G(0) adults developing from microinjected w(-) embryos. This transformation rate is comparable with that observed using P or hobo vectors in D. melanogaster, however, many instances of multiple-element insertions and large clusters were observed. Genetic mapping, Southern blotting, polytene chromosome in situ hybridization and DNA sequence analyses confirmed that Hermes elements were chromosomally integrated in transgenic insects. Our data demonstrate that Hermes elements transpose at high rates in D. melanogaster and may be an effective gene vector and gene-tagging agent in this species and distantly related species of medical and agricultural importance. PMID:8849896

  4. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica.

  5. Assessment of resistance risk in Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to methoxyfenozide.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-09-01

    Methoxyfenozide, an ecdysone receptor agonist is an effective larvicide against many pests of public health and veterinary importance including house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Methoxyfenozide is a bio-rational insecticide having many environmentally friendly attributes that make it compatible with integrated pest management programs. This experiment was performed for the assessment of resistance evolution in M. domestica to methoxyfenozide. A field population of M. domestica, after 24 rounds of selection with methoxyfenozide, resulted in 64 fold and 915-fold increase in lethal concentration 50 (LC50) compared to field and susceptible strain, respectively. Realized heritability (h(2)) of resistance to methoxyfenozide was 0.17 in methoxyfenozide-selected strain of M. domestica. The projected rate of resistance development indicated that, if slope=1.71 and h(2)=0.17, then 13-5 generations are required for tenfold increase in LC50 at 50-95% selection intensity. These findings suggest that a risk for resistance development to methoxyfenozide occurred in M. domestica under continuous selection pressure.

  6. Musca domestica inspired machine vision sensor with hyperacuity.

    PubMed

    Riley, D T; Harmann, W M; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G

    2008-06-01

    A fiber optic sensor inspired by the compound eye of the common housefly, Musca domestica, has been developed. The sensor coupled with analog preprocessing hardware has the potential to extract edge information quickly and in parallel. The design is motivated by the parallel nature of the fly's vision system and its demonstrated hyperacuity or precision of visual localization beyond the conventional resolution limit. The fly's anatomy supporting the design is reviewed, followed by the design of a one-dimensional, cartridge-based sensor. The sensor's ability to locate a line stimulus in a two-dimensional space is demonstrated. Discussion is provided to extend this work in scale, cartridge dimension, information and array processing.

  7. First case of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in a zoo-housed flying squirrel (Pteromys volans orii).

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Eri; Shimura, Ryoji; Nishimura, Maki; Furuoka, Hidefumi

    2013-01-01

    A 33 month-old male flying squirrel kept in a zoo developed progressive dyspnea and died. Macroscopically, the liver and lung were enlarged with numerous nodular vesicles. Histologically, these organs were replaced by numerous collapsed vesicles demarcated by fibrous tissues. The cysts lined by a cellular, germinal layer contained numerous brood capsules with abundant production of well-developed protoscolices. Protoscolices were about 80-100 μm in diameter, and had hooks being visible as refractive structures. This zoo locates in the east of Hokkaido where is an endemic area of Echinococcus multilocularis infection. From epidemiology and pathological findings, this animal was diagnosed as E.multilocularis infection. This report describes the pathology of the first case of E. multilocularis infection in a flying squirrel. PMID:23257604

  8. First case of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in a zoo-housed flying squirrel (Pteromys volans orii).

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Eri; Shimura, Ryoji; Nishimura, Maki; Furuoka, Hidefumi

    2013-01-01

    A 33 month-old male flying squirrel kept in a zoo developed progressive dyspnea and died. Macroscopically, the liver and lung were enlarged with numerous nodular vesicles. Histologically, these organs were replaced by numerous collapsed vesicles demarcated by fibrous tissues. The cysts lined by a cellular, germinal layer contained numerous brood capsules with abundant production of well-developed protoscolices. Protoscolices were about 80-100 μm in diameter, and had hooks being visible as refractive structures. This zoo locates in the east of Hokkaido where is an endemic area of Echinococcus multilocularis infection. From epidemiology and pathological findings, this animal was diagnosed as E.multilocularis infection. This report describes the pathology of the first case of E. multilocularis infection in a flying squirrel.

  9. Neurological and behavioral response of Musca Domestica L. to colored visual targets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to further understand visual attraction of house flies to colors and patterns, and the relation with fly trap performances, we conducted electroretinograms (ERG) studies of house fly compound eyes and ocelli and compared the fly physiological response to the behavioral attraction to reflect...

  10. Say goodbye to tribes in the new house fly classification: A new molecular phylogenetic analysis and an updated biogeographical narrative for the Muscidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Haseyama, Kirstern L F; Wiegmann, Brian M; Almeida, Eduardo A B; de Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2015-08-01

    House flies are one of the best known groups of flies and comprise about 5000 species worldwide. Despite over a century of intensive taxonomic research on these flies, classification of the Muscidae is still poorly resolved. Here we brought together the most diverse molecular dataset ever examined for the Muscidae, with 142 species in 67 genera representing all tribes and all biogeographic regions. Four protein coding genes were analyzed: mitochondrial CO1 and nuclear AATS, CAD (region 4) and EF1-α. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches were used to analyze five different partitioning schemes for the alignment. We also used Bayes factors to test monophyly of the traditionally accepted tribes and subfamilies. Most subfamilial taxa were not recovered in our analyses, and accordingly monophyly was rejected by Bayes factor tests. Our analysis consistently found three main clades of Muscidae and so we propose a new classification with only three subfamilies without tribes. Additionally, we provide the first timeframe for the diversification of all major lineages of house flies and examine contemporary biogeographic hypotheses in light of this timeframe. We conclude that the muscid radiation began in the Paleocene to Eocene and is congruent with the final stages of the breakup of Gondwana, which resulted in the complete separation of Antarctica, Australia, and South America. With this newly proposed classification and better understanding of the timing of evolutionary events, we provide new perspectives for integrating morphological and ecological evolutionary understanding of house flies, their taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography.

  11. Say goodbye to tribes in the new house fly classification: A new molecular phylogenetic analysis and an updated biogeographical narrative for the Muscidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Haseyama, Kirstern L F; Wiegmann, Brian M; Almeida, Eduardo A B; de Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2015-08-01

    House flies are one of the best known groups of flies and comprise about 5000 species worldwide. Despite over a century of intensive taxonomic research on these flies, classification of the Muscidae is still poorly resolved. Here we brought together the most diverse molecular dataset ever examined for the Muscidae, with 142 species in 67 genera representing all tribes and all biogeographic regions. Four protein coding genes were analyzed: mitochondrial CO1 and nuclear AATS, CAD (region 4) and EF1-α. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches were used to analyze five different partitioning schemes for the alignment. We also used Bayes factors to test monophyly of the traditionally accepted tribes and subfamilies. Most subfamilial taxa were not recovered in our analyses, and accordingly monophyly was rejected by Bayes factor tests. Our analysis consistently found three main clades of Muscidae and so we propose a new classification with only three subfamilies without tribes. Additionally, we provide the first timeframe for the diversification of all major lineages of house flies and examine contemporary biogeographic hypotheses in light of this timeframe. We conclude that the muscid radiation began in the Paleocene to Eocene and is congruent with the final stages of the breakup of Gondwana, which resulted in the complete separation of Antarctica, Australia, and South America. With this newly proposed classification and better understanding of the timing of evolutionary events, we provide new perspectives for integrating morphological and ecological evolutionary understanding of house flies, their taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography. PMID:25869937

  12. Fly pupae as attractant carriers for toxic baits for red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Williams, D F; Lofgren, C S; Vander Meer, R K

    1990-02-01

    Eight laboratory-reared ant species were fed baits of house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae treated with hydramethylnon. Two fire ant species, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis geminata (F.), and Pheidole morrissi (Forel) were killed; average percentage of mortality of the five other species was less than 20%. In contrast, all species that were fed the commercial fire ant bait containing hydramethylnon (Amdro) died or were adversely affected. In the field, applications of house fly pupae and eye gnat, Hippelates pusio Loew, pupae dipped in acetone solutions of fenoxycarb significantly reduced population indices of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta, compared with commercial formulations of fenoxycarb (Logic) and hydramethylnon (Amdro). Field observations showed that the pupae of either species can be carried or moved by one or two worker ants. The smooth, hard cuticle of the pupae make them easy to handle and apply with application equipment. The current cost of house fly pupae is considerably more than the cost of a granular carrier, pregel defatted corn grits. However, if mass-production methods reduce this price differential, fly pupae could become an effective and more species-specific fire ant bait carrier.

  13. Homology modeling of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABA receptor channels and Surflex-docking of fipronil.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin; Ju, Xiu-Lian; Chen, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Gen-Yan

    2009-09-01

    To further explore the mechanism of selective binding of the representative gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABARs) noncompetitive antagonist (NCA) fipronil to insect over mammalian GABARs, three-dimensional models of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABAR were generated by homology modeling, using the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo marmorata as a template. Fipronil was docked into the putative binding site of the human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 receptors by Surflex-docking, and the calculated docking energies are in agreement with experimental results. The GABA receptor antagonist fipronil exhibited higher potency with house fly beta 3 GABAR than with human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAR. Furthermore, analyses of Surflex-docking suggest that the H-bond interaction of fipronil with Ala2 and Thr6 in the second transmembrane segment (TM2) of these GABARs plays a relatively important role in ligand selective binding. The different subunit assemblies of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABARs may result in differential selectivity for fipronil.

  14. Laboratory and field evaluation of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a feed additive and using topical applications for control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in caged-poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2011-02-01

    Infestations of house flies, Musca domestica L., are a continual problem around poultry establishments. Acute toxicity of two commercial Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) formulations (water-dispersible granules and bran formulation) was evaluated against larvae in the laboratory and against natural populations of M. domestica larvae in the field applied in feed to chickens and as topical applications in the poultry houses. Bioassay data showed that susceptibility of M. domestica larvae increased to a given concentration of Bti as the duration of exposure increased. In the laboratory studies, the LC(50) values of Bti for the larvae ranged between 65 and 77.4 μg/ml. In the field, a concentration of 10 g Bti/kg of feed resulted in 90% reduction of larvae at 4 wk after treatment. A higher concentration (2 g/liter) of Bti in spray applications was not significantly more effective than the lower concentration of 1 g/liter. Adding Bti to chicken feed is potentially an efficient measure for the management and control of house flies in caged-poultry facilities. PMID:22182611

  15. Laboratory and field evaluation of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a feed additive and using topical applications for control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in caged-poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2011-02-01

    Infestations of house flies, Musca domestica L., are a continual problem around poultry establishments. Acute toxicity of two commercial Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) formulations (water-dispersible granules and bran formulation) was evaluated against larvae in the laboratory and against natural populations of M. domestica larvae in the field applied in feed to chickens and as topical applications in the poultry houses. Bioassay data showed that susceptibility of M. domestica larvae increased to a given concentration of Bti as the duration of exposure increased. In the laboratory studies, the LC(50) values of Bti for the larvae ranged between 65 and 77.4 μg/ml. In the field, a concentration of 10 g Bti/kg of feed resulted in 90% reduction of larvae at 4 wk after treatment. A higher concentration (2 g/liter) of Bti in spray applications was not significantly more effective than the lower concentration of 1 g/liter. Adding Bti to chicken feed is potentially an efficient measure for the management and control of house flies in caged-poultry facilities.

  16. A xenodiagnostic method using Musca domestica for the diagnosis of gastric habronemosis and examining the anthelmintic efficacy of moxidectin.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Rolf K; Sivakumar, Saritha

    2013-10-18

    Equine habronematidosis has a global distribution and is caused by three spirurid species, Habronema muscae, Habronema microstoma and Draschia megastoma. A case of cutaneous habronematidosis in a stallion in a stable in Dubai, UAE gave occasion to investigate the parasite situation on the farm. Patent H. muscae infections were diagnosed in 18 out of 49 horses in a stable in Dubai, UAE with a xenodiagnostic test using houseflies as indicator host. All horses in the stable were treated with a single dose of moxidectin administered orally as 2% gel in a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg body weight and the efficacy of this targeted treatment was studied. Habronema infection was terminated in all horses. A fly survey conducted at the farm prior and after treatment revealed two muscid species: Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans. Only M. domestica caught at the farm showed a natural infection with Habronema larvae prior and shortly after anthelmintic treatment. Later, examination of flies caught at the farm in monthly intervals up to the end of observation (8 months after treatment) gave negative results. The absence of infection in the intermediate host was an indication of the eradication of stomach worms. The described xenodiagnostic test is a useful tool to diagnose H. muscae infections and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of nematocides in equines.

  17. House and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) seasonal abundance, larval development substrates, and natural parasitism on small equine farms in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 1-year study was designed to determine adult fly population levels and development substrates on four small equine farms. Results showed that pest flies were present year-round, but differences existed in population levels among farms and seasons. Fly larvae were not found on two of the farms, ...

  18. Administration of Brevibacillus laterosporus spores as a poultry feed additive to inhibit house fly development in feces: a new eco-sustainable concept.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, L; Satta, A; Floris, I

    2014-03-01

    The success of a microbial pesticide application against house flies developing in manure should accomplish the uniform mixing of active ingredients with this breeding medium, thus enhancing residual effects. The oral administration of the entomopathogenic bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus to caged poultry species allows the homogeneous incorporation of its active ingredients with fly breeding media. Feces from treated broilers or hens show toxicity against exposed fly adults and larvae. Insecticidal effects are concentration-dependent with a lethal median concentration (LC50) value of 1.34 × 10(8) and 0.61 × 10(8) spores/g of feces for adults and larvae, respectively. Manure toxicity against flies was maintained as long as chickens were fed a diet containing adequate concentrations of B. laterosporus spores. Toxicity significantly decreased after spore administration to birds was interrupted. When poultry diet contained 10(10) spores/g, mortality of flies reared on feces exceeded 80%. The use of B. lateroporus spores as a feed additive in poultry production systems fostering a more integrated approach to farming is discussed.

  19. Administration of Brevibacillus laterosporus spores as a poultry feed additive to inhibit house fly development in feces: a new eco-sustainable concept.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, L; Satta, A; Floris, I

    2014-03-01

    The success of a microbial pesticide application against house flies developing in manure should accomplish the uniform mixing of active ingredients with this breeding medium, thus enhancing residual effects. The oral administration of the entomopathogenic bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus to caged poultry species allows the homogeneous incorporation of its active ingredients with fly breeding media. Feces from treated broilers or hens show toxicity against exposed fly adults and larvae. Insecticidal effects are concentration-dependent with a lethal median concentration (LC50) value of 1.34 × 10(8) and 0.61 × 10(8) spores/g of feces for adults and larvae, respectively. Manure toxicity against flies was maintained as long as chickens were fed a diet containing adequate concentrations of B. laterosporus spores. Toxicity significantly decreased after spore administration to birds was interrupted. When poultry diet contained 10(10) spores/g, mortality of flies reared on feces exceeded 80%. The use of B. lateroporus spores as a feed additive in poultry production systems fostering a more integrated approach to farming is discussed. PMID:24604843

  20. The effect of linear distance on the parasitism of house fly hosts (Diptera: Muscidae) by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  1. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    PubMed

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products. PMID:26036589

  2. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    PubMed

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of insecticide resistance in a strain of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) from an intensive chicken farm of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Marco; Lanfredi, Massimo; Chicca, Milvia; Tedeschi, Paola; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Leis, Marilena

    2011-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., a relevant sanitary pest, is mainly controlled by insecticides. However, an inappropriate use of chemicals may induce resistance, treatment efficacy decline and environmental damages. We evaluated toxicity of some organophosphates, pyrethroids, spinosad and neonicotinoids by topical applications on adults of a M. domestica strain (OcRo) collected from an intensive chicken farm in Northern Italy, in comparison to a susceptible strain (s-DBF). The OcRo strain exhibited higher levels of resistance (RR₅₀) to four pesticides in comparison to s-DBF. Spinosad and imidacloprid had very low RR₅₀, thus were still efficient in OcRo control. We also tested resistance to pesticides in OcRo after topical applications of synergistic compounds. Hydrolases were involved in phosphorganic detoxification and cytochrome P450 monoxygenases in that of pyrethroids. These results indicate that OcRo strain is now multiresistant to organophosphates and pyrethroids, and this should be considered for an environmentally safe pest management. PMID:21726145

  4. The effects of temperature and innate immunity on transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) between life stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, S; Gill, C; Lowenberger, C; Skovgård, H; Hald, B

    2014-05-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure. C. jejuni was transmitted from infected larvae to pupae, but not to the adult stage. Infected larvae maintained at 25 degrees C had mean bacterial numbers of 6.5 +/- 0.2 SE log10 (colony forming units [CFU]/g) that subsequently dropped to 3.6 +/- 0.3 SE log10 (CFU/g) 8 h after infection. Pupae originating from infected larvae contained mean bacterial numbers of 5.3 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g), and these numbers dropped to 4.8 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g) 24 h after pupation. The decline in C. jejuni numbers during pupal development coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial peptides, including cecropin, diptericin, attacin, and defensin, in the larva-pupa transition stage and a later second peak in older pupae (4 or 48 h). Conversely, there was a reduced expression of the digestive enzyme, lysozyme, in pupae and adults compared with larvae.

  5. Toxicity to vapor exposure and topical application of essential oils and monoterpenes on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Tarelli, G; Zerba, E N; Alzogaray, Raúl A

    2009-06-01

    The medical and veterinary pest Musca domestica L. has developed resistance to most insecticides used against it. For this reason, there is a constant search for new alternative control tools. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the toxicological effects caused by the fumigant activity and the topical application of five essential oils and five monoterpenes in M. domestica adult males and (2) to study the variation of the fumigant activity of the essential oils and monoterpenes according to the solvent used (acetone or a silicone base). Houses flies were exposed to vapors delivered by filter paper treated with 200 microl of essential oil or monoterpene (10%) in acetone or a silicone base. The knockdown time 50% (KT50) values obtained for essential oils (expressed in minutes) were 3.3 (eucalyptus); 10.1 (orange); 10.4 (mint); 10.9 (lavender); and 17.7 (geranium). The KT50 values obtained for monoterpenes (expressed in minutes) were 2.3 (eucalyptol); 7.5 (limonene); 7.6 (linalool); 19.0 (menthone); and 22.6 (menthyl acetate). In all cases, a delay in the onset of poisoning symptoms was observed when a silicone base vehicle was used. When topically applied, the lethal dose 50% (LD50) values for essential oils (expressed in micrograms of oil/insect) were 0.07 (geranium); 0.09 (mint); 0.13 (lavender); 0.14 (eucalyptus); and 0.16 (orange). The LD50 values for monoterpenes (expressed in micrograms of monoterpene/insect) were 0.04 (linalool); 0.09 (menthyl acetate); 0.10 (limonene); 0.11 (menthone); and 0.13 (eucalyptol). These results suggest that the studied essential oils and monoterpenes are potential tools for controlling M. domestica. PMID:19610461

  6. Blood feeding behavior of the stable fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable fly is a fly that looks similar to a house fly but both sexes are blood feeders. Blood is required for successful fertilization and development of eggs. Bites are painful but there is usually no pain after the fly stops feeding. The stable fly is a persistent feeder and will continue trying t...

  7. News and Views: Mars's missing mass; Dusty supernova; INTEGRAL lowers limit; Shuttle astronauts fly in to Burlington House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    The Royal Astronomical Society welcomed the STS-133 crew of space shuttle Discovery to their premises at Burlington House in June. The astronauts had a tour of the building, and met sixth-formers and staff as part of a visit to the UK as guests of the UK and Isle of Man governments.

  8. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  9. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps. PMID:27065593

  10. Use of bioluminescent Escherichia coli to determine retention during the life cycle of the housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae, L).

    PubMed

    Schuster, Greta L; Donaldson, Janet R; Buntyn, Joe O; Duoss, Heather A; Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeff A; Falkenberg, Shollie M; Schmidt, Ty B

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have documented that the housefly (Musca domestica) can serve as a vector for the spread of foodborne pathogens to livestock, food, and humans. Most studies have investigated Musca domestica as a vector only after the fly comes into contact or consumes the pathogen as an adult. The objective of this study was to determine whether the larvae of Musca domestica could ingest Escherichia coli from bovine manure and whether the E. coli could survive the metamorphosis process and be transmitted. Larvae (n=960) were incubated in sterilized bovine manure inoculated with 0, 3, 5, and 8 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of bioluminescent E. coli for 24 (larvae stage), 48 (larvae stage), 120 (pupae stage), and 192 h (adult stage). Larvae incubated for 24 h in bovine manure possessed 0.0, 2.7, 2.9, and 3.5 log(10) CFU/mL of E. coli, from inoculated with 0, 3, 5, and 8 log(10) CFU/mL of E. coli, respectively. Concentrations of E. coli within the pupae were 0.0, 1.7, 1.9, and 2.2 log(10) CFU/mL for each inoculation concentration, respectively. Flies that emerged from the pupae stage contained 0.0, 1.3, 2.2, and 1.7 log(10) CFU/mL of E. coli from larvae incubated in manure inoculated with concentrations of E. coli, respectively. These results suggest the housefly can emerge with quantities of E. coli. While this was an enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), these data may suggest that if the fly is capable of retaining similar concentrations of an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), these concentrations may be capable of initiating illness in humans. Furthermore, the E. coli concentration within and on adult flies is related to environmental exposure. It must be noted that larvae were incubated in sterilized bovine manure, and there was no other bacterial competition for the E. coli. Thus, the rate of positive flies and concentrations present when flies emerged may vary under more realistic conditions.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Musca domestica and Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Muscoidea: Muscidae and Scathophagidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuankun; Wang, Yuyu; Su, Shuai; Yang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Musca domestica (Muscidae) and Scathophaga stercoraria (Scathophagidae) are circular molecules of 16,108 bp and 16,223 bp in length, respectively. The first complete mitochondrial genome of Scathophagidae is reported here. Both genomes contain all 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a large control region, with conserved arrangement pattern reported in all cyclorrhaphan flies. All PCGs start with standard ATN codons except for the CO1 which starts with TCG in both species. All PCGs terminate with the common stop codons TAA or TAG, except for the CO2 and ND5 in both species and ND4 in S. stercoraria which end with a single T.

  12. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tomy, Rose Mary; Prabhu, Padma B

    2013-11-01

    Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity.

  13. Fly eye based sensor model and animation using matlab - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G

    2011-01-01

    A new optical sensor based on the common house fly, Musca domestica, has been under development for some time at the University of Wyoming. Each sensor consists of a series of photodiodes with overlapping Gaussian field of views. The photodiodes share a common facet lens. This type of sensor provides higher movement detection and resolution than can be obtained in current charged-couple detector (CCD) arrays that are commonly used in digital imaging systems. The purpose of this research is to aid in the application and development of the fly based sensor by creating a MATLAB simulation tool to model and study the response signals from various input stimuli. In particular, the sensor detection capability and limits for line, edge and pulse stimuli will be modeled, and analyzed. Increased knowledge of the detection characteristics and limits of this type of sensor will provide insight and guidance to determine possible sensor applications. The signal analysis makes use of the Gaussian profiles that are created in MATLAB. A user-selectable input signal can be applied, while observing the output signal. The information is animated, and plotted for study and analysis. This interactive MATLAB model is a powerful tool to help understand the complex interactions of the optical signals. This sensor configuration has a variety of applications in wheelchair odometry, power line detection by unmanned aerial systems (AES), high speed railroad line inspection, and remote building monitoring.

  14. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Do, Hyung-Seok; Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a 'human-friendly' alternative insect repellent. PMID:26624577

  15. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a ‘human-friendly’ alternative insect repellent. PMID:26624577

  16. Flies and Campylobacter Infection of Broiler Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Dybdahl, Jens; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Madsen, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks in summer. PMID:15496257

  17. Biologically based machine vision: signal analysis of monopolar cells in the visual system of Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jenny; Barrett, Steven F; Wilcox, Michael J; Popp, Stephanie

    2002-01-01

    Machine vision for navigational purposes is a rapidly growing field. Many abilities such as object recognition and target tracking rely on vision. Autonomous vehicles must be able to navigate in dynamic enviroments and simultaneously locate a target position. Traditional machine vision often fails to react in real time because of large computational requirements whereas the fly achieves complex orientation and navigation with a relatively small and simple brain. Understanding how the fly extracts visual information and how neurons encode and process information could lead us to a new approach for machine vision applications. Photoreceptors in the Musca domestica eye that share the same spatial information converge into a structure called the cartridge. The cartridge consists of the photoreceptor axon terminals and monopolar cells L1, L2, and L4. It is thought that L1 and L2 cells encode edge related information relative to a single cartridge. These cells are thought to be equivalent to vertebrate bipolar cells, producing contrast enhancement and reduction of information sent to L4. Monopolar cell L4 is thought to perform image segmentation on the information input from L1 and L2 and also enhance edge detection. A mesh of interconnected L4's would correlate the output from L1 and L2 cells of adjacent cartridges and provide a parallel network for segmenting an object's edges. The focus of this research is to excite photoreceptors of the common housefly, Musca domestica, with different visual patterns. The electrical response of monopolar cells L1, L2, and L4 will be recorded using intracellular recording techniques. Signal analysis will determine the neurocircuitry to detect and segment images.

  18. Size relationships of different body parts in the three dipteran species Drosophila melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Siomava, Natalia; Wimmer, Ernst A; Posnien, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Body size is an integral feature of an organism that influences many aspects of life such as fecundity, life span and mating success. Size of individual organs and the entire body size represent quantitative traits with a large reaction norm, which are influenced by various environmental factors. In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, pupal size and adult traits, such as tibia and thorax length or wing size, accurately estimate the overall body size. However, it is unclear whether these traits can be used in other flies. Therefore, we studied changes in size of pupae and adult organs in response to different rearing temperatures and densities for D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica. We confirm a clear sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for Drosophila and show that the SSD is less uniform in the other species. Moreover, the size response to changing growth conditions is sex dependent. Comparison of static and evolutionary allometries of the studied traits revealed that response to the same environmental variable is genotype specific but has similarities between species of the same order. We conclude that the value of adult traits as estimators of the absolute body size may differ among species and the use of a single trait may result in wrong assumptions. Therefore, we suggest using a body size coefficient computed from several individual measurements. Our data is of special importance for monitoring activities of natural populations of the three dipteran flies, since they are harmful species causing economical damage (Drosophila, Ceratitis) or transferring diseases (Musca). PMID:27116604

  19. Repellent, larvicidal and pupicidal properties of essential oils and their formulations against the housefly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Mishra, S; Malik, A; Satya, S

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of six plant species [peppermint, Mentha piperita, and bergamot mint, Mentha citrata (both, Lamiales: Lamiaceae); blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus, and khus grass, Vetiver zizanoides (both, Poales: Poaceae), and turmeric, Curcuma longa (Ziniberales: Zingiberaceae)] were screened for repellent, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Subsequently, emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations of the two most effective oils were prepared and tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. In repellency bioassays, M. piperita (RC(84) , 61.0 µg/cm(2) ) was found to be most effective, followed by E. globulus (RC(84) , 214.5 µg/cm(2) ) and C. citratus (RC(84) , 289.2 µg/cm(2) ). Formulated M. piperita and E. globulus showed RC(84) values of 1.6 µg/cm(2) and 4.1 µg/cm(2) , respectively. Formulated M. piperita and E. globulus achieved larval mortality (LC(50) ) in 72 h at 5.12 µg/cm(2) and 6.09 µg/cm(2) , respectively. In pupicidal bioassays, crude oils of M. piperita and E. globulus suppressed the emergence of adult flies by 100%. Field experiments with the M. piperita formulation showed reductions in fly density (number of flies/h) of 96% on treated cattle and 98% on treated plots. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of EC formulations of selected essential oils in reducing housefly populations in field conditions. PMID:21338379

  20. Habitat corridors function as both drift fences and movement conduits for dispersing flies.

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, Joanna H.; Levey Douglas J.; Hogsette, Jerome A.

    2005-03-30

    Abstract Corridors connect otherwise isolated habitat patches and can direct movement of animals among such patches. In eight experimental landscapes, we tested two hypotheses of how corridors might affect dispersal behavior. The Traditional Corridor hypothesis posits that animals preferentially leave patches via corridors, following them into adjacent patches. The Drift Fence hypothesis posits that animals dispersing through matrix habitat are diverted into patches with corridors because they follow corridors when encountered. House flies (Musca domestica L.), a species that prefers the habitat of our patches and corridors, were released in a central patch (100•100 m) and recaptured in peripheral patches that were or were not connected by a corridor. Flies were captured more frequently in connected than unconnected patches, thereby supporting the Traditional Corridor hypothesis. The Drift Fence hypothesis was also supported, as flies were captured more frequently in unconnected patches with blind (dead end) corridors than in unconnected patches of equal area without blind corridors. A second experiment tested whether these results might be dependent on the type of patch-matrix boundary encountered by dispersing flies and whether edge-following behavior might be the mechanism underlying the observed corridor effect in the first experiment. We recorded dispersal patterns of flies released along forest edges with dense undergrowth in the forest (‘‘closed’’ edges) and along edges with little forest understory (‘‘open’’ edges). Flies were less likely to cross and more likely to follow closed edges than open edges, indicating that when patch and corridor edges are pronounced, edge-following behavior of flies may direct them along corridors into connected patches. Because edges in the first experiment were open, these results also suggest that corridor effects for flies in that experiment would have been even stronger if the edges around the source

  1. ( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  2. Space to ground talking through small different areas in the top part of the air where the space-house flies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, T.

    2015-12-01

    If you look between the middle and the top of the ball of rock on which we all live, the very excited part of the top air (as high as where the space-house flies) doesn't change much on a normal day. In fact, it is very much the same in every direction. However, sometimes when there is sudden, heavy wind from the sun, the excited top air can be different and changing, becoming more or less filled up, in many directions---especially if you look at toward the top and the right of the ball of rock on which we all live. Some of the excited top air becomes suddenly filled up in one big area. Near there, there are also parts of the the excited top air that start changing in many very small places. These small changing areas sometimes make it hard to talk between space and the ground. We studied this happening on days on and around day 17 of third month of 2015 when the wind from the sun hit the ball of rock on which we all live very hard. We used things that talk from space to the ground in an area around school up to several hundred 5280 feet away. We made pictures of the changing excited top air, especially the small changing places, and looked for when they did and didn't make for good talking from space to the ground. We studied these pictures to learn when and why this sometimes happens and sometimes it doesn't. We are excited to share what we learned with you.

  3. [Abundance and seasonality of Diptera (Insecta) in a poultry house in the northeast region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Z; da Costa, Fábio H; Lopes, Wilton Carlos Z; Balieiro, Júlio César de C; Soares, Vando E; do Prado, Angelo P

    2008-01-01

    Modern production systems accommodate broody hens in high densities, leading to the accumulation of excrement under the cages. This substrate is excellent for the development of sinantropic flies. Thus, the accomplishment of surveys in these places becomes essential, in order to plan better strategies of control. The present work aimed at studying the entomofauna and the seasonality of the species of dipterous present in the Crisdan poultry house located in the Municipality of São João da Boa Vista, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the period of January of 2001 to December of 2002, 1,012,595 flies were captured using the "jug-trap". The species were identified: Drosophila repleta (Wollaston, 1858), Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758), Ophyra spp., Hermetria illucens (Linnaeus, 1758), Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), and Sepsidae. More frequently D. repleta and M. domestica had added 99.47% of the dipterous. Increased rainfall and the collection months influenced the sampling of dipterous (P<0.05). Drosophila repleta was the most abundant species, representing 91% of all captured flies. However, this diptera did not develop at the surveyed site since immatures were not captured therein.

  4. Why flies are good vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was around 1900 when house flies were implicated in disease transmission. Flies with white powder on their feet were seen landing on food in US Army chow halls. This white powder was lime that had been sprinkled over the human excrement in open latrines not too far from the eating establishments....

  5. Problems of housefly (Musca domestica) control due to multiresistance to insesticides.

    PubMed

    Keiding, J

    1975-01-01

    The development of chemical control of Musca domestica on Danish farms 1945--72 is outlined. It has been strongly influenced by successive development of resistance and failure of control by one insecticide after another. The chlorinated hydrocarbons used as residual sprays failed 1947--51. Organophosphorus compounds (OPC) were widely used from 1953, first as strips impregnated with parathion and residual sprays with diazinon. Resistance to OPC was first found in 1955, diazinon was given up in 1957--59 and parathion strips failed in the early '60's. Trichlorfon paint-on baits were widelyused 1958--64 and serious resistance did not appear until 1967, induced by selective pressure of fenthion and dimethoate used as residual sprays. High resistance to the contact effect of trichlorfon now occurs everywhere in Denmark. However, trichlorfon baits are still able to kill many flies. Residual sprays with fenthion, ronnel and fenitrothion were used to some extent 1960--70, but increased resistance reducing the residual effect developed in 2--3 years. Dimethoate was used on the majority of farms 1965--72. It was very effective the first years and resistance increased slowly until 1971--72, when high to extreme dimethoate-resistance became general on Danish farms. This was associated with high resistance to other OPC for fly control, e.g. fenthion, fenitrothion, bromophos, and tetrachlorvinphos, and to carbamates, with the result that no generally effective residual sprays were available. In 1971--72 frequent treatments with synergized pyrethroids have been tried. However, the method is often expensive, and serious resistance problems have appeared on a few farms. In this situation preventive, sanitary measures to eliminate or reduce fly breeding in manure are becoming decisive again, but difficult to practise due to lack of farm labour. The extreme Danish situation is compared with those in other areas, and probable reasons for differences in resistance and control problems

  6. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  7. Filth flies associated with municipal solid waste and impact of delay in cover soil application on adult filth fly emergence in a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nurita, A T; Hassan, A Abu

    2013-06-01

    Two types of municipal solid waste (MSW), newly arrived and 2 weeks old, were sampled from a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia at a fortnightly interval and kept under field conditions for 2 weeks. A total of 480 kg of each type of MSW was sampled to study species composition and impact of delays in cover soil applications on filth fly emergence. Out of 960 kg of MSW sampled, 9.2 ± 0.5 flies emerged per kilogram. Weekly adult fly emergence rates of newly arrived and 2-week-old waste did not differ significantly and MSW remained suitable for fly breeding for up to 1 month. Eight species of flies emerged from the MSW: namely, Musca domestica, Musca sorbens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Hydrotaea chalcogaster, Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia cuprina, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Sarcophaga sp. Newly arrived waste was determined to be the main source for M. domestica, C. megacephala and L. cuprina in the landfill owing to significantly higher mean emergence compared with 2-week-old waste. Musca sorbens was found in newly arrived waste but not in 2-week-old waste, suggesting that the species was able to survive transportation to landfill but unable to survive landfill conditions. Hemipyrellia ligurriens, H. chalcogaster and S. nudiseta were not imported into the landfill with MSW and pre-existing flies in and around the landfill itself may be their source. The results show that landfills can be a major source of fly breeding if cover soil or temporary cover is not applied daily or on a regular schedule.

  8. Morphology of the puparia of the housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) and blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Piangjai, Somsak; Olson, Jimmy K; Sukontason, Kom

    2005-06-01

    Examination of the puparia of the housefly, Musca domestica L. and blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (F.), through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealed many differences in the profile of their morphology. Special attention was focused on puparial characteristics used to differentiate between the two fly species studied, and between other forensically important flies. Results of this study indicate that the housefly puparia are almost evenly rounded at both ends and the anterior spiracle bears six papillae. A pair of pupal respiratory horns is found laterally before the posterior boundary of the first abdominal segment, bearing numerous papillae that have a longitudinal opening along the oval convex base. The peritreme of each posterior spiracle forms a crude forward or reverse D-shape, encircling three sinuous slits. The blowfly pupariums anterior spiracle contains 8-12 papillae. The pupal respiratory horns protrude slightly and in some specimens a group of approximately 38 globules on the bubble-like membrane may be observed. Each of the posterior spiracles is more or less an oval- shaped peritreme, encircling three straight spiracular slits. The anatomical features presented herein allow for the differentiation of puparia of the two fly species studied and could prove useful in future forensic entomological assessments.

  9. Comparative analysis of bacterial community and antibiotic-resistant strains in different developmental stages of the housefly (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Hu, Jun; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2013-02-01

    The housefly (Musca domestica) is an important host for a variety of bacteria, including some pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant strains. To further investigate the relationship between the housefly and the bacteria it harbors, it is necessary to understand the fate of microorganisms during the larval metamorphosis. The major bacterial communities in three developmental stages of the housefly (maggot, pupa, and adult fly) were investigated by a culture-independent method, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The bacteria that were identified using DGGE analysis spanned phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Changes in the predominant genera were observed during the housefly development. Bacteroides, Koukoulia, and Schineria were detected in maggots, Neisseria in pupae, and Macrococcus, Lactococcus, and Kurthia in adult flies. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were screened using a selective medium and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Most resistant isolates from maggots and pupae were classified as Proteus spp., while those from adult flies were much more diverse and spanned 12 genera. Among 20 tested strains across the three stages, 18 were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Overall, we demonstrated that there are changes in the major bacterial communities and antibiotic-resistant strains as the housefly develops.

  10. Nutritional optimization of a native Beauveria bassiana isolate (HQ917687) pathogenic to housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree

    2013-10-01

    A new Beauveria bassiana isolate, showing high activity against Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults (mortality-100.0 %), larvae (mortality-72.3 %) and pupae (Infection in emerged flies-96.7 %) was used. The isolate was subjected to a combinational approach towards selection of process parameters for its growth optimization. Initial screening of several carbon and nitrogen sources revealed glucose and NaNO3 as the most suitable source for optimal biomass and spore production. Further, optimization through Placket-Burman and a 2(5) full factorial central composite design revealed highly significant effect of glucose and pH. The optimum composition for maximum biomass yield was (g/l): glucose 28; NaNO3 2.43; KH2PO4 1.32; MgSO4 0.60; and pH 7.00. Glucose concentration showed almost linear relationship with biomass yield, indicating its significant contribution in medium composition for fungal growth. Highly significant interactions were observed between glucose and pH, followed by glucose and NaNO3 concentration.

  11. Temperature and population density effects on locomotor activity of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Schou, T M; Faurby, S; Kjærsgaard, A; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, V; Hald, B; Bahrndorff, S

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of ectotherm organisms is affected by both abiotic and biotic factors. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the synergistic effects on behavioral traits. This study examined the effect of temperature and density on locomotor activity of Musca domestica (L.). Locomotor activity was measured for both sexes and at four densities (with mixed sexes) during a full light and dark (L:D) cycle at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. Locomotor activity during daytime increased with temperature at all densities until reaching 30°C and then decreased. High-density treatments significantly reduced the locomotor activity per fly, except at 15°C. For both sexes, daytime activity also increased with temperature until reaching 30 and 35°C for males and females, respectively, and thereafter decreased. Furthermore, males showed a significantly higher and more predictable locomotor activity than females. During nighttime, locomotor activity was considerably lower for all treatments. Altogether the results of the current study show that there is a significant interaction of temperature and density on daytime locomotor activity of M. domestica and that houseflies are likely to show significant changes in locomotor activity with change in temperature.

  12. Filamentary structure and magnetic field orientation in Musca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.; Arzoumanian, D.; André, Ph.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Prusti, T.; Men'shchikov, A.; Royer, P.; Kóspál, Á.; Palmeirim, P.; Ribas, A.; Könyves, V.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Merin, B.; Vavrek, R.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Didelon, P.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-05-01

    Herschel has shown that filamentary structures are ubiquitous in star-forming regions, in particular in nearby molecular clouds associated with Gould's Belt. High dynamic range far-infrared imaging of the Musca cloud with SPIRE and PACS reveals at least two types of filamentary structures: (1) the main ~10-pc scale high column-density linear filament; and (2) low column-density striations in close proximity to the main filament. In addition, we find features with intermediate column densities (hair-like strands) that appear physically connected to the main filament. We present an analysis of this filamentary network traced by Herschel and explore its connection with the local magnetic field. We find that both the faint dust emission striations and the plane-of-the-sky (POS) magnetic field are locally oriented close to perpendicular to the high-density main filament (position angle ~25-35°). The low-density striations and strands are oriented parallel to the POS magnetic field lines, which are derived previously from optical polarization measurements of background stars and more recently from Planck observations of dust polarized emission. The position angles are 97 ± 25°, 105 ± 7°, and 105 ± 5°. From these observations, we propose a scenario in which local interstellar material in this cloud has condensed into a gravitationally-unstable filament (with "supercritical" mass per unit length) that is accreting background matter along field lines through the striations. We also compare the filamentary structure in Musca with what is seen in similar Herschel observations of the Taurus B211/3 filament system and find that there is significantly less substructure in the Musca main filament than in the B211/3 filament. We suggest that the Musca cloud may represent an earlier evolutionary stage in which the main filament has not yet accreted sufficient mass and energy to develop a multiple system of intertwined filamentary components. Herschel is an ESA space

  13. Flies as a source of enteric pathogens in a rural village in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, P; Harrison, B A; Tirapat, C; McFarland, A

    1983-01-01

    The village of Ban Pong in northeastern Thailand was studied from January through December 1981 to determine the importance of flies as a source of enteric pathogens. The number of flies (predominantly Musca domestica) increased in kitchens and animal pens in the hot dry spring, when the incidence of diarrhea was highest in the village. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., non-O1 Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio fluvalis were isolated from fly pools in yards (69%), animal pens (38%), bathrooms (35%), and kitchens (8%). Enterotoxigenic E. coli was isolated from one fly pool in May and from another in June, when the incidence of such infections was highest in the village. Flies often carry and presumably disseminate enteric pathogens in rural Thailand. PMID:6351748

  14. Drilling-in and Chewing-out of Hosts by the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) When Parasitizing Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Broski, Scott A; King, B H

    2015-08-01

    Many organisms are protected from natural enemies by a tough exterior. Such protection is particularly important for immobile stages, such as pupae. The pupa of some insects is protected by a puparium, which is a shell formed from the exoskeleton of the last larval instar. However, the puparium of certain fly species is drilled through by adult females of the wasp Spalangia endius Walker. The female wasp then deposits an egg on the fly pupa within the puparium. After the wasp offspring finishes feeding on the fly pupa, it chews through the puparium to complete emergence. Despite the apparent toughness of the puparium, there was no detectable wear on the ovipositor of S. endius females even when females had been encountering fly pupae (Musca domestica L.) for weeks, and regardless of whether the pupae were large or old or both. Energy dispersive spectroscopy did not reveal any metal ions in the ovipositor's cuticle to account for this resistance against wear. Offspring of S. endius that chewed their way out of pupae also showed no detectable wear on their mandibles. Tests with a penetrometer showed that the force required to penetrate the center of a puparium was greater for larger and for older pupae; and an index of overall thickness was greater for large old pupae than for small old pupae. The lack of an effect of pupal size or age on wear may result from wasps choosing locations on the puparium that are easier to get through.

  15. Pandora bullata (Entomophthoromycota: Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montalva, Cristian; Collier, Karin; Luz, Christian; Humber, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was observed over several days in mid-February 2015 at the local garbage dump adjacent to the city of Cavalcante, northern Goiás. This site harbored large populations of both C. megacephala and a Musca sp. (Diptera: Muscidae) but only the population of oriental latrine fly was affected by any fungal pathogen and presented unusually dense populations of fresh cadavers. The fungus was identifiable as Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) only after a very small number of characteristically decorated resting spores were found in these flies two months later; this represents the first Brazilian (and South American) record of this species. P. bullata is known previously from a small number of North American, European and Australian collections, all of which have included relatively abundant production of resting spores. We cannot dismiss the possibility that the extremely sparse formation of resting spores at this Brazilian site may be due to abiotic factors such as latitude (13°46'40.53″S), day length, ambient temperatures, or even the precipitation patterns in this mid-tropical montaine site. Epizootic events affecting calliphorids in Brazil strengthen the interest in entomophthoran pathogens for biological control of flies.

  16. Pandora bullata (Entomophthoromycota: Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montalva, Cristian; Collier, Karin; Luz, Christian; Humber, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was observed over several days in mid-February 2015 at the local garbage dump adjacent to the city of Cavalcante, northern Goiás. This site harbored large populations of both C. megacephala and a Musca sp. (Diptera: Muscidae) but only the population of oriental latrine fly was affected by any fungal pathogen and presented unusually dense populations of fresh cadavers. The fungus was identifiable as Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) only after a very small number of characteristically decorated resting spores were found in these flies two months later; this represents the first Brazilian (and South American) record of this species. P. bullata is known previously from a small number of North American, European and Australian collections, all of which have included relatively abundant production of resting spores. We cannot dismiss the possibility that the extremely sparse formation of resting spores at this Brazilian site may be due to abiotic factors such as latitude (13°46'40.53″S), day length, ambient temperatures, or even the precipitation patterns in this mid-tropical montaine site. Epizootic events affecting calliphorids in Brazil strengthen the interest in entomophthoran pathogens for biological control of flies. PMID:26968351

  17. Learning to cope with biting flies: rapid NMDA-mediated acquisition of conditioned analgesia.

    PubMed

    Kavaliers, M; Colwell, D D; Choleris, E; Ossenkopp, K P

    1999-02-01

    A 30-min exposure to intact biting flies (stable flies) induced an opioid-mediated analgesia in fly-naive male deer mice, whereas exposure to either altered biting flies whose biting mouthparts were removed or nonbiting house flies had no significant effects. However, mice that were previously exposed to intact stable flies for 30 min exhibited significant analgesia when exposed 24-168 hr later to stable flies whose biting parts were removed, but not to nonbiting house flies. Administration of the specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist NPC 12626 to fly-naive mice before exposure to intact flies, although not significantly reducing the analgesic response, blocked the subsequent conditioned analgesia. Naloxone, which blocked the intact biting fly-induced analgesia, did not alter the acquisition of the conditioned analgesic response to the altered stable flies. This demonstrates an NMDA-mediated acquisition of conditioned analgesia to a natural aversive stimulus. PMID:10197912

  18. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  19. Morphology of the infective larval stage of the equid parasite Habronema muscae (Spirurida: Habronematidae), from houseflies (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Buzzell, Gerald R; Tariq, Saeed; Traversa, Donato; Schuster, Rolf

    2011-03-01

    The infective larva of the spirurid nematode Habronema muscae, a parasite of houseflies, was measured and specimens fixed in Karnovsky's fluid were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The oral opening contains six teeth and is surrounded by large bilobed dorsal and ventral lips and smaller lateral lips. A pair of amphids lie behind the lateral lips. There are two rows of four cephalic papillae. The body is deeply ridged, both transversely and longitudinally. The caudal end of the worm is studded by small papillae. The position of the anal opening is somewhat ambiguous. These larval morphological features are discussed, as well as the changes which must have occurred in the metamorphosis of the infective larva to the adult in the stomach of horses. PMID:20949282

  20. Problems of housing and health of people utilizing the garbage in Cairo from the viewpoint of medical entomology.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Sixl, W; Köck, M

    1989-01-01

    More than 50 arthropod species were found at two dumping-grounds with dwelling-places (Mokattam and Ezbet el Nakhl) in Cairo. Their importance was evaluated from the epidemiological and epizootological points of view. Of primary importance is the great prevalence of the fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) on brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), since the rats are in a close contact with people. They are often simultaneously parasitized with another flea species, Ctenocephalides felis felis, which is very frequent in the studied localities, occurring not only on people and dogs, but also freely in the whole area inhabited by people. Significant is also the large number of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and synantropic flies of epidemiological importance. There is a mass occurrence particularly of the species Musca domestica vicina, Musca sorbens and Piophila casei. Attention is paid also to natural reducers of these flies.

  1. Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica, suppress fungal growth in chicken manure through nutrient depletion or antifungal metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Kevin; Thu, Kelsie; Tsang, Michelle; Moore, Margo; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Female houseflies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), lay their eggs in ephemeral resources such as animal manure. Hatching larvae compete for essential nutrients with fungi that also colonize such resources. Both the well-known antagonistic relationship between bacteria and fungi and the consistent presence of the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca on housefly eggs led us to hypothesize (1) that K. oxytoca, and possibly other bacteria on housefly eggs, help curtail the growth of fungal resource competitors and (2) that such fungi indeed adversely affect the development of housefly larvae. Bacteria washed from housefly eggs significantly reduced the growth of fungi in chicken manure. Nineteen bacterial strains and ten fungal strains were isolated from housefly eggs or chicken manure, respectively. Co-culturing each of all the possible bacterium-fungus pairs revealed that the bacteria as a group, but no single bacterium, significantly suppressed the growth of all fungal strains tested. The bacteria's adverse effect on fungi is due to resource nutrient depletion and/or the release of antifungal chemicals. Well-established fungi in resources significantly reduced the number of larval offspring that completed development to adult flies.

  2. Evaluation of some adhesives for collecting Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala adults or mosquito larvae in sticky traps.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Yunus, H; Sohadi, R

    1987-07-01

    1. Seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) or mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say). 2. Adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. From the 'Hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'Hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. With 24 h exposure to fourth instar Ae.aegypti larvae in tapwater, submerged plates coated with 'Hyvis 10', 'Hyvis 30' or 'Hyvis 200' formulations trapped the majority of larvae. In polluted water the highest rates of trapping were 17.3% of Ae.aegypti and 18.7% of Cx quinquefasciatus with 'Hyvis 200'. Floating traps were consistently less productive than submerged traps under laboratory conditions. 5. In a heavily polluted natural breeding-site of Cx quinquefasciatus, floating traps were more productive than submerged sticky traps with four of seven adhesives tested, the most efficient being 'Hyvis 200' (4.2 mosquitoes per hour) and Hyvis:polyethylene 90:10 (4.5/h). Despite the relative inefficiency of aquatic traps, emergent adults, pupae and second to fourth instars of larvae were collected quickly from the habitat. PMID:2979541

  3. Evaluation of some adhesives for collecting Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala adults or mosquito larvae in sticky traps.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Yunus, H; Sohadi, R

    1987-07-01

    1. Seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) or mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say). 2. Adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. From the 'Hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'Hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. With 24 h exposure to fourth instar Ae.aegypti larvae in tapwater, submerged plates coated with 'Hyvis 10', 'Hyvis 30' or 'Hyvis 200' formulations trapped the majority of larvae. In polluted water the highest rates of trapping were 17.3% of Ae.aegypti and 18.7% of Cx quinquefasciatus with 'Hyvis 200'. Floating traps were consistently less productive than submerged traps under laboratory conditions. 5. In a heavily polluted natural breeding-site of Cx quinquefasciatus, floating traps were more productive than submerged sticky traps with four of seven adhesives tested, the most efficient being 'Hyvis 200' (4.2 mosquitoes per hour) and Hyvis:polyethylene 90:10 (4.5/h). Despite the relative inefficiency of aquatic traps, emergent adults, pupae and second to fourth instars of larvae were collected quickly from the habitat.

  4. Elemental changes in the brain, muscle, and gut cells of the housefly, Musca domestica, exposed to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Tylko, Grzegorz; Banach, Zuzanna; Borowska, Joanna; Niklińska, Maria; Pyza, Elzbieta

    2005-04-01

    The toxic effects of heavy metals on organisms are well established. However, their specific action at the cellular level in different tissues is mostly unknown. We have used the housefly, Musca domestica, as a model organism to study the toxicity of four heavy metals: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). These have been fed to larvae at low and high, semi-lethal concentrations, and their accumulation in the head, thorax, and abdomen was subsequently measured in adult flies. In addition, their impact on the cellular concentration of several elements important for cell metabolism-sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg++), phosphorous (P), sulphur (S), chloride (Cl-) and potassium (K+)-were measured in neural cells, muscle fibers, and midgut epithelial cells. Our study showed that the heavy metals accumulate mainly in the abdomen, in which the concentrations of two of the xenobiotic metals, Cd and Pb, were 213 and 23 times more concentrated, respectively, than in controls. All the heavy metals affected the cellular concentration of light elements in all cell types, but the changes observed were dependent on tissue type and were specific for each heavy metal, and its concentration. PMID:15940683

  5. Unusual pseudomyiasis with Musca domestica (housefly) larvae in a tracheostomy wound: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Mohammad; Khan, Iram; Ahmad, Imteyaz; Iqbal, Zafar; Hasan, Syed Abrar

    2013-07-01

    We report a case of pseudomyiasis (accidental myiasis) in a 52-year-old man who had previously undergone surgery and placement of a tracheostomy tube for laryngeal cancer. The patient presented to our outpatient department with a foul-smelling, blood-stained discharge and frequent and severe episodic pain at the site of the tracheostomy. He also reported the discharge of many whitish larvae from the site. On clinical examination, 3 of these larvae were removed from the tracheostomy wound and later identified as Musca domestica (housefly) larvae. The patient underwent further mechanical removal twice daily for 3 days, during which time 23 more larvae, or maggots, were removed. His condition improved, and he returned for regular follow-up with no recurrence or complications. Myiasis is an infestation of humans and vertebrate animals by insect larvae that feed on both dead and living tissue. Myiasis is most common in hot and humid climates in tropical and subtropical regions, such as the underdeveloped areas of India, Africa, and Southeast Asia, which provide favorable breeding grounds for flies. Myiasis is classified as specific, semispecific, or accidental, depending on whether the fly larvae require a host in order to develop. We review the literature on myiasis and its entomologic aspects in general. We also discuss the need for the proper care of tracheostomy wound myiasis because the site of such an infestation is close to vital organs in the neck. To the best of our knowledge, only 3 cases of tracheostomy wound myiasis have been previously reported in the English-language literature; 2 of them involved infestation with Chrysomyia bezziana larvae and 1 with Lucilia caesar larvae. We believe our case is the first case of tracheostomy wound pseudomyiasis attributable to M domestica larvae.

  6. Evaluation of imidacloprid-treated traps as an attract and kill system for filth flies during contingency operations.

    PubMed

    Dunford, James C; Hoel, David F; Hertz, Jeffrey C; England, David B; Dunford, Kelly R; Stoops, Craig A; Szumlas, Daniel E; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2013-01-01

    Two field trials were conducted to evaluate if filth fly trap efficacy was increased by augmentation with an insecticide application to the trap's exterior. Four Fly Terminator Pro traps (Farnam Companies, Inc, Phoenix, AZ) baited with Terminator Fly Attractant (in water) were suspended on polyvinyl chloride pipe framing at a municipal waste transfer site in Clay County, Florida. The outer surfaces of 2 traps were treated with Maxforce Fly Spot Bait (Bayer Environmental Science, Research Triangle Park, NC) (10% imidacloprid) to compare kill rates between treated and untreated traps. Kill consisted of total flies collected from inside traps and from mesh nets suspended beneath all traps, both treated and untreated. Each of 2 treated and untreated traps was rotated through 4 trap sites every 24 hrs. In order to evaluate operational utility and conservation of supplies during remote contingency operations, fly attractant remained in traps for the duration of the first trial but was changed daily during the second trial (following manufacturer's recommendations). In addition, ½ strength Terminator Fly Attractant was used during the first trial and traps were set at full strength during the second trial. Flies collected within the traps and in mesh netting were counted and identified. Three species, Musca domestica (L.), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), comprised the majority of samples in both trials. The net samples recovered more flies when the outer surface was treated with imidacloprid, however, treated traps collected fewer flies inside the trap than did untreated traps for both trials. No significant statistical advantage was found in treating Fly Terminator Pro trap exteriors with Maxforce Fly Spot Bait. However, reducing manufacturer's recommended strength of Terminator Fly Attractant showed similar results to traps set at full strength. Treating the outer surfaces may improve kill of fly species that do not enter the trap

  7. Glutathione transferase gene family from the housefly Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Syvanen, M; Zhou, Z H; Wang, J Y

    1994-10-17

    Three new glutathione transferase (GST) genes from the housefly Musca domestica are described. These genes, identified as MdGST-2, -3, and -4, were from cDNA clones obtained from a cDNA bank in phage lambda. The bank was prepared using poly(A)+ RNA from a housefly that is highly resistant to organophosphate insecticides because of enhanced expression of multiple members of the glutathione transferase gene family. The DNA sequence of each is reported and has a complete open reading frame that specified an amino acid sequence similar to other dipteran glutathione transferases. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we can conclude that the insect glutathione transferase gene family falls into two groups, each of which evolves at a different rate, presumably due to differences in functional constraints. We show that MdGST-1 (and their homologues from Drosophila and Lucilia) evolve at a significantly slower rate than the other members of the gene family. Each housefly GST cDNA was inserted into a bacterial plasmid expression system and a glutathione transferase activity was expressed in Escherichia coli. The transcription pattern of each of these glutathione transferases was examined in a variety of different housefly strains that are known to differ in their resistance to organophosphate insecticides due to different patterns of glutathione transferase expression. We found that the level of transcription for two of our clones was positively correlated with the level of organophosphate resistance.

  8. Identification of forensically important fly eggs using a potassium permanganate staining technique.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Hope, Michelle; Olson, Jimmy K

    2004-01-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be utilized as entomological evidence in forensic investigations of deaths if the species of fly and the developmental rate at a temperature similar to the death scene are known. The species identification of fly eggs is particularly important, and previously, scanning electron microscope has been used for this purpose. Herein, we report a simple technique, using light microscopy, to identify forensically important eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya pacifica Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Musca domestica L. and Megaselia scalaris (Loew). A 1% potassium permanganate solution was used to stain egg surfaces for 1 min, followed by dehydration in 15, 70, and 95%, absolute alcohol (each solution for 1 min) and the eggs were permanently mounted. The characteristics are based on the width of plastron, morphology of plastron area surrounding the micropyle and chorionic sculpturing, with the length of egg being used as supplemental feature.

  9. Adaptation of Musca domestica L. Field Population to Laboratory Breeding Causes Transcriptional Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Højland, Dorte H.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Kristensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background The housefly, Musca domestica, has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Expression of genes coding for detoxification enzymes play a role in the response of the housefly when encountered by a xenobiotic. The highest level of constitutive gene expression of nine P450 genes was previously found in a newly-collected susceptible field population in comparison to three insecticide-resistant laboratory strains and a laboratory reference strain. Results We compared gene expression of five P450s by qPCR as well as global gene expression by RNAseq in the newly-acquired field population (845b) in generation F1, F13 and F29 to test how gene expression changes following laboratory adaption. Four (CYP6A1, CYP6A36, CYP6D3, CYP6G4) of five investigated P450 genes adapted to breeding by decreasing expression. CYP6D1 showed higher female expression in F29 than in F1. For males, about half of the genes accessed in the global gene expression were up-regulated in F13 and F29 in comparison with the F1 population. In females, 60% of the genes were up-regulated in F13 in comparison with F1, while 33% were up-regulated in F29. Forty potential P450 genes were identified. In most cases, P450 gene expression was decreased in F13 flies in comparison with F1. Gene expression then increased from F13 to F29 in males and decreased further in females. Conclusion The global gene expression changes massively during adaptation to laboratory breeding. In general, global expression decreased as a result of laboratory adaption in males, while female expression was not unidirectional. Expression of P450 genes was in general down-regulated as a result of laboratory adaption. Expression of hexamerin, coding for a storage protein was increased, while gene expression of genes coding for amylases decreased. This suggests a major impact of the surrounding environment on gene response to xenobiotics and genetic composition of housefly strains. PMID:24489682

  10. Nuisance flies on Australian cattle feedlots: immature populations.

    PubMed

    Hogsette, J A; Urech, R; Green, P E; Skerman, A; Elson-Harris, M M; Bright, R L; Brown, G W

    2012-03-01

    Species composition, seasonality and distribution of immature fly populations on a southern Queensland feedlot during 2001-2003 were determined. Similar data were collected on feedlots in central New South Wales and central Queensland. The fly species recovered in the highest numbers were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and Physiphora clausa Macquart (Diptera: Ulidiidae). Houseflies were the dominant species at all feedlots. Houseflies preferred the warmer months from October to June, but stable flies preferred the cooler months and peaked in spring (September-November) and autumn (March-May). Larval abundance ratings recorded in the feedlot and numbers of larvae extracted in the laboratory from corresponding samples followed similar trends. Larvae of M. domestica were most abundant in the hospital and induction area and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of M. domestica were abundant in the hospital and induction area and drains, but least abundant in horse stables and yards. Larvae of S. calcitrans were most abundant in drains and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of S. calcitrans were most numerous in drains and least numerous in old cattle pens. Feedlot design and management had little effect on fly reduction.

  11. Fumigant toxicity of Citrus sinensis essential oil on Musca domestica L. adults in the absence and presence of a P450 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Yanina Estefanía; Palacios, Sara María

    2013-07-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are potential tools for controlling Musca domestica L. In a fumigant assay, M. domestica adults treated with Citrus sinensis EO (LC50=3.9mg/dm(3)), with (4R)(+)-limonene (95.1%) being its main component, died within 15min or less. The terpenes absorbed by the flies and their metabolites, analyzed using SPME fiber, were (4R)(+)-limonene (LC50=6.2mg/dm(3)), α-pinene (LC50=11.5mg/dm(3)), β-pinene (LC50=6.4mg/dm(3)), and two new components, carveol (LC50=1122mg/dm(3)) and carvone (LC50=19mg/dm(3)), in a proportion of 50, 6.2, 12.5, 6.3 and 25%, respectively. Carveol and carvone were formed by oxidation of (4R)(+)-limonene mediated by cytochrome P450, as was suggested by a fumigation assay on flies previously treated with piperonyl butoxide, a P450 inhibitor. In this experiment, an increase in the toxicity of the EO and (4R)(+)-limonene was observed, as well as a lower production of carveol and carvone.

  12. Coxiella burnetii in wild-caught filth flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is a pathogen of vertebrates. In domestic animals, Q fever can cause abortion and reduced fertility. Infections in humans can be debilitating but are rarely fatal. House flies are vectors of Q fever in the laboratory, but infections in field caught flies have...

  13. Fungal dissemination by housefly (Musca domestica L.) and contamination of food commodities in rural areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2016-01-18

    Several insects that act as vectors, including houseflies (Musca domestica L.), are often considered to be an important source of fungal contamination in human foods. Houseflies are also involved in the transmission of bacterial pathogens that may pose a serious hazard to human health. Thus, the rural population of South Africa, as typified by that in the Gauteng Province investigated in this study, is at high risk from fungal exposure disseminated by houseflies and it is therefore important to assess the role of flies in contaminating various food commodities. Eighty four samples of houseflies (captured from households and pit toilets) were studied for their potential to carry fungal spores into food commodities. The fungi occurring in samples of raw maize (15) and porridge (19) were also assessed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics by conventional identification methods. Fifteen genera of fungi were isolated and identified, of which Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Moniliella and Mucor were the most prevalent in all three sample types analysed. The incidence rates of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated in houseflies, maize and porridge were recorded with mean fungal load of 2×10(8) CFU/ml, 1×10(7)CFU/g and 2×10(7)CFU/g respectively. Additionally, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, P. verrucosum, P. aurantiogriseum and M. suaveolens were the most frequent fungal isolates in houseflies with incidence rate of 34%, 11%, 27%, 21%, 22%, 17% and 32% respectively. F. verticillioides, A. flavus, A. niger and P. oslonii were the most prevalent species contaminating porridge and maize with incidence rate of 23%, 32%, 16% and 28% in maize samples, while incidence rates of 59%, 15% and 29% were recorded in porridge samples with the exception of F. verticillioides. The prevalence of these genera of fungi may pose serious health risks. PMID:26544205

  14. Fungal dissemination by housefly (Musca domestica L.) and contamination of food commodities in rural areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2016-01-18

    Several insects that act as vectors, including houseflies (Musca domestica L.), are often considered to be an important source of fungal contamination in human foods. Houseflies are also involved in the transmission of bacterial pathogens that may pose a serious hazard to human health. Thus, the rural population of South Africa, as typified by that in the Gauteng Province investigated in this study, is at high risk from fungal exposure disseminated by houseflies and it is therefore important to assess the role of flies in contaminating various food commodities. Eighty four samples of houseflies (captured from households and pit toilets) were studied for their potential to carry fungal spores into food commodities. The fungi occurring in samples of raw maize (15) and porridge (19) were also assessed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics by conventional identification methods. Fifteen genera of fungi were isolated and identified, of which Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Moniliella and Mucor were the most prevalent in all three sample types analysed. The incidence rates of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated in houseflies, maize and porridge were recorded with mean fungal load of 2×10(8) CFU/ml, 1×10(7)CFU/g and 2×10(7)CFU/g respectively. Additionally, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, P. verrucosum, P. aurantiogriseum and M. suaveolens were the most frequent fungal isolates in houseflies with incidence rate of 34%, 11%, 27%, 21%, 22%, 17% and 32% respectively. F. verticillioides, A. flavus, A. niger and P. oslonii were the most prevalent species contaminating porridge and maize with incidence rate of 23%, 32%, 16% and 28% in maize samples, while incidence rates of 59%, 15% and 29% were recorded in porridge samples with the exception of F. verticillioides. The prevalence of these genera of fungi may pose serious health risks.

  15. Use of a highly sensitive immunomarking system to characterize face fly (Diptera: Muscidae) dispersal from cow pats.

    PubMed

    Peck, George W; Ferguson, Holly J; Jones, Vincent P; O'Neal, Sally D; Walsh, Douglas B

    2014-02-01

    We tested an immunomarking system that used egg white as marker and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a detection assay to characterize face fly (Musca autumnalis DeGeer) dispersal from cow pats in a pastured beef cattle operation. In microcage assays, adult flies acquired marker after contact with cow pats that were treated with marker and field aged up to 11 d. In arena assays on sprayed full-size cow pats, 77% of eclosed face flies acquired the marker. In a field-marking study, four applications of egg white marker were applied on freshly deposited cow pats over a summer at two peripheral paddocks to a main grazing pasture of ≍50 head of beef cattle. Of the 663 face flies captured, 108 were positive for the egg white marker (16.3%). Of the marked flies, ≍ twofold more male than female flies were captured. Sex-specific dispersal distances were roughly equal up to 450 m, with 11% of female flies dispersing >450 m. Dispersal capability of face flies is discussed in relation to efficacy of rotational grazing and other IPM strategies.

  16. Fly emergence from manure of Japanese quail fed thymol- or isoeugenol-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Lynch Ianniello, I; Horenstein, M Battán; Lábaque, M C; Luna, A; Marin, R H; Gleiser, R M

    2014-10-01

    Many problems in poultry production are caused by a combination of interrelated factors such as management, stress, nutrition, and exposure to pathogens. Saprophagous flies that develop in poultry manure are a potential route of pathogen transmission. Besides being a nuisance, defecation and regurgitation of flies soil equipment and structures and can reduce light levels of lighting fixtures. These effects clearly affect management and may contribute to reductions in poultry egg production, health, and welfare. Many essential oils or their main components have bioactive effects such as natural repellents and insecticides, antioxidants, anticholesterolemics, and antimicrobials. This study evaluated if supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol as functional food could alter the production of flies from manure. Dropping samples deposited by quail fed with a supplementation of 2,000 mg of thymol or isoeugenol per kg of feed or no supplement (control) were collected. Each sample was incubated inside an emergence cage that was inspected daily to collect emerging adult flies. Fewer flies emerged from droppings of quail fed a thymol-supplemented diet (P = 0.01) and there was a tendency to a lower emergence from droppings of isoeugenol-fed quail (P = 0.09). The number of positive containers for Musca domestica was smaller from quail droppings of thymol- (P = 0.02) or isoeugenol- (P = 0.01) supplemented feed than from the control counterparts, suggesting an oviposition repellent effect. Supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol has an overall moderate effect against flies, reducing M. domestica emergence. PMID:25104767

  17. Houseflies (Musca domestica) as Vectors for Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli on Spanish Broiler Farms.

    PubMed

    Solà-Ginés, Marc; González-López, Juan José; Cameron-Veas, Karla; Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2015-06-01

    Flies may act as potential vectors for the spread of resistant bacteria to different environments. This study was intended to evaluate the presence of Escherichia coli strains resistant to cephalosporins in flies captured in the areas surrounding five broiler farms. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the resistant population was performed by different methods: MIC determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and phylotyping. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, their plasmid location, and the mobile genetic elements involved in their mobilization were studied. Additionally, the presence of 35 genes associated with virulence was evaluated. Out of 682 flies captured, 42 yielded ESBL-producing E. coli. Of these isolates, 23 contained bla(CTX-M-1), 18 contained bla(CTX-M-14), and 1 contained bla(CTX-M-9). ESBL genes were associated mainly with the presence of the IncI1 and IncFIB replicons. Additionally, all the strains were multiresistant, and five of them also harbored qnrS. Identical PFGE profiles were found for E. coli isolates obtained from flies at different sampling times, indicating a persistence of the same clones in the farm environment over months. According to their virulence genes, 81% of the isolates were considered avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and 29% were considered extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). The entrance of flies into broiler houses constitutes a considerable risk for colonization of broilers with multidrug-resistant E. coli. ESBLs in flies reflect the contamination status of the farm environment. Additionally, this study demonstrates the potential contribution of flies to the dissemination of virulence and resistance genes into different ecological niches.

  18. The Musca cloud: A 6 pc-long velocity-coherent, sonic filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacar, A.; Kainulainen, J.; Tafalla, M.; Beuther, H.; Alves, J.

    2016-03-01

    Filaments play a central role in the molecular clouds' evolution, but their internal dynamical properties remain poorly characterized. To further explore the physical state of these structures, we have investigated the kinematic properties of the Musca cloud. We have sampled the main axis of this filamentary cloud in 13CO and C18O (2-1) lines using APEX observations. The different line profiles in Musca shows that this cloud presents a continuous and quiescent velocity field along its ~6.5 pc of length. With an internal gas kinematics dominated by thermal motions (i.e. σNT/cs ≲ 1) and large-scale velocity gradients, these results reveal Musca as the longest velocity-coherent, sonic-like object identified so far in the interstellar medium. The transonic properties of Musca present a clear departure from the predicted supersonic velocity dispersions expected in the Larson's velocity dispersion-size relationship, and constitute the first observational evidence of a filament fully decoupled from the turbulent regime over multi-parsec scales. This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory (ESO programme 087.C-0583).The reduced datacubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A97

  19. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  20. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in fly density and their association with the occurrence of trachoma, in the Gurage zone of central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taye, A; Alemayehu, W; Melese, M; Geyid, A; Mekonnen, Y; Tilahun, D; Asfaw, T

    2007-07-01

    In the Gurage zone of central Ethiopia, the association between fly density and the occurrence of trachoma has been investigated across varying altitudes. The seasonal pattern of fly density in the area was also explored. When, over short sampling periods (10 min/child indoors and 10 min/child outdoors), hand nets were used to collect flies from the eyes of children aged 2-8 years, only Musca sorbens and M. domestica were caught. Almost all of the 13,147 'eye-seeking' flies collected came from villages at low (<2000 m; 40.7%) or mid altitudes (2200-2500 m; 58.6%) with only 0.7% of them caught in the high-altitude villages investigated (at >3000 m). Musca sorbens predominated outdoors and M. domestica indoors. Almost all (99.3%) of the eye-seeking M. sorbens collected were caught outdoors whereas most (76.7%) of the M. domestica were caught indoors (P<0.0001 for each). The median numbers of flies caught, per child, per 10-min collection, in the low-, mid- and high-altitude villages were 9.5, six and zero, respectively, for M. sorbens, and eight, three and zero, respectively, for M. domestica. The altitudinal trends in these numbers of 'eye-seeking' flies matched those in the prevalences of active trachoma among children aged 1-10 years, which were high in the villages at low (81.6%) and mid altitude (78.7%) but much lower (1.7%) in the high-altitude villages. In conclusion, trachoma is a common disease of public-health importance only in the low- and mid-altitude villages in the Gurage zone, where there are large numbers of eye-seeking flies, and not in the villages that lie >3000 m above sea level, where there is a dearth of such flies.

  1. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  2. House calls.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Brian K; Tatum, Paul E

    2011-04-15

    House calls provide a unique perspective on patients' environment and health problems. The demand for house calls is expected to increase considerably in future decades as the U.S. population ages. Although study results have been inconsistent, house calls involving multidisciplinary teams may reduce hospital readmissions and long-term care facility stays. Common indications for house calls are management of acute or chronic illnesses, and palliative care. Medicare beneficiaries must meet specific criteria to be eligible for home health services. The INHOMESSS mnemonic provides a checklist for components of a comprehensive house call. In addition to performing a clinical assessment, house calls may involve observing the patient performing daily activities, reconciling medication discrepancies, and evaluating home safety. House calls can be integrated into practice with careful planning, including clustering house calls by geographic location and coordinating visits with other health care professionals and agencies.

  3. Prevalence and relative risk of Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes associated with the body surfaces and guts of individual filth flies.

    PubMed

    Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Pearson, Rachel E Goeriz; Miller, Amy K; Ziobro, George C

    2012-11-01

    Although flies are important vectors of food-borne pathogens, there is little information to accurately assess the food-related health risk of the presence of individual flies, especially in urban areas. This study quantifies the prevalence and the relative risk of food-borne pathogens associated with the body surfaces and guts of individual wild flies. One hundred flies were collected from the dumpsters of 10 randomly selected urban restaurants. Flies were identified using taxonomic keys before being individually dissected. Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were detected using the PCR-based BAX system Q7. Positive samples were confirmed by culture on specific media and through PCR amplification and sequencing or ribotyping. Among collected flies were the housefly, Musca domestica (47%), the blowflies, Lucilia cuprina (33%) and Lucilia sericata (14%), and others (6%). Cronobacter species were detected in 14% of flies, including C. sakazakii, C. turicensis, and C. universalis, leading to the proposal of flies as a natural reservoir of this food-borne pathogen. Six percent of flies carried Salmonella enterica, including the serovars Poona, Hadar, Schwarzengrund, Senftenberg, and Brackenridge. L. monocytogenes was detected in 3% of flies. Overall, the prevalence of food-borne pathogens was three times greater in the guts than on the body surfaces of the flies. The relative risk of flies carrying any of the three pathogens was associated with the type of pathogen, the body part of the fly, and the ambient temperature. These data enhance the ability to predict the microbiological risk associated with the presence of individual flies in food and food facilities.

  4. Prevalence and Relative Risk of Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes Associated with the Body Surfaces and Guts of Individual Filth Flies

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Rachel E. Goeriz; Miller, Amy K.; Ziobro, George C.

    2012-01-01

    Although flies are important vectors of food-borne pathogens, there is little information to accurately assess the food-related health risk of the presence of individual flies, especially in urban areas. This study quantifies the prevalence and the relative risk of food-borne pathogens associated with the body surfaces and guts of individual wild flies. One hundred flies were collected from the dumpsters of 10 randomly selected urban restaurants. Flies were identified using taxonomic keys before being individually dissected. Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were detected using the PCR-based BAX system Q7. Positive samples were confirmed by culture on specific media and through PCR amplification and sequencing or ribotyping. Among collected flies were the housefly, Musca domestica (47%), the blowflies, Lucilia cuprina (33%) and Lucilia sericata (14%), and others (6%). Cronobacter species were detected in 14% of flies, including C. sakazakii, C. turicensis, and C. universalis, leading to the proposal of flies as a natural reservoir of this food-borne pathogen. Six percent of flies carried Salmonella enterica, including the serovars Poona, Hadar, Schwarzengrund, Senftenberg, and Brackenridge. L. monocytogenes was detected in 3% of flies. Overall, the prevalence of food-borne pathogens was three times greater in the guts than on the body surfaces of the flies. The relative risk of flies carrying any of the three pathogens was associated with the type of pathogen, the body part of the fly, and the ambient temperature. These data enhance the ability to predict the microbiological risk associated with the presence of individual flies in food and food facilities. PMID:22941079

  5. Morphology and identification of fly eggs: application in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Sanit, S; Sribanditmongkol, P; Sukontason, K L; Moophayak, K; Klong-Klaew, T; Yasanga, T; Sukontason, K

    2013-06-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be used as entomological evidence in forensic investigation. This study aims to investigate the morphology of forensically important fly eggs. Eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia porphyrina and Musca domestica were examined using 1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 min. Morphometric analysis revealed that the mean length of Hy. tumrasvini (1.63 mm) and C. pinguis (1.65 mm) eggs was the longest, followed by that of L. porphyrina (1.45 mm), C. rufifacies (1.34 mm). The egg length, width of median area and darkness staining of hatching pleats were distinctive features. Four categories of median area were proposed, based on width; (1) distinctly wide (Megaselia scalaris, Synthesiomyia nudiseta); (2) wide (C. nigripes, M. domestica); (3) slightly widening (Hy. tumrasvini, L. cuprina, L. porphyrina); and (4) narrow (C. rufifacies, C. albiceps, C. megacephala, C. pinguis). Four species were examined using SEM, i.e., C. megacephala, C. pinguis, Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina. The eggs of C. megacephala demonstrated swollen hatching pleats. Inside, the hexagon of the chorion appeared as a sponging bumpy feature. The egg of C. pinguis was similar to C. megacephala, except for the sponging bumpy feature on the outer surface of the hatching pleats. Regarding Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina, their island structure was apparent at the inner surface of the upright hatching pleats. The key for identifying these eggs together with other reported species in Thailand has been updated.

  6. Nature's crucible: Manufacturing optical nonlinearities for high resolution, high sensitivity encoding in the compound eye of the fly, Musca domestica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Mike

    1993-01-01

    The number of pixels per unit area sampling an image determines Nyquist resolution. Therefore, the highest pixel density is the goal. Unfortunately, as reduction in pixel size approaches the wavelength of light, sensitivity is lost and noise increases. Animals face the same problems and have achieved novel solutions. Emulating these solutions offers potentially unlimited sensitivity with detector size approaching the diffraction limit. Once an image is 'captured', cellular preprocessing of information allows extraction of high resolution information from the scene. Computer simulation of this system promises hyperacuity for machine vision.

  7. Rental Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Consumer Housing Information Service for Seniors.

    This is one of a series of booklets prepared as a resource for trained Housing Information Volunteers to provide impartial information to older people who have questions of concern about how to find safe, comfortable, affordable housing; how to cut household expenses or use their homes to earn extra income; home maintenance and home improvement;…

  8. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  9. Housing Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Reilly

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes the implications of a study done at the Joint Center for Urban Studies of the number and characteristics of families that will buy a house, and what kind of housing problems they have, for the relative status of blacks or whites or other…

  10. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  11. Evidence for a massive stellar black hole in x ray Nova Muscae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wan; Gehrels, Neil; Cheng, F. H.

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence that the X-ray Nova Muscae system contains a massive, greater than 10 M solarmass, black hole. A recently measured photometric binary mass function gives the black hole mass for this system as a function of orbital inclination angle. From the spectral redshift and width of the positron annihilation gamma-ray line observed by GRANAT/SIGMA, we find the accretion disk inclination angle to be 22 deg plus or minus 18 deg. Assuming the accretion disk lies in the orbital plane of the system, the black hole mass is found to have a lower limit of 14 M solar mass although statistics are poor. This is supported by spectral modeling of combined optical/UV/x-ray/gamma-ray data and by a new Nova Muscae distance limit we derive of greater than 3 kpc. The large mass for this black hole and the high binary mass ratio it implies (greater than 20) raise a serious challenge to theoretical models of the formation and evolution of massive binaries. The gamma-ray line technique introduced here can give tight constraints on orbital parameters when high-sensitivity line measurements are made by such missions as GRO.

  12. Selection and Preliminary Mechanism of Resistance to Profenofos in a Field Strain of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Iqbal, Naeem

    2015-09-01

    House flies are major insect pests at dairy farms in Pakistan and are mainly controlled with insecticides of different classes, including organophosphates. To develop a better resistance management strategy, a field strain of house flies was selected in the laboratory to study the potential for the development of resistance, possible mechanisms of resistance and cross-resistance to other insecticides. The selection of the field strain with profenofos for five consecutive generations resulted in the LC50 values to increase from 50.49 to 176.03 µg/ml, and the resistance ratio increased from 29.70 to 103.55 as compared with a laboratory-susceptible strain; however, the resistance was decreased significantly when the selected strain was reared for the next five generations without exposure to any insecticide. The profenofos-selected strain (Profen-SEL) showed cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin but no cross-resistance observed to spinosad. Synergism studies with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate indicated that the resistance to profenofos was probably associated with esterase and, possibly, microsomal oxidase activity. Resistance to profenofos in the selected strain suggests that the resistance, owing to instability, could be overcome by switching off profenofos use for few generations in the field or by rotation with different insecticides having different modes of action.

  13. Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The members of the Swain family- Dr. Charles "Bill" Swain, wife Elaine, daughter Carol, 17, son "Chuck", 12, and dog Susie have an interesting assignment. They are active participants in an important NASA research program involving the application of space-age technology to home construction. b' Transplanted Floridians, the Swains now reside in NASA's Tech House, loatedat Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Their job is to use and help evaluate the variety of advanced technology systems in Tech House. A contemporary three-bedroom home, Tech House incorporates NASA technology, the latest commercial building techniques and other innovations, all designed to reduce energy and water consumption and to provide new levels of comfort, convenience, security and fire safety. Tech House equipment performed well in initial tests, but a house is not a home until it has people. That's where the Swains come in. NASA wants to see how the various systems work under actual living conditions, to confirm the effectiveness of the innovations or to determine necessary modifications for improvement. The Swains are occupying the house for a year, during which NASA engineers are computer monitoring the equipment and assembling a record of day-to-day performance. . Tech House is a laboratory rather than a mass production prototype, but its many benefits may influence home design and construction. In a period of sharply rising utility costs, widespread adoption of Tech House features could provide large-scale savings to homeowners and potentially enormous national benefit in resources conservation. Most innovations are aerospace spinoffs: Some of the equipment is now commercially available; other systems are expected to be in production within a few years. Around 1980, a Tech House-type of home could be built for $45-50,000 (1 976 dollars). It is estimated that the homeowner would save well over $20,000 (again 1976 dollars) in utility costs over the average mortgage span of 20 years.

  14. House Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Bette

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the "house" concept architectural design at Albert Lea High School (Minnesota) and how the design addresses the community's 21st Century educational goals. Photos and a floor plan are included. (GR)

  15. Sound radiation around a flying fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Tuck, Elizabeth J.; Robert, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Many insects produce sounds during flight. These acoustic emissions result from the oscillation of the wings in air. To date, most studies have measured the frequency characteristics of flight sounds, leaving other acoustic characteristics-and their possible biological functions-unexplored. Here, using close-range acoustic recording, we describe both the directional radiation pattern and the detailed frequency composition of the sound produced by a tethered flying (Lucilia sericata). The flapping wings produce a sound wave consisting of a series of harmonics, the first harmonic occurring around 190 Hz. In the horizontal plane of the fly, the first harmonic shows a dipolelike amplitude distribution whereas the second harmonic shows a monopolelike radiation pattern. The first frequency component is dominant in front of the fly while the second harmonic is dominant at the sides. Sound with a broad frequency content, typical of that produced by wind, is also recorded at the back of the fly. This sound qualifies as pseudo-sound and results from the vortices generated during wing kinematics. Frequency and amplitude features may be used by flies in different behavioral contexts such as sexual communication, competitive communication, or navigation within the environment.

  16. Effect of storage method on manure as a substrate for filth fly development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have been conducted using manure as a substrate for filth fly development. In these experiments, the manure is sometimes frozen for use at a later date. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various manure storage methods on subsequent house and stable fly develo...

  17. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly’s orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly’s orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly’s flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26173128

  18. Gravitational fragmentation caught in the act: the filamentary Musca molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainulainen, J.; Hacar, A.; Alves, J.; Beuther, H.; Bouy, H.; Tafalla, M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Filamentary structures are common in molecular clouds. Explaining how they fragment to dense cores is a missing step in understanding their role in star formation. Aims: We perform a case study of whether low-mass filaments are close to hydrostatic prior to their fragmentation, and whether their fragmentation agrees with gravitational fragmentation models. To accomplish this, we study the ~6.5 pc long Musca molecular cloud, which is an ideal candidate for a filament at an early stage of fragmentation. Methods: We employ dust extinction mapping, in conjunction with near-infrared JHKS-band data from the CTIO/NEWFIRM instrument, and 870 μm dust continuum emission data from the APEX/LABOCA instrument to estimate column densities in Musca. We use the data to identify fragments from the cloud and to determine the radial density distribution of its filamentary part. We compare the cloud's morphology with 13CO and C18O line emission observed with the APEX/SHeFI instrument. Results: The Musca cloud is pronouncedly fragmented at its ends, but harbors a remarkably well-defined, ~1.6 pc long filament in its center region. The line mass of the filament is 21-31 M⊙ pc-1 and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.07 pc. The radial profile of the filament can be fitted with a Plummer profile, which has the power-index of 2.6 ± 11% and is flatter than that of an infinite hydrostatic filament. The profile can also be fitted with a hydrostatic cylinder truncated by external pressure. These models imply a central density of ~5-10 × 104 cm-3. The fragments in the cloud have a mean separation of ~0.4 pc, in agreement with gravitational fragmentation. These properties, together with the subsonic and velocity-coherent nature of the cloud, suggest a scenario in which an initially hydrostatic cloud is currently gravitationally fragmenting. The fragmentation started a few tenths of a Myr ago from the ends of the cloud, leaving its center still relatively nonfragmented

  19. A Flying Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Frank X.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a five-day summer camp which provided 12 children, ages 9-14, with a complete flying experience. The training consisted of ground school and one hour actual flying time, including the basics of aircraft control and a flight prepared and executed by the students. (MLH)

  20. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  1. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  2. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  3. Ultraviolet Faint Object Spectrograph Observations of the Hot Post-Nova GQ MUSCAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, L.; Gallagher, J. S.; Orio, M.; Ogelman, H.

    1996-05-01

    Low resolution, time-resolved ultraviolet spectra were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope for the post--nova GQ Muscae on September 2, 1994. We obtained satisfactory data during 3 HST orbits which together cover about 90% of the GQ Mus 85.5 min binary orbital period. The mean spectrum shows a strong, blue continuum which is only slightly flatter than a Rayleigh-Jeans spectra energy distribution. The UV luminosity is LUV ~10(35) erg s(-1) . Moderately strong emission lines from He II, C IV and possibly other high ionization species are present. No significant variability is found as a function of orbital phase and the random variability is <= 10 % throughout the 1300--2100 Angstroms spectral region. The results from these observations are discussed in terms of a cooling white dwarf model for this post--nova.

  4. Antioxidant, antifungal and antiviral activities of chitosan from the larvae of housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hui; Wang, Furong; Xia, Yuqian; Chen, Xiaomin; Lei, Chaoliang

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidant activity of the chitosan from the larvae of Musca domestica L. was evaluated in two different reactive oxygen species assays, and inhibitory effects against seven fungi were also tested. The results showed that the chitosan had scavenging activity for hydroxyl and superoxide radicals which were similar to that of ascorbic acid. Also the chitosan exhibited excellent antifungal activity, especially in the low concentration, it could significantly inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Besides, antiviral results demonstrated that the chitosan could effectively inhibit the infection of AcMNPV and BmNPV. These results suggested that the chitosan from the larvae of housefly could be effectively used as a natural antioxidant to protect the human body from free radicals and retard the progress of many chronic diseases. Furthermore, the chitosan with antiviral and antifungal activity might provide useful information for antiviral breeding technology of economic insect and development of plant pathological control.

  5. Swine manure vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica): the dynamics of biochemical and microbial features.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Wang, Hang; Zhu, Jun; Suneethi, Sundar; Zheng, JianGuo

    2012-08-01

    Improper handling of animal manure generated from concentrated swine operations greatly deteriorates water ecosystems. In this study, a full-scale vermireactor using housefly larvae (Musca domestica) was designed to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of swine manure reduction, and to explore the associated biochemical-biological mechanisms. The one-week larvae vermireactor resulted in a total weight reduction rate of 106±17 kg/(m(3) d) and moisture reduction of 80.2%. Microbial activities in manure decreased by 45% after vermicomposting, while the activities of cellulose, proteases, and phosphatases in the vermicompost were significantly 69 times, 48%, and 82% lower than those in raw manure, respectively. The vermicompost was exclusively dominated by Entomoplasma somnilux, Proteobacterium, and Clostridiaceae bacterium where the microbial diversity was decreased from 2.57 in raw manure to 1.77. Correlation coefficients statistic showed that organic C might be a key indicator of the biochemical features and microbial functions of the larvae vermireactor.

  6. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticides against the housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-03-01

    The insecticidal effects of 20 essential oils derived from herbs, were tested against the housefly species Musca domestica L. using a susceptibility test. Each was applied in ethyl alcohol at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10% (v/v). Ten percent concentrations of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Mentha piperita (peppermint) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) oils were the most effective, showing 100% knockdown at 30 and 60 minutes. The KT50 values for C. citratus, M. piperita and L. angustifolia were 5.14, 5.36 and 8.23 minutes, respectively. These essential oils caused 100% mortality among houseflies 24 hours after exposure. The LC50 values for C. citratus, M. piperita and L. angustifolia were 2.22, 2.62 and 3.26 minutes, respectively. This study reveals lemongrass, peppermint and lavender essential oils have the potential to control housefly populations and should be further studied for field applications.

  7. Differential distribution of glutamate- and GABA-gated chloride channels in the housefly Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Kita, Tomo; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Azuma, Masaaki; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-01

    l-Glutamic acid (glutamate) mediates fast inhibitory neurotransmission by affecting glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in invertebrates. The molecular function and pharmacological properties of GluCls have been well studied, but not much is known about their physiological role and localization in the insect body. The distribution of GluCls in the housefly (Musca domestica L.) was thus compared with the distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls). Quantitative PCR and ligand-binding experiments indicate that the GluCl and GABACl transcripts and proteins are predominantly expressed in the adult head. Intense GluCl immunostaining was detected in the lamina, leg motor neurons, and legs of adult houseflies. The GABACl (Rdl) immunostaining was more widely distributed, and was found in the medulla, lobula, lobula plate, mushroom body, antennal lobe, and ellipsoid body. The present findings suggest that GluCls have physiological roles in different tissues than GABACls.

  8. About females and males: continuity and discontinuity in flies.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Through the decades of relentless and dedicated studies in Drosophila melanogaster, the pathway that governs sexual development has been elucidated in great detail and has become a paradigm in understanding fundamental cell-fate decisions. However, recent phylogenetic studies show that the molecular strategy used in Drosophila deviates in some important aspects from those found in other dipteran flies and suggest that the Drosophila pathway is likely to be a derivative of a simpler and more common principle. In this essay, I will discuss the evolutionary plasticity of the sex-determining pathway based on studies in the common housefly, Musca domestica. Diversification appears to primarily arise from subtle differences in the regulation of the key switch gene transformer at the top of the pathway. On the basis of these findings I propose a new idea on how the Drosophila pathway may have evolved from a more archetypal system such as in M. domestica. In essence, the arrival of an X counting mechanism mediated by Sex-lethal to compensate for X linked gene dose differences set the stage for an intimate coupling of the two pathways. Its precedent recruitment to the dosage compensation pathway allowed for an intervention in the regulation of transformer where it gradually and eventually' completely substituted for a need of transformer autoregulation.

  9. A eficiência de formação estelar em Musca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Roberto, A. J.., Jr.; Khan, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de um survey no infravermelho próximo (bandas J e H), executado no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, na direção da nuvem escura em forma de filamento de Musca (observamos ao longo de todo o filamento, além de todas as fontes pontuais IRAS e/ou fontes ROSAT brilhantes a uma distância de 2o da nuvem). Nosso objetivo é determinar a eficiência de formação estelar para esta nuvem escura (massa de estrelas formadas/massa da nuvem), procurando por objetos estelares jovens de pequena massa no seu interior e/ou evoluídos o suficiente para estarem afastados do local de nascimento, mas ainda mostrando características de objetos pré-seqüência principal como emissão de raios-X e excesso de emissão no infravermelho próximo. Este survey não estabeleceu nenhum viés na seleção de fontes pontuais IRAS ou fontes ROSAT, uma vez que a imensa maioria das fontes pontuais IRAS nesta região têm qualidade de fluxo ruim. Os candidatos a objetos estelares jovens foram selecionados pelo excesso no índice de cor (J-H), descontados os efeitos da extinção interestelar na linha de visada, determinada através da emissão estendida no infravermelho distante (IRAS). Estimativas de massa foram feitas para estes candidatos, através da relação massa-luminosidade, para calcular a eficiência de formação estelar de Musca.

  10. [The dream of flying].

    PubMed

    Goddemeier, Christof

    2005-01-01

    More than a 100 years ago the Wright brothers succeeded in performing the first motor flight in the history of mankind. But irrespective of its technical realisation man has always dealt with flying. So myths, rites and fairy-tales as well reflect the different ideas of flying as these conceptions come to light again and again in dreams and visions. Whether ascension, expression of desire and yearning or sexual metaphor -- the idea of flying seems to be a universal magic figure of thinking.

  11. Housing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1985-01-01

    Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

  12. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  13. Smart Houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  14. Transmission of Salmonella between swine farms by the housefly (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chih; Chang, Yi-Chih; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Chang, Chao-Chin; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Chen, Ter-Hsin

    2011-06-01

    The domestic pig is an important source of human salmonellosis, and houseflies are potential mechanical vectors of foodborne Salmonella pathogens. In 2005, we recovered 144 Salmonella isolates from flies and swine stool samples from 11 farms in Taoyuan County and Hsin Chu County (northwestern Taiwan). A total of 71.5% of the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics. There were a total of 14 serotypes, and 8 of these serotypes were present in both flies and swine stool samples. Some multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains coming from different swine farms were found to have identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among four common serotypes, we identified 18 PFGE patterns, 8 of which were present in flies and swine stools. The similarity in PFGE profiles between isolates from swine and flies in different farms indicate the potential of flies to serve as a vector for transmission.

  15. Understanding tsetse flies.

    PubMed

    Langley, P A

    1994-12-01

    The discovery that tsetse flies are the vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing sleeping sickness in man and nagana in cattle, occurred at the start of a rapidly expanding colonialism in sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the first research on the fly was largely taxonomic, coupled with a painstaking ecological approach to determine the identities and distribution limits of the different species. This was followed by closer attention to the physiology of the fly, both from the academic standpoint as related to its survival and reproduction in the field, and from the standpoint of its vectorial capacity. There are still conflicting hypotheses concerning the maturation of trypanosomes within the fly. Increasing concern for the environment led to a ban in the developed nations on the use of DDT as an insecticide which had been used successfully for tsetse control in Africa. This was followed by a ban on the use of organochlorine insecticides in general, and no doubt the next restrictions will be on the use of organophosphates and upon synthetic pyrethroids which have already been banned in the UK for the control of houseflies. Fortunately, research on the role of olfactory and visual stimuli of the tsetse, in the location of potential hosts, led to an improvement in methods for monitoring fly populations by means of traps and targets upon which the flies alight. So successful are such devices that, when treated with an insecticide, they can be used to sustain an increase in natural mortality in fly populations to such an extent that these populations decline to manageable levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. A Laboratory Practical on the House Building Behaviour of Caddis Larvae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansell, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a laboratory practical on animal behavior suitable for senior secondary school or university biology classes. Several separate exercises relating to the house building behavior of caddis fly larvae are detailed, together with the time required for preparation. (JR)

  17. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  18. Flies and the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Yazan; Scully, Crispian; Aguida, Miranda; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2014-05-01

    Oral infections caused by flies are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and consequently, there is a paucity of information in the medical and dental literature about these conditions. In the present article, we present a concise review on oral myiasis or fly-blown disease. A variety of fly species can infest the oral tissues and produce an exotic clinical picture. Oral myiasis is mainly encountered in the tropics and subtropics, but can also be encountered in the western part of the world due to the increase of globalization, immigration, and global warming. Commonly-reported symptoms of oral myiasis include pain, swelling, itchy sensation, and feeling of something moving in the mouth. The surgical debridement of infected tissue with the removal of maggots is the treatment of choice in most cases of oral myiasis.

  19. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  20. Efficacy and safety of catnip (Nepeta cataria) as a novel filth fly repellent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J J; Zeng, X-P; Berkebile, D; DU, H-J; Tong, Y; Qian, K

    2009-09-01

    Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is known for its pseudo-narcotic effects on cats. Recently, it has been reported as an effective mosquito repellent against several Aedes and Culex species, both topically and spatially. Our laboratory bioassays showed that catnip essential oil (at a dosage of 20 mg) resulted in average repellency rates of 96% against stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) and 79% against houseflies, Musca domestica (L.), respectively. This finding suggested that the application of repellent could be used as part of filth fly management. Further evaluations of catnip oil toxicity were conducted to provide a broad-spectrum safety profile of catnip oil use as a potential biting and nuisance insect repellent in urban settings. Acute oral, dermal, inhalation, primary dermal and eye irritation toxicity tests were performed. The acute oral LD(50) of catnip oil was found to be 3160 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 2710 mg/kg BW in female and male rats, respectively. The acute dermal LD50 was > 5000 mg/kg BW. The acute inhalation LD50 was observed to be > 10,000 mg/m3. Primary skin irritation tested on New Zealand white rabbits showed that catnip oil is a moderate irritant. Catnip oil was classified as practically non-irritating to the eye. In comparison with other U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved mosquito repellents (DEET, picaridin and p-menthane-3,8-diol), catnip oil can be considered as a relatively safe repellent, which may cause minor skin irritation.

  1. Involvement of V-ATPase in the regulation of cell size in the fly's visual system.

    PubMed

    Pyza, E; Borycz, J; Giebultowicz, J M; Meinertzhagen, I A

    2004-11-01

    In the fly's visual system, two classes of lamina interneuron, L1 and L2, cyclically change both their size and shape in a rhythm that is circadian. Several neurotransmitters and the lamina's glial cells are known to be involved in regulating these rhythms. Moreover, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in the optic lobe is thought also to participate in such regulation. We have detected V-ATPase-like immunoreactivity in the heads of both Drosophilla melanogaster and Musca domestica using antibodies raised against either the B- or H-subunits of V-ATPase from D. melanogaster or against the B-subunit from two other insect species Culex quinquefasciatus and Manduca sexta. In the visual systems of both fly species V-ATPase was localized immunocytochemically to the compound eye photoreceptors. In D. melanogaster immunoreactivity oscillated during the day and night and under constant darkness the signal was stronger during the subjective night than the subjective day. In turn, blocking V-ATPase by injecting a V-ATPase blocker, bafilomycin, in M. domestica increased the axon sizes of L1 and L2, but only when bafilomycin was applied during the night. As a result bafilomycin abolished the day/night difference in axon size in L1 and L2, their sizes being similar during the day and night. PMID:15607501

  2. Larvicide resistance in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in Denmark and establishment of resistant laboratory strains.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Michael; Jespersen, Jørgen B

    2003-08-01

    We determined the toxicity of the two IGRs, diflubenzuron and cyromazine, in this survey of resistance in Danish field populations of Musca domestica (L.). We observed resistance toward diflubenzuron and for the first time in Denmark and we found field populations with some resistance to cyromazine. Eleven of the twenty-one field populations had larvae surviving a diagnostic dose of 1.6 times of susceptible LC95 of diflubenzuron and two of these populations had larvae surviving 6.1 times of LC95. Eight of the twenty-one field populations had larvae surviving 2.2 times of susceptible LC95 of cyromazine and one population had larvae surviving 4.4 times of LC95. A fivefold cyromazine resistant strain was established after selection with cyromazine. It was 3-, 5-, and 90-fold resistant to diflubenzuron, triflumuron, and methoprene, respectively. Two diflubenzuron resistant strains (120- and 86-fold, respectively) were established. They showed a high level of resistance to triflumuron (1000- and 200-fold, respectively), and moderate resistance to methoprene (73- and 50-fold, respectively). Both were susceptible to cyromazine. This study shows that by applying the recommendations of previous resistance risk assessments, severe control failures and detrimental development of a high level of resistance have been avoided. The development of resistance has not been completely avoided, but has not developed to a level of biological or economic importance.

  3. The Spin of The Black Hole in the X-ray Binary Nova Muscae 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zihan; Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Steiner, James F.; Wu, Jianfeng; Xu, Weiwei; Orosz, Jerome A.; Xiang, Yanmei

    2016-07-01

    The bright soft X-ray transient Nova Muscae 1991 was intensively observed during its entire eight-month outburst using the Large Area Counter on board the Ginga satellite. Recently, we obtained accurate estimates of the mass of the black hole primary, the orbital inclination angle of the system, and the distance. Using these crucial input data and Ginga X-ray spectra, we have measured the spin of the black hole using the continuum-fitting method. For four X-ray spectra of extraordinary quality we have determined the dimensionless spin parameter of the black hole to be {a}* ={0.63}-0.19+0.16 (1σ confidence level), a result that we confirm using 11 additional spectra of lower quality. Our spin estimate challenges two published results: it is somewhat higher than the value predicted by a proposed relationship between jet power and spin; and we find that the spin of the black hole is decidedly prograde, not retrograde as has been claimed.

  4. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati; Dhiman, R C

    2016-06-01

    The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus (lemongrass), Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis (orange) essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica (housefly) and Anopheles stephensi (mosquitoes) through contact toxicity assay. Among all the tested essential oils/combinations, Me. piperita was found to be the most effective larvicidal agent against Mu. domestica and An. stephensi with LC50 values of 0.66 μl/cm(2) and 44.66 ppm, respectively, after 48 h. The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils (1:1 ratio) improved their larvicidal activity. The order of effectiveness of essential oils/combinations indicated that the pattern for An. stephensi follows the trend as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus > mentha + orange > orange and for Mu. domestica as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + orange > orange > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus. The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. piperita as the treated larvae were observed to be dehydrated and deformed. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tested essential oils/combinations against the larval stages of Mu. domestica and An. stephensi and has the potential for development of botanical formulations. PMID:26920567

  5. Effects of bisphenol A on the development, growth, and sex ratio of the housefly Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Nanae; Yanagibori, Ryoko; Shigeno, Seiichi; Sajiki, Junko

    2008-06-01

    The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the life cycle of the housefly Musca domestica were examined. The sex ratio of the imago shifted in favor of males when eggs and larvae were exposed to BPA in culture media at concentrations of 1,000 microg kg(-1) for five generations and 100 microg kg(-1) for seven generations. Notably, at an initial concentration of 100 microg kg(-1), BPA levels in the growth medium decreased 61% at 4 h after egg inoculation, and no BPA was detected after 24 h. Pupal weight increased upon exposure to 100 microg kg(-1) BPA but decreased after exposure to 1,000 microg kg(-1), suggesting highly variable concentration-dependent toxicity. Both the survival ratio of eggs to the third instar larval stage and the ratio of pupae to larvae decreased, indicating that BPA affected both eggs and larvae. A delay in the timing of emergence typically was observed in insects exposed to >100 microg kg(-1) BPA. Compared to the control group, juvenile hormones II and III levels were elevated significantly in larvae between days 4 and 7 in medium spiked with 100 microg kg(-1) BPA. These results suggest that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA during the early stages of the housefly life cycle can result in various disorders (pupal weight and sex ratio) that may be a consequence of endocrine disruption.

  6. Identification and characterization of mutations in housefly (Musca domestica) acetylcholinesterase involved in insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S B; Dolden, T A; Moores, G D; Kristensen, M; Lewis, T; Devonshire, A L; Williamson, M S

    2001-10-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitive to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides has been identified as a major resistance mechanism in numerous arthropod species. However, the associated genetic changes have been reported in the AChE genes from only three insect species; their role in conferring insecticide insensitivity has been confirmed, using functional expression, only for those in Drosophila melanogaster. The housefly, Musca domestica, was one of the first insects shown to have this mechanism; here we report the occurrence of five mutations (Val-180-->Leu, Gly-262-->Ala, Gly-262-->Val, Phe-327-->Tyr and Gly-365-->Ala) in the AChE gene of this species that, either singly or in combination, confer different spectra of insecticide resistance. The baculovirus expression of wild-type and mutated housefly AChE proteins has confirmed that the mutations each confer relatively modest levels of insecticide insensitivity except the novel Gly-262-->Val mutation, which results in much stronger resistance (up to 100-fold) to certain compounds. In all cases the effects of mutation combinations are additive. The mutations introduce amino acid substitutions that are larger than the corresponding wild-type residues and are located within the active site of the enzyme, close to the catalytic triad. The likely influence of these substitutions on the accessibility of the different types of inhibitor and the orientation of key catalytic residues are discussed in the light of the three-dimensional structures of the AChE protein from Torpedo californica and D. melanogaster. PMID:11563981

  7. DETECTION OF A MOLECULAR DISK ORBITING THE NEARBY, 'OLD', CLASSICAL T TAURI STAR MP MUSCAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, Joel H.; Sacco, G. G.; Hily-Blant, Pierry; Forveille, Thierry; Zuckerman, B.

    2010-11-10

    We have used the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment 12 m telescope to detect circumstellar CO emission from MP Muscae (MP Mus; K1 IVe), a nearby (D {approx} 100 pc), actively accreting, {approx}7 Myr old pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) star. The CO emission line profile measured for MP Mus is indicative of an orbiting disk with radius {approx}120 AU, assuming that the central star mass is 1.2 M {sub sun} and the disk inclination is i {approx} 30{sup 0}. The inferred disk molecular gas mass is {approx}3 M {sub +}. MP Mus thereby joins TW Hya and V4046 Sgr as the only late-type (low-mass), pre-MS star systems within {approx}100 pc of Earth that are known to retain orbiting, molecular disks. We also report the nondetection (with the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique 30 m telescope) of CO emission from another 10 nearby (D {approx_lt} 100 pc), dusty, young (age {approx}10-100 Myr) field stars of spectral type A-G. We discuss the implications of these results for the timescales for stellar and Jovian planet accretion from, and dissipation of, molecular disks around young stars.

  8. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati; Dhiman, R C

    2016-06-01

    The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus (lemongrass), Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis (orange) essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica (housefly) and Anopheles stephensi (mosquitoes) through contact toxicity assay. Among all the tested essential oils/combinations, Me. piperita was found to be the most effective larvicidal agent against Mu. domestica and An. stephensi with LC50 values of 0.66 μl/cm(2) and 44.66 ppm, respectively, after 48 h. The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils (1:1 ratio) improved their larvicidal activity. The order of effectiveness of essential oils/combinations indicated that the pattern for An. stephensi follows the trend as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus > mentha + orange > orange and for Mu. domestica as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + orange > orange > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus. The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. piperita as the treated larvae were observed to be dehydrated and deformed. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tested essential oils/combinations against the larval stages of Mu. domestica and An. stephensi and has the potential for development of botanical formulations.

  9. Biocontrol potential of essential oil monoterpenes against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2014-02-01

    Housefly (Musca domestica L.), one of the most common insects in human settlements, has been associated as vectors for various food-borne pathogens, causing food spoilage and disease transmission. The control of housefly was attempted using plant monoterpenes; menthone, menthol, menthyl acetate, limonene, citral and 1,8-cineole, against different life stages of housefly. Bioefficacy against housefly adults revealed highest repellent activity by menthol (95.6 percent) and menthone (83.3 percent). Against housefly larvae, menthol with an LC90 of 0.02 µl/cm(2) in contact toxicity assay and menthone with a LC90 value of 5.4 µl/L in fumigation assay were found to be most effective control agent. With respect to pupicidal activity, superior performance was shown by menthol, citral and 1,8-cineole in contact toxicity assay and citral and 1,8-cineole in fumigation assay. Limonene was found to be the poorest performer in all the assays. Overall, highest efficacy observed for menthol and menthone in various bioassays was in agreement with the results of essential oil activity obtained previously. Significant activity of monoterpenes against various life stages of housefly demonstrates their potential as excellent insecticides with prospects of monoterpenes being developed into eco-friendly and acceptable products for housefly control.

  10. Selection, resistance risk assessment, and reversion toward susceptibility of pyriproxyfen in Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Sial, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, is an effective larvicide against many pests of veterinary and public health importance. Pyriproxyfen is a biorational insecticide having many environmentally friendly attributes that make it compatible with integrated pest management programs. This experiment was performed for the assessment of resistance evolution and reversion toward susceptibility of Musca domestica to pyriproxyfen. Repeated selection at successive generations resulted in 5.09- and 130-fold increase in lethal concentration 50 (LC50) compared to field and susceptible strain, respectively. A significant decline after 22 generations without selection suggesting resistance to pyriproxyfen was unstable in M. domestica. Realized heritability (h (2)) of resistance to pyriproxyfen was 0.035 in pyriproxyfen-selected strain of M. domestica. The projected rate of resistance development indicated that, if slope = 1.28 and h (2) = 0.035, then 46-21 generations are required for 10-fold increase in LC50 at 50-90 % selection intensity. These findings suggest that a risk for resistance development to pyriproxyfen occurred in M. domestica under continuous selection pressure. Pyriproxyfen susceptibility reversed when its application is ceased for a specified duration.

  11. Cloning, expression, and purification of a new antimicrobial peptide gene from Musca domestica larva.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhihua; Sun, Xiaoning; Tang, Yan; Wang, Kai; Gao, Yunhang; Ma, Hongxia

    2014-10-01

    Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), the housefly, exhibits unique immune defences and can produce antimicrobial peptides upon stimulation with bacteria. Based on the cDNA library constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, a 198-bp antimicrobial peptide gene, which we named MDAP-2, was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) from M. domestica larvae stimulated with Salmonella pullorum (Enterobacteriaceae: Salmonella). In the present study, the full-length MDAP-2 gene was cloned and inserted into a His-tagged Escherichia coli prokaryotic expression system to enable production of the recombinant peptide. The recombinant MDAP-2 peptide was purified using Ni-NTA HisTrap FF crude column chromatography. The bacteriostatic activity of the recombinant purified MDAP-2 protein was assessed. The results indicated that MDAP-2 had in vitro antibacterial activity against all of the tested Gram- bacteria from clinical isolates, including E. coli (Enterobacteriaceae: Escherichia), one strain of S. pullorum (Enterobacteriaceae: Salmonella), and one strain of Pasteurella multocida. DNA sequencing and BLAST analysis showed that the MDAP-2 antimicrobial peptide gene was not homologous to any other antimicrobial peptide genes in GenBank. The antibacterial mechanisms of the newly discovered MDAP-2 peptide warrant further study.

  12. The influence of housefly Musca domestica embryo age on viability in water and at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Cičková, H; Kozánek, M; Takáč, P

    2014-03-01

    The sensitivity of housefly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) embryos to storage at low temperatures (5 and 10 °C on moist sponges in Petri dishes) and in water at 26 °C was investigated to develop suitable protocols for the storage and transport of housefly eggs. The youngest embryos (aged 0-3 h) were the most sensitive to storage at 5 °C, with 45% survival after storage for 24 h. Storage of embryos aged 3-12 h at 5 °C for 24 h had no negative effect; longer storage resulted in significantly decreased larval survival (30-34% after 48-72 h, compared with 61% in the control group) and reduced hatching rates (83% after 72 h storage). No negative effects were observed when embryos aged 0-9 h were stored at 10 °C for 24 h, but this temperature did not completely inhibit development and eggs began to hatch if stored for longer than 24 h. All age groups of embryos showed high mortality after storage in water at 26 °C for 24 h, with the youngest embryos being least resistant to submersion.

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis of Musca domestica to Reveal Key Genes of the Prophenoloxidase-Activating System.

    PubMed

    Li, Dianxiang; Liang, Yongli; Wang, Xianwei; Wang, Lei; Qi, Mei; Yu, Yang; Luan, Yuanyuan

    2015-09-01

    The proPO system regulates melanization in arthropods. However, the genes that are involved in the proPO system in housefly Musca domestica remain unclear. Thus, this study analyzed the combined transcriptome obtained from M. domestica larvae, pupae, and adults that were either normal or bacteria-challenged by an Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus mixture. A total of 54,821,138 clean reads (4.93 Gb) were yielded by Illumina sequencing, which were de novo assembled into 89,842 unigenes. Of the 89,842 unigenes, based on a similarity search with known genes in other insects, 24 putative genes related to the proPO system were identified. Eight of the identified genes encoded for peptidoglycan recognition receptors, two encoded for prophenoloxidases, three encoded for prophenoloxidase-activating enzymes, and 11 encoded for serine proteinase inhibitors. The expression levels of these identified genes were investigated by qRT-PCR assay, which were consistent with expected activation process of the proPO system, and their activation functions were confirmed by the measurement of phenoloxidase activity in bacteria-infected larvae after proPO antibody blockage, suggesting these candidate genes might have potentially different roles in the activation of proPO system. Collectively, this study has provided the comprehensive transcriptomic data of an insect and some fundamental basis toward achieving understanding of the activation mechanisms and immune functions of the proPO system in M. domestica.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis of Musca domestica to Reveal Key Genes of the Prophenoloxidase-Activating System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dianxiang; Liang, Yongli; Wang, Xianwei; Wang, Lei; Qi, Mei; Yu, Yang; Luan, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    The proPO system regulates melanization in arthropods. However, the genes that are involved in the proPO system in housefly Musca domestica remain unclear. Thus, this study analyzed the combined transcriptome obtained from M. domestica larvae, pupae, and adults that were either normal or bacteria-challenged by an Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus mixture. A total of 54,821,138 clean reads (4.93 Gb) were yielded by Illumina sequencing, which were de novo assembled into 89,842 unigenes. Of the 89,842 unigenes, based on a similarity search with known genes in other insects, 24 putative genes related to the proPO system were identified. Eight of the identified genes encoded for peptidoglycan recognition receptors, two encoded for prophenoloxidases, three encoded for prophenoloxidase-activating enzymes, and 11 encoded for serine proteinase inhibitors. The expression levels of these identified genes were investigated by qRT-PCR assay, which were consistent with expected activation process of the proPO system, and their activation functions were confirmed by the measurement of phenoloxidase activity in bacteria-infected larvae after proPO antibody blockage, suggesting these candidate genes might have potentially different roles in the activation of proPO system. Collectively, this study has provided the comprehensive transcriptomic data of an insect and some fundamental basis toward achieving understanding of the activation mechanisms and immune functions of the proPO system in M. domestica. PMID:26156588

  15. Detection of Aeromonas caviae in the common housefly Musca domestica by culture and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Nayduch, D; Honko, A; Noblet, G P; Stutzenberger, F

    2001-12-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been implicated in diarrhoeal disease of livestock and humans. The potential role of houseflies in the epidemiology of this pathogen was investigated by examining the prevalence of A. caviae in houseflies collected from two South Carolina farms and one restaurant. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific PCR using novel primers (APW-PCR). All isolates cultured from houseflies were identified as A. caviae by biochemical characteristics and direct sequencing approximately 800 bp of the 16S rRNA gene. Aeromonas caviae was detected in 78% (272/349) dairy farm flies, 55% (54/99) pig farm flies and 39% (77/200) restaurant flies. Faeces from cows and pigs at the farms also were positive for A. caviae (58% and 100%, respectively). The APW PCR method provided a rapid, convenient way to identify A. caviae from faeces and houseflies that contained hundreds of bacterial species.

  16. Go Fly a Kite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopack, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an "art kite" activity. The idea is to construct and decorate a non-flying kite that they could display for an art exhibit. Through the activity, students learn to give and take suggestions from one another, improve the quality of their work and set a wonderful atmosphere of collaboration. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  17. Flying Boat Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    Technicians are pictured installing flaps and wiring on a flying-boat model, circa 1944 (page 47). Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz. Photograph also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 209).

  18. Learning to Fly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Patricia E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents information on where to learn to fly, which aircraft is best for this purpose, and approximate costs. Includes additional information on certificates, licenses, and ratings, and a description of the two phases of the General Aviation Manufacturers Association flight training program. (JN)

  19. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  20. Flying High with Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art activity for first grade that uses multicolor scratch paper. Explains that students make scratch-drawings of bird nests, then, as a class, discuss types of birds and bird positions (such as sitting or flying), and finally each creates a bird to add to the nest. (CMK)

  1. The Role of Flies in Disseminating Plasmids with Antimicrobial-Resistance Genes Between Farms.

    PubMed

    Usui, Masaru; Shirakawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Akira; Tamura, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    Dissemination of antimicrobial resistance is a major global public health concern. To clarify the role of flies in disseminating antimicrobial resistance between farms, we isolated and characterized tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from flies and feces of livestock from four locations housing swine (abattoir, three farms) and three cattle farms. The percentages of isolates from flies resistant to tetracycline, dihydrostreptomycin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol (80.8%, 61.5%, 53.8%, and 50.0%, respectively) and those from animal feces (80.5%, 78.0%, 41.5%, and 46.3%, respectively) in locations housing swine were significantly higher than those from cattle farms (p<0.05). The rates of resistance in E. coli derived from flies reflected those derived from livestock feces at the same locations, suggesting that antimicrobial resistance spreads between livestock and flies on the farms. The results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that, with a few exceptions, all E. coli isolates differed. Two pairs of tetracycline-resistant strains harbored similar plasmids with the same tetracycline-resistance genes, although the origin (fly or feces), site of isolation, and PFGE patterns of these strains differed. Therefore, flies may disseminate the plasmids between farms. Our results suggest that flies may be involved not only in spreading clones of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria within a farm but also in the widespread dissemination of plasmids with antimicrobial resistance genes between farms.

  2. Devising novel strategies against vector mosquitoes and house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1932, the United States Department of Agriculture established an entomological research laboratory in Orlando, Florida. The initial focus of the program was on investigations of mosquitoes (including malaria vectors under conditions “simulating those of South Pacific jungles”) and other insects ...

  3. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  4. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    PubMed

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed.

  5. [Phlebotomine sand flies in the State of Tocantins, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    PubMed

    Andrade Filho, J D; Valente, M B; de Andrade, W A; Brazil, R P; Falcão, A L

    2001-01-01

    Between 1997-1998, the authors carried out sporadic collection of sand flies in the municipalities of Paraíso de Tocantins, Monte do Carmo, Porto Nacional and Monte Santo all in the Tocantins State of northern Brazil. Human bait was used in Monte Santo and a battery operated light trap in other municipalities. The ecotypes chosen for the traps were in the peridomiciles, inside the houses, in the forest and the orchard. We identified 2,677 sand flies, belonging to 32 species. The most abundant species of sand flies were Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia carmelinoi, Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia longipennis and Lutzomyia antunesi. Collections from the forest showed greater diversity of species, while the largest number of sand flies were caught around the houses. Several species known or suspected to be vectors of Leishmania in other regions of Brazil were captured.

  6. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-01-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  7. Cloning, purification and comparative characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica larvae.

    PubMed

    Cançado, F C; Chimoy Effio, P; Terra, W R; Marana, S R

    2008-11-01

    cDNA coding for two digestive lysozymes (MdL1 and MdL2) of the Musca domestica housefly was cloned and sequenced. MdL2 is a novel minor lysozyme, whereas MdL1 is the major lysozyme thus far purified from M. domestica midgut. MdL1 and MdL2 were expressed as recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. The lytic activities of MdL1 and MdL2 upon Micrococcus lysodeikticus have an acidic pH optimum (4.8) at low ionic strength (mu = 0.02), which shifts towards an even more acidic value, pH 3.8, at a high ionic strength (mu = 0.2). However, the pH optimum of their activities upon 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetylchitotriozide (4.9) is not affected by ionic strength. These results suggest that the acidic pH optimum is an intrinsic property of MdL1 and MdL2, whereas pH optimum shifts are an effect of the ionic strength on the negatively charged bacterial wall. MdL2 affinity for bacterial cell wall is lower than that of MdL1. Differences in isoelectric point (pI) indicate that MdL2 (pI = 6.7) is less positively charged than MdL1 (pI = 7.7) at their pH optima, which suggests that electrostatic interactions might be involved in substrate binding. In agreement with that finding, MdL1 and MdL2 affinities for bacterial cell wall decrease as ionic strength increases.

  8. Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) was evaluated for its chemical composition and insecticidal activity against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Chemical composition of E. globulus oil revealed 1,8-cineole (33.6%), α-pinene (14.2%) and d-limonene (10.1%) as major constituents, while vapour profile of E. globulus oil determined through solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis showed 1,8-cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (16.9%), d-limonene (5.5%) and linalool acetate (3.4%) as principal components. Vapour phase of the oil showed increase in the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Insecticidal activity of E. globulus oil was assessed against larvae and pupae of housefly, through two different bioassays: contact toxicity and fumigation. Contact toxicity assay with larva showed lethal concentration, LC(50), between 2.73 and 0.60μl/cm(2) for different observation days while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 6.0 and 1.7 days. In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) values of 66.1 and 50.1μl/l were obtained in 24h and 48h, respectively. Oil treated larvae showed surface shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Pupicidal effectivity was measured in terms of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) which was 36.0-93.0% for contact toxicity and 67.9-100% for fumigation toxicity assay. Considerable activity of E. globulus oil against larvae and pupae of housefly demonstrates its potentiality as a viable option for the development of eco-friendly product for housefly control. PMID:22326717

  9. Venom of the ectoparasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis, influences gene expression in Musca domestica hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cen; Liu, Yang; Fang, Qi; Min-Li, Yan; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Li, Yan-Min

    2013-08-01

    Insect hosts have evolved potent innate immunity against invasion by parasitoid wasps. Host/parasitoids live in co-evolutionary relationships. Nasonia vitripennis females inject venom into their dipteran hosts just prior to laying eggs on the host's outer integument. The parasitoid larvae are ectoparasitoids because they feed on their hosts within the puparium, but do not enter the host body. We investigated the influence of N. vitripennis venom on the gene expression profile of hemocytes of their hosts, pupae of the housefly, Musca domestica. We prepared venom by isolating venom glands and treated experimental host pupae with venom. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to determine the influence of venom on hemocyte gene expression. At 1 h post treatment, we recorded decreases in transcript levels of 133 EST clones derived from forward a subtractive library of host hemocytes and upregulation in transcript levels of 111 EST clones from the reverse library. These genes are related to immune and stress response, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and apoptosis, metabolism, transport, and transcription/translation regulation. We verified the reliability of our data with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis of randomly selected genes, and with assays of enzyme activities. These analyses showed that the expression level of all selected genes were downregulated after venom treatment. Outcomes of our experiments support the hypothesis that N. vitripennis venom influences the gene expression in host hemocytes. We conclude that the actions of venom on host gene expression influence host biology in ways that benefit the development and emergence of the next generation of parasitoids.

  10. Structural analysis of an epsilon-class glutathione transferase from housefly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Chihiro; Yajima, Shunsuke; Miyamoto, Toru; Sue, Masayuki

    2013-01-25

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play an important role in the detoxification of insecticides, and as such, they are a key contributor to enhanced resistance to insecticides. In the housefly (Musca domestica), two epsilon-class GSTs (MdGST6A and MdGST6B) that share high sequence homology have been identified, which are believed to be involved in resistance against insecticides. The structural determinants controlling the substrate specificity and enzyme activity of MdGST6s are unknown. The aim of this study was to crystallize and perform structural analysis of the GST isozyme, MdGST6B. The crystal structure of MdGST6B complexed with reduced glutathione (GSH) was determined at a resolution of 1.8 Å. MdGST6B was found to have a typical GST folding comprised of N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Arg113 and Phe121 on helix 4 were shown to protrude into the substrate binding pocket, and as a result, the entrance of the substrate binding pocket was narrower compared to delta- and epsilon-class GSTs from Africa malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, agGSTd1-6 and agGSTe2, respectively. This substrate pocket narrowing is partly due to the presence of a π-helix in the middle of helix 4. Among the six residues that donate hydrogen bonds to GSH, only Arg113 was located in the C-terminal domain. Ala substitution of Arg113 did not have a significant effect on enzyme activity, suggesting that the Arg113 hydrogen bond does not play a crucial role in catalysis. On the other hand, mutation at Phe108, located just below Arg113 in the binding pocket, reduced the affinity and catalytic activity to both GSH and the electrophilic co-substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

  11. Bioefficacy of essential oils of medicinal plants against housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Morey, Rashmi A; Khandagle, Abhay J

    2012-10-01

    The housefly Musca domestica L. is recognized as a public health pest causing a serious threat to human and livestock by vectoring many infectious diseases. Chemical control method commonly used against this pest, though effective, has some major disadvantages, such as development of insect resistance and bioaccumulation. Pest management strategies for populations of houseflies are needed. Presently, bioinsecticides, especially those derived from plant origin, have been increasingly evaluated in controlling insects of medical importance. In order to search for effective and ecofriendly control agents, the essential oils of Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, and Cinnamomum verum were evaluated for their larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against M. domestica. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., C(50) = 104 ppm was shown by M. piperita. This oil also exhibited 96.8% repellency at the concentration of 1%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity of 98.1% was also exhibited by M. piperita oil at the concentration of 1%. Among the remaining plants, the essential oil of Z. officinalis exhibited significant bioactivities against M. domestica with larvicidal activity, i.e., lethal concentration (LC)(50) = 137 ppm, repellency of 84.9 and 98.1% oviposition deterrence both at 1% concentration. The other two plant oils, viz., C. verum and E. officinalis, showed relatively moderate bioefficacy with larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 159 and 259 ppm, repellency of 77.9 and 63.0% while oviposition deterrence of 60.0 and 42.6%, respectively. The result revealed that the essential oils of M. piperita have control potential against M. domestica and should be further explored as a component of integrated vector management program.

  12. Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) was evaluated for its chemical composition and insecticidal activity against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Chemical composition of E. globulus oil revealed 1,8-cineole (33.6%), α-pinene (14.2%) and d-limonene (10.1%) as major constituents, while vapour profile of E. globulus oil determined through solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis showed 1,8-cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (16.9%), d-limonene (5.5%) and linalool acetate (3.4%) as principal components. Vapour phase of the oil showed increase in the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Insecticidal activity of E. globulus oil was assessed against larvae and pupae of housefly, through two different bioassays: contact toxicity and fumigation. Contact toxicity assay with larva showed lethal concentration, LC(50), between 2.73 and 0.60μl/cm(2) for different observation days while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 6.0 and 1.7 days. In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) values of 66.1 and 50.1μl/l were obtained in 24h and 48h, respectively. Oil treated larvae showed surface shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Pupicidal effectivity was measured in terms of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) which was 36.0-93.0% for contact toxicity and 67.9-100% for fumigation toxicity assay. Considerable activity of E. globulus oil against larvae and pupae of housefly demonstrates its potentiality as a viable option for the development of eco-friendly product for housefly control.

  13. Fly-scan ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519

  14. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  15. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  16. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Chemosensory Gene Families in Five Tsetse Fly Species.

    PubMed

    Macharia, Rosaline; Mireji, Paul; Murungi, Edwin; Murilla, Grace; Christoffels, Alan; Aksoy, Serap; Masiga, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    For decades, odour-baited traps have been used for control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae), vectors of African trypanosomes. However, differential responses to known attractants have been reported in different Glossina species, hindering establishment of a universal vector control tool. Availability of full genome sequences of five Glossina species offers an opportunity to compare their chemosensory repertoire and enhance our understanding of their biology in relation to chemosensation. Here, we identified and annotated the major chemosensory gene families in Glossina. We identified a total of 118, 115, 124, and 123 chemosensory genes in Glossina austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. f. fuscipes, G. pallidipes, respectively, relative to 127 reported in G. m. morsitans. Our results show that tsetse fly genomes have fewer chemosensory genes when compared to other dipterans such as Musca domestica (n>393), Drosophila melanogaster (n = 246) and Anopheles gambiae (n>247). We also found that Glossina chemosensory genes are dispersed across distantly located scaffolds in their respective genomes, in contrast to other insects like D. melanogaster whose genes occur in clusters. Further, Glossina appears to be devoid of sugar receptors and to have expanded CO2 associated receptors, potentially reflecting Glossina's obligate hematophagy and the need to detect hosts that may be out of sight. We also identified, in all species, homologs of Ir84a; a Drosophila-specific ionotropic receptor that promotes male courtship suggesting that this is a conserved trait in tsetse flies. Notably, our selection analysis revealed that a total of four gene loci (Gr21a, GluRIIA, Gr28b, and Obp83a) were under positive selection, which confers fitness advantage to species. These findings provide a platform for studies to further define the language of communication of tsetse with their environment, and influence development of novel approaches for control. PMID:26886411

  17. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Chemosensory Gene Families in Five Tsetse Fly Species.

    PubMed

    Macharia, Rosaline; Mireji, Paul; Murungi, Edwin; Murilla, Grace; Christoffels, Alan; Aksoy, Serap; Masiga, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    For decades, odour-baited traps have been used for control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae), vectors of African trypanosomes. However, differential responses to known attractants have been reported in different Glossina species, hindering establishment of a universal vector control tool. Availability of full genome sequences of five Glossina species offers an opportunity to compare their chemosensory repertoire and enhance our understanding of their biology in relation to chemosensation. Here, we identified and annotated the major chemosensory gene families in Glossina. We identified a total of 118, 115, 124, and 123 chemosensory genes in Glossina austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. f. fuscipes, G. pallidipes, respectively, relative to 127 reported in G. m. morsitans. Our results show that tsetse fly genomes have fewer chemosensory genes when compared to other dipterans such as Musca domestica (n>393), Drosophila melanogaster (n = 246) and Anopheles gambiae (n>247). We also found that Glossina chemosensory genes are dispersed across distantly located scaffolds in their respective genomes, in contrast to other insects like D. melanogaster whose genes occur in clusters. Further, Glossina appears to be devoid of sugar receptors and to have expanded CO2 associated receptors, potentially reflecting Glossina's obligate hematophagy and the need to detect hosts that may be out of sight. We also identified, in all species, homologs of Ir84a; a Drosophila-specific ionotropic receptor that promotes male courtship suggesting that this is a conserved trait in tsetse flies. Notably, our selection analysis revealed that a total of four gene loci (Gr21a, GluRIIA, Gr28b, and Obp83a) were under positive selection, which confers fitness advantage to species. These findings provide a platform for studies to further define the language of communication of tsetse with their environment, and influence development of novel approaches for control.

  18. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Chemosensory Gene Families in Five Tsetse Fly Species

    PubMed Central

    Macharia, Rosaline; Mireji, Paul; Murungi, Edwin; Murilla, Grace; Christoffels, Alan; Aksoy, Serap; Masiga, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    For decades, odour-baited traps have been used for control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae), vectors of African trypanosomes. However, differential responses to known attractants have been reported in different Glossina species, hindering establishment of a universal vector control tool. Availability of full genome sequences of five Glossina species offers an opportunity to compare their chemosensory repertoire and enhance our understanding of their biology in relation to chemosensation. Here, we identified and annotated the major chemosensory gene families in Glossina. We identified a total of 118, 115, 124, and 123 chemosensory genes in Glossina austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. f. fuscipes, G. pallidipes, respectively, relative to 127 reported in G. m. morsitans. Our results show that tsetse fly genomes have fewer chemosensory genes when compared to other dipterans such as Musca domestica (n>393), Drosophila melanogaster (n = 246) and Anopheles gambiae (n>247). We also found that Glossina chemosensory genes are dispersed across distantly located scaffolds in their respective genomes, in contrast to other insects like D. melanogaster whose genes occur in clusters. Further, Glossina appears to be devoid of sugar receptors and to have expanded CO2 associated receptors, potentially reflecting Glossina's obligate hematophagy and the need to detect hosts that may be out of sight. We also identified, in all species, homologs of Ir84a; a Drosophila-specific ionotropic receptor that promotes male courtship suggesting that this is a conserved trait in tsetse flies. Notably, our selection analysis revealed that a total of four gene loci (Gr21a, GluRIIA, Gr28b, and Obp83a) were under positive selection, which confers fitness advantage to species. These findings provide a platform for studies to further define the language of communication of tsetse with their environment, and influence development of novel approaches for control. PMID:26886411

  19. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  20. Retinal degeneration in the fly.

    PubMed

    Colley, Nansi Jo

    2012-01-01

    Many genes are functionally equivalent between flies and humans. In addition, the same, or similar, mutations cause disease in both species. In fact, nearly three-fourths of all human disease genes have related sequences in Drosophila. The fly has a relatively small genome, made up of about 13,600 genes in four pairs of chromosomes. However, despite the dramatic differences in size and apparent complexity between humans and flies--we have less than twice as many genes as a fly--our genome is estimated to be made up of only 20,000-25,000 genes contained in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Therefore, despite the fly's perceived simplicity, or our perceived complexity, our genetic makeup may not be all that different. Its versatility for genetic manipulation and convenience for unraveling fundamental biological processes continue to guarantee the fly a place in the spotlight for unraveling the basis of and therapeutic treatments for human eye diseases.

  1. Housing, Design, and Furnishings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on housing, design, and furnishings. The units cover: (1) the societal aspects of housing (including the relationship between housing and the economy, population trends, and culture-related housing characteristics); (2) family housing…

  2. Ameliorative effect of fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Agronomic effectiveness and environmental impact of fly ashes used to reclaim pyritic acid mine spoils were investigated in the laboratory and field. Mine spoils at two abandoned sites were amended with three rates of fly ash, three rates of rock phosphate, and seeded with alfalfa and wheat. Application of fly ash decreased bulk density and increased moisture retention capacity of spoils. Fly ash application reduced cation exchange capacity, acidity, toxic levels of Al, Fe, and Mn in soils by buffering soil pH at 6.5, and retarded pyrite oxidation. The reduction in cation exchange capacity was compensated by release of plant nutrients through diffusion and dissolution of plerospheres in fly ash. Improvement of spoil physical, chemical and microbial properties resulted in higher yield, more nitrogen fixation, and utilization of P from rock phosphate by alfalfa. Laboratory investigations demonstrated that neutralization potential and the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron were more important for classifying fly ashes than the total elemental analysis presently used in a taxonomic classification system. Contamination of the food chain through plant removal of Mo and As in fly ash treated mine spoils was observed only for Mo and only for the first year of cropping. Plant available As and Mo decreased with time. Laboratory leaching and adsorption studies and a field experiment showed that trace metals do not leach from fly ashes at near neutral pH and more oxyanions will leach from fly ashes with low neutralization potential and low amounts of amorphous oxides of iron.

  3. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  5. Flying over decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  6. Sequence change and phylogenetic signal in muscoid COII DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Szalanski, Allen L; Owens, Carrie B

    2003-08-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase II gene from house fly, Musca domestica, face fly, Musca autumnalis, stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and black garbage fly, Hydrotaea aenescens, are reported. The nucleotide sequence codes for a 229 amino acid peptide. The COII sequence is A + T rich (74.1%), with up to 12.3% nucleotide and 8.4% amino acid divergence among the five taxa. Of the 688 nucleotides encoding for the gene, 135 nucleotide sites (19.6%) are variable, and 55 (8.0%) are phylogenetically informative. A phylogenetic analysis using three calliphorids as the outgroup taxa, indicates that the two haematophagus species, horn fly and stable fly, form a sister group.

  7. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of two…

  8. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  9. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent a sustainable method for reducing animal and plant wastes. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. The prepupae can be self-harvested and used as feedstuff for livestock and poultry. While som...

  10. Use of modified cages attached to growing calves to measure the effect of stable flies on dry matter intake and digestibility, and defensive movements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of stable flies on growing calves was examined using modified fly cages attached to the animals. Dry matter intake and digestibility as well as behavioral responses of the animals were monitored. Nine Holstein calves, individually housed in 3 x 3 m pens, were exposed to three levels of st...

  11. Physics of flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  12. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  13. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8...

  14. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Shared Housing § 982.618 Shared housing: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The... the unit available for use by the assisted family under its lease, meets the housing quality standards... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing...

  15. Efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica and Anopheles pharoensis.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Azza S

    2008-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against the larval maturation and adult emergency of Anopheles pharoensis and Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. A. pharoensis with concentrations (conc.) of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7% & 0.5% showed 100% larval mortality. Conc. of 0.3%, 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 77.8%, 44.4% & 33.3% respectively. The fecundity of emerged adults was 0%, 60% & 50%. In M. domestica the conc. from 50%-100% completely killed the larvae. Conc. of 25%, 5%, 2% & 1% caused mortality of 88.9%, 55.6%, 33.3% & 22.2% respectively. Less conc. of C. zeylanicum was not tested. The fecundity of the emerged adults was 0%, 66.7%, 66.7% & 83.3%. Only one control larva died and the nine emerged adults were fertile in the two cases.

  16. Tomography of X-ray Nova Muscae 1991: evidence for ongoing mass transfer and stream-disc overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith S.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Jan M.; Wu, Jianfeng; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Longa-Peña, Penelope; Steeghs, Danny; Callanan, Paul; Ho, Luis C.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Reynolds, Mark T.

    2015-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the black hole binary Nova Muscae 1991 in quiescence using data obtained in 2009 with Magellan Echelette on the Magellan Clay telescope and in 2010 with IMACS on the Magellan Baade telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. Emission from the disc is observed in Hα, Hβ and Ca II (λ8662). A prominent hotspot is observed in the Doppler maps of all three emission lines. The existence of this spot establishes ongoing mass transfer from the donor star in 2009-2010 and, given its absence in the 1993-1995 observations, demonstrates the presence of a variable hotspot in the system. We find the radial distance to the hotspot from the black hole to be consistent with the circularization radius. Our tomograms are suggestive of stream-disc overflow in the system. We also detect possible Ca II (λ8662) absorption from the donor star.

  17. Ana insect model for assessing arsenic toxicity: Arsenic elevated glutathione content in the musca domestica and trichoplusia ni

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, K.; Pardini, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    Throughout history, arsenic has acquired an unparalled reputation as a poison. Arsenic was used as a poison as early as 2000 B.C. The toxicity of arsenic (As) extends to mammals, fish, insects, plants and fungi. According to epidemiological evidence, inorganic arsenic compounds have been strongly suggested as human carcinogens. Human exposure to arsenic through various means is correlated with an increased incidence of skin, lung, and possibly liver cancers. Inorganic trivalent arsenic is systematically more poisonous than the pentavalent form and it is possible that pentavalent arsenic is reduced to the trivalent form before exerting any toxic effects. This study focuses on the potential to use two insect species, the housefly, Musca domestica and the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni, and a model for the study of arsenic toxicity. After 48 hours of exposure to Arsenic, a significant induction of Glutathione level and subsequent decrease in the level of GSSG in both species were observed. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year

  19. [Effectiveness of azamethiphos-based insecticides against the housefly (Musca domestica L.)].

    PubMed

    Kocisová, A; Para, L

    1995-01-01

    The insecticidal baits Muscalik-AZA (dust formulation) and Snip (granulated formulation) contained the active ingredient azamethiphos--1% and special fly attractant Z-9-tricosen--0.2%. Toxicity of these baits was monitored in 4 wild resistant strains of M. domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) which were marked according to the locality of collection as J, KP, NC and NL and in 1 sensitive strain WHO/SRS. KT90 in resistant strains was in the range from 1.5 to 6.5 hrs at testing of Muscalik-AZA. The efficiency of Muscalik-AZA was manifested with 100% knock-down effect in all tested strains with exception of KP strain after 24 hrs. During the experiments with Snip the greater range of knock-down time for 90% of tested strain was observed. KT90 was in the range from 5 hrs to > 24 hrs. After 24 hrs a range between 83-97% of knock-down effect was found in all tested strains. In field conditions of the weaned piglets rearing, the efficiency of Muscalik-AZA in flies highly resistant to azamethiphos was in the range from 14 to 21.9% during 28 days. Efficiency of Muscalik-AZA in the the range between 80-91.7% was determined in the delivery room for sows in flies with low resistance to azamethiphos. The biological efficiency of Snip to flies with moderate resistance to azamethiphos was determined in the area of veterinary ambulance. The mean efficiency of Snip was 92.2% during the 28 days of test.

  20. Using parallel evolutionary development for a biologically-inspired computer vision system for mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Pack, Daniel J

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new approach to attacking the problem of robust computer vision for mobile robots. The overall strategy is to mimic the biological evolution of animal vision systems. Our basic imaging sensor is based upon the eye of the common house fly, Musca domestica. The computational algorithms are a mix of traditional image processing, subspace techniques, and multilayer neural networks.

  1. Effect of sensor-target-background distance on target tracking using a fly eye sensor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif; Streeter, Robert W; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Frost, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    A multi-aperture optical sensor, known as a fly eye sensor, has been developed at the Wyoming Image and Signal Processing Research (WISPR) Laboratory based on the visual system of the common housefly Musca domestical. This biomimetic sensor shows promising edge detection capability, in varying contrast scenarios, with minimal processing overhead. Use of this sensor for fast motion detection, and object tracking is appealing, but optimizing the use of such a sensor requires detailed study. This paper analyzes the effect of placing the background at various distances greater than the target, and provides visualization of these example scenarios. A computer simulationof the sensor using MATLAB demonstrates that the placdementof a target closer to the sensor, and further from the background, affects the sensor response. If not properly considered, this may introduce ambiguities and degrade the performance of a tracking system based ont he flye eye sensor that requires precise location of the target in front of the sensor. This paper shows how a peroperly designed low-pass filter can greatly mitigate this effect with only a small degradation of the relative response magnitude at different distances from the sensor. PMID:25405451

  2. Effect of sensor-target-background distance on target tracking using a fly eye sensor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif; Streeter, Robert W; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Frost, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    A multi-aperture optical sensor, known as a fly eye sensor, has been developed at the Wyoming Image and Signal Processing Research (WISPR) Laboratory based on the visual system of the common housefly Musca domestical. This biomimetic sensor shows promising edge detection capability, in varying contrast scenarios, with minimal processing overhead. Use of this sensor for fast motion detection, and object tracking is appealing, but optimizing the use of such a sensor requires detailed study. This paper analyzes the effect of placing the background at various distances greater than the target, and provides visualization of these example scenarios. A computer simulationof the sensor using MATLAB demonstrates that the placdementof a target closer to the sensor, and further from the background, affects the sensor response. If not properly considered, this may introduce ambiguities and degrade the performance of a tracking system based ont he flye eye sensor that requires precise location of the target in front of the sensor. This paper shows how a peroperly designed low-pass filter can greatly mitigate this effect with only a small degradation of the relative response magnitude at different distances from the sensor.

  3. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources. PMID:25992605

  4. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26°C. A total of 371g housefly larvae meal and 2,064g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources. PMID:25992605

  5. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  6. Student-Initiated Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes a report that describes housing where student groups lease, purchase, or even develop their own living quarters. Considers the birth of the movement, federal student housing programs, and a view to future programs. (Author/DN)

  7. ICI Showcase House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-16

    Building Science Corporation collaborated with ICI Homes in Daytona Beach, FL on a 2008 prototype Showcase House that demonstrates the energy efficiency and durability upgrades that ICI currently promotes through its in-house efficiency program called EFactor.

  8. Larvicidal activity and effects on post embrionary development of laboratory reared Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae), treated with Brevibacillus laterosporus (Laubach) spore suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vitor Dos S B; Barcellos, Isadora da S; Carramaschi, Isabel N; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Queiroz, Margareth M C; Zahner, Viviane

    2016-06-01

    The application of a spore suspension of Brevibacillus laterosporus (Laubach) (strain Bon707), at a concentration of 1.94×10(9)CFU/mL in the diet, induced a level of 70% mortality in larvae of Musca domestica. No sublethal effects, upon feeding activity or development were recorded. However, electron microscopic examination of the digestive tract of larvae fed with B. laterosporus, revealed cellular vacuolization and cytoplasmic disorganization. PMID:27164160

  9. Sorptivity of fly ash concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied by treating the samples in two curving conditions. A functional relationship of sorptivity against the strength, curing condition and fly ash content has been presented. The results were useful to analyze the factors influencing the durability of cement and fly ash concretes and to explain why some of the previously reported findings were contradictory. Curing conditions have been found to be the most important factor that affected the durability properties of fly ash concrete. When proper curing was provided, a mix with 40% fly ash was found to reduce the sorptivity by 37%. Under inadequate curing the sorptivity was found to increase by 60%. The influence of curing on cement concrete was found to be of much less importance.

  10. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

  11. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

  12. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  13. The Hispanic Housing Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbeare, Cushing N.; Canales, Judith A.

    This report examines the housing characteristics and needs of Hispanic households in the United States, drawing on information from the 1980 Census and the 1983 Annual Housing Survey. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) housing quality is a major problem for more than one in six Hispanic families; (2) among Hispanic subgroups, Puerto…

  14. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  15. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli on Flies at Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Hamidjaja, Raditijo A.; van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; de Heer, Lianne; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli bacteria are highly prevalent in poultry, and chicken meat has been implicated as a source of ESBL-producing E. coli present in the human population. The current study describes the isolation of ESBL-producing E. coli from house flies and blow flies caught at two poultry farms, offering a potential alternative route of transmission of ESBL-producing E. coli from poultry to humans. Overall, 87 flies were analyzed in 19 pools. ESBL-producing E. coli bacteria were detected in two fly pools (10.5%): a pool of three blow flies from a broiler farm and a pool of eight house flies from a laying-hen farm. From each positive fly pool, six isolates were characterized and compared with isolates obtained from manure (n = 53) sampled at both farms and rinse water (n = 10) from the broiler farm. Among six fly isolates from the broiler farm, four different types were detected with respect to phylogenetic group, sequence type (ST), and ESBL genotype: A0/ST3519/SHV-12, A1/ST10/SHV-12, A1/ST58/SHV-12, and B1/ST448/CTX-M-1. These types, as well as six additional types, were also present in manure and/or rinse water at the same farm. At the laying-hen farm, all fly and manure isolates were identical, carrying blaTEM-52 in an A1/ST48 genetic background. The data imply that flies acquire ESBL-producing E. coli at poultry farms, warranting further evaluation of the contribution of flies to dissemination of ESBL-producing E. coli in the community. PMID:24162567

  16. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special...

  17. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  18. Accident Flying Squad

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Roger

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the organization, evaluation, and costing of an independently financed and operated accident flying squad. 132 accidents involving 302 casualties were attended, six deaths were prevented, medical treatment contributed to the survival of a further four, and the condition or comfort of many other casualties was improved. The calls in which survival was influenced were evenly distributed throughout the three-and-a-half-year survey and seven of the 10 so aided were over 16 and under 30 years of age, all 10 being in the working age group. The time taken to provide the service was not excessive and the expense when compared with the overall saving was very small. The scheme was seen to be equally suitable for basing on hospital or general practice or both, and working as an integrated team with the ambulance service. The use of specialized transport was found to be unnecessary. Other benefits of the scheme included use of the experience of attending accidents to ensure relevant and realistic training for emergency service personnel, and an appreciation of the effect of ambulance design on the patient. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5069642

  19. Natural Breeding Places for Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Semiarid Region of Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides. PMID:22529861

  20. Natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in a semiarid region of bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides.

  1. Lousicidal, ovicidal and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S

    2009-10-14

    The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest water buffaloes. PMID:19596520

  2. Lousicidal, ovicidal and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S

    2009-10-14

    The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest water buffaloes.

  3. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... forms to describe their intent for marketing to ensure that they meet the Fair Housing...

  4. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  5. NASA Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Technology Utilization House, called Tech House, was designed and constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, to demonstrate new technology that is available or will be available in the next several years and how the application of aerospace technology could help advance the homebuilding industry. Solar energy use, energy and water conservation, safety, security, and cost were major considerations in adapting the aerospace technology to the construction of Tech House.

  6. Fly-By-Light Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Edward V.; Snitzer, Elias

    1983-03-01

    The last decade witnessed the emergence and acceptance of Fly-by-Wire technology for advanced flight control systems. The benefits of fiber-optic technology such as low EMI susceptability, lower aircraft system weight, and lower life cycle cost may substitute Fly-by-Light technology as the accepted state-of-the-art in this decade. This paper addresses the motivation for moving toward Fly-by-Light technology and technology needs for implementation of Fly-by-Light with particular emphasis on the sensors. The paper examines the impact of increased intensity levels of man-made threats (EMI, EMP and nuclear radiation) coupled with the extensive utilization of non-conductive fuselage materials. A baseline Fly-by-Light control system highlights the key system elements of sensors, effectors, and communication which require development for fiber optics to be used. With the ongoing development of fiber-optic communication technology by the telecommunication industry, the responsibility has fallen to the controls industry to provide the generic technology development for the sensing and effector requirements. United Technologies Corporation and in particular its Hamilton Standard and Research Divisions have been developing effector and sensor technology and have applied the results of these efforts to the U.S. Navy Linear Optical Transducer and the U.S. Army Rotary Optical Transducer programs. The linear transducer is a 12-bit, 3.5-inch stroke device. The rotary is a 10-bit, 40 degrees-of-travel unit.

  7. Respiration in High Flying

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, G. Struan

    1937-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure falls, as height increases, to about one-ninth of its sea-level value at 50,000 feet. The intake of oxygen into the blood depends on the partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air, which is about one-fifth of the atmospheric pressure. But since the gaseous content of the lungs is saturated with water vapour at body temperature, 47 mm. Hg. of the atmospheric pressure in the lungs is due to water vapour and is therefore not available for oxygen or other gases, while the alveolar air contains also an almost constant pressure of 40 mm. CO2. Mental and physical output demand an adequate partial pressure of O2; they begin to be limited as soon as this falls, and at heights above 18,000 feet are seriously reduced. Consequently in order to fly higher than about 15,000 feet it is necessary to increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air. Up to about 44,000 feet this can be done by merely raising the percentage of oxygen, usually by allowing a regulated stream of oxygen to enter a small naso-buccal mask, but preferably by a closed system in which the negative pressure of inspiration opens a valve and allows oxygen to enter a bag from which it is inspired. Beyond 44,000 feet as a limit (and a lesser height for safety) it is necessary to create a local atmospheric pressure around the pilot higher than that of the surrounding air, by enclosing him in an airtight sit or cabin in which a relatively increased pressure with a maximum value of about 2½ lb. per square inch is maintained, while he breathes pure oxygen. This device was used in the recent British world record high flight, when a height of 50,000 feet was attained. The pressure-suit used by the pilot on this occasion and the decompression chamber recently built at Farnborough are described in detail. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:19991176

  8. Fly on the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The email was addressed not only to me, but also to all the Project Knowledge Sharing Community at Ames Research Center. We were invited to sit in on a major project review as a new experiment in knowledge sharing. This first-of-its-kind opportunity had been conceived by Claire Smith, who leads the knowledge sharing program, as well as heading up the Center's Project Leadership Development Program and serving as coordinator of the APPL-West program at Ames. The objective was to offer Ames project practitioners the opportunity to observe project-review processes as they happen. Not that I haven't participated in my share of project reviews, but this seemed like a great way for me to get up-to-date about a new project, the Kepler mission, and to experience a review from a new perspective. Typically, when you're being reviewed, it's difficult to see what's happening objectively-the same way it is on a project. Presenters are always thinking, 'Okay, what's on my slides? How much time do I have left? What are they going to ask me?' So when Claire's email pinged on my computer, I quickly responded by asking her to save a place for me. It was to be an informational review about progress on the project: what the team had done, where they were going, and what they needed to do to get there. There were people on the project team from all over the United States, and it was the first time for them to get together from all aspects of the project. For our part, as observers, we were asked to abide by a couple of rules: Don't ask any questions. and don't talk about the specifics of what we saw or heard. The idea was that we weren't supposed to be noticed. We weren't to buzz around and bother people. Hence the name for this experinient: Fly on the Wall.

  9. Ecological study on antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic bacteria transmitted by flies in cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asmaa N; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Abdel-Azeem, Naglaa M; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Flies were qualitatively and quantitatively monitored on both livestock animals and the surrounding environment to investigate their role as a potential carrier for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance in cattle farms. This was done by the use of visual observations and animal photography; meanwhile, in the surrounding environment, flies were collected using sticky cards and then microscopically identified. Representative fly samples were cultured for bacterial isolation, biochemical identification, and then tested against common 12 antibiotics. The total average of dipterous flies in examined farms was 400.42 ± 6.2. Culicoides biting midges were the most common existing species (70.01 %) followed by house flies, stable flies, and mosquitoes (18.31, 7.74, and 3.91 %, respectively) at X (2) = 9.0, P < 0.05. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (22.6 %), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter (17.3 % each), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) (14.7 %), Klebsiella sp. (8 %), Salmonella spp. (6.7 %), and Shigella spp. and Proteus spp. (6.7 % each). The tested bacterial isolates were resistant to variant antibiotics used. S. aureus exhibited 100 % resistance to colistine. However, E. coli revealed 92.9 and 78.6 % resistance against tetracycline and colistine, respectively. Both Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 100 % resistant to penicillin, and Klebsiella sp. had 100 % resistance to tetracycline. In conclusion, Culicoides biting midges and house flies could be considered as a potential carrier for multi-drug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance. Furthermore, cows' environment has an essential role in propagation and wide spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  10. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Shen, Jianguo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, Longhua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Changfeng; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m-2, respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative changes of the carboxylesterase associated with beta-cypermethrin resistance in the housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Shi, Jing; Shi, Xueyan; Liang, Pei; Gao, Junping; Gao, Xiwu

    2010-05-01

    Mechanisms of esterase-mediated pyrethroid resistance were analyzed based on our previous works in a strain of the housefly, Musca domestica. The carboxylesterase gene, MdalphaE7, was cloned and sequenced from susceptible (CSS) and resistant (CRR) strains, and a total of nine amino acid substitutions were found. The mutation, Trp(251)-Ser appeared to play a role in beta-cypermethrin resistance and cross-resistance between organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids in the CRR strain. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that MdalphaE7 was over-expressed in the CRR strain, the reciprocal cross progeny F(1) and back-cross progeny BC(2) compared with the CSS strain, respectively. Two alpha-cynaoester substrates as surrogates for beta-cypermethrin and deltamethrin, were synthesized to determine the pyrethroid hydrolase activity. Results showed that carboxylesterases from the CRR strain hydrolyzed cypermethrin/deltamethrin-like substrate 9.05- and 13.53-fold more efficiently than those from the CSS strain, respectively. Our studies suggested that quantitative and qualitative changes in the carboxylesterase might contribute together to pyrethroid resistance in the CRR strain.

  12. Cloning, expression, and purification of a new antibacterial substance gene from larvae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhihua; Bian, Lu; Zhang, Hui; Gao, Yunhang; Ma, Hongxia

    2014-01-01

    Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), the housefly, exhibits unique immune defenses and can produce antibacterial substances upon stimulation with bacteria. On the basis of the cDNA library constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, a 1188-bp antibacterial substance gene, which we named AS566, was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends from M. domestica larva stimulated with Salmonella pullorum (Enterobacteriaceae: Salmonella). In this study, the full-length AS566 gene was cloned and inserted into a His-tagged Escherichia coli (Enterobacteriaceae: Escherichia) prokaryotic expression system to enable production of the recombinant protein. The recombinant AS566 protein was purified in denatured form from inclusion bodies and renatured to obtain functionally active AS566 protein. The bacteriostatic activity of the recombinant purified AS566 protein was assessed using the Oxford plate assay system and the results indicated that AS566 had antibacterial activity against six bacteria, including an E. coli clinical isolate, S. pullorum, Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcaceae: Streptococcus), Streptococcus suis, and Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcaceae: Staphylococcus) in vitro. The antibacterial activity of AS566 toward Gram- bacteria was two times greater than that against Gram+ bacteria. The sequencing results and BLAST analysis showed that the antibacterial substance gene AS566 was not homologous to any other antibacterial substance genes in GenBank. The antibacterial mechanisms of the newly discovered AS566 protein warrant further study.

  13. Cloning and molecular characterization of an ornithine decarboxylase gene and its expression during embryonic development of the housefly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Toutges, Michelle J; Santoso, Adi

    2011-10-01

    We are interested in identifying targets that may be used to develop new control products for the common housefly, Musca domestica, a vector of disease for many vertebrates. One such target, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), is an embryonic enzyme involved in the regulation of polyamines and is a critical enzyme during M. domestica development. In this study, the cDNA for ODC from M. domestica was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The full-length cDNA was 1,337-bp, consistent with a single band of approximately 1.35 kb obtained by northern analysis. The open-reading frame contains 1,191 bp, yielding a deduced polypeptide of 396 amino acid residues with a predicted mass of 44,618 Da. The deduced M. domestica ODC protein was homologous to other ODC proteins. mRNA expression profiles analyzed by real-time PCR indicated that the ODC transcript is temporally regulated throughout embryogenesis. Sequence data and Southern blot analysis suggests that there were likely only one or two closely linked copies of the M. domestica ODC gene.

  14. Comparative evaluation of five Beauveria isolates for housefly (Musca domestica L.) control and growth optimization of selected strain.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree

    2012-11-01

    Pathogenic potential of five native Beauveria isolates was assessed against housefly adult and larvae in laboratory bioassays. Beauveria isolate Beauveria bassiana HQ917687 showed highest virulence with 72.3 and 100 % mortality of larvae and adults of Musca domestica, respectively. Other Beauveria isolates caused 36-52 % housefly larval mortality while the adult mortalities varied between 72 and 82 %. B. bassiana HQ917687 also showed the fastest killing activity with LT(50) of 4 days (for larvae) and 3 days (for adults). This isolate showing highest virulence was selected for its growth optimization in terms of biomass and spore production using response surface methodology. The optimum value of temperature, yeast extract, and pH for maximum biomass and spore production was predicted as 27 °C, 5.00 g/l, and 6.75, respectively. Temperature was found to be the most critical factor influencing biomass and spore yield of the fungus and even nullified the effects of other factors at sufficiently higher value. The results obtained in this study depict the significance of appropriate strain selection and process parameter optimization in order to facilitate mass production of biocontrol agents.

  15. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  16. Cross-resistance, stability, and fitness cost of resistance to imidacloprid in Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Khan, Hussnain; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been used frequently for the management of Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) worldwide. To design the strategy for resistance management, life history traits were established for imidacloprid-resistant, susceptible counterpart, and reciprocal crosses M. domestica strains based on laboratory observations. Bioassay results showed that the imidacloprid-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 106-fold to imidacloprid, 19-fold to nitenpyram, 29-fold to chlorpyrifos, and 3.8-fold to cypermethrin compared to that of the susceptible counterpart strain. The imidacloprid-selected strain showed very low cross-resistance against nitenpyram and cypermethrin and a lack of cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos. Resistance to imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and chlorpyrifos was unstable, while resistance to cypermethrin was stable in Imida-SEL strain of M. domestica. The imidacloprid-selected strain had a relative fitness of 0.61 and lower fecundity, hatchability, number of next-generation larvae, and net reproductive rate compared with the susceptible counterpart strain. Mean population growth rates, such as intrinsic rate of population increase and biotic potential, were lower for the imidacloprid-selected strain compared with the susceptible counterpart strain. Development of resistance can cost considerable fitness for the imidacloprid-selected strain. The present study provided useful information for making potential management strategies to overcome development of resistance.

  17. Horizontal Transmission of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, M C; Felchicher, F; Duarte, J P; Bernardi, E; Ribeiro, P B

    2015-08-01

    Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin are fungi with potential for controlling Musca domestica L. However, the impact on this dipteral may vary depending on the fungal isolates and the methodology used. This study evaluated the pathogenicity of direct application and horizontal transmission of B. bassiana (CG240) and M. anisopliae (CG34) on adult M. domestica individuals. The impact of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae on M. domestica was evaluated at the concentrations 2 × 10(4), 2 × 10(5), 2 × 10(6), and 2 × 10(7) conidia/ml. Horizontal transmission was also estimated between sexes at different infection periods of the vector insect. The mortality of adult M. domestica individuals directly infected with B. bassiana was above 90%, and the mortality of those infected with M. anisopliae ranged from 25.50 to 97.78%. Horizontal transmission of B. bassiana caused the death of 100% of individuals, in turn, that of M. anisopliae killed 55% of male and 100% of female individuals. Horizontal transmission of fungi was negatively influenced by time. This study shows the potential of these fungi for controlling M. domestica, both with the direct implementation strategy and horizontal transmission. However, field studies are needed to evaluate the capacity to decrease the M. domestica population using these alternatives.

  18. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Shen, JianGuo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, LongHua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, HongYi; Zheng, ChangFeng; Xu, XinHua

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m(-2), respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.

  19. Expression pattern and function of alternative splice variants of glutamate-gated chloride channel in the housefly Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Kita, Tomo; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2014-02-01

    Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in invertebrate nervous systems. cDNAs encoding two alternative splice variants (MdGluClB and C) of the GluCl subunit were cloned from the housefly Musca domestica. The expression patterns of three variants, including the previously reported MdGluClA, differed among the body parts (head, thorax, abdomen, and leg) of the adult housefly and among developmental stages (embryo, larva, pupa, and adult). The MdGluClA and B transcripts were abundant in the central nervous system of the adult, whereas the MdGluClC transcript was expressed in the central nervous system and as the predominant variant in the peripheral tissues. The sensitivities to the agonist glutamate and the allosteric activator ivermectin B1a did not differ between channels containing MdGluCl variants when they were singly or co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes. By contrast, MdGluClA and B channels were more sensitive to the channel blockers fipronil and picrotoxinin than was MdGluClC channels. Heteromeric channels containing different subunit variants were more sensitive to picrotoxinin than were homomeric channels. Heteromeric channels were more sensitive to fipronil than were homomeric MdGluClC channels but not than homomeric MdGluClA and B channels. These results suggest that functionally indistinguishable but pharmacologically distinct GluCls are expressed in a spatially and temporally distinct manner in the housefly.

  20. Cloning and molecular characterization of an ornithine decarboxylase gene and its expression during embryonic development of the housefly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Toutges, Michelle J; Santoso, Adi

    2011-10-01

    We are interested in identifying targets that may be used to develop new control products for the common housefly, Musca domestica, a vector of disease for many vertebrates. One such target, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), is an embryonic enzyme involved in the regulation of polyamines and is a critical enzyme during M. domestica development. In this study, the cDNA for ODC from M. domestica was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The full-length cDNA was 1,337-bp, consistent with a single band of approximately 1.35 kb obtained by northern analysis. The open-reading frame contains 1,191 bp, yielding a deduced polypeptide of 396 amino acid residues with a predicted mass of 44,618 Da. The deduced M. domestica ODC protein was homologous to other ODC proteins. mRNA expression profiles analyzed by real-time PCR indicated that the ODC transcript is temporally regulated throughout embryogenesis. Sequence data and Southern blot analysis suggests that there were likely only one or two closely linked copies of the M. domestica ODC gene. PMID:21928394

  1. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  2. Multiple pump housing

    DOEpatents

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  3. More Than a House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1996-01-01

    For 14 years, Mountain Outreach, a program at Cumberland College (Williamsburg, Kentucky), has enabled college students to participate in community service projects. Recently, 35 students traveled to New Mexico to build a house for a Navajo elder who was unable to obtain adequate housing. Participants discuss their learning experiences and their…

  4. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  5. Housing Assistance Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2013-07-23

    12/03/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Special Report: College Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Responses of chief housing officers of 118 4-year colleges and universities to a survey focusing on costs, security, policies, and preferences provide a picture of college housing. More than 67% of respondents say that their colleges are planning to build more residential space. (SLD)

  7. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  8. Housing Survey. Campus Housing: Finding the Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Depending on where you look for statistics, the number of students enrolling in colleges or universities is increasing, decreasing or remaining the about the same. Regardless of those trends, campus housing is a marketing tool for institutions looking to draw students to and keep them on campus. Schools need to offer sufficient beds and…

  9. 1. General view, small house. (The house at left is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, small house. (The house at left is 783 S. Front Street, HABS No. PA-1549) Photocopied from December 1957 photograph on file at Philadelphia Historical Commission - John Curtis House, 785 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ARE IN THE BACKGROUND - Kiel Farmstead, House, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL

  11. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions.

  12. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  13. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough to imagine a ...

  14. Rich Rogers Flying Over Greenland Icecap

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ihis is a view from the NASA P3 aircraft cockpit as it flies 1000 feet over the Greenland icecap during Operation Icebridge mission, which flies each March-May. The end of video shows an ice camp w...

  15. Spread Across Liquids Continues to Fly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.

    2001-01-01

    The physics and behavior of a flame spreading across a flammable liquid is an active area of research at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Spills of fuels and other liquids often result in considerable fire hazards, and much remains unknown about the details of how a flame, once ignited, moves across a pool. The depth of the liquid or size of the spill, the temperature, and wind, if any, can all complicate the combustion processes. In addition, with the advent of the International Space Station there may be fire hazards associated with cleaning, laboratory, or other fluids in space, and it is essential to understand the role that gravity plays in such situations. The Spread Across Liquids (SAL) experiment is an experimental and computational effort dedicated to understanding the detailed mechanisms of flame spread across a flammable liquid initially below its flashpoint temperature. The experimental research is being carried out in-house by a team of researchers from Glenn, the National Center for Microgravity Combustion, and Zin Technologies, with computer modeling being provided via a grant with the University of California, Irvine. Glenn's Zero Gravity Facility is used to achieve short microgravity periods, and normal gravity testing is done in the Space Experiments Laboratory. To achieve longer periods of microgravity, the showcase SAL hardware flies aboard a sounding rocket launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, approximately once per year. In addition to extended microgravity, this carrier allows the use of detailed diagnostics that cannot be employed in a drop tower.

  16. The repellency of lemongrass oil against stable flies, tested using video tracking.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Tramut, Coline; Salem, Ali; Liénard, Emmanuel; Delétré, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Martin, Thibaud; Duvallet, Gérard; Jay-Robert, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus) is an effective repellent against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). In this study, its effectiveness was assessed on stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in laboratory conditions. First, we demonstrated that lemongrass oil is an active substance for antennal olfactory receptor cells of Stomoxys calcitrans as indicated by a significant increase in the electroantennogram responses to increasing doses of lemongrass oil. Feeding-choice tests in a flight cage with stable flies having access to two blood-soaked sanitary pads, one of which was treated with lemongrass oil, showed that stable flies (n = 24) spent significantly more time in the untreated zone (median value = 218.4 s) than in the treated zone (median value = 63.7 s). No stable flies fed on the treated pad, whereas nine fed on the untreated pad. These results suggest that lemongrass oil could be used as an effective repellent against stable flies. Additional studies to confirm its spatial repellent and feeding deterrent effects are warranted. PMID:23759542

  17. The repellency of lemongrass oil against stable flies, tested using video tracking.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Tramut, Coline; Salem, Ali; Liénard, Emmanuel; Delétré, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Martin, Thibaud; Duvallet, Gérard; Jay-Robert, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus) is an effective repellent against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). In this study, its effectiveness was assessed on stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in laboratory conditions. First, we demonstrated that lemongrass oil is an active substance for antennal olfactory receptor cells of Stomoxys calcitrans as indicated by a significant increase in the electroantennogram responses to increasing doses of lemongrass oil. Feeding-choice tests in a flight cage with stable flies having access to two blood-soaked sanitary pads, one of which was treated with lemongrass oil, showed that stable flies (n = 24) spent significantly more time in the untreated zone (median value = 218.4 s) than in the treated zone (median value = 63.7 s). No stable flies fed on the treated pad, whereas nine fed on the untreated pad. These results suggest that lemongrass oil could be used as an effective repellent against stable flies. Additional studies to confirm its spatial repellent and feeding deterrent effects are warranted.

  18. The repellency of lemongrass oil against stable flies, tested using video tracking

    PubMed Central

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Tramut, Coline; Salem, Ali; Liénard, Emmanuel; Delétré, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Martin, Thibaud; Duvallet, Gérard; Jay-Robert, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus) is an effective repellent against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). In this study, its effectiveness was assessed on stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in laboratory conditions. First, we demonstrated that lemongrass oil is an active substance for antennal olfactory receptor cells of Stomoxys calcitrans as indicated by a significant increase in the electroantennogram responses to increasing doses of lemongrass oil. Feeding-choice tests in a flight cage with stable flies having access to two blood-soaked sanitary pads, one of which was treated with lemongrass oil, showed that stable flies (n = 24) spent significantly more time in the untreated zone (median value = 218.4 s) than in the treated zone (median value = 63.7 s). No stable flies fed on the treated pad, whereas nine fed on the untreated pad. These results suggest that lemongrass oil could be used as an effective repellent against stable flies. Additional studies to confirm its spatial repellent and feeding deterrent effects are warranted. PMID:23759542

  19. Relationship of horn fly to face fly infestation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B; Simpson, R B; Brown, M A; Steelman, C D; Rosenkrans, C F

    1994-09-01

    Horn fly and face fly counts (n = 394) taken on 194 beef cows representing seven breed groups were used to determine the effects of horn fly and face fly counts. Breed groups included were Angus (ANI and ANII), Chianina (CA), Charolais (CH), Hereford (HH), Polled Hereford (PH), and Red Poll (RP). The breed group designated ANI consisted of small-framed cows. Total horn fly and total face fly counts were determined weekly on each cow beginning in May and ending in late October or early November in a 3-yr (1988-90) study. Face flies were not counted on the ANI and ANII breed groups in 1988. All fly counts were taken when cows were grazing Ozark upland native grass pastures with only containment fences separating breeding groups. No insecticides were used in the study. Data for analysis were the mean annual horn fly and face fly counts (averaged across weeks), spring weight and fall weights, gain/day between spring and fall weights, and skin surface area in the spring (SSAS) and fall (SSAF) for each cow. Relationships among measurements were examined by correlation and regression procedures. Horn fly count was correlated (P < .05) with face fly count, spring weight, gain/day, and SSAS (.23, .11, -.25, and .12, respectively). Correlations of horn fly count with fall weight and SSAF were non-significant. Horn fly count, breed, and the breed x horn fly count interaction were significant (P < .05) for the face fly regression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Flying qualities from early airplanes to the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of the study of flying qualities and the evolution of flying qualities requirements. Subjects considered include the scope of flying qualities, early historical development of flying qualities, research on flying qualities requirements, human response characteristics, command control systems, gust response and its relation to flying qualities, prediction of flying qualities, discussion of the Space Shuttle and of some recent airplanes, and format of the flying qualities requirements.

  1. Utilization of fly ash in metallic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.; Guo, R.Q.; Golden, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Fly ash particles have been successfully dispersed into aluminum alloy to make aluminum alloy-fly ash composites (Ashalloy) at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Additions of solid and hollow particles of fly ash reduce the cost and density of aluminum castings while increasing their performance. Ashalloy represents a candidate material for high value added use of fly ash, while reducing the disposal volumes of fly ash for the electric utility industry and making the US foundries more competitive. The fly ash particle distribution in the matrix aluminum alloy and the microstructure of aluminum-fly ash composite was determined. Selected properties of cast aluminum-fly ash composites are also presented in this paper. Mechanical properties of aluminum-fly ash composites show that the composite possesses higher hardness and higher elastic modulus compared to the matrix alloy. The flow behavior of molten aluminum-fly ash slurries along with the components cast in aluminum-fly ash composites will be presented. Fly ash containing metal components have potential applications in covers, shrouds, casings, manifolds, valve covers, garden furniture, engine blocks in automotive, small engine and electromechanical industry sector.

  2. Flying Training at West Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, M. Hamlin

    During World War Two the United States Military Academy operated a three-year program of instruction. Superimposed on this abbreviated curriculum was full-scale pilot training program. The emphasis of this study is on the problems that arose as a result. Included is a summary of responses to a questionnaire on the value of the flying training…

  3. Physics between a Fly's Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A novel method of localizing the direction of a source of sound has evolved in the auditory system of certain small parasitic flies. A mechanical model of this design has been shown to describe the system well. Here, a simplified version of this mechanical model is presented which demonstrates the key feature: direction estimates of high accuracy…

  4. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  5. The Spider and the Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  6. To Fly in the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  7. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  8. Bartonella spp. DNA associated with biting flies from California.

    PubMed

    Chung, Crystal Y; Kasten, Rickie W; Paff, Sandra M; Van Horn, Brian A; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Chomel, Bruno B

    2004-07-01

    Bartonella DNA was investigated in 104 horn flies (Haematobia spp.), 60 stable flies (Stomoxys spp.), 11 deer flies (Chrysops spp.), and 11 horse flies (Tabanus spp.) collected on cattle in California. Partial sequencing indicated B. bovis DNA in the horn fly pool and B. henselae type M DNA in one stable fly. PMID:15324557

  9. Frequencies of pyrethroid resistance-associated mutations of Vssc1 and CYP6D1 in field populations of Musca domestica L. in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taşkın, Vatan; Başkurt, Sibel; Doğaç, Ersin; Taşkin, Belgin Göçmen

    2011-12-01

    House flies were collected from 16 different provinces in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey, and the frequencies of pyrethroid resistance-associated mutations in Vssc1 and CYP6D1 in these field-collected populations were studied. Although there is no organized resistance management program for house fly control in Turkey, it is known that different groups of insecticides, including pyrethroids, are used. The frequencies of both Vssc1 and CYP6D1 alleles were weighted toward the susceptibles, with Vssc1-susceptible alleles having higher frequencies in both regions (0.75 in Aegean and 0.69 in Mediterranean populations) than CYP6D1-susceptible alleles (0.65 in Aegean and 0.56 in Mediterranean populations). The frequencies of kdr-his alleles were higher than the frequencies of kdr alleles in these populations. While the frequencies of kdr-his alleles were close to each other in the Aegean (0.23) and Mediterranean (0.17) populations, the frequencies of kdr alleles remarkably differed in these two regions, with values of 0.02 and 0.14, respectively. In contrast to Europe, Asia, and the U.S.A., no super-kdr allele was detected in the samples from both regions. We identified six and eight different Vssc1+CYP6D1 genotype classes in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions, respectively. The three most common genotype classes in the regions were susceptible Vssc1 with heterozygous CYP6D1v1 (29%), sus/kdr-his1 with heterozygous CYP6D1v1 (23%), and susceptible Vssc1 with CYP6D1 (22%). The total frequencies of these three most common genotype classes (approximately 75%) obtained in our study were very close to the value obtained in Florida in a previous study, which was related by the similarity of temperature patterns between Florida and the corresponding regions of Turkey. This may reflect the lack of overwintering fitness cost associated with resistance alleles in both climates. PMID:22129395

  10. Outsourcing Student Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Anna Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes discussion at a recent program of the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) regarding the trend toward privatized student housing; discussion highlighted market conditions, financing, and operations. (EV)

  11. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  12. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  13. Cinemicrographic specimen housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Housing used to observe gravitation effects on specimens embedded in support media, such as agar, supports microbial specimens vertically for time-lapsed cinemicrographic studies. Procedure cannot be performed with conventional microscopes which see specimens in horizontal plane only.

  14. Preparation, characterization, and insecticidal activity evaluation of three different formulations of Beauveria bassiana against Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2013-10-01

    Three formulations; bait, encapsulation, and emulsion of Beauveria bassiana were prepared and evaluated for their insecticidal activity in simulated field settings. Tea waste-based bait formulation of B. bassiana showed 100% mortality (within 72 h) in lab assay against adult houseflies. In field assay using traps, 65% relative entrapment and 100 % mortality (within 60 h) of entrapped flies was observed. Although the bait formulation was low cost and easy to prepare and transport, its storage ability was limited. Hence, more advanced formulations in form of encapsulation and emulsion was attempted. Encapsulated B. bassiana conidia (using skimmed milk powder, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-90 and glucose as additives) showed 100% conidial germination and retained 78% conidial viability, even after storage for 12 months at 30 °C. Encapsulated product showed 54.8% (freshly prepared) and 30.6 % (after 12-months storage) mortality of housefly larvae in a simulated field condition. Emulsion formulation was prepared by using Tween 20 as surfactant with seven vegetable oils: soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, olive, castor, til, and linseed. Emulsion with linseed oil showing maximum conidial germination (94%) was evaluated for shelf life and pathogenecity against housefly larvae. Shelf life analysis of emulsion revealed 28% conidial germination and 19.9% housefly larval mortality after 12 months of storage as opposed to 94% conidial germination and 51.7% of larval mortality with fresh product. Significant increase in shelf × targeted application of formulation is expected to increase its mass applicability for housefly control. Also, the variability among products presents diverse opportunities for commercialization.

  15. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  16. Cluster of sylvatic epidemic typhus cases associated with flying squirrels, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Alice S; Swerdlow, David L; Dato, Virginia M; Anderson, Alicia D; Moodie, Claire E; Marriott, Chandra; Amman, Brian; Hennessey, Morgan; Fox, Perry; Green, Douglas B; Pegg, Eric; Nicholson, William L; Eremeeva, Marina E; Dasch, Gregory A

    2009-07-01

    In February 2006, a diagnosis of sylvatic epidemic typhus in a counselor at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania prompted a retrospective investigation. From January 2004 through January 2006, 3 more cases were identified. All had been counselors at the camp and had experienced febrile illness with myalgia, chills, and sweats; 2 had been hospitalized. All patients had slept in the same cabin and reported having seen and heard flying squirrels inside the wall adjacent to their bed. Serum from each patient had evidence of infection with Rickettsia prowazekii. Analysis of blood and tissue from 14 southern flying squirrels trapped in the woodlands around the cabin indicated that 71% were infected with R. prowazekii. Education and control measures to exclude flying squirrels from housing are essential to reduce the likelihood of sylvatic epidemic typhus. PMID:19624912

  17. Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Alice S.; Swerdlow, David L.; Dato, Virginia M.; Anderson, Alicia D.; Moodie, Claire E.; Marriott, Chandra; Amman, Brian; Hennessey, Morgan; Fox, Perry; Green, Douglas B.; Pegg, Eric; Nicholson, William L.; Eremeeva, Marina E.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2006, a diagnosis of sylvatic epidemic typhus in a counselor at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania prompted a retrospective investigation. From January 2004 through January 2006, 3 more cases were identified. All had been counselors at the camp and had experienced febrile illness with myalgia, chills, and sweats; 2 had been hospitalized. All patients had slept in the same cabin and reported having seen and heard flying squirrels inside the wall adjacent to their bed. Serum from each patient had evidence of infection with Rickettsia prowazekii. Analysis of blood and tissue from 14 southern flying squirrels trapped in the woodlands around the cabin indicated that 71% were infected with R. prowazekii. Education and control measures to exclude flying squirrels from housing are essential to reduce the likelihood of sylvatic epidemic typhus. PMID:19624912

  18. Rotating housing turbine

    DOEpatents

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  19. 3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, southeast side and northeast front of bell house, southeast sides of tower and keeper's house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  20. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, south and east sides of keeper's house, south side of tower and oil house - Owl's Head Light Station, Off State Highway 73 just east of Rockland on Owl's Head Bay, Owls Head, Knox County, ME

  1. 91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  2. Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

    A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

  3. 7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view north northeast, west and south sides of keeper's house and tower, southwest and southeast sides of fog signal house - West Quoddy Head Light Station, At eastern tip of West Quaddy Head, Lubec, Washington County, ME

  4. 12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest side of fuel house, west and south sides of fog signal house - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  5. Binocular Interactions Underlying the Classic Optomotor Responses of Flying Flies

    PubMed Central

    Duistermars, Brian J.; Care, Rachel A.; Frye, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    In response to imposed course deviations, the optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, many anatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that disparate motion cues stimulating the left and right eyes are not processed in isolation but rather are integrated in the brain to produce a cohesive panoramic percept. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory–motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record wing and head optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular rotation and monocular front-to-back and back-to-front motion. Within a narrow range of stimulus parameters that generates large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular front-to-back motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation, but are contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular back-to-front motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the influence of non-additive contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions that serve to confer contrast insensitivity to flight behaviors influenced by rotatory optic flow. PMID:22375108

  6. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase in Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Huang, Da-Wei; Zhou, Chuan-Qi; Li, Xiang; Xie, Qi-Jing; Liu, Feng-Song

    2012-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are metalloenzymes that represent one important line of defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this paper, two novel SOD genes, MdSOD1 and MdSOD2, which putatively encode 261 and 214 amino acid residues respectively were identified and characterized from the housefly Musca domestica. The high similarity of MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 with SODs from other organisms indicated that they should be two new members of the SOD family. qPCR exhibited a universal expression of MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 detected in various tissues of housefly larva, including the fat body, gut, hemocyte and epidermis. Expression profiling reveals that MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 can be induced significantly via not only heat shock and cadmium (Cd) stress but also Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus challenge. The two genes were cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a to obtain the fusion proteins rMdSOD1 and rMdSOD2. Between them, the activity of rMdSOD2 was found by visual assay methods. ESI-LC-MS/MS analysis showed that three peptide fragments of the protein rMdSOD2 were identical to the corresponding sequence of M. domestica MdSOD2. MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 in housefly larvae were abrogated by feeding bacteria expressing dsRNA. High mortalities were observed in the larvae treated with dsRNA of SODs at heat shock, Cd stress and bacterial invasion. This phenomenon indicated that MdSOD1 and MdSOD2 are related to the survival of M. domestica under stress. This may provide new insights into the role of the two SOD genes in protecting M. domestica against both stress and bacterial invasion. PMID:22750315

  7. Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-08-01

    The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI) = -1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI = -1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control. PMID:24894080

  8. Insecticidal evaluation of essential oils of Citrus sinensis L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) against housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is one of the most common insects, associated with vectoring of various etiological agents. In order to search for effective control agent, the essential oil of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was evaluated for its insecticidal activity against the larvae and pupae of housefly using contact toxicity and fumigation bioassays. In the contact toxicity assay, lethal concentration, LC(50) of C. sinensis essential oil against housefly larvae, varied between 3.93 and 0.71 μl/cm(2) for different observation days, while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 5.8 to 2.3 days. Mortality of larvae were significant with different concentrations (F = 2.79, df = 4, P < 0.05) and time (F = 6.69, df = 3, P < 0.01). In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) of 71.2 and 52.6 μl/l was obtained in 24 and 48 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of oil treated larvae revealed extreme dehydration and surface distortion while control larvae were free from any of the above symptoms and presented smooth surface, conforming effect of essential oil on housefly larvae. Percentage inhibition rate of oil against housefly pupae was 27.3-72.7% for contact toxicity and 46.4-100% for fumigation assay. Compositional analysis of C. sinensis essential oil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed D: -limonene (73.24%), α-pinene (5.86%) and myrcene (4.45%) as major components whereas its vapour profile (solid-phase micro extraction-GC/MS) was dominated by D: -limonene at 92.57%. Significant activity of C. sinensis essential oil against larvae and pupae of housefly, pave the way for its use as eco-friendly housefly control measure.

  9. Phenotypic variation of the housefly, Musca domestica: amounts and patterns of wing shape asymmetry in wild populations and laboratory colonies.

    PubMed

    Ludoški, J; Djurakic, M; Pastor, B; Martínez-Sánchez, A I; Rojo, S; Milankov, V

    2014-02-01

    Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is a vector of a range variety of pathogens infecting humans and animals. During a year, housefly experiences serial population bottlenecks resulted in reduction of genetic diversity. Population structure has also been subjected to different selection regimes created by insect control programs and pest management. Both environmental and genetic disturbances can affect developmental stability, which is often reflected in morphological traits as asymmetry. Since developmental stability is of great adaptive importance, the aim of this study was to examine fluctuating asymmetry (FA), as a measure of developmental instability, in both wild populations and laboratory colonies of M. domestica. The amount and pattern of wing shape FA was compared among samples within each of two groups (laboratory and wild) and between groups. Firstly, the amount of FA does not differ significantly among samples within the group and neither does it differ between groups. Regarding the mean shape of FA, contrary to non-significant difference within the wild population group and among some colonies, the significant difference between groups was found. These results suggest that the laboratory colonies and wild samples differ in buffering mechanisms to perturbations during development. Hence, inbreeding and stochastic processes, mechanisms dominating in the laboratory-bred samples contributed to significant changes in FA of wing shape. Secondly, general patterns of left-right displacements of landmarks across both studied sample groups are consistent. Observed consistent direction of FA implies high degrees of wing integration. Thus, our findings shed light on developmental buffering processes important for population persistence in the environmental change and genetic stress influence on M. domestica.

  10. Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-08-01

    The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI) = -1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI = -1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control.

  11. Expression pattern and function of alternative splice variants of glutamate-gated chloride channel in the housefly Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Kita, Tomo; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2014-02-01

    Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in invertebrate nervous systems. cDNAs encoding two alternative splice variants (MdGluClB and C) of the GluCl subunit were cloned from the housefly Musca domestica. The expression patterns of three variants, including the previously reported MdGluClA, differed among the body parts (head, thorax, abdomen, and leg) of the adult housefly and among developmental stages (embryo, larva, pupa, and adult). The MdGluClA and B transcripts were abundant in the central nervous system of the adult, whereas the MdGluClC transcript was expressed in the central nervous system and as the predominant variant in the peripheral tissues. The sensitivities to the agonist glutamate and the allosteric activator ivermectin B1a did not differ between channels containing MdGluCl variants when they were singly or co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes. By contrast, MdGluClA and B channels were more sensitive to the channel blockers fipronil and picrotoxinin than was MdGluClC channels. Heteromeric channels containing different subunit variants were more sensitive to picrotoxinin than were homomeric channels. Heteromeric channels were more sensitive to fipronil than were homomeric MdGluClC channels but not than homomeric MdGluClA and B channels. These results suggest that functionally indistinguishable but pharmacologically distinct GluCls are expressed in a spatially and temporally distinct manner in the housefly. PMID:24291284

  12. Changes in Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Composition Following Insecticide Thermal Fogging in a Rural Setting of Western Panamá

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Jose E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie; Valderrama, Anayansi; Romero, Luz; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, ACL, is a zoonotic disease with a large richness of co-occurring vector species in transmission foci. Here, we describe changes in patterns of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species composition at the village of Trinidad de Las Minas, Capira, Panamá, a hyperendemic focus of ACL transmission, subjected to a vector control intervention with insecticide thermal fogging (ITF). Our study setting consisted of 24 houses, 12 subjected to two rounds of ITF and 12 kept as control. During 15 months (April 2010– June 2011) we monitored sand fly species composition and abundance with modified HP light traps inside (domicile) and outside (peridomicile) the studied houses. From 5628 sand flies collected, we were able to identify 5617 of the samples into 24 species, a number of species close to 25±1.6, the estimate from the Chao2 Index. The most abundant species were Lutzomya trapidoi (20%), Lu. gomezi (20%) and Lu. triramula (20%). Cluster analyses showed that most of the 24 houses had high similarity in relative abundance patterns of the six most common species, with only few peripheral houses not following the main cluster pattern. We also found that species richness was decreased to 22 species in the fogged houses, of which only 19 were found in the domiciliary environment. Changes in species richness were especially notorious at the end of the wet season. Our results suggest that species richness can decrease following ITF in domiciliary environments, primarily affecting the less common species. PMID:23536748

  13. GUARD HOUSE AND SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, VICINITY MAP. (Shows the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD HOUSE AND SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, VICINITY MAP. (Shows the Guard House and Barracks, and South Fire House in relation to nearby roads, railroad tracks, and the piers). Navy Yard, Mare Island, California. P.W. Drawing No. C-1899, approved 1941; file no. 930-C-1. Scale one inch to forty feet. 72 cn x 97 cm. Ink on vellum - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Notes on flying and dying.

    PubMed

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  15. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  16. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughenbaugh, Katherine; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS), calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS), a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  17. Domotics Project Housing Block

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated. PMID:27223285

  18. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  19. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated. PMID:27223285

  20. Carrion mimicry in a South African orchid: flowers attract a narrow subset of the fly assemblage on animal carcasses

    PubMed Central

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Hansen, Dennis M.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Although pollination of plants that attract flies by resembling their carrion brood and food sites has been reported in several angiosperm families, there has been very little work done on the level of specificity in carrion mimicry systems and the importance of plant cues in mediating such specialization. Specificity may be expected, as carrion-frequenting flies often exploit different niches, which has been interpreted as avoidance of interspecific competition. Interactions between the orchid Satyrium pumilum and a local assemblage of carrion flies were investigated, and the functional significance of floral traits, especially scent, tested. Pollination success and the incidence of pollinator-mediated self-pollination were measured and these were compared with values for orchids with sexual- and food-deceptive pollination systems. Methods and Key Results Observations of insect visitation to animal carcasses and to flowers showed that the local assemblage of carrion flies was dominated by blow flies (Calliphoridae), house flies (Muscidae) and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), but flowers of the orchid were pollinated exclusively by flesh flies, with a strong bias towards females that sometimes deposited live larvae on flowers. A trend towards similar partitioning of fly taxa was found in an experiment that tested the effect of large versus small carrion quantities on fly attraction. GC-MS analysis showed that floral scent is dominated by oligosulfides, 2-heptanone, p-cresol and indole, compounds that also dominate carrion scent. Flesh flies did not distinguish between floral and carrion scent in a choice experiment using olfactory cues only, which also showed that scent alone is responsible for fly attraction. Pollination success was relatively high (31·5 % of flowers), but tracking of stained pollinia also revealed that a relatively high percentage (46 %) of pollen deposited on stigmas originates from the same plant. Conclusions Satyrium pumilum

  1. [Synanthropic flies (Diptera: Cyclorrapha) and their microhymenoptera parasitoids (Insecta: Hymenoptera) at Monte Mor poultry production system, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marisa R; do Prado, Angelo P

    2006-01-01

    A survey of synanthropic flies and their microhymenopteran parasitoids was conducted at the Capuavinha poultry farm, municipality of Monte Mor, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 1992. Bird manure samples were collected biweekly for examined and selected by the following methods: flotation in water, dissected pupae, and sentinel pupae. The species of flies more abundant were: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedeman) (41.2% - Calliphoridae), Muscidae: Muscina stabulans( Fallén) (27.3%), Musca domestica Linnaeus (23.9%), Fannia pusio (Stein) (5.3% - Fanniidae) e Sepsidae (2.3%). The pupal parasitoids were: Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Ashmead) (72.4% - Encyrtidae), Pteromalídeos: Spalangia gemina Boucek (9.2%), S. cameroni (Perkins) (7.3%), S. endius (Walker) (3.7%), Muscidifurax raptoroides (Kogan e Legner) (1.5%), Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (0.8%), Nasonia vitripennis Walker (0.06%). Trichopria sp. Nixon (Diapriídeo 5.5%) detected only in C. putoria pupae (t=-1,5269; P <0,1296). Some significant mean values were obtained for parasitoids in the collected hosts (t = 0.9540; Pr <0.0001), proportion of collected pupae and parasitoids with respect to the collecting site (F = 60.85; Pr <0.0001; F = 358.35; P <0.0001) and for the host species and parasitoid species (F = 2.58; Pr <0.0001; F = 9. 48; P <0.0001). The dissected host species was significant for proportion dissected pupae (F = 1.57; Pr <0.2053). These results concerning the insect fauna can be of help for an appropriate management of this poultry farm in terms of the control of synanthropic flies.

  2. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Norton

    1999-10-01

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the total amount of Hg passing through the filter as well as the percentages of elemental and oxidized Hg collected. Results indicated that substantial amounts of Hg oxidation did not occur with either fly ash, regardless of the temperature used for testing. When oxidation was observed, the magnitude of the oxidation was comparable between the two fly ashes. These results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important than the ash components with respect to the distribution of Hg species observed in gaseous effluents at coal-fired power plants.

  3. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Murrant, Meghan N.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  4. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    PubMed

    Murrant, Meghan N; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  5. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Norton; Hongqun Yang; Robert C. Brown; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John Erjavec; Joseph M. Okoh

    2002-01-31

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using fly ash from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was from Blacksville coal. Elemental Hg was injected upstream from samples of fly ash loaded onto filters housed in an oven at 120 or 180 C. Concentrations of oxidized and elemental Hg downstream from the filters were determined using the Ontario Hydro method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables affecting Hg oxidation. The presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were all important with respect to Hg oxidation, with NO{sub 2} and HCl being the most important. The presence of NO suppressed Hg oxidation in these tests. Although the two fly ashes were chemically and mineralogically diverse, there were generally no large differences in catalytic potential (for oxidizing Hg) between them. Similarly, no ash fraction appeared to be highly catalytic relative to other ash fractions. This includes fractions enriched in unburned carbon and fractions enriched in iron oxides. Although some differences of lesser magnitude were observed in the amount of oxidized Hg formed, levels of oxidized Hg generally tracked well with the surface areas of the different ashes and ash fractions. Therefore, although the Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, this could be due to the relatively high surface area of that ash. Similarly, for Blacksville fly ash, using nonmagnetic ash resulted in more Hg oxidation than using magnetic ash, but this again tracked well with the relative surface areas of the two ash fractions. Test results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important in Hg oxidation chemistry than the fly ash composition. Combustion tests were performed in which Blacksville and PRB fly ashes were injected into filtered (via a baghouse with

  6. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  7. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  8. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  9. Evolution of the post-nova GQ MUS (Nova MUSCAE 1983). II. Stellar atmospheres, coronal lines, and turnoff.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, C.; Pequignot, D.

    1996-09-01

    Photoionization models for the shell ejected by Nova Muscae 1983 are obtained for the period 1984-1992, considering post-nova atmosphere continua computed by MacDonald & Vennes (1991). A fit to their grid of models is proposed in an appendix. All features of the model shell obtained by Morisset & Pequignot assuming a blackbody primary source are preserved. However the effective temperature T_*_ derived for the source is about 15% lower. Reliable collision strengths for coronal lines are needed before the late evolution of the post-nova can be accurately determined. An extensive exploration of possible photoionization-model solutions indicates that (1) a suitable effective collision strength {OMEGA}_X_ for [Fe X] 637.5nm at 2x10^4^K is 3 to 5 times the pioneering result of Blaha (1969) and less than one half recent elaborate values, which are therefore strongly suspected to be overestimated, (2) the collision strength for [S VIII] 991.1 is moderately larger than according to Blaha, (3) the decline of the bolometric luminosity L_*_ amounts to a factor ~2 at the time of soft X-ray detection by ROSAT (day 3330), which may therefore nearly coincide with nuclear burning turnoff and maximum T_*_, and (4) depending on the collision strength {OMEGA}_XI_ for [Fe XI] 789.2nm, the maximum T_*_ is either of the order of 5x10^5^K ({OMEGA}_XI_ close to Blaha's result) or smaller than 4x10^5^K (large {OMEGA}_XI_). A way out of the conflict between theoretical and astrophysical determinations of {OMEGA}_X_ may be managed in the framework of present models if {OMEGA}_XI_ happens to be very large. Source parameters derived from nova shell models are relatively insensitive to details of stellar atmosphere models and may help to enhance the value of soft X-ray observations. Properties of GQ Mus disclosed by photoionization model analysis are shown to constitute a challenge to current understanding of novae and post-novae.

  10. Fly-by-Wireless Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2010-01-01

    The presentation reviews what is meant by the term 'fly-by-wireless', common problems and motivation, provides recent examples, and examines NASA's future and basis for collaboration. The vision is to minimize cables and connectors and increase functionality across the aerospace industry by providing reliable, lower cost, modular, and higher performance alternatives to wired data connectivity to benefit the entire vehicle/program life-cycle. Focus areas are system engineering and integration methods to reduce cables and connectors, vehicle provisions for modularity and accessibility, and a 'tool box' of alternatives to wired connectivity.

  11. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  12. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  13. Doll's House Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  14. The Children's House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  15. Understanding Fair Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    Few rights are as basic as acquiring a home of one's choice. The home and neighborhood are the environment in which families live and rear their children. For minorities, the home usually means housing vacated by whites, who, because of their race as well as ability to pay, are able to acquire a more desirable dwelling elsewhere. Congress, in…

  16. Haunted by Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  17. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  18. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  19. 1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, northwest and southwest sides - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  20. 5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, view southeast, northwest and southwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  1. SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE AND HOUSE, VIEW TO WEST/ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE AND HOUSE, VIEW TO WEST/ SOUTHWEST - Kiel Farmstead, Summer Kitchen & Smokehouse, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATING HOUSE SHOWING THE 'HOUSE GENERATOR' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATING HOUSE SHOWING THE 'HOUSE GENERATOR' AND GOVERNOR ASSEMBLY. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  3. 1. Keeper's house, light tower and boat house, view southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, light tower and boat house, view southwest, northeast and northwest sides - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  4. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, west and south sides - Bass Harbor Head Light Station, At southwest tip of Mount Desert Island off State Route 102, Bass Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  5. 2. Oil house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil house, fog signal house and light tower, view southwest, east and north sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  6. Detrimental effects of cement mortar and fly ash mortar on asthma progression.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ara; Jang, Hong-Seok; Roh, Yoon Seok; Park, Hee Jin; Talha, A F S M; So, Seung-Young; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2013-11-01

    Currently, concrete additive materials are used worldwide to improve properties of concrete production and to reduce the total cost of the materials used in the concrete. However, the effects of exposure to various gases emitted from mortar mixed with additive materials are poorly understood. To evaluate the pattern of gas emission from cement mortar and additives, the emission levels of gas including ammonia (NH3) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from two different mortar types, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), and OPC with fly ash on various time points after manufacture. On days 1, 3, 10 and 30 after manufacture, moderate concentrations of NH3 (4, 9, 12 and 5 ppm) were measured in OPC mortar (24h, 150 mm × 150 mm × 50 mm), whereas higher concentrations of NH3 (73, 55, 20 and 5 ppm) were measured in OPC mortar with fly ash (24h, 150 mm × 150 mm × 50 mm). Furthermore, the concentration of VOCs was more than 10 ppm on 1, 3, and 10 days of age in OPC and OPC with fly ash mortars. To examine the mortars' allergic effects on the respiratory system, mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and divided into four groups: normal, asthma control, OPC mortar and OPC mortar with fly ash. The mice were housed in corresponding group cage for 10 days with OVA challenges to induce asthma. Histopathologically, increased infiltration of lymphocytes was observed in the lung perivascular area of mice housed in OPC mortar and OPC mortar with fly ash cages compared to lungs of asthma control mice. Moreover, severe bronchial lumen obstruction and increased hypertrophy of bronchial epithelial cells (p<0.05) were observed in the OPC mortar with fly ash group compared to OPC mortar or asthma control groups. Lungs of the two mortar groups generally expressed higher levels of genes related with asthma, including IL-4, eotaxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) compared to lungs of asthma control mice. Additionally, the OPC mortar with fly ash group showed higher

  7. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND......

  8. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK...

  9. THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a water tank on the second floor that gravity fed water to the Kineth house and farm buildings. The one-story addition to the west of the tower provided workshop space. The hog shed is seen on the left of the image and the concrete foundation of the upright silo is in the foreground on the right. - Kineth Farm, Tower House, 19162 State Route 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  10. Efficacy of bayer suspend poly zone against stable flies and house flies when applied to trigger royal cloth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    METHODS: PolyZone (PZ)(Deltamethrin 4.75% AI) was mixed with water according to label instructions (45.4 ml per 3.79 liters H2O = 0.06% solution) for application to 10 x 10 cm squares of blue Trigger-Royal Box fabric (65% polyester and 35% cotton, Galey & Lord, Inc., New York). PZ was applied to run...

  11. Generic Insect Repellent Detector from the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Pelletier, Julien; Flounders, Eric; Chitolina, Rodrigo F.; Leal, Walter S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Insect repellents are prophylactic tools against a number of vector-borne diseases. There is growing demand for repellents outperforming DEET in cost and safety, but with the current technologies R&D of a new product takes almost 10 years, with a prohibitive cost of $30 million dollar in part due to the demand for large-scale synthesis of thousands of test compounds of which only 1 may reach the market. R&D could be expedited and cost dramatically reduced with a molecular/physiological target to streamline putative repellents for final efficacy and toxicological tests. Methodology Using olfactory-based choice assay we show here that the fruit fly is repelled by not only DEET, but also IR3535 and picaridin thus suggesting they might have “generic repellent detector(s),” which may be of practical applications in new repellent screenings. We performed single unit recordings from all olfactory sensilla in the antennae and maxillary palps. Although the ab3A neuron in the wild type flies responded to picaridin, it was unresponsive to DEET and IR3535. By contrast, a neuron housed in the palp basiconic sensilla pb1 responded to DEET, IR3535, and picaridin, with apparent sensitivity higher than that of the DEET detectors in the mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. DmOr42a was transplanted from pb1 to the “empty neuron” and showed to be sensitive to the three insect repellents. Conclusions For the first time we have demonstrated that the fruit fly avoids not only DEET but also IR3535 and picaridin, and identified an olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), which is sensitive to these three major insect repellents. We have also identified the insect repellent-sensitive receptor, DmOr42a. This generic detector fulfils the requirements for a simplified bioassay for early screening of test insect repellents. PMID:21436880

  12. Interest-Based Curriculum for House Care Services: House Cares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natchitoches Parish School Board, LA.

    The 11-unit curriculum guide for house care services, a Federally sponsored project, is designed to help students identify interests and develop skills associated with house care services. Two introductory units deal with the world of work and the total area of house care services. The following unit topics are: sanitation and safety; equipment;…

  13. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT OF CLUB HOUSE. BOAT HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT OF CLUB HOUSE. BOAT HOUSE AND DOCK TO THE RIGHT. PICTURE TAKEN FROM FRONT YARD OF COTTAGE 231, CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. SMALL WOOD FRAME SHED IN FRONT OF CLUB HOUSE STORES FIRE HOSE BUILT AFTER 1980. - Swan Falls Village, Clubhouse 011, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  14. Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies from three villages in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Poché, David; Garlapati, Rajesh; Ingenloff, Kate; Remmers, Jennifer; Poché, Richard

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the spatial distribution and seasonal fluctuations of population densities of phlebotomine sand flies and was designed to obtain baseline data on the population trends of Phlebotomus argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia spp. in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bihar, India. Beginning on 28 October 2009 and through 20 October 2010, 63 CDC light traps were evenly distributed in human homes, cattle sheds, combined dwellings, chicken coops, and adjacent vegetation areas in three villages in the Saran District of Bihar State. Sand fly collections were made on a weekly basis, sorted, and identified according to species, sex, and feeding status of the two genera. The daily temperatures and relative humidity ranges were collected in a representative human home, cattle shed, and combined dwelling in each of the three study villages. Village census surveys were conducted in the three study villages in February 2010, acquiring human population data, structural composition data, and livestock census information, and documenting the history of visceral leishmaniasis within each household. A total of 52,653 sand flies was trapped and identified over 3,276 trap-nights. Peaks in abundance were observed in November 2009, March and April, June through August. Of the sand flies trapped, 72.1% were P. argentipes, 27.1%Sergentomyia spp., and 0.8%P. papatasi. Distribution of the sand fly captures included 30.6%, 26.7%, 18.6%, 12.1%, and 12.0% from vegetation, combined dwellings, cattle sheds, housing, and poultry houses, respectively. PMID:21366762

  15. Assembly States of FliM and FliG within the Flagellar Switch Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P.; Lynch, Michael J.; Bhatnagar, Jaya; Beyersdorf, Matthew S.; Halkides, Christopher J.; Freed, Jack H.; Crane, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    At the base of the bacterial flagella a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima have been investigated with x-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled component proteins fit to a self-consistent model that agrees well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. This data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions. PMID:25536293

  16. Housing Accountability Act of 2016

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2016-07-14

    09/22/2016 Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Subcommittee on Housing, Transportation, and Community Development. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. On the ^7^Be^*^ and ^7^Li^*^ de-excitation lines as a possible explanation of the gamma-ray feature observed in Nova Muscae1991.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durouchoux, P.; Viaud, P.; Wallyn, P.; Mahoney, W. A.

    1996-12-01

    We consider two different models to explain the gamma-ray feature detected on Nova Muscae 1991: a thermal electron-positron plasma and α-α reactions. In the first case, a direct fit to the data using the detailed model spectrum developed by Svensson (1983ApJ...270..300S) gives a redshifted line (z=0.048^+0.017^_-0.027_) coming from a relatively low temperature pair plasma (T~4x10^7^K). In the second case, a Monte Carlo simulation of ^7^Be^*^-^7^Li^*^ de-excitation lines following Ramaty et al. (1979ApJS...40..487R) (RKL79 hereafter), gives a best fit model with monoenergetic and isotropic α particles of ~10-25 MeV/nucleon or power-law distributions of isotropic α particles with index of ~2 to 3.

  18. Lectin purified from Musca domestica pupa up-regulates NO and iNOS production via TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaohong; Zhou, Minghui; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua; Zeng, Bin

    2011-04-01

    The present study reported that nitric oxide (NO) was up-regulated by the induction of lectin purified from Musca domestica pupa (MPL) in macrophages without cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were strongly induced by MPL treatments. Subsequent investigation revealed that the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitory κB (IκB) in endochylema was inhibited and NF-κB translocated into the nucleus after MPL treatment. Meanwhile, the IKKβ was strongly induced and the production of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was significantly up-regulated. Moreover, MPL increased NO production via inducing the expression of iNOS through the activation of NF-κB, which suggested that MPL probably acted as an activating agent of the NF-κB activation.

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of a protein-enriched fraction from the maggots (Musca domestica) against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Rong; Ai, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Min; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2007-06-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of a protein-enriched fraction (PEF) isolated from the maggots of housefly (Musca domestica) was evaluated in rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatic damage. Activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase increased by 4- and 13-fold induced by CCl4, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg PEF/kg. The formation of malondialdehyde was also significantly decreased in PEF-treated group compared with CCl4-treated group. The treatments with PEF also elevated total protein levels significantly. These results were further supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Hyperplasia of kupffer cells was observed after treatment with PEF (100 and 200 mg/kg). We conclude that PEF is effective in this model of liver damage.

  20. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  1. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  2. Passive Baited Sequential Filth Fly Trap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted cone design to passively confi...

  3. Neuroscience: Hunger Pangs in the Fly Brain.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Andreas; Pankratz, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Which neurons in the brain become engaged when the body is deprived of food? A new study addresses this question using the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, examining a group of neurons in the brain that show alterations in neural activity when flies are satiated or starved. PMID:27505238

  4. [Decompression sickness after diving and following flying].

    PubMed

    Laursen, S B; Grønfeldt, W; Jacobsen, E

    1999-07-26

    A case of delayed symptoms of decompression sickness (DCS) after diving and flying is reported. The diver presented with classical signs of type 2 DCS, probably caused by air travel 16 hours after SCUBA diving. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in a decompression chamber was successful. Guidelines to prevent DCS for recreational divers who plan to fly after diving are presented.

  5. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  6. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  7. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  8. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  9. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  10. Origin, acquisition and diversification of heritable bacterial endosymbionts in louse flies and bat flies.

    PubMed

    Duron, Olivier; Schneppat, Ulrich E; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Goodman, Steven M; Droz, Boris; Paupy, Christophe; Nkoghe, Judicaël Obame; Rahola, Nil; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    The γ-proteobacterium Arsenophonus and its close relatives (Arsenophonus and like organisms, ALOs) are emerging as a novel clade of endosymbionts, which are exceptionally widespread in insects. The biology of ALOs is, however, in most cases entirely unknown, and it is unclear how these endosymbionts spread across insect populations. Here, we investigate this aspect through the examination of the presence, the diversity and the evolutionary history of ALOs in 25 related species of blood-feeding flies: tsetse flies (Glossinidae), louse flies (Hippoboscidae) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae and Streblidae). While these endosymbionts were not found in tsetse flies, we identify louse flies and bat flies as harbouring the highest diversity of ALO strains reported to date, including a novel ALO clade, as well as Arsenophonus and the recently described Candidatus Aschnera chinzeii. We further show that the origin of ALO endosymbioses extends deep into the evolutionary past of louse flies and bat flies, and that it probably played a major role in the ecological specialization of their hosts. The evolutionary history of ALOs is notably complex and was shaped by both vertical transmission and horizontal transfers with frequent host turnover and apparent symbiont replacement in host lineages. In particular, ALOs have evolved repeatedly and independently close relationships with diverse groups of louse flies and bat flies, as well as phylogenetically more distant insect families, suggesting that ALO endosymbioses are exceptionally dynamic systems.

  11. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Singh, Baneshwar; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-05-01

    Sustainable methods for managing waste associated with people and animals have been proposed in the past. Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent one of the more promising methods. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. Prepupae can be used as feedstuff for livestock. However, it is not known if such a method results in the proliferation of potential pathogens. Although some bacterial species have been cultured and identified from black soldier fly, a true appreciation of fly associated bacterial diversity is not known. Such information is needed to understand pathogen colonization on decomposing animal and plant waste in the presence of black soldier fly larvae as well as develop research strategies for maximizing the use of this fly to reduce waste without risking environmental harm. Using 454 sequencing, we surveyed bacterial diversity associated with successive life stages of the black soldier fly reared on plant material. Bacteria diversity classified (99.8%) across all life stages spanned six bacterial phyla with > or = 80% bootstrap support. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla associated with the black soldier fly accounting for two-thirds of the fauna identified. Many of these bacteria would go undetected because of their inability to be cultured. PMID:23802462

  12. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Singh, Baneshwar; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-05-01

    Sustainable methods for managing waste associated with people and animals have been proposed in the past. Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent one of the more promising methods. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. Prepupae can be used as feedstuff for livestock. However, it is not known if such a method results in the proliferation of potential pathogens. Although some bacterial species have been cultured and identified from black soldier fly, a true appreciation of fly associated bacterial diversity is not known. Such information is needed to understand pathogen colonization on decomposing animal and plant waste in the presence of black soldier fly larvae as well as develop research strategies for maximizing the use of this fly to reduce waste without risking environmental harm. Using 454 sequencing, we surveyed bacterial diversity associated with successive life stages of the black soldier fly reared on plant material. Bacteria diversity classified (99.8%) across all life stages spanned six bacterial phyla with > or = 80% bootstrap support. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla associated with the black soldier fly accounting for two-thirds of the fauna identified. Many of these bacteria would go undetected because of their inability to be cultured.

  13. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  14. College and University Apartment Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey-Powell, Deborah, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to update housing professionals on the current issues and future trends facing college and university apartment operations in the 21st century. Its chapters are: (1) "The History of Apartment Housing" (Rena Buchan); (2) "Research in Apartment Housing" (Donald Whalen); (3) "Community Services and Programming: A Search…

  15. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  16. Discharge Policies in Senior Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Nancy W.; Wisensale, Steven

    Elderly housing has become a special concept in which level of activity, social support, and social integration may be more important than square footage or closet space. An increased concern among housing specialists has been the ability of traditional senior housing to meet the needs of frail tenants who have "aged in place." As tenants survive…

  17. Pregnant stewardess--should she fly?

    PubMed

    Scholten, P

    1976-01-01

    There is much pressure on the airlines to allow stewardesses to fly while pregnant. Some of them want to fly in quite advanced stages of pregnancy. This paper offers a survey of the problem, the hazards that may occur and some guidelines for the physician. The author outlines the normal changes to be expected with advancing pregnancy and those factors that could have an adverse effect on a pregnant stewardess and her fetus, such as hypoxia, trauma, abortion, the hazards of travel, and flying itself. Certain legal problems of unemployment and medical disability also are discussed. Travel alone offers no real danger to the pregnant stewardess in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, because of the changing mechanics of her size, posture, and increasing unsteadiness, it would be wisest to require a pregnant stewardess to cease flying at 13 weeks, with an absolute prohibition of flying after the 20th week.

  18. Flightless Flies: Drosophila models of neuromuscular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Thomas E.; Taylor, J. Paul

    2010-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has a long and rich history as an important model organism for biologists. In particular, study of the fruit fly has been essential to much of our fundamental understanding of the development and function of the nervous system. In recent years, studies using fruit flies have provided important insights into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. Fly models of spinal muscular atrophy, spinobulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, dystrophinopathies and other inherited neuromuscular diseases recapitulate many of the key pathologic features of the human disease. The ability to perform genetic screens holds promise for uncovering the molecular mechanisms of disease, and indeed, for identifying novel therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent progress in developing fly models of neuromuscular diseases and will emphasize the contribution that Drosophila has made to our understanding of these diseases. PMID:20329357

  19. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  20. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.